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Sample records for cervical cancer vaccine

  1. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  2. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  3. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in women, the cause ...

  4. Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarthigeyan, K

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine's efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context. PMID:22754202

  5. Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination

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    K Kaarthigeyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine′s efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context.

  6. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

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    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  7. Cervical cancer: The preventive role of HPV vaccine (review article

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    N. Behtash

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common gynecologic cancer. A steady 70% annual decline in mortality from cervical cancers has been observed since the mid 20th century after the introduction of widespread papanicolaou cytological screening. But also cervical cancer continues to be an important world health problem for women. Cervical cancer is one of the best- understood neoplasm given its well known viral cause of persistent infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HPV. To date, two manufacturers have developed HPV vaccines composed of noninfectious, recombinant HPV viral-like particles (VLPs. This article presents current advances and perspectives on HPV vaccines.The vaccine is administered by intramuscular injection, and the recommended schedule is a 3-dose series with the second and third doses administered 2 and 6 months after the first dose. The recommended age for vaccination of females is 11-12 years. Vaccine can be administered as young as age 9 years. Catch-up vaccination is recommended for females aged 13--26 years who have not been previously vaccinated. Vaccination is not a substitute for routine cervical cancer screening, and vaccinated females should have cervical cancer screening as recommended.

  8. GENERAL AWARNANCE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS VACCINE AGAINST CERVICAL CANCER

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    SAFILA NAVEED

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a survey program on the awarnance of HPV vaccine of cervical cancer in common people. Methods: For this survey we perform 2 steps. First we made a questionnaires in which we ask to female of different belongs to different education field either they are married or not. Secondly we gone in the different hospitals of Karachi and observe treatment, diagnosis, vaccination availability and frequency of cervical cancer. Results:From questionnaire we observed that only 1 % female are aware about cervical cancer and its vaccine i.e. HPV, even female belongs medical field are not aware about it. Form hospital survey we observed that frequency of cervical cancer is very less but in Shaukat Khanum hospital 90 cases reported out of 1803 cancer. The given treatment is radiology, chemotherapy and surgery.

  9. Evolution of the health economics of cervical cancer vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferko, Nicole; Postma, Maarten; Gallivan, Steve; Kruzikas, Denise; Drummond, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of modelling for cervical cancer vaccination. We provide an interpretation and summary of conclusions pertaining to the usefulness of different models, the predicted epidemiological impact of vaccination and the cost-effectiveness of adolescent, catch-up and sex-specif

  10. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

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    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  11. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination...... insufficient, with only two of 21 countries and territories having achieved coverage of cervical cancer screening above 40%. Ten of 21 countries and territories had included HPV vaccination in their immunization schedule, but only two countries reported coverage of HPV vaccination above 60% among the targeted...... population. Key barriers to the introduction and continuation of HPV vaccination were reported to be: (i) Lack of sustainable financing for HPV vaccine programs; (ii) Lack of visible government endorsement; (iii) Critical public perception of the value and safety of the HPV vaccine; and (iv) Lack of clear...

  12. Therapeutic vaccines against human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid-Arregui, Angel

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer and its precursor intra-epithelial lesions are linked to infection by a subset of so-called "highrisk" human papillomavirus types, which are estimated to infect nearly four hundred million women worldwide. Two prophylactic vaccines have been commercialized recently targeting HPV16 and 18, the most prevalent viral types found in cervical cancer, which operate through induction of capsid-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, in patients with persistent infection these vaccines have not been found to protect against progression to neoplasia. Attempts are being made to develop therapeutic vaccines targeting nonstructural early viral proteins. Among these, E6 and E7 are the preferred targets, since they are essential for induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype and are constitutively expressed by the transformed epithelial cells. Here are reviewed the most relevant potential vaccines based on HPV early antigens that have shown efficacy in preclinical models and that are being tested in clinical studies, which should determine their therapeutic capacity for eradicating HPV-induced premalignant and malignant lesions and cure cervical cancer. PMID:19915722

  13. Impact of 2-, 4- and 9-valent HPV vaccines on morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer.

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    Luckett, Rebecca; Feldman, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most cervical cancers are associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), and vaccination with any of 3 available HPV vaccines is anticipated to greatly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. This review provides an overview of the burden of HPV, the efficacy and clinical effectiveness of the bivalent (HPV 16, 18), quadrivalent (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) and 9vHPV (HPV 6, 11, 16, 1831, 33, 45, 52, 58) vaccines in order to assess the anticipated impact on cervical cancer. All three vaccines show high efficacy in prevention of vaccine-specific HPV-type infection and associated high-grade cervical dysplasia in HPV-naïve women. Early clinical effectiveness data for the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine demonstrate reduced rates of HPV 16 and 18 prevalence in vaccinated cohorts; data evaluating cervical dysplasia and cervical procedures as outcomes will shed further light on the clinical effectiveness of both vaccines. The bivalent vaccine has demonstrated cross-protection to non-vaccine HPV types, including the types in the 9vHPV vaccine. No clinical effectiveness data is yet available for the 9vHPV vaccine.  While HPV vaccination has great promise to reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, estimated benefits are largely theoretical at present. Large population-based clinical effectiveness studies will provide long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness, as well as assessment of cervical cancer as an endpoint, particularly as young vaccinated women enter the appropriate age range to initiate screening for cervical cancer. Strengthening screening and treatment programs will likely have the greatest impact in the short-term on cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:26588179

  14. Knowledge of cervical cancer and acceptance of HPV vaccination among secondary school students in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Hesham; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ni, Kiat Aun

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women in peninsular Malaysia and very prevalent worldwide. HPV vaccination and routine Pap smear testing are the best preventive measures. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge level of secondary school students from Sarawak, East Malaysia regarding cervical cancer and its prevention. Multistage random sampling with various methods in each step was employed to select the sample of 76 students. Results showed that 61.8% had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer and its prevention. There were 60.5% of students who were aware of cervical cancer with Chinese and form four students showing significantly the highest awareness (pstudents was 22.3% and an association was found between knowledge of cervical cancer with race and HPV vaccination acceptance (pstudents had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer, its prevention and HPV vaccination acceptance. More efforts should be made to improve cervical cancer knowledge and awareness of the public especially secondary school students in Sarawak. This in turn will enhance the practice of prevention against cervical cancer among students. PMID:22126576

  15. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer Vacunas para prevenir el cáncer cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSETTE M WHEELER

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.El potencial uso de vacunas de virus del papiloma humano (VPH en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer cervical posiblemente será implementado durante los próximos años. Cerca de los 20 genotipos de VPH de los 75 que se encuentran identificados infectan el tracto genital femenino, pero son cuatro subtipos: 16, 18, 31 y 45 los que se han asociado en cerca de 80% a cáncer cervical. En este ensayo se plantea que para poder diseñar una vacuna profiláctica contra la infección de VPH, efectiva, se debe garantizar una adecuada respuesta inmune a través de cuatro metas: a activación de antígenos presentes en la célula; b superar la respuesta del huésped y la variabilidad genética viral en la respuesta de células T; c generación de altos niveles de células T y B de memoria, y d persistencia de antígenos.

  16. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

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    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves. PMID:26320444

  17. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India. PMID:25355525

  18. [BENEFITS AND RISKS AT IMPLEMENTATION OF PROPHILACTIC VACCINES FOR CERVICAL CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatkov, V; Kostova, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the benefits and risks of the implementation of prophylactic vaccines for cervical cancer. The classical understanding of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and its role for the cervical oncogenesis, as well as, the place of prophylactic HPV vaccines are discussed. Results concerning the effectiveness of vaccines 10 years after their introduction and data about their safety are presented. Reports of the use in practice of the new 9-valent HPV vaccine and the first results of its implementation are studied. PMID:27514142

  19. A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer vaccination in preadolescent Canadian females

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    Merid Maraki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that approximately 70% of Canadian women undergo cervical cancer screening at least once every 3 years, approximately 1,300 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and approximately 380 died from it in 2008. This study estimates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccinating 12-year old Canadian females with an AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. The indirect effect of vaccination, via herd immunity, is also estimated. Methods A 12-health-state 1-year-cycle Markov model was developed to estimate lifetime HPV related events for a cohort of 12-year old females. Annual transition probabilities between health-states were derived from published literature and Canadian population statistics. The model was calibrated using Canadian cancer statistics. From a healthcare perspective, the cost-effectiveness of introducing a vaccine with efficacy against HPV-16/18 and evidence of cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types was evaluated in a population undergoing current screening practices. The base-case analysis included 70% screening coverage, 75% vaccination coverage, $135/dose for vaccine, and 3% discount rate on future costs and health effects. Conservative herd immunity effects were taken into account by estimated HPV incidence using a mathematical model parameterized by reported age-stratified sexual mixing data. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address parameter uncertainties. Results Vaccinating 12-year old females (n = 100,000 was estimated to prevent between 390-633 undiscounted cervical cancer cases (reduction of 47%-77% and 168-275 undiscounted deaths (48%-78% over their lifetime, depending on whether or not herd immunity and cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types were included. Vaccination was estimated to cost $18,672-$31,687 per QALY-gained, the lower range representing inclusion of cross-protective efficacy and herd immunity. The cost per QALY-gained was most

  20. HPV infection in cervical and other cancers in Saudi Arabia: implication for prevention and vaccination

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    Ghazi eAlsbeih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap Smear and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and 18. Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and 18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program.

  1. Role of HPV Vaccine in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh JA; Yusuph H; Zailani ZB

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer which affects relatively young women of child bearing age is considered to be the second most common cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developing countries, a reflection of global health inequity. There are more than 450,000 newly diagnosed cases annually with over a quarter of million deaths recorded out of which over 80 percent are from the developing countries especially Africa, South Asia, South and Central America, and the Caribbe...

  2. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanbi, Olusola Anuoluwapo; Iyanda, Abiodun; Osundare, Folakemi; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9%) of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3%) are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5%) know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1%) are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7%) had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3%) of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9%) have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5%) are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma. PMID:26550522

  3. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine

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    Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9% of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3% are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5% know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1% are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7% had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3% of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9% have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5% are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan

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    Chow Song-Nan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been shown to be a major risk factor for cervical cancer. Vaccines against HPV-16 and HPV-18 are highly effective in preventing type-specific HPV infections and related cervical lesions. There is, however, limited data available describing the health and economic impacts of HPV vaccination in Taiwan. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan. Methods We developed a Markov model to compare the health and economic outcomes of vaccinating preadolescent girls (at the age of 12 years for the prevention of cervical cancer with current practice, including cervical cytological screening. Data were synthesized from published papers or reports, and whenever possible, those specific to Taiwan were used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for important uncertainties and different vaccination scenarios. Results Under the assumption that the HPV vaccine could provide lifelong protection, the massive vaccination among preadolescent girls in Taiwan would lead to reduction in 73.3% of the total incident cervical cancer cases and would result in a life expectancy gain of 4.9 days or 8.7 quality-adjusted life days at a cost of US$324 as compared to the current practice. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was US$23,939 per life year gained or US$13,674 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained given the discount rate of 3%. Sensitivity analyses showed that this ICER would remain below US$30,000 per QALY under most conditions, even when vaccine efficacy was suboptimal or when vaccine-induced immunity required booster shots every 13 years. Conclusions Although gains in life expectancy may be modest at the individual level, the results indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccination of preadolescent girls in Taiwan would result in substantial population benefits with a favorable cost

  5. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand

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    Teerawattananon Yot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. Methods In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Results Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country’s political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country’s political crisis, the MoPH’s campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. Conclusion The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a

  6. Sub-acute toxicity study in female ICR mice following repetitive intramuscular injection of cervical cancer vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Seol-Hee; Kim, Du-Yeol; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Hee-Won; Lee, Hye-Yeong; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jaesung; Jung, Jiwon; Kim, Min-Ju; Choi, Kyoung-Baek; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Bong; Kim, Sujeong; Oh, Seung Min

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The sub-acute toxic effects following repetitive intramuscular injection of two cervical cancer vaccines newly developed against human papillomaviruse (HPV)16/58/18 and HPV16 were investigated in female ICR (CrljOri: CD1) mice, and the no-observedadverse- effect-level (NOAEL) of the cervical cancer vaccines was estimated. Methods Female ICR mice (n=15 in each group) were exposed to a 1:1 mixture of two cervical cancer vaccines by repetitive intramuscular injection (once a week, 5 t...

  7. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and Acceptance of Vaccination among Medical Students in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuyigbe, Funmilayo F; Balogun, M R; Balogun, Balogun R; Sekoni, Adekemi O; Adegbola, Adebukola A

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest viral sexually transmitted infection in the world and the leading cause of cervical cancer. Medical students as future healthcare providers will play a role in influencing patients' decision to receive HPV vaccination. This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV as well as the acceptance of HPV vaccination among medical students of the University of Lagos. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 280 medical students sampled using stratified sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect relevant data. Most respondents were aware of cervical cancer (95.4%), HPV (85.4%) and HPV vaccination (69.3%) and the most common source of information was school teaching. Good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccination was demonstrated by 51.8%, 67.1% and 21.1% respectively; only 39.6% fully accepted HPV vaccination. Inadequate information and high costs were the obstacles identified to receiving vaccine and recommending it to others. Older age and higher levels of study were significantly associated with good knowledge of HPV. Good knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccination respectively were significantly associated with full acceptance of vaccination. There is need for more education on cervical cancer, HPV infection and HPV vaccination for the medical students via school teaching and other media, and inclusion of the HPV vaccine in the National Program on Immunization to improve access. PMID:26103704

  8. The human papillomavirus vaccine: A powerful tool for the primary prevention of cervical cancer.

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    Nubia Muñoz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine is the most promissory public health tool for primary prevention of cervical cancer. Immunization of females before the acquisition of HPV infection has the greatest impact in preventing pre-neoplasic lesions and cervical cancer. Current HPV vaccines do not eliminate cervical cancer risk, therefore, screening should continue covering vaccinated as well as women that do not get the vaccine. The strategies that include combination of high-coverage vaccination of HPV-unexposed adolescents with screening using methods with higher sensitivity than cytology as HPV test may be more cost-effective than the strategies currently used. The cytology-based screening programs of Latin America countries including Colombia are very ineffective. The evidence in favor of the cost-effectiveness of other screening strategies such as HPV tests and visual inspection followed by immediate treatment for women with difficult access to health care services in developing countries warrants the immediate revision of the current strategies.

  9. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  10. Integration of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Eduardo L; Tsu, Vivien; Herrero, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hildesheim, Allan; Muñoz, Nubia; Murillo, Raul; Sánchez, Gloria Ines; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2008-08-19

    Despite substantial efforts to control cervical cancer by screening, most Latin American and Caribbean countries continue to experience incidence rates of this disease that are much higher than those of other Western countries. The implementation of universal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for young adolescent women is the best prospect for changing this situation. Even though there are financial challenges to overcome to implement such a policy, there is broad political support in the region for adopting universal HPV vaccination. The costs of implementing this policy could be largely alleviated by changing cervical cancer control practices that rely on inefficient use of resources presently allocated to cytology screening. In view of the strong evidence base concerning cervical cancer prevention technologies in the region and the expected impact of vaccination on the performance of cytology, we propose a reformulation of cervical cancer screening policies to be based on HPV testing using validated methods followed by cytologic triage. This approach would serve as the central component of a system that plays the dual role of providing screening and surveillance as integrated and complementary activities sharing centralized resources and coordination. PMID:18945406

  11. Preventing cervical cancer and genital warts - How much protection is enough for HPV vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    HPV associated disease is a global health problem: 5.2% of all cancers are HPV associated with HPV 16 and 18 accounting for 70% of cases of cervical cancer. Genital warts caused by HPV 6 and 11 have a lifetime risk of acquisition of 10%. HPV vaccines are subunit vaccines consisting of virus like particles comprised of the L1 major capsid protein. Two vaccines have been licenced since 2006/2007 and are in the National Immunisation programmes in 62 countries. Both vaccines include HPV 16 and 18 VLPs and one also includes HPV 6 and 11. The vaccines are highly immunogenic and well tolerated. Genital HPV is a sexually transmitted infection with peak incidence occurring just after the onset of sexual activity and the routine cohort for immunisation in almost all countries are adolescent girls 9-15 years of age with or without catch up for older adolescents and young women. Population effectiveness is now being demonstrated for these vaccines in countries with high vaccine coverage. HPV vaccines are highly immunogenic and effective and the original 3 dose schedules have already been reduced, for those 14 years and under, to 2 for both licenced vaccines. There is preliminary evidence that 1 dose of vaccine is as effective as 2 or 3 in preventing persistent HPV infection in the cervix in young women and further reductions in dosage may be possible if supported by appropriate virological, immunological and modelling studies. PMID:27211079

  12. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  13. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to see your doctor. www.cdc.gov/cancer/knowledge 1-800-CDC-INFO Are there tests that can prevent cervical cancer or find it early? There are two tests that can either help prevent cervical cancer or find it early: • The Pap test (or Pap smear)looks for precancers, cell changes, on the cervix ...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of adding vaccination with the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine to cervical cancer screening in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vokó Zoltán

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical cancer screening program implemented in Hungary to date has not been successful. Along with screening, vaccination is an effective intervention to prevent cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of adding vaccination with the human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine to the current cervical cancer screening program in Hungary. Methods We developed a cohort simulation state-transition Markov model to model the life course of 12-year-old girls. Eighty percent participation in the HPV vaccination program at 12 years of age was assumed. Transitional probabilities were estimated using data from the literature. Local data were used regarding screening participation rates, and the costs were estimated in US $. We applied the purchasing power parity exchange rate of 129 HUF/$ to the cost data. Only direct health care costs were considered. We used a 3.7% discount rate for both the cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. The time horizon was 88 years. Results Inclusion of HPV vaccination at age 12 in the cervical cancer prevention program was predicted to be cost-effective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of adding HPV vaccination to the current national cancer screening program was estimated to be 27 588 $/QALY. The results were sensitive to the price of the vaccine, the discount rate, the screening participation rate and whether herd immunity was taken into account. Conclusions Our modeling analysis showed that the vaccination of 12-year-old adolescent girls against cervical cancer with the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine would be a cost-effective strategy to prevent cervical cancer in Hungary.

  15. Human papillomavirus infection, vaccination, and cervical cancer communication: the protection dilemma faced by women in southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Sadie P; Dorgan, Kelly A; Duvall, Kathryn L; Garrett, Linda H

    2011-11-30

    Human papillomavirus is the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted infection and has been recognized as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Understanding the shift in public awareness caused by recent changes to cervical prevention is critical to addressing cervical cancer disparities in Appalachia. Since the human papillomavirus vaccine was approved for prevention, little data have been collected regarding human papillomavirus risk assessment and vaccine perceptions among Appalachian women. The purpose of the authors in this study was to investigate communication and cultural issues via a social scripting framework that could influence human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among southern Appalachian women; and explore participants' perceptions of human papillomavirus, cervical cancer, and the vaccine. A qualitative, descriptive design was employed to examine these issues in eight counties in northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia. Thirty-nine women aged 18-49 years participated in a single individual interview or focus group session from October 2007 through August 2008. Interview and focus group data were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Two major themes emerged from the data: the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma and spheres of silence surrounding the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma. Study findings suggested areas for future research and may assist healthcare professionals in approaching southern Appalachian women as they make decisions regarding cervical cancer prevention. PMID:22185292

  16. Cervical cancer vaccine: Exploring new opportunities and challenges for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Ray Laskar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, and the burden of the disease is disproportionately high in the developing world (>80%. With the advent of two new vaccines, "Gardasil" developed by Merck & Co. New Jersey, USA and "Cervarix" developed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK in Philadelphia, USA, the future holds newer promises for prevention and control of the disease. However, various regulatory and policy changes also may be required to be undertaken and the various new challenges need to be addressed.

  17. Epidemiology of HPV 16 and cervical cancer in Finland and the potential impact of vaccination: mathematical modelling analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruanne V Barnabas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Candidate human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have demonstrated almost 90%-100% efficacy in preventing persistent, type-specific HPV infection over 18 mo in clinical trials. If these vaccines go on to demonstrate prevention of precancerous lesions in phase III clinical trials, they will be licensed for public use in the near future. How these vaccines will be used in countries with national cervical cancer screening programmes is an important question. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a transmission model of HPV 16 infection and progression to cervical cancer and calibrated it to Finnish HPV 16 seroprevalence over time. The model was used to estimate the transmission probability of the virus, to look at the effect of changes in patterns of sexual behaviour and smoking on age-specific trends in cancer incidence, and to explore the impact of HPV 16 vaccination. We estimated a high per-partnership transmission probability of HPV 16, of 0.6. The modelling analyses showed that changes in sexual behaviour and smoking accounted, in part, for the increase seen in cervical cancer incidence in 35- to 39-y-old women from 1990 to 1999. At both low (10% in opportunistic immunisation and high (90% in a national immunisation programme coverage of the adolescent population, vaccinating women and men had little benefit over vaccinating women alone. We estimate that vaccinating 90% of young women before sexual debut has the potential to decrease HPV type-specific (e.g., type 16 cervical cancer incidence by 91%. If older women are more likely to have persistent infections and progress to cancer, then vaccination with a duration of protection of less than 15 y could result in an older susceptible cohort and no decrease in cancer incidence. While vaccination has the potential to significantly reduce type-specific cancer incidence, its combination with screening further improves cancer prevention. CONCLUSIONS: HPV vaccination has the potential to

  18. Quantifying the decisional satisfaction to accept or reject the Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine: a preference for cervical cancer prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Harper

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Only a portion of the US population is willing to consider HPV vaccination to date. The primary aim of this study is to determine the decisional satisfaction associated with HPV vaccination. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective survey conducted at an urban college where women 18-26 years old completed a decisional satisfaction survey about their HPV vaccine experience. RESULTS: Regardless of the decision to accept or reject HPV vaccination, the decisional satisfaction was very high (mean 5-item score = 21.2 (SD 3.8. Women without HPV vaccination were decisionally neutral significantly more often than those already vaccinated; 22% were decisionally neutral for the option to accept HPV vaccination at that visit. Cervical cancer prevention was preferred significantly more often than genital wart prevention in all analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting those who are decisionally neutral about HPV vaccination may result in a higher uptake of HPV vaccination.

  19. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162 KB) This information in Spanish (en español) Female reproductive system Select image to view larger Related ... D., FACS, Captain, U.S. Public Health Service Medical Director, National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, ...

  20. Intent to Participate in Future Cervical Cancer Screenings Is Lower when Satisfaction with the Decision to Be Vaccinated Is Neutral

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Natalie Marya; Harper, Diane Medved; Comes, Johanna Claire; Smith, Melissa Smith; Heutinck, Melinda Ann; Handley, Sandra Martin; Ahern, Debra Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background HPV vaccination programs have adversely affected participation in future cervical cancer screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of decision satisfaction with accepting/rejecting the HPV vaccine, as well as traditional clinical factors, on the intent to participate in future screening. Methods and Findings From January 2011 through August 2012 women 18–26 years old presenting for health care in an urban college student health and wellness clinic in the US...

  1. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  2. HPV Prevalence in Colombian Women with Cervical Cancer: Implications for Vaccination in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Murillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been considered potentially cost-effective for the reduction of cervical cancer burden in developing countries; their effectiveness in a public health setting continues to be researched. We conducted an HPV prevalence survey among Colombian women with invasive cancer. Paraffin-embedded biopsies were obtained from one high-risk and one low-middle-risk regions. GP5+/GP6+ L1 primers, RLB assays, and E7 type specific PCR were used for HPV-DNA detection. 217 cases were analyzed with 97.7% HPV detection rate. HPV-16/18 prevalence was 63.1%; HPV-18 had lower occurrence in the high-risk population (13.8% versus 9.6% allowing for the participation of less common HPV types; HPV-45 was present mainly in women under 50 and age-specific HPV type prevalence revealed significant differences. Multiple high-risk infections appeared in 16.6% of cases and represent a chance of replacement. Age-specific HPV prevalence and multiple high-risk infections might influence vaccine impact. Both factors highlight the role of HPVs other than 16/18, which should be considered in cost-effectiveness analyses for potential vaccine impact.

  3. Intent to participate in future cervical cancer screenings is lower when satisfaction with the decision to be vaccinated is neutral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Marya Alexander

    Full Text Available HPV vaccination programs have adversely affected participation in future cervical cancer screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of decision satisfaction with accepting/rejecting the HPV vaccine, as well as traditional clinical factors, on the intent to participate in future screening.From January 2011 through August 2012 women 18-26 years old presenting for health care in an urban college student health and wellness clinic in the US Midwest were asked to complete a descriptive and medical history survey including a six element decisional satisfaction survey scored on 5-point Likert scales, where the intent to participate in future cervical cancer screening was measured. Of the 568 women who completed the decisional satisfaction survey, 17% of those <21 years and 7% ≥ 21 years indicated no intent to participate in future cervical cancer screenings. Among women of current screening age, the univariate risk factors of race/ethnicity, contraceptive use, number of lifetime sexual partners, and receipt of HPV vaccine were not predictors of intent for future cervical cancer screening. Instead, only a history of a prior Pap test was a significant positive predictor and only a decisional satisfaction of 'neutral' (Likert score = 3 for any of the four decisional satisfaction elements was a significant negative predictor. For the decisional satisfaction element "best for me personally", there was a 78% decreased likelihood of intending to participate in future screening if the satisfaction was neutral rather than firm (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.91 and a 26 fold increased likelihood if she had had a prior Pap test (aOR = 26, 95% CI: 5-133.HPV vaccination implementation programs must help women be the owner of their decision around HPV vaccination and understand the importance of future participation in cervical cancer screening.

  4. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is ... the NCI website . Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy General Information About Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy Treatment of cervical ...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of the prophylactic HPV vaccine : An application to the Netherlands taking non-cervical cancers and cross-protection into account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjeboer, J.; Westra, T.A.; Wilschut, J.C.; Nijman, H.W.; Daemen, T.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite an effective screening programme, 600-700 women are still diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Netherlands each year. In 2009 a prophylactic vaccine against HPV-type 16 and 18 was implemented in the national immunisation programme to decrease the incidence of cervical cancer. There is evide

  6. HPV Infection in Cervical and Other Cancers in Saudi Arabia: Implication for Prevention and Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Alsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, des...

  7. Prevention of cervical, vaginal, and vulval cancers: role of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lina Diaz

    2010-01-01

    Maria Lina DiazSection of Ambulatory Gynecology Cleveland Clinic Florida Weston, Florida, USAAbstract: The relationship between the human papillomavirus (HPV) and malignancies of the uterine cervix, vagina, and vulva has been established. The development of a quadrivalent HPV recombinant prophylactic vaccine represents the first time in history that primary prevention of these cancers is offered to girls and women. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV subtypes in cervical cancers has been the most...

  8. Development of a next generation Semliki Forest virus-based DNA vaccine against cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Wall, Stephanie; Ljungberg, Karl; Peng IP, Peng; Boerma, Annemarie; Nijman, Hans W.; Liljeström, Peter; Daemen, Toos

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women worldwide. The disease develops as a result of infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) through persistent expression of early proteins E6 and E7 with transforming capacities in cervical epithelial cells. Our group pioneered

  9. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  10. HPV infection in cervical and other cancers in Saudi Arabia: implication for prevention and vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi eAlsbeih

    2014-01-01

    HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of natio...

  11. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute ...

  12. Cervical dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your provider. Make sure to get the HPV vaccine when it is offered to you. This vaccine prevents many cervical cancers. ... Early diagnosis and prompt treatment cures most cases of cervical ... severe cervical dysplasia may change into cervical cancer.

  13. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, T.A.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Dorsman, S.; Tutuhatunewa, E.D.; Vrij, E.L. de; Nijman, H.W.; Daemen, T.; Wilschut, J.C.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides a

  14. Efficacy and safety of human papillomavirus vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer: A review of evidence from phase III trials and national programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Basu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been widely introduced in the national immunization programs in most of the medium and high income countries following endorsement from national and international advisory bodies. HPV vaccine is unique and its introduction is challenging in many ways - it is the first vaccine developed to prevent any cancer, the vaccine is gender specific, it targets adolescent females who are difficult to reach by any health intervention programs. It is not unusual for such a vaccine to face scepticism and reservations not only from lay public but also from professionals in spite of the clinical trial results convincingly and consistently proving their efficacy and safety. Over the last few years millions of doses of the HPV vaccine have been administered round the world and the efficacy and safety data have started coming from the real life programs. A comprehensive cervical cancer control program involving HPV vaccination of the adolescent girls and screening of the adult women has been proved to be the most cost-effective approach to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. The present article discusses the justification of HPV vaccination in the backdrop of natural history of cervical cancer, the mechanism of action of the vaccines, efficacy and safety data from phase III randomized controlled trials as well as from the national immunization programs of various countries.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccine in reducing the risk of cervical cancer in Ireland due to HPV types 16 and 18 using a transmission dynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usher, C.; Tilson, L.; Olsen, J.;

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of combining a cervical cancer screening programme with a national HPV vaccination programme compared to a screening programme alone to prevent cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer related to HPV types 16 and 18 in the Irish healthcare setting. The incremental...... cost effectiveness of vaccination strategies for 12-year-old females (base-case) and 12-26-year-old catch-up vaccination strategies were examined. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was (sic)17,383/LYG. Using a probabilistic sensitivity analysis about the base-case, the 95% CI for cost...... per LYG was ((sic)3400 to E38,400). This suggests that vaccination against HPV types 16 and 18 would be cost-effective from the perspective of the Irish healthcare payer. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  17. Why HPV Vaccine is Important to My Family: The Story of a Cervical Cancer Survivor

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-06

    A young mom’s world is turned upside-down when she’s diagnosed with cervical cancer. Learn what she’s doing to protect her kids from HPV-related cancers.  Created: 5/6/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 5/6/2013.

  18. Efficacy of HPV-16 E7 Based Vaccine in a TC-1 Tumoric Animal Model of Cervical Cancer - page 483

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Fazeli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The human papillomavirus as an etiological agent of cervical cancer doesnot grow adequately in tissue culture systems. The tumor cell line TC-1 continuously expressesthe E6 and E7 oncogenic proteins of HPV, and is considered a suitable tool inlaboratory investigations and vaccine researches against cervical cancer.Materials and Methods: The TC-1 cell line was grown in RPMI 1650 supplemented with10% FBS, glutamine and antibiotics, and was used for tumor development in mice. Six toseven week-old tumor bearing C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 groups consisting of 7mice per group. The first group received pcDNA-E7, the second group received pcDNA3,and the third group received phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The treated animals weremonitored for their tumor size progression and survival. At last, the tumoric tissues fromautopsied animals were fixed and examined with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin (H&E.All experiments were done in accordance with guidelines of the Laboratory Animal EthicalCommission of Tarbiat Modares University. Data analysis was performed using the onewayANOVA followed by Tukey's test in both experimental and control groups. A p-value<0.05 was considered significant.Results: There were significant decreases in tumor growth; there were also improvementsin survival among mice in the treated groups (p<0.041. H&E stained sections fromuntreated mice were studied independently in a blinded fashion by two observers andshowed malignant neoplasms composed of severely pleomorphic tumor cells with nuclearenlargement, high nuclear-cytoplasmic (N/C ratios, and prominent nucleoli in solid andfascicular patterns of growth. High mitotic activity with extensive necrosis was also notedin both test and control groups.Conclusion: The TC-1 lung metastatic model can be used to test the efficacy of variousE7-based therapeutic cancer vaccine strategies for cervical cancer and the prevention ofHPV-related neoplasia.

  19. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  20. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  1. Awareness and knowledge of HPV, cervical cancer, and vaccines in young women after first delivery in São Paulo, Brazil - a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Aline L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of HPV vaccination programs will require awareness regarding HPV associated diseases and the benefits of HPV vaccination for the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, cervical cancer prevention, vaccines, and factors associated with HPV awareness among young women after birth of the first child. Methods This analysis is part of a cross-sectional study carried out at Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, a large public maternity hospital in Sao Paulo. Primiparous women (15-24 years who gave birth in that maternity hospital were included. A questionnaire that included questions concerning knowledge of HPV, cervical cancer, and vaccines was applied. To estimate the association of HPV awareness with selected factors, prevalence ratios (PR were estimated using a generalized linear model (GLM. Results Three hundred and one primiparous women were included; 37% of them reported that they "had ever heard about HPV", but only 19% and 7%, respectively, knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI and that it can cause cervical cancer. Seventy-four percent of interviewees mentioned the preventive character of vaccines and all participants affirmed that they would accept HPV vaccination after delivery. In the multivariate analysis, only increasing age (P for trend = 0.021 and previous STI (P Conclusions This survey indicated that knowledge about the association between HPV and cervical cancer among primiparous young women is low. Therefore, these young low-income primiparous women could benefit greatly from educational interventions to encourage primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention programs.

  2. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hutubessy, Raymond; Levin, Ann; Wang, Susan; Morgan, Winthrop; Ally, Mariam; John, Theopista; Broutet, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO) Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P) tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehe...

  3. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hutubessy Raymond; Levin Ann; Wang Susan; Morgan Winthrop; Ally Mariam; John Theopista; Broutet Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO) Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P) tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national...

  4. The Effectiveness of a Facebook-Assisted Teaching Method on Knowledge and Attitudes about Cervical Cancer Prevention and HPV Vaccination Intention among Female Adolescent Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Liang, Shu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of education is a known barrier to vaccination, but data on the design and effectiveness of interventions remain limited. Objective: This study aims to identify the effectiveness of a Facebook-assisted teaching method on female adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention and on their human papillomavirus…

  5. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  7. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a expressing human papillomavirus type 16 L1 as a potential live vaccine against cervical cancer and typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraillery, Dominique; Baud, David; Pang, Susana Yuk-Ying; Schiller, John; Bobst, Martine; Zosso, Nathalie; Ponci, Françoise; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2007-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines based on L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) can prevent HPV-induced genital neoplasias, the precursors of cervical cancer. However, most cervical cancers occur in developing countries, where the implementation of expensive vaccines requiring multiple injections will be difficult. A live Salmonella-based vaccine could be a lower-cost alternative. We previously demonstrated that high HPV type 16 (HPV16)-neutralizing titers are induced after a single oral immunization of mice with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains expressing a codon-optimized version of HPV16 L1 (L1S). To allow the testing of this type of vaccine in women, we constructed a new L1-expressing plasmid, kanL1S, and tested kanL1S recombinants of three Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strains shown to be safe in humans, i.e., Ty21a, the actual licensed typhoid vaccine, and two highly immunogenic typhoid vaccine candidates, Ty800 and CVD908-htrA. In an intranasal mouse model of Salmonella serovar Typhi infection, Ty21a kanL1S was unique in inducing HPV16-neutralizing antibodies in serum and genital secretions, while anti-Salmonella responses were similar to those against the parental Ty21a vaccine. Electron microscopy examination of Ty21a kanL1S lysates showed that L1 assembled in capsomers and capsomer aggregates but not well-ordered VLPs. Comparison to the neutralizing antibody response induced by purified HPV16 L1 VLP immunizations in mice suggests that Ty21a kanL1S may be an effective prophylactic HPV vaccine. Ty21a has been widely used against typhoid fever in humans with a remarkable safety record. These finds encourage clinical testing of Ty21a kanL1S as a combined typhoid fever/cervical cancer vaccine with the potential for worldwide application. PMID:17687110

  8. The impact of HPV vaccination on future cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Mie Sara; Lynge, Elsebeth; Kragstrup, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the interplay between primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer by estimating future screening outcomes in women offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination when they were sexually naïve. DESIGN: Estimation of outcome of liquid-based cytology screening for a post-HPV...... vaccination cohort using pre-vaccination screening data combined with HPV vaccination efficacy data reported in the literature. SETTING: Denmark. DATA: The number of screening diagnoses at first screen in a pre-vaccination birth cohort was multiplied by reported risk reductions expected for women who were...... vaccinated for HPV before sexual debut. All identified studies were reviewed by two authors, and weighted pooled estimates of vaccine efficacies were used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions of positive and false-positive cervical cytologies and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated using cervical...

  9. Human papillomavirus vaccination in the prevention of cervical neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Astbury, Katharine

    2012-02-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women worldwide. Although the introduction of comprehensive screening programs has reduced the disease incidence in developed countries, it remains a major problem in the developing world. The recent licensing of 2 vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and HPV-18, the viruses responsible for 70% of cervical cancer cases, offers the hope of disease prevention. In this article, we review the role of HPV in the etiology of cervical cancer and the evidence to support the introduction of vaccination programs in young women and discuss the potential obstacles to widespread vaccination. In addition, we discuss the issues that remain to be elucidated, including the potential need for booster doses of the vaccine and the role of concomitant vaccination in men.

  10. Get Vaccinated! and Get Tested! Developing Primary and Secondary Cervical Cancer Prevention Videos for a Haitian Kreyòl-Speaking Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frett, Brigitte; Aquino, Myra; Fatil, Marie; Seay, Julia; Trevil, Dinah; Fièvre, Michèle Jessica; Kobetz, Erin

    2016-05-01

    Although routine screening reduces cervical cancer rates between 60% and 90%, thousands of women worldwide are diagnosed with the disease on an annual basis because of inadequate screening. Haitian women in South Florida experience a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer, with disease rates 4 times higher than the average for women in Miami. An ongoing community-based participatory research initiative to assess and reduce this burden has revealed that a complex interplay of factors contributes to a lack of access to screening in this community, including socioeconomics, language barriers, and traditional understandings of health and disease. In an effort to address some of these barriers and encourage uptake of primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention strategies, 2 videos on cervical cancer prevention were created using a community-based participatory research framework. The video screenplays were created by a Haitian screenwriter using evidence-based medical information provided by academic researchers. The films feature Haitian actors speaking a Haitian Kreyòl dialogue with a storyline portraying friends and family discussing human papillomavirus disease and vaccination, Papanicolaou testing, and cervical cancer. Focus groups held with Haitian women in South Florida suggested that the films are engaging; feature relatable characters; and impact knowledge about human papillomavirus, cervical cancer development, and current prevention recommendations. PMID:27050619

  11. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine for the prevention of cervical cancer and HPV-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, S Rachel; Apter, Dan; De Carvalho, Newton; Harper, Diane M; Konno, Ryo; Paavonen, Jorma; Romanowski, Barbara; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Burlet, Nansa; Mihalyi, Attila; Struyf, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are available against human papillomavirus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical and other cancers. Efficacy data from the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine clinical trial program were reviewed. Six randomized, controlled phase II/III trials evaluating cervical endpoints enrolled women from diverse populations and geographical locations. The program analyzed extensively the cohorts most relevant from a public health perspective: the total vaccinated cohort (TVC), approximating a general population including those with existing or previous HPV infection, and TVC-naïve, approximating a population of young women before sexual debut. Results show that the vaccine reduces HPV-16/18 infection and associated cervical endpoints in women regardless of age, location, or sexual experience. It provides cross-protection against some non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types and types causing genital warts, and may be effective against vulvar, oral, and anal HPV infection. Early epidemiology data following its introduction suggest a decline in the prevalence of vaccine and some non-vaccine HPV types. PMID:26902666

  12. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed CDC’s Cervical Cancer Study Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... year. As part of CDC’s Cervical Cancer (Cx3) Study, we surveyed a sample of both health care ...

  13. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ...

  14. 宫颈癌治疗性疫苗研究进展%Advances in the research of therapeutic vaccines against cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玲; 刘金辉; 施桥发

    2010-01-01

    宫颈癌为妇女最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,其与人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)感染密切相关.随着对HPV及其致病机理研究的深入和免疫学的发展,利用免疫学方法治疗HPV引发的疾病显示良好的前景.目前,有关HPV治疗性疫苗的研究已取得较大进展,这些疫苗包括病毒/细菌载体疫苗、肽疫苗、蛋白疫苗、DNA疫苗、细胞疫苗等.此文就HPV治疗性疫苗的研究进展做一综述.%Cervical cancer, one of the most common cancers in women, is closely associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.Along with development of immunology as well as study on HPV and its pathogenic mechanism, the treatment of HPV-related diseases by immunological methods has showed excellent prospect.Great advances in therapeutic vaccines-including viral and bacterial vector vaccines, peptide and protein vaccines, nucleic acid or DNA vaccines, and cell-based vaccines- against cervical cancer have been achieved in recent years.The progress in study on therapeutic vaccines against HPV is reviewed in this paper.

  15. HPV vaccination and allocative efficiency: regional analysis of the costs and benefits with the bivalent AS04-adjuvanted vaccine, from the perspective of public health, for the prevention of cervical cancer and its pre-cancerous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonanni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: by means of the decisions on whether to introduce the HPV vaccination, Public Health has already established the importance of associating the vaccination strategy to the policy of secondary prevention. The screening + vaccination strategy is more effective than the two methods taken individually. In support of this combined strategy and in order to make available per each region concrete elements for their regional planning, an assessment has been made, which also takes into account the effect of cross-protection regarding high-risk strains not contained in both vaccines, bivalent and quadrivalent, and more frequently responsible for pre-cancerous lesions and cervical cancer (CCU. This analysis evaluates the costs and benefits of screening + vaccination strategy in a 12-year-old female cohort. Furthermore, the paper provides results that may be useful to assess the opportunity to extend the vaccination to a second cohort of 24-25-year-old women. The analysis is preceded by a brief summary of CCU epidemiology available data, public health policies that give precise guidelines for vaccination strategies and analytical tools suitable to support public policy makers to efficiently allocate resources. Methods: two different models were used for two regional analyses.The vaccines may have different sustained- and cross-protection levels against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV-types. In the first analysis, a prevalence-based model estimated the potential net difference in HPV-related lesions (abnormal pap smear, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, cervical cancer (CC and genital warts (GW and associated costs generated by the two vaccines. Vaccine efficacy rates were based on published data for each vaccine. Lifetime vaccine efficacy was assumed. Results are reported over one year after reaching a steady state. Incidence and treatment costs were obtained from Italian and European sources. We also performed a cost-effectiveness analysis

  16. Preventive vaccination against cervical cancer: Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology Guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Kwon, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Seong, Seok Ju; Song, Yong Jung; Shin, Jin Woo; Lee, Keun Ho; Lim, Myong Cheol; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Ju, Woong; Hong, Jin Hwa; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Jae-Weon; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2016-01-01

    After human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine guidelines published by Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology (KSGO) in 2011, new studies have been published, leading to additional data regarding efficacy, safety, number of vaccination rounds, and ideal age of vaccine administration. We searched and reviewed the literatures focused on the efficacy of 2-dose schedule vaccination, the efficacy of 3-dose schedule vaccination in middle-aged women, the ideal age of 3-dose schedule vaccination, the safet...

  17. Newsprint media representations of the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme for cervical cancer prevention in the UK (2005-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate; Langan, Mairi; Bedford, Helen; Petticrew, Mark

    2010-03-01

    In September 2008, the human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme was introduced in the UK for schoolgirls aged between 12 and 18 years of age. The vaccine shows high efficacy in preventing infection against HPV types 16 and 18 responsible for 70% of cervical cancer. However, to be most effective, the vaccine needs to be administered before exposure to the viruses and therefore, ideally, before young people become sexually active. The introduction of any new vaccine, and perhaps particularly one given to young teenage girls to prevent a sexually transmitted cancer-causing virus, has the potential to attract a great deal of media attention. This paper reports on content analysis of 344 articles published between January 2005 and December 2008 in 15 UK newspapers. It includes both manifest and latent analysis to examine newsprint media coverage of the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme and its role in HPV advocacy. We concluded that the newspapers were generally positive towards the new HPV vaccination and that over the 4 years period the newsworthiness of the HPV vaccination programme increased. In 2008 two events dominated coverage, firstly, the introduction of the HPV programme in September 2008 and secondly, in August 2008 the diagnosis on camera of cervical cancer given to Jade Goody, a 27 year old mother of two, who gained fame and notoriety in the UK through her participation in several reality television shows. There are two conclusions from this study. Firstly, the positive media coverage surrounding the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme is to be welcomed as it is likely to contribute towards influencing public perceptions about the acceptability and need for HPV vaccination. Secondly, the focus on prevalence rates of HPV infection among women and on women's sexual behaviours, in relation to HPV vaccination 'encouraging' promiscuity, is an unhelpful aspect of media coverage. PMID:20064682

  18. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical Cancer Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview ... be cured. How often should I get screened (tested)? How often you should get screened for cervical ...

  19. Value for money from HPV vaccination and cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Toni; Sopina, Elizaveta (Liza)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs raises some important questions about the future organization of cervical screening programs. Two studies - from NZ and Canada - have addressed the question of what combination of vaccination and screening strategies might be most cost......-effective in preventing cervical cancer. Both studies indicate that some modifications to existing screening programs may be desirable as immunized females enter these programs. Variables in HPV vaccination that are likely to be particularly important for determining the future cost-effectiveness of cervical screening...... programs include: vaccine uptake rate, compliance with full doses, timely completion of doses, duration of protection, male vaccination and HPV infection rate. If value for money is to be achieved, it is important that the appropriate data are collected so that policy makers can consider the combined...

  20. Molecular imaging in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sairah R; Rockall, Andrea G; Barwick, Tara D

    2016-06-01

    Despite the development of screening and of a vaccine, cervix cancer is a major cause of cancer death in young women worldwide. A third of women treated for the disease will recur, almost inevitably leading to death. Functional imaging has the potential to stratify patients at higher risk of poor response or relapse by improved delineation of disease extent and tumor characteristics. A number of molecular imaging biomarkers have been shown to predict outcome at baseline and/or early during therapy in cervical cancer. In future this could help tailor the treatment plan which could include selection of patients for close follow up, adjuvant therapy or trial entry for novel agents or adaptive clinical trials. The use of molecular imaging techniques, FDG PET/CT and functional MRI, in staging and response assessment of cervical cancer is reviewed. PMID:26859085

  1. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Majidi; Reza Ghiasvand; Maryam Hadji; Azin Nahvijou; Azam-Sadat Mousavi; Minoo Pakgohar; Nahid Khodakarami; Mehrandokht Abedini; Farnaz Amouzegar Hashemi; Marjan Rahnamaye Farzami; Reza Shahsiah; Sima Sajedinejhad; Mohammad Ali Mohagheghi; Fatemeh Nadali; Arash Rashidian

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor progn...

  2. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  3. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  4. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  5. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Pakhee

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is...

  6. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  7. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical cancer: • Cytology: This test, also called a Pap test or Pap smear, looks for abnormal changes in cells in ... women ages 21 to 65, screening with a Pap test every 3 years has the highest benefits ...

  8. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

  9. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutubessy Raymond

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on, social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E. The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015, the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5 in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs and US$31.5 million (with vaccine assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. This is equivalent to a

  10. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westra Tjalke A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides additional protection against HPV 31, 33, and 45 and the quadrivalent vaccine against HPV31. The quadrivalent vaccine additionally protects against low-risk HPV type 6 and 11, responsible for most cases of genital warts. In this study, we made an analytical comparison of the two vaccines in terms of cost-effectiveness including the additional benefits of cross-protection and protection against genital warts in comparison with a screening-only strategy. Methods We used a Markov model, simulating the progression from HPV infection to cervical cancer or genital warts. The model was used to estimate the difference in future costs and health effects of both HPV-vaccines separately. Results In a cohort of 100,000 women, use of the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine (both at 50% vaccination coverage reduces the cervical cancer incidence by 221 and 207 cases, corresponding to ICERs of €17,600/QALY and €18,900/QALY, respectively. It was estimated that the quadrivalent vaccine additionally prevents 4390 cases of genital warts, reducing the ICER to €16,300/QALY. Assuming a comparable willingness to pay for cancer and genital warts prevention, the difference in ICERs could justify a slightly higher price (~7% per dose in favor of the quadrivalent vaccine. Conclusions Clearly, HPV vaccination has been implemented for the prevention of cervical cancer. From this perspective, use of the bivalent HPV vaccine appears to be most effective and cost-effective. Including the benefits of prevention against genital warts, the ICER of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was found to be slightly more favourable. However, current decision-making on the introduction of HPV

  11. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  12. 宫颈癌治疗性疫苗的临床研究现状%Advances in the clinical research of therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立娜; 周志祥; 盛望; 曾毅

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major etiological factor in cervical cancer, and it provides a promising target for the eradication of HPV-related malignancies. Although preventive HPV vaccines have been approved, the much-needed therapeutic vaccines targeted to HPV for cervical cancer require further development. Currently, a number of therapeutic vaccines have been developed and many have shown promise in both preclinical and clinical trials. This review discusses the therapeutic vaccines including live vector-based, peptide or protein-based, DNA-based and DC-based vaccines with emphasis on current progress of the clinical trials.%人乳头瘤状病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)是宫颈癌的主要致病因子,也是研制宫颈癌防治性疫苗的理想靶点.虽然现在针对HPV感染的宫颈癌预防性疫苗已成功上市,但是对于急需的治疗型疫苗的研发还在进行中.目前有多种类型的治疗性疫苗已用于临床前期及临床试验,并显示出很好的治疗效果.本文从活载体疫苗、多肽/蛋白疫苗、DNA疫苗和DC疫苗几个方面综述了目前国内外宫颈癌治疗性疫苗的研究现状及进展,特别是进入临床阶段的疫苗,从而为治疗性疫苗的研究提供参考.

  13. Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jenkins(University of York, UK)

    2003-01-01

    Of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV), more than 30 infect the genital tract. The association between certain oncogenic (high-risk) strains of HPV and cervical cancer is well established. Although HPV is essential to the transformation of cervical epithelial cells, it is not sufficient, and a variety of cofactors and molecular events influence whether cervical cancer will develop. Early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions can prevent progression to cervical cancer. Ident...

  14. Epidemiology and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemanns, Peter; Soergel, Phillip; Hertel, Hermann; Jentschke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The new German S3 guideline 'Prevention of Cervical Cancer' published in 2016 is based on the latest available evidence about cervical cancer screening and treatment of cervical precancer. Large randomized controlled trials indicate that human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening may provide better protection against cervical cancer than cytology alone through improved detection of premalignant disease in the first screening round prior to progression. Therefore, women aged 30 years and older should preferably be screened with HPV testing every 3-5 years (cytology alone every 2 years is an acceptable alternative). Co-testing is not recommended. Screening should start at 25 years using cytology alone every 2 years. The preferred triage test after a positive HPV screening test is cytology. Women positive for HPV 16 and HPV 18 should receive immediate colposcopy. Another alternative triage method is p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology. The mean yearly participation rate in Germany is between 45 and 50%. Offering devices for HPV self-sampling has the potential to increase participation rates in those women who are at higher risk of developing cervical cancer. Regarding primary prevention, the 9-valent vaccine may provide protection against up to 85% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 and 90% of cervical cancer, and is available in Europe as a 2-dose schedule from May 2016. PMID:27614953

  15. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk? What Are the Symptoms? What Should I Know About Screening? Statistics Related Links Inside Knowledge Campaign What CDC Is Doing Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-877KB] High-quality PDF for professional ...

  16. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  17. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of women getting cervical cancer or dying from cervical cancer varies by race ...

  19. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  20. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  1. 宫颈癌治疗性疫苗临床研究进展%Clinical research advance in therapeutic vaccines against cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄云霞

    2012-01-01

    Persistent infection by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found associated with most cervical cancers.With the further study on HPV and its pathogenic mechanism,several therapeutic vaccines against cervical cancer have been developed,and even in clinical trial phrase.In this paper,the progress in clinical trials and design strategies of therapeutic HPV vaccines are reviewed.%宫颈癌的发生与高危型人乳头瘤病毒( human papillomavirus,HPV)的持续感染有关.随着对HPV及其致病机制的深入研究,已经开发了多种用于宫颈癌生物免疫治疗的疫苗,有些已进入临床试验.此文对已进入临床试验阶段的宫颈癌疫苗的设计策略和临床试验进展做一综述.

  2. 人乳头瘤病毒疫苗预防宫颈癌的应用%Application of HPV Vaccines in Preventing Development of the Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏巧凡; 何莲芝

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer causes serious damage to women′s health. It is clear that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major pathogenic factor. HPV invades the organism by subtle injures. When E6 or E7 oncoprotein is continous expression in the epithelial tissue, high-risk HPV infections contribute to tumorigenicity. Detection of high-risk HPV infection and virus oncoprotein still cannot prevent cervical cancer effectively. Researchers begin to develop a vaccine against the HPV virus, and to prevent HPV infections from the sources, hoping to achieve the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Currently bivalent vaccine Cervarix against HPV 16/18 and quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil against HPV 16/18/11/16 have been approved for marketing. Prophylactic HPV vaccines have been used widely on a global scale and obtained significant effect. A new generation of prophylactic HPV vaccines have made a breakthrough in solving problems including cost, persistence and broad-spectrum immune. Cervical cancer is expected to become the first preventable cancer in the history of human anti-tumor. This review concentrates on the biological characteristics and pathogenic mechanism of HPV and the current application and situation of prophylactic HPV vaccines.%宫颈癌严重危害女性健康,现已明确人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染是其主要致病因素。HPV通过机体的细微损伤入侵,HPV E6和E7癌蛋白中的1种或2种持续表达是高危型HPV感染致瘤的关键所在,检测高危型HPV感染及病毒癌蛋白仍不能有效预防宫颈癌。研究者们正着手研制针对HPV的病毒疫苗,从源头预防HPV感染,以期实现宫颈癌的一级预防。目前已有针对HPV16/18型的二价疫苗Cervarix和针对HPV16/18/11/6型的四价疫苗Gardasil的认证上市,预防性HPV疫苗已在全球范围内推广使用并取得显著效果。新一代预防性HPV疫苗在解决疫苗的成本、持久性和广谱免疫问题上取得突破性进展,

  3. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  4. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz, Nubia

    2012-12-01

    prophylactic HPV vaccines; and (ii secondary prevention by increasing the accuracy of cervical cancer screening.

  5. Potential opportunities to reduce cervical cancer by addressing risk factors other than HPV

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ramaiah Vinay; Bhasker, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in developing world and 80% of global burden is reported from these nations. Human papillomavirus along with poverty, illiteracy/lower education level and standards, multi-parity, tobacco, malnutrition and poor genital hygiene may act synergistically to cause cervical cancer. Risk factor of cervical cancer may in itself be the reason for non-viability of cervical cancer vaccine program in this part of the world. Interventions to address these risk fac...

  6. What's next? Perspectives and future needs of cervical screening in Europe in the era of molecular testing and vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Antilla, Ahti; Arbyn, Marc;

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To outline the perspectives for future control of cervical cancer in Europe. METHODS: Review of current status for major cervical cancer control tools. The review was based on PubMed searches for cervical cancer prevention, Human Papillomavirus, HPV-test, HPV-vaccination, and treatment with...... infected with vaccine HPV-types at vaccination are well protected against CIN2+ from these HPV-types, but the vaccine does not protect against CIN2+ from other HPV-types and neither does it protect already HPV infected women. There is an increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes following excisional...... treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The future of cervical cancer control may become a diversified strategy, one for non-vaccinated birth cohorts and another for vaccinated cohorts. It will take another 50 years before the non-vaccinated cohorts have passed the screening age. With the current uncertainty concerning the...

  7. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pakhee

    2014-10-10

    Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is determined by the population coverage and the efficacy of the screening technique. A number of techniques are in use, including cytology, visual inspection (using the naked eye, magnivisualizer, acetic acid and Lugol's iodine), HPV testing and a combination of these methods. Updated screening guidelines have been advocated by the American Cancer Society in light of the role of HPV on cervical carcinogenesis. Recent research has also focussed on novel biomarkers that can predict progression to cancer in screen positive women and help to differentiate those who need treatment from those who can be left for follow-up. Last but not the least, effective treatment of precancerous lesions can help to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and this constitutes tertiary prevention. A combination of these approaches can help to prevent the burden of cervical cancer and its antecedent morbidity and mortality, but all of these are not feasible in all settings due to resource and allocation constraints. Thus, all countries, especially low and middle income ones, have to determine their own cocktail of approaches that work before we can say with certainty that yes, cervical cancer can be prevented. PMID:25302177

  8. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer ... that can lead to cervical cancer, a new study shows. Canadian researchers found that young women who ...

  9. A review of cervical cancer research in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridah, S

    2014-08-01

    Despite cervical cancer being potentially preventable, it is the second most common cancer among women in Malaysia. One hundred and five articles related to Cervical Cancer were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Fifty seven articles were selected and reviewed for the articles' clinical relevance and future research implications. This article reviews the various aspects of cervical cancer in Malaysia, mainly persistent infection of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), primary prevention (HPV vaccination), screening method (Pap smear issues), and the attitude and knowledge of various groups of Malaysian women that contributed to the failure to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Most of the studies focused on prevention, Pap smear issues, HPV DNA testing, HPV vaccination and various recommendations for prevention of cervical cancer. Secondary prevention by screening is still an important aspect because even with HPV vaccination, screening still plays an important role as vaccination does not cover all high risk HPVs. There is a need to seriously consider a properly organised screening programme, taking into consideration what we already know about the attitude and knowledge of Malaysian women, economic factors and psychosocial issues of the screening method. There is also a large gap in clinical studies on the outcome, management and survival of cervical cancer patients in Malaysia. PMID:25417949

  10. Radiotherapy of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Curative-intent radical radiotherapy of cervical cancer consists of external-beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and concomitant chemotherapy with cisplatin. For each element, new developments aim to improve tumor control rates or treatment tolerance. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has been shown to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity and can be used to selectively increase the radiotherapy dose. Individualized, image-guided brachytherapy enables better adaptation of high-dose volumes to the tumor extension. Intensification of concomitant or sequential systemic therapy is under evaluation. PMID:27614991

  11. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness against high-grade cervical lesions by age at vaccination: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herweijer, Eva; Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Sparén, Pär; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen

    2016-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16/18, included in HPV vaccines, contribute to the majority of cervical cancer, and a substantial proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2/3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) including adenocarcinoma in situ or worse. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination on incidence of CIN2+ and CIN3+. A nationwide cohort of girls and young women resident in Sweden 2006-2013 and aged 13-29 (n = 1,333,691) was followed for vaccination and histologically confirmed high-grade cervical lesions. Data were collected using the Swedish nationwide healthcare registers. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and vaccine effectiveness [(1-IRR)x100%] comparing fully vaccinated with unvaccinated individuals. IRRs were adjusted for attained age and parental education, and stratified on vaccination initiation age. Effectiveness against CIN2+ was 75% (IRR = 0.25, 95%CI = 0.18-0.35) for those initiating vaccination before age 17, and 46% (IRR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.46-0.64) and 22% (IRR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.65-0.93) for those initiating vaccination at ages 17-19, and at ages 20-29, respectively. Vaccine effectiveness against CIN3+ was similar to vaccine effectiveness against CIN2+. Results were robust for both women participating to the organized screening program and for women at prescreening ages. We show high effectiveness of qHPV vaccination on CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions, with greater effectiveness observed in girls younger at vaccination initiation. Continued monitoring of impact of HPV vaccination in the population is needed in order to evaluate both long-term vaccine effectiveness and to evaluate whether the vaccination program achieves anticipated effects in prevention of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:26856527

  12. Progression of the Clinical Application of HPV Vaccine in Cervical Cancer Prevention%HPV疫苗预防子宫颈癌的临床应用进展及思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱巧玲; 吴宜林

    2012-01-01

    子宫颈癌是引起女性死亡的第二大癌症.研究证实人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染与子宫颈癌有着十分密切的关系.近年来,HPV疫苗在预防和治疗子宫颈癌方面备受关注,多种新型预防性HPV疫苗已在部分国家上市.但是HPV疫苗的研制、使用、推广仍面临许多难题,有待广大医疗工作者共同思考和解决.%Cervical cancer is the second\\cause of cancer death in women, many studies confirm that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer has, a very close relationship. In recent years, HPV vaccines get much attention in the fields of cervical cancer prevention and treatment, a variety of new preventive HPV vaccines have been used in some countries. But the development, use and promotion of HPV vaccine are still facing many challenges, so we need think about that and solve the problems together.

  13. 宫颈癌防治用人乳头瘤病毒疫苗的研究进展%Research progress of human papillomavirus vaccine in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏和霞; 张炜

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely related to the development of cervical cancer. The role of HPV vaccine in the prevention and treatment of cervical diseases caused by HPV infection is gradually taken into account. This review summarizes the recent research progress of preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. Quadrivalent HPV (HPV6/11/16/18) vaccine Gardasil, bivalent HPV (HPV16/18) vaccine Cervarix, and a new nine-valent HPV (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine Gardasil 9 have been listed and applied in clinic among the preventive vaccines. However, therapeutic HPV vaccines are still in the research stage and more experiments are needed to improve the immunogenicity and safety for clinical trials in humankind.%高危型人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus, HPV)感染与宫颈癌的发生、发展关系密切。HPV疫苗在HPV感染所致宫颈疾病防治中的作用逐渐受到重视。本文介绍宫颈癌防治用预防性和治疗性HPV疫苗的研究进展。预防性HPV疫苗中的四价HPV(HPV6/11/16/18)疫苗Gardasil、二价HPV(HPV16/18)疫苗Cervarix和九价HPV (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58)疫苗Gardasil 9已获准上市并用于临床。治疗性HPV疫苗均尚处于研究阶段,且免疫原性与安全性仍有待提高。

  14. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  15. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... Girls ages 11 and 12 should receive the HPV vaccine series: The vaccine is given in three shots ...

  17. Investigation of the outpatients cognition of cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus vaccine%门诊患者对宫颈癌筛查、人乳头瘤病毒疫苗认知情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建清

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨门诊患者对宫颈癌筛查、人乳头瘤病毒疫苗的认知情况。方法:收治宫颈癌患者200例作为调查对象,分成A、B两组。两组患者填写调查问卷。结果:两组对感染人乳头瘤病毒的认知度比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。A组愿意接受疫苗66例(66.0%),B组愿意接受疫苗93例(93.0%),两组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:临床对人乳头瘤病毒的了解度相对较低,但接受该疫苗率较高。宫颈癌疾病的筛查、人乳头瘤病毒疫苗需大力推广。%Objective:To explore the outpatients cognition of cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus vaccine. Methods:200 cases of patients with cervical cancer were as the investigation object and were divided into group A and group B.The patients of two groups filled out the questionnaire.Results:There was statistically significant difference of the cognition of human papilloma virus vaccine between groups(P<0.05).66 cases in group A were willing to accept the vaccine(66%),and 93 cases in group B were willing to accept vaccine(93%),with statistically significant difference between groups(P < 0.05). Conclusion:The cognition of cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus vaccine in clinic was relatively low,but the receiving the vaccine rate was higher.The screening of cervical cancer and human papilloma virus vaccine should be promoted vigorously.

  18. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhenlong; Li, Zhong; Jin, Huajun; Qian, Qijun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major leading death causes of diseases. Prevention and treatment of cancer is an important way to decrease the incidence of tumorigenesis and prolong patients' lives. Subversive achievements on cancer immunotherapy have recently been paid much attention after many failures in basic and clinical researches. Based on deep analysis of genomics and proteomics of tumor antigens, a variety of cancer vaccines targeting tumor antigens have been tested in preclinical and human clinical trials. Many therapeutic cancer vaccines alone or combination with other conventional treatments for cancer obtained spectacular efficacy, indicating the tremendously potential application in clinic. With the illustration of underlying mechanisms of cancer immune regulation, valid, controllable, and persistent cancer vaccines will play important roles in cancer treatment, survival extension and relapse and cancer prevention. This chapter mainly summarizes the recent progresses and developments on cancer vaccine research and clinical application, thus exploring the existing obstacles in cancer vaccine research and promoting the efficacy of cancer vaccine. PMID:27240458

  19. Perspectivas para el desarrollo de vacunas e inmunoterapia contra cáncer cervicouterino Perspectives for vaccines and immunotherapy against cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA GUZMÁN-ROJAS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer cervicouterino representa un grave problema de salud pública, debido a la asociación de la neoplasia con el virus del papiloma humano; actualmente se realizan estudios usando estrategias dirigidas a combatir este patógeno, mediante vacunas, que podrían ser de gran utilidad para el control de la progresión de la enfermedad. El estudio tanto de la inmunología humoral como celular ha servido para el desarrollo de vacunas. Así, la utilización de partículas virales sintéticas para el estudio de anticuerpos neutralizantes y el uso de proteínas tempranas virales, entre otras, para la inducción de inmunidad mediada por células, han sido la pauta para realizar estudios que dirijan la respuesta inmune para prevenir la infección celular tanto hacia células infectadas no transformadas como hacia células transformadas viralmente con resultados favorables.Cervical cancer represents a severe public health problem and has been associated to the presence of human papillomavirus. Strategies are presently being tested which target the virus to attempt to control disease progress. Studies on the humoral and cell-mediated immunity of the papillomavirus infection have been useful in the development of a vaccine. Synthetic virus-like particles have been validated as vaccine against several animal papillomaviruses and used to map the seroepidemiology of the human papillomavirus infection, and define neutralizing antibodies. Induction of cell-mediated immunity to HPV early proteins is bound to become a therapeutic approach to HPV infections. Recent advances have centered on directing the immune response to prevent infection, to virus-infected cells and to virally transformed cells, with favourable results.

  20. A cost-utility analysis of adding a bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine to the Irish cervical screening programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, Anne

    2010-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and in Ireland it is the ninth most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Almost 100% of these cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Two newly developed vaccines against HPV infection have become available. This study is a cost-utility analysis of the HPV vaccine in Ireland, and it compares the cost-effectiveness profiles of the two vaccines.

  1. Prevention program of cervical cancer - Enrique Pouey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the first basic objectives in the prevention of cervical cancer in Uruguay. The Papanicolaou test, the biopsia, and the colposcopy are important studies for the early cervical cancer detection

  2. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Azam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hadji, Maryam; Nahvijou, Azin; Mousavi, Azam-Sadat; Pakgohar, Minoo; Khodakarami, Nahid; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rahnamaye Farzami, Marjan; Shahsiah, Reza; Sajedinejhad, Sima; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Nadali, Fatemeh; Rashidian, Arash; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Mogensen, Ole; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods: We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results: From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  4. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  5. Virus and Cervical Cancer: Role and implication: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Raju

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers in women worldwide especially in developing countries. Various etiological factors are described, of which Human papiloma virus (HPV is proved by various molecular epidemiological studies to play a major role. However many co-factors are required and thought to facilitate the action of HPV in cervical carcinogenesis. Here the role of various viruses in cervical cancer and its implication in screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer is highlighted. In-depth knowledge of role of different viruses helps in better screening methods and probably in target therapy / development of an appropriate vaccine. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(3.000: 220-30

  6. Development of a therapeutic vaccination strategy against cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the effi cacy of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and premalignant cervical disease. Cervical cancer is caused by persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of

  7. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M;

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  8. Estimate of the global burden of cervical adenocarcinoma and potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the current burden of adenocarcinoma (ADC) and histology-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution are relevant to predict the future impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines. We estimate the proportion of ADC in invasive cervical cancer, the global number of cases of cervical ADC in 2015, the effect of cervical screening on ADC, the number of ADC cases attributable to high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -45, -31 and -33, and the potential impact of HPV vaccination using a variety of data sources including: GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) Volume IX, cervical screening data from the World Health Organization/Institut Català d'Oncologia Information Centre on HPV and cervical cancer, and published literature. ADC represents 9.4% of all ICC although its contribution varies greatly by country and region. The global crude incidence rate of cervical ADC in 2015 is estimated at 1.6 cases per 100,000 women, and the projected worldwide incidence of ADC in 2015 is 56,805 new cases. Current detection rates for HPV DNA in cervical ADC tend to range around 80–85%; the lower HPV detection rates in cervical ADC versus squamous cell carcinoma may be due to technical artefacts or to misdiagnosis of endometrial carcinoma as cervical ADC. Published data indicate that the five most common HPV types found in cervical ADC are HPV-16 (41.6%), -18 (38.7%), -45 (7.0%), -31 (2.2%) and -33 (2.1%), together comprising 92% of all HPV positive cases. Future projections using 2015 data, assuming 100% vaccine coverage and a true HPV causal relation of 100%, suggest that vaccines providing protection against HPV-16/18 may theoretically prevent 79% of new HPV-related ADC cases (44,702 cases annually) and vaccines additionally providing cross-protection against HPV-31/33/45 may prevent 89% of new HPV-related ADC cases (50,769 cases annually). It is predicted that the currently available HPV vaccines will be highly effective in preventing HPV-related cervical

  9. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    in combination with cytology. Various models and approaches are in the testing phase and appear promising. HPV testing is on the other hand well accepted and recommended as a triage test to select women with equivocal smear results (Pap group III, ASCUS) if a biopsy is required or can be followed up and also for follow-up of patients after cone biopsy. However, vaccination of young girls against oncogenic HPV types which has now become widespread still leaves many questions open for the future because the observation period is too short. There is justified hope that this will become a valuable tool in cervical cancer control and may lead to a substantial reduction in the burden of cervical cancer in the future. However, as the current vaccines on the market do not cover all oncogenic virus types and the effects of vaccination will only be observed after many years, the necessity of a cytological screening will remain unrestricted. Therefore, cervical cytology will remain as the trusted, simple to use, economic and proven, like no other method for early cancer detection, efficient procedure even in the foreseeable future. If carried out with the highest quality demands it will play a central role in the early detection of cervical cancer. PMID:19756616

  10. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... section Overview 2 of 5 sections The Basics: Pap Test What happens during a Pap test? A Pap test takes about 2 to ... steps to help prevent cervical cancer. Schedule your Pap test. Call a doctor’s office or health clinic ...

  11. Knowledge and views of secondary school students in Kuala Lumpur on cervical cancer and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Hesham; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Sawalludin, Nurhidayah

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (pstudents from the art stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:23725172

  12. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  13. Human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam

    2013-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more reliable and sensitive but less specific than Papanicolaou (Pap) testing/cervical cytology for the detection of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV-negative women are at lower risk of cervical cancer than Pap-negative women. In high-resource settings, HPV testing can be used to make cervical cancer prevention programs more efficient by focusing clinical attention on women who have HPV. In lower-resource settings, where Pap testing has not been sustained or widespread, new, lower-cost HPV tests may make cervical cancer screening feasible. PMID:23732037

  14. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  15. Genotypic distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cytology findings in 5906 Thai women undergoing cervical cancer screening programs

    OpenAIRE

    Kantathavorn, Nuttavut; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Sritana, Narongrit; Sricharunrat, Thaniya; Phoolcharoen, Natacha; Auewarakul, Chirayu; Teerayathanakul, Narongchai; Taepisitpong, Chantanee; Saeloo, Siriporn; Sornsamdang, Gaidganok; Udomchaiprasertkul, Wandee; Krongthong, Waraphorn; Arnamwong, Arpaporn

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Thai women. Nevertheless, the preventive strategy such as HPV vaccination program has not been implemented at the national level. This study explored the HPV prevalence and genotypic distribution in a large cohort of Thai women. Methods A hospital-based cervical cancer screening program at Chulabhorn Hospital, Bangkok and a population-based screening program at a rural Pathum Thani Province were conducted using liquid...

  16. Incidence of cervical lesions in Danish women before and after implementation of a national HPV vaccination program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Dehlendorff, Christian; Junge, Jette;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Approximately 7% of cervical cancers and about 50% of high-grade cervical precursor lesions are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18. Denmark introduced the quadrivalent HPV vaccine into the vaccination program for 12-year-old girls in 2009 supplemented by a first catch......+) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) increased in all age groups in 2000-2010. After introduction of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine into the vaccination program, the incidence of atypia+ decreased significantly in women younger than 18 years (EAPC -33.4%; 95% CI -49.6; -12.0) and in 18...... in age groups with high HPV vaccine coverage, indicating an early effect of HPV vaccination....

  17. French women’s knowledge of and attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention and the acceptability of HPV vaccination among those with 14 – 18 year old daughters: a quantitative-qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haesebaert Julie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In France, it is recommended that girls and women aged 14–23 are vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV. However, French women’s knowledge of and attitude towards the vaccine has been little studied. Methods Thirty-nine general practitioners, representative of those working in the large Rhône-Alpes region, offered a self-administered questionnaire on cervical cancer (CC prevention to all 18–65 year-old women who came for consultation during June and July 2008. In addition, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a sample of those who had daughters aged 14–18. Results Of the 1,478 women who completed the questionnaire, only 16.9% mentioned HPV as the cause of CC, even though 76.2% knew of the vaccine. 210 women had daughters aged 14–18, and 32 were interviewed. Compared with the wider group, more of these women were aware of the HPV vaccine (91.4%. 44.8% knew the target population and 17.1% the recommended ages for vaccination. 54.3% favoured HPV vaccination; 37.2% were undecided and only 0.9% were opposed. The main barrier to acceptance was the recency of the vaccine’s introduction and concern about possible side effects (54.9%; 14.1% preferred to rely on their GP’s decision. Factors associated with acceptance of the HPV vaccine were having previously vaccinated a child against pneumococcus (OR=3.28 [1.32-8.11] and knowing the target population for HPV vaccination (OR=2.12 [1.15-3.90]. Knowing the recommended frequency of Papanicolaou smear testing (Pap test screening was associated with lower acceptance (OR=0.32 [0.13-0.82]. Conclusions Few mothers are opposed to HPV vaccination. Factors associated with acceptability were knowledge about the vaccine, acceptance of other vaccines and, unexpectedly, lack of knowledge about the recommended frequency of Pap testing. On multivariate analysis, compliance with recommendations for Pap test screening and socioeconomic factors had no effect on views

  18. Impact of human papillomavirus vaccination on anal cancer incidence in French women.

    OpenAIRE

    Ribassin-Majed, Laureen; Lounes, Rachid; Clémençon, Stéphan

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 are found to be involved in 80% of anal cancers. Two vaccines against HPV infections are currently available, and vaccination policies aim to decrease mainly, incidence of cervical cancers. Moreover, an impact of HPV vaccination on the incidence of anal cancer can also be expected. Our aim was to assess the potential benefits of HPV vaccination on the occurrence of female anal cancer in France. We developed a dynamic model for the heterosexual transmission...

  19. Cervical cancer screening in Belgium and overscreening of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin

    2016-03-01

    There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25812038

  20. HPV与宫颈癌%Hunum papillomavirus and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁玉兰; 梁新芳

    2008-01-01

    It has been approved that the genital human papillomavirus(HPV) infection is one of the leading causes of cervical cancer.Over two-thirds of cervical cancer cases are associated with infection of either HPV16 or HPV18.The success of HPV prophylactic vaccine development is the milestone of cervical cancer prevention of humankind.%人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)的感染已被证实与宫颈癌的发生有密切关系.超过2/3的宫颈癌与HPV16或HPV18感染有关.HPV预防性疫苗研制的成功则是子宫颈癌预防研究的里程碑.

  1. [Cigarette smoking among women attending cervical cancer screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Małgorzata; Sadłecki, Paweł; Marszałek, Andrzej; Grabiec, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is recognized as tobacco-related malignancy. HPV vaccination and introducing screening protocols were found as the best way to decrease cervical cancer related mortality. Besides the cytological screening programs of the uterine cervix smear, nowadays co-factors of carcinogenesis are taken into consideration, also. The aim of our study was to analyse data included in questionnaire of 310 women who underwent cytological examination wi thin cervical cancer screening program in our Department in 2011. There were no differences found between studied groups on rate of oral contraceptive or hormonal therapy use, as well as age and tobacco smoking. However, taking into account education and smoking, there was a significant correlation observed. Patients with higher education level smoked less often. The special attention should be paid to promote smoking cessation in the group of women who finished education on elementary level. PMID:23421059

  2. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  3. Cervical Cancer PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  4. Laparoscopic Fertility Sparing Management of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Facchini; Giuseppina Rapacchia; Giulia Montanari; Paolo Casadio; Gianluigi Pilu; Renato Seracchioli

    2014-01-01

    Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC) for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery ...

  5. Prophylactic HPV vaccination and anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Elizabeth A; Chigurupati, Nagasudha L; Fung, Leslie

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing. High risk populations include HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV-negative MSM, HIV-positive women and heterosexual men and women with a history of cervical cancer. HPV has been detected in over 90% of anal cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine has been demonstrated to prevent vaccine associated persistent anal HPV infections as well as anal intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2-3 (AIN2+) in young MSM not previously infected. A retrospective analysis also suggests that qHPV vaccination of older MSM treated for AIN2+ may significantly decrease the risk of recurrence of the AIN2+. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. Thus, the 9-valent HPV vaccine, when administered to boys and girls prior to the onset of sexual activity, should effectively prevent anal cancer. PMID:26933898

  6. Immunotherapy for human papillomavirus-associated disease and cervical cancer: review of clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Jong; Yang, Andrew; Wu, T C; Hung, Chien Fu

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most lethal women's cancer worldwide. Current treatments against cervical cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and anti-angiogenic agents. However, despite the various treatments utilized for the treatment of cervical cancer, its disease burden remains a global issue. Persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an essential step of pathogenesis of cervical cancer and many other cancers, and nation-wide HPV screening as well as preventative HPV vaccination program have been introduced globally. However, even though the commercially available prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil (Merck) and Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline), are effective in blocking the entry of HPV into the epithelium of cervix through generation of HPV-specific neutralizing antibodies, they cannot eliminate the pre-existing HPV infection. For these reason, other immunotherapeutic options against HPV-associated diseases, including therapeutic vaccines, have been continuously explored. Therapeutic HPV vaccines enhance cell-mediated immunity targeting HPV E6 and E7 antigens by modulating primarily dendritic cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential of immune checkpoint inhibitors that have recently been adopted and tested for their treatment efficacy against HPV-induced cervical cancer. PMID:27329199

  7. Dissecting Cancer Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Couzin; 丁东

    2004-01-01

    @@ If there's one thing cancer vaccine developers would like to know, it's why only a handful of patients respond strongly to their inventions. Now at an immunology② meeting here, a team of scientists reported that a set of patients with metastatic melanoma③ may be revealing an answer to that mysterious question.

  8. The potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Priyanka Dwarampudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of invasive cervical carcinoma several molecular events were reported and these molecular events resulting in multiple genetic abnormalities. In order to control these tumors multiple molecular therapeutic targets are needed with different molecular mechanisms. Unfortunately, these molecular targets were in early stages of development. Because of less degree of success of conventional therapeutics for late stages of cervical cancer and lowering of prognosis of patients there is an increase in interest for the development of potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer. This review article emphasizes the current molecular targeted agents; with special attention to estrogen receptors for human papilloma virus infected cervical cancer.

  9. The Participation of HPV-Vaccinated Women in a National Cervical Screening Program: Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Herweijer

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised that HPV-vaccination might affect women's cervical screening behavior. We therefore investigated the association between opportunistic HPV-vaccination and attendance after invitation to cervical screening.A cohort of all women resident in Sweden, born 1977-1987 (N=629,703, and invited to cervical screening, was followed October 2006 - December 2012. Invitations to screening were identified via the National Quality Register for Cervical Cancer Prevention, as was the primary outcome of a registered smear. Vaccination status was obtained from two nationwide health data registers. Hazard ratios (HR were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for age, education level and income (HRadj. Women were individually followed for up to 6 years, of which the first and second screening rounds were analyzed separately.Screening attendance after three years of follow-up was 86% in vaccinated women (N=4,897 and 75% in unvaccinated women (N=625,804. The crude HR of screening attendance in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women was 1.31 (95% CI 1.27-1.35 in the first screening round. Adjustment for education and income reduced but did not erase this difference (HRadj=1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.13. In the second screening round, attendance was likewise higher in HPV-vaccinated women (crude HR=1.26, 95% CI 1.21-1.32; HRadj=1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20.HPV-vaccination is so far associated with equal or higher attendance to cervical screening in Sweden in a cohort of opportunistically vaccinated young women. Most but not all of the difference in attendance was explained by socioeconomic differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. HPV vaccine effectiveness studies should consider screening attendance of HPV-vaccinated women when assessing incidence of screen-detected cervical lesions.

  10. How Are Cervical Cancers and Pre-Cancers Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some find disturbing. Some places provide headphones with music to block this noise out. A mild sedative ... in Cervical Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms ...

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention. No woman should die of cervical cancer. Doctors, nurses, and health systems can: Help women understand what ... Cancer Early Detection Program , Title X Family Planning Doctors, nurses, and health systems can Help women understand which ...

  12. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D;

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region....... There are only few comprehensive studies examining the epidemiology of cervical cancer in this region and no published data have hitherto described the current cervical cancer prevention initiatives in this region....... is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines...

  13. Prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and 18 in Vietnam: implications for vaccine campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Lan TH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Expanded Program on Immunization currently considers offering Human Papilomavirus vaccine on a routine basis in Vietnam. However, as the current available vaccine can prevent only two types HPV 16 and 18, before implementing a large-scale vaccine campaign we need information about the prevalence of infection with only HPV 16 and 18 in Viet Nam. This study was done in 5 large cities in Vietnam to estimate the prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 infections and to explore the distribution of other high risk types of HPV among married women in these provinces. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design with multistage sampling. The sample size included 4500 married women in two rounds (aged ranged from 18-69 years old, median age: 40 year old. Participant were randomly selected, interviewed and given gynaecological examinations. HPV infection status (by real-time PCR kit using TaqMan probe and HPV genotyping test (by Reverse dot blot were done for all participants. Results The prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and/or 18 among married women in this study ranged from 3.1% to 7.4%. Many positive HPV cases (ranged from 24.5% to 56.8% were infected with other type of high risk HPV which can lead to cervical cancer and cannot prevented by currently available vaccines. In addition to HPV 16 and/or 18, most common types of high risk HPV were types 58, 52, 35 and 45. Awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines was still low in the study samples. Discussion While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. Vaccination does not protected against all type of high risk HPV types. Future vaccine campaigns should openly disclose this information to women receiving vaccines. Conclusion High prevalence of infection with HPV high risk types was observed in this study. As HPV infection has a high correlation with cervical cancer, this

  14. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Prophylactic Human Papillomavirus Vaccination on Prevention of Cervical Cancer%人乳头瘤病毒疫苗对宫颈癌预防作用的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐青萍; 罗小婉; 甘玉杰; 熊小英

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨接种人乳头瘤病毒疫苗在预防宫颈癌中的作用.方法 通过计算机检索Medline、EMBASE、CENTRAL、中国生物医学文献数据库系统(CBM)、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、万方数据库等,收集国内外公开发表的关于人乳头瘤病毒疫苗在预防宫颈癌中作用的随机对照研究(RCT).应用统计软件Stata 11.0进行数据分析.研究人群为成年女性;干预措施为预防性接种人乳头瘤病毒疫苗;对照组为安慰剂;结局指标为宫颈上皮内瘤样变和宫颈癌的发生率,并以相对危险度(RR)及相应的95%可信区间(95%CI)作为效应指标对结局进行比较.Q统计量的I2检验来检测各研究间的统计学异质性.双侧以P<0.05为各研究间存在明显的异质性.采用倒漏斗图对发表偏倚进行直观检测.结果 最终纳入分析的文献有7篇,共41 572例受试者,其中接种疫苗组20 769例、对照组20 803例.合并分析的结果显示:预防性接种人乳头瘤病毒疫苗可以使宫颈上皮内瘤样变的发生率降低95%[RR=0.15,95%CI(0.06,0.38),Z=4.00,P=0.000];使Ⅱ/Ⅲ级宫颈上皮内瘤样变、原位癌的发生率降低67%[RR=0.33,95%CI(0.19,0.59),Z=3.76,P=0.000].结论 接种人乳头瘤病毒疫苗可以明显降低宫颈上皮内瘤样变及宫颈癌的发生率.%Objective To analyze the effects of human papillomavirus vaccine on the prevention of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia ( CIN ) and cervical cancer. Methods Through searching Medline EMBSE, CENTRAL ( the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials ), CBM, CNKI, WANFANG data, and so on, we collected both domestic and oversea randomized controled trials ( RCTs ) on the preventive effects of human papillomavirus vaccine on CIN and cervical cancer. Data was analysised using statistic software Stata11.0. Subjects enrolled in the study were females aged 18 or over; prophylactic vaccination of human papillomavirus vaccine were performed to prevent CIN and cervical

  15. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    A markedly increased risk of cervical cancer is known in women immunosuppressed due to AIDS or therapy following organ transplantation. The aim of this review is to determine the association between other conditions affecting the immune system and the risk of cervical cancer. Patients with end......-stage renal disease seem to be at an increased risk of cervical cancer. A higher risk of cervical precancerous lesions was found in patients with some autoimmune diseases; particularly if treated with immunosuppressants. Among behavioral factors weakening the immune system, smoking appeared to strongly...... increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...

  16. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  17. Human papillomavirus research on the prevention, diagnosis, and prognosis of cervical cancer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Angel; Huang, Huei-Jean; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is third in incidence and fourth in mortality among cancers of women worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, if not sufficient, to cause nearly 100% of cervical cancers. HPV testing is useful in primary screening for cervical neoplasms. The value of HPV detection or genotyping is potentially useful in triage of borderline or low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, follow-up after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, assessment of prognosis and treatment planning for invasive cervical cancer. Studies from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital have defined the genotype distribution of cervical cancer in Taiwan and confirmed the independent prognostic value of the HPV genotype in cervical cancer. The cost-effectiveness of using HPV testing in prevention and management of cervical neoplasms depends on the medical and public health infrastructure of the individual country. The population-based HPV prevalence and genotype distribution as well as longitudinal follow-up studies have established strong support for incorporating HPV testing with cervical cytology and for future comparisons of HPV epidemiology before and after implementation of HPV prophylactic vaccines in Taiwan. Future directions in HPV research are discussed. PMID:22913856

  18. HPV genotype distribution in older Danish women undergoing surgery due to cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Mejlgaard, Else; Gravitt, Patti;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 in cervical cancer may decrease with age. This study aimed to describe the HPV genotype distribution in Danish women aged 55 years or older with cervical cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we identified 153...... cases of cervical cancer diagnosed at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark (1990-2012) and Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark (2007-2012). All women had surgery to treat the disease. HPV genotyping was performed on cervical cancer tissue using the INNO LiPA HPV genotyping extra (Fujirebio......, Belgium) at the Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. The main outcome was to estimate the age-specific prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes included in the bivalent, the quadrivalent, and the nonavalent vaccine. RESULTS: Of 121 cases of cervical cancer included in this study, 113...

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  20. FDA Approves Two HPV Vaccines: Cervarix for Girls, Gardasil for Boys | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FDA has approved a second vaccine to prevent cervical cancer and cervical precancers, the vaccine’s manufacturer, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), announced last week. The approval is based on data from a large clinical trial showing that the vaccine, Cervarix, prevented precancerous lesions in 93 percent of those who received the full vaccine sequence of three injections over 6 months. |

  1. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor Hugo; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Salazar-León, Jonathan; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%-95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development. PMID:23144564

  2. New paradigms in cervical cancer prevention: opportunities and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Rossi Paolo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing for the DNA of high-risk types of papilloma virus (HPV is more sensitive than cytology in detecting pre-cancerous lesions. One of the main advantages will be the possibility of applying prolonged screening intervals. However adequate screening protocols (age of start and stop, screening intervals, management of HPV positive women need to be applied in order to avoid over-referral to colposcopy and over-treatment and to maintain sustainable costs. Further follow-up of running trials and research on molecular markers will better define these parameters. The new situation will require organised screening programmes with rigorous protocols and monitoring. This will be even more needed when women vaccinated for HPV 16 and 18 will be screened. Research on how to best screen vaccinated women is a priority. This paper proposes an overview of the plausible impact of new technologies in cervical cancer screening in the near future and in the vaccinated cohorts.

  3. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C;

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  4. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed

  5. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Allie K. [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wise-Draper, Trisha M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wells, Susanne I., E-mail: Susanne.Wells@cchmc.org [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed.

  6. [Induction chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkhov, K Yu; Nechushkina, V M; Kuznetsov, V V

    2015-01-01

    The main methods of treatment for cervical cancer are surgery, radiotherapy or their combination. During past two decades chemotherapy are increasingly being used not only in patients with disseminated forms of this disease but also in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy or as induction therapy. Possibilities of adjuvant chemotherapy for cervical cancer are being studied. According to A.D.Kaprin and V.V. Starinskiy in 2013 in Russia, 32% of patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer underwent only radiation therapy, 32%--combined or complex treatment, 27.3%--only surgery, and just 8.7%--chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26087600

  7. Decreased cervical cancer cell adhesion on nanotubular titanium for the treatment of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Crear J; Kummer KM; Webster TJ

    2013-01-01

    Jara Crear, Kim M Kummer, Thomas J Webster School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Cervical cancer can be treated by surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. Titanium biomaterials have been suggested as a tool to help in the local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiation to cervical cancer sites. However, current titanium medical devices used for treating cervical cancer do not by themselves possess any anticancer properties; such devices...

  8. Radiosensitizers in cervical cancer. Cisplatin and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health burden worldwide. Globally, the majority of cancers are locally advanced at diagnosis; hence, radiation remains the most frequently used therapeutical modality. Currently, the value of adding cisplatin or cisplatin-based chemotherapy to radiation for treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is strongly supported by randomized studies and meta-analyses. Nevertheless, despite these significant achievements, therapeutic results are far from optimal; thus, novel therapies need to be assayed. A strategy currently being investigated is the use of newer radiosensitizers alone or in combination with platinum compounds. In the present work, we present preclinical information on known and newer cytotoxic agents as radiosensitizers on cervical cancer models, as well as the clinical information emanating from early phase trials that incorporate them to the cervical cancer management. In addition, we present the perspectives on the combined approach of radiation therapy and molecular target-based drugs with proven radiosensitizing capacity

  9. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective....... Nevertheless, little has been reported about long-term cancer trends in Greenland. Our aim was to describe and interpret the incidence of cervical cancer from 1950 to 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for articles reporting the incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland. We...... supplemented this with data for 1980-2009 obtained from the Chief Medical Officer of Greenland. RESULTS: Incidence of cervical cancer was around 10 per 100 000 women (age-standardised, world population, ASW) in the 1950s, 30 per 100 000 in the 1960s, and in the 1980s around 60 per 100 000. From 1985 onwards...

  10. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  11. Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Literacy and Vaccine Completion among Asian American Pacific Islander Undergraduates: Implications for Cancer Health Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa; Vang, Suzanne; DeWolfe, Jessica; Kim, Nam Keol; Lee, Do Kyung; Yeung, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women need to be addressed, particularly given the high incidence of cervical cancer in this population. The current study aims to investigate predictors of HPV vaccination in young AAPI and non-Latina white (NLW) women. Methods: A…

  12. Laparoscopic Fertility Sparing Management of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Facchini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach associated with less pain and faster recovery, feasible even in obese women.

  13. Laparoscopic fertility sparing management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Chiara; Rapacchia, Giuseppina; Montanari, Giulia; Casadio, Paolo; Pilu, Gianluigi; Seracchioli, Renato

    2014-04-01

    Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC) for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach associated with less pain and faster recovery, feasible even in obese women. PMID:24696772

  14. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  15. Cervical Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cervical Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cervicalcancer.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  16. Second Primary Cancer after Diagnosis and Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Myong Cheol; Won, Young-Joo; Lim, Jiwon; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Seo, Sang Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Lee, Eun Sook; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to investigate the incidence and survival outcomes of second primary cancers after the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry between 1993 and 2010 were reviewed and analyzed. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of second primary cancers among women with cervical cancer were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed for cervical cancer patients with or without a second primary cancer. Results Among 72,805 women with cervical cancer, 2,678 (3.68%) developed a second primary cancer within a mean follow-up period of 7.34 years. The overall SIR for a second cancer was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.12). The most frequent sites of second primary cancers were the vagina, bone and joints, vulva, anus, bladder, lung and bronchus, corpus uteri, and esophagus. However, the incidence rates of four second primary cancers (breast, rectum, liver, and brain) were decreased. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 78.3% and 72.7% in all women with cervical cancer, and for women with a second primary cancer, these rates were 83.2% and 65.5% from the onset of cervical cancer and 54.9% and 46.7% from the onset of the second primary cancer, respectively. Conclusion The incidence rates of second primary cancers were increased in women with cervical cancer compared to the general population, with the exception of four decreasing cancers. The 10-year overall survival rates were decreased in cervical cancer patients with a second primary cancer. PMID:26194366

  17. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual contact. There are several types of HPV. ...

  18. Cervical cancer risk factors among HIV-infected Nigerian women

    OpenAIRE

    Ononogbu, Uzoma; Almujtaba, Maryam; Modibbo, Fatima; Lawal, Ishak; Offiong, Richard; Olaniyan, Olayinka; Dakum, Patrick; Spiegelman, Donna; Blattner, William; Adebamowo, Clement

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, and in Nigeria it is the second most common female cancer. Cervical cancer is an AIDS-defining cancer; however, HIV only marginally increases the risk of cervical pre-cancer and cancer. In this study, we examine the risk factors for cervical pre-cancer and cancer among HIV-positive women screened for cervical cancer at two medical institutions in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 2,501 HIV-positive women part...

  19. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  20. CERVICAL CANCER – THE PRESENT SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Recent advances in cervical cancer management with well defined indications of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have resulted in significant increase in survivors with better QOL. Ongoing recent trials pertaining to further refinement of treatment protocols to make it more cure specific and less morbid will bring more changes in the present scene. This article is a concise review of salient features regarding cervical cancer screening diag nosis & management at present.

  1. Studying the Physical Function and Quality of Life Before and After Surgery in Patients With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lymphedema; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IB1 Cervical Cancer

  2. Comparing human papillomavirus prevalences in women with normal cytology or invasive cervical cancer to rank genotypes according to their oncogenic potential: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Erik; Pons-Salort, Margarita; Favre, Michel; Heard, Isabelle; Delarocque-Astagneau, Elisabeth; Guillemot, Didier; Thiébaut, Anne,

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundMucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. Vaccine and non-vaccine genotype prevalences may change after vaccine introduction. Therefore, it appears essential to rank HPV genotypes according to their oncogenic potential for invasive cervical cancer, independently of their respective prevalences.MethodsWe performed meta-analyses of published observational studies and estimated pooled odds ratios with random-effects models for 32 HPV genotype...

  3. 9-Valent HPV vaccine for cancers, pre-cancers and genital warts related to HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Velicer, Christine; Luxembourg, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancer cases as well as a substantial proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers, making it responsible for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden. The first-generation HPV vaccines that is, quadrivalent HPV type 6/11/16/18 vaccine and bivalent HPV type 16/18 vaccine were licensed in 2006 and 2007, respectively. A second-generation 9-valent HPV type 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine with broader cancer coverage was initiated even before the first vaccines were approved. By preventing HPV infection and disease due to HPV31/33/45/52/58, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to increase prevention of cervical cancer from 70 to 90%. In addition, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Overall, the 9vHPV vaccine addresses a significant unmet medical need, although further health economics and implementation research is needed. PMID:26366475

  4. Vaccines against human papillomavirus and perspectives for the prevention and control of cervical cancer Vacunas contra virus del papiloma humano y perspectivas para la prevención y el control del cáncer cervicouterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García-Carrancá

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, "persistent" infections by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV are considered necessary for developing cervical cancer. Producing efficient vaccines against these viruses may eventually lead to a great reduction in incidence and mortality rates of this cancer. In the case of HPV, the production of traditional vaccines usually based in dead or attenuated viruses is not possible due in part to the lack of systems where large quantities of viral particles could be obtained. Fortunately, the expression of the late L1 protein alone, or in combination with L2, leads to the generation of structures resembling true virions that have been called virus-like particles (VLPs and constitute excellent candidates as prophylactic vaccines. VLPs have shown to be very immunogenic, and have prevented development of natural or challenged infections in both animal systems and humans. Recently, HPV16 VLPs were shown to be very efficient to prevent the development of "persistent" infections, as determined by PCR assays, in a large group of vaccinated women. Therapeutic vaccines, on the other hand, are expected to have an impact on advanced lesions and residual illness, by taking advantaje of the fact that early E6 and E7 genes are thought to be constitutively expressed in cervical tumors and precursor lesions. Finally, DNA-based vaccines could represent a useful alternative for preventing infections by genital HPV.Actualmente, las infecciones "persistentes" por algunos tipos del virus del papiloma humano se consideran como necesarias para desarrollar cáncer cervicouterino. Por ello, el desarrollo de vacunas eficientes contra estos virus se ha considerado de suma importancia para poder eventualmente ayudar a controlar esta enfermedad, en países donde los programas de detección oportuna no han dado aún los resultados deseados. En el caso de estos virus no es posible el desarrollo de vacunas tradicionales, las cuales están basadas generalmente en el

  5. Efficacy and safety of a bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in prevention of cervical cancer and HPV-related infection:a meta analysis%二价HPV疫苗预防宫颈癌及HPV相关感染的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋云焕; 周自广

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价二价HPV疫苗预防宫颈癌及HPV相关感染的有效性与安全性.方法 计算机检索Cochrane图书馆、MEDLINE、EMBASE、CBM,纳入所有关于二价HPV疫苗的随机对照试验,由两名研究者独立提取数据并进行方法学质量评估.数据的统计分析采用Cochrane协作网提供的RevMan 4.2软件进行.结果共纳入6个随机对照试验(RCT),包括25 007例女性.meta分析结果显示:与安慰剂相比,预防性二价疫苗明显降低了与HPV16,18型相关的Ⅱ/Ⅲ级宫颈上皮内瘤变、原位癌及相关类型HPV持续感染的发病率.主要的副作用较轻微,严重的副作用在疫苗组和安慰剂组保持均衡.结论二价HPV疫苗对于预防相关类型HPV所导致宫颈癌是安全和有效的.%Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of prophylactic bivalent human papillomavirus ( HPV ) vaccine in the prevention of cervical cancer and infection associated with vaccine-type HPV. Methods By searching the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EM-BASE and CBM ,the randomized controlled trials ( RCTs ) about prophylactic bivalent HPV vaccine in the prevention of cervical cancer and infection associated with vaccine-type HPV were included. Two authors independently reviewed the data and assessed the quality. The data were input and analyzed by RevMan4. 2 software. Results Six randomized controlled trials ( RCT ) involving 25 007 women met the inclusion criteria. The meta analysis showed that prophylactic HPV vaccine was associated with a reduction in the incidence of grade Ⅱ/Ⅲ cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, carcinoma in situ and persistent infection caused by vaccine-type HPV strains compared with the placebo. The majority of adverse events was minor. The incidence of serious adverse events was balanced between the vaccine and the placebo. Conclusion Bivalent HPV vaccine is effective and safe in the prevention of cervical cancer associated with vaccine-type HPV.

  6. Use of human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-infected men for the prevention of anal dysplasia and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachay, Edward R; Mathews, Wm Christopher

    2014-01-01

    There are two commercially available vaccines licensed worldwide for the prevention of cervical cancer and other human papillomavirus-associated cancers such as anal cancer. However, only two countries have implemented healthcare programs that include human papillomavirus vaccination for boys and men. Although most of the human papillomavirus-related cancers in the world are attributable to cervical cancer, in developed countries anal cancer accounts for a larger proportion of human papillomavirus-related cancers. Most cases of anal cancer occur in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. In this review, we discuss the burden of human papillomavirus-related cancers in men, the most plausible immune mechanism associated with the high efficacy of the human papillomavirus vaccine, and address key issues of vaccination for HIV-infected men. Finally, we review cost-effectiveness considerations for the use of the vaccine in boys and recent guidelines for vaccination in boys, with attention to HIV-infected men. PMID:24818632

  7. Cancer vaccine--Antigenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Antigenics is developing a therapeutic cancer vaccine based on heat-shock proteins (HSPs). The vaccine [HSPPC-96, Oncophage] is in a pivotal phase III clinical trial for renal cancer at 80 clinical sites worldwide. The trial is enrolling at least 500 patients who are randomised to receive surgical removal of the primary tumour followed by out-patient treatment with Oncophage((R)) or surgery only. This study was initiated on the basis of results from a pilot phase I/II study and preliminary results from a phase II study in patients with renal cell cancer. In October 2001, Oncophage was designated as a fast-track product by the Food and Drug Administration in the US for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Oncophage is in phase I/II trials in Italy for colorectal cancer (30 patients) and melanoma. The trials in Italy are being conducted at the Istituto dei Tumouri, Milan (in association with Sigma-Tau). Preliminary data from the phase II trial for melanoma was presented at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference in Florida, USA, in October 2001. Oncophage is also in a phase I/II (42 patients) and a phase II trial (84 patients) in the US for renal cell cancer, a phase II trial in the US for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (35 patients), a phase II trial in the US for sarcoma (20-35 patients), a phase I/II trial in the US for melanoma (36 patients), and phase I/II trials in Germany for gastric (30 patients) and pancreatic cancers. A pilot phase I trial in patients with pancreatic cancer began in the US in 1997 with 5 patients enrolled. In November 2000, Antigenics announced that this trial had been expanded to a phase I/II study which would now include survival as an endpoint and would enroll 5 additional patients. The US trials are being performed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The trials in Germany are being carried out at Johannes Gutenberg-University Hospital, Mainz. Oncophage is an autologous vaccine consisting of

  8. Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer But study found just 30 minutes of exercise ... who are sedentary appear more likely to develop cervical cancer, but just 30 minutes of exercise each week ...

  9. Toe metastasis: A rare pattern of cervical cancer spread ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Marcia A.; Conturie, Charlotte L.; Lee, Cassie M.; Matsuo, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Highlights • Toe metastasis is a rare pattern of cervical cancer spread. • Enlarged erythematous toe is an important sign suggesting bone metastasis. • Toe metastasis represents a grave prognostic indicator of cervical cancer.

  10. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Cervical Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after treatment for cervical cancer? What should you ask your doctor about cervical cancer? It is important ... your work schedule. Or you may want to ask about second opinions or about clinical trial options. ...

  11. The potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    L Priyanka Dwarampudi; Gowthamarajan, K.; Shanmugam, R; Madhuri, K.; Nilani, P.; M N Satish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In case of invasive cervical carcinoma several molecular events were reported and these molecular events resulting in multiple genetic abnormalities. In order to control these tumors multiple molecular therapeutic targets are needed with different molecular mechanisms. Unfortunately, these molecular targets were in early stages of development. Because of less degree of success of conventional therapeutics for late stages of cervical cancer and lowering of prognosis of patients there is an inc...

  12. Progress of cervical cancer genetic-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although cervical cancer gene therapy has a distance to clinical use due to some problems, the combinating of irradiation and gene therapy holds much promise in cancer therapy based on the traditional radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. This review focuses on the group of radiogenic therapy that are either. (authors)

  13. Challenges for cancer vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi, Z; Man, S

    2006-10-01

    The first generation of human cancer vaccines has been tested in phase III clinical trials, but only a few of these have demonstrated sufficient efficacy to be licensed for clinical use. This article reviews some of the mechanisms that could contribute to these limited clinical responses, and highlights the challenges faced for development of future vaccines. PMID:16979786

  14. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna;

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  15. KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE REGARDING PREVENTION OF CERVICAL CANCER AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE OF TRIPURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer, common among Indian women is now considered as preventable. OBJECTIVES: To find out the knowledge regarding prevention of cervical cancer, practices towards its prevention and its determinants among women attending a tertiary care centre of Tripura. METHODOLOGY: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted during 8th April 2014 to 17th May 2014 using a pretested structured interview schedule among 289 women attending the Gynaecology O.P.D of AGMC & G.B.P Hospital recruited by systematic random sampling. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data entry and analysis were performed in computer using SPSS 15. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used for presenting data and testing the significance. RESULTS: Cervical cancer was known as preventable to 61.9 % of the study women. About 59.2% women knew multiple sex partners, 42.6% knew exposure to sexual intercourse at early life, 72.7 % knew poor sexual hygiene and 26.0% knew heredity as the risk factors for getting cervical cancer. Approximately 16.3% women knew about the vaccine against cervical cancer, 59.86% knew it as a treatable disease and 15.57% have heard about PAP smear test. Only 10.38 % of the study women underwent PAP smear test and 0.3 % were vaccinated against cervical cancer. Regarding cervical cancer, 29.41% women knew either by studying or from the media, 22.49% from friends and relatives and only 16.26% from health workers whereas 31.84% were unaware. Literacy of the women was found to be significantly associated with their awareness and practices regarding prevention of cervical cancer. CONCLUSION: Knowledge regarding possibility of early diagnosis, preventability and treatability of cervical cancer is found to be low among women. Role of health workers for making people aware was inadequate; hence IEC and BCC activities need acceleration for awareness generation and motivation for undergoing vaccination and screening for cervical cancer.

  16. Diagnosis of cervical cancer with transvaginal color Doppler sonography

    OpenAIRE

    Li-bo DENG; Wei ZHOU; Chang, Shu-Fang; Ming-jie LIN

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the imaging features of cervical cancer by transvaginal color Doppler sonography(TVCS),and evaluate the diagnostic value of TVCS.Methods A hundred and thirty cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN) grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ and cervical cancer,diagnosed by Thinprep cytologic test(TCT),cervical biopsy and pathological examination,received TVCS examination.The image characters and color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI) were collected and analyzed.Another 41 cases with normal cervice...

  17. Promoting Quality of Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, S.; Madsen, E.; Porterfield, D.; Varghese, B.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening is highly cost effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable in higher and lower income settings across the world. According to the World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum, screening for cervical cancer is an evidence-based best buy prevention intervention (1). However, to be effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality, screenin...

  18. Diagnosis of cervical cancer with transvaginal color Doppler sonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-bo DENG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the imaging features of cervical cancer by transvaginal color Doppler sonography(TVCS,and evaluate the diagnostic value of TVCS.Methods A hundred and thirty cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ and cervical cancer,diagnosed by Thinprep cytologic test(TCT,cervical biopsy and pathological examination,received TVCS examination.The image characters and color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI were collected and analyzed.Another 41 cases with normal cervices as determined by inspection and cytological examination were involved as control.Results In order of normal cervix,CIN,cancer in situ and cervical cancer,the cervical diameter showed a tendency of increase,also with an increase incidence of low-level echo focus in cervix.As a specific image of cervical cancer,the low level echo focus occurred only in cervical cancer with a specificity of 100%.The absence of mucosal line in cervical canal was a specific character of stage Ⅱ cervical cancer with a specificity of 100%.CDFI and resistance index(RI revealed that the local blood flow was more abundant in invasive cancer than in CIN and cancer in situ,and significant difference was found between stage Ⅰ and stage Ⅱ cervical cancer(P < 0.05.The sensitivity and specificity of enlarged cervical diameters in diagnosis of cervical cancer were 89.1% and 82.8%.The specificity of cervical low level echo focus in diagnosis of cervical cancer and invasive cervical cancer were 100% and 94.8%,respectively.The specificity of abundant blood flow in dendritic form in diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer was 100%.Conclusions Invasive cervical cancer may present several specific features in TVCS images.TVCS examination is of high reliability in diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer,but is not so reliable in diagnosing precancerous lesion and preinvasive cancer.Combined with other auxiliary examinations,TVCS could be considered as one of the methods to diagnose cervical

  19. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    2004-01-01

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying ep

  20. New molecular targets against cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duenas-Gonzalez A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso Duenas-Gonzalez,1,2 Alberto Serrano-Olvera,3 Lucely Cetina,4 Jaime Coronel4 1Unit of Biomedical Research in Cancer, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas UNAM/Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City, 2ISSEMyM Cancer Center, Toluca, 3Medical Oncology Service, ABC Medical Center, Mexico City, 4Division of Clinical Research, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City, Mexico On behalf of the Tumor Study Group Abstract: Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women. Major advances but still insufficient achievements in the treatment of locally advanced and high-risk early stage patients have occurred in the last decade with the incorporation of concurrent cisplatin with radiation and, lately, gemcitabine added to cisplatin chemoradiation. Despite a number of clinical studies incorporating molecular-targeted therapy as radiosensitizers being in progress, so far, only antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab added to cisplatin chemoradiation has demonstrated safety and shown encouraging results in a Phase II study. In advanced disease, cisplatin doublets do not have a great impact on the natural history of the disease with median survival rates not exceeding 13 months. The first Phase III study of bevacizumab, added to cisplatin or a non-cisplatin-containing doublet, showed significant increase in both overall survival and progression-free survival. Further studies are needed before bevacizumab plus chemotherapy can be considered the standard of care for advanced disease. Characterization of the mutational landscape of cervical cancer has already been initiated, indicating that, for now, few of these targetable alterations match with available agents. Progress in both the mutational landscape knowledge and developments of novel targeted therapies may result in more effective and individualized treatments for cervical cancer. The potential efficacy of

  1. Cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: Epidemiological evidence and perspectives for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ NUBIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem, as it is the second most common cancer in women world-wide after breast cancer. About 80% of the half a million cases estimated to occur annually in the world, occur in developing countries. The epidemiological evidence linking human papillomavirus (HPV to cervical cancer is reviewed. It is concluded that over 90% of cervical cancers can be attributed to certain HPV types. HPV 16 accounts for the highest proportion (50% followed by HPV 18 (12%, HPV 45 (8% and HPV 31 (5%. The associations with these HPV types are very b and consistent with odds ratios over 15 in all case-control studies in high- and low-risk countries for cervical cancer. However, HPV is not a sufficient cause of this malignancy; certain cofactors are necessary for a proportion of HPV persistent infections to eventually progress to cancer. These include host factors such as histocompatibilidad types and immunological response, hormonal influences and infections with other sexually transmitted agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition, results from our studies carried out in Spain and Colombia support the hypothesis that male carriers of HPV play an important role in the development of cervical cancer in their wives. The recognition of the central role of HPV in cervical cancer has far-reaching implications for the primary and secondary prevention of this malignancy. Prophylactic and therapeutic HPV vaccines are now under development and HPV typing is being integrated into screening programmes in pilot studies in a few developed countries. In developing countries, well conducted conventional screening programmes remain the best approach for the control of cervical cancer until a safe and efficient HPV vaccine can be used in the general population.

  2. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-12

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.  Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  3. Sociodemographic and reproductive risk factors in cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tajinder Kaur; Shaveta Garg; Sunita Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. In India, cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women followed by breast cancer. A numbers of risk factors reproductive as well as sociodemographic have been widely studied for cervical cancer. The countries where universal screening is restricted because of various reasons economical, lack of resources etcetera, a modified screening procedure which is targeted on the high risk population can help solve the pro...

  4. Effects of irradiation for cervical cancer on subsequent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research suggests that cervical cancer patients have a lower risk of breast cancer than women in the general population. Possible explanations include opposing risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, the effect of irradiation used to treat cervical cancer, or both. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between irradiation for cervical cancer and the subsequent development of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between radiation to the ovarian area and the risk of breast cancer in this study. However, the results were consistent with a 19% reduction in risk for women irradiated for cervical cancer when compared to nonirradiated women. In a dose-response analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend of decreased risk of breast cancer with increased radiation up to 1800 rad. There was no consistent pattern for higher doses. The trend, although nonsignificant, differed by age. Women <60 years of age at irradiation were generally at a lower risk of breast cancer than nonirradiated women. Women over 59 years were at an increased risk. There are some potentially important findings from this study which might influence medical care. These should be examined in the larger International Radiation Study

  5. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in Invasive Cervical Cancer in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Asif; Serrano, Beatriz; Rasheed, Farah; Tous, Sara; Hassan, Mariam; Clavero, Omar; Raza, Muhammad; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Pakistan. We aim to provide specific information on HPV-type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the country. A total of 280 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were consecutively selected from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (Lahore, Pakistan). HPV-DNA was detected by SPF10 broad-spectrum PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by LiPA25. HPV-DNA prevalence was 87.5% (95%CI: 83.0-91.1), with 96.1% of cases histologically classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the HPV-DNA positive cases presented single infections (95.9%). HPV16 was the most common type followed by HPV18 and 45. Among HPV-DNA positive, a significantly higher contribution of HPV16/18 was detected in Pakistan (78.4%; 72.7-83.3), compared to Asia (71.6%; 69.9-73.4) and worldwide (70.8%; 69.9-71.8) and a lower contribution of HPVs31/33/45/52/58 (11.1%; 7.9-15.7 vs. 19.8%; 18.3-21.3 and 18.5%; 17.7-19.3). HPV18 or HPV45 positive ICC cases were significantly younger than cases infected by HPV16 (mean age: 43.3, 44.4, 50.5 years, respectively). A routine cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination program does not yet exist in Pakistan; however, the country could benefit from national integrated efforts for cervical cancer prevention and control. Calculated estimations based on our results show that current HPV vaccine could potentially prevent new ICC cases. PMID:27483322

  6. Vacunas terapéuticas recombinantes contra el cáncer del cuello uterino Recombinant therapeutic vaccines against invasive cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME BERUMEN

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante el desarrollo del cáncer cervicouterino se inducen mecanismos para evadir el sistema inmune, como son la disminución de la expresión de moléculas de antígeno mayor de histocompatibilidad I y la secreción de citocinas por las células tumorales. Como consecuencia de ello, la estimulación de linfocitos T citotóxicos (LTC y cooperadores (TC, de células asesinas naturales (AN y macrófagos es muy deficiente. Para inducir una respuesta inmune efectiva contra el tumor, se requiere la estimulación simultánea de múltiples componentes del sistema inmune: por vía sistémica la estimulación de LTC y TC contra epítopos del virus del papiloma humano, y en un nivel local, la inducción de la secreción de citocinas por el tumor, para aumentar el procesamiento y la presentación de blancos tumorales, así como la estimulación de los linfocitos, AN y macrófagos que infiltran el tumor.Several mechanisms to evade the immune system are induced during cervical cancer development, including the decrease of expression of class I HLA molecules and secretion of specific cytokines by tumoral cells. Consequently, the stimulation of cytotoxic (CTL and helper (TH T lymphocytes, as well as the natural killer (NK cells and macrophages is very poor. The induction of immune response against tumors needs the stimulation of multiple components of the immune system: systemic stimulation of CTL and TH against Human Papilloma Virus epitopes and directly in the tumor the secretion of specific cytokines to increase the antigen processing and presentation of tumoral targets, and the stimulation of lymphocyte, NK cells and macrophages that infiltrate tumors.

  7. Nanomechanical clues from morphologically normal cervical squamous cells could improve cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Li; Feng, Jiantao; Sun, Quanmei; Liu, Jing; Hua, Wenda; Li, Jing; Ao, Zhuo; You, Ke; Guo, Yanli; Liao, Fulong; Zhang, Youyi; Guo, Hongyan; Han, Jinsong; Xiong, Guangwu; Zhang, Lufang; Han, Dong

    2015-09-01

    Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis.Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03662c

  8. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  9. Epidemiology and biology of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, W M; Janicek, M F; Mirhashemi, R

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide, cancer of the cervix is the second leading cause of cancer death in women: each year, an estimated 500,000 cases are newly diagnosed. Among populations, there are large differences in incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer: these reflect the influence of environmental factors, screening Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, and treatment of pre-invasive lesions. The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, and 51 have been recovered from more than 95% of cervical cancers. We have made great strides in understanding the molecular mechanism of oncogenesis of this virus, focusing on the action of the E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins. These oncoproteins function by inactivating cell cycle regulators p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb), thus providing the initial event in progression to malignancy. Cervical cancers develop from precursor lesions, which are termed squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and are graded as high or low, depending on the degree of disruption of epithelial differentiation. Viral production occurs in low-grade lesions and is restricted to basal cells. In carcinomas, viral DNA is found integrated into the host genome, but no viral production is seen. The well-defined pre-invasive stages, as well as the viral factors involved at the molecular level, make cervical carcinoma a good model for investigating immune therapeutic alternatives or adjuvants to standard treatments. PMID:10225296

  10. Preoperative Arterial Interventional Chemotherapy on Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LING HU-Hua; TANG Liang-dan; ZHANG Xing-hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the therapeutic effect of preoperative interventional chemotherapy on cervical cancer.Methods:Preoperative interventional chemotherapy by femoral intubation was performed in 25 patients with bulky cervical cancer.The patients received bleomycin 45 mg and cisplatin or oxaliplatin 80 mg/m2.Results:25 cases(including 8 cases with stage Ⅰ and 17 cases with stage Ⅱ)received one or two courses of preoperative interventional chemotherapy.The size of the focal lesions was decreased greatly and radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy were performed successfully in all the patients.All of the specimens were sent for pathological examination.Lymphocyte infiltration was found more obvious in the cancer tissues as compared with their counterpart before treatment.As a result,relevant vaginal bleeding was stopped completely shortly after the treatment.Conclusion:Arterial interventional chemotherapy was proved to reduce the local size of cervical cancer and thus control the hemorrhage efficiently.The patients with cervical cancer can receive radical hysterectomy therapy after the interventional chemotherapy.

  11. Exploration of knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening amongst HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Maree

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although preventable, cervical cancer, an AIDS-related disease, is the second most common cancer amongst South African women and the most common cancer amongst black women. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine what women being treated for HIV and AIDS at a specific healthcare centre in Johannesburg knew about cervical cancer and cervical screening. Method: A survey design was used, with data gathered by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Convenience sampling selected 315 women to participate (n = 315. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and chi-square testing found associations between categorical variables. Results: The majority of respondents (78.7%; n = 248 indicated that they had heard of cervical cancer and 62.9% (n = 198 knew about the Pap smear, with nurses and doctors being the primary source of information. Of the women who knew about the Pap smear, less than one-third had had a smear done, the main reason being fear of the procedure. Conclusion: The study provided evidence that women attending the specific HIV clinic were more knowledgeable about cervical cancer and screening than those of unknown HIV status involved in previous studies. Knowledge was still at a low level, especially when their exceptionally high risk was taken into account. Once again it was found that having knowledge did not necessarily mean having had a Pap smear, which remains a huge challenge in the prevention of cervical cancer.

  12. Sperm protein 17 is highly expressed in endometrial and cervical cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a highly conserved mammalian protein in the testis and spermatozoa and has been characterized as a tumor-associated antigen in a variety of human malignancies. Many studies have examined the role of Sp17 in tumorigenesis and the migration of malignant cells. It has been proposed as a useful target for tumor-vaccine strategies and a novel marker to define tumor subsets and predict drug response. This study aimed to investigate the expression of Sp17 in endometrial and cervical cancer specimens, its possible correlation with the pathological characteristics, and its value in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of the related cancers. The monoclonal antibodies against human Sp17 were produced as reagents for the analysis and immunohistochemistry was used to study two major kinds of paraffin-embedded gynecological cancer specimens, including 50 cases of endometrial cancer (44 adenous and 6 adenosquamous) and 31 cases of cervical cancer (15 adenous and 16 squamous). Normal peripheral endometrial and cervical tissues were used as controls. Sp17 was found in 66% (33/50) of the patients with endometrial cancer and 61% (19/31) of those with cervical cancer. Its expression was found in a heterogeneous pattern in the cancer tissues. The expression was not correlated with the histological subtype and grade of malignancy, but the staining patterns were different in endometrial and cervical cancers. The hyperplastic glands were positive for Sp17 in the normal peripheral endometrial and cervical tissues in 10% (8/81) of the patients. Sp17 is highly expressed in human endometrial and cervical cancers in a heterogeneous pattern. Although the expression frequency of Sp17 is not correlated with the histological subtype, the staining pattern may help to define endometrial and cervical cancers. Sp17 targeted immunotherapy of tumors needs more accurate validation

  13. Cervical, Anal and Oral HPV in an Adolescent Inner-City Health Clinic Providing Free Vaccinations

    OpenAIRE

    Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Burk, Robert D.; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Shankar, Viswanathan; Peake, Ken; Lorde-Rollins, Elizabeth; Porter, Richard; Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Rojas, Mary; Strickler, Howard D.; Diaz, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Published human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine trials indicate efficacy is strongest for those naive to the vaccine-types. However, few high-risk young women have been followed and cervical HPV has been the predominant outcome measure. Methods We collected cervical and anal swabs, as well as oral rinse specimens from 645 sexually active inner-city young females attending a large adolescent health-clinic in New York City that offers free care and HPV vaccination. Specimens were tested...

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  15. Cervical Cancer: Reality and Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quiñones Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical carcinoma usually reaches its highest frequency between 35-50 years of age. The Cuban prevention program screens the female population aged 25 to 60 years using the Pap smear and reexamines them every three years. Despite this effort, advanced cancer is diagnosed in young women as well as in those 40 to 60 years of age.

  16. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cer

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  18. Flexitouch® Home Maintenance Therapy or Standard Home Maintenance Therapy in Treating Patients With Lower-Extremity Lymphedema Caused by Treatment for Cervical Cancer, Vulvar Cancer, or Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Lymphedema; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  19. Epidemiology of cervical cancer with special focus on India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aswathy Sreedevi, Reshma Javed, Avani Dinesh Community Medicine, AIMS, Kochi, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India Abstract: Cervical cancer is on the declining trend in India according to the population-based registries; yet it continues to be a major public health problem for women in India. Multifactorial causation, potential for prevention, and the sheer threat it poses make cervical cancer an important disease for in-depth studies, as has been attempted by this paper. This paper attempts to review the available knowledge regarding the epidemiology and pattern of cervical cancer; types of HPV (human papilloma virus prevalent among cervical cancer patients and among women in general, high-risk groups such as commercial sex workers, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus-positive women; and the role of the national program on cancer in control efforts. The peak age of incidence of cervical cancer is 55–59 years, and a considerable proportion of women report in the late stages of disease. Specific types of oncogenic HPV-16, 18 have been identified in patients with cervical cancer. Other epidemiological risk factors are early age at marriage, multiple sexual partners, multiple pregnancies, poor genital hygiene, malnutrition, use of oral contraceptives, and lack of awareness. A multipronged approach is necessary which can target areas of high prevalence identified by registries with a combination of behavior change communication exercises and routine early screening with VIA. Sensitizing the people of the area, including menfolk, is necessary to increase uptake levels. Vaccination against types 16 and 18 can also be undertaken after taking into confidence all stakeholders, including the parents of adolescent girls. Preventing and treating cervical cancer and reducing the burden are possible by targeting resources to the areas with high prevalence. Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV, screening, prevention, epidemiology, India

  20. HPV Literacy and Associated Factors Among Hmong American Immigrants: Implications for Reducing Cervical Cancer Disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Raiza; Simms, Tina; Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies show that certain minority and ethnic communities experience low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates despite a higher cervical cancer burden. HPV is known to be responsible for almost all cervical cancer cases. Hmong Americans, a growing Asian American population, appear to be at increased risk. The cervical cancer incidence rate among Hmong American women is three times higher than other Asian/Pacific Islanders and more than four times higher than Non-Hispanic Whites. Despite such alarming statistics, there is limited research focusing on HPV literacy and its associated factors in the Hmong American community. This study's objectives are to investigate: (1) the level of HPV knowledge among Hmong Americans; (2) HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates of Hmong Americans; and (3) factors associated with HPV literacy in the Hmong American community. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use was used as the study's theoretical framework. A self-administered paper and online health survey was completed by192 Hmong Americans living in a major metropolitan area in Minnesota. Results revealed a mean score of 4.76 (SD 1.67) for the 7-item questionnaire measuring HPV knowledge. The HPV vaccination initiation rate was 46.3 % (n = 56), with 32.7 % completing the recommended three doses. Multiple regression analysis found that participants' level of education, number of doctor visits, and cervical cancer screening literacy were significantly associated with HPV knowledge. This study's results indicate the important role of health providers in educating Hmong Americans patients about HPV and cervical cancer prevention to decrease the cervical cancer burden in this high-risk population. PMID:26696118

  1. Quantitative DNA Methylation Analysis of Candidate Genes in Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Erin M Siegel; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L.; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and ...

  2. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf;

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination...... on cervical cancer prevention. More than 6,000 women diagnosed with HG-CIN or ICC from 17 European countries were enrolled in two parallel cross-sectional studies (108288/108290). Centralised histopathology review and standardised HPV-DNA typing were applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical...... common HPV types in women with HG-CIN were HPV16/33/31 (59.9/10.5/9.0%) and in ICC were HPV16/18/45 (63.3/15.2/5.3%). In squamous cell carcinomas, HPV16/18/33 were most frequent (66.2/10.8/5.3%), and in adenocarcinomas, HPV16/18/45 (54.2/40.4/8.3%). The prevalence of HPV16/18/45 was 1.1/3.5/2.5 times...

  3. Detection of STAT2 in early stage of cervical premalignancy and in cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zeng; Li-Hua Gao; Li-Jun Cao; De-Yun Feng; Ya Cao; Qi-Zhi Luo; Ping Yu; Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To measure the expression pattern ofSTAT2 in cervical cancer initiation and progression in tissue sections from patients with cervicitis, dysplasia, and cervical cancer. Methods:Antibody against humanSTAT2 was confirmed by plasmids transient transfection andWestern blot.Immunohistochemistry was used to detectSTAT2 expression in the cervical biopsies by using the confirmed antibody againstSTAT2 as the primary antibody.Results:It was found that the overall rate of positiveSTAT2 expression in the cervicitis, dysplasia and cervical cancer groups were38.5%,69.4% and76.9%, respectively.TheSTAT2 levels are significantly increased in premalignant dysplasia and cervical cancer, as compared to cervicitis(P<0.05). Noticeably,STAT2 signals were mainly found in the cytoplasm, implying thatSTAT2 was not biologically active.Conclusions:These findings reveal an association between cervical cancer progression and augmentedSTAT2 expression.In conclusion,STAT2 increase appears to be an early detectable cellular event in cervical cancer development.

  4. Cancer Vaccines: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shamayel; Bakshi, Nasir; Chaudri, Naeem; Akhter, Javed; Akhtar, Mohammed

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is a common and potentially deadly disease. Some of the cancers may be difficult to treat by conventional means such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, but may be controlled by the stimulation of the immune response of the body with the help of cancer vaccines. The use of vaccines for preventing infections by oncogenic viruses such as hepatitis B virus and human papilloma virus has been extremely successful in reducing the incidence of cancers resulting from these infections. The use of vaccines for treating cancers that are not due to viral infections and that are already established is currently the object of numerous clinical trials. Several types of cancer vaccines are being tried. These include antigen vaccines, tumor cell vaccines, dendritic vaccines, deoxyribonucleic acid vaccines, and viral vector vaccines. The development of these therapeutic vaccines is proving difficult with only 1 recent success. However, there is significant enthusiasm and optimism regarding the development of effective therapeutic vaccines stemming from the fact that our understanding regarding the cancer immunology is considerably enhanced in recent years. This expanded knowledge regarding the mechanisms that cancers use to escape the immune system is likely to open new avenues in modulating the immune response to cancer, thus enhancing the effectiveness of therapeutic cancer vaccines. PMID:27058246

  5. Age-specific prevalence of HPV16/18 genotypes in cervical cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Anne; Rositch, Anne; Qeadan, Fares; Gravitt, Patti E; Blaakaer, Jan

    2016-06-15

    The prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer has been reported to decline with age in some papers. However, whether this decline in proportion of cancers positive for HPV16/18 is consistently observed across studies remains to be elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify papers reporting data on age-specific prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer and to summarize the results. We employed MEDLINE and Embase for a systematic literature search and thereby identified a total of 644 papers published in the period 1999-2015, of which 15 papers, reporting cross-sectional data, were included for review (11,526 cervical cancers). The prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer declined significantly with age (ρ = -0.83, p = 0.04) from 74.8% (95% CI 67.6-80.8) in women aged 30-39 years to 56.8% (95% CI 43.9-68.8) in women aged ≥70 years. As the HPV16/18 positive cancers are prevented in fully vaccinated cohorts, the age-specific epidemiology of cervical cancer is anticipated to change, with a shift in peak incidence rate to older ages. It will be important for integrated vaccination and screening strategies to consider predicted change in the age-specific epidemiology of cervical cancer. PMID:26661889

  6. The male role in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  7. Cervical cancer: evaluation of our results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Cervical cancer in women occupies 3rd place in incidence and 5th as a cause of cancer death in our country. The evolution is mainly determined by the stage, nodal status and histological type. The treatment of these tumors is surgical, radiant and / or systemic, depending on your choice mainly Stadium. Objective: To analyze the characteristics, evolution, treatment and survival of patients carriers of cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: The medical records were retrospectively analyzed for patients with cervical cancer treated at the Department of Oncology the Clinical Hospital in the period 1994-2004. Curves were constructed survival (sv) of total and free enfemedad sv sv by stage and after relapse by the method of Kaplan-Meier. Results: n = 75 patients, median age 45 years (24-90 years). Histological type: Epidermoid carcinomas 93% 5% 2% adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous. stadium (E) Initial: 31% IE, 38% EII, EIII 25%, 6% EIVA. Treatment was according to the stadium, considering that until 1999 was not standard concurrent chemoradiation. The median sv considering all stages was 124 months. The sv to 5 years for EI was 90% (median 188 sv months), for the ISI 65% (95 months) and the median sv CIRTs was 24 months. Followed for 13 months, 12 patients relapsed and the median after sv relapse was 8 months (95% CI 4-13 months) Conclusions: Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Our results are consistent with those reported in the literature, however far from the optimal, so it is necessary to continue clinical trials in this regard

  8. Cervical cancer awareness and risk factors among female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, G A

    1998-07-01

    Population cervical screening programmes are necessary for meaningfully reducing cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. Because of the high incidence of cervical cancer in South Africa, the need for a national screening programme has become evident. The success of such a programme will depend on, among others, the level of cervical cancer awareness among the target population, and their willingness to utilise cytological services and to comply with treatment and follow up protocols. We conducted a survey among female university students, as an elite group of women, to determine their level of cervical cancer awareness and the prevalence of the major risk factors for cervical cancer among them, their rate of utilisation of existing Pap smear services, and their attitudes to Pap smears in general. The majority of respondents were young, single (93.0%) and sexually active (86.9%,) having initiated sexual activity at a mean age of 17.27 +/- 2.18 years. There was a high prevalence of the major risk factors for cervical cancer among the respondents, and these included initiation of coitus before 18 years (53.3%), multiple sexual partners (73.6%), male partner with other partners (37.7%), and previous history of sexually transmitted diseases (42.2%) and vulval warts (4.7%). Their overall knowledge of cervical cancer was poor, although the majority of respondents were able to identify the major risk factors from a given list. This level of awareness of cervical cancer risk factors, however, did not translate into appreciation of personal risk of cervical cancer, safer sex practices or utilisation of Pap smear services. In conclusion, this elite group of women is at a high risk of cervical cancer and would benefit from cervical screening programmes. This would have to be coupled with measures to increase the level of awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention. PMID:9803633

  9. The potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination on oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Theresa; Eisele, David W; Fakhry, Carole

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is significantly increasing in the United States. Given that these epidemiologic trends are driven by human papillomavirus (HPV), the potential impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines on the prevention of OPC is of interest. The primary evidence supporting the approval of current prophylactic HPV vaccines is from large phase 3 clinical trials focused on the prevention of genital disease (cervical and anal cancer, as well as genital warts). These trials reported vaccine efficacy rates of 89% to 98% for the prevention of both premalignant lesions and persistent genital infections. However, these trials were designed before the etiologic relationship between HPV and OPC was established. There are differences in the epidemiology of oral and genital HPV infection, such as differences in age and sex distributions, which suggest that the vaccine efficacy observed in genital cancers may not be directly translatable to the cancers of the oropharynx. Evaluation of vaccine efficacy is challenging in the oropharynx because no premalignant lesion analogous to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in cervical cancer has yet been identified. To truly investigate the efficacy of these vaccines in the oropharynx, additional clinical trials with feasible endpoints are needed. Cancer 2016;122:2313-2323. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27152637

  10. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening.......7% were not screened. We found a minimum of one abnormal test in 28 (10.8%) after subtotal hysterectomy and one after total hysterectomy. No cervical cancers were found. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy in a Danish population is suboptimal and some patients...... have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster...

  11. Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace X. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.

  12. Poor HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among Utah Latinas overdue for recommended cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Brynn; Bodson, Julia; Warner, Echo L; Dyer, Jane; Kepka, Deanna

    2016-08-01

    Individuals overdue for recommended cancer screenings may not be receiving adequate cancer prevention education. Since Latinas have the highest incidence of cervical cancer among all racial/ethnic groups, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination education is especially important for this population. The correlates of HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge were assessed among Latinas who were overdue for recommended cancer screenings. N = 206 Latinas who were overdue for recommended cancer screenings were recruited by health educators from local community groups. Bivariate analyses and multivariable regression models were used to investigate factors associated with HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among participants as well as to assess correlates of HPV vaccine receipt for eligible children of participants. In multivariable regression analyses, years living in the U.S. (p = 0.05) and health insurance status (p = 0.03) were significantly related to HPV vaccine-related knowledge measures. Age (p vaccine-related knowledge measures (p vaccination outcomes for eligible daughters of participants. Cervical cancer screening status (p = 0.02) and HPV vaccine-related knowledge measures (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with HPV vaccination outcomes for eligible sons of participants. Results indicate poor HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among Latinas. Interventions to improve HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge in Utah's growing Latino population should target vulnerable individuals (e.g., not employed outside the home, less educated, less acculturated, poor, uninsured, overdue for cervical cancer screening) by using materials that are culturally sensitive, linguistically appropriate, and easily accessible. PMID:26860277

  13. Distribution of HPV genotypes in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer in Tanzanian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Adriana C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is associated with uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and invasive cancers (ICC. Approximately 80% of ICC cases are diagnosed in under-developed countries. Vaccine development relies on knowledge of HPV genotypes characteristic of LSIL, HSIL and cancer; however, these genotypes remain poorly characterized in many African countries. To contribute to the characterization of HPV genotypes in Northeastern Tanzania, we recruited 215 women from the Reproductive Health Clinic at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre. Cervical scrapes and biopsies were obtained for cytology and HPV DNA detection. Results 79 out of 215 (36.7% enrolled participants tested positive for HPV DNA, with a large proportion being multiple infections (74%. The prevalence of HPV infection increased with lesion grade (14% in controls, 67% in CIN1 cases and 88% in CIN2-3. Among ICC cases, 89% had detectable HPV. Overall, 31 HPV genotypes were detected; the three most common HPV genotypes among ICC were HPV16, 35 and 45. In addition to these genotypes, co-infection with HPV18, 31, 33, 52, 58, 68 and 82 was found in 91% of ICC. Among women with CIN2-3, HPV53, 58 and 84/83 were the most common. HPV35, 45, 53/58/59 were the most common among CIN1 cases. Conclusions In women with no evidence of cytological abnormalities, the most prevalent genotypes were HPV58 with HPV16, 35, 52, 66 and 73 occurring equally. Although numerical constraints limit inference, findings that 91% of ICC harbor only a small number of HPV genotypes suggests that prevention efforts including vaccine development or adjuvant screening should focus on these genotypes.

  14. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC POSSIBILITIES IN THE PROPHYLAXIS OF CERVICAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Wrześniewska; Olga Adamczyk-Gruszka; Jakub Gruszka; Beata Bąk

    2013-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries with high cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The main means to change this situation is to manage an active and modern programme of cervical cancer prophylaxis and diagnostics. To a large extent, the effectiveness of a cervical cancer prophylaxis programme is decided by the availability of modern diagnostic research. The conventional Papanicolaou test and modern LBC cytology techniques were discussed in the article, taking into consideration HPV diagno...

  15. Drug Delivery Approaches for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Farideh Ordikhani; Mustafa Erdem Arslan; Raymundo Marcelo; Ilyas Sahin; Perry Grigsby; Schwarz, Julie K.; Abdel Kareem Azab

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a highly prevalent cancer that affects women around the world. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have increased their efforts to develop new drug delivery systems in cervical cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we summarized some of the recent research in systematic and localized drug delivery systems and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  16. Cytological diagnosis in cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Bratu; Florentina Pricop; Ovidiu Toma; Dragos Crauciuc; Eduard Crauciuc

    2010-01-01

    Aim. The cytological test has multiple valences, allowing the early discovery and location of feminine genital cancer. Material and methods. In the period of time between 2001 and 2009, the study made within the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of „Sf. Apostol Andrei” Emergency Hospital in Galaţi, revealed that from 415 cases with a changed PAP smear, the cytological diagnosis showed cancerous and pre-cancerous lesions in 53 patients (12.8%). We harvested cytological smears fo...

  17. New strategies in advanced cervical cancer: from angiogenesis blockade to immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishnansu S; Monk, Bradley J

    2014-11-01

    Cervical cancer remains unique among solid tumor malignancies. Persistent infection with oncogenic subtypes of the human papillomavirus (HPV) results in carcinogenesis, predominantly occurring at the cervical transformation zone where endocervical columnar cells undergo metaplasia to a stratified squamous epithelium. The molecular cascade involving viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7 and their degradative interactions with cellular tumor suppressor gene products, p53 and pRb, respectively, has been precisely delineated. The precursor state of cervical neoplasia may last for years allowing for ready detection through successful screening programs in developed countries using cervical cytology and/or high-risk HPV DNA testing. Prophylactic HPV L1 capsid protein vaccines using virus-like-particle technology have been developed to prevent primary infection by the most common high-risk HPVs (16 and 18). Women who lack access to health care and those who undergo sporadic screening remain at risk. Although radical surgery (including fertility-sparing surgery) is available for patients with early-stage cancers, and chemoradiation plus high-dose-rate brachytherapy can cure the majority of those with locally advanced disease, patients with metastatic and nonoperable recurrent cervical cancer constitute a high-risk population with an unmet clinical need. On August 14, 2014, the FDA approved the antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab for women with advanced cervical cancer. This review will highlight advances in translational science, antiangiogenesis therapy and immunotherapy for advanced disease. PMID:25104084

  18. FGFR3–TACC3: A novel gene fusion in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito A. Carneiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer epitomizes the success of cancer prevention through the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine, but significant challenges remain in the treatment of advanced disease. We report the first three cases of cervical carcinoma harboring an FGFR3–TACC3 fusion, which serves as a novel therapeutic target. The fusion, identified by comprehensive genomic profiling, activates the FGFR pathway that has been implicated in HPV-driven carcinogenesis. One of the patients whose tumor contained the FGFR3–TACC3 fusion was treated with an investigational FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Concomitant molecular alterations involving the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAF/MEK pathways were also identified and suggest other treatment strategies that deserve investigation. This case series highlights the role of comprehensive genomic profiling in the identification of new therapeutic targets and in targeted therapy selection for patients with cervical cancer.

  19. Trends in the incidence of cervical cancer and severe precancerous lesions in Denmark, 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The incidence of cervical cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), has been decreasing in several developed countries since the onset of organized screening programs; in some countries, however, the incidence of adenocarcinoma has increased among young women. We investigated......, importantly, they decreased significantly during 2009-2012 in women aged ≤20 years. CONCLUSIONS: The Danish screening program has successfully reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, especially of SCC in older women; however, the program has not significantly reduced the incidence in young women...... or the incidence of adenocarcinoma, which is increasing. Decreases in the incidences of CIN3 and AIS in age groups with high HPV vaccine coverage may herald a future decrease in cervical cancer incidence in young Danish women....

  20. Awareness of cervical cancer among female students of premier colleges in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A; Chaudhury, A Nag; Bhowmik, P; Chatterjee, R

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of any nationwide cervical screening program, cancer of cervix remains a major public health problem for India. We here assessed knowledge levels of female college students about cervical cancer, its risk factors, the human papillomavirus (HPV) etiologic agent and Pap (Papanicolaou) smear testing for screening. We conducted a questionnaire survey of the students (N=630), aged 17 to 24 years, in Kolkata, India. Only 20% correctly identified cervix cancer as the most prevalent female cancer in India, while 43% were aware of the ages of occurrence. Though 41% thought sexual activity to be associated with cervical cancer, its risk factors, like, smoking, having multiple sex partners, cervical infections, early onset of sexual intercourse, multiple parity were recognized by 29%, 3%, 4%, 13% and 15%, respectively. The terms Pap test and HPV had been heard by 11% and 15 % of the students, respectively, and 75% of the students desired to have protective vaccination. Bivariate analysis revealed that educational stream, standard of the college and family size were significantly associated with knowledge levels. Additionally, multivariate regression analysis indicated city students were more knowledgeable than those from outside the city. It is imperative that women gather adequate knowledge on cervical cancer for the success of any program to control the disease. Wide and effective spreading of awareness about the disease among women must form an integral part of public health policy of government. PMID:21133629

  1. Cancer immunotherapy: moving beyond current vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Steven A.; Yang, James C.; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2004-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the field of tumor immunology in the past decade, but optimism about the clinical application of currently available cancer vaccine approaches is based more on surrogate endpoints than on clinical tumor regression. In our cancer vaccine trials of 440 patients, the objective response rate was low (2.6%), and comparable to the results obtained by others. We consider here results in cancer vaccine trials and highlight alternate strategies that mediate cancer regre...

  2. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities. PMID:25424677

  3. Genital HPV: links to cervical cancer, treatment, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, L A

    2001-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted viruses. It consists of over 230 different subtypes and infects the squamous epithelial cells in humans producing cutaneous, mucosal, and epidermodysplasia verruciformis type infections. There are several risk factors for human papillomavirus infections. These include a sexually active life-style beginning at a young age, having multiple lifetime sex partners, having sex with a partner with genital warts, and long term oral contraceptive use. Approximately 80% of sexually active individuals acquire the virus in their lifetime. Clinical and laboratory detection of the virus consists of macroscopic, serologic, and molecular techniques. Although removal of the lesions is preferable, treatment of human papillomavirus infections may include cryotherapy, loop electrosurgical excision procedure, laser surgery, and drug therapy. Certain human papillomavirus subtypes, particularly human papillomavirus 16, have been linked to cervical cancer, therefore, prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines are currently being developed to prevent or fight the virus. PMID:11517629

  4. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  5. Mothers' and their daughters' use of preventive measures against cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Vazquez-Prada Baillet, Miguel; Rebolj, Matejka;

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) and screening are complementary preventive measures against cervical cancer. In Denmark, screening and vaccination are free of charge for the women. In total, 75% of women are screened and about 90% of girls are vaccinated with at least one dose....... Our aim was to determine whether, in Denmark, daughters of unscreened mothers are less likely to be vaccinated against HPV than are daughters of screened mothers. Methods: We used population-based data from the Danish Patient Register, Health Service Registration, Pathology Data Bank, and Civil...... Registration System. Individual-level data on screening, vaccination, and vital status until 31 December 2010 were retrieved. Daughters were linked to their mothers through the link provided in the Civil Registration System. The study population included 149,147 girls born in 1993-1997 and their mothers. We...

  6. Human papillomavirus genotyping by multiplex pyrosequencing in cervical cancer patients from India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheryl M Travasso; Mona Anand Mansi; Mansi Samarth; Aditi Deshpande; Chandan Kumar-Sinha

    2008-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in India. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the causative agent of cervical cancer; and infection with the high-risk genotypes, predominantly HPV16 and 18, is the biggest risk factor. Vaccines targeting HPV16 and 18 have been found to confer protection in large-scale clinical trials. HPV genotyping has traditionally been carried out to screen the population “at risk” using indirect methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using consensus primers combined with various DNA hybridization techniques, and often followed by the sequencing of candidate products. Recently, a high-throughput and direct method based on DNA sequencing has been described for HPV genotyping using multiplex pyrosequencing. We present a pilot study on HPV genotyping of cervical cancer and non-malignant cervical samples using multiplex pyrosequencing. Using genomic DNA from cell lines, cervical biopsies, surgical tissues or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, we could successfully resolve 6 different HPV types out of the 7 tested, with their prevalence found to be in agreement with earlier reports. We also resolved coinfections with two different HPV types in several samples. An HPV16 genotype with a specific and recurrent sequence variation was observed in 8 cancer samples and one non-malignant sample. We find this technique eminently suited for high-throughput applications, which can be easily extended to large sample cohorts to determine a robust benchmark for HPV genotypes prevalent in India.

  7. THE TREATMENT AND EVOLUTION OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Crauciuc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the evolution of cervical cancer after applying a conventional treatment. Materials and methods. The study was performed on a number of 1249 patients who were suspected of having cervical neoplasia, and who were monitored between 2006-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved the effectiveness of the conservative treatment for the patients who were diagnosed using cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and histopathology, with or without HPV viral infection. Conclusions. The patients with an early diagnose have a 15% higher surviving probability. The patients who responded to the conservative preoperative treatment well are more likely to survive than the patients who did not respond favourably to the conservative preoperative treatment.

  8. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  9. Childhood indicators of susceptibility to subsequent cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, S M; Ehlin, A G C; Sparén, P.; Björkstén, B; Ekbom, A.

    2002-01-01

    Common warts could indicate cervical cancer susceptibility, as both are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Eczema was also investigated, as atopic eczema has been negatively associated with warts, but non-atopic eczema may be associated with compromised host defences, as observed in patients with HIV, suggesting increased susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical cancer. ‘Cervical cancer’ was self-reported during an interview by 87 of 7594 women members of two longitudinal British birth...

  10. Understanding cervical cancer in the context of developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. Among the women, gynecological cancers are most common. Cervical cancer is a main gynecological cancer of the women. The global burden of cervical cancer is disproportionately high among the developing countries where 85 per cent of the estimated 493, 000 new cases and 273, 000 deaths occur worldwide. There are several dimensions of the problem. Cervical cancer is a problem where people are poor, where the socio-economic status of the women is low and sometimes specific ethnicity also posses additional risk to the women to develop cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus infection is a main risk factor for the cervical cancer however there are some other factors which increase the risk. Among them some are number of sexual partners, age of first sexual intercourse, infection of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormonal contraceptives, parity, age, smoking, food and diet. Apart from these factors, some other issues, such as policy on cancer, capacity of health system, socio-economic and cultural factors and awareness among the women are also associated with the cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality across the developing countries. There some interventions which give promising results in terms of reducing cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality. Among them visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid followed by treatment is one such effective method.

  11. Cancer risk following radiotherapy of cervical cancer: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women treated for cervical cancer were selected for study because (a) doses to body organs following radiotherapy can be accurately determined and vary sufficiently to permit dose-response evaluations, (b) organs remote from the cervix receive low-dose exposures in the range of current scientific interest, (c) treatment is relatively successful and many patients survive long enough to be at risk of late complications of radiotherapy, and (d) several nonexposed groups of women with cervical cancer are also available for comparison. In addition, population-based cancer registries provide an opportunity to inexpensively study large numbers of individuals over many decades. The careful procedures normally used by cancer registries to record second primary cancers facilitate the study of cancer incidence for which a wider view of radiation risk is expected than can be seen in investigations of mortality. Other special features of studies of cervical cancer patients include the ability to assess the effects of very large partial-body exposures, differences in organ sensitivities to radiation, interactions of radiation with biological factors such as age, and the duration of carcinogenic response

  12. Clearance of persistent HPV infection and cervical lesion by therapeutic DNA vaccine in CIN3 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jin; Jin, Hyun-Tak; Hur, Soo-Young; Yang, Hyun Gul; Seo, Yong Bok; Hong, Sung Ran; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Suhyeon; Woo, Jung-Won; Park, Ki Seok; Hwang, Youn-Young; Park, Jaehan; Lee, In-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Taek; Lee, Ki-Heon; Jeong, Mi Seon; Surh, Charles D; Suh, You Suk; Park, Jong Sup; Sung, Young Chul

    2014-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that electroporation-enhanced immunization with a rationally designed HPV DNA vaccine (GX-188E), preferentially targeting HPV antigens to dendritic cells, elicits a significant E6/E7-specific IFN-γ-producing T-cell response in all nine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) patients. Importantly, eight out of nine patients exhibit an enhanced polyfunctional HPV-specific CD8 T-cell response as shown by an increase in cytolytic activity, proliferative capacity and secretion of effector molecules. Notably, seven out of nine patients display complete regression of their lesions and viral clearance within 36 weeks of follow up. GX-188E administration does not elicit serious vaccine-associated adverse events at all administered doses. These findings indicate that the magnitude of systemic polyfunctional CD8 T-cell response is the main contributing factor for histological, cytological and virological responses, providing valuable insights into the design of therapeutic vaccines for effectively treating persistent infections and cancers in humans. PMID:25354725

  13. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections: new options for cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch F. Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the cervical cancer puzzle has become a coherent description that includes the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV as the sexually transmitted etiologic agent and the characterization of the major determinants of HPV acquisition. Triage studies have consistently shown that HPV testing is more sensitive that repeated cytology in identifying underlying high-grade lesions in women with atypical scamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. Studies that reflect primary screening conditions have shown that the sensitivity of HPV tests is higher than standard cytology in detecting high-grade lesions whereas the specificity is similar only in women aged 30-35 and above. HPV vaccines have an intrinsic attraction as a preventive strategy in populations with limited resources. However, vaccines designed to widespread use are still in development and testing phases. Time is ripe for exploring in depth the clinical implications of current achievements and to devise novel strategies for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  14. A prophylactic vaccine for breast cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Christine J.; Gusterson, Barry A.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer vaccines are the Holy Grail for patients and clinicians alike. The possibility that we can be vaccinated against common cancers is very appealing and the socioeconomic consequences are significant. A recent paper from Vincent Tuohy's group, published in the journal Nature Medicine, suggests a new approach for the development of a prophylactic vaccine for breast cancer. Their strategy was to induce mammary gland failure in mice by immunisation with an antibody specific to a milk protein...

  15. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage screening…

  16. European cervical cancer screening:experiences and results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Europe has devoted great efforts to cervical cancer screening over 30 years.The mortality was generally declining although incidence rates of cervical cancer among young women have been increasing in many countries of Europe.The efficiency of screening,however,needs to be addressed by planners for an improved cost-effectiveness in the future.

  17. Reducing uncertainties about the effects of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Claire; Jakobsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a 1999 National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical alert was issued, chemoradiotherapy has become widely used in treating women with cervical cancer. Two subsequent systematic reviews found that interpretation of the benefits was complicated, and some important clinical questions...

  18. Aberrant Expression of Notch1 in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sun; Qimin Zhan; Wenhua Zhang; Yongmei Song; Tong Tong

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the putative role of the Notch1 receptor in cervical cancer carcinogenesis and progression.METHODS The expression of the Notch1 protein was analyzed by a Western-blotting approach in 40 cervical cancer and 30 normal cervical tissues.Some tissues were examined using RT-PCR To determine Mrna levels.Celluar localization of the Notch1 protein in the paraffin-embedded cervical tissues was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS The Notch1 protein was detected in all 30 normal cervical tissues.In contrast.only 6 samples of 40 cervical cancer tissues showed Notch1 expression.The level of the Notch1 protein expression was significantly lower in cervical cancer tissues than that in normal tissue samples.In agreement with these observations.levels of Notch1 Mrna were found to be substantially down-regulated in cervical cancer tissues.In the immunohistochemistry staining assay,the Notch1 protein was shown to localize predominantly in the cytoplasm and nucleoli of the normal cervical squamous epithelium of the cervix,but no staining was observed in the cervical cancer cells.Notch1 expression was observed to correlate with the clinical disease stage.but there were no correlations with age,tumor size,grade or lymph node metastasis (P>0.05).The levels of Notchl protein expression were significantly higher in early stages(I~lla,66.7%) compared to those in the advanced stages (Iib~IV,12.6%)(P=0.001).CONCLUSION Notch1 may play a role as a tumor suppressor in cervical tumorigenesis.Determination of Notch1 expression may be helpful for preoperative diagnosis and accuracy of staging.But its clinical use for cervical cancer requires further investigation.

  19. Cervical acid phosphatase detection: A guide to abnormal cells in cytology smear screening for cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Deb Prabal; Iyer Venkateswaran; Bhatla Neerja; Markovic O; Verma Kusum

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP) test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap) staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistical evaluation ...

  20. [Gene therapy with cytokines against cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Morales, Victor Hugo; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    Gene therapy is an excellent alternative for treatment of many diseases. Capacity to manipulate the DNA has allowed direct the gene therapy to correct the function of an altered gene, to increase the expression of a gene and to favour the activation of the immune response. This way, it can intend the use of the DNA like medication able to control, to correct or to cure many diseases. Gene therapy against cancer has an enormous potential, and actually the use of the DNA has increased to control diverse cancer in animal models, with very encouraging results that have allowed its applications in experimental protocols in human. This work concentrates a review of the foundations of the gene therapy and its application on cervical cancer, from the point of view of the alterations of the immune system focused on the tumour micro-environment, and the use of the cytokines as immunomodulators. PMID:16983992

  1. Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG...... mutations, R501X and 2282del4, using blood from the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, Denmark. Controls (n = 8050) were genotyped in previous population-based studies. Information on cervical cancer, mortality and emigration were obtained from national registers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic...... and stratification by cancer stage. RESULTS: The primary results showed that FLG mutations were not associated with the risk of cervical cancer (6.3% of cases and 7.7% of controls were carriers; OR adjusted 0.81, 95% CI 0.57-1.14; OR adjusted+ weighted 0.96, 95% CI 0.58-1.57). Among cases, FLG mutations increased...

  2. Mitochondrial DNA variation analysis in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Bhat, Samatha; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Mallya, Sandeep; Bhat, Manoj; Pandey, Deeksha; Kushtagi, Pralhad; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Gopinath, P M; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2014-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in non-malignant and malignant cervical tissue samples. We have identified 229 and 739 variations non-malignant and malignant tissues respectively distributed over 321 locations in the D-loop (50 in non-malignant and 166 in malignant; 216 variations), coding region (139 in non-malignant and 455 in malignant; 594 variations) tRNA and rRNA genes (39 in non-malignant and 119 in malignant; 158 variations). Besides, 77 novel and 34 various other disease associated variations were identified in non-malignant and malignant samples. A total of 236 tumor specific variations in 201 locations representing 30.1% in D-loop, 59.3% in coding regions and 10.6% in RNA genes were also identified. Our study shows that D loop (in 67 locations) is highly altered followed by ND5 (35 locations) region. Moreover, mtDNA alterations were significantly higher in malignant samples by two tailed Fisher's exact test (P≤0.05) with decreased mtDNA copy numbers. Bioinformatic analysis of 59 non-synonymous changes predicted several variations as damaging leading to decreased stability of the proteins. Taken together, mtDNA is highly altered in cervical cancer and functional studies are needed to be investigated to understand the consequence of these variations in cervical carcinogenesis and their potential application as biomarkers. PMID:23851045

  3. Why is there no progress against cervical cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M M

    1996-01-01

    The author reflects on the disheartening report given by Dr. E. Jean Parboosingh and associates on Canadian screening programs for cervical cancer (see pages 1847 to 1853 of this issue). Although cancer of the cervix is one of the few preventable forms of cancer, little progress has been made toward the establishment of programs to control this disease. Barriers to progress include a lack of priority given to women's health issues, insufficient public awareness of cervical cancer, the absence...

  4. Progress and controversies in developing cancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speiser Daniel E

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Immunotherapy has become a standard approach for cancer management, through the use of cytokines (eg: interleukin-2 and monoclonal antibodies. Cancer vaccines hold promise as another form of immunotherapy, and there has been substantial progress in identifying shared antigens recognized by T cells, in developing vaccine approaches that induce antigen-specific T cell responses in cancer patients, and in developing new technology for monitoring immune responses in various human tissue compartments. Dramatic clinical regressions of human solid tumors have occurred with some cancer vaccines, but the rate of those responses remains low. This article is part of a 2-part point:counterpoint series on peptide vaccines and adoptive therapy approaches for cancer. The current status of cancer vaccination, and associated challenges, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the need to increase our knowledge of cancer immunobiology, as well as to improve monitoring of cellular immune function after vaccination. Progress in both areas will facilitate development of effective cancer vaccines, as well as of adoptive therapy. Effective cancer vaccines promise to be useful for treatment and prevention of cancer at low cost and with low morbidity.

  5. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  6. HPV Vaccination in India: Critical Appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Nigam; Pikee Saxena; Acharya, Anita S; Archana Mishra; Swaraj Batra

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. The role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the genesis of cervical carcinoma is well documented. The HPV 16 and 18 are found to be most commonly associated with invasive cervical carcinoma. The advent of cervical carcinoma vaccine has advanced the hopes that eradication of cervical carcinoma might be possible in future. The scenario of prevention of cervical carcinoma is completely different in developed and developing countr...

  7. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  8. Targeting Human Papillomavirus to Reduce the Burden of Cervical, Vulvar and Vaginal Cancer and Pre-Invasive Neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygard, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination with c...

  9. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical screening recommendations for both breast and cervical cancer on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  10. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and...

  11. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cervical cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilancheran, Arunachalam

    2016-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer encountered in pregnancy. The standard treatment of early cervical cancer is usually surgical removal of the cervix (in selected cases) or, more commonly, the uterus. However, when cervical cancer develops during pregnancy, definitive surgical treatment often needs to be postponed until the fetus reaches maturity. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is an innovative approach in the management of these patients. It helps in controlling the disease and delaying delivery. The paper presents a literature review of the history of NACT, as well as practice points and agenda for further research. PMID:26536815

  12. Profile and retrospective analysis of the use of preventive strategies in patients with cervical cancer in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey Goddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy of the female genital tract in developing countries, with a global burden of 530,000 new cases annually. This study aims to review the current situation of this important malignancy and to assess the previous use of preventive measures in patients with cervical cancer at the Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of all cases of cervical cancer managed at the UPTH, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between 1 January 2008 and 31 December, 2012. Results: The prevalence of cervical cancer was 3.53% of all gynaecological admissions. The peak age of incidence was 50-59 years, accounting for 40% of the study population. Women with high parity contributed to 93.3% of the study population. Early coitarche was observed in 78.7% and a history of multiple sexual partners in 65.3%. Vaginal bleeding was the commonest clinical feature seen in all the women studied, followed by pelvic pain in 84% of cases. Advanced-stage cervical cancer was seen in 93.4%. None of the women studied had been previously vaccinated against human papilloma virus (HPV, and only 1.3% had had any form of screening methods for early detection of cervical cancer. Conclusion: Cervical cancer remains an important cancer in our environment, and late presentation with advance disease is still the norm despite advances in screening and preventive modalities. The reason for this is buttressed on the finding that despite the availability of these preventive strategies, women in the South-South of Nigeria did not partake of these measures. There is an urgent need to develop programmes to re-sensitise women on the need for screening and vaccination to reduce cancer-associated morbidity and mortality in Port Harcourt, South-South Nigeria.

  13. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC POSSIBILITIES IN THE PROPHYLAXIS OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Wrześniewska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Poland is one of the countries with high cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The main means to change this situation is to manage an active and modern programme of cervical cancer prophylaxis and diagnostics. To a large extent, the effectiveness of a cervical cancer prophylaxis programme is decided by the availability of modern diagnostic research. The conventional Papanicolaou test and modern LBC cytology techniques were discussed in the article, taking into consideration HPV diagnostics in the procedures for carefully selected cytological diagnosis, in the so called in-depth stage of preventive screening tests and the role of the p16 biomarker in predicting the development of a higher degree of epithelial-cell pathologies of the cervix. Colposcopy as a diagnostic method for the verification of cytological and virological abnormalities. The modern LEEP/LLETZ procedure used in diagnosis and treatment of cervical changes is used to realise the in-depth stage of cervical cancer prophylaxis programmes.

  14. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  15. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  16. Hazardous Consequences of Polygamy, Contraceptives and Number of Childs on cervical cancer in a low incoming country: Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed ASADUZZAMAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the one of the most alarming disease among female in the low incoming country like Bangladesh. The societies of Bangladesh are conservative because of lacking education and consciousness. The information on Bangladeshi female’s cervical cancer factors is not available. Purpose: To retrieve the associations among the factors with cervical cancer and to raise awareness among the women of society. Methods: A case-control study has been acquitted on 426 participants of both patients and non-patients from February 2014 till July 2014. Through a precise questionnaire based on former study the whole data collection process done. For analyzing of data some tasks like binary logistic regression, odds ratio, crosstabs and p-value tests have executed. Results: Factors like First sex at the age below 16, Lack of knowledge about cervical cancer, number of children above 3, STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection affection, previous cervical cancer history are founded highly significant on the other hand oral contraception taken, contraception used and vaccine taken factors are significantly lower than the previous factors. Conclusions: The analysis would help to predict the risk factors of the cervical cancer and may help to diminish the cancer not only from Bangladesh but all over the world.

  17. LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY ON CHROMOSOME 17p13.3 IN OVARIAN CANCER AND CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guoling; Yang Huijian; Xu Kaili; Zhou Jin; Qin Ruidi; Lu Minghua

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To identify the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 17p13.3 in ovarian cancer and cervical cancer. Methods: The frequency of LOH on chromosome 17p13.3 in DNA samples from 24 ovarian cancers, 9 cervical cancers, and 13 non-malignant gynecological diseases were determined respectively, using Southern blot method with probe PYNZ.22. Results:LOH on 17p13.3 was found in 12 of 24 (50.0%) ovarian cancers (including a borderline mucinous cystadenoma), 4of 9 (44.4%) cervical carcinomas, and 1 of 13 (7.7%) nonmalignant gynecological diseases, which was cervical intraepithelial neoplasm HI (CIN Ⅲ) (P<0.01).Conclusion: These results show that LOH on 17p13.3 is associated with ovarian cancer and cervical cancer,suggesting that detection of LOH on 17p13.3 may be helpful to understand the molecular pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and cervical cancer.

  18. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of cervical cancer screening among Greek students: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakogianni, Giannoula D; Goutsou, Spiridoula C; Liti, Maria V; Rizopoulou, Sophia I; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos M; Nikolakopoulou, Nikoleta M

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of death in the developing world. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is a screening test that detects abnormal cells before they advance to cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of cervical cancer screening among Greek students. A sample of 472 female students participated in the present study. Interviews were performed using a structured questionnaire. Of the participants, 94.07% were aware of the Pap test and 67.34% reported that the Pap test should be done yearly. The majority of them were informed about cervical cancer screening test by their parents. Of the participants, 44.82% had received Pap testing at least once in their life, whereas 36.2% had a Pap test yearly. The reported mean time of the respondents' first Pap test was 13.3±10.6 months after their first sexual intercourse. The reasons given by the participants for being noncompliant were lack of appreciation of the importance of the screening, embarrassment, fear, and high cost. Of the participants, 9.23% declared that those who had been administered the human papillomavirus vaccine do not need a Pap test. The results highlight the need for additional education and health promotion regarding cervical cancer screening. PMID:23183733

  19. Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  20. Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection-Associated Risk of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of cervical cancer is controversial in the literature, we performed a meta-analysis. Based on a comprehensive search of publications in the Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases, we identified and extracted data from all relevant articles examining C. trachomatis infection and the risk of cervical cancer. The quality of each included study was assessed according to the 9-star Newcastle–Ottawa scale. The strength of association between the C. trachomatis and risk of cervical cancer was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This review was registered at PROSPERO with registration No. CRD42014015672. A total of 22 studies with 4291 cervical cancer cases and 7628 controls were identified. Overall, C. trachomatis was significantly linked to increased cervical cancer risk in prospective studies (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.88–2.61, P papilloma virus and C. trachomatis has a higher risk of cervical cancer (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 3.15–5.16, P papilloma virus infections. This approach will not only protect against pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility, but may also prevent cervical cancer. PMID:27043670

  1. STUDY OF DEPRESSION IN WOMEN WITH CERVICAL AND BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : There is considerable lack of scientific estimate of depressive disorder among cancer patients in India. OBJECTIVES : (1 To associate the depressive disorders between the cervical cancer and breast cancer patients and (2 to compare the level of depressi on score among cervical and breast cancer patients , and with medically ill inpatient population with some other medical illnesses. SETTING AND DESIGN: A cross - sectional study at inpatient Department of Bharath Cancer Hospital and JSS Medical College Hospit al , Mysore. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study was conducted on admitted thirty breast and thirty cervical cancer inpatients in medical ward of JSS Hospital and Bharath Cancer Hospital , Mysore from D ecember 2007 to august 2009. Data analysis was done for the both groups of cancer and with thirty control group of medically ill inpatient population with some other medical illnesses. Detailed psychological , sociodemographic characteristics were recorded in proforma specially designed for the study. Depression was assessed using MINI plus , HAMD scale and scoring was done. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Descriptive statistics , Cross tabs procedure , r epeated measure ANOVA statistical methods were carried out through the SPSS for Windows (version 16.0. RESULTS: Major depressi ve disorder was present in 16.7% of breast cancer and 23.3% of cervical cancer patients. . There was no significant asso ciation between type of cancer (B reast cancer and cervical cancer and depressive disorder. Depression score was found high in cervical c ancer cases compare to breast cancer cases though difference in these scores were not statistically significant in between two cancer groups. Depression score was high and significant in both cancer groups as compare to control group. CONCLUSION : Depressio n is more prevalent in cancer patients than in other several medical illneses and adequate knowledge is required for psychosocial interventions and designing

  2. Youtube as a source of information on cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Accurate information about cervical cancer to general public can lower the burden of the disease including its mortality. Aims: We aimed to look at the quality of information available in YouTube for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: We searched YouTube (http://www.youtube.com for videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. Videos were then analyzed for their source and content of information. Results: We studied 172 videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. We found that there were videos describing the personal stories, risk factors, and the importance of screening. However, videos discussing all the aspects of cancers were lacking. Likewise, videos from the reputed organization were also lacking. Conclusion: Although there were numerous videos available in cervical cancer, videos from reputed organizations including Center for Disease Control and Prevention, American Cancer Society, and World Health Organization were lacking. We strongly believe that quality videos from such organizations via YouTube can help lower the burden of disease.

  3. Cervical cytology in serous and endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofsen, Thijs; Geels, Yvette P; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; van Ham, Maaike A P C; Zomer, Saskia F; van Tilburg, Johanna M Wiersma; Snijders, Marc P M L; Siebers, Albert G; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. In this multicentre study, EEC patients diagnosed at two hospitals from 1999 to 2009 and UPSC patients diagnosed at five hospitals from 1992 to 2009, were included. Revision of the histologic slides was performed systematically and independently by 3 gynecopathologists. Cervical cytology within six months before histopathologic diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma was available for 267 EEC and 80 UPSC patients. Cervical cytology with atypical, malignant, or normal endometrial cells in postmenopausal women was considered as abnormal cytology, specific for endometrial pathology. Abnormal cervical cytology was found in 87.5% of UPSC patients, compared with 37.8% in EEC patients. In UPSC, abnormal cytology was associated with extrauterine spread of disease (P=0.043). In EEC, abnormal cytology was associated with cervical involvement (P=0.034). In both EEC and UPSC patients, abnormal cervical cytology was not associated with survival. In conclusion, abnormal cervical cytology was more frequently found in UPSC patients. It was associated with extrauterine disease in UPSC patients, and with cervical involvement in EEC patients. More prospective research should be performed to assess the true clinical value of preoperative cervical cytology in endometrial cancer patients. PMID:23722512

  4. Knowledge of young Polish women of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Biała

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HPV infection is the most frequent sexually transmitted disease and a major epidemiological problem in the world. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are responsible for over 70.0% cases of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of young women concerning HPV infection as well as possibilities of cervical cancer prevention. Moreover, the study had to determine which groups of young women especially required educational campaigns. Material and methods. The questionnaire survey was carried out among 126 young Polish women aged 18–35. The results were statistically analyzed. Results. The survey found that 41.3% women had heard about HPV before interview. Nearly 38.5% of women correctly indicated the occurrence of cancer which is associated with HPV infection. About 23.0% of women received a vaccination against HPV, only 19.2% of women correctly identified who should be subjected to vaccination. The best knowledge about cervical cancer and disease prevention was manifested among female university graduates and groups living in urban areas. Those women also more often underwent cytological screening. Conclusions. Educational campaigns should particularly include group of women living in the rural areas and women with primary and secondary education.

  5. Women health professionals’ knowledge regarding the cervical cancer, and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesouli-Voltyraki E.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge of women health professionals regarding thecervical cancer and the capabilities of secondary prevention. Material and method: 151 women health professionals,aged 18-65 years old took part in the study. A cloded–type questionnaire, consisting of 66 items was used.Descriptive statistics was applied. Results: 64 % of women knew that cervical cancer is curable to a great extent.Less than half women of the sample (Ν=57, 38% answered that cervical cancer is related to sexual activity. 46% ofthe women knew that Pap test is the base of prevention One out of ten women ignored the method of prevention,while 76% believed it is a very frequent disease. 40% did not know exactly the purpose of the test. Conclusion:Women health professionals’ knowledge regarding cervical cancer is deficient. The introduction of educationalprograms on cervical cancer prevention issues is necessary.

  6. Needs and priorities of women with endometrial and cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Mette Moustgaard; Mogensen, Ole; Dehn, Pernille;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rehabilitation after cancer is important, and efficient rehabilitation requires knowledge of patient's needs. This study aimed to identify short-term rehabilitation needs of women with endometrial and cervical cancer. METHODS: Ninety-six women (82.6%) were included in an exploratory......-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. RESULTS: Forty-four of the included women were diagnosed with cervical cancer (median age 45 years). Of these, 22 had FIGO-stage 1 disease (50%) and 23 received radiation therapy (52.3%). The remaining 52 women (median age 66.5 years) were diagnosed...... with endometrial cancer. Of these, 38 had FIGO-stage 1 disease (73.1%) and 25 were treated with laparoscopic surgery (48.1%). Emotional functioning was significantly worse prior to treatment in both the cancers (p cervical and p = 0.002 endometrial) and worry constituted an unmet need in 70.7% of cervical...

  7. High aldehyde dehydrogenase activity identifies cancer stem cells in human cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shu-Yan; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity characterizes a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in several malignancies. To clarify whether ALDH can be used as a marker of cervical cancer stem cells (CCSCs), ALDHhigh and ALDHlow cells were sorted from 4 cervical cancer cell lines and 5 primary tumor xenografts and examined for CSC characteristics. Here, we demonstrate that cervical cancer cells with high ALDH activity fulfill the functional criteria for CSCs: (1) ALD...

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Makuza, Jean Damascène; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Muhimpundu, Marie Aimee; Pace, Lydia Eleanor; Ntaganira, Joseph; Riedel, David James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer prevalence in Rwanda has not been well-described. Visual inspection with acetic acid or Lugol solution has been shown to be effective for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings. The aim of the study is to understand the prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre- cancerous lesions among Rwandan women between 30 and 50 old undergoing screening. Methods This cross-sectional analytical study was done in 3 districts of Rwanda from October 2010...

  9. Chromosomal instability as a prognostic marker in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women globally, and despite treatment, distant metastasis and nodal recurrence will still develop in approximately 30% of patients. The ability to predict which patients are likely to experience distant relapse would allow clinicians to better tailor treatment. Previous studies have investigated the role of chromosomal instability (CIN) in cancer, which can promote tumour initiation and growth; a hallmark of human malignancies. In this study, we sought to examine the published CIN70 gene signature in a cohort of cervical cancer patients treated at the Princess Margaret (PM) Cancer Centre and an independent cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cervical cancer patients, to determine if this CIN signature associated with patient outcome. Cervical cancer samples were collected from 79 patients, treated between 2000–2007 at the PM, prior to undergoing curative chemo-radiation. Total RNA was extracted from each patient sample and analyzed using the GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 array (Affymetrix). High CIN70 scores were significantly related to increased chromosomal alterations in TCGA cervical cancer patients, including a higher percentage of genome altered and a higher number of copy number alterations. In addition, this same CIN70 signature was shown to be predictive of para-aortic nodal relapse in the PM Cancer Centre cohort. These findings demonstrate that chromosomal instability plays an important role in cervical cancer, and is significantly associated with patient outcome. For the first time, this CIN70 gene signature provided prognostic value for patients with cervical cancer

  10. Evaluation of quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine efficacy against cervical and anogenital disease in subjects with serological evidence of prior vaccine type HPV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Sven-Eric; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján;

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL((R))/SILGARD((R))) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical...... disease. Of the remaining women, 15% of had evidence of past infection with one or more vaccine HPV types (seropositive and DNA negative) at the time of enrollment. Here we present an analysis in this group of women to determine the efficacy of the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine against new cervical and external...... anogenital disease related to the same vaccine HPV type which had previously been cleared. Vaccine tolerability in this previously infected population was also assessed. Results: Subjects were followed for an average of 40 months. Seven subjects in the placebo group developed cervical disease, and eight...

  11. Cervical cancer in Indigenous women: The case of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Geordan D; Franco, Oscar H; Powles, John; Leng, Yue; Pashayan, Nora

    2011-11-01

    Globally, health inequities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations exist. The disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians is exemplified by cervical cancer. Current evidence suggests that Indigenous women have higher age standardised incidence and mortality than non-Indigenous women when adjusted for stage at diagnosis and co-morbidities; however, there is little information pertaining to national estimates of cervical cancer in Indigenous women. In this paper we review available evidence on the difference in occurrence and case fatality of cervical cancer among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women. The Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and State- or Territory-based Cancer Registries were utilised to collect surveillance data. To corroborate existing data, further available journal literature was identified through Medline and Embase. All papers selected for review were cross-referenced to identify further relevant studies. The most recent national estimate of age-standardised cervical cancer incidence rate was 16.9 and 7.1 per 100,000 women-years in Indigenous and non-Indigenous women respectively (incidence ratio 2.4). The Indigenous age-standardised mortality rate was 9.9 per 100,000 women years (95% CI 7.1-13.3), over 5 times the non-Indigenous rate. Cervical cancer incidence, in both Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, has decreased since 1991. Despite the decline, age-standardised incidence among Indigenous women is still higher than non-Indigenous women. The pattern of cervical cancer incidence and survival corroborates the health inequities that exist in Australia. Indigenous women are more likely than non-Indigenous women to develop cervical cancer and are less likely to survive it. Similar patterns exist in Indigenous populations worldwide, such as New Zealander Maoris and Canadian Aboriginals, suggesting that high rates of cervical cancer incidence and

  12. Survival analysis of cervical cancer using stratified Cox regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, S. W.; Inayati, K. D.; Sari, N. W. Wulan; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the mostly widely cancer cause of the women death in the world including Indonesia. Most cervical cancer patients come to the hospital already in an advanced stadium. As a result, the treatment of cervical cancer becomes more difficult and even can increase the death's risk. One of parameter that can be used to assess successfully of treatment is the probability of survival. This study raises the issue of cervical cancer survival patients at Dr. Soetomo Hospital using stratified Cox regression based on six factors such as age, stadium, treatment initiation, companion disease, complication, and anemia. Stratified Cox model is used because there is one independent variable that does not satisfy the proportional hazards assumption that is stadium. The results of the stratified Cox model show that the complication variable is significant factor which influent survival probability of cervical cancer patient. The obtained hazard ratio is 7.35. It means that cervical cancer patient who has complication is at risk of dying 7.35 times greater than patient who did not has complication. While the adjusted survival curves showed that stadium IV had the lowest probability of survival.

  13. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality in New Mexico's Hispanics, American Indians, and non-Hispanic whites.

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, T M; Wheeler, C. M.; Key, C R; Samet, J M

    1992-01-01

    High rates of cervical cancer were reported in New Mexico in the early 1970s, with especially high rates for minority women. We examined data collected from 1970 to 1987 for invasive cervical cancer and cervical carcinoma in situ for New Mexico's Hispanic, American Indian, and non-Hispanic white women to determine whether changes had occurred in cervical cancer rates since earlier reports. To further characterize the epidemiology of cervical cancer in New Mexico, we reviewed state vital stati...

  14. Prognostic significance of annexin A2 and annexin A4 expression in patients with cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chel Hun; Chung, Joon-Yong; Chung, Eun Joo; Sears, John D.; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Hewitt, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The annexins (ANXs) have diverse roles in tumor development and progression, however, their clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been elucidated. The present study was to investigate the clinical significance of annexin A2 (ANXA2) and annexin A4 (ANXA4) expression in cervical cancer. Methods ANXA2 and ANXA4 immunohistochemical staining were performed on a cervical cancer tissue microarray consisting of 46 normal cervical epithelium samples and 336 cervical cancer cases ...

  15. A risk evaluation model of cervical cancer based on etiology and human leukocyte antigen allele susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bicheng Hu; Ning Tao; Fanyu Zeng; Min Zhao; Lixin Qiu; Wen Chen; Yun Tan; Yun Wei; Xufeng Wu; Xinxing Wu

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no reliable risk factors to accurately predict progression to cervical cancer in patients with chronic cervicitis infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). The aim of this study was to create a validated predictive model based on the risk factors for cervical cancer. A model to estimate the risk of cervical cancer may help select patients for intervention therapy in order to reduce the occurrence of cervical cancer after HPV infection. Methods: This retrospective anal...

  16. Intestinal obstructions following the cervical cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-six intestinal obstructions occured among 2149 patients of cervical cancer treated during period 1961 - 1975. They are divided into four groups, that is, 1.29 cases living with no signs of recurrence after the treatment for obstructions, 2.7 cases that died of obstructions or of complications from its treatment, 3.6 cases that once cured from the obstructions but died from the cancer more than one year after the treatment, 4.24 cases that died from the cancer within one year after the treatment for obstructions. With significantly high incidence, intestinal obstructions are observed with the post-operatory irradiation over 5,000 rads to the whole pelvis or post operatory irradiation using combined telecobalt and small sources. The common sites of obstructions are small intestine to the operated group and sigmoid colon or rectum to the radiotherapy group. Twenty-nine of the patients were treated conservatively and of them 15 are living, intestinal resections and end to end anastomoses were performed to 8 patients, 5 of them are living, but 7 of them suffered from wound disruptions, so the indication for this operation should be carefully decided. (auth.)

  17. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  18. IMAGE-GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY AND -BRACHYTHERAPY FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh eDutta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional radiotherapy for cervical cancer relies on clinical examination, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT, and 2-dimensional intracavitary brachytherapy.Excellent local control and survival have been obtained for small early stage cervical cancer with definitive radiotherapy. For bulky and locally advanced disease, the addition of chemotherapy has improved the prognosis but toxicity remains significant. New imaging technology such as positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has improved tumor delineation for radiotherapy planning. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT may decrease treatment toxicity of whole pelvic radiation because of its potential for bone marrow, bowel, and bladder sparring. Tumor shrinkage during whole pelvic IGRT may optimize image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT, allowing for better local control and reduced toxicity for patients with cervical cancer. IGRT and IGBT should be integrated in future prospective studies for cervical cancer.

  19. Bevacizumab improves survival for patients with advanced cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis

  20. Image-guided radiotherapy and -brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suresh; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Vock, Jacqueline; Kerr, Christine; Godinez, Juan; Bose, Satya; Jang, Siyoung; Chi, Alexander; Almeida, Fabio; Woods, William; Desai, Anand; David, Rick; Karlsson, Ulf Lennart; Altdorfer, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiotherapy for cervical cancer relies on clinical examination, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional intracavitary brachytherapy. Excellent local control and survival have been obtained for small early stage cervical cancer with definitive radiotherapy. For bulky and locally advanced disease, the addition of chemotherapy has improved the prognosis but toxicity remains significant. New imaging technology such as positron-emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has improved tumor delineation for radiotherapy planning. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) may decrease treatment toxicity of whole pelvic radiation because of its potential for bone marrow, bowel, and bladder sparring. Tumor shrinkage during whole pelvic IGRT may optimize image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT), allowing for better local control and reduced toxicity for patients with cervical cancer. IGRT and IGBT should be integrated in future prospective studies for cervical cancer. PMID:25853092

  1. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Pedersen, Gitte; Junge, Jette; Helleberg, Marie; Storgaard, Merete; Obel, Niels; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH in...... hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are...

  2. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  3. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, S; Jensen-Fangel, S;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical......, which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were...... in both groups were adherent to the national ICC screening programme and had a normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH developed more cervical disease than controls. Yet, in WLWH and controls adherent to the national ICC screening programme...

  4. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  5. Therapeutic antitumor response to cervical cancer in mice immunized with U14 vaccines transfected with costimulatory B7 gene%转染B7基因的U14疫苗对小鼠宫颈癌的防治作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶光实; 邹红卫; 林秋华; 刘凤英; 吴宜林; 胡锦跃; 孙去病

    2001-01-01

    -diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Results We obtained several B7-1 high expression clonal U14 lines. In vivo experiment, we did not find tumor growing in 3 of the 6 mice primed by B7+U14 vaccine during their entire life after re-challenge with U14. The other 3 mice developed tumors and their average survival time was longer than that of the control group (P<0.01). All 6 mice grew tumors in the control group. When the transplanted tumors became palpable, the mice were randomly divided into 3 groups to be injected with B7+U14 vaccine. It was effective for tumor-bearing mice only when the tumor diameters were <3?mm. When the diameters were ≥3?mm, it was not efficacious to inject B7+U14 vaccine (P<0.05). In vitro cytotoxicity assay, cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced by B7+U14 vaccine had a higher cytotoxicity against U14 than that induced by U14 vaccine (F=310.8, P<0.001). Conclusions Vaccines of cervical cancer cells transfected with the costimulatory molecule B7 gene can induce antitumor immune protection in host mice against U14 re-challenge. This treatment may cure part of the tumor-bearing mice but be restricted by tumor size. The results suggest that transfecting the B7 gene into cervical cancer as a cell vaccine may be an efficient supplementary method to treat cervical cancer after operation.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Haiyan Zhu, Hui Luo, Wenwen Zhang, Zhaojun Shen, Xiaoli Hu, Xueqiong Zhu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%–20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to tr...

  7. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu H; Luo H; Zhang W; Shen Z; Hu X; Zhu X

    2016-01-01

    Haiyan Zhu, Hui Luo, Wenwen Zhang, Zhaojun Shen, Xiaoli Hu, Xueqiong Zhu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%–20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to treat the ...

  8. Quality of Care in Women With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Joseph; Polissar, Lincoln; Tamimi, Hisham K.

    1982-01-01

    A study was done to assess the quality of care received by women with stage I cervical cancer. Through a population-based registry serving 13 counties of western Washington, including Seattle, we identified all women residents in whom local-stage cervical cancer developed between January 1974 and December 1978 (N=369). The cases were subdivided into stage IA (microinvasive) and stage IB (frankly invasive). Quality of care was defined as optimal or suboptimal at the outset of the study; this d...

  9. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections. Expression of two viral ...

  10. Socioeconomic Disparities across Ethnicities: An Application to Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, B.; O'Neill, C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim is to investigate socioeconomic disparities in cervical cancer screening utilization among and between ethnic groups in the United States. Study Design: Observational study. Methods: Data on 26,338 women aged 21 to 64 years were obtained from the 2007 to 2011 years of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Data on cervical cancer screening utilization in the preceding 12 months and 3 years, and a range of sociodemographic characteristics were included. Analyses were...

  11. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vania Reis Girianelli; Carmen Justina Gamarra; Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010) were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, ...

  12. Quality of life characteristics inpatients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Jensen, Pernille T; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic;

    2012-01-01

    Annually about 500,000 women worldwide are diagnosed with cervical cancer. For many patients, young age at the time of diagnosis and a good prognosis regarding the disease imply a long life with the side-effects and sequels of various treatment options. The present study investigated the extent...... to which different quality of life (QoL) domains in patients during and after treatment for cervical cancer are affected according to menopausal status, treatment status and treatment modality....

  13. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W; Dillner, J; Tornberg, S; Sparen, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  14. [Current Status and Perspective of Chemoradiotherapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toita, Takafumi; Ariga, Takuro; Kasuya, Goro; Hashimoto, Seiji; Maemoto, Hitoshi; Heianna, Joichi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2015-10-01

    Fifteen years has passed since the NCI announced the clinical importance of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in radiotherapy for patients with locoregionally advanced uterine cervical cancer. Numerous clinical trials have been performed to further improve the outcomes of CCRT. In addition to investigations of chemotherapeutic regimens and schedules, adaptation of novel radiotherapy methods such as image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is encouraged in CCRT for cervical cancer. PMID:26489545

  15. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  16. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL), 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression

  17. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks. PMID:24863746

  18. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  19. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination. PMID:19901435

  20. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm

  1. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Hang Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.

  2. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin Hang, E-mail: shlee01@snet.net; Vigliotti, Jessica S.; Vigliotti, Veronica S.; Jones, William [Department of Pathology, Milford Hospital, 300 Seaside Ave., Milford, CT 06460 (United States)

    2014-10-02

    The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.

  3. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  4. Synthetic Self-Adjuvanting Glycopeptide Cancer Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard; McDonald, David; Byrne, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Due to changes in glycosyltransferase expression during tumorigenesis, the glycoproteins of cancer cells often carry highly truncated carbohydrate chains compared to those on healthy cells. These glycans are known as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and are prime targets for use in vaccines for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Herein, we review the state-of-the-art in targeting the immune system towards tumor-associated glycopeptide antigens via synthetic self adjuvanting vaccines, in which the antigenic and adjuvanting moieties of the vaccines are present in the same molecule. The majority of the self-adjuvanting glycopeptide cancer vaccines reported to date employ antigens from mucin 1, a protein which is highly over-expressed and aberrantly glycosylated in many forms of cancer. The adjuvants used in these vaccines predominantly include lipopeptide- or lipoamino acid-based TLR2 agonists, although studies investigating stimulation of TLR9 and TLR4 are also discussed. Most of these adjuvants are highly lipophilic, and, upon conjugation to antigenic peptides, provide amphiphilic vaccine molecules. The amphiphilic nature of these vaccine constructs can lead to the formation of higher-order structures by vaccines in solution, which are likely to be important for their efficacy in vivo.

  5. Distribution of Human papilloma virus genotypes in cervical cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in Serbia are among the highest in Europe and data on Human papilloma virus (HPV type distribution are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV types in archival specimens of cervical cancer tissues of women in the Serbian population. A total of 45 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of cervical carcinoma were used in this study. The procedure included deparaffinization of tissue samples, DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis and HPV genotyping by direct sequencing. HPV was detected in 32 samples (71%. Genotyping revealed the presence of 6 high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 33, 45, 53 and 58, where HPV type 16 was the most prevalent type (73.7%. The results of this study and further studies will provide more detailed information about HPV genotype distribution and may contribute to the formulation of national guidelines for the prevention of cervical cancer. [175073

  6. Small cell cervical cancer: an unusual finding at cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, Emily

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare cancer, comprising less than 3% of all cervical neoplasms. It uniformly has a poor prognosis, and has a high mortality even with early stage disease. It can metastasise rapidly and metastatic sites include lung, liver, brain, bone, pancreas and lymph nodes. CASE: Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman with no symptoms of cervical pathology who developed post-renal failure following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cause was bilateral ureteric obstruction from metastatic small cell cervical cancer and metastases were subsequently found on her gallbladder specimen. CONCLUSION: This is an unusual presentation of small cell cervical cancer and demonstrates the aggressive nature of this disease.

  7. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV infections. Expression of two viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, in epithelial stem cells is required to initiate and maintain cervical carcinogenesis and results in significant overexpression of the cellular p16INK4a protein. Since this protein is not expressed in normal cervical squamous epithelia, screening for p16INK4a over-expressing cells allows to specifically identify dysplastic lesions, and significantly reduces the inter-observer disagreement of the conventional cytological or histological tests. Progression of preneoplastic lesions to invasive cancers is associated with extensive recombination of viral and cellular genomes which can be monitored by detection of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts (APOT assay derived from integrated viral genome copies. Detection of integrated type oncogene transcripts points to far advanced dysplasia or invasive cancers and thus represents a progression marker for cervical lesions. These new assays discussed here will help to improve current limitations in cervical cancer screening, diagnosis, and therapy control.

  8. In vivo expression of immunosuppressive cytokines in human papillomavirus-transformed cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer-González, Juan Manuel; Berumen, Jaime; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Moreno, José; Gariglio, Patricio; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    Genital human Papillomavirus infection is common and only a minor fraction of infected subjects develop progressing cervical epithelial lesions or cancer. Bypassing local immune responses is important for the development of cervical cancer. In this work we determined the cytokine pattern in samples from patients with cervical cancer. Thus, we examined the local mRNA expression profile of helper T cell type 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th3 cytokines in HPV-positive cervical cancer biopsies by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our data indicate that 80% of the tumors expressed low levels of CD4 mRNA, with all of them expressing higher CD8 mRNA levels. Most tumors expressed interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 mRNAs and, most importantly, all of them expressed transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and interferon gamma mRNA. None of the tumors studied expressed IL-12, IL-6, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mRNA. Immunohistochemical analysis identified IL-10 only in tumor cells and koilocytic cells, but not in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, suggesting that IL-10-producing cells are those transformed by HPV. We found a correlation between immunostaining for IL-10 protein and the level of IL-10 mRNA expression. Moreover, supernatants from HPV-transformed cell cultures contained IL-10 and TGF- beta1. Our findings indicate a predominant expression of immunosuppressive cytokines, which might help downregulate tumor-specific immune responses in the microenvironment of the tumor. This information may be useful for cervical cancer immunotherapies or for therapeutic vaccine design against Human Papillomavirus. PMID:16987066

  9. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español ( ... vaccines are available to prevent the human papillomavirus (HPV) types that cause most cervical cancers as well ...

  10. The pharmaceuticalization of sexual risk: vaccine development and the new politics of cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura; Epstein, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine development is a core component of pharmaceutical industry activity and a key site for studying pharmaceuticalization processes. In recent decades, two so-called cancer vaccines have entered the U.S. medical marketplace: a vaccine targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent liver cancers and a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical and other cancers. These viruses are two of six sexually transmissible infectious agents (STIs) that are causally linked to the development of cancers; collectively they reference an expanding approach to apprehending cancer that focuses attention simultaneously "inward" toward biomolecular processes and "outward" toward risk behaviors, sexual practices, and lifestyles. This paper juxtaposes the cases of HBV and HPV and their vaccine trajectories to analyze how vaccines, like pharmaceuticals more generally, are emblematic of contemporary pharmaceuticalization processes. We argue that individualized risk, in this case sexual risk, is produced and treated by scientific claims of links between STIs and cancers and through pharmaceutical company and biomedical practices. Simultaneous processes of sexualization and pharmaceuticalization mark these cases. Our comparison demonstrates that these processes are not uniform, and that the production of risks, subjects, and bodies depends not only on the specificities of vaccine development but also on the broader political and cultural frames within which sexuality is understood. PMID:24560236

  11. Second primary cancers in survivors of cervical cancer in the Netherlands: Implications for prevention and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: We investigated the effects of socio-demographic, treatment- and tumor-specific determinants on the risk of developing a second malignancy among patients treated for cervical cancer. Material and methods: We included patients with a first cervical cancer (N = 12,048) from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR), 1989–2008. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and absolute excess risks (AER) per 10,000 person-years were calculated to estimate the burden of second cancers in cervical cancer survivors. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed to identify predictors for second cancers among cervical cancer survivors. Results: During the study period, 676 (5.6%) patients were diagnosed with a second cancer. Smoking-related cancers contributed the most to the overall burden of second cancers (AER = 21) and risks remained elevated after 10 years of follow-up (SIR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.2), yet it decreased markedly in the younger birth cohorts. Cervical cancer survivors who underwent radiotherapy were at higher risk for a second tumor when compared to those without radiotherapy, especially at smoking-related sites (IRR = 1.6 (1.2–2.3)). Conclusion: Patients with cervical cancer had a significantly increased risk for a second cancer compared to the general population, especially for smoking- and irradiation-related tumors. Long-term follow-up suggested the importance of smoking cessation and the benefits of counseling cervical cancer patients accordingly, particularly those who received radiotherapy

  12. Human Papillomavirus Research on the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Prognosis of Cervical Cancer in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chyong-Huey Lai; Angel Chao; Huei-Jean Huang

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is third in incidence and fourth in mortality among cancers of women worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, if not sufficient, to cause nearly 100% of cervical cancers. HPV testing is useful in primary screening for cervical neoplasms. The value of HPV detection or genotyping is potentially useful in triage of borderline or low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, follow-up after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,...

  13. Coverage of Jade Goody's cervical cancer in UK newspapers: a missed opportunity for health promotion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Kate

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been claimed that publicity surrounding popular celebrity Jade Goody's experience of cervical cancer will raise awareness about the disease. This study examines the content of newspaper articles covering her illness to consider whether 'mobilising information' which could encourage women to adopt risk-reducing and health promoting behaviours has been included. Methods Content analysis of 15 national newspapers published between August 2008 and April 2009 Findings In the extensive coverage of Goody's illness (527 articles in the 7 months of study few newspaper articles included information that might make women more aware of the signs and symptoms or risk factors for the disease, or discussed the role of the human papilloma virus (HPV and the recently introduced HPV vaccination programme to reduce the future incidence of cervical cancer. For example, less than 5% of articles mentioned well-known risk-factors for cervical cancer and less than 8% gave any information about HPV. The 'human interest' aspects of Goody's illness (her treatment, the spread of her disease in later months, her wedding, and her preparations for her children's future were more extensively covered. Conclusions Newspaper coverage of Goody's illness has tended not to include factual or educational information that could mobilise or inform women, or help them to recognise early symptoms. However, the focus on personal tragedy may encourage women to be receptive to HPV vaccination or screening if her story acts as a reminder that cervical cancer can be a devastating and fatal disease in the longer term.

  14. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D90 of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  15. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T., E-mail: ryan-flynn@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  16. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Reis Girianelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010 were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, disaggregated by capital city and municipality. The annual percent change in mortality rates was estimated by segmented linear regression using the joinpoint method. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were conducted between average mortality rate at the end of the three-year period and selected indicators in the state capital and each Brazilian state. RESULTS There was a decline in cervical cancer mortality rates throughout the period studied, except in municipalities outside of the capitals in the North and Northeast. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality in the capitals from the end of the 1990s onwards. Favorable socioeconomic indicators were inversely correlated with cervical cancer mortality. A strong direct correlation was found with favorable indicators and an inverse correlation with fertility rate and breast cancer mortality in inner cities. CONCLUSIONS There is an ongoing dynamic process of increased risk of cervical and breast cancer and attenuation of mortality because of increased, albeit unequal, access to and provision of screening, diagnosis and treatment.

  17. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  18. HPV Vaccination in India: Critical Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Acharya, Anita S.; Mishra, Archana; Batra, Swaraj

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. The role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the genesis of cervical carcinoma is well documented. The HPV 16 and 18 are found to be most commonly associated with invasive cervical carcinoma. The advent of cervical carcinoma vaccine has advanced the hopes that eradication of cervical carcinoma might be possible in future. The scenario of prevention of cervical carcinoma is completely different in developed and developing countries. The implementation of the vaccination as a routine in India is still controversial. Here we have tried to critically analyse these issues in Indian context. However it is clear that cervical cancer vaccine is not an immediate panacea and cannot replace the cervical cancer screening which is mandatory in Indian context. PMID:25006481

  19. Cervical, anal and oral HPV in an adolescent inner-city health clinic providing free vaccinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas F Schlecht

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Published human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine trials indicate efficacy is strongest for those naive to the vaccine-types. However, few high-risk young women have been followed and cervical HPV has been the predominant outcome measure. METHODS: We collected cervical and anal swabs, as well as oral rinse specimens from 645 sexually active inner-city young females attending a large adolescent health-clinic in New York City that offers free care and HPV vaccination. Specimens were tested for HPV-DNA using a MY09/MY11-PCR system. Type-specific prevalence of HPV at each anatomic site was compared for individuals by vaccination dose using generalized estimating equation logistic regression models. RESULTS: The majority of subjects reported being of non-Caucasian (92% and/or Hispanic ethnicity (61%. Median age was 18 years (range:14-20. All had practiced vaginal sex, a third (33% practiced anal sex, and most (77% had also engaged in oral sex. At enrollment, 21% had not received the vaccine and 51% had received three doses. Prevalent HPV infection at enrollment was detected in 54% of cervical, 42% of anal and 20% of oral specimens, with vaccine types present in 7%, 6% and 1% of specimens, respectively. Comparing prevalence for vaccine types, the detection of HPV in the cervix of vaccinated compared to unvaccinated adolescents was significantly reduced: HPV6/11 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.19, 95%CI:0.06-0.75, HPV16 (OR = 0.31, 95%CI:0.11-0.88 and HPV18 (OR = 0.14, 95%CI:0.03-0.75. For anal HPV, the risk of detecting vaccine types HPV6/11 (OR = 0.27, 95%CI:0.10-0.72 and HPV18(OR = 0.12, 95%CI:0.01-1.16 were significantly reduced for vaccinated adolescents however, the risk for HPV16 was not significantly decreased (OR = 0.63, 95%CI:0.18-2.20. CONCLUSION: HPV Prevalence is extremely high in inner-city female adolescents. Administration of the HPV vaccine reduced the risk for cervical HPV; however continued follow-up is required to

  20. Early Impact of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination on Cervical Neoplasia—Nationwide Follow-up of Young Danish Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Dehlendorff, Christian; Munk, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In clinical trials, vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) have been highly effective against HPV16- or HPV18-associated cervical lesions. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine was licensed in 2006 and subsequently implemented in the Danish vaccination program. The study aim was to use...... individual information on HPV vaccination status to assess subsequent risk of cervical lesions. METHODS: Using a cohort study design, we identified all girls and women born in Denmark in the period from 1989 to 1999 and obtained information on individual HPV vaccination status in the period from 2006 to 2012...... from nationwide registries. Incident cases of cervical lesions were identified by linkage to the nationwide Pathology Data Bank. We compared vaccinated and unvaccinated girls and women stratified by birth cohort in Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Risk of atypia or worse (atypia+) and of...

  1. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Wu, Xiaohua; Cheng, Xi

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The outcome of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor. We reviewed the relevant literature concerning the treatment and diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. There are two types of metastasis related to different treatments and survival rates: hematogenous metastasis and lymphatic metastasis. Patients with hematogenous metastasis have a higher risk of death than those with lymphatic metastasis. In terms of diagnosis, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-computed tomography are effective tools for the evaluation of distant metastasis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy are well-tolerated and efficient for lymphatic metastasis. As for lung metastasis, chemotherapy and/or surgery are valuable treatments for resistant, recurrent metastatic cervical cancer and chemoradiotherapy may be the optimal choice for stage IVB cervical cancer. Chemotherapy and bone irradiation are promising for bone metastasis. A better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy. Craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an optimal choice combined with radiotherapy for solitary brain metastases. Chemotherapy and palliative brain radiation may be considered for multiple brain metastases and other organ metastases. PMID:27171673

  2. Nominated Texture Based Cervical Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Jayasingh Mariarputham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate classification of Pap smear images becomes the challenging task in medical image processing. This can be improved in two ways. One way is by selecting suitable well defined specific features and the other is by selecting the best classifier. This paper presents a nominated texture based cervical cancer (NTCC classification system which classifies the Pap smear images into any one of the seven classes. This can be achieved by extracting well defined texture features and selecting best classifier. Seven sets of texture features (24 features are extracted which include relative size of nucleus and cytoplasm, dynamic range and first four moments of intensities of nucleus and cytoplasm, relative displacement of nucleus within the cytoplasm, gray level cooccurrence matrix, local binary pattern histogram, tamura features, and edge orientation histogram. Few types of support vector machine (SVM and neural network (NN classifiers are used for the classification. The performance of the NTCC algorithm is tested and compared to other algorithms on public image database of Herlev University Hospital, Denmark, with 917 Pap smear images. The output of SVM is found to be best for the most of the classes and better results for the remaining classes.

  3. Cervical Microbiome and Cytokine Profile at Various Stages of Cervical Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahena-Román, Margarita; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús; Cortina-Ceballos, Bernardo; López-Estrada, Guillermina; Delgado-Romero, Karina; Burguete-García, Ana I.; Cantú, David; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by high-risk human papillomavirus persistence due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines. Vaginal microbiota determines the presence of certain cytokines locally. We assessed the association between cervical microbiota diversity and the histopathological diagnosis of each stage of CC, and we evaluated mRNA cervical expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α and IFN-γ across the histopathological diagnosis and specific bacterial clusters. We determined the cervical microbiota by high throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons and classified it in community state types (CST). Mean difference analyses between alpha-diversity and histopathological diagnosis were carried out, as well as a β-diversity analysis within the histological diagnosis. Cervical cytokine mRNA expression was analyzed across the CSTs and the histopathological diagnoses. We found a significant difference in microbiota's diversity in NCL-HPV negative women vs those with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and CC(p = 0.006, p = 0.036).When β-diversity was evaluated, the CC samples showed the highest variation within groups (p<0.0006) and the largest distance compared to NCL-HPV negative ones (p<0.00001). The predominant bacteria in women with normal cytology were L. crispatus and L. iners, whereas for SIL, it was Sneathia spp. and for CC, Fusobacterium spp. We found higher median cervical levels of IL-4 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the CST dominated by Fusobacterium spp. These results suggest that the cervical microbiota may be implicated in cervical cancer pathology. Further cohort studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:27115350

  4. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Lopamudra Das; Soumen Das; Jyotirmoy Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cy...

  5. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero;

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation...... of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at...... diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan....

  6. Bevacizumab Significantly Improves Survival for Patients with Recurrent and Metastatic Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves survival for patients with recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer Posted: February 7, 2013 Updated: June 2, 2013 ... 496-6641 Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who ...

  7. Inadequate cervical cancer screening among mid-aged Australian women who have experienced partner violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Schofield, Margot; Hussain, Rafat; Hosking, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Partner violence is linked to cervical cancer and other gynaecological conditions. However, results of current research into associations between partner violence and cervical cancer screening have been inconclusive. Therefore, the current research investigates the association between pa

  8. Tc17 Cells in Patients with Uterine Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhang; Fei Hou; Xin Liu; Daoxin Ma; Youzhong Zhang; Beihua Kong; Baoxia Cui

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The existence of Tc17 cells was recently shown in several types of infectious and autoimmune diseases, but their distribution and functions in uterine cervical cancer (UCC) have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: The frequency of Tc17 cells in peripheral blood samples obtained from UCC patients, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients and healthy controls was determined by flow cytometry. Besides, the prevalence of Tc17 cells and their relationships to Th17 cells and Fo...

  9. Evaluation of quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine efficacy against cervical and anogenital disease in subjects with serological evidence of prior vaccine type HPV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Sven-Eric; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján;

    2009-01-01

    In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL/SILGARD) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical disease....... Of the remaining women, 15% of had evidence of past infection with one or more vaccine HPV types (seropositive and DNA negative) at the time of enrollment. Here we present an analysis in this group of women to determine the efficacy of the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine against new cervical and external anogenital disease...... related to the same vaccine HPV type which had previously been cleared. Vaccine tolerability in this previously infected population was also assessed....

  10. Improvements in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme since 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B Bos (A.)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, and therefore an important public health problem (1 ). In developing countries, the age standardised incidence rate varies between 16 - 40 per 100,000 women in 1988- 1992 (2). In the same period, in d

  11. Design The Cervical Cancer Detector Use The Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is one of the contagious diseases that become a public health issue, both in the world and in Indonesia. In the world, 12% of all deaths caused by cancer and is the second killer after cardiovascular disease. Early detection using the IVA is a practical and inexpensive (only requiring acetic acid). However, the accuracy of the method is quite low, as it can not detect the stage of the cancer. While other methods have a better sensitivity than the IVA method, is a method of PAP smear. However, this method is relatively expensive, and requires an experienced pathologist-cytologist. According to the case above, Considered important to make the cancer cervics detector that is used to detect the abnormality and cervical cancer stage and consists of a digital microscope, as well as a computer application based on artificial neural network. The use of cervical cancer detector software and hardware are integrated each other. After the specifications met, the steps to design the cervical cancer detection are: Modifying a conventional microscope by adding a lens, image recording, and the lights, Programming the tools, designing computer applications, Programming features abnormality detection and staging of cancer.

  12. Design The Cervical Cancer Detector Use The Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Af'idah, Dwi; Didik Widianto, Eko; Setyawan, Budi

    2013-06-01

    Cancer is one of the contagious diseases that become a public health issue, both in the world and in Indonesia. In the world, 12% of all deaths caused by cancer and is the second killer after cardiovascular disease. Early detection using the IVA is a practical and inexpensive (only requiring acetic acid). However, the accuracy of the method is quite low, as it can not detect the stage of the cancer. While other methods have a better sensitivity than the IVA method, is a method of PAP smear. However, this method is relatively expensive, and requires an experienced pathologist-cytologist. According to the case above, Considered important to make the cancer cervics detector that is used to detect the abnormality and cervical cancer stage and consists of a digital microscope, as well as a computer application based on artificial neural network. The use of cervical cancer detector software and hardware are integrated each other. After the specifications met, the steps to design the cervical cancer detection are: Modifying a conventional microscope by adding a lens, image recording, and the lights, Programming the tools, designing computer applications, Programming features abnormality detection and staging of cancer.

  13. A novel "priming-boosting" strategy for immune interventions in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shujie; Zhang, Weina; Hu, Xiaoji; Wang, Wei; Deng, Dongrui; Wang, Hui; Wang, Changyu; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Shixuan; Zhang, Hanwang; Ma, Ding

    2015-04-01

    Despite the encouraging development of a preventive vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV), it cannot improve ongoing infections. Therefore, a new vaccine is urgently needed that can prevent and treat cervical cancer, and cure pre-cancerous lesions. In this study, we constructed two peptide-based vaccines. The first was a short-term, long-peptide (ST-LP) vaccine that simultaneously targeted three key carcinogenic epitopes (E5-E6-E7) on HPV16. We tested this vaccine in murine TC-1 cells infected with a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) fused with HPV16E5 DNA (rTC-1 cells), which served as a cell model; we also tested it in immune-competent mice loaded with rTC-1 cells, which served as an ectopic tumor model. The ST-LP injections resulted in strong, cell-mediated immunity, capable of attacking and eliminating abnormal antigen-bearing cells. Furthermore, to prolong immunogenic capability, we designed a unique rAAV that encoded the three predicted epitopes for a second, long-term, long-peptide (LT-LP) vaccine. Moreover, we used a new immune strategy of continuous re-injections, where three ST-LP injections were performed at one-week intervals (days 0, 7, 14), then one LT-LP injection was performed on day 120. Our in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that this strategy could boost the immune response to produce longer and stronger protection against target cells, and mice were thoroughly protected from tumor growth. Our results showed that priming the immune system with the ST-LP vaccine, followed by boosting the immune system with the LT-LP vaccine could generate a rapid, robust, durable cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to HPV16-positive tumors. PMID:25575128

  14. Analysis of clinical characteristics of 950 cases of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-li ZHU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the clinical features of the patients suffering from cervical cancer who visited Daping Hospital affiliated to Third Military Medical University in recent 10 years. Methods The clinical data of the patients who were pathologically diagnosed as invasive cervical cancer in Daping Hospital of TMMU from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into different age groups and analyzed according to age, clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approach. Results Clinical data of 950 patients with invasive cervical cancer were reviewed in this study. The mean age of the patients was 46.9 years. The clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approaches were different in different age groups. Analysis of the age structure of the patients, the onset age of cervical cancer seemed to increase year by year. Conclusion The clinical features of cervical cancer are diversity in different age, and the strategy for controlling its development should be varied according to age. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.09

  15. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer reduces surgical risks and lymph-vascular space involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yue; Wang, Guang; Wei, Li-Hui; Huang, Ling-Hui; Wang, Jian-Liu; Wang, Shi-Jun; Li, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Dan-Hua; Bao, Dong-Mei; Gao, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), which can reduce the size and therefore increase the resectability of tumors, has recently evolved as a treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. NACT has been reported to decrease the risk of pathologic factors related to prognosis of cervical cancer. To further assess the effects of NACT on surgery and the pathologic characteristics of cervical cancer, we reviewed 110 cases of locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy with or w...

  16. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  17. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated. PMID:25826459

  18. Holistic care of the patient with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, M

    1992-12-01

    Participation by women in screening programs for cervical cancer is far from optimal, and many lives are lost because of this. Cervical cancer is common, and is easily detected and treated. It has a good prognosis for cure if detected early in its course. Effective screening has been shown to have a major role in decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. Therefore, there is a need for increased public health education and availability of screening programs for women. It is particularly important that public health efforts reach women in the lower socioeconomic groups who are less apt to exhibit health promotive behaviors. Women of Latin American heritage are at particularly high risk because of cultural barriers to the discussion of sexual practices. Until public health interventions are more successful, cervical cancer will continue to pose a major threat to women who are either too embarrassed or too misinformed to understand that prevention is an integral part of women's health care. Nurses view patients in a holistic way. It is this philosophy of care that offers women who are diagnosed with cervical cancer a means to adapt successfully to the psychologic and physiologic stresses associated with the diagnosis. Nurses need to recognize this strength and to offer holistic approaches to women in crisis. No two patients deal with a diagnosis of cancer in the same manner. A major challenge to nurses across a hospital community continuum is to provide comprehensive psychologic and physiologic assessment of a women's response to a diagnosis of cervical cancer and to provide effective and holistic intervention when necessary. PMID:1448360

  19. Strengthening prevention programs to eliminate cervical cancer in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, L.; Pagliusi, S.; Bray, F.;

    2008-01-01

    Disease trend studies based on birth cohort analysis and serological studies indicate that recent generations have a higher prevalence of oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types, and are likely to be at higher risk of cancer than previous generations. This implies that prevention strategies t...... to eliminate cervical cancer in the Nordic countries and globally Udgivelsesdato: 2008......Disease trend studies based on birth cohort analysis and serological studies indicate that recent generations have a higher prevalence of oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types, and are likely to be at higher risk of cancer than previous generations. This implies that prevention strategies...... to protect young populations from HPV-associated cancers need to be strengthened, and hence organized implementation of vaccination and better screening programs are being considered. In this context, randomized large-scale policy evaluations will be instrumental in accelerating disease control and improve...

  20. Leptomeningeal metastasis of uterine cervical cancer 17 years after primary tumor treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Oike, Takahiro; Ohno, Tatsuya; Noda, Shin‐Ei; Murata, Tomomi; Hirakawa, Takashi; Hirato, Junko; Furuya, Mio; Sato, Hiro; Hirota, Yuka; Minegishi, Takashi; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) of uterine cervical cancer is extremely rare. A 54‐year‐old woman with uterine cervical cancer treated with surgery and radiotherapy developed LM manifesting as ptosis 17 years later. Although rare, LM should be considered in patients with a history of uterine cervical cancer presenting with cranial nerve symptoms.

  1. College Students' Knowledge of the Connection between HPV and Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Trent E.; Jones, Iesha K.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated college students' knowledge of the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Few students knew what HPV was. Most of the females who had been screened knew that a Pap smear could detect HPV and cervical cancer. Over half of the students did not realize the link between HPV and cervical cancer. Students…

  2. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

  4. 人乳头瘤病毒疫苗预防宫颈癌及其相关感染有效性及安全性的 Meta 分析%Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Preventing Cervical Cancer and HPV - ralated Infection Prevention:A Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 何艳; 马彩玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess efficacy and safety of prophylactic human papillomavirus( HPV)vaccines in preventing cervical cancer and HPV - related infection,a systematic review and meta - analysis were conducted. Methods Searched in PubMed, EMBase, Cochrane Library, OVID, CBM, CNKI and Wanfang database to identify randomized controlled trials( RCT)on vaccines in preventing cervical cancer and HPV - related infection,and also manually searched relevant magazines and references,the time range for publishing dates of the literatures was from databases establishment to July 2014. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria,two reviewers independently screened studies,extracted data,and evaluated the quality of studies. The meta - analysis was performed using RevMan software version 5. 2. Results 23 RCTs were included. According to the meta - analysis results,the frequency of CINⅡ + ,VINⅡ + / VaINⅡ + ,6 - months persistent HPV infections,12 - months persistent HPV infections,exophytic genital wart,high - risk HPV - related infections and diseases in vaccine group was significantly lower than that in control group,respectively(P 0. 05). Conclusion Prophylactic HPV vaccines are safe and effective in preventing cervical precancerous lesions,HPV persistent infections and HPV - related genital lesions,and have cross - protection effect and efficient protective effect. However, according to existing literature,long - term efficacy of HPV vaccines in preventing cervical cancer is not clear,due to the lack of direct evidence of prophylactic HPV vaccines in preventing cervical cancer,more high quality RCT with duration follow - up should be carried out.%目的:系统评价人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)疫苗预防宫颈癌及 HPV 相关感染的有效性与安全性。方法计算机检索 PubMed、EMBase、Cochrane Library、OVID、中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)、中国知网、万方数据库,并辅以手工检索相关杂志和纳入研究

  5. Can radical parametrectomy be omitted inoccult cervical cancer afterextrafascial hysterectomy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-WuLu,; JingLi,; Yun-YunLiu,; Chang-HaoLiu,; Guo-CaiXu,; Ling-LingXie,; Miao-FangWu; Zhong-QiuLin

    2015-01-01

    Background:Occult invasive cervical cancer discovered after simple hysterectomy is not common, radical parame‑trectomy (RP) is a preferred option for young women. However, the morbidity of RP was high. The aim of our study is to assess the incidence of parametrial involvement in patients who underwent radical parametrectomy for occult cervical cancer or radical hysterectomy for early‑stage cervical cancer and to suggest an algorithm for the triage of patients with occult cervical cancer to avoid RP. Methods:A total of 13 patients with occult cervical cancer who had undergone RP with an upper vaginectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were included in this retrospective study. Data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of the cases were collected. The published literature was also reviewed, and low risk factors for parametrial involvement in early‑stage cervical cancer were analyzed. Results:Of the 13 patients, 9 had a stage IB1 lesion, and 4 had a stage IA2 lesion. There were four patients with grade 1 disease, seven with grade 2 disease, and two with grade 3 disease. The median age of the entire patients was 41years. The most common indication for extrafascial hysterectomy was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3. Three patients had visible lesions measuring 10–30mm, in diameter and ten patients had cervical stromal invasions with depths ranging from 4 to 9mm; only one patient had more than 50% stromal invasion, and four patients had lymph‑vascular space invasion (LVSI). Perioperative complications included intraoperative bowel injury, blood transfusion, vesico‑vaginal ifstula, and ileus (1 case for each). Postoperative pathologic examination results did not show residual disease or parametrial involvement. One patient with positive lymph nodes received concurrent radiation therapy. Only one patient experienced recurrence. Conclusions:Perioperative complications following RP were common, whereas the incidence of parametrial involve‑ment was very low

  6. DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODE IN EARLY CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 李斌; 章文华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection in early cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 27 patients with operable invasive early cervical cancer and clinically proved negative pelvic lymph nodes were included in this study. The 99Tcm-dextran of 74 MBq (2 mCi) was injected around the cervix at 2( and 10(. Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection were used to find the SLN. Results: The SLN was identified in 27 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the SLN detection to predict the metastasis of the pelvic lymph node were 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: Identification of the SLN using radionuclide is feasible and possible in women with early cervical cancer.

  7. Preprocessing for Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  8. Preprocessing: A Step in Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  9. Highlights on recurrence after surgery for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Blaakær, Jan

    Objective After surgery due to cervical cancer women are offered to attend a follow-up program 10 times during five years with the purpose for early diagnosis of recurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the follow-up program, which has remained unchanged for 20 years even though reminding...... and concerning women, who we consider healthy after surgery. Methods A retrospective longitudinal study of women attending follow-up program after surgery due to cervical cancer at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital. 524 patients were identified from 1996 to 2011...... with the diagnosis of cervical cancer combined with a surgical procedure. From the national pathological database and patient files information was extracted. Information was stored in Epidata. Associations were calculated using stratified analysis and logistic regression. Results 133(25%) women of 524 needed...

  10. The epidemiology of hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, C R; Bertesteanu, S V G; Mirea, D; Grigore, Raluca; lonescu, Diana; Popescu, B

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century the hypopharynx and the cervical esophagus cancer represents a major issue for all countries of the world. The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer deals with the spread of the disease in the human population with regard to sex, age, profession, time and space, as well as risk factors that contribute to these phenomena. The main goal is to investigate the causes and the factors involved in the development of the tumors at the pharyngoesophageal junction, knowledge that contributes to the latest therapeutic assessment through interdisciplinary collaboration (E.N.T. surgeon, general surgeon, radiation oncologist, chemotherapist, and nutritionist). The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer includes three major areas of interest: descriptive (the study of the spread in mass population), analytical (the study of causal risk factors on the disease) and experimental (that verifies by experiments on animals the prior identified hypothesis). PMID:21254737

  11. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  12. RNA-Based Vaccines in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. McNamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA vaccines traditionally consist of messenger RNA synthesized by in vitro transcription using a bacteriophage RNA polymerase and template DNA that encodes the antigen(s of interest. Once administered and internalized by host cells, the mRNA transcripts are translated directly in the cytoplasm and then the resulting antigens are presented to antigen presenting cells to stimulate an immune response. Alternatively, dendritic cells can be loaded with either tumor associated antigen mRNA or total tumor RNA and delivered to the host to elicit a specific immune response. In this review, we will explain why RNA vaccines represent an attractive platform for cancer immunotherapy, discuss modifications to RNA structure that have been developed to optimize mRNA vaccine stability and translational efficiency, and describe strategies for nonviral delivery of mRNA vaccines, highlighting key preclinical and clinical data related to cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in cervical cancerous and precancerous lesions of Ecuadorian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Lorena; Muñoz, Diana; Trueba, Gabriel; Tinoco, Leopoldo; Zapata, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide and it is responsible for most cases of uterine cancer. In Ecuador there is limited information about HPV types (and variants) in cancerous lesions; however, identifying the type-specific HPV prevalence in cervical lesions of women living in Ecuador is important to better predict the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccination in this country. We studied the prevalence of HPV types in cervical cancerous or precancerous lesions from 164 Ecuadorian women and found that 86.0% were HPV positive. The most common types were HPV16 (41.8%) and HPV58 (30.5%). Interestingly, HPV18 was detected only in 2.8% of the HPV-positive samples. Fifteen DNA sequences (genes E6 and L1) from 16 samples positive for HPV16 belonged to the European lineage, considered one of the least carcinogenic lineages, and 1 (6.25%) to the Asian-American lineage. Similar analysis in 12 HPV58 positive samples showed that 10 (83.3%) sequences grouped in sublineage A2, which belongs to the oldest HPV58 lineage, 1 belonged to A3 and 1 to lineage C. This study suggests that the currently used HPV vaccines (bivalent and tetravalent) may have lower effectiveness in Ecuador than in other geographic locations where HPV18 is more prevalent. PMID:26113443

  14. Introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Rebolj, Matejka; Valentiner-Branth, Palle;

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening has helped decrease the incidence of cervical cancer, but the disease remains a burden for women. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is now a promising tool for control of cervical cancer. Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) are...... relatively wealthy with predominantly publicly paid health care systems. The aim of this paper was to provide an update of the current status of introduction of HPV vaccine into the childhood vaccination programs in this region....

  15. The role of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination in the prevention of anal cancer in individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso, Luis F.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing in the general population and especially in high-risk groups. A total of 90% of anal cancers are caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the anal canal. Similar to cervical cancer, anal cancer progresses through a predictable series of premalignant stages before resulting in invasive cancer; this process begins with persistent HPV infection. The HPV vaccine represents a promising strategy to combat the increasing incidence of anal cancer.

  16. Roles of plant extracts and constituents in cervical cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kma, Lakhan

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health problem worldwide and is the most frequent cause of cancer in women in India. Early detection and affordable drugs with clinical efficacy have to go hand-in-hand in order to comprehensibly address this serious health challenge. Plant-based drugs with potent anticancer effects should add to the efforts to find a cheap drug with limited clinical side effects. Keeping this very purpose in mind, an attempt has been made in this review to explore the potential of plant extracts or constituents known to exhibit antitumorigenic activity or exert cytotoxic effect in human cervical carcinoma cells. Alkaloids such as those isolated from C. vincetoxicum and T. Tanakae, naucleaorals A and B, isolated from the roots of N. orientalis, (6aR)-normecambroline, isolated from the bark of N. dealbata appear promising in different human cervical carcinoma cells with the IC50 of 4.0-8 μg/mL. However, other compounds such as rhinacanthone and neolignans isolated from different plants are not far behind and kill cervical cancer cells at a very low concentrations. Among plant extracts or its constituents that enhance the effect of known anticancer drugs, noni, derived from the plant M. citrifolia perhaps is the best candidate. The cytotoxic potency and apoptotic index of cisplatin was found to significantly enhanced in combination with noni in different human cervical carcinoma cells and it therefore holds significance as promising herbal-based anticancer agent. However, efficacy needs to be further investigated in various cervical cell lines and more importantly, in in vivo cervical cancer models for possible use as an alternative and safe anticancer drug. PMID:23886123

  17. Twist and YB-1 gene expression in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue as well as its correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Liu; Hong Li; Yu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the Twist and YB-1 gene expression in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue as well as its correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Methods:Normal cervical tissue, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue and cervical cancer tissue were collected for study. ELISA kits were used to detect Twist, YB-1, E-cadherin,β-catenin, N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical tissue, and immunohistochemistry was used to detect Twist and YB-1 expression levels in cervical tissue.Results:Twist and YB-1 contents, cell positive rate and immunohistochemical scores as well as N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical cancer tissue and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissue while E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents were lower than those in normal cervical tissue; Twist and YB-1 contents, cell positive rate and immunohistochemical scores as well as N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue while E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents were lower than those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue; the higher the Twist and YB-1 expression levels in cervical cancer tissue, the lower the E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents, and the higher the N-cadherin and Vimentin contents.Conclusions: Twist and YB-1 gene overexpression can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition to be involved in the occurrence of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  18. Human Papillomavirus 16E6 Oncogene Mutation in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Sun; Xiao-qin Ha; Tong-de Lv; Chuan-ping Xing; Bin Liu; Xiao-zhe Cao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide, after breast cancer. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are considered to be the major causes of cervical cancer. HPV16 is the most common type of HR-HPVs and HPV16 E6 gene is one of the major oncogenes. Specific mutations are considered as dangerous factors causing CC. This study was designed to find mutations of HPV16 E6 and the relationship between the mutations and the happening of CC.Methods: The tissue DNA was extracted from 15 biopsies of CC. Part of HPV16 E6 gene (nucleotide 201-523) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the CC tissue DNA. The PCR fragments were sequenced and analyzed.Results: The result of PCR showed that the positive rate of HPV16 E6 was 93.33% (14/15). After sequencing and analyzing, in the 13 out of 14 PCR fragments, 4 maintained prototype (30.77%), 8 had a same 350G mutation (61.54%), and 1 had a 249G mutation (7.69%).Conclusion: This study suggest that there is a high infection rate of HPV in cervical cancer and most of the HPV16 E6 gene has mutations. Those mutations may have an association with the development of cervical cancer.

  19. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits

  20. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor and UTM Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  1. Surgical Treatment of Early-Stage Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Sara Y; Ulrich, Uwe A

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of cervical cancer has been a cornerstone in the management of this malignancy for more than 100 years. Today, for early-stage and low-risk cervical cancer, surgery is still considered the gold standard. If the preoperative assessment of the tumor reveals a situation prompting postoperative adjuvant radiochemotherapy, the latter should be planned as the primary treatment option, being preceded by staging laparoscopy including pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection. As an alternative to the open approach, the definitive surgical treatment should be either performed laparoscopically, or be laparoscopic-assisted, or laparoscopically robotic-assisted. PMID:27614875

  2. A Gompertzian model with random effects to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni; Rosli, Norhayati [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a Gompertzian model with random effects is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via maximum likehood estimation. We apply 4-stage Runge-Kutta (SRK4) for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of the cervical cancer growth. Low values of root mean-square error (RMSE) of Gompertzian model with random effect indicate good fits.

  3. The epidemiology of hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, CR; Bertesteanu, SVG; Mirea, D; Grigore, R; Ionescu, D.; Popescu, B

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer represents a major issue for all countries of the world. The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer deals with the spread of the disease in human population in regards to sex, age, profession, time and space, as well as risk factors that contribute to these phenomena. The main goal is to investigate the causes and the factors involved in the development of the tumors at the pharyngo–esophagea...

  4. The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Esther; Travier, Noémie; Waterboer, Tim; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Pawlita, Michael; Pala, Valeria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Margall, Núria; Dillner, Joakim; Gram, Inger T; Tjønneland, Anne; Munk, Christian; Palli, Domenico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Polidoro, Silvia; Mattiello, Amalia; Lund, Eiliv; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ekström, Johanna; Lindquist, David; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of...... developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants.......7). CONCLUSIONS: Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to current cervical cancer screening guidelines should minimize the increased risk of CC associated with these hormonal risk factors....

  5. Cervical cancer : incidence, screening and prognosis among immigrant women in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Azerkan, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant studies may help further our understanding of the aetiology of cervical cancer and improve its prevention. The overall aim of this thesis is to study the risk of cervical cancer among immigrant women in Sweden, their cervical screening attendance and their prognosis after cervical cancer diagnosis. Quantitative cohort study designs using data from population-based registers were carried out and analysed using Poisson regression and Cox proportional hazard models. A quantitative expl...

  6. Women’s perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer screening services in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Hami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi provides cervical cancer screening services free of charge at some public health facilities. Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and many women continue to be diagnosed with cervical cancer only during the late inoperable stages of the condition. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to discover whether the perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, amongst Malawian women aged 42 and older, influenced their intentions to utilise the available free cervical cancer screening services. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted. Structured interviews were conducted with 381 women who visited 3 health centres in the Blantyre District of Malawi. Results: A statistically-significant association existed between women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer and their knowledge about cervical cancer (X² = 8.9; df = 1; p = 0.003 and with having heard about HPV infection (X² = 4.2; df = 1; p = 0.041 at the 5% significance level. Cervical cancer screening services are provided free of charge in government health institutions in Malawi. Nevertheless, low perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer amongst women, aged 42 and older, might contribute to limited utilisation of cervical screening services, explaining why 80% of cervical cancer patients in Malawi were diagnosed during the late inoperable stages. Conclusion: Malawian women lacked awareness regarding their susceptibility to cervical cancer and required information about the available cervical cancer screening services. Malawi’s women, aged 42 and older, must be informed about the advantages of cervical cancer screening and about the importance of effective treatment if an early diagnosis has been made. Women aged 42 and older rarely attend antenatal, post-natal, well baby or family-planning clinics, where health education about cervical cancer screening is often provided. Consequently, these women

  7. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  8. EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION PROGRAM, BELÉM, PARÁ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Nascimento Pinheiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Health Education is primordial in primary care, can contribute to the success of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program (CCPP. The objective of this study was to verify the women knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV virus, with emphasis on educational aspects. The study’s sample was represented by 157 women attending by the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program (CCPP of a public health unit in Belém/PA, in 2012. The age ranged from 17 to 80 years old, with a median of 37 years old, 60.5% of the people have not completed the high school and some of them has college, 71.3% had a family income of one minimum wage. Of all women, 10.2% were examined by Papanicolaou test for the first time, 56.1% for annual control. The spontaneous seeking by the examination was 79%. Among the women investigated, 0.6% have not known about the neoplasia. Part of them believes in cure and prevention of this disease, 79.6% and 89.2% of the women, respectively. 76.4% of the women have heard some information about HPV vírus and 40.2% about the vaccine. Therefore, is necessary to raise the level of knowing of women enrolled in Cervical Cancer Prevention Program (CCPP in the perspective of primary and secondary prevention of this neoplasia through of educational activities and the insertion of these actions in the elementary and high schools. These are important steps that can contribute with the Program in Belém, whose indices have been alarming.

  9. Human Papillomavirus Genotype as a Major Determinant of the Course of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niakan M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Certain types of human papillomavrus (HPV are associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. The aim of theobservations reported here was to determine whether the prognosis for invasive cancers of the uterine cervix is related to the type of human papillomavirus asociated with the tumor. Material and Methods: Twenty Patients with invasive cervical cancer were prospectively registered from 2000 to 2001. HPV typing was performed by insitu hybridization(ISH on DNA extracted from frozen, formal in-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens. The specimens mostly represented classifications SCC Stage 1 and Stage 2 of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Table 1. HPV- DNA was detected by insituhybridization, using three different DNA Probes: types 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33/51. Results: HPV DNA was detected in the nuclei of SCC tumor cells in 13(65% of 20 cases. Of the 13 HPV-DNA positive cases three reacted only with the HPV 31/33/51 probe, two reacted only with the 16/18 probe, three showed strong hybridization for both 31/33/51 and 6/11probes, four showed 6/11 and 16/18 genotypes and one case reacted with 31/33/51,6/11and16/18probes. Conclusion: The prognosis for invasive cancers of the uterine cervix is dependent on the oncogenic potential of the associated HPV type. HPV typing may provide a prognostic indicator for individual patients and is of potential use in defining specific therapies against HPV harboring tumor cells. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that HPV infection is the primary cause of cervical neoplasia. Furthermore, they support HPV vaccine research to prevent cervical cancer and efforts to develop HPV DNA diagnostic tests.

  10. Use of HPV testing for cervical screening in vaccinated women-Insights from the SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated Women) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Ramya; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Cubie, Heather Ann; Serrano, Itziar; Wennington, Holli; Hopkins, Mark; Pan, Jiafeng; Pollock, Kevin G; Palmer, Tim J; Cuschieri, Kate

    2016-06-15

    The management of cervical disease is changing worldwide as a result of HPV vaccination and the increasing use of HPV testing for cervical screening. However, the impact of vaccination on the performance of HPV based screening strategies is unknown. The SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated women) projects are designed to gain insight into the impact of vaccination on the performance of clinically validated HPV assays. Samples collated from women attending for first cervical smear who had been vaccinated as part of a national "catch-up" programme were tested with three clinically validated HPV assays (2 DNA and 1 RNA). Overall HR-HPV and type specific positivity was assessed in total population and according to underlying cytology and compared to a demographically equivalent group of unvaccinated women. HPV prevalence was significantly lower in vaccinated women and was influenced by assay-type, reducing by 23-25% for the DNA based assays and 32% for the RNA assay (p = 0.0008). All assays showed over 75% reduction of HPV16 and/or 18 (p HR-HPV was not significantly different in vaccinated vs unvaccinated women. In women with low grade abnormalities, the proportion associated with non 16/18 HR-HPV was significantly higher in vaccinated women (p performance, consequently, longitudinal studies linking HPV status to disease outcomes in vaccinated women are warranted. PMID:26845632

  11. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  12. Folate receptor and Ki-67 nucleoprotein expressions in cervical cancer tissue and their correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Yan; Feng Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To detect the expression of both FR-α protein and ki-67 in cervical cancer tissues, and discuss the relationship between them and clinical significance.Methods:Using immunohistochemical method test normal cervical tissue and cervical cancer tissue before FR-α protein expression and the expression of Ki-67.Results:FR- protein expression in normal cervical tissues was positive for 7.0% while in cervical cancer tissue the positive rate was 82.1%. The difference was statistically significant. Ki-67 protein expression in normal cervical tissues was 0% while in cervical cancer tissue the positive rate was 80.2%. The difference was statistically significant. The two protein expression in cervical cancer stageⅠ,Ⅱ and stageⅢ were different, but the difference was not statistically significant. In cervical cancer tissues, both the two protein were positively correlated. There are correlations between them. Difference was statistically significant.Conclusion:FR-α elevated protein expression is involved in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. FR-α protein expression in cervical cancer and precancerous tissue has correlation with Ki-67, FR-α protein maybe participate in the occurrence and development of the cell proliferation in cervical cancer.

  13. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions and Screening Behaviour Among Female University Students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females. PMID:25957285

  14. Public Health National Approach to Reducing Breast and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jacqueline W.; Plescia, Marcus; Ekwueme, Donatus U.

    2014-01-01

    Breast and cervical cancer have had disparate impact on the lives of women. The burden of breast and cervical cancer is more prominent among some racial and ethnic minority women. Providing comprehensive care to all medically underserved women is a critical element in continuing the battle to reduce cancer burden and eliminate disparities. The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program is the only nationally organized cancer screening program for underserved women in the Unit...

  15. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. (author)

  16. Should helical tomotherapy replace brachytherapy for cervical cancer? Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) administered via a helical tomotherapy (HT) system is an effective modality for treating lung cancer and metastatic liver tumors. Whether SBRT delivered via HT is a feasible alternative to brachytherapy in treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer in patients with unusual anatomic configurations of the uterus has never been studied. A 46-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cervical tumor with direct invasion of the right parametrium, bilateral hydronephrosis, and multiple uterine myomas. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIIB cervical cancer was diagnosed. Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) followed by SBRT delivered via HT was administered instead of brachytherapy because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas with bleeding tendency. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed after 6 weeks of treatment because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas. Neither pelvic MRI nor results of histopathologic examination at X-month follow-up showed evidence of tumor recurrence. Only grade 1 nausea and vomiting during treatment were noted. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was noted at 14-month follow-up. No fistula formation and no evidence of haematological, gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities were noted on the most recent follow-up. CCRT followed by SBRT appears to be an effective and safe modality for treatment of cervical cancer. Larger-scale studies are warranted

  17. Preservation of ovary function during combined treatment for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Sidorenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fixation of the preserved ovaries to uterine round ligament allow to retain ovarian function, not only during postoperative radiotherapy of stage Ib cervical cancer due to their transposition, but also after completing pelvic radiation because of preserved ovarian blood vessels in physiological place. This method prevents surgical and radiologic castration.

  18. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  19. Cervical cancer detection using colposcopic images: a temporal approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acosta-Mesa, H. G.; Zitová, Barbara; Ríos-Figueroa, H. V.; Cruz-Ramírez, N. V.; Marín-Hernández, A.; Hernández-Jiménez, R.; Cocotle-Ronzón, B. E.; Hernández-Galicia, E.

    Los Alamitos : IEEE, 2005, s. 1-7. ISBN 0-7695-2454-0. [Mexican International Conference in Computer Science. ENC'05. Puebla (MX), 26.09.2005-30.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : cervical cancer detection * colposcopy * digital image processing * time analysis Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  20. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  1. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  2. Optoelectronic method for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruski, D.; Przybylski, M.; Kędzia, W.; Kędzia, H.; Jagielska-Pruska, J.; Spaczyński, M.

    2011-12-01

    The optoelectronic method is one of the most promising concepts of biophysical program of the diagnostics of CIN and cervical cancer. Objectives of the work are evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of the optoelectronic method in the detection of CIN and cervical cancer. The paper shows correlation between the pNOR number and sensitivity/specificity of the optoelectronic method. The study included 293 patients with abnormal cervical cytology result and the following examinations: examination with the use of the optoelectronic method — Truscreen, colposcopic examination, and histopathologic biopsy. Specificity of the optoelectronic method for LGSIL was estimated at 65.70%, for HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix amounted to 90.38%. Specificity of the optoelectronic method used to confirm lack of cervical pathology was estimated at 78.89%. The field under the ROC curve for the optoelectronic method was estimated at 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) which shows high diagnostic value of the test in the detection of HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma. The optoelectronic method is characterised by high usefulness in the detection of CIN, present in the squamous epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix.

  3. Patients with cervical cancer: why did screening not prevent these cases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, R.P. de; Vergers-Spooren, H.C.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Siebers, A.G.; Salet-van der Pol, M.R.; Vedder, J.E.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bulten, J.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the screening history of women with cervical cancer and review normal cervical smears 5 years preceding the diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Cytological and histological results of 401 women treated for invasive cervical cancer between 1991 and 2008 at the

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil-9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated?Gardasil-9 prevents many cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, including:cervical cancer in females ... 9) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National ...

  5. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in human cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown that IAPs, in particular XIAP, survivin and c-IAP1, are overexpressed in several malignancies. In the present study we investigate the expression of c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP and survivin and its isoforms in cervical cancer. We used semiquantitative RT-PCR assays to analyze 41 cancer and 6 normal tissues. The study included 8 stage I cases; 16 stage II; 17 stageIII; and a control group of 6 samples of normal cervical squamous epithelial tissue. c-IAP2 and XIAP mRNA levels were similar among the samples, cervical tumors had lower c-IAP1 mRNA levels. Unexpectedly, a clear positive association was found between low levels of XIAP and disease relapse. A log-rank test showed a significant inverse association (p = 0.02) between XIAP expression and tumor aggressiveness, as indicated by disease relapse rates. There were no statistically significant differences in the presence or expression levels of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 among any of the clinical variables studied. Survivin and its isoforms were undetectable in normal cervical tissues, in contrast with the clear upregulation observed in cancer samples. We found no association between survivin expression and age, clinical stage, histology or menopausal state. Nevertheless, we found that adenocarcinoma tumors expressed higher levels of survivin 2B and DeltaEx3 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04 respectively, by Kruskal-Wallis). A multivariate Cox's partial likelihood-based analysis showed that only FIGO stage was an independent predictor of outcome. There are no differences in the expression of c-IAP2 and XIAP between normal vs. cancer samples, but XIAP expression correlate in cervical cancer with relapse of this disease in the patients. Otherwise, c-IAP1 was downregulated in the cervical cancer samples. The expression of survivin was upregulated in the patients with cervical cancer. We have found that adenocarcinoma presented higher levels of survivin isoforms 2B and DeltaEx3

  6. The evaluation of older patients with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Y

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ying Gao,1 Jin-lu Ma,1,* Fei Gao,2,* Li-ping Song11Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 2Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: The number of elderly patients being diagnosed with cervical cancer is increasing, and the outcome of cervical cancer related to age is controversial. We conducted a retrospective analysis in patients treated for advanced cervical cancer in order to investigate patient characteristics and prognosis of older patients.Methods: Medical records were collected of 159 patients with cervical cancer who had been treated with radiotherapy or combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy from January 2007 to January 2009. The patients were divided into two age groups: (1 patients ≥65 years old, and (2 patients 0.05. Seventy-six patients had human papillomavirus (HPV at diagnosis (twelve women ≥65 years, 64 women ≤65 years; P = 0.000. Forty-two women tested positive for HPV 16, while 32 women tested positive for HPV 18 respectively. Pelvic and/or paraaortic lymph-node metastasis was found in 25 patients (eight in group 1, 17 in group 2; P = 0.960 on computed tomography scan. Of the 159 patients analyzed, sixteen patients (16/52 in group 1 received concurrent chemotherapy, while 96 (96/107 in group 2 completed that treatment.Conclusions: Cervical cancer has the same prognosis in old and young women. Age may not be an independent increased risk of death in women with cervical cancer, and the age-group is at lower risk for virulent HPV strands (HPV 16/18 compared to younger patients. Treatment recommendations were implemented less often for older patients. Radiotherapy remained the most common treatment chosen for elderly patients. This confirms that there is a stronger need to pay attention to the elderly patient.Keywords: cervical cancer, older

  7. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas C.; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and identifies areas for programmatic development to meet the global development goal to reduce cancer-related mortality. Advanced stage at presentation and gaps in prevention, screening, diagnostic, and treatment capacities contribute to reduced cervical cancer survival. Cost-effective cervical cancer screening strategies implemented in low resource settings can reduce cervical cancer mortality. Patient- and system-based barriers need to be addressed as part of any cervical cancer control program. Limited human capacity and infrastructure in SSA are major barriers to comprehensive cervical cancer care. Management of early-stage, locally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer involves multispecialty care, including gynecology oncology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, radiation oncology, and palliative care. Investment in cervical cancer care programs in low- and middle-income countries will need to include effective recruitment programs to engage women in the community to access cancer screening and diagnosis services. Though cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable cancer, the challenges to cervical control in SSA are great and will require a broadly integrated and sustained effort by multiple stakeholders before meaningful progress can be achieved. PMID:27446806

  8. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas C; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and identifies areas for programmatic development to meet the global development goal to reduce cancer-related mortality. Advanced stage at presentation and gaps in prevention, screening, diagnostic, and treatment capacities contribute to reduced cervical cancer survival. Cost-effective cervical cancer screening strategies implemented in low resource settings can reduce cervical cancer mortality. Patient- and system-based barriers need to be addressed as part of any cervical cancer control program. Limited human capacity and infrastructure in SSA are major barriers to comprehensive cervical cancer care. Management of early-stage, locally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer involves multispecialty care, including gynecology oncology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, radiation oncology, and palliative care. Investment in cervical cancer care programs in low- and middle-income countries will need to include effective recruitment programs to engage women in the community to access cancer screening and diagnosis services. Though cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable cancer, the challenges to cervical control in SSA are great and will require a broadly integrated and sustained effort by multiple stakeholders before meaningful progress can be achieved. PMID:27446806

  9. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  10. Therapeutic cancer vaccines: are we there yet?

    OpenAIRE

    Klebanoff, Christopher A.; Acquavella, Nicholas; Yu, Zhiya; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2011-01-01

    Enthusiasm for therapeutic cancer vaccines has been rejuvenated with the recent completion of several large, randomized phase III clinical trials that in some cases have reported an improvement in progression free or overall survival. However, an honest appraisal of their efficacy reveals modest clinical benefit and a frequent requirement for patients with relatively indolent cancers and minimal or no measurable disease. Experience with adoptive cell transfer-based immunotherapies unequivocal...

  11. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass from

  12. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass

  13. Treatment results of neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment results of neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for hypopharyngeal cancer were analyzed retrospectively by comparing neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves and that with the resection of cervical nerves. Pharyngolaryngectomy or pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy with bilateral neck dissection was performed in 76 hypopharyngeal cancer cases between January 1992 and November 2001. Neck dissection with the resection of cervical nerves was performed on 42 sides of the neck in 21 cases (the cervical nerve-resected group). In 55 cases we attempted to employ neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves, but in 9 cases the cervical nerves were resected because of their nodal adhesion or involvement Neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves was performed on 92 sides of the neck in 46 cases (the cervical nerve-preserved group). There were significant differences between background factors of two groups about age, sex, induction chemotherapy, preservation of accessory nerve, and pN classification. The 5-year cumulative control rates of cervical lymph nodes were 81.3% for the cervical nerve-resected group and 79.7% for the cervical nerve-preserved group. There was no significant difference between the two groups. It was suggested that neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for cases whose cervical nerves were able to be preserved from metastatic lymph nodes under induction chemotherapy and post-operative irradiation was as effective to control cervical lymph nodes as neck dissection with the resection of cervical nerves. (author)

  14. Tc17 cells in patients with uterine cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The existence of Tc17 cells was recently shown in several types of infectious and autoimmune diseases, but their distribution and functions in uterine cervical cancer (UCC have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: The frequency of Tc17 cells in peripheral blood samples obtained from UCC patients, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN patients and healthy controls was determined by flow cytometry. Besides, the prevalence of Tc17 cells and their relationships to Th17 cells and Foxp3-expressing T cells as well as microvessels in tissue samples of the patients were assessed by immunohistochemistry staining. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients with UCC or CIN had a higher proportion of Tc17 cells in both peripheral blood and cervical tissues, but the level of Tc17 cells in UCC tissues was significantly higher than that in CIN tissues. Besides, the increased level of Tc17 in UCC patients was associated with the status of pelvic lymph node metastases and increased microvessel density. Finally, significant correlations of infiltration between Tc17 cells and Th17 cells or Foxp3-expressing T cells were observed in UCC and CIN tissues. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that Tc17 cell infiltration in cervical cancers is associated with cancer progression accompanied by increased infiltrations of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells as well as promoted tumor vasculogenesis.

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices for Cervical Cancer Screening Among the Bhutanese Refugee Community in Omaha, Nebraska

    OpenAIRE

    Haworth, Rebecca J.; Margalit, Ruth; Ross, Christine; Nepal, Tikka; Soliman, Amr S.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women with the vast majority of patients in developing countries. Bhutanese refugees in the United States are from South Central Asia, the 4th leading region of the world for cervical cancer incidence. Over the past few years, Bhutanese refugees have increased significantly in Nebraska. This study evaluates current knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices among the Bhutanese refugee women in Omaha, Nebraska....

  16. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  17. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cytosensors over a frequency range offers instantaneous and quantitative means to monitor cellular events and is an upcoming technique in real time to classify cells as normal and abnormal ones. This technology is exploited for label-free detection of diseases by identifying and measuring nonbiological parameters of the cell which may carry the disease signature.

  18. Knowledge of medical school students on breast cancer and cervical cancer, and their prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Liszcz; Badowska-Kozakiewicz, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer and cervical cancer are the most common cancers in women. Early diagnosis of the disease can reduce mortality, so it plays an important role in the field of prevention measures. An important aspect is education, the aim of which is to provide information on the risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, as well as the possibility of eliminating them from the life of women, but also shaping women’s need to perform regular diagnostics. Aim of the resea...

  19. Biologia molecular do câncer cervical Molecular biology of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Augusto Rivoire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A carcinogênese é um processo de múltiplas etapas. Alterações no equilíbrio citogenético ocorrem na transformação do epitélio normal a câncer cervical. Numerosos estudos apoiam a hipótese de que a infecção por HPV está associada com o desenvolvimento de alterações malignas e pré-malignas do trato genital inferior. Neste trabalho são apresentadas as bases para a compreensão da oncogênese cervical. O ciclo celular é controlado por proto-oncogenes e genes supressores. Quando ocorrem mutações, proto-oncogenes tornam-se oncogenes, que são carcinogênicos e causam multiplicação celular excessiva. A perda da ação de genes supressores funcionais pode levar a célula ao crescimento inadequado. O ciclo celular também pode ser alterado pela ação de vírus, entre eles o HPV (Human Papiloma Virus, de especial interesse na oncogênese cervical. Os tipos de HPV 16 e 18 são os de maior interesse, freqüentemente associados a câncer cervical e anal. O conhecimento das bases moleculares que estão envolvidas na oncogênese cervical tem sido possível devido a utilização de técnicas avançadas de biologia molecular. A associação destas técnicas aos métodos diagnósticos clássicos, poderão levar a uma melhor avaliação das neoplasias cervicais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento de novas terapias, talvez menos invasivas e mais efetivas.Carcinogenesis involves several steps. Disorders of the cytogenetic balance occur during the evolution from normal epithelium to cervical cancer. Several studies support the hypothesis that the Human Papiloma Virus (HPV infection is associated to development of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical cancer. In this review we show the basis to understand cervical oncogenesis. The cell cycle is controlled by protooncogenes and supressive genes. This orchestrated cell cycle can be affected by virus such as HPV. Of special interest in the cervical carcinogenesis are the HPV subtypes 16 and 18

  20. Global challenges of implementing human papillomavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Amrita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus vaccines are widely hailed as a sweeping pharmaceutical innovation for the universal benefit of all women. The implementation of the vaccines, however, is far from universal or equitable. Socio-economically marginalized women in emerging and developing, and many advanced economies alike, suffer a disproportionately large burden of cervical cancer. Despite the marketing of Human Papillomavirus vaccines as the solution to cervical cancer, the market authorization (licensing of the vaccines has not translated into universal equitable access. Vaccine implementation for vulnerable girls and women faces multiple barriers that include high vaccine costs, inadequate delivery infrastructure, and lack of community engagement to generate awareness about cervical cancer and early screening tools. For Human Papillomavirus vaccines to work as a public health solution, the quality-assured delivery of cheaper vaccines must be integrated with strengthened capacity for community-based health education and screening.

  1. HPV vaccine acceptability among Kenyan women

    OpenAIRE

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Otieno, Walter Agingu; Brewer, Noel T.; Agot, Kawango; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    As human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines become available in less developed countries, understanding women’s attitudes towards HPV vaccines can help guide approaches to immunization programs. We assessed knowledge and interest in prophylactic HPV vaccines among Kenyan women seeking women’s health services (N=147). They knew little about cervical cancer or HPV vaccine. Most women (95%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 92%, 99%), however, were willing to have their daughters vaccinated with a vaccin...

  2. Four year efficacy of prophylactic human papillomavirus quadrivalent vaccine against low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, Joakim; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M;

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata).......To evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in preventing low grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias and anogenital warts (condyloma acuminata)....

  3. A pooled analysis of continued prophylactic efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (Types 6/11/16/18) vaccine against high-grade cervical and external genital lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján; Iversen, Ole-Erik;

    2009-01-01

    Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to provide protection from HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical, vaginal, and vulvar disease through 3 years. We provide an update on the efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine against high-grade cervical, vaginal, and vulvar lesions bas...

  4. Cancer Vaccines in Ovarian Cancer: How Can We Improve?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Martin Lluesma; Anita Wolfer; Alexandre Harari; Lana E. Kandalaft

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one important cause of gynecologic cancer-related death. Currently, the mainstay of ovarian cancer treatment consists of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy (introduced 30 years ago) but, as the disease is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, its prognosis remains very poor. Clearly, there is a critical need for new treatment options, and immunotherapy is one attractive alternative. Prophylactic vaccines for prevention of infectious dise...

  5. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  6. Application of Oesophagogastric Cervical Mechanical Anastomosis in Oesophagectomy for Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to explore the safety and the feasibility of the application of digestive tract-specific circular anastomats in oesophagogastric cervical anastomosis after oesophagectomy for cancer. We retrospectively analysed the clinical data of 241 patients undergoing oesophagogastric cervical anastomosis using disposable circular staplings after oesophagectomy in the People's Hospital of Henan Province, from August 2009 to July 2012. A total of 240 patients were anastomosed successfully. One patient had a partially torn oesophagus and underwent repair because the wrong stapler size was used. No operative death occurred. Seven patients (2.9 %) had postoperative cervical anastomotic leakage but recovered after short-term conservative treatment, and three patients had obvious gastro-oesophageal reflux after eating. No intrathoracic anastomotic leakage or other anastomotic instrument-related complications occurred. During a median follow-up period of 13.8 months, no anastomotic stricture was found in each patient. The application of oesophagogastric cervical anastomosis using circular anastomat after oesophagectomy for cancer was safe and feasible. PMID:27011487

  7. Behaviour among women in the scope of cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Słopiecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cytological examination is a simple and inexpensive method used in the prevention of cervical cancer. In Poland, too low proportions of women still have the test. Aim of the research : To analyse the attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention. Material and methods : Two hundred and ten hospitalized women were invited to take part in the investigation. The research used the diagnostic poll method, using the author’s original questionnaire form. The research was carried out in four gynaecological wards. Results : Of the women who participated in the research, 16.2% by the time of diagnosis had never received a Pap test. In the analysed group, 88.2% of women were not referred to a specialist for a Pap test. Among all respondents, only 35.7% underwent cervix cytology regularly, i.e. once a year or once every 2 years. Conclusions : The effort made by the women towards the attitudes of cervical cancer prevention was insufficient; still too many women had not reported to the specialist for taking material from the cervix, or did not do so regularly. A significant relation in the behaviour of women was found depending on their level of education and place of residence. Greater activity of nurses, midwives and family physicians in stimulating Polish women to participate in prevention programmes for cervical cancer is advisable. To increase the health awareness of girls and women, it is important to include in the curriculum, especially in secondary schools, the issues of prevention of female reproductive system cancer.

  8. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life questionnaire cervical cancer module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede R; Kuljanic Vlasic, Karin; Waldenstrom, Ann-Charlotte;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors report on the development and validation of a cervical cancer module for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life (QoL) questionnaire (QLQ), which was designed to assess disease-specific and treatment-specific aspects of Qo......L in patients with cervical cancer. METHODS: The cervical cancer module (EORTC QLQ-CX24) was developed in a multicultural, multidisciplinary setting to supplement the EORTC QLQ-C30 core questionnaire. The QLQ-C30 and the cervical cancer module were administered to 346 patients with cervical cancer who underwent...... of the EORTC QLQ-CX24 module. This newly developed module is a useful instrument for assessing the QoL of patients who are treated for cervical cancer both in clinical trials and in clinical practice....

  9. Optoelectronic image processing for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Sharpe, John P.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1994-05-01

    Automation of the Pap-smear cervical screening method is highly desirable as it relieves tedium for the human operators, reduces cost and should increase accuracy and provide repeatability. We present here the design for a high-throughput optoelectronic system which forms the first stage of a two stage system to automate pap-smear screening. We use a mathematical morphological technique called the hit-or-miss transform to identify the suspicious areas on a pap-smear slide. This algorithm is implemented using a VanderLugt architecture and a time-sequential ANDing smart pixel array.

  10. Cancer Genome Sequencing and Its Implications for Personalized Cancer Vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New DNA sequencing platforms have revolutionized human genome sequencing. The dramatic advances in genome sequencing technologies predict that the $1,000 genome will become a reality within the next few years. Applied to cancer, the availability of cancer genome sequences permits real-time decision-making with the potential to affect diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, and has opened the door towards personalized medicine. A promising strategy is the identification of mutated tumor antigens, and the design of personalized cancer vaccines. Supporting this notion are preliminary analyses of the epitope landscape in breast cancer suggesting that individual tumors express significant numbers of novel antigens to the immune system that can be specifically targeted through cancer vaccines

  11. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of cervical cancer and the coverage in cervical cancer screening are usually reported by including in the denominator all women from the general population. However, after hysterectomy women are not at risk anymore of developing cervical cancer. Therefore, it makes...... sense to determine the indicators also for the true at-risk populations. We described the frequency of total hysterectomy in Denmark and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and the screening coverage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With data from five Danish population-based registries......, the incidence rate of cervical cancer and the screening coverage for women aged 23-64 years on 31 December 2010 were calculated with and without adjustments for hysterectomies undertaken for reasons other than cervical cancer. They were calculated as the number of cases divided by 1) the total number of woman...

  12. Image-Based Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical cancer is a disease that requires considerable multidisciplinary coordination of care and labor in order to maximize tumor control and survival while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As with external beam radiation therapy, the use of advanced imaging and 3-dimensional treatment planning has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The use of image-based brachytherapy, most commonly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires additional attention and effort by the treating physician to prescribe dose to the proper volume and account for adjacent organs at risk. This represents a dramatic change from the classic Manchester approach of orthogonal radiographic images and prescribing dose to point A. We reviewed the history and currently evolving data and recommendations for the clinical use of image-based brachytherapy with an emphasis on MRI-based brachytherapy

  13. Journey of a Woman With Terminal Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Theresa A

    2016-06-01

    When a cervical cancer diagnosis is made during a terminal stage, a woman is faced with many challenges. Although a terminal illness has many negative effects, such as physical pain, scarring, fear, and sexual dysfunction, women may experience a positive impact on their life, such as improved well-being and a greater appreciation of daily life. The individual experience can lead to personal revelations. Sometimes, the diagnosis can even be seen as a blessing. Understanding a personal experience in a real-life context of the terminal stages of disease is important. This story shares the day-to-day journey of a woman living with a terminal illness of cervical cancer. PMID:27206304

  14. Image-Based Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkenrider, Matthew M., E-mail: mharkenrider@lumc.edu; Alite, Fiori; Silva, Scott R.; Small, William

    2015-07-15

    Cervical cancer is a disease that requires considerable multidisciplinary coordination of care and labor in order to maximize tumor control and survival while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As with external beam radiation therapy, the use of advanced imaging and 3-dimensional treatment planning has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The use of image-based brachytherapy, most commonly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires additional attention and effort by the treating physician to prescribe dose to the proper volume and account for adjacent organs at risk. This represents a dramatic change from the classic Manchester approach of orthogonal radiographic images and prescribing dose to point A. We reviewed the history and currently evolving data and recommendations for the clinical use of image-based brachytherapy with an emphasis on MRI-based brachytherapy.

  15. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan......OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values......, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009-2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant...

  16. Prospects for primary prevention of cervical cancer in developing countries Perspectivas de prevención primaria de cáncer cervical en países en desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Franceschi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The HPV types that cause cervical cancer are sexually transmitted, but there is little evidence that infection can be avoided by behavioural changes, such as condom use. In contrast, prophylactic vaccines against HPV infection are likely to have high efficacy. In principle, the effectiveness of HPV vaccination as a strategy for cervical cancer control can be measured either by monitoring secular trends in cervical cancer incidence or by conducting randomized trials. The former approach is unlikely to provide convincing evidence of effectiveness, since cervical cancer rates are subject to strong secular trends that are independent of intervention measures. A few phase III trials of HPV prophylactic vaccines are now being started. Such trials are very expensive studies involving frequent and complicated investigations. It is important, however, to start as soon as possible simpler trials designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of HPV vaccine in field conditions, i.e. in developing or intermediate countries which suffer the major burden of mortality from cervical cancer. Such trials may capture a difference in the most severe, and rarest, preinvasive cervical lesions (i.e., the real target of any HPV vaccine over a prolonged follow-up (20 years at least. The design of such studies is briefly considered for two areas: Southern India and South Korea.Los tipos de virus de papiloma humano (VPH que causan cáncer cervical son sexualmente transmisibles, pero existe muy poca evidencia sobre que la infección pueda ser evitada por cambios en las conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, tales como el uso del condón. En contraste, vacunas profilácticas en contra del VPH pueden llegar a tener una muy elevada eficacia en la prevención de cáncer cervical. En principio, la efectividad de la vacunación contra el VPH, como estrategia para el control de cáncer cervical, puede ser evaluada por monitoreo secular en las tendencias de incidencia de cáncer cervical o

  17. Patient age, tumor appearance and tumor size are risk factors for early recurrence of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Juan; WANG, Tao; YANG, YUN-YI; CHAI, YAN-LAN; Shi, Fan; Liu, Zi

    2014-01-01

    The recurrence and metastasis of cervical cancer contribute to a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for cervical cancer progression. A total of 284 patients with recurrent cervical cancer were retrospectively recruited to evaluate the association of disease recurrence with clinicopathological data. The univariate analysis demonstrated that patient age, tumor appearance and tumor size were significantly associated with early recurrence and metastasis of t...

  18. Roles of Foxp3 in the occurrence and development of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qingshuang; Zhang, Shulan; Wei, Heng; Pang, Xiaoao; Zhang, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) expression and clinicopathological characteristics of cervical cancer and to explore the influence of Foxp3 on the biological behaviors of cervical cancer cells. Methods: In this study, immunohistochemistry, lentivirus mediated transfection, Transwell assay; CCK-8 assay, real-time PCR and flow cytometry were employed to confirm the roles of Foxp3 in the occurrence and development of cervical cancer. Resul...

  19. The results of combination therapy for local cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of the developed technique os combination treatment based on split course of combination radiotherapy against a background of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to 275 patients with stage II-III cervical cancer allowed to transfer an immobile tumor process to the respectable in 46.0% og cases, which was followed by the uterus and appendages removal, while with traditional course of radiotherapy operability index was only 6.9%

  20. Combined clinical and genetic testing algorithm for cervical cancer diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Liou, Yu-Ligh; Zhang, Tao-Lan; Yan, Tian; Yeh, Ching-Tung; Kang, Ya-Nan; Cao, Lanqin; Wu, Nayiyuan; Chang, Chi-Feng; Wang, Huei-Jen; Yen, Carolyn; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Background Opportunistic screening in hospitals is widely used to effectively reduce the incidence rate of cervical cancer in China and other developing countries. This study aimed to identify clinical risk factor algorithms that combine gynecologic examination and molecular testing (paired box gene 1 (PAX1) or zinc finger protein 582 (ZNF582) methylation or HPV16/18) results to improve diagnostic accuracy. Methods The delta Cp of methylated PAX1 and ZNF582 was obtained via quantitative methy...

  1. Overcoming Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening Among Asian American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality exist among ethnic minority women, and in particular, among Asian American women. These disparities have been attributed primarily to differences in screening rates across ethnic/racial groups. Asian American women have one of the lowest rates of screening compared to other ethnic/racial groups. Yet Asian Americans, who comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the United States, have received the least attention in c...

  2. Tailored radiotherapeutic strategies for disseminated uterine cervical cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the role of radiotherapy (RT) in and to suggest radiotherapeutic strategies for patients presenting with disseminated cervical cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients diagnosed as the disseminated cervical cancer with distant lymph nodal or visceral organ metastasis between September 1980 and August 2012. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to visceral organ metastasis: 35 patients diagnosed with distant lymph node metastasis only (group A) and 15 patients with visceral organ metastasis (group B). All patients received external beam RT to the pelvis (median dose 45 Gy) and high-dose rate intracavitary RT (median dose 30 Gy). Thirty-nine patients (78%) received chemotherapy. Median follow-up time was 74 months. The 5-year pelvic control rate (PCR) was 85.8%, and the progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 28.7%, and 36.2%, respectively. The major treatment failure was systemic progression (32 patients, 64%). The 5-year PCRs in groups A and B were 87.4% and 74.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Meanwhile, PFS and OS rates for group A were significantly better than those for group B (35.3% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.010; and 46.3% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.009, respectively). Our data revealed considerable prognostic heterogeneity in disseminated cervical cancer. Even though a high PCR was achieved in patients treated with definitive RT, survival outcomes were dependent on progression of visceral organ metastasis. Therefore, personalized RT and chemotherapy treatment strategies according to the presence of visceral organ metastasis in disseminated cervical cancer patients may help improve clinical outcomes

  3. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  4. Epidemiologic studies of cervical cancer in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    A case-control study of cervical cancer was conducted in Costa Rica, Co- lombia, Mexico and Panama from 1986 to 1987, to determine risk factors operating in these traditionally high-incidence areas. The study included 759 cases and 1,430 hospital and community controls, and accomplished more than 95% participation rates for both types of participants. The ma- jor risk factors identified were: detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 or 18, increasing number of livebi...

  5. Chemoradiation therapy in treatment of patients with IIB cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the experience of chemoradiation therapy application in patients with IIB cervical cancer. A combination of radiation with cisplatin and 5-fluoruracil in radiomodifying doses , 5-year relapse-free survival was 42%, 5-year total survival was 48%. Only in 6% of patients who died before 5 years the death was caused by distant metastases. The most frequent cause of death was relapses in the small pelvis, which made 67.5% of all relapses

  6. A Proof of Concept Imaging System for Automated Cervical Cancer Screening in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Garcia, Mabel Karel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women around the world and affects half a million women per year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 275,000 women die every year, and 80% to 85% of these deaths occur in low-resource countries in Africa and South America. In Peru, cervical cancer has the highest incidence and…

  7. Socioeconomic position and stage of cervical cancer in Danish women diagnosed 2005 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Else; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Johansen, Christoffer; Høgdall, Claus; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Osler, Merete; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2012-01-01

    To reduce social disparities in cervical cancer survival, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which social position influence cancer prognosis. We investigated the relations between socioeconomic factors, comorbidity, time since last Papanicolau smear, and stage at diagnosis in Danish...... women with cervical cancer....

  8. Human papillomavirus infection in women with and without cervical cancer in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Follen Michele

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have been raised that the proportion of cervical cancer preventable by human papillomavirus (HPV 16/18 vaccines might be lower in sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere. Method In order to study the relative carcinogenicity of HPV types in Nigeria, as well as to estimate the vaccine-preventable proportion of invasive cervical cancer (ICC in the country, we compared HPV type prevalence among 932 women from the general population of Ibadan, Nigeria, with that among a series of 75 ICC cases diagnosed in the same city. For all samples, a GP5+/6+ PCR based assay was used for the detection of 44 genital HPV types. Results In the general population, 245 (26.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 23.5% - 29.2% women were HPV-positive, among whom the prevalence of HPV35 and HPV16 were equally frequent (12.2%, 95% CI 8.4% - 17.0%. In ICC, however, HPV16 predominated strongly (67.6% of 68 HPV-positive cases, with the next most common types being 18 (10.3%, 95% CI 4.2% - 20.1%, 35, 45 and 56 (each 5.9%, 95% CI 1.6% - 14.4%. Comparing among HPV-positive women only, HPV16 and 18 were over-represented in ICC versus the general population (prevalence ratios 5.52, 95% CI 3.7 - 8.3 and 1.4, 95% CI 0.6 - 3.3, respectively. Other high-risk HPV types, as well as low-risk and multiple HPV infections were less common in HPV-positive women with ICC than from the general population. Conclusions Our study confirms that in Nigeria, as elsewhere, women infected with HPV16 and 18 are at higher risk of developing ICC than those infected with other high-risk types, and that current HPV16/18 vaccines have enormous potential to reduce cervical cancer in the region.

  9. Preoperative transarterial chemoembolization for cervical cancer: analysis of efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate preoperative transarterial chemoembolization in treating locally advanced cervical cancer and to observe the pathological changes. Methods: Forty-three patients with pathologically proved cervical cancer were enrolled in this study. All patients were treated with transarterial chemoembolization before radical hysterectomy. Bleomycin and cisplantin were infused via bilateral uterine arteries, followed by arterial embolization with gelfoam particles as embolic agent. Radical hysterectomy was performed 20-87 days (mean 38.3 days) after chemoembolization, and the specimen was taken for pathologic examination. Results: (1) complete response (CR) was seen in 4 cases and partial response (PR) in 29 cases, with a total effective rate of 76.7%. (2) The interval between chemoembolization and hysterectomy was a risk factor related to the effect of chemoembolization, i.e. the longer the interval was, the poorer the effect of chemoembolization would be. (3) Pathologically, the tumoral parauterine infiltration was not so severe as estimated before surgery. Conclusion: Preoperative chemoembolization is a safe and effective adjunctive means for the treatment of cervical cancer, which is very helpful for the subsequent radical hysterectomy. (authors)

  10. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Alonso, C. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Llanos, M. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Lacasta, A. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Fuentes, J. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Mendoza, L.A. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Badia, J.M. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Delgado, E. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Ojeda, B. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    Radiotherapy has been standard therapy for locally advanced squamous cell cervical cancer. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is being studied to improve responses and survival. We report a phase II study in locally advanced squamous cell cervical cancer (FIGO stages III and IV A) using chemotherapy with bleomycin, methotrexate and cisplatin (BMP) followed by radical radiotherapy. Of the 35 patients, 31 in stage III and 4 in stage IV A, 3 complete responses (CR) and 22 partial responses (PR) were achieved after chemotherapy treatment. Thirty-one patients completed radiotherapy; 19 achieved CR and 4 PR. Five-year actuarial survival for the entire group was 45% (95% confidence interval, 37-53%) with a median survival of 56 months. Patients with CR had a significantly better survival: The 5-year actuarial survival was 74% (95% CI, 59-89%). Recurrence developed at 4 to 19 patients. The most frequent side-effects were nausea and vomiting. Myelosuppression and impaired renal function also occurred. There was no evidence of radiotherapy toxicity enhancement. The stage and Karnofsky index were significant prognostic factors. It is concluded that MBP chemotherapy in advanced cervical cancer is effective and, followed by radiotherapy, allows a good control of this tumor. The group of patients with complete response have a low rate of recurrences and a long survival chance. (orig.).

  11. Combined modality therapy for stage ⅠB cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qiuan; Qian Shao; Yang Xingsheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the current approaches for multimodality therapy for stage ⅠB cervical cancer. Methods:The relevant literature has served as a source for identified high or intermediate risks and management of stage ⅠB cervical cancer. Result:The high risks include pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM), positive resection margin (PRM), and the in-volvement of parametrium (IPM). The intermediate risks include deep stromal invasion (DSI), bulky tumor size ( BTS), lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI). Adeno-carcinomatous histo-type is the new risk feature relevant to poor prognoses. Both radical hysterectomy plus bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection(PLND) and radical radiotherapy have proven to be equally effec-tive. Surgery is more performed for stage ⅠB1 disease;radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is preferable for stage ⅠB2 disease. For patients with one high risk or two of intermediate risks, radical hysterectomy plus PLND followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy can improve overall survival(OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Conclusion:The management should be indi-vidualized for stage ⅠB cervical cancer. The optimized multidisciplinary therapy can benefit pa-tients with the best cure and minimum morbidity and complications.

  12. Psychosocial concerns of Nigerian women with breast and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohaeri, J U; Campbell, O B; Ilesanmil, A O; Ohaeri, B M

    1998-01-01

    Cancer has the potential to provoke worries which should be assessed in order to adequately respond to patients' problems. We highlight in this paper the problems that concerned 30 women with cervical cancer (mean age 51.2) and 76 with breast cancer (mean age 44.9), how these concerns affected their emotional lives, and the factors associated with these worries. They were interviewed with the 33-item modified version of a German questionnaire rating psychosocial concerns (FBS) by Sullwold, and Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for psychopathological symptoms. Cervical cancer patients had significantly higher FBS and GHQ-12 scores than breast cancer. Breast cancer cases had FBS scores similar to those of women with sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The commonest recurrent worries in both groups were depression about their condition (45%), thoughts of death (37%), insomnia (33.3%), bodily odour (30%), impairment of work efficiency (30%) terrifying dreams (27%) and fear of illness being life-long (25%). Over 90% denied experience of worries indicating social stigma. FBS scores were significantly correlated with GHQ scores and both were negatively associated with adequacy of social contacts. These data suggest the need for psychosocial intervention in such cases in Nigeria. PMID:9885090

  13. A1E reduces stemness and self-renewal in HPV 16-positive cervical cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Taeho; Bak, Yesol; Ham, Sun-Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Yoon, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in females. Recent reports have revealed the critical role of cervical cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumorigenicity and metastasis. Previously we demonstrated that A1E exerts an anti-proliferative action, which inhibits the growth of cervical cancer cells. Methods A1E is composed of 11 oriental medicinal herbs. Cervical cancer cell culture, wund healing and invasion assay, flow cytometry, sheroid formation assay, and wstern blot assays...

  14. Expression of PPARγ, p27 and Ki67 in Cervical Cancer and its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-li LI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the expression of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, p27 and Ki67 in cervical cancer and its clinical significance. Methods: The expression of PPARγ, p27 and Ki67 in the tissues of 42 patients with cervical cancer, 28 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and 12 with normal cervix was detected using immunohistochemistry. Results:The positive rate of PPARγ protein in cervical cancer tissue (76.2% was significantly higher than in CIN (53.6% and normal cervical tissue (8.3% (P<0.05 orP<0.01, which was also evidently higher in CIN than in normal cervical tissue (P<0.05. The positive rate of p27 protein in cervical cancer tissue (31.0% was significantly lower than in CIN (57.1% and normal cervical tissue (83.3% (P<0.05 or P<0.01, and that in CIN had a markedly lower tendency compared with normal cervical tissue (P<0.05. The positive rate of Ki67 protein in cervical cancer tissue (100.0% was apparently higher than in CIN (85.7% and normal cervical tissue (33.3% (P<0.05 or P<0.01, which was also markedly higher in CIN than in normal cervical tissue (P<0.01. The expression of PPARγ, p27 and Ki67 proteins was not associated with the clinicopathological features of patients, including the age, histological types, pathological grading and clinical staging (P>0.05.Conclusion: Abnormal expression of PPARγ, p27 and Ki67 may play important roles in occurrence and progression of cervical cancer, and hence, joint detection of PPARγ, p27 and Ki67 can be used to diagnose early CIN and cervical cancer.

  15. The roles and clinical significance of microRNAs in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenfen; Li, Baohua; Xie, Xing

    2016-02-01

    Cervical carcinogenesis induced by persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection represents a stepwise progression from precursors to invasive cervical cancer. Accumulated evidence has shown aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cervical cancer tissues and cells. Further studies reveal that miRNAs play key roles in the initiation and progression of cervical cancer, via specific signaling pathways, including E6-p53, E7-pRb, phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt, Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, and Hedgehog pathways. Some studies demonstrate that miRNAs might serve as biomarkers or therapeutic targets, presenting a potential prospect in clinical practice. All results provide new insights into the function of miRNAs and the pathogenesis of cervical cancer induced by viral oncoproteins. New approaches for miRNA-based prevention and management for cervical cancer will be developed in the future. PMID:26356641

  16. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41...

  17. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Leśniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków.

  18. Cervical Cancer PSA (:30) (No Tag)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  19. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the -Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species 5 (HPV51), 6 (HPV56), 7 (H...

  20. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at both levels gender and regional, and this, is not only due to social and economic development inequalities, but to the infrastructure and human resources necessary for primary care. For this reason, the CCSP program must be restructured, a to primarily address unprivileged rural and urban areas; b to foster actions aimed at ensuring extensive coverage as well as a similar quality of that coverage in every region; c to use screening strategies in keeping with the availability of health care services. In countries with a great regional heterogeneity, a variety of screening procedures must be regulated and standardized, including a combination of assisted visual inspection, cervical cytology and HPV detection; d regional community intervention must be set up to assess the effectiveness of using HPV detection as an strategy in addition to cervical cytology (pap smear; e the practice of colposcopy must be regulated to prevent the use of it in healthy women at a population level, thus preventing unnecessary diagnosis and treatment which not only are expensive but also causes unnecessary anxiety to women at risk; f the operation of those clinical laboratories using HPV as a detection strategy must likewise be accredited and regulated and g the CCSP program for assuring health care quality should meet the expectations of its beneficiaries, and increase the knowledge in cervical cancer related matters. Finally, though a variety of clinical tests on prophylactic and

  1. Performance of 21 HPV vaccination programs implemented in low and middle-income countries, 2009–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ladner, Joël; Besson, Marie-Hélène; Rodrigues, Mariana; Audureau, Etienne; Saba, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, with high incidence in lowest income countries. Vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) may help to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The aim of the study was to analyze HPV vaccination programs performance implemented in low and middle-income countries. Methods The Gardasil Access Program provides HPV vaccine at no cost to help national institutions gain experience implementing HPV vaccination. Data...

  2. Expression and Effects of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoao Pang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of high- mobility group box1 (HMGB1 and T-cell-mediated immunity and prognostic value in cervical cancer. HMGB1, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3, IL-2, and IL-10 protein expression was analyzed in 100 cervical tissue samples including cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and healthy control samples using immunohistochemistry. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag was immunoradiometrically measured in 32 serum samples from 37 cases of squamous cervical cancer. HMGB1 and SCC-Ag were then correlated to clinicopathological characteristics. HMGB1 expression tends to increase as cervical cancer progresses and it was found to be significantly correlated to FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. These findings suggest that HMGB1 may be a useful prognostic indicator of cervical carcinoma. In addition, there were significant positive relationships between HMGB1 and FOXP3 or IL-10 expression (both p < 0.05. In contrast, HMGB1 and IL-2 expression was negatively correlated (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression may activate Tregs or facilitate Th2 polarization to promote immune evasion of cervical cancer. Elevated HMGB1 protein in cervical carcinoma samples was associated with a high recurrence of HPV infection in univariate analysis (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression and levels of SCC-Ag were directly correlated in SCC (p < 0.05. Thus, HMGB1 may be a useful biomarker for patient prognosis and cervical cancer prediction and treatment.

  3. MicroRNA-373 functions as an oncogene and targets YOD1 gene in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    miR-373 was reported to be elevated in several tumors; however, the role of miR-373 in cervical cancer has not been investigated. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. The expression of miR-373 was investigated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay in 45 cervical specimens and cervical cancer cell lines. The role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells was assessed by cell proliferation, colony formation in vitro as well as tumor growth assays in vivo with the overexpression of miR-373 or gene silencing. The functional target gene of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells was identified using integrated bioinformatics analysis, gene expression arrays, and luciferase assay. We founded that the expression of miR-373 is upregulated in human cervical cancer tissues and cervical carcinoma cell lines when compared to the corresponding noncancerous tissues. Ectopic overexpression of miR-373 in human cervical cancer cells promoted cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, whereas silencing the expression of miR-373 decreased the rate of cell growth. YOD1 was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells. Expression levels of miR-373 were inversely correlated with YOD1 levels in human cervical cancer tissues. RNAi-mediated knockdown of YOD1 phenocopied the proliferation-promoting effect of miR-373. Moreover, overexpression of YOD1 abrogated miR-373-induced proliferation of cervical cancer cells. These results demonstrate that miR-373 increases proliferation by directly targeting YOD1, a new potential therapeutic target in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • The expression of miR-373 is upregulated in human cervical cancer tissues. • miR-373 effects as oncogenic miRNA in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. • miR-373 increases proliferation of cervical cancer cells by directly targeting YOD1

  4. MicroRNA-373 functions as an oncogene and targets YOD1 gene in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Luo-Qiao; Zhang, Yue; Yan, Huan; Liu, Kai-Jiang, E-mail: liukaijiang@126.com; Zhang, Shu, E-mail: drzhangshu@126.com

    2015-04-10

    miR-373 was reported to be elevated in several tumors; however, the role of miR-373 in cervical cancer has not been investigated. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. The expression of miR-373 was investigated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay in 45 cervical specimens and cervical cancer cell lines. The role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells was assessed by cell proliferation, colony formation in vitro as well as tumor growth assays in vivo with the overexpression of miR-373 or gene silencing. The functional target gene of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells was identified using integrated bioinformatics analysis, gene expression arrays, and luciferase assay. We founded that the expression of miR-373 is upregulated in human cervical cancer tissues and cervical carcinoma cell lines when compared to the corresponding noncancerous tissues. Ectopic overexpression of miR-373 in human cervical cancer cells promoted cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, whereas silencing the expression of miR-373 decreased the rate of cell growth. YOD1 was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells. Expression levels of miR-373 were inversely correlated with YOD1 levels in human cervical cancer tissues. RNAi-mediated knockdown of YOD1 phenocopied the proliferation-promoting effect of miR-373. Moreover, overexpression of YOD1 abrogated miR-373-induced proliferation of cervical cancer cells. These results demonstrate that miR-373 increases proliferation by directly targeting YOD1, a new potential therapeutic target in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • The expression of miR-373 is upregulated in human cervical cancer tissues. • miR-373 effects as oncogenic miRNA in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. • miR-373 increases proliferation of cervical cancer cells by directly targeting YOD1.

  5. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of cervical cancer in member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG focusing on details of radiotherapy...... practice. Different scenarios were queried including advanced cervical cancer, postoperative patients, and para-aortic-positive lymph node cases. Items focused on indications for radiation therapy, radiation fields, dose, use of chemotherapy, brachytherapy and others. The cooperative groups from North...... America were compared with the other groups to evaluate potential differences in radiotherapy doses. RESULTS: A total of 39 surveys were returned from 13 different cooperative groups. For the treatment of advanced cervical cancer, external beam pelvic doses and total doses to point A were 47 + 3.5 Gy...

  6. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta-Zaragoza O; Bermúdez-Morales VH; Pérez-Plasencia C; Salazar-León J; Gómez-Cerón C; Madrid-Marina V

    2012-01-01

    Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztac...

  7. Comprehensive knowledge about cervical cancer is low among women in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getahun Frehiwot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the first most common cancer in women in sub-Saharan Africa followed by breast cancer. In Ethiopia, the incidence of cervical cancer is high i.e. 35.9 per 100,000 women. Low level of awareness, lack of effective screening programs, overshadowed by other health priorities (such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, tuberculosis and malaria and insufficient attention to women’s health are the possible factors for the observed higher incidence rate of cervical cancers in the country. Data on knowledge of Ethiopian women regarding cervical cancer is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of women about cervical cancer and associated factors. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April 4-16, 2010 in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A total of 633 women aged 15 years and above were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire by 8 trained data collectors and 2 supervisors. SPSS Windows version 15.0 was employed for data entry and analysis. Result Of all the respondents, 495 (78.7% of them had heard about cervical cancer and only 195 (31% of them were knowledgeable about the disease. Conclusion The knowledge of women on cervical cancer was found to be poor. Education about the disease must include information on risk factors, sign and symptoms of cervical cancer.

  8. Early stage cervical cancer : quality of cancer care and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Quirine Dionne

    2007-01-01

    To improve quality of cancer care treatment-related information is needed. This could be acquired by registries. Since January 1984, the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) collects prospectively more than 200 relevant clinical and pathological parameters of women with cervical cancer treated in

  9. Screening history of cervical cancers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: defining priorities to improve cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Caroli, Stefania; Mancini, Silvia; de' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Finarelli, Alba C; Naldoni, Carlo; Bucchi, Lauro; Falcini, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Most invasive cervical cancers in industrialized countries are due to the lack of Pap test coverage, very few are due to screening failures. This study aimed at quantifying the proportion of invasive cancers occurring in nonscreened or underscreened women and that in women with a previous negative screening, that is, screening failure, during the first two screening rounds (1996-2002) and in the following rounds (2003-2008) in the Emilia-Romagna region. All cases of invasive cancers registered in the regional cancer registry between 1996 and 2008 were classified according to screening history through a record linkage with the screening programme registry. The incidence significantly decreased from 11.6/100 000 to 8.7/100 000; this decrease is due to a reduction in squamous cell cancers (annual percentage change -6.2; confidence interval: -7.8, -4.6) and advanced cancers (annual percentage change -6.6; confidence interval: -8.8, -4.3), whereas adenocarcinomas and microinvasive cancers were essentially stable. The proportion of cancers among women not yet invited and among nonresponders decreased over the two periods, from 45.5 to 33.3%. In contrast, the proportion of women with a previous negative Pap test less than 5 years and 5 years or more before cancer incidence increased from 5.7 to 13.3% and from 0.3 to 5.5%, respectively. Although nonattendance of the screening programme remains the main barrier to cervical cancer control, the introduction of a more sensitive test, such as the human papillomavirus DNA test, could significantly reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24787379

  10. Epigenetics of cervical cancer. An overview and therapeutic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetina Lucely

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer remains one of the greatest killers of women worldwide. It is difficult to foresee a dramatic increase in cure rate even with the most optimal combination of cytotoxic drugs, surgery, and radiation; therefore, testing of molecular targeted therapies against this malignancy is highly desirable. A number of epigenetic alterations occur during all stages of cervical carcinogenesis in both human papillomavirus and host cellular genomes, which include global DNA hypomethylation, hypermetylation of key tumor suppressor genes, and histone modifications. The reversible nature of epigenetic changes constitutes a target for transcriptional therapies, namely DNA methylation and histone deacetylase inhibitors. To date, studies in patients with cervical cancer have demonstrated the feasibility of reactivating the expression of hypermethylated and silenced tumor suppressor genes as well as the hyperacetylating and inhibitory effect upon histone deacetylase activity in tumor tissues after treatment with demethylating and histone deacetylase inhibitors. In addition, detection of epigenetic changes in cytological smears, serum DNA, and peripheral blood are of potential interest for development of novel biomolecular markers for early detection, prediction of response, and prognosis.

  11. REPRODUCTIVE ASPECTS ASSOCIATED WITH PRECURSOR LESIONS FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ferrari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between reproductive variables and theprecursor lesions for cervical cancer in women attended the clinic of the lower genitaltract pathology and colposcopy (PTGIC, packed in the complex regional healthCaceres city, southwest of Mato Grosso, in the year 2009.Methods:We conducted across sectional study with data collection from medical records of 142 women withabnormal cytology, colposcopy and positive underwent directed biopsy, taking intoaccount the reproductive variables.Results:indicate that the minimum age at menarchewas 9 years and maximum age was 17 years, mean 12.6 years; on the average paritywas 3.4 children, the use of hormonal contraceptive method corresponds to 34 5% and38.1% female sterilization research, 46.5% are or have use of contraception for a periodgreater than five years, with a mean of 4.7 years and 67.2% of women surveyed do notuse condoms. The variables were not significantly associated to cervical cancer.Conclusion:the characteristics of the women studied may serve as a basis for workdirected to this population in order to seek to minimize this problem.Although the dataobtained were satisfactory, it was possible to trace the profile of the reproductiveaspects of women in the Clinic ofPTGIC, there is a lack of association betweenreproductive aspects and findings of the cervical biopsy, it may be associated with somelimiting factors of the study that need to be balanced

  12. Intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of cervical cancer and evaluation of response of uterine cervical cancer to radiochemotherapy:A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanchun Wang; Daoyu Hu; Shan Hu; Xuemei Hu; Jianjun Li; Yaqi Shen; Xiaoyu Liu; Zhi Wang; Xiaoyan Meng; Zhen Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) dif usion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose cervical cancer and to evaluate the response of uterine cervical cancer to radiochemotherapy (CRT). Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from al patients. A total of 23 patients with primary cervical cancer who were undergoing CRT and 16 age-matched healthy subjects were prospectively recruited for IVIM (b = 0–800 s/mm2) and stan-dard pelvic MRI. Bi-exponential analysis was performed to derive f (perfusion fraction), D* (pseudo-dif usion coef icient), and D (true molecular dif usion coef icient) in cervical cancer (n = 23) and the normal cervix (n= 16). The apparent dif usion coef icient (standard ADC) was calculated. The independent-samples t-test and paired-samples t-test were used for comparisons. Results Pre-treatment cervical cancer had the lowest standard ADC (1.15 ± 0.13 × 10-3 mm2/s) and D (0.89 ± 0.10 × 10-3 mm2/s) values, and these were significantly dif erent from the normal cervix and post-treatment cervical cancer (P = 0.00). The f (16.67 ± 5.85%) was lowest in pre-treatment cervical cancer and was significantly dif erent from the normal cervix and post-treatment cervical cancer (p = 0.012 and 0.00, respectively). No dif erence was observed in D*. Conclusion IVIM is potential y promising for dif erentiating between the normal cervix and cervical can-cer because pre-treated cervical cancer has low perfusion and dif usion IVIM characteristics. Further, the standard ADC, D, and f of cervical cancer showed a tendency to normalize after CRT; thus, IVIM may be useful for monitoring the response to CRT in cervical cancer.

  13. The expression andprognostic value ofprotein tyrosine kinase 6 inearly-stage cervical squamous cell cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoJingWang; YingXiong; ZeBiaoMa; JianChuanXia; YanFangLi

    2016-01-01

    Background:Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) is overexpressed in many epithelial tumors and predicts poor progno‑sis. However, PTK6 expression status and its role in cervical squamous cell cancer are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the expression level and clinical signiifcance of PTK6 in early‑stage cervical squamous cell cancer. Methods:Quantitative reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (qRT‑PCR) and western blotting analysis were performed to detect PTK6 mRNA and protein expression levels in 10 freshly frozen, early‑stage cervical squamous cell cancer specimens and adjacent non‑tumorous cervical tissues. The expression of PTK6 was detected using immuno‑histochemical staining in 150 formalin‑ifxed, paraffn‑embedded, early‑stage cervical squamous cell cancer sections and 10 normal cervical tissue sections. Results:The mRNA and protein levels of PTK6 in cancer tissues were higher than those in adjacent non‑tumorous cervical tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PTK6 was not expressed in normal cervical tissues but was overexpressed in the cytoplasm of cervical squamous cell cancer cells. The level of PTK6 expression was signiif‑cantly associated with tumor grade (P=0.020). The 5‑year overall survival rate of patients with high PTK6 expression was lower than that of patients with low PTK6 expression (81.3% vs. 96.2%,P=0.008). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the expression level of PTK6 in cervical squamous cell cancer was an independent prognostic factor for patient survival (hazard ratio=5.999, 95% conifdence interval 1.622–22.191,P Conclusions:PTK6 is overexpressed in cervical squamous cell cancer. Increased PTK6 expression is associated with reduced 5‑year overall survival. PTK6 expression is an independent prognostic predictor for cervical cancer.

  14. 76 FR 55915 - Request for Nominations of Candidates to Serve on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... on the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) The... the CDC on the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The role of the BCCEDCAC...

  15. Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccines: From the Bench to the Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Katz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The recognition that the development of cancer is associated with acquired immunodeficiency, mostly against cancer cells themselves, and understanding pathways inducing this immunosuppression, has led to a tremendous development of new immunological approaches, both vaccines and drugs, which overcome this inhibition. Both “passive” (e.g. strategies relying on the administration of specific T cells and “active” vaccines (e.g. peptide-directed or whole-cell vaccines have become attractive immunological approaches, inducing cell death by targeting tumor-associated antigens. Whereas peptide-targeted vaccines are usually directed against a single antigen, whole-cell vaccines (e.g. dendritic cell vaccines are aimed to induce robust responsiveness by targeting several tumor-related antigens simultaneously. The combination of vaccines with new immuno-stimulating agents which target “immunosuppressive checkpoints” (anti-CTLA-4, PD-1, etc. is likely to improve and maintain immune response induced by vaccination.

  16. Accessibility of breast and cervical cancer services in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Despite the fact that Malaysia has good treatment centers for reproductive cancer, mortality rates from breast and cervical cancer are high because of a lack of early detection. Breast cancer mortality rates have risen since 1985, while cervical cancer mortality rates declined from 1985 to 1993 and then increased in 1997. There is no standardized cancer registry, so incidence and mortality rates are likely to be higher than reported. In 1995, the government launched its first nationwide cancer prevention campaign and stressed breast self-examination and yearly examination by a medical professional for woman aged 20 years and above. The same year, eligibility for pap smears was extended to all women who have been or are sexually active and are aged 20-65 years. Between 1993 and 1996, 35% of the breast cancer cases presented at stage 3 or 4, and 93% of these women had a lump of a mean size of 5.3 cm. Cultural taboos prevent women from examining their own bodies, and women fear their husbands will leave them if they have a mastectomy. Malay women also deny themselves preventive care, and sometimes physicians and nurses deny Pap smears to unmarried women. Women are not empowered with the knowledge they need to seek preventive screenings, and older women are difficult to reach with information because they are unlikely to visit maternal-child health or family planning clinics. Malaysia needs to institute a standardized cancer registry and to conduct research that will address the barriers faced by women. PMID:12294552

  17. Injecting Hope--A Review of Breast Cancer Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Peoples, George E

    2016-05-01

    There is significant interest in investigating immunotherapeutic strategies to be used for the treatment of breast cancer patients. One form of immunotherapy under active investigation is the cancer vaccine. Vaccines are a form of active immune therapy designed to stimulate the immune system to recognize tumor cells as foreign. Vaccines include an antigen that serves as the target for the immune response, and an immunoadjuvant, which is a nonspecific stimulator of the immune response that promotes an environment conducive to immune stimulation. Vaccines are an appealing therapeutic strategy because they are specific and are associated with minimal toxicity. In addition, they stimulate the adaptive immune system, thereby producing a memory response allowing for sustained effect without repeated therapy. Currently, there are no US Food and Drug Administration-approved breast cancer vaccines; however, there are multiple vaccines and treatment strategies employing these vaccines that are being actively investigated in clinical trials. PMID:27188680

  18. Expression of the CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 axes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Huang; Jia Zhang; Zhu-Mei Cui; Jing Zhao; Ye Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 is highly expressed in gynecologic tumors and is widely known to play a biologically relevant role in tumor growth and spread.Recent evidence suggests that CXCL16,a novel chemokine,is overexpressed in inflammation-associated tumors and mediates pro-tumorigenic effects of inflammation in prostate cancer.We therefore analyzed the expression of CXCL12 and CXCL16 and their respective receptors CXCR4 and CXCR6 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer and further assessed their association with clinicopathologic features and outcomes.Tissue chip technology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of CXCL12,CXCR4,CXCL16,and CXCR6 in healthy cervical tissue (21 cases),CIN (65 cases),and cervical carcinoma (60 cases).The association of protein expression with clinicopathologic features and overall survival was analyzed.These four proteins were clearly detected in membrane and cytoplasm of neoplastic epithelial cells,and their distribution and intensity of expression increased as neoplastic lesions progressed through CIN1,CIN2,and CIN3 to invasive cancer.Furthermore,the expression of CXCR4 was associated significantly with the histologic grade of cervical carcinoma,whereas the expression of CXCR6 was associated significantly with lymph node metastasis.In Kaplan-Meier analysis,patients with high CXCR6 expression had significantly shorter overall survival than did those with low CXCR6 expression.The elevated co-expression levels of CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 in CIN and cervical carcinoma suggest a durative process in cervical carcinoma development.Moreover,CXCR6 may be useful as a biomarker and a valuable prognostic factor for cervical cancer.

  19. Expression of the CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 axes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zheng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine CXCL12 is highly expressed in gynecologic tumors and is widely known to play a biologically relevant role in tumor growth and spread. Recent evidence suggests that CXCL16, a novel chemokine, is overexpressed in inflammation-associated tumors and mediates pro-tumorigenic effects of inflammation in prostate cancer. We therefore analyzed the expression of CXCL12 and CXCL16 and their respective receptors CXCR4 and CXCR6 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer and further assessed their association with clinicopathologic features and outcomes. Tissue chip technology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of CXCL12, CXCR4, CXCL16, and CXCR6 in healthy cervical tissue (21 cases, CIN (65 cases, and cervical carcinoma (60 cases. The association of protein expression with clinicopathologic features and overall survival was analyzed. These four proteins were clearly detected in membrane and cytoplasm of neoplastic epithelial cells, and their distribution and intensity of expression increased as neoplastic lesions progressed through CIN1, CIN2, and CIN3 to invasive cancer. Furthermore, the expression of CXCR4 was associated significantly with the histologic grade of cervical carcinoma, whereas the expression of CXCR6 was associated significantly with lymph node metastasis. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with high CXCR6 expression had significantly shorter overall survival than did those with low CXCR6 expression. The elevated co-expression levels of CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 in CIN and cervical carcinoma suggest a durative process in cervical carcinoma development. Moreover, CXCR6 may be useful as a biomarker and a valuable prognostic factor for cervical cancer.

  20. Ubiquitin B in cervical cancer: critical for the maintenance of cancer stem-like cell characters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Tian

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer cells exhibit an increased requirement for ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation associated with an elevated metabolic turnover rate. Ubiquitin, which is a small, highly conserved protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells, can be covalently linked to certain target proteins to mark them for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Previous studies highlight the essential role of Ubiquitin B (UbB and UbB-dependent proteasomal protein degradation in histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi -induced tumor selectivity. We hypothesized that UbB plays a critical role in the function of cervical cancer stem cells. We measured endogenous UbB levels in mammospheres in vitro by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The function of UbB in cancer stem-like cells was assessed after knockdown of UbB expression in prolonged Trichostatin A-selected HeLa cells (HeLa/TSA by measuring in vitro cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, invasion, and chemotherapy resistance as well as by measuring in vivo growth in an orthotopic model of cervical cancer. We also assessed the cancer stem cell frequency, tumorsphere formation, and in vivo growth of human cervical cancer xenografts after UbB silencing. We found that HeLa/TSA were resistant to chemotherapy, highly expressed the UbB gene and the stem cell markers Sox2, Oct4 and Nanog. These cells also displayed induced differentiation abilities, including enhanced migration/invasion/malignancy capabilities in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, an elevated expression of UbB was shown in the tumor samples of chemotherapy patients. Silencing of UbB inhibited tumorsphere formation, lowered the expression of stem cell markers and decreased cervical xenograft growth. Our results demonstrate that UbB was significantly increased in prolonged Trichostatin A-selected HeLa cells and it played a key role in the maintenance of cervical cancer stem-like cells.

  1. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Ibrahim1, Vibeke Rasch2, Eero Pukkala3, Arja R Aro1 1Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 3Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki, Finland Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV. The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at diagnosis of cervical cancer in Sudan. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of 197 women diagnosed with different stages of cervical cancer. Data was obtained from the cancer registry unit at the Radiation and Isotopes Centre in Khartoum for all women diagnosed with cervical cancer in 2007. Results: There was an association between older age and advanced stage (at diagnosis of cervical cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.05. Being of African ethnicity was associated with 76% increased odds (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.01–3.05, living in a rural area was associated with 13% increased odds (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.78–5.50, and being uninsured was associated with an almost eight-fold increase in odds (OR: 7.7, 95% CI: 3.76–15.38. Marital status and education level were not associated with an advanced stage of cervical cancer at diagnosis. Conclusion: Women with cervical cancer who are elderly, not covered by health insurance, of African ethnicity, and living in a rural area

  2. Radio-guided surgery in cervical cancer - first experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Lymphatic mapping is known to be useful in melanoma and breast cancer. The aim of our study is to evaluate the feasibility of the Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) biopsy in patients with cervical cancer. Material and Methods: We performed dynamic lymphoscintigraphy in 17 patients with evidence of early stage cervical cancer one day before surgery. We injected subepithelially 99mTc-labelled human colloides, Albu-Res, (on average 88 MBq, 0,2 ml NaCl each) in the cervix at 3, 6, 9 and 12 o'clock. The colloid was filtered before to obtain the small particle fraction between 200-450nm. The dynamic scintigraphy was performed immediately after injection (anterior view, 28 images, 1 minute per frame); static images were required 30 minutes and 2 hours p.i. (anterior and lateral views, 5 minutes per images). Additional the SLN were marked on the skin. After SLN identification by using a hand-held gamma probe a standard lymphadenectomy was done. The harvested lymph nodes were also measured after excision and referred to pathologist (for HE-staining and immunohistochemistry). Results: In 15/17 cases SLN were visualized (7/15 with lymph channels) on scintigraphy and in 13/17 cases the SLN (on average 2) detection by gamma probe was successful. Among these 13 patients we didn't found any false-negatives but in the 2 cases with no visualization of SLN (which should always result in a complete lymphadenectomy) we found lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: Lymphatic mapping in patients with cervical cancer by using scintigraphy and gamma probe seems to be feasible to reduce the morbidity due to radical lymphadenectomy. 15/17 patients underwent a radical lymphadenectomy without benefit for survival. However in 2/17 cases this method failed. Larger studies are needed, we have to evaluate the accuracy of the selective SLN-biopsy in cervical cancer. So we have to discuss questions: is the lymph drainage of injection site equal to lymph drainage of tumor site

  3. New Screening Proposals: the Federal Joint Commission Defines the Parameters for Cervical Cancer Screening from 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemanns, P.; Mallmann, P.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    The Gynecology Oncology Working Group (AGO e. V.) unequivocally welcomes the decision taken by the German Federal Joint Commission (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) on March 19, 2015 regarding screening for cervical cancer. AGO is convinced that, in view of recent medical advances, this evidence-based decision will improve screening for cervical cancer. PMID:26941445

  4. Optimization of adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer: Solutions for photon and proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.A.J. van de Schoot

    2016-01-01

    In cervical cancer radiation therapy, an adaptive strategy is required to compensate for interfraction anatomical variations in order to achieve adequate dose delivery. In this thesis, we have aimed at optimizing adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer to improve treatment efficiency and reduc

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective.

  6. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  7. Cervical and Breast Cancer-Screening Knowledge of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Luken, Karen; Rose, Roderick A.; Dababnah, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Women with developmental disabilities are significantly less likely than women without disabilities to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. The reasons for this gap are not understood. The present study examined the extent of women's knowledge about cervical and breast cancer screening, with the intention…

  8. Isolated mandibular condylar metastases: An uncommon manifestation of recurrent cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya D Puranik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastases from recurrent cervical cancer is a rare scenario, with commonly involved sites being lumbar spine and pelvic bones report an extremely rare manifestation of cervical cancer recurrence presenting as a painful jaw swelling due to metastasis to the mandibular condyle.

  9. BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCER EARLY DETECTION PROGRAM OR MINIMUM DATA ELEMENTS (MDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help improve access to early detection screening for breast and cervical cancers for underserved women, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act of 1990, which created the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Breast and Cer...

  10. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle Westergren;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...

  11. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective. PMID:27617239

  12. Expression of Pin1 and Ki67 in Cervical Cancer and Their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression levels of Pin1 mRNA and protein in cervical cancer and its association with Ki67 and their clinical significance, amplification of Pin1 gene was examined by RT-PCR, and the expression of both Pin1 and Ki67 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in cervical cancer tissues. It was shown that the expression levels of Pin1 were higher in cervical cancer than in normal cervical tissues (P<0.05). The expression of Pin1 protein was increased progressively along with the disease process from normal cervix to CIN and to cervical cancer (P<0. 05). No significant difference in the Pin1 expression was found between disease stages (FIGO),pathological grades or pelvic lymph node metastasis status (P>0.05). The expression of Pin1 was significantly higher in adenocarcinoma than insquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix (P<0.05).In cervical cancer, the overexpression of Pin1 was positively correlated with that of Ki67 (P<0.05). These results suggested that the overexpression of Pin1 was closely related with cancer cell proliferation or progression of cervical cancer and contributed to oncogenesis. Pin1 may serve as a potential marker for cervical cancer diagnosis.

  13. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  14. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  15. Using Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Strategy: Development of a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Theresa L.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Smith, Judith Lee; Heckert, Andrea; Orians, Carlyn E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria E.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable with treatment of precancerous lesions and treatable at early stages. Hispanics have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of screening. "Ayndando a las Mujeres con Informaccion, Guia, y Amor para su Salud" (AMIGAS) is an intervention to increase cervical cancer screening in U.S. women of Mexican origin.…

  16. Molecular tests to detect human papillomavirus infection in patients with cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait KH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Khalid H Sait1, Faten S Gazzaz21Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, 2Medical Virology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the actual human papillomavirus (HPV subtype that presents in cervical dysplasia and invasive carcinoma in the Saudi population, and the feasibility of using Hybrid Capture 2 technique (HC2 on biopsy specimens to detect certain HPV subtypes.Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted from March 2007 to December 2008. The subjects studied were women with a mean age of 48.18 years, who attended the hospital for cervical biopsy due to the suspected diagnosis of cervical dysplasia or an invasive disease, based on previous suspicious Pap smear. HPV DNA hybridization by HC2 was performed on the cervical biopsies of these patients, to detect HPV infection.Results: During the period of this study, 45 patients had cervical biopsies taken for HPV testing. Seven patients had a negative HC2 result and were found to have no cervical dysplasia on the final pathology review. Seventeen cases with cervical dysplasia and 21 patients with invasive disease were presented; the mean age was 48 years. HC2 testing for HPV were found to be positive in patients with cervical dysplasia, invasive carcinoma, and all in 5 (29.4%, 13 (61.9% and 18 (47.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of the test is 47% and specificity is 100%.Conclusion: The use of molecular detection of HPV DNA by HC2 in biopsy is feasible and effective. These results confirm the finding that HPV contributes to the etiology of cervical cancer in Muslim society.Keywords: HPV, subtyping, cervical neoplasia

  17. Pancreatic cancer vaccine: a unique potential therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappello P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paola Cappello, Moitza Principe, Francesco Novelli Department of Molecular Biotechnologies and Health Sciences, Center for Experimental Research and Medical Studies, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is a lethal disease and is one of the cancers that is most resistant to traditional therapies. Historically, neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy has provided any significant increase in the survival of patients with PDA. Despite intensive efforts, any attempts to improve the survival in the past 15 years have failed. This holds true even after the introduction of molecularly targeted agents, chosen on the basis of their involvement in pathways that are considered to be important in PDA development and progression. Recently, however, FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin treatment has provided a limited survival advantage in patients with advanced PDA. Therefore, effective therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve the survival rate of patients with PDA. Results from the last 10 years of research in the field of PDA have helped to identify new immunological targets and develop new vaccines that are capable of stimulating an immune response. In addition, the information obtained about the role of the tumor microenvironment in suppressing the immune response and the possibility of targeting PDA microenvironment to limit immune suppression and enhance the response of effector T-cells has opened new avenues for treating this incurable disease. The time is ripe for developing new therapeutic approaches that are able to effectively counteract the progression and spreading of PDA. This review discusses the potential prospects in the care of patients with pancreatic cancer through vaccination and its combination therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, targeting of the tumor microenvironment, and inhibition of immunological

  18. Cyclin A1 promoter hypermethylation in human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate epigenetic status of cyclin A1 in human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer. Y. Tokumaru et al., Cancer Res 64, 5982-7 (Sep 1, 2004)demonstrated in head and neck squamous-cell cancer an inverse correlation between cyclin A1 promoter hypermethylation and TP53 mutation. Human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer, however, is deprived of TP53 function by a different mechanism. Therefore, it was of interest to investigate the epigenetic alterations during multistep cervical cancer development. In this study, we performed duplex methylation-specific PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR on several cervical cancer cell lines and microdissected cervical cancers. Furthermore, the incidence of cyclin A1 methylation was studied in 43 samples of white blood cells, 25 normal cervices, and 24, 5 and 30 human papillomavirus-associated premalignant, microinvasive and invasive cervical lesions, respectively. We demonstrated cyclin A1 methylation to be commonly found in cervical cancer, both in vitro and in vivo, with its physiological role being to decrease gene expression. More important, this study demonstrated that not only is cyclin A1 promoter hypermethylation strikingly common in cervical cancer, but is also specific to the invasive phenotype in comparison with other histopathological stages during multistep carcinogenesis. None of the normal cells and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions exhibited methylation. In contrast, 36.6%, 60% and 93.3% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, microinvasive and invasive cancers, respectively, showed methylation. This methylation study indicated that cyclin A1 is a potential tumor marker for early diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer

  19. Evaluation of an educational program on cervical cancer for rural women in Mangalore, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Bright; D'Sa, Juliana Linnette

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer in women worldwide. One way by which the incidence of this malignant disease can be minimized is by imparting knowledge through health education. This study aimed at developing an educational package on cervical cancer (EPCC) and determining its effectiveness in terms of significant increase in knowledge of rural women regarding cervical cancer. A one group pre-test, post-test design was adopted. Thirty rural women were selected using a convenient sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the researchers. The EPCC was designed for a duration of one hour and 10 minutes. The structured knowledge questionnaire was first administered as the pre-test, following which knowledge on cervical cancer was imparted using the EPCC. On the 8th day, the post-test was administered. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was significantly higher than that of their mean pre-test score, indicating that the EPCC was effective in improving the knowledge of rural women on cervical cancer. The association between pre-test knowledge scores and selected demo-graphic variables were computed using chi-square test showed that pre-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was independent of all the socio-demographic variables. It was concluded that the EPCC is effective in improving the knowledge of women, regarding cervical cancer. Since the prevalence of cervical cancer is high, there is an immediate need to educate women on prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25169495

  20. Improvement of different vaccine delivery systems for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaiyan Shima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer vaccines are the promising tools in the hands of the clinical oncologist. Many tumor-associated antigens are excellent targets for immune therapy and vaccine design. Optimally designed cancer vaccines should combine the best tumor antigens with the most effective immunotherapy agents and/or delivery strategies to achieve positive clinical results. Various vaccine delivery systems such as different routes of immunization and physical/chemical delivery methods have been used in cancer therapy with the goal to induce immunity against tumor-associated antigens. Two basic delivery approaches including physical delivery to achieve higher levels of antigen production and formulation with microparticles to target antigen-presenting cells (APCs have demonstrated to be effective in animal models. New developments in vaccine delivery systems will improve the efficiency of clinical trials in the near future. Among them, nanoparticles (NPs such as dendrimers, polymeric NPs, metallic NPs, magnetic NPs and quantum dots have emerged as effective vaccine adjuvants for infectious diseases and cancer therapy. Furthermore, cell-penetrating peptides (CPP have been known as attractive carrier having applications in drug delivery, gene transfer and DNA vaccination. This review will focus on the utilization of different vaccine delivery systems for prevention or treatment of cancer. We will discuss their clinical applications and the future prospects for cancer vaccine development.