WorldWideScience

Sample records for cervical cancer screening

  1. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  2. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  4. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  5. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  6. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  7. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  8. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Material and methods. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Conclusion. Despite...

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  10. Cervical cancer: screening and therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Thara, Somanathan; Esmy, Pulikottil Okkuru; Basu, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown to have a wide range of sensitivity in most routine settings including in developing countries. Although liquid-based cytology improves sample adequacy, claims on improved sensitivity remain controversial. Human papillomavirus testing is more sensitive than cytology, but whether this gain represents protection against future cervical cancer is not clear. Recently, in a randomized trial, the use of visual inspection with 4% acetic acid was shown to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Cryotherapy and large loop excision of the transformation zone are effective and safe treatment methods for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The clinical stage of cancer is the single most important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal treatment between surgery and radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. At the public health level, health care infrastructure, affordability and capacity for initiating and sustaining vaccination and screening programmes are critical factors in cervical cancer control. On the other hand, an informed practitioner can utilize the multiple opportunities in routine primary care interactions for prevention, screening, early detection and prompt referral for treatment.

  11. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  13. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  14. Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace X. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.

  15. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  16. European cervical cancer screening:experiences and results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Europe has devoted great efforts to cervical cancer screening over 30 years.The mortality was generally declining although incidence rates of cervical cancer among young women have been increasing in many countries of Europe.The efficiency of screening,however,needs to be addressed by planners for an improved cost-effectiveness in the future.

  17. An overview of innovative techniques to improve cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Reesink-Peters, Nathalie; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; van Zanden, Jelmer; Volders, Haukeline; Hollema, Harry; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; Schuuring, Ed; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Although current cytomorphology-based cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, Pap-smears are associated with high false positive and false negative rates. This has spurred the search for new technologies to improve current screening. New methodologies are automation o

  18. Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

  19. Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine? Less testing could reduce risk of false positives ... said. Women vaccinated with earlier versions of the HPV vaccine -- which protect against the two worst cancer-causing ...

  20. Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163464.html Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA Agency recommends ... cancer, which is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). An FDA-approved vaccine called Gardasil 9 protects ...

  1. Screening for cervical cancer: when theory meets reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygård Mari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer. However, there are many factors that determine the success of any cervical cancer prevention effort: the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in general population, the existence of an organized screening program and the corresponding coverage, the existence and quality of the field and laboratory facilities for screening and diagnostic follow-up, and the facilities available for treating diagnosed lesions. Monitoring the patient path or "chain of action" for each patient with an abnormal screening result is of crucial importance. Cost-effectiveness models are widely used by decision-makers to determine which cervical cancer screening program would maximize health benefits within a given, usually limited, set of resources. Regardless of their level of sophistication, however, these models cannot replace empirical evaluations of the effectiveness of screening programs. Cervical cancer prevention activities need to be monitored and evaluated in each country where they are introduced to see that they meet performance standards. Policy-makers responsible for allocating resources for cervical cancer prevention have a duty to allocate resources not only for cervical cancer screening, but also for screening program surveillance.

  2. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  3. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  4. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  5. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  6. Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results.

  7. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  8. HPV-based cervical cancer screening- facts, fiction, and misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Arbyn, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Several randomized trials have demonstrated that HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than cytology-based screening. A pooled analysis of long-term follow-up data from these trials has shown reduced cervical cancer mortality in women screened with HPV compared to cytology. As a consequence, many health systems are currently transitioning to HPV-based screening programs. However, there are several controversies that influence whether and how HPV-based cervical cancer screening is implemented in different settings. Here, we discuss the most important controversies surrounding cervical cancer screening using primary HPV testing in light of published data from clinical trials and large observational studies. Overall, there is strong and uniform evidence for the efficacy of HPV-based screening, and little evidence for the usefulness of adding cytology to primary screening. However, there is currently limited data on optimal triage strategies for HPV-positive women, a critical component of an HPV-based screening program. There will likely be multiple choices for integrated screening programs and implementation may differ depending on risk perception, healthcare funds, assay costs, and available infrastructure, among other factors, in different settings. A particular challenge is the integration of screening and vaccination programs, since increasingly vaccinated populations will have a continuous decrease of cervical cancer risk.

  9. DNA probes for papillomavirus strains readied for cervical cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, B.

    1988-11-18

    New Papillomavirus tests are ready to come to the aid of the standard Papanicolauo test in screening for cervical cancer. The new tests, which detect the strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) most commonly associated with human cervical cancer, are designed to be used as an adjunct to rather than as a replacement for the Papanicolaou smears. Their developers say that they can be used to indicated a risk of developing cancer in women whose Papanicolaou smears indicate mild cervical dysplasia, and, eventually, to detect papillomavirus infection in normal Papanicolaou smears. The rationale for HPV testing is derived from a growing body of evidence that HPV is a major factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Three HPV tests were described recently in Chicago at the Third International Conference on Human Papillomavirus and Squamous Cervical Cancer. Each relies on DNA probes to detect the presence of papillomavirus in cervical cells and/or to distinguish the strain of papillomavirus present.

  10. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  11. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untrea......Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... of analysis: naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation. Results These revealed that women were unprepared for screening results showing cervical cell changes, since they had no symptoms. When diagnosed, participants believed that they had early-stage cancer, leading to feelings...

  12. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W.; Dillner, J.; Tornberg, S.; Sparen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  13. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  14. Cervical cancer screening in Greenland, 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Signe; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Kjær, Susanne K;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In spite of the high incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland, no assessment has been made of the impact of organized cervical screening, introduced in 1998, in relation to occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions. The objectives of the present study were to estimate coverage...... of the screening program and to examine possible changes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) incidence in Greenland during 1997-2011 according to calendar period and age. METHODS: Using nationwide registries, we calculated age-standardized incidence rates for all women born and living in Greenland...

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  17. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: comparison of screening policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van den Akker-van Marle; M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); R. Boer (Rob); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Recommended screening policies for cervical cancer differ widely among countries with respect to targeted age range, screening interval, and total number of scheduled screening examinations (i.e., Pap smears). We compared the efficiency of cervical cancer-sc

  18. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessi Jusman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data.

  19. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster......INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening...... and pathology results from the national Danish registry (Patobank) were obtained on women from a randomised clinical trial and an observational study of subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy from the time of surgery until 2014. RESULTS: We included 501 women (259 subtotal hysterectomies and 242 total...

  20. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  1. "Inside and outside": Sikh women's perspectives on cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Nelly D; Vollman, Ardene Robinson

    2007-03-01

    Cervical cancer can be detected at an early stage through regular screening. The literature suggests that cervical cancer in immigrant women, a growing population in Canada, is less likely to be detected early than it is in the general population, as immigrant women tend not to take advantage of screening. Culturally appropriate screening services for immigrant women are few. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted with female members of an urban Sikh community in Canada to explore perspectives on cervical cancer screening. In-depth interviews (13) and focus groups (3) were carried out to uncover challenges to cervical cancer screening. The researchers identified a prevailing theme of "inside/outside" whereby the women felt confined to their community, finding it difficult to move "outside" into Canadian society in order to participate in screening. Lack of knowledge about the importance of prevention, influence of family and community, and health-provider issues affected the women's access to screening. The results will be helpful for nurses planning and delivering screening services to Sikh women.

  2. Improving cervical cancer screening rates in an urban HIV clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sara L; Suharwardy, Sanaa H; Bodavula, Phani; Schechtman, Kenneth; Overton, E Turner; Onen, Nur F; Lane, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer; however, screening rates remain low. The objectives of this study were to analyze a quality improvement intervention to increase cervical cancer screening rates in an urban academic HIV clinic and to identify factors associated with inadequate screening. Barriers to screening were identified by a multidisciplinary quality improvement committee at the Washington University Infectious Diseases clinic. Several strategies were developed to address these barriers. The years pre- and post-implementation were analyzed to examine the clinical impact of the intervention. A total of 422 women were seen in both the pre-implementation and post-implementation periods. In the pre-implementation period, 222 women (53%) underwent cervical cancer screening in the form of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing. In the post-implementation period, 318 women (75.3%) underwent cervical cancer screening (p screening included fewer visits attended (pre: 4.2 ± 1.5; post: 3.4 ± 1.4; p screening rates in an urban academic HIV clinic.

  3. Diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); N. van der Lubbe (Nils); H.M.A. van Agt (H. M A)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The amount of diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening has been assessed prospectively and related to mortality reduction. Assumptions are based on data from Dutch screening programmes and on a scenario for future developments. With 5 invita

  4. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  5. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values....../119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  6. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Jia; Shuang Li; Ru Yang; Hang Zhou; Qunying Xiang; Ting Hu; Qinghua Zhang; Zhilan Chen; Ding Ma; Ling Feng

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. PARTICIPANTS ...

  7. Triage of HPV positive women in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schiffman, Mark; Palmer, Timothy; Arbyn, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Despite HPV vaccines, screening will remain central for decades to control cervical cancer. Recently, HPV testing alone or with cytology was introduced as an alternative to cytology screening. However, most HPV infections are harmless and additional tests are required to identify women with progressing infections or precancer. With three options for primary screening, and without clear strategies for triage of screen-positive women, there is great confusion about the best approach. Also, increasing HPV vaccination coverage will lead to lower disease prevalence, and force new screening approaches. Currently recommended triage strategies for primary HPV screening include HPV genotyping for HPV16 and HPV18 and cytology. Other alternatives that are currently evaluated include p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology, host methylation, and viral methylation testing. Clinical management of women with cervical cancer screening results is moving to use risk thresholds rather than individual test results. Specific risk thresholds have been defined for return to primary screening, repeat testing, referral to colposcopy, and immediate treatment. Choice of test algorithms is based on comparison of absolute risk estimates from triage tests with established clinical thresholds. Importantly, triage tests need to be evaluated together with the primary screening test and the downstream clinical management. An optimal integrated screening and triage strategy should reassure the vast majority of women that they are at very low risk of cervical cancer, send the women at highest risk to colposcopy at the right time, when disease can be colposcopically detected, and minimize the intermediate risk group that requires continued surveillance.

  8. Understanding women's hesitancy to undergo less frequent cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Melissa A; Kaltz, Emily A; Davis, Whitney J; Shepherd, Janet E

    2017-02-01

    Inappropriate cervical cancer screening (e.g., screening too often) can result in unnecessary medical procedures, treatment, and psychological distress. To balance the benefits and harms, cervical cancer screening guidelines were recently modified in favor of less frequent screening (i.e., every 3 to 5 years). This study investigated women's acceptance of less frequent cervical cancer screening and their primary concerns about extending the screening interval beyond one year. A national sample of 376 U.S. women ages 21-65 completed an online survey in 2014. Predictors of willingness to get a Pap test every 3 to 5 years were identified using logistic regression. We also examined perceived consequences of less frequent screening. Over two thirds were willing to undergo less frequent screening if it was recommended by their healthcare provider. Nevertheless, nearly 20% expressed discomfort with less frequent screening and 45% were either in opposition or unsure whether they would be comfortable replacing Pap testing with primary HPV testing. Women whose most recent Pap test was (vs. was not) within the past year and women who ever (vs. never) had an abnormal Pap test were less willing to extend the screening interval. Additionally, women who typically saw an obstetrician/gynecologist or nurse practitioner for their Pap test (vs. a family physician) were less accepting of the guidelines. Hesitancy about the longer screening interval appears to stem from concern about developing cancer between screenings. Findings contribute to the growing body of research on cancer overscreening and may inform interventions for improving adherence to cancer screening guidelines.

  9. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  10. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Sathwara, Jignasa; Jain, Aanchal; Balasubramaniam, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cytology (Pap smear), and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on visual screening test

  11. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA, magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI, cytology (Pap smear, and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on

  12. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  13. Point: cervical cancer screening guidelines should consider observational data on screening efficacy in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weiss, Noel S

    2013-10-01

    Recent guidelines from the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology recommend cessation of cervical cancer screening at age 65 years for women with an "adequate" history of negative Papanicolaou smears. In our view, those who formulated these guidelines did not consider a growing body of evidence from nonrandomized studies that provides insight into the efficacy of cervical cancer screening among older women. First, older women are not at indefinitely low risk following negative screening results. Second, recent data from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Sweden suggest that screening of older women is associated with substantial reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, even among previously screened women. It may be that after consideration of the reduced incidence of (and reduced mortality from) cervical cancer that may result from screening older women, the harms and economic costs of screening will be judged to outweigh its benefits. However, it is essential to consider the now-documented benefits of cervical screening when formulating screening guidelines for older women, and recommendations that do not do so will lack an evidence base.

  14. CERVICAL ACID PHOSPHATASE: EVALUATION AS AN ADJUVANT TO PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR SCREENING IN CERVICAL CANCER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Carcinoma of cervix accounts for 15% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide and is the second most common cancer in women. In the year 2000 there were over 4,71,000 new cases diagnosed and 2,88,000 deaths from cervical cancer. (1 Approximately 79% of these deaths occurred in developing countries. (2 Cervical cancer is preventable, but most women in poorer countries do not have access to effective screening programs. In India it is estimated that approximately 100,000 women develop cervical cancer each year. (3 Cancer cervix occupies either the top r ank or second among cancers in women in developing countries, whereas, in the developed countries cancer cervix does not find a place even in top five leading cancers in women. This is due to routine screening by cervical smear. Cervical smear cytology scr eening by Papanicolaou (Pap stained smears is the most efficacious and cost - effective method of cancer screening, decreasing the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. (4 However, cervical smear screening has significant rates of false - positive and false - negative results, ranging from 10.3% for false positive cases to 5.6% for false negative cases. (5,6 To improve the detection and screening of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix a number of sophisticated tests are available which are e xpensive and can be done only in a tertiary laboratory. To over - come this problems a cost effective cytochemical stain was introduced to measure the acid phosphatase activity in the cervical epithelium. (7 Since the description of the new Cervical Acid Phosphatase Test (CAP Test for visualization of cervical acid phosphatase activity (CAP inside abnormal cervical cells on smears, it has become possible to explore this enzyme as a biomarker for cervical dys plasia, and as a possible surrogate for PAP smear in detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of Cervical Acid

  15. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  16. Inadequate cervical cancer screening among mid-aged Australian women who have experienced partner violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Schofield, Margot; Hussain, Rafat; Hosking, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Partner violence is linked to cervical cancer and other gynaecological conditions. However, results of current research into associations between partner violence and cervical cancer screening have been inconclusive. Therefore, the current research investigates the association between pa

  17. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination...... guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. CONCLUSION: Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation...

  18. Screening history of cervical cancers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: defining priorities to improve cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Caroli, Stefania; Mancini, Silvia; de' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Finarelli, Alba C; Naldoni, Carlo; Bucchi, Lauro; Falcini, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Most invasive cervical cancers in industrialized countries are due to the lack of Pap test coverage, very few are due to screening failures. This study aimed at quantifying the proportion of invasive cancers occurring in nonscreened or underscreened women and that in women with a previous negative screening, that is, screening failure, during the first two screening rounds (1996-2002) and in the following rounds (2003-2008) in the Emilia-Romagna region. All cases of invasive cancers registered in the regional cancer registry between 1996 and 2008 were classified according to screening history through a record linkage with the screening programme registry. The incidence significantly decreased from 11.6/100 000 to 8.7/100 000; this decrease is due to a reduction in squamous cell cancers (annual percentage change -6.2; confidence interval: -7.8, -4.6) and advanced cancers (annual percentage change -6.6; confidence interval: -8.8, -4.3), whereas adenocarcinomas and microinvasive cancers were essentially stable. The proportion of cancers among women not yet invited and among nonresponders decreased over the two periods, from 45.5 to 33.3%. In contrast, the proportion of women with a previous negative Pap test less than 5 years and 5 years or more before cancer incidence increased from 5.7 to 13.3% and from 0.3 to 5.5%, respectively. Although nonattendance of the screening programme remains the main barrier to cervical cancer control, the introduction of a more sensitive test, such as the human papillomavirus DNA test, could significantly reduce the burden of disease.

  19. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  20. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks.

  1. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions and Screening Behaviour Among Female University Students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females.

  2. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of cervical cancer and the coverage in cervical cancer screening are usually reported by including in the denominator all women from the general population. However, after hysterectomy women are not at risk anymore of developing cervical cancer. Therefore, it makes...

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

  4. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  5. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for cervical cytology terminology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbert, A.; Bergeron, C.; Wiener, H.; Schenck, U.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Arbyn, M.

    2007-01-01

    There are many different systems of cytology classification used in the member states of the European Union (EU) and many different languages. The following short annexe to Chapter 3 of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening provides a framework that will allow di

  6. Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women.

  7. Primary human papillomavirus DNA screening for cervical cancer prevention: Can the screening interval be safely extended?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Margaretha A; Bogaards, Johannes A; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berkhof, Johannes

    2015-07-15

    Cytological screening has substantially decreased the cervical cancer incidence, but even better protection may be achieved by primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening. In the Netherlands, five-yearly cytological screening for women aged 30-60 years will be replaced by primary hrHPV screening in 2016. The new screening guidelines involve an extension of the screening interval from 5 to 10 years for hrHPV-negative women aged 40 or 50 years. We investigated the impact of this program change on the lifetime cancer risks in women without an hrHPV infection at age 30, 35, 40, 45 or 50 years. The time to cancer was estimated using 14-year follow-up data from a population-based screening intervention trial and the nationwide database of histopathology reports. The new screening guidelines are expected to lead to a reduced cervical cancer risk for all age groups. The average risk reduction was 34% and was smallest (25%) among women aged 35 years. The impact of hrHPV screening on the cancer risk was sensitive to the duration from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) to cancer; a small increase in the cancer risk was estimated for women aged 35 or 40 years in case a substantial proportion of CIN2/3 showed fast progression to cancer. Our results indicate that primary hrHPV screening with a ten-yearly interval for hrHPV-negative women of age 40 and beyond will lead to a further reduction in lifetime cancer risk compared to five-yearly cytology, provided that precancerous lesions progress slowly to cancer.

  8. Issues and challenges in implementing cervical cancer screenings in the emergence of HPV vaccination in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Davidson, Patricia M; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the HPV vaccine has been a major breakthrough in preventing cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases around the globe. Cervical cancer is a significant public health problem in Thailand. Despite the long-time availability of cervical cancer screening programs in Thailand, the uptake among the target female population remains low. HPV vaccines were approved by the Food and Drug Administration of Thailand in 2007. As of March 2011, due to financial limitations, HPV vaccines have still not been included in the national immunization program under the public health benefit plans although individuals has the option to pay privately for the vaccine. This paper discusses the issues and challenges in implementing cervical cancer screening programs in the era of HPV vaccination in Thailand. Recommendations to increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening and further research to inform a policy regarding the cervical cancer screening measures are proposed.

  9. Screening for cervical cancer in French Guiana: screening rates from 2006 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douine, M; Roué, T; Lelarge, C; Adenis, A; Thomas, N; Nacher, M

    2015-12-01

    In French Guiana, the age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer is four times higher than in France and the mortality rate 5.5 times higher. A survival study revealed that stage at diagnosis was the main factor influencing the prognosis, showing that early detection is crucial to increase cervical cancer survival. The present study aimed at evaluating the cervical cancer screening rate between 2006 and 2011 by age and for a 3-year period in French Guiana. All pap smears realised in French Guiana were analysed in two laboratories allowing exhaustive review of screening data. The screening rate was estimated at about 54% from 2006 to 2011, with a statistical difference between coastal and rural area (56.3% versus 18.7%). Although the methodological difference did not allow comparisons with metropolitan France, these results could be used to evaluate the impact of organised cervical cancer screening by the French Guiana Association for Organized Screening of Cancers which has been implemented in French Guiana since 2012.

  10. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  11. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  12. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Brooks, Durado; Cokkinides, Vilma; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W

    2013-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its recommendations for early cancer detection, a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, current ACS cancer screening guidelines are summarized, as are updated guidelines on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening with low-dose helical computed tomography. The latest data on the use of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey also are described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.

  13. Positive diagnostic values and histological detection ratios from the Rotterdam cervical cancer screening programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Kreuger; H. Beerman (Henk); H.G. Nijs (Huub); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In organized screening programmes for cervical cancer, pre-cancerous lesions are detected by cervical smears. However, during follow-up after a positive smear these pre-cancerous lesions are not always found. The purpose of the study is to analys

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  15. Adherence to cervical cancer screening in an Italian SLE cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talarico

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Papanicolau (Pap smear abnormalities are more frequently observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE respect to the general population. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the adherence to cervical cancer (CC screening in an Italian cohort of SLE patients and, secondly, to evaluate the disease-related factors possibly influencing the patients’ behavior. Methods: Consecutive 25 to 64 year old SLE patients and aged- matched healthy women were enrolled for the study. All patients were interviewed during ambulatory visits, at admission to the clinic or by a telephone contact; disease related variables were also collected from the clinical charts. Results: 140 SLE patients (mean age 48.3±12 years and 70 controls matched for demographic and sociocultural characteristics were enrolled. Ninety-three SLE patients (66.4% declared to perform the Pap test at least every three years (23.6% yearly and 42.8% when asked by the screening programs while 47 (33.6% did not perform regular CC screening (16.4% never did the test and 17.1% only occasionally. No significant differences were observed between patients and controls in cancer screening adherence. No significant associations were observed between the screening program behaviours and disease-related variables. Conclusions: Despite the growing evidence of an increased risk of CC in SLE, and regardless of the broad availability of screening programs and official recommendations, our results show insufficient CC surveillance among SLE patients and emphasize to rheumatologists and/or general practitioners the importance to discuss with patients this aspect during routine evaluations in order to encourage compliance to the recommended preventive measures.

  16. Human papillomavirus prevalence in paired urine and cervical samples in women invited for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Elena; Bonanni, Paolo; Sani, Cristina; Lastrucci, Vieri; Carozzi, Francesca; Iossa, Anna; Andersson, Karin Louise; Brandigi, Livia; Di Pierro, Carmelina; Confortini, Massimo; Levi, Miriam; Boccalini, Sara; Indiani, Laura; Sala, Antonino; Tanini, Tommaso; Bechini, Angela; Azzari, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    With the introduction of Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in young girls in 2007, it is important to monitor HPV infections and epidemiological changes in this target population. The present study has evaluated the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in paired cervical and urine samples to understand if HPV testing in urine could be used as non-invasive method to monitor HPV status in young women. The study enrolled 216 twenty five-year-old women, resident in Florence and invited for the first time to the cervical cancer Screening Program within a project evaluating the impact of HPV vaccination. HPV genotyping was performed on 216 paired urine and cervical samples. The overall concordance between cervix and urine samples, investigated by HPV genotyping (INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra), was: 85.6% (184/215), 84.6% (182/215), 80% (172/215) when the same HPV, at least the same HR HPV and all HR HPV, respectively, were detected. HPV type specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples was observed in 85.8% (175/204) of women with normal cytology and in seven out of nine women with abnormal cytology. Urine seems to be a suitable and reliable biological material for HPV DNA detection as evidenced by the high concordance with HPV detected in cervical samples. These results suggest that urine could be a good noninvasive tool to monitor HPV infection in vaccinated women.

  17. Increasing Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening in Jamaica: Effectiveness of a Theory-Based Educational Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Coronado Interis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite declines in cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates remain high in Jamaica due to low levels of screening. Effective interventions are needed to decrease barriers to preventive behaviors and increase adoption of behaviors and services to improve prospects of survival. We enrolled 225 women attending health facilities in an intervention consisting of a pre-test, educational presentation and post-test. The questionnaires assessed attitudes, knowledge, risk factors, and symptoms of cervical cancer among women. Changes in knowledge and intention to screen were assessed using paired t-tests and tests for correlated proportions. Participants were followed approximately six months post-intervention to determine cervical cancer screening rates. We found statistically significant increases from pre-test to post-test in the percentage of questions correctly answered and in participants’ intention to screen for cervical cancer. The greatest improvements were observed in responses to questions on knowledge, symptoms and prevention, with some items increasing up to 62% from pre-test to post-test. Of the 123 women reached for follow-up, 50 (40.7% screened for cervical cancer. This theory-based education intervention significantly increased knowledge of and intention to screen for cervical cancer, and may be replicated in similar settings to promote awareness and increase screening rates.

  18. Do general practices adhere to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Well-organized cervical screening has been shown to be effective in the reduction of both morbidity and mortality from cancer of the uterine cervix. In The Netherlands, the GP plays an important role in the cervical screening. The question is whether the general practices are able to org

  19. Feasibility of Utilizing Ethnic Beauty Salons for Cervical Cancer Screening Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio; Lee, Eunice

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using ethnic beauty salons to reach out to Vietnamese and Korean American women for cervical cancer screening education. Participants (N = 62) were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two feasibility questionnaires were separately administered to cosmetologists and their customers. Findings support the view that ethnic beauty salons can be used as a gateway to reach out to these populations, and cosmetologists have the potential to operate as community lay health workers to deliver cervical cancer screening education aimed at reducing disparities in cervical cancer and screening to their ethnic customers.

  20. From cancer screening to treatment: service delivery and referral in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Hanson, Vivien; Johnson, Gale D; Royalty, Janet E; Richardson, Lisa C

    2014-08-15

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income and underserved women through a network of providers and health care organizations. Although the program serves women 40-64 years old for breast cancer screening and 21-64 years old for cervical cancer screening, the priority populations are women 50-64 years old for breast cancer and women who have never or rarely been screened for cervical cancer. From 1991 through 2011, the NBCCEDP provided screening and diagnostic services to more than 4.3 million women, diagnosing 54,276 breast cancers, 2554 cervical cancers, and 123,563 precancerous cervical lesions. A critical component of providing screening services is to ensure that all women with abnormal screening results receive appropriate and timely diagnostic evaluations. Case management is provided to assist women with overcoming barriers that would delay or prevent follow-up care. Women diagnosed with cancer receive treatment through the states' Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Programs (a special waiver for Medicaid) if they are eligible. The NBCCEDP has performance measures that serve as benchmarks to monitor the completeness and timeliness of care. More than 90% of the women receive complete diagnostic care and initiate treatment less than 30 days from the time of their diagnosis. Provision of effective screening and diagnostic services depends on effective program management, networks of providers throughout the community, and the use of evidence-based knowledge, procedures, and technologies.

  1. Poor Cervical Cancer Screening Attendance and False Negatives. A Call for Organized Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Marta; Astudillo, Aurora; Clavero, Omar; Velasco, Julio; Ibáñez, Raquel; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe prior negative screening history and symptoms around the time of diagnosis of incident cervical cancer (CC) cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 within the Asturias public health system. Methods Records from 374 women diagnosed with CC between 2000 and 2010 from all public hospitals in Asturias were retrieved. Clinical information, FIGO stage and all previous cytological data were extracted from clinical and histopathological records. Pro...

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective.

  3. Barriers to cervical cancer screening in Mulanje, Malawi: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K Fort

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Victoria K Fort1, Mary Sue Makin2, Aaron J Siegler1, Kevin Ault3, Roger Rochat11Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Mulanje Mission Hospital, Mulanje, Malawi; 3Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, Georgia, USABackground: In Malawi, cervical cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among women, with an 80% mortality rate. The Mulanje Mission Hospital has offered free cervical cancer screening for eight years; however, patients primarily seek medical help for gynecologic complaints after the disease is inoperable.Methods: We investigated how women in rural Malawi make health-seeking decisions regarding cervical cancer screening using qualitative research methods. The study was conducted between May and August of 2009 in Mulanje, Malawi.Results: This study found that the primary cue to action for cervical cancer screening was symptoms of cervical cancer. Major barriers to seeking preventative screening included low knowledge levels, low perceived susceptibility and low perceived benefits from the service. Study participants did not view cervical cancer screening as critical health care. Interviews suggested that use of the service could increase if women are recruited while visiting the hospital for a different service.Conclusion: This study recommends that health care providers and health educators target aspects of perceived susceptibility among their patients, including knowledge levels and personal risk assessment. We believe that continued support and advertisement of cervical cancer screening programs along with innovative recruitment strategies will increase usage density and decrease unnecessary deaths from cervical cancer in Malawi.Keywords: cervical cancer, interviews, health care, Mulanje Mission Hospital

  4. Improving population-based cervical cancer screening in general practice : effects of a national strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Tacken, M A; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a Dutch national prevention programme, aimed at general practitioners (GPs), on the adherence to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening in general practice. To identify the characteristics of general practices determining success. DESIGN

  5. Improvements in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme since 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bos (Anita)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, and therefore an important public health problem (1 ). In developing countries, the age standardised incidence rate varies between 16 - 40 per 100,000 women in 1988- 1992 (2). In the same period, in d

  6. Community-Based Health Education has Positive Influence on the Attitude to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Sunila; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Afset, Jan Egil; Bofin, Anna; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Syversen, Unni; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal and explore the feasibility and impact of a community-based awareness program on cervical cancer. Community-based educational meetings on cervical cancer and its prevention were conducted among women's groups in rural Nepal. Through a questionnaire, the women's baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and perceived risk of cervical cancer were identified. The willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening was compared before and after the educational meeting. The meetings were followed by a cervical cancer screening program. Among the 122 participants at the educational meeting, only 6 % had heard of cervical cancer. Their baseline knowledge of risk factors and symptoms was poor. The proportion of women willing to participate in cervical screening increased from 15.6 to 100 % after attending the educational meeting. All the study subjects participated in the screening program. Additionally, the study participants recruited a further 222 of their peers for screening. Poor knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal highlights the urgency of public awareness programs for cervical cancer at a national level. A community-based awareness program can change women's attitude to cervical screening, and women's groups can play a major role in promoting participation in cervical cancer screening programs.

  7. Performance of Implementing Guideline Driven Cervical Cancer Screening Measures in an Inner City Hospital System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Daryl L.; Reimers, Laura L.; Wu, Eijean; Nathan, Lisa M.; Gruenberg, Tammy; Abadi, Maria; Einstein, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In 2006, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) updated evidence based guidelines recommending screening intervals for women with abnormal cervical cytology. In our low-income inner city population, we sought to improve performance by uniformly applying the guidelines to all patients. We report the prospective performance of a comprehensive tracking, evidence-based algorithmically driven call-back and appointment scheduling system for cervical cancer screening in a resource-limited inner city population. Materials and Methods Outreach efforts were formalized with algorithm-based protocols for triage to colposcopy, with universal adherence to evidence-based guidelines. During implementation from August 2006 through July 2008, we prospectively tracked performance using the electronic medical record with administrative and pathology reports to determine performance variables such as the total number of Pap tests, colposcopy visits, and the distribution of abnormal cytology and histology results, including all CIN 2,3 diagnoses. Results 86,257 gynecologic visits and 41,527 Pap tests were performed system-wide during this period of widespread and uniform implementation of standard cervical cancer screening guidelines. The number of Pap tests performed per month varied little. The incidence of CIN 1 significantly decreased from 117/171 (68.4%) the first tracked month to 52/95 (54.7%) the last tracked month (p=0.04). The monthly incidence rate of CIN 2,3, including incident cervical cancers did not change. The total number of colposcopy visits declined, resulting in a 50% decrease in costs related to colposcopy services and approximately a 12% decrease in costs related to excisional biopsies. Conclusions Adherence to cervical cancer screening guidelines reduced the number of unnecessary colposcopies without increasing numbers of potentially missed CIN 2,3 lesions, including cervical cancer. Uniform implementation of administrative

  8. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marie, ME van den Akker-v; Ballegooijen, van M.; Rozendaal, L.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Habbema, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    The human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV test have a st

  9. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Van Den Akker-van Marie (M.); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); L. Rozendaal (Lawrence); C.J.L.M. Meijer (Chris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV te

  10. Socio-economic inequalities in breast and cervical cancer screening practices in Europe: influence of the type of screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Palència; A. Espelt; M. Rodríguez-Sanz; R. Puigpinós; M. Pons-Vigués; M.I. Pasarín; T. Spadea; A.E. Kunst; C. Borrell

    2010-01-01

    Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using individual-level data from the WHO World Health Survey (2002) and data regarding the implementation of cancer screening programmes. The study population consisted of women from 22 European countries, aged 25-69 years for cervical cancer screening (

  11. Cervical Cancer Screening Knowledge and Behavior among Women Attending an Urban HIV Clinic in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Joelle I; Njoroge, Betty; Huchko, Megan J

    2015-09-01

    Cervical cancer is a highly preventable disease that disproportionately affects women in developing countries and women with HIV. As integrated HIV and cervical cancer screening programs in Sub-Saharan Africa mature, we have an opportunity to measure the impact of outreach and education efforts and identify areas for future improvement. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 106 women enrolled in care at an integrated HIV clinic in the Nyanza Province of Kenya 5 years after the start of a cervical cancer screening program. Female clinic attendees who met clinic criteria for cervical cancer screening were asked to complete an oral questionnaire assessing their cervical cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening history. Ninety-nine percent of women had heard of screening, 70 % felt at risk, and 84 % had been screened. Increased duration of HIV diagnosis was associated with feeling at risk and with a screening history. Nearly half (48 %) of women said they would not get screened if they had to pay for it.

  12. Perceptions of cervical cancer risk and screening among transmasculine individuals: patient and provider perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Bernstein, Ida M; McDowell, Michal; Alizaga, Natalie M; Reisner, Sari L; Pardee, Dana J; Potter, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    Transmasculine people (individuals assigned a female sex at birth who identify as male or masculine) are at risk of cervical cancer. Despite low rates of Pap test use in this population, research examining the determinants of cervical cancer screening among transmasculine individuals is scarce. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 49 participants (32 transmasculine patients and 17 healthcare providers) in order to examine transmasculine individuals' and healthcare providers' perceptions of cervical cancer risk and screening among individuals on the transmasculine continuum. Overall, patients believed that transmasculine individuals should receive regular Pap tests, especially in the event of gynaecological concerns. While healthcare providers' views varied, many perceived transmasculine individuals to be at low risk of cervical cancer. Contrary to existing screening guidelines, several providers believed that transmasculine individuals who did not engage in penile-vaginal intercourse with cisgender men, expressed discomfort about Pap testing or intended to obtain a hysterectomy might not need to be screened regularly or at all. Our findings underscore the importance of educating patients and providers about cervical cancer risk among transmasculine individuals and establishing evidence-based guidelines for cervical cancer screening in this underserved population.

  13. Willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive Nigerian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezechi Oliver C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proven benefit of integrating cervical cancer screening programme into HIV care has led to its adoption as a standard of care. However this is not operational in most HIV clinics in Nigeria. Of the various reasons given for non-implementation, none is backed by scientific evidence. This study was conducted to assess the willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive Nigerian women. Methods A cross sectional study of HIV positive women attending a large HIV treatment centre in Lagos, Nigeria. Respondents were identified using stratified sampling method. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information by trained research assistants. Obtained information were coded and managed using SPSS for windows version 19. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine independent predictor for acceptance of cervical cancer screening. Results Of the 1517 respondents that returned completed questionnaires, 853 (56.2% were aware of cervical cancer. Though previous cervical cancer screening was low at 9.4%, 79.8% (1210 accepted to take the test. Cost of the test (35.2% and religious denial (14.0% were the most common reasons given for refusal to take the test. After controlling for confounding variables in a multivariate logistic regression model, having a tertiary education (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.03-1.84, no living child (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0, recent HIV diagnosis (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0 and being aware of cervical cancer (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-2.0 retained independent association with acceptance to screen for cervical cancer. Conclusions The study shows that HIV positive women in our environment are willing to screen for cervical cancer and that the integration of reproductive health service into existing HIV programmes will strengthen rather than disrupt the services.

  14. Recent Developments in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rebolj (Matejka)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common female malignancy, diagnosed in 500,000 women each year, while 275,000 die from it. Without prevention, the peak incidence occurs at a relatively young age, between 40-55 years, when women are still active on the labour market and have

  15. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  16. Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Nonyelum; Ghebre, Rahel G; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Zhang, Yan; Warfa Osman, S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2014-06-01

    Immigrant populations in the United States (US) have lower cancer screening rates compared to none immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the rates of cancer screening and examine factors associated with cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota. A cross sectional survey of a community based sample was conducted among African immigrants in the Twin Cities. Cancer screening outcome measures were mammography and Papanicolau smear test. The revised theoretical model of health care access and utilization and the behavioral model for vulnerable populations were utilized to assess factors associated with cancer screening. Only 61 and 52% of the age eligible women in the sample had ever been screened for breast and cervical cancer respectively. Among these women, duration of residence in the US and ethnicity were significant determinants associated with non-screening. Programs to enhance screening rates among this population must begin to address barriers identified by the community.

  17. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  18. Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  19. Determinants of acceptance of cervical cancer screening in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahesa, Crispin; Kjaer, Susanne; Mwaiselage, Julius;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe how demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer influence screening acceptance among women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling was carried out in 45 randomly selected streets in Dar es Salaam. Women between...... cervical cancer screening can be increased in Dar es Salaam. Special attention should be paid to women of low education and women of high parity. In addition, knowledge and awareness raising campaigns that goes hand in hand with culturally acceptable screening services will likely lead to an increased...

  20. The Association of Social Support and Education with Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documet, Patricia; Bear, Todd M.; Flatt, Jason D.; Macia, Laura; Trauth, Jeanette; Ricci, Edmund M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening by socioeconomic status persist in the United States. It has been suggested that social support may facilitate screening, especially among women of low socioeconomic status. However, at present, it is unclear whether social support enables mammogram and Pap test compliance. Purpose:…

  1. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening.

  2. Adherence to the cervical cancer screening program in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). International HIV guidelines suggest cervical screening twice the first year after HIV diagnosis and thereafter annually. Adherence to the HIV cervical screening program in Denmark is unknown. METHODS...... to guidelines were estimated. Pathology specimens were identified from The Danish Pathology Data Bank. RESULTS: We followed 1143 WLWH and 17,145 controls with no prior history of ICC for 9,509 and 157,362 person-years. The first year after HIV diagnosis 2.6% of WLWH obtained the recommended two cervical......: We studied women from a population-based, nationwide HIV cohort in Denmark and a cohort of age-matched females from the general population. Screening behaviour was assessed from 1999-2010. Adjusted odds ratios (OR's) for screening attendance in the two cohorts and potential predictors of attendance...

  3. Structural and sociocultural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American women in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle; Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women.

  4. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina;

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance....... To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited...... alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway....

  5. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  6. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  7. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. Methods In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Results Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country’s political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country’s political crisis, the MoPH’s campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. Conclusion The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a

  8. Impact of cervical screening on cervical cancer mortality: estimation using stage-specific results from a nested case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Pesola, Francesca; Castañón, Alejandra; Sasieni, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that screening can prevent cervical cancer, but the magnitude of the impact of regular screening on cervical cancer mortality is unknown. Methods: Population-based case–control study using prospectively recorded cervical screening data, England 1988–2013. Case women had cervical cancer diagnosed during April 2007–March 2013 aged 25–79 years (N=11 619). Two cancer-free controls were individually age matched to each case. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of developing stage-specific cancer for women regularly screened or irregularly screened compared with women not screened in the preceding 15 years. Mortality was estimated from excess deaths within 5 years of diagnosis using stage-specific 5-year relative survival from England with adjustment for age within stage based on SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, USA) data. Results: In women aged 35–64 years, regular screening is associated with a 67% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62–73%) reduction in stage 1A cancer and a 95% (95% CI: 94–97%) reduction in stage 3 or worse cervical cancer: the estimated OR comparing regular (⩽5.5yearly) screening to no (or minimal) screening are 0.18 (95% CI: 0.16–0.19) for cancer incidence and 0.08 (95% CI: 0.07–0.09) for mortality. It is estimated that in England screening currently prevents 70% (95% CI: 66–73%) of cervical cancer deaths (all ages); however, if everyone attended screening regularly, 83% (95% CI: 82–84%) could be prevented. Conclusions: The association between cervical cancer screening and incidence is stronger in more advanced stage cancers, and screening is more effective at preventing death from cancer than preventing cancer itself. PMID:27632376

  9. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  10. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  11. Cervical cancer screening in women referred to healthcare centres in Tabriz, Iran

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    Azizeh Farshbaf-Khalili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Iranian women and among the few cancers that could be easily diagnosed in the pre-malignant stage. We aimed to assess the status of cervical cancer screening in women referred to health care centres in Tabriz, northwest Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was done on 441 women referred to health care centres of Tabriz, northwest Iran. The centres were selected using the multi-stage cluster sampling method. The participants were selected from the active records of those centres. A questionnaire regarding the socio-demographic characteristics and cervical cancer screening and reasons for referring or not referring for screening was completed by the participants A P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Out of the participants 49.4% of women had done the Pap smear test while 50.6% had never done this test. The main reason why women had not performed cervical cancer screening was being unaware of the importance of it (46.1%. Logistic regression analysis with adjustment showed a significant relationship between screening and awareness scores (OR = 1.17, CI = 95%:1.12-1.23, when the effect of other confounding factors [total awareness scores, risk factors (marriage or having sexual intercourse at a young age, history of obvious cervical infection, cautery, cryotherapy or repeated curettage, age and type of family planning] in screening was controlled. Conclusion: Suitable and continuous educational programmes especially for high risk women should be implemented through the health care services. Preparing educational brochures and pamphlets and providing adequate training on the necessity of early referral and marriage counseling could also be effective in improving woman′s awareness and performance.

  12. Cervical pap smear study and its utility in cancer screening to specify the strategy for cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandakini M Patel, Amrish N Pandya, Jigna Modi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore various lesions of Uterine cervix [inflammatory and growth], to find out target age group in which screening efforts can be concentrated for early detection as well as reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer, in our set up. Patients in the age group 15-50 and 50-78 years with various complaints were screened during June 2006 to December 2007. Total 995 patients were studied. Slides were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained with Pap stain. Slides were reported according to The 2001 Bethesda System, by cytopathologists. Out of 995 patients studied, 940 showed inflammation and other benign lesions. 55 patients showed premalignant and malignant lesions. Premalignant lesions were present in 30-50 year of age group.

  13. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  14. Effect of organized screening on incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, E; Madsen, Mette; Engholm, G

    1989-01-01

    multiplicative Poisson models on county-based incidence and mortality data for women aged 30-59 years in 1963-1982 showed a statistically significant effect of organized screening in reducing both the incidence (RR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.73), and the mortality (RR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59-0.78) of cervical cancer...

  15. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: Cytology versus human papillomavirus DNA testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective To determine the most cost-effective screening programme for cervical cancer. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective. Setting The Netherlands. Population Dutch women who have not been invited for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods We calibra

  16. Handheld multispectral dual-axis confocal microscope for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapukdee, Pongsak; Rattanavarin, Santi; Jarujareet, Ungkarn; Khemthongcharoen, Numfon; Jolivot, Romuald; Jung, Il Woong; López, Daniel; Mandella, Michael J.; Piyawattanametha, Wibool

    2013-03-01

    Our work demonstrates a MEMS based handheld dual-axis confocal microscope for cervical cancer screening. Imaging demonstration is performed with plant and animal tissue biopsies. The data is collected and displayed in real time with 2-5 Hz frame rates.

  17. Mass screening programmes and trends in cervical cancer in Finland and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, van der Maaike A.; Pukkala, Eero; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.; Anttila, Ahti; Siesling, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    With respect to cervical cancer management, Finland and the Netherlands are comparable in relevant characteristics, e.g., fertility rate, age-of-mother at first birth and a national screening programme for several years. The aim of this study is to compare trends in incidence of and mortality from c

  18. Early Screening of Cervical Cancer%宫颈癌的早期筛查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春凤

    2012-01-01

    Ideal early screening of cervical cancer should have the advantages of simple operating, economical and practical, convenient, and high diagnostic accuracy. Early cervical cancer screening methods were various, and different screening methods have their own advantages and limitations, although the diagnosis accuracy rate of early screening improved greatly with the development of clinical diagnosis technology, there was not a single method that can be popularized effectively. We took a variety of combined examinations of early screening to reduce the rate of misdiagnosis, improve the diagnostic accuracy rate, reduce the risk of cervical cancer on women maximally and protect women health. Ideal early screening of cervical cancer should have the advantages of simple operating, economical and practical, convenient, and high diagnostic accuracy. Early cervical cancer screening methods were various, and different screening methods have their own advantages and limitations, although the diagnosis accuracy rate of early screening improved greatly with the development of clinical diagnosis technology, there was not a single method that can be popularized effectively. We took a variety of combined examinations of early screening to reduce the rate of misdiagnosis, improve the diagnostic accuracy rate, reduce the risk of cervical cancer on women maximally and protect women health.%宫颈癌理想的早期筛查方法 应具有操作简单、经济实用、便于普及、诊断准确率高等优点.宫颈癌早期筛查的方法 有多种,不同的筛查方法 均有其自身的优点和局限性,虽然随着临床诊断技术的发展,早期筛查诊断的准确率得到很大提高,但目前尚无单一的方法 来真正得到广泛、有效的推广和普及.现多采取多种方法 联合检查的早期筛查方式,以降低漏诊率、提高诊断的准确率,最大限度地降低宫颈癌对妇女生命的威胁,保障妇女身体健康.

  19. Cervical cancer screening and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in female sex workers using “screen and treat” approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Smita Joshi,1 Vinay Kulkarni,2 Trupti Darak,2 Uma Mahajan,1 Yogesh Srivastava,3 Sanjay Gupta,3 Sumitra Krishnan,1 Mahesh Mandolkar,2 Alok Chandra Bharti31Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute (HCJMRI, Jehangir Hospital Premises, Pune, Maharashtra, India; 2Prayas Health Group, Amrita Clinic, Pune, India; 3Institute for Cytology and Preventive Oncology, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, IndiaObjective: Female sex workers (FSWs are at an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV as well as human papillomavirus (HPV infections and thus have an increased risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer. We evaluated the feasibility of “screen and treat approach” for cervical cancer prevention and the performance of different screening tests among FSWs.Methods: Women were screened using cytology, VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid, and VILI (visual inspection with Lugol’s iodine and underwent colposcopy, biopsy, and immediate treatment using cold coagulation, if indicated, at the same visit.Results: We screened 300 FSWs of whom 200 (66.67% were HIV uninfected and 100 (33.34% were HIV infected. The overall prevalence of CIN 2–3 lesions was 4.7%. But all women with CIN 2–3 lesions were HIV infected, and thus the prevalence of CIN 2–3 lesions in HIV-infected FSWs was 14/100 (14%, 95% confidence interval: 7.2–20.8. All of them screened positive by all three screening tests. Cold coagulation was well tolerated, with no appreciable side effects.Conclusion: Cervical cancer prevention by “screen and treat” approach using VIA, followed by ablative treatment, in this high-risk group of women is feasible and can be implemented through various targeted intervention programs. Keywords: cytology, VIA, VILI, CIN, cold coagulation, cervical cancer, HPV, FSWs

  20. Modeling human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in the United States for analyses of screening and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortendahl Jesse

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To provide quantitative insight into current U.S. policy choices for cervical cancer prevention, we developed a model of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, explicitly incorporating uncertainty about the natural history of disease. Methods We developed a stochastic microsimulation of cervical cancer that distinguishes different HPV types by their incidence, clearance, persistence, and progression. Input parameter sets were sampled randomly from uniform distributions, and simulations undertaken with each set. Through systematic reviews and formal data synthesis, we established multiple epidemiologic targets for model calibration, including age-specific prevalence of HPV by type, age-specific prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, HPV type distribution within CIN and cancer, and age-specific cancer incidence. For each set of sampled input parameters, likelihood-based goodness-of-fit (GOF scores were computed based on comparisons between model-predicted outcomes and calibration targets. Using 50 randomly resampled, good-fitting parameter sets, we assessed the external consistency and face validity of the model, comparing predicted screening outcomes to independent data. To illustrate the advantage of this approach in reflecting parameter uncertainty, we used the 50 sets to project the distribution of health outcomes in U.S. women under different cervical cancer prevention strategies. Results Approximately 200 good-fitting parameter sets were identified from 1,000,000 simulated sets. Modeled screening outcomes were externally consistent with results from multiple independent data sources. Based on 50 good-fitting parameter sets, the expected reductions in lifetime risk of cancer with annual or biennial screening were 76% (range across 50 sets: 69–82% and 69% (60–77%, respectively. The reduction from vaccination alone was 75%, although it ranged from 60% to 88%, reflecting considerable parameter

  1. A study of the impact of adding HPV types to cervical cancer screening and triage tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Khan, Michelle J; Solomon, Diane; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Bratti, Maria C; Wheeler, Cosette M; Burk, Robert D

    2005-01-19

    Use of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in cervical cancer prevention is increasing rapidly. A DNA test for 13 HPV types that can cause cervical cancer is approved in the United States for co-screening with cytology of women >or=30 years old and for triage of women of all ages with equivocal cytology. However, most infections with HPV are benign. We evaluated trade-offs between specificity and sensitivity for approximately 40 HPV types in predicting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and cancer in two prospective studies: a population-based screening study that followed 6196 women aged 30-94 years from Costa Rica for 7 years and a triage study that followed 3363 women aged 18-90 years with equivocal cytology in four U.S. centers for 2 years. For both screening and triage, testing for more than about 10 HPV types decreased specificity more than it increased sensitivity. The minimal increases in sensitivity and in negative predictive value achieved by adding HPV types to DNA tests must be weighed against the projected burden to thousands of women falsely labeled as being at high risk of cervical cancer.

  2. Visual inspection with acetic acid for cervical cancer screening in a tertiary health care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaily Agarwal

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: VIA is useful for detection of precursor lesions of cervical cancer not only in low-resource settings but also in well-equipped health centers and cancer centers. In these non low-resource settings, VIA has a positive predictive value comparable to the conventional Pap smear, but it is more likely to achieve earlier diagnosis, follow-up, and treatment than cytology based screening. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 752-756

  3. Human papillomavirus testing versus cytology in primary cervical cancer screening: End-of-study and extended follow-up results from the Canadian cervical cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidean, Sandra D; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Gilbert, Laura; Reid, Stephanie L; Rodrigues, Isabel; Ferenczy, Alex; Ratnam, Sam; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial was a randomized controlled trial comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and Papanicolaou cytology to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grades 2 or worse (CIN2+) among women aged 30-69 years attending routine cervical cancer screening in Montreal and St. John's, Canada (n = 10,154). We examined screening and prognostic values of enrollment cytologic and HPV testing results. Extended follow-up data were available for St. John's participants (n = 5,754; 501,682.6 person-months). HPV testing detected more CIN2+ than cytology during protocol-defined (82.9 vs. 44.4%) and extended (54.2 vs. 19.3%) follow-up periods, respectively. Three-year risks ranged from 0.87% (95% CI: 0.37-2.05) for HPV-/Pap- women to 35.77% (95% CI: 25.88-48.04) for HPV+/Pap+ women. Genotype-specific risks ranged from 0.90% (95% CI: 0.40-2.01) to 43.84% (95% CI: 32.42-57.24) among HPV- and HPV16+ women, respectively, exceeding those associated with Pap+ or HPV+ results taken individually or jointly. Ten-year risks ranged from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.60-2.19) for HPV-/Pap- women to 26.05% (95% CI: 15.34-42.13) for HPV+/Pap+ women and genotype-specific risks ranged from 1.13% (95% CI: 0.59-2.14) to 32.78% (95% CI: 21.15-48.51) among women testing HPV- and HPV16+, respectively. Abnormal cytology stratified risks most meaningfully for HPV+ women. Primary HPV testing every 3 years provided a similar or greater level of reassurance against disease risks as currently recommended screening strategies. HPV-based cervical screening may allow for greater disease detection than cytology-based screening and permit safe extensions of screening intervals; genotype-specific testing could provide further improvement in the positive predictive value of such screening.

  4. Validation of cervical cancer screening methods in HIV positive women from Johannesburg South Africa.

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    Cynthia Firnhaber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-infected women are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. Women living in resource-limited countries are especially at risk due to poor access to cervical cancer screening and treatment. We evaluated three cervical cancer screening methods to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and above (CIN 2+ in HIV-infected women in South Africa; Pap smear, visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA and human papillomavirus detection (HPV. METHODS: HIV-infected women aged 18-65 were recruited in Johannesburg. A cross-sectional study evaluating three screening methods for the detection of the histologically-defined gold standard CIN-2 + was performed. Women were screened for cervical abnormalities with the Digene HC2 assay (HPV, Pap smear and VIA. VIA was performed by clinic nurses, digital photographs taken and then later reviewed by specialist physicians. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive valves for CIN-2 + were calculated using maximum likelihood estimators. RESULTS: 1,202 HIV-infected women participated, with a median age of 38 years and CD4 counts of 394 cells/mm(3. One third of women had a high grade lesion on cytology. VIA and HPV were positive in 45% and 61% of women respectively. Estimated sensitivity/specificity for HPV, Pap smear and VIA for CIN 2+ was 92%/51.4%, 75.8%/83.4% and 65.4/68.5% (nurse reading, respectively. Sensitivities were similar, and specificities appeared significantly lower for the HPV test, cytology and VIA among women with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mm(3 as compared to CD4 counts >350 cells/mm(3. CONCLUSIONS: Although HPV was the most sensitive screening method for detecting CIN 2+, it was less specific than conventional cytology and VIA with digital imaging review. Screening programs may need to be individualized in context of the resources and capacity in each area.

  5. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiya; Jia, Mengyu; Gao, Feng; Yang, Lihong; Qu, Pengpeng; Zou, Changping; Liu, Pengxi; Zhao, Huijuan

    2015-02-01

    The cervical cancer screening at a pre-cancer stage is beneficial to reduce the mortality of women. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening is introduced in this paper. In this system, three electrodes alternately discharge to the cervical tissue and three light emitting diodes in different wavelengths alternately irradiate the cervical tissue. Then the relative optical reflectance and electrical voltage attenuation curve are obtained by optical and electrical detection, respectively. The system is based on DSP to attain the portable and cheap instrument. By adopting the relative reflectance and the voltage attenuation constant, the classification algorithm based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) discriminates abnormal cervical tissue from normal. We use particle swarm optimization to optimize the two key parameters of SVM, i.e. nuclear factor and cost factor. The clinical data were collected on 313 patients to build a clinical database of tissue responses under optical and electrical stimulations with the histopathologic examination as the gold standard. The classification result shows that the opto-electronic joint detection has higher total coincidence rate than separate optical detection or separate electrical detection. The sensitivity, specificity, and total coincidence rate increase with the increasing of sample numbers in the training set. The average total coincidence rate of the system can reach 85.1% compared with the histopathologic examination.

  6. Integrating cervical cancer screening with HIV care in a district hospital in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Odafe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+ women have a higher risk of developing invasive cervical cancer compared with uninfected women. This study aims to document programmatic experience of integrating cervical cancer screening using Visual Inspection and Acetic Acid (VIA into HIV care as well as to describe patients′ characteristics associated with positive VIA findings amongst HIV+ women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study analysed routine service data collected at the antiretroviral therapy (ART and cervical cancer screening services. Our program integrated screening for cervical cancer using VIA technique to HIV care and treatment services through a combination of stakeholder engagement, capacity building for health workers, creating a bi-directional referral between HIV and reproductive health (RH services and provider initiated counselling and screening for cervical cancer. Information on patients′ baseline and clinical characteristics were captured using an electronic medical records system and then exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Logistic regression model was used to estimate factors that influence VIA results. Results: A total of 834 HIV+ women were offered VIA screening between April 2010 and April 2011, and 805 (96.5% accepted it. Complete data was available for 802 (96.2% women. The mean age at screening and first sexual contact were 32.0 (SD 6.6 and 18.8 (SD 3.5 years, respectively. VIA was positive in 52 (6.5% women while 199 (24.8% had a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Of the 199 who had a STI, eight (4.0% had genital ulcer syndrome, 30 (15.1% had lower abdominal pain syndrome and 161 (80.9% had vaginal discharge syndrome. Presence of lower abdominal pain syndrome was found to be a significant predictor of a positive VIA result ( P = 0.001. Women with lower abdominal pain syndrome appeared to be more likely (OR 47.9, 95% CI: 4.8-480.4, P = 0.001 to have a

  7. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening amongst women of reproductive age from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Ferraez, Laura; Suarez Allen, Rosa Etelvina; Carrillo Martinez, Jorge Ramiro; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Losa, Maria Del Refugio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the participation of women of reproductive age in a cancer screening program, and survey reasons for non-screening in a region from Mexico with high cervical cancer mortality. A total of 281 obstetric patients from a previous HPV study in a social security hospital during 2008-2009 were included. Reasons for not participating in the screening were directly asked. HPV positive patients were invited to participate in an informative workshop, and they filled in a knowledge questionnaire. The women ranged in age from 14-47 years; 123 (43.8%) had never participated in screening, of which 97 (78.9%) had their first sexual intercourse 2 to 10 years ago, resulting in 25% HPV positive. Screening history was strongly associated with 2 or more gestations (OR= 10.07, p=0.00) and older age (OR=6.69 p=0.00). When 197 women were contacted and interviewed, reasons referred for non-screening were ignorance, lack of interest or time, recent sexual onset, shame and fear. More than 50% of the workshop participants showed knowledge of HPV, while 38.9% and 25% knew about Pap smear and cervical cancer. A high percentage of women of reproductive age have never had a Pap smear. Promoting the screening program in medical facilities seems to be important in this population. New approaches to inform vulnerable individuals on the benefits of screening need to be implemented, especially for young women.

  8. Why worry about awareness in choice problems? Econometric analysis of screening for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkar, Rochelle; Fiebig, Denzil G; Haas, Marion; Viney, Rosalie

    2006-01-01

    The decision to undertake a screening test is conditional upon awareness of screening. From an econometric perspective there is a potential selection problem, if no distinction is made between aware and unaware non-screeners. This paper explores this problem through analysis of the determinants of cervical screening in Australia. Cervical cancer is one of the most preventable and curable forms of cancer. Since 1991 there has been a concerted effort in Australia to recommend and encourage women to have Pap smears every two years. The success of this program can be partly gauged by exploring the determinants of screening for cervical cancer. Using unit record data from the 1995 National Health Survey, an econometric model is developed for whether women have ever screened or not. A proportion of women in the sample contend that they have never heard of a Pap test. The analysis characterizes this group of women and accounts for their presence in the modelling. The paper demonstrates failing to model awareness can result in inconsistent parameter estimates even when the degree of censoring in the sample is relatively small.

  9. Knowledge and attitudes about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda NKONWA INNOCENT H 1,2,3* , MICHAEL J...Human Papilloma virus (HPV) strains 16 and 18. While cervical cancer is widely understood as a fatal disease, knowledge and awareness of cervical...capture assay of self – collected virginal swabs in rural Uganda for detection of human papilloma virus . J Infect Disease, 1999 1999.180; p. 1316.1319. 19

  10. A Markov Decision Process Model for Cervical Cancer Screening Policies in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan-Tabatabaei, Raha; Sánchez, Diana Marcela; Yeung, Thomas G

    2017-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women around the world, and the human papillomavirus (HPV) is universally known as the necessary agent for developing this disease. Through early detection of abnormal cells and HPV virus types, cervical cancer incidents can be reduced and disease progression prevented. We propose a finite-horizon Markov decision process model to determine the optimal screening policies for cervical cancer prevention. The optimal decision is given in terms of when and what type of screening test to be performed on a patient based on her current diagnosis, age, HPV contraction risk, and screening test results. The cost function considers the tradeoff between the cost of prevention and treatment procedures and the risk of taking no action while taking into account a cost assigned to loss of life quality in each state. We apply the model to data collected from a representative sample of 1141 affiliates at a health care provider located in Bogotá, Colombia. To track the disease incidence more effectively and avoid higher cancer rates and future costs, the optimal policies recommend more frequent colposcopies and Pap tests for women with riskier profiles.

  11. Salud es Vida: a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Rural Latina Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, John S; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Alfonso, Moya L; Suazo, Norma; Rebing, Laura; Ferris, Daron G

    2016-01-12

    This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of Salud es Vida-a promotora-led, Spanish language educational group session on cervical cancer screening (Pap tests)-self-efficacy (belief in ability to schedule and complete a Pap test), and knowledge among immigrant Hispanic/Latina women from farmworker backgrounds. These women are disproportionately burdened with cervical cancer, with mortality rates significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. The two-arm, quasi-experimental study was conducted in four rural counties of Southeast Georgia in 2014-2015. Hispanic/Latina immigrant women aged 21-65 years and overdue for a Pap test were included as intervention (N = 38) and control (N = 52) group participants. The intervention was developed in partnership with a group of promotoras to create the toolkit of materials which includes a curriculum guide, a brochure, a flipchart, a short animated video, and in-class activities. Twelve (32 %) intervention group participants received the Pap test compared to 10 (19 %) control group participants (p = 0.178). The intervention group scored significantly higher on both cervical cancer knowledge recall and retention than the control group (p < 0.001). While there was no statistically significant difference in cervical cancer screening self-efficacy scores between the group participants, both groups scored higher at follow-up, adjusting for the baseline scores. The group intervention approach was associated with increased cervical cancer knowledge but not uptake of Pap test. More intensive interventions using patient navigation approaches or promotoras who actively follow participants or conducting one-on-one rather than group sessions may be needed to achieve improved screening outcomes with this population.

  12. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Ibrahim1, Vibeke Rasch2, Eero Pukkala3, Arja R Aro11Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 3Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki, FinlandObjectives: To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.Methods: A cross-sectional prospective pilot study of 100 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum State in Sudan was carried out from December 2008 to January 2009. The study was performed at the screening center in Khartoum. Six nurses and two physicians were trained by a gynecologic oncologist. The patients underwent a complete gynecological examination and filled in a questionnaire on risk factors and feasibility and acceptability. They were screened for cervical cancer by application of 3%–5% VIA. Women with a positive test were referred for colposcopy and treatment.Results: Sixteen percent of screened women were tested positive. Statistically significant associations were observed between being positive with VIA test and the following variables: uterine cervix laceration (odds ratio [OR] 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.64–74.8, assisted vaginal delivery (OR 13.2; 95% CI: 2.95–54.9, parity (OR 5.78; 95% CI: 1.41–23.7, female genital mutilation (OR 4.78; 95% CI: 1.13–20.1, and episiotomy (OR 5.25; 95% CI: 1.15–23.8. All these associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, educational level, employment, and potential confounding factors such as smoking, number of sexual partners, and use of contraceptive method. Furthermore, the VIA screening method was found to be feasible and acceptable to participants.Conclusion: This pilot study showed that women who have uterine

  13. Effective interventions to facilitate the uptake of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening: an implementation guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwers Melissa C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. Several high-quality systematic reviews and practice guidelines exist to inform the most effective screening options. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. We developed an implementation guideline to answer the question: What interventions have been shown to increase the uptake of cancer screening by individuals, specifically for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers? Methods A guideline panel was established as part of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-based Care, and a systematic review of the published literature was conducted. It yielded three foundational systematic reviews and an existing guidance document. We conducted updates of these reviews and searched the literature published between 2004 and 2010. A draft guideline was written that went through two rounds of review. Revisions were made resulting in a final set of guideline recommendations. Results Sixty-six new studies reflecting 74 comparisons met eligibility criteria. They were generally of poor to moderate quality. Using these and the foundational documents, the panel developed a draft guideline. The draft report was well received in the two rounds of review with mean quality scores above four (on a five-point scale for each of the items. For most of the interventions considered, there was insufficient evidence to support or refute their effectiveness. However, client reminders, reduction of structural barriers, and provision of provider assessment and feedback were recommended interventions to increase screening for at least two of three cancer sites studied. The final guidelines also provide advice on how the recommendations can be used and future areas for research. Conclusion Using established guideline development methodologies and the AGREE II as our methodological

  14. Effective interventions to facilitate the uptake of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening: an implementation guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. Several high-quality systematic reviews and practice guidelines exist to inform the most effective screening options. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. We developed an implementation guideline to answer the question: What interventions have been shown to increase the uptake of cancer screening by individuals, specifically for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers? Methods A guideline panel was established as part of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-based Care, and a systematic review of the published literature was conducted. It yielded three foundational systematic reviews and an existing guidance document. We conducted updates of these reviews and searched the literature published between 2004 and 2010. A draft guideline was written that went through two rounds of review. Revisions were made resulting in a final set of guideline recommendations. Results Sixty-six new studies reflecting 74 comparisons met eligibility criteria. They were generally of poor to moderate quality. Using these and the foundational documents, the panel developed a draft guideline. The draft report was well received in the two rounds of review with mean quality scores above four (on a five-point scale) for each of the items. For most of the interventions considered, there was insufficient evidence to support or refute their effectiveness. However, client reminders, reduction of structural barriers, and provision of provider assessment and feedback were recommended interventions to increase screening for at least two of three cancer sites studied. The final guidelines also provide advice on how the recommendations can be used and future areas for research. Conclusion Using established guideline development methodologies and the AGREE II as our methodological frameworks, we developed an

  15. Improving the Utilization of Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cytology Co-testing for Cervical Cancer Screening in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Kurt; Karimoto, Maxine; Marzo, Christina; Kaneshiro, Bliss; Hiraoka, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing in combination with cervical cytology (HPV co-testing) has been recommended for cervical cancer screening for women 30 to 65 years of age. In several studies, HPV co-testing increased sensitivity for detecting high grade dysplasia and resulted in cost-savings. This retrospective cohort study assessed the prevalence of HPV co-testing in an obstetrics and gynecology resident clinic before and after a brief educational intervention which was designed to reinforce current cervical cancer screening recommendations. The intervention consisted of a short presentation that was given to all residents and medical assistants in October 2011. The proportion of women age 30-65 years of age who had cervical cancer screening with HPV co-testing as compared to cervical cytology alone was compared before and after the intervention using chi-square tests. The goal of the intervention was to increase the percentage of patients receiving co-testing from 0.5% to 7.8%. Each arm (pre- and post-intervention) required 130 subjects to achieve 80% power with a significance of P = .05. No significant differences in demographics including age, insurance type, and cytology were noted. HPV co-testing increased from 0% to 55% (P cervical cancer screening for another 5 years. HPV co-testing represents an underutilized cervical cancer screening modality for women 30 years and older. This brief educational intervention, adaptable to any clinical setting, significatnly increased co-testing at the clinical site.

  16. Meta-analysis of type-specific human papillomavirus prevalence in Iranian women with normal cytology, precancerous cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer: Implications for screening and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilvand, Somayeh; Shoja, Zabihollah; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Tohidi, Hamid Reza; Hamkar, Rasool

    2015-02-01

    To predict the impact of current vaccines on cervical cancer and for the improvement of screening programs, regional data on distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with or without cervical cancer is crucial. The present meta-analysis intend to comprehensively evaluate the HPV burden in women with invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal cytology, as these data will help decision making in regards with screening programs and HPV vaccination in Iran. To determine the HPV prevalence and type distribution in Iranian women with or without cervical cancer, 20 published studies were included in this meta-analysis. In total, 713, 124, 104, 60, and 2577 women invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal were reviewed, respectively. Overall HPV prevalence in women with invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal cytology were 77.4%, 71.8%, 65.3%, 61.7%, and 8.4%, respectively. The six most common types were HPV 16, 18, 6/11, 31, and 33; among them HPV 16 was the most frequent type in all five different groups. According to this study, it was estimated that HPV vaccines could have a great impact on prevention of cervical cancer in Iran. In conclusion, this meta-analysis highlights the necessity of introducing vaccination program in Iran.

  17. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær

    2014-01-01

    -up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... follow-up, or because of organizational aspects of the screening program, where communication regarding test results can fail either in content or with delay.This study will evaluate two interventions designed to increase follow-up: 1) A letter with the test result and potential recommendation for follow...

  18. Low-cost technology for screening uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashari, A; Singh, V; Sehgal, A; Satyanarayana, L; Sodhani, P; Gupta, M M

    2000-01-01

    We report on an illuminated, low-cost (Rs 1500 (US$ 36)) magnifying device (Magnivisualizer) for detecting precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. A total of 403 women attending a maternal and child health care clinic who had abnormal vaginal discharge and related symptoms were referred for detailed pelvic examination and visual inspection by means of the device after the application of 5% (v/v) acetic acid. Pap smears were obtained at the same time. The results were compared with those obtained using colposcopy and/or histology. The Magnivisualizer improved the detection rate of early cancerous lesions from 60%, for unaided visual inspection, to 95%. It also permitted detection of 58% of cases of low-grade dysplasia and 83% of cases of high-grade dysplasia; none of these cases were detectable by unaided visual inspection. For low-grade dysplasia the sensitivity of detection by means of the Magnivisualizer was 57.5%, in contrast with 75.3% for cytological examination. However, the two methodologies had similar sensitivities for higher grades of lesions. The specificity of screening with the Magnivisualizer was 94.3%, while that of cytology was 99%. The cost per screening was approximately US$ 0.55 for the Magnivisualizer and US$ 1.10 for cytology.

  19. Risk of cervical cancer in women with autoimmune diseases, in relation with their use of immunosuppressants and screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Hallas, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    Severely immunosuppressed individuals have a strongly increased risk of cervical cancer. In patients with autoimmune diseases (AID), who have defects in their immune system and receive immunosuppressants, the risk of cervical cancer is less clear. We conducted a cohort study, using Danish....... Hazard ratios (HR) from time-dependent Cox models stratified by AID were used to explore the effect of the most frequently used immunosuppressants, taking into account potential dose-response relationships and lag times between drug exposure and cervical cancer development. Cervical screening coverage...

  20. An special epithelial staining agents: folic acid receptor-mediated diagnosis (FRD) effectively and conveniently screen patients with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Han; Hu, Ling-Yun; Du, Xin-Xin; Yang, Min; Zhang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Ke; Li, Li-An; Jiang, Shu-Fang; Li, Ya-Li

    2015-01-01

    High-quality screening with cytology has markedly reduced mortality from cervical cancer. However, it needs experienced pathologists to review and make the final decisions. We have developed folic acid receptor-mediated diagnosis (FRD) kits to effectively and conveniently screen patients with cervical cancer. We conduct present study aim to assess clinical significances of FRD in screening cervical cancer. A total of 169 patients were enrolled at Chinese People's liberation Army (PLA) general hospital. We compared diagnostic significances of FRD with thinprep cytology test (TCT). Meanwhile, colposcopy was also performed to confirm any lesion suspicious for cervical cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of FRD were 71.93% and 66.07% in diagnosis cervical cancer, respectively. Meanwhile, the positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), Youden index were 51.90%, 82.22%, 0.38, respectively. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity of TCT in diagnosis cervical cancer were 73.68% and 61.61% respectively. PPV, NPV and Youden index for TCT were 49.41%, 82.14% and 0.35 respectively. Overall, FRD have high values of sensitivity, specificity and Youden index. However, this difference failed to statistical significance. FRD have comparable diagnostic significance with TCT. Therefore, FRD might serve as one effective method to screen cervical cancer. Especially for those patients living in remote regions of China, where cytology was unavailable.

  1. Current Technologies and Recent Developments for Screening of HPV-Associated Cervical and Oropharyngeal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sunny S.; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Klacsmann, Flora; Miller, Daniel L.; Johnson, Jeff J.; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Stack, M. Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a growing number of malignancies, predominantly represented by cervical cancer and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the prevalence of the virus, persistence of infection, and long latency period, novel and low-cost methods are needed for effective population level screening and monitoring. We review established methods for screening of cervical and oral cancer as well as commercially-available techniques for detection of HPV DNA. We then describe the ongoing development of microfluidic nucleic acid-based biosensors to evaluate circulating host microRNAs that are produced in response to an oncogenic HPV infection. The goal is to develop an ideal screening platform that is low-cost, portable, and easy to use, with appropriate signal stability, sensitivity and specificity. Advances in technologies for sample lysis, pre-treatment and concentration, and multiplexed nucleic acid detection are provided. Continued development of these devices provides opportunities for cancer screening in low resource settings, for point-of-care diagnostics and self-screening, and for monitoring response to vaccination or surgical treatment. PMID:27618102

  2. Current Technologies and Recent Developments for Screening of HPV-Associated Cervical and Oropharyngeal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny S. Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV is responsible for a growing number of malignancies, predominantly represented by cervical cancer and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the prevalence of the virus, persistence of infection, and long latency period, novel and low-cost methods are needed for effective population level screening and monitoring. We review established methods for screening of cervical and oral cancer as well as commercially-available techniques for detection of HPV DNA. We then describe the ongoing development of microfluidic nucleic acid-based biosensors to evaluate circulating host microRNAs that are produced in response to an oncogenic HPV infection. The goal is to develop an ideal screening platform that is low-cost, portable, and easy to use, with appropriate signal stability, sensitivity and specificity. Advances in technologies for sample lysis, pre-treatment and concentration, and multiplexed nucleic acid detection are provided. Continued development of these devices provides opportunities for cancer screening in low resource settings, for point-of-care diagnostics and self-screening, and for monitoring response to vaccination or surgical treatment.

  3. [Changes in genotype prevalence of human papillomavirus over 10-year follow-up of a cervical cancer screening cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L; Hu, S Y; Zhang, Q; Feng, R M; Zhang, L; Zhao, X L; Ma, J F; Shi, S D; Zhang, X; Pan, Q J; Zhang, W H; Qiao, Y L; Zhao, F H

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To evaluate the dynamic variation of genotypes distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) over 10-year follow-up in a cervical cancer screening cohort. Methods: Based on the Shanxi Province Cervical Cancer Screening Study Ⅰ cohort, we detected HPV genotypes on the well-preserved exfoliated cervical cells from women who were tested HPV positive from year 2005 to year 2014 using reverse linear probe hybridization assay. The changes of prevalence of type-specific HPV over time among the overall population were estimated using linear mixed models. The association between the type-specific HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2 +) was calculated by linear Chi-square test. Finally, the trends of multiple infections of HPV with the increase of the age were analyzed. Results: During the cervical cancer screening of the overall population from 2005 to 2014, the most common genotypes among the population were HPV16 and 52. The prevalence of HPV16 decreased over time from 4.6% in 2005 to 2.2% in 2010 and 2014 (F=8.125, Pcervical cancer screening in the context of regular screening combining with immediate treatment for those CIN2 + women. HPV16 prevalence significantly decreased over time, which indicated that the variation of type-specific HPV prevalence should be considered when regular cervical cancer screening was organized using HPV technique.

  4. Quality appraisal of documents producing recommendations for breast, colorectal and cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Giorgi Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening are evidence-based interventions recommended by most governmental agencies and scientific societies. The aim of this review is to assess the quality of guidelines on screening and to describe differences according to the context in which they were produced.Methods: A literature search of the main databases, websites on health care, and guidelines, as well as the websites of several scientific societies was carried out in order to identify the most recent guidelines (since 2000 on cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening. Only documents written in Italian or English were included. Two investigators independently assessed quality by using the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation in Europe instrument.Results: Thirty-three, 32, and 18 relevant documents for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer, respectively, were identified. Only some documents (19, 12 and 13 for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer, respectively could be evaluated with AGREE. Items included in the domain “scope and purpose” obtained the highest scores, followed by “clarity of presentation” domain, while “applicability”, “patient involvement,” and “conflict of interest disclosure” domains obtained the lowest scores. The quality did not improve in more recent documents. Documents produced by governmental agencies, on average, had higher scores than documents by scientific societies, particularly for “stakeholder involvement” and “applicability”.Conclusions: Documents from different countries and health systems differ in terms of the main recommendations given and in the quality of the documents. Those produced by governmental agencies have a more multidisciplinary authorship and pay more attention to applicability than do those produced by scientific societies. societies.

  5. Experience in screening for cervical cancer in rural areas of Barsi Tehsil (Maharashtra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nene, B M; Jayant, K; Malvi, S G; Dale, P S; Deshpande, R

    1994-03-01

    The organization of cancer detection camps is gaining popularity in our country and it is therefore necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach in the early diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This to our knowledge has not been done. This report analyses an experience in screening for cervical cancer in rural areas of Barsi Tehsil (Maharashtra). The Barsi Tehsil consists of 134 villages with a population of 34,080 women above the age of 30 years (1982-1987). Of these 2,846 were screened through a series of cancer detection camps between 1982 and 1987. The results of the cytological screening in these women have been presented. An evaluation of the camp approach was carried out by the Population based Cancer Registry set up under the National Cancer Registry Programme (Indian Council of Medical Research) in Barsi, Paranda and Bhum tehsils. It was shown that acceptance of cytological screening was poor, thereby indicating that the mere holding of camps was not in itself sufficient to motivate the people, to subject themselves to the Pap smear. Certain suggestions which would appreciably increase the acceptance of cytological screening have been put forward.

  6. [The impact of natural history and genital tract distribution of human papillomavirus on technology for cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z N; Chen, W

    2016-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. There is a close relationship between the amount of DNA, mRNA and protein expression in the natural history of virus and the cervical lesion. This article is aimed to elaborate the natural history and genital tract distribution of high risk HPV, and also evaluate the HPV based cervical cancer screening technology from the perspective of the natural history of HPV, which is meaningful for screening and clinical practice in devising and utilizing different detection technology.

  7. A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. Methods This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Results The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear. 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective

  8. A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. Methods This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Results The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear). 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective in increasing screening

  9. Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors among Women in Rural Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlance Ndejjo

    Full Text Available In developing countries, inadequate access to effective screening for cervical cancer often contributes to the high morbidity and mortality caused by the disease. The largest burden of this falls mostly on underserved populations in rural areas, where health care access is characterized by transport challenges, ill equipped health facilities, and lack of information access. This study assessed uptake of cervical cancer screening and associated factors among women in rural Uganda.This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in Bugiri and Mayuge districts in eastern Uganda and utilised quantitative data collection methods. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire on cervical cancer screening among females aged between 25 and 49 years who had spent six or more months in the area. Data were entered in Epidata 3.02 and analysed in STATA 12.0 statistical software. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed.Of the 900 women, only 43 (4.8% had ever been screened for cervical cancer. Among respondents who were screened, 21 (48.8% did so because they had been requested by a health worker, 17 (39.5% had certain signs and symptoms they associated with cervical cancer while 16 (37.2% did it voluntarily to know their status. Barriers to cervical cancer screening were negative individual perceptions 553 (64.5% and health facility related challenges 142 (16.6%. Other respondents said they were not aware of the screening service 416 (48.5%. The independent predictors of cervical cancer screening were: being recommended by a health worker [AOR = 87.85, p<0.001], knowing where screening services were offered [AOR = 6.24, p = 0.004], and knowing someone who had ever been screened [AOR = 9.48, p = 0.001].The prevalence of cervical cancer screening is very low in rural Uganda. Interventions to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening should be implemented so as to improve access to the service in rural areas.

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of cervical cancer screening programs: the case of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Murillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify critical screening program factors for reducing cervical cancer mortality in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Coverage, quality, and screening follow-up were evaluated in four Colombian states with different mortality rates. A case-control study (invasive cancer and healthy controls evaluating screening history was performed. RESULTS: 3-year cytology coverage was 72.7%, false negative rate 49%, positive cytology follow-up 64.2%. There was no association between screening history and invasive cancer in two states having high cytology coverage but high false negative rates. Two states revealed association between deficient screening history and invasive cancer as well as lower positive-cytology follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced number of visits between screening and treatment is more relevant when low access to health care is present. Improved quality is a priority if access to screening is available. Suitable interventions for specific scenarios and proper appraisal of new technologies are compulsory to improve cervical cancer screening. Comprehensive process-failure audits among invasive cancer cases could improve program evaluation since mortality is a late outcome.OBJETIVO: Identificar factores críticos para reducir la mortalidad por cáncer cervical en Colombia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se evaluó cobertura, calidad y seguimiento del tamizaje en cuatro departamentos con tasas de mortalidad diferenciales. Un estudio de casos (cáncer invasor y controles (sanos evaluó historia de tamizaje. RESULTADOS: Cobertura 72,7%; falsos negativos 49%; acceso a diagnóstico-tratamiento de HSIL 64,2%. La historia de tamizaje no se asoció con cáncer invasor en dos departamentos con elevada cobertura pero elevada proporción de falsos negativos. Dos departamentos con asociación entre historia de tamizaje deficiente y cáncer invasor tuvieron cobertura aceptable pero bajo acceso a diagnóstico-tratamiento. No hubo relación entre mortalidad

  11. Cervical cancer screening: attitudes and behaviors of young Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Grace J; Le, Mai Nhung; Vong, Stephen; Lagman, Regina; Lam, Amy G

    2011-12-01

    Compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women experience high incidence rates of cervical cancer but low rates of cervical cancer screenings. This study examines the behaviors and attitudes towards screening in young Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women (n = 304) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Results indicated Vietnamese American (OR = 2.51) and Filipino American (OR = 2.31) women had greater odds of ever having a Pap test than Korean American women. Those older (OR = 1.55), born in the USA (OR = 2.64), and those comfortable with the test (OR = 3.41) also had greater odds of ever having a Pap test. Correct knowledge of cervical cancer and the human papillomavirus did not significantly affect the odds of having a Pap test. Interventions to increase Pap testing in these populations should focus on increasing levels of comfort and should target those younger and foreign born.

  12. Implementation of cervical cancer screening: A demonstration in a rural community of North India

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    Satyanarayana Labani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: S trategies for implementation of cervical screening are the need of the hour while effective screening tests for early detection exist. Aim: To demonstrate the implementation of cervical cancer screening by aided visual tests in a North Indian rural community. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study in a rural setting. Subjects and Methods: Baseline survey of community perspectives of screening and identification of eligible women of age 30-59 years was performed by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs. Screening was targeted on 7604 women by the methods of visual inspection of cervix using acetic acid (VIA, by using lugol′s iodine (VILI tests and by Pap test. Screen positives were referred to colposcopy and further management. Data on evaluation parameters was collected. Statistical Analysis: Screening test performances were assessed by sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV for detection of histological CIN II+. Results: Study showed coverage of 65.6% of total eligible women (7604. Extent of agreement of visual testes (VIA/VILI between nurses and doctor was 77.3-100%. Screen positivity rates by VIA, VILI and Pap were 9.7%, 13.5% and 2.6%, respectively. Screen positives turned up for confirmatory diagnosis were 78%. Acceptance of treatment was 76%. Screen positivity of VIA and VILI declined (P < 0.001 with increase in age. Sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of VIA were 59.0%, 92.3% and 3.6% and of VILI were72.7%, 89.6% and 3.3% respectively. NPV was 99% in all the tests. Conclusion: Implementation of screening by aided visual tests was successfully demonstrated through utilization of ASHAs for motivation, achievement of good coverage and good response in clinical management of screen positives.

  13. Influences on uptake of reproductive health services in Nsangi community of Uganda and their implications for cervical cancer screening

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    Mirembe Florence

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed or referred with cervical cancer in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital have advanced disease. Plans are underway for systematic screening programmes based on visual inspection, as Pap smear screening is not feasible for this low resource country. Effectiveness of population screening programmes requires high uptake and for cervical cancer, minimal loss to follow up. Uganda has poor indicators of reproductive health (RH services uptake; 10% postnatal care attendance, 23% contraceptive prevalence, and 38% skilled attendance at delivery. For antenatal attendance, attendance to one visit is 90%, but less than 50% for completion of care, i.e. three or more visits. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using eight focus group discussions with a total of 82 participants (16 men, 46 women and 20 health workers. We aimed to better understand factors that influence usage of available reproductive health care services and how they would relate to cervical cancer screening, as well as identify feasible interventions to improve cervical cancer screening uptake. Results Barriers identified after framework analysis included ignorance about cervical cancer, cultural constructs/beliefs about the illness, economic factors, domestic gender power relations, alternative authoritative sources of reproductive health knowledge, and unfriendly health care services. We discuss how these findings may inform future planned screening programmes in the Ugandan context. Conclusion Knowledge about cervical cancer among Ugandan women is very low. For an effective cervical cancer-screening programme, awareness about cervical cancer needs to be increased. Health planners need to note the power of the various authoritative sources of reproductive health knowledge such as paternal aunts (Sengas and involve them in the awareness campaign. Cultural and economic

  14. Adapting the Australian system: is an organized screening program feasible in Malaysia?--an overview of cervical cancer screening in both countries.

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    Rashid, Rima Ma; Dahlui, Maznah; Mohamed, Majdah; Gertig, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer that strikes Malaysian women. The National Cancer Registry in 2006 and 2007 reported that the age standardized incidence (ASR) of cervical cancer was 12.2 and 7.8 per 100,000 women, respectively. The cumulative risk of developing cervical cancer for a Malaysian woman is 0.9 for 74 years. Among all ethnic groups, the Chinese experienced the highest incidence rate in 2006, followed by Indians and Malays. The percentage cervical cancer detected at stage I and II was 55% (stage I: 21.0%, stage II: 34.0%, stage III: 26.0% and stage IV: 19.0%). Data from Ministry of Health Malaysia (2006) showed a 58.9% estimated coverage of pap smear screening conducted among those aged 30-49 years. Only a small percentage of women aged 50-59 and 50-65 years old were screened, 14% and 13.8% coverage, respectively. Incidence of cervical cancer was highest (71.6%) among those in the 60-65 age group (MOH, 2003). Currently, there is no organized population-based screening program available for the whole of Malaysia. A pilot project was initiated in 2006, to move from opportunistic cervical screening of women who attend antenatal and postnatal visits to a population based approach to be able to monitor the women through the screening pathway and encourage women at highest risk to be screened. The project was modelled on the screening program in Australia with some modifications to suit the Malaysian setting. Substantial challenges have been identified, particularly in relation to information systems for call and recall of women, as well as laboratory reporting and quality assurance. A cost-effective locally-specific approach to organized screening, that will provide the infrastructure for increasing participation in the cervical cancer screening program, is urgently required.

  15. The advantages of incorporating liquid-based cytology (TACAS™) in mass screening for cervical cancer.

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    Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Futagami, Masayuki; Watanabe, Jun; Sakuraba, Atsushi; Nagasawa, Kazuma; Maruyama, Hidetoshi; Sato, Shigemi

    2016-04-01

    We incorporated liquid-based cytology (LBC) in population-based screening for cervical cancer. The usefulness of using LBC in mass screening for cervical cancer was examined. From 2009 to 2014, 157,061 individuals underwent mass screening for cervical cancer in Aomori Prefecture. From 2009 to 2011, cells were collected from 82,218 individuals and the specimens were conventionally prepared (CP). From 2012 to 2014, cells were collected from 74,843 individuals and the specimens were prepared using LBC (TACAS™). Cytology results for the 2 sets of specimens were compared and differences in cytologic features were examined. ASC-US and more severe lesions were detected at a rate of 1.13 % by CP and 1.44 % by LBC, so LBC had a 1.3-fold higher rate of detection. LBC had a 1.6-fold higher rate of LSIL detection and a 1.2-fold higher rate of HSIL detection. CP detected cancer in 20 cases at a rate of 0.024 % while LBC detected cancer in 18 cases at a rate of 0.024 %. Cytodiagnosis of the 18 cases of SCC that LBC identified revealed that 7 were SCC, 8 were HSIL, and 3 were ASC-H. Atypical cells tended to be smaller with TACAS™. LBC reduced the time needed for microscopic examination of a single specimen by 42 % in comparison to CP. LBC using TACAS™ allowed the detection of slight lesions and slight changes in cells. LBC can lessen the burden on medical personnel and may lead to improved accuracy.

  16. Coverage of cervical cancer screening in Catalonia for the period 2008-2011 among immigrants and Spanish-born women.

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    Vanesa eRodriguez-Sales

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Public Health system in Catalonia, Spain provides a free of charge opportunistic cervical cancer screening. In June 2006 a revised recommendations for cervical cancer screening was introduced to increase coverage and to promote a three-year interval between screening tests. Aim: This study examines cervical cancer screening coverage and prevalence of cytology abnormalities in Catalonia by immigration status.Methods: The study analyses the cytologies registered among women aged 25-65 that have been attended at the Primary Health Centers (PHC for any reason (n=1,242,105 during 2008-11. Coverage was estimated from Governmental data base Information System Primary Care (SISAP that includes 77% of PHC. The database is anonymous, and includes information on age, country of birth, diagnostic center and cytology results Results: During the period 2008-2011, 758,690 smears were performed in a total of 595,868 women over 14 years, of whom 18.3% were immigrants. Cytology coverage was higher among immigrant women compared to Spanish born (51.2% and 39% respectively. Immigrant women also had a higher prevalence of abnormal Paps compared to the Spanish population, 4.9% and 3.3% respectively.Conclusion: Immigrant women in Catalonia have a good access to the Public Health Services and to cervical cancer screening facilities. The higher prevalence of abnormal cytologies in immigrant women compared to native women indicates the relevance to prioritize cervical cancer screening activities on a regular base in new comers.

  17. Awareness and Practice of Cervical Smear as A Screening Procedure for Cervical Cancer among Female Nurses in A Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria

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    Imoh Unang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Carcinoma of the cervix, the second most common cancer among women remains a public health problem. Though this preventable cancer occurs more commonly in the developing world, it is almost non-existent in developed countries where there are well established screening programs. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of awareness and practice of cervical smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer among female nurses in a tertiary health facility in south-south Nigeria. METHOD: Semi-structured questionnaires were distributed to all the female nurses at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. RESULTS: The ages of the respondents were between 21 - 60 years with the modal age group being 31- 40 years (48.9%. Majority of the respondents were married (59.7% and 36.4% of them had practiced nursing for over 10 years. Majority of the respondents (94.3% had heard of the cervical smear and 79.5% of the nurses knew that cervical smears were used to detect premalignant diseases of the cervix. Only 7.4% of the nurses had undergone screening for cervical cancer. Common reasons given by the respondents who had not screened were not being a candidate for cervical cancer (31.9% and ignorance as to where screening is done (28.8%. The most common sources of information about cervical smear were the hospital (87.5% and textbooks (13.6%. CONCLUSION: The level of awareness of the cervical smear as a preventive tool for cervical cancer was high but utilization of the test was disappointingly low. Modern concepts of cancer prevention and control should be included in the curriculum of the school of nursing and nurses should be involved in the organisation of health talks to members of the community on cervical cancer and its prevention. The print and electronic media should be made to participate in the dissemination of information on the prevention of cervical cancer in our environment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 675-680

  18. The comparative and cost-effectiveness of HPV-based cervical cancer screening algorithms in El Salvador.

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    Campos, Nicole G; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Felix, Juan C; Cremer, Miriam L; Kim, Jane J

    2015-08-15

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in El Salvador. Utilizing data from the Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador (CAPE) demonstration project, we assessed the health and economic impact of HPV-based screening and two different algorithms for the management of women who test HPV-positive, relative to existing Pap-based screening. We calibrated a mathematical model of cervical cancer to epidemiologic data from El Salvador and compared three screening algorithms for women aged 30-65 years: (i) HPV screening every 5 years followed by referral to colposcopy for HPV-positive women (Colposcopy Management [CM]); (ii) HPV screening every 5 years followed by treatment with cryotherapy for eligible HPV-positive women (Screen and Treat [ST]); and (iii) Pap screening every 2 years followed by referral to colposcopy for Pap-positive women (Pap). Potential harms and complications associated with overtreatment were not assessed. Under base case assumptions of 65% screening coverage, HPV-based screening was more effective than Pap, reducing cancer risk by ∼ 60% (Pap: 50%). ST was the least costly strategy, and cost $2,040 per year of life saved. ST remained the most attractive strategy as visit compliance, costs, coverage, and test performance were varied. We conclude that a screen-and-treat algorithm within an HPV-based screening program is very cost-effective in El Salvador, with a cost-effectiveness ratio below per capita GDP.

  19. Cost-Utility Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Cervical Screening on Cervical Cancer Patient in Indonesia

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    Setiawan, Didik; Dolk, Franklin Christiaan; Suwantika, Auliya A.; Westra, Tjalke Arend; WIlschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, the clinical and economic burdens of cervical cancer are still substantial issues in Indonesia. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to model the costs, clinical benefits, and cost-utility of both visual inspection with acetic

  20. HPV detection methods and genotyping techniques in screening for cervical cancer.

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    Eide, Maj Liv; Debaque, Hervé

    2012-12-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV), double-stranded DNA viruses, are causing many mucocutaneous diseases, benign or malignant, ranging from common warts to malignancies involving the upper aerodigestive tract and the anogenital sphere. The diagnosis of HPV infection is based primarily on the viral genome detection by molecular biological methods, given the difficulty in routine cultivation of these viruses. The current trend in screening against cervical cancer is to improve the sensitivity of screening with new methods and to propose new algorithms for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. The development of liquid-based cytology facilitates the cytologic diagnosis and molecular assays from the same sample. There are two main types of HPV detection methods used on uterine cervical samples: signal amplification methods (hybridization techniques in liquid phase) and target amplification methods (the techniques of gene amplification or Polymerase Chain Reaction [PCR]). Genotyping techniques are also developed: they are based on an amplification technique followed by hybridization with probe specific types. In addition to the detection, genotyping techniques allow quantitative detection of viral DNA of HPV genotype and so monitor changes in viral load over time. Another approach relies on the detection of messenger RNA (mRNA) of HPV proteins E6 and E7 oncogenes, which would appear to be a relevant marker to identify and monitor women at risk of progression to a precancerous lesion or cervical cancer.

  1. [Cervical cancer screening in the State of Maranhão, Brazil].

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    Silva, Diego Salvador Muniz da; Silva, Ana Maria Nogueira; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira; Gomes, Sinara Regina Lisboa; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa

    2014-04-01

    The scope of the study was to analyze the screening for cervical cancer in the state of Maranhão using secondary data from the Cervical Cancer Information System (SISCOLO). A retrospective descriptive study was conducted using secondary data from 139505 cytopathology exams recorded in SISCOLO in Maranhão in 2011. The variables: age, education, adequacy of material, represented epithelia, microbiology and cellular changes detected in Pap smear tests were selected. The age group between 25 to 29 years and incomplete basic schooling were the most frequent findings. The most common microbiological agents detected were bacilli (52.8%), cocci (45.5%) and Lactobacillus sp (32.6%). Inflammation was the most common benign cellular alteration (86.3%). Low-grade intraepithelial lesions were the most prevalent atypical findings in squamous cells (0.6%), followed by high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (0.2%). Squamous cell carcinoma was observed in 0.003% and 0.006% for adenocarcinoma. SISCOLO proved a useful tool for studying aspects related to cancer screening of the cervix, which can orient actions to reduce the incidence and mortality from this cancer.

  2. Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake among Women in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria: A Community-Based Study

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    Ajibola Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cancer of the cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in developing countries. Screening is one of the most cost effective control strategies for the disease. This study assessed the determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women. Methodology. This cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage sampling technique among 338 participants in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. A pretested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. Only 8.0% of the respondents had ever been screened for cancer of the cervix. The proportion of women who had ever been screened was significantly higher among those who demonstrated positive attitude to screening (81.5%, p=0.001, respondents who were aware of the disease (100.0%, p=0.001, and those who were aware of cervical cancer screening (88.9%, p=0.001. Respondents who had negative attitude had 63% lesser odds of being screened compared to those who had positive attitudes towards screening (AOR; 0.37, 95% CI; 0.01–0.28. Conclusion. There is urgent need to improve the knowledge base and attitude of Nigerian women to enhance cervical cancer screening uptake among them.

  3. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development

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    Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at both levels gender and regional, and this, is not only due to social and economic development inequalities, but to the infrastructure and human resources necessary for primary care. For this reason, the CCSP program must be restructured, a to primarily address unprivileged rural and urban areas; b to foster actions aimed at ensuring extensive coverage as well as a similar quality of that coverage in every region; c to use screening strategies in keeping with the availability of health care services. In countries with a great regional heterogeneity, a variety of screening procedures must be regulated and standardized, including a combination of assisted visual inspection, cervical cytology and HPV detection; d regional community intervention must be set up to assess the effectiveness of using HPV detection as an strategy in addition to cervical cytology (pap smear; e the practice of colposcopy must be regulated to prevent the use of it in healthy women at a population level, thus preventing unnecessary diagnosis and treatment which not only are expensive but also causes unnecessary anxiety to women at risk; f the operation of those clinical laboratories using HPV as a detection strategy must likewise be accredited and regulated and g the CCSP program for assuring health care quality should meet the expectations of its beneficiaries, and increase the knowledge in cervical cancer related matters. Finally, though a variety of clinical tests on prophylactic and

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening in Partly HPV Vaccinated Cohorts - A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

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    Steffie K Naber

    Full Text Available Vaccination against the oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV types 16 and 18 will reduce the prevalence of these types, thereby also reducing cervical cancer risk in unvaccinated women. This (measurable herd effect will be limited at first, but is expected to increase over time. At a certain herd immunity level, tailoring screening to vaccination status may no longer be worth the additional effort. Moreover, uniform screening may be the only viable option. We therefore investigated at what level of herd immunity it is cost-effective to also reduce screening intensity in unvaccinated women.We used the MISCAN-Cervix model to determine the optimal screening strategy for a pre-vaccination population and for vaccinated women (~80% decreased risk, assuming a willingness-to-pay of €50,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained. We considered HPV testing, cytology testing and co-testing and varied the start age of screening, the screening interval and the number of lifetime screens. We then calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of screening unvaccinated women with the strategy optimized to the pre-vaccination population as compared to with the strategy optimized to vaccinated women, assuming different herd immunity levels.Primary HPV screening with cytology triage was the optimal strategy, with 8 lifetime screens for the pre-vaccination population and 3 for vaccinated women. The ICER of screening unvaccinated women 8 times instead of 3 was €28,085 in the absence of herd immunity. At around 50% herd immunity, the ICER reached €50,000.From a herd immunity level of 50% onwards, screening intensity based on the pre-vaccination risk level becomes cost-ineffective for unvaccinated women. Reducing the screening intensity of uniform screening may then be considered.

  5. A Community Capacity-Enhancement Approach to Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening among Older Women of Color

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    Bullock, Karen; McGraw, Sarah A.

    2006-01-01

    In the Screening Older Minority Women project, the authors applied a community capacity-enhancement approach to promoting breast and cervical cancer screening among older women of color. Members of informal support networks were recruited for this health promotion intervention to empower Latina and African American women to engage in positive…

  6. Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program

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    Beerman, H.; van Dorst, E. B. L.; Kuenen-Boumeester, V.; Hogendoorn, P. C. W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Liquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both cerv

  7. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA

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    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M.; Rodriguez, Victor

    2012-01-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrat

  8. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening in a safety net population

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    Heberer, Meredith A; Komenaka, Ian K; Nodora, Jesse N; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Gandhi, Sonal G; Welch, Lauren E; Bouton, Marcia E; Aristizabal, Paula; Weiss, Barry D; Martinez, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify factors associated with Papanicolaou-smear (Pap-smear) cervical cancer screening rates in a safety net population. METHODS From January 2012 to May 2013, the use of Pap-smear was determined for all patients seen at the breast clinic in a safety net hospital. Health literacy assessment was performed using the validated Newest Vital Sign. The records of patients were reviewed to determine if they had undergone Pap-smears for cervical cancer screening. Sociodemographic information was collected included age, education, monthly income, race/ethnicity, employment, insurance status, and primary care provider of the patient. Logistic regression analysis was then performed to determine factors associated with utilization of Pap-smears. Crude and adjusted odds ratios derived from multivariate logistic regression models were calculated as well as the associated 95%CIs and P-values. RESULTS Overall, 39% had Pap-smears in the prior 15 mo, 1377 consecutive women were seen during the study period and their records were reviewed. Significantly more patients with adequate health literacy underwent Pap-smears as compared to those with limited health literacy (59% vs 34%, P literacy, younger patients, and those with later age of first live birth were more likely to undergo Pap-smears. Patients whose primary care providers were gynecologists were also significantly more likely to have Pap-smears compared to other specialties (P literacy and primary care physician were associated with Pap-smear utilization. Development of interventions to target low health literacy populations could improve cervical cancer screening. PMID:27777883

  9. Cervical cancer screening and adherence to follow-up among Hispanic women study protocol: a randomized controlled trial to increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women

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    Duggan Catherine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the US, Hispanic women have a higher incidence of, and mortality from, cervical cancer than non-Hispanic white women. The reason for this disparity may be attributable to both low rates of screening and poor adherence to recommended diagnostic follow-up after an abnormal Pap test. The 'Cervical Cancer Screening and Adherence to Follow-up Among Hispanic Women' study is a collaboration between a research institution and community partners made up of members from community based organizations, the Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic and the Breast, Cervical, and Colon Health Program of the Yakima District . The study will assess the efficacy of two culturally-appropriate, tailored educational programs designed to increase cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women, based in the Yakima Valley, Washington, US. Methods/design A parallel randomized-controlled trial of 600 Hispanic women aged 21–64, who are non-compliant with Papanicolau (Pap test screening guidelines. Participants will be randomized using block randomization to (1 a control arm (usual care; (2 a low-intensity information program, consisting of a Spanish-language video that educates women on the importance of cervical cancer screening; or (3 a high-intensity program consisting of the video plus a ‘promotora’ or lay-community health educator-led, home based intervention to encourage cervical cancer screening. Participants who attend cervical cancer screening, and receive a diagnosis of an abnormal Pap test will be assigned to a patient navigator who will provide support and information to promote adherence to follow-up tests, and any necessary surgery or treatment. Primary endpoint: Participants will be tracked via medical record review at community-based clinics, to identify women who have had a Pap test within 7 months of baseline assessment. Medical record reviewers will be blinded to randomization arm. Secondary endpoint: An evaluation of the patient

  10. Cervical cancer screening and Chinese women: Insights from focus groups

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    Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12. The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results: The women heavily endorsed Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among Chinese women: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.

  11. Cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-positive female smokers from a comprehensive HIV clinic.

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    Fletcher, Faith E; Vidrine, Damon J; Tami-Maury, Irene; Danysh, Heather E; King, Rachel Marks; Buchberg, Meredith; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R

    2014-03-01

    HIV-positive women are at elevated risk for developing cervical cancer. While emerging research suggests that gynecologic health care is underutilized by HIV-positive women, factors associated with adherence to Pap testing, especially among HIV-positive female smokers are not well known. We utilized baseline data from a smoking cessation trial and electronic medical records to assess Pap smear screening prevalence and the associated characteristics among the HIV-positive female participants (n = 138). 46 % of the women had at least 1 Pap test in the year following study enrollment. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age, African American race, hazardous drinking, increased number of cigarettes smoked per day, and smoking risk perception were associated with non-adherence to Pap smear screening. Cervical cancer screening was severely underutilized by women in this study. Findings underscore the importance of identifying predictors of non-adherence and addressing multiple risk factors and behavioral patterns among HIV-positive women who smoke.

  12. Proposal to institutionalize criteria and quality standards for cervical cancer screening within a health care system

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    Salmerón-Castro Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The uterine cervix is the most common cancer site for females. Approximately 52,000 new cases occur annually in Latin America, thus the need to improve efficiency and effectiveness of Cervical Cancer Screening Programs (CCSP is mandatory to decrease the unnecessary suffering women must bear. This paper is addressing essential issues to revamp the CCSP as proposed by the Mexican official norm. A general framework for institutionaling CCSP is outlined. Furthermore, strategies to strengthen CCSP performance through managerial strategies and quality assurance activities are described. The focus is on the following activities: 1 improving coverage; 2 implementing smear-taking quality control; 3 improving quality in interpretation of Pap test; 4 guaranteeing treatment for women for whom abnormalities are detected; 5 improving follow-up; 6 development of quality control measures and 7 development of monitoring and epidemiological surveillance information systems. Changes within the screening on cervical cancer may be advocated as new technologies present themselves and shortcomings in the existing program appear. It is crucial that these changes should be measured through careful evaluation in order to tally up potential benefits.

  13. The Cost analysis of cervical cancer screening services provided by Damavand health center in 2013

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    Arezoo Chouhdari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, the health sector in many countries is facing with severe resource constraints; hence it is absolutely necessary that cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness assessment have a major role in design of health services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-benefit and effectiveness of cervical cancer screening service (Pap smear test done by the health centers in Damavand County in 2013.  Methods: This is a descriptive study with cross-sectional method. All data was extracted from existing documents in Damavand health network.Cost of service screening for doing Pap smear test (manpower costs of performing the service, the cost of transferring samples, water, electricity, telephone and gas was estimated in all health centers then results, were compared with the incomes of this service.  Results: Screening program coverage was 22.3%, 6.9% and 6.05% in 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively. All costs and incomes of units performing Pap smear screening test were calculated. Entire costs and incomes of this service during 2013 were respectively 303,009,000 and 11,640,000 RLS equal $12,227 and $496.73. Therefore, the cost-benefit ratio of this screening test was approximately 0.040.  Conclusion: The costs of units performing cervical cancer screening test in Damavand Health Center were much more than this benefit and because of a none-positive Pap smear test in spite of high cost, performing this test in Damavand health centers was not cost effective.

  14. A Proof of Concept Imaging System for Automated Cervical Cancer Screening in Peru

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    Raza Garcia, Mabel Karel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women around the world and affects half a million women per year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 275,000 women die every year, and 80% to 85% of these deaths occur in low-resource countries in Africa and South America. In Peru, cervical cancer has the highest incidence and…

  15. [Preventing cervical cancer].

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    Simon, P; Noël, J-C

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer has hopefully been dropping down in our industrialized countries since the introduction of both primary and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, it is still lethal in one out of two affected women though the introduction of cytological screening has dramatically reduced the mortality. Progressive diffusion of anti-HPV vaccination, the broadening of the viral types concerned, its association with existing screening measures and finally the introduction of viral detection as a screening tool must optimize the results already obtained.

  16. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

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    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  17. Detention of HPV L1 Capsid Protein and hTERC Gene in Screening of Cervical Cancer

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    Huang Bin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV L1 capsid protein, and human telomerase RNA component (hTERC in cervical cancer and the role of detection of both genes in screening of cervical cancer.   Materials and Methods: A total of 309 patients were recruited and cervical exfoliated cells were collected. Immunocytochemistry was employed to detect HPV L1 capsid protein, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was performed to detect the hTERC. Results: The expression of HPV L1 capsid protein reduced with the increase of the histological grade of cervical cells and was negatively related to the grade of cervical lesions. However, the expression of hTERC increased with the increase of the histological grade and positively associated with the grade of cervical lesions. The proportion of patients with L1(-/hTERC(+ was higher in patients with histological grade of CIN2 or higher than that in those with histological grade of CIN1. The L1(+/hTERC(- and L1(-/hTERC(- were negatively related to the grade of cervical lesions. L1(-/hTERC(+ was positively associated with the grade of cervical lesions. The L1/hTERC ratio increased. The negative predictive value of both HPV L1 and hTERC was higher than that of HPV L1 or hTERC, but there was no marked difference in the screening efficacy of cervical cancer among HPV L1, hTERC and HPV L1+hTERC. Conclusion: HPV L1 capsid protein and hTERC gene may serve as markers for the early diagnosis and prediction of cervical lesions. The increase in L1/hTERC ratio reflects the progression of cervical lesions to a certain extent.

  18. New approaches to cervical cancer screening in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Rolando; Ferreccio, Catterina; Salmerón, Jorge; Almonte, Maribel; Sánchez, Gloria Ines; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Jerónimo, José

    2008-08-19

    Cervical cancer remains an important public health problem in the Latin America and Caribbean region (LAC), with an expected significant increase in disease burden in the next decades as a result of population ageing. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is currently unaffordable in LAC countries. However, even if vaccination was implemented, an additional two decades will be required to observe its impact on HPV related disease and cancer. With some exceptions, cytology-based screening programs have been largely ineffective to control the problem in the region, and there is a need for new approaches to the organization of screening and for use of newly developed techniques. Several research groups in LAC have conducted research on new screening methods, some of which are summarized in this paper. A recommendation to reorganize screening programs is presented considering visual inspection for very low resource areas, improvement of cytology where it is operating successfully and HPV DNA testing followed by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) or cytology as soon as this method becomes technically and economically sustainable. This could be facilitated by the incorporation of new, low-cost HPV DNA testing methods and the use of self-collected vaginal specimens for selected groups of the population. An important requisite for screening based on HPV testing will be the quality assurance of the laboratory and the technique by validation and certification measures.

  19. Provider beliefs associated with cervical cancer screening interval recommendations: A pilot study in Federally Qualified Health Centers

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    Katherine B. Roland

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Messages that promote the benefits of longer screening intervals after a normal co-test, the natural history of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer, and low risk of developing cancer with a longer interval may be useful to promote evidence-based screening in this population of Federally Qualified Health Center providers. Dissemination of targeted messages through professional journals and specialty organizations should be considered.

  20. Estimating the cost of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries

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    Goldie Sue J

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs can provide useful information to policymakers concerned with the broad allocation of resources as well as to local decision makers choosing between different options for reducing the burden from a single disease. For the latter, it is important to use country-specific data when possible and to represent cost differences between countries that might make one strategy more or less attractive than another strategy locally. As part of a CEA of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries, we supplemented limited primary cost data by developing other estimation techniques for direct medical and non-medical costs associated with alternative screening approaches using one of three initial screening tests: simple visual screening, HPV DNA testing, and cervical cytology. Here, we report estimation methods and results for three cost areas in which data were lacking. Methods To supplement direct medical costs, including staff, supplies, and equipment depreciation using country-specific data, we used alternative techniques to quantify cervical cytology and HPV DNA laboratory sample processing costs. We used a detailed quantity and price approach whose face validity was compared to an adaptation of a US laboratory estimation methodology. This methodology was also used to project annual sample processing capacities for each laboratory type. The cost of sample transport from the clinic to the laboratory was estimated using spatial models. A plausible range of the cost of patient time spent seeking and receiving screening was estimated using only formal sector employment and wages as well as using both formal and informal sector participation and country-specific minimum wages. Data sources included primary data from country-specific studies, international databases, international prices, and expert opinion. Costs were standardized to year 2000 international dollars using inflation adjustment and

  1. Intent to participate in future cervical cancer screenings is lower when satisfaction with the decision to be vaccinated is neutral.

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    Natalie Marya Alexander

    Full Text Available HPV vaccination programs have adversely affected participation in future cervical cancer screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of decision satisfaction with accepting/rejecting the HPV vaccine, as well as traditional clinical factors, on the intent to participate in future screening.From January 2011 through August 2012 women 18-26 years old presenting for health care in an urban college student health and wellness clinic in the US Midwest were asked to complete a descriptive and medical history survey including a six element decisional satisfaction survey scored on 5-point Likert scales, where the intent to participate in future cervical cancer screening was measured. Of the 568 women who completed the decisional satisfaction survey, 17% of those <21 years and 7% ≥ 21 years indicated no intent to participate in future cervical cancer screenings. Among women of current screening age, the univariate risk factors of race/ethnicity, contraceptive use, number of lifetime sexual partners, and receipt of HPV vaccine were not predictors of intent for future cervical cancer screening. Instead, only a history of a prior Pap test was a significant positive predictor and only a decisional satisfaction of 'neutral' (Likert score = 3 for any of the four decisional satisfaction elements was a significant negative predictor. For the decisional satisfaction element "best for me personally", there was a 78% decreased likelihood of intending to participate in future screening if the satisfaction was neutral rather than firm (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.91 and a 26 fold increased likelihood if she had had a prior Pap test (aOR = 26, 95% CI: 5-133.HPV vaccination implementation programs must help women be the owner of their decision around HPV vaccination and understand the importance of future participation in cervical cancer screening.

  2. Packaging health services when resources are limited: the example of a cervical cancer screening visit.

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    Jane J Kim

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supporting the value of screening women for cervical cancer once in their lifetime, coupled with mounting interest in scaling up successful screening demonstration projects, present challenges to public health decision makers seeking to take full advantage of the single-visit opportunity to provide additional services. We present an analytic framework for packaging multiple interventions during a single point of contact, explicitly taking into account a budget and scarce human resources, constraints acknowledged as significant obstacles for provision of health services in poor countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a binary integer programming (IP model capable of identifying an optimal package of health services to be provided during a single visit for a particular target population. Inputs to the IP model are derived using state-transition models, which compute lifetime costs and health benefits associated with each intervention. In a simplified example of a single lifetime cervical cancer screening visit, we identified packages of interventions among six diseases that maximized disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted subject to budget and human resource constraints in four resource-poor regions. Data were obtained from regional reports and surveys from the World Health Organization, international databases, the published literature, and expert opinion. With only a budget constraint, interventions for depression and iron deficiency anemia were packaged with cervical cancer screening, while the more costly breast cancer and cardiovascular disease interventions were not. Including personnel constraints resulted in shifting of interventions included in the package, not only across diseases but also between low- and high-intensity intervention options within diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our example suggest several key themes: Packaging other interventions during a one-time visit has the

  3. Reaching women in the Peruvian Andes through cervical cancer screening campaigns: assessing attitudes of stakeholders and patients

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    Luque, John S; Maupin, Jonathan N; Ferris, Daron G; Guevara Condorhuaman, Wendy S

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is characterized by high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. The country also experiences significant gaps in quality cervical cancer screening coverage for the population. Objective This descriptive mixed methods study conducted in Cusco, Peru, aimed to assess the attitudes and perceptions of medical staff, health care workers, and patients toward a cervical cancer screening program that included both clinic-based and community outreach services conducted by a nongovernmental organization clinic (CerviCusco). The study also explored patient knowledge and attitudes around cervical cancer and about the human papillomavirus (HPV) to inform patient education efforts. Methods The study employed structured interviews with key informants (n=16) primarily from CerviCusco, which provides cervical cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment services, and surveys with a sample of patients (n=30) receiving services at the clinic and at screening campaigns. Results The majority of key informant medical staff participants felt that the general public had a very negative view of government health services. One theme running throughout the interviews was the perception that the general population lacked a culture of preventive health care and would wait until symptoms were severe before seeking treatment. Regarding services that were received by patients at CerviCusco, the participants responded that the prices were reasonable and more affordable than some private clinics. Patients attending the rural health campaigns liked that the services were free and of good quality. Conclusion CerviCusco has demonstrated its capacity to provide screening outreach campaigns to populations who had not previously had access to liquid-based cytology services. The finding that patients had generally low levels of knowledge about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine prompted the development of culturally and linguistically appropriate educational and

  4. Automatic Glass-Slide Capturing System for Cervical Cancer Pre-Screening Program

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    Nor R.M. Noor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical glass-slide capturing system is becoming an important part of telemedicine, medical database and diagnostic system that involves of microscope and image acquisition device which is digital camera. One of the areas of interest is slide capturing system for cervical cancer pre-screening program. An automated microscope with FireWire digital camera will be used to acquire the image and store in digital lossless format. The capturing procedure involves of 100X and 400 X magnifications that are necessary for further diagnosis actions. The system that comes with software and hardware parts also provides image retrieval or displaying facilities for ease of user who are pathologist and cytologist to perform the screening program.

  5. Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening Coverage: A Randomised, Community-Based Clinical Trial

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    Acera, Amelia; Manresa, Josep Maria; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez, Ana; Bonet, Josep Maria; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Hidalgo, Pablo; Sànchez, Norman

    2017-01-01

    Background Opportunistic cervical cancer screening can lead to suboptimal screening coverage. Coverage could be increased after a personalised invitation to the target population. We present a community randomized intervention study with three strategies aiming to increase screening coverage. Methods The CRICERVA study is a community-based clinical trial to improve coverage of population-based screening in the Cerdanyola SAP area in Barcelona.A total of 32,858 women residing in the study area, aged 30 to 70 years were evaluated. A total of 15,965 women were identified as having no registration of a cervical cytology in the last 3.5 years within the Public Health data base system. Eligible women were assigned to one of four community randomized intervention groups (IGs): (1) (IG1 N = 4197) personalised invitation letter, (2) (IG2 N = 3601) personalised invitation letter + informative leaflet, (3) (IG3 N = 6088) personalised invitation letter + informative leaflet + personalised phone call and (4) (Control N = 2079) based on spontaneous demand of cervical cancer screening as officially recommended. To evaluate screening coverage, we used heterogeneity tests to compare impact of the interventions and mixed logistic regression models to assess the age effect. We refer a “rescue” visit as the screening visit resulting from the study invitation. Results Among the 13,886 women in the IGs, 2,862 were evaluated as having an adequate screening history after the initial contact; 4,263 were lost to follow-up and 5,341 were identified as having insufficient screening and thus being eligible for a rescue visit. All intervention strategies significantly increased participation to screening compared to the control group. Coverage after the intervention reached 84.1% while the control group reached 64.8%. The final impact of our study was an increase of 20% in the three IGs and of 9% in the control group (p<0.001). Within the intervention arms, age was an important determinant

  6. Factors Affecting Cervical Cancer Screening Behaviors Based On the Precaution Adoption Process Model: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Afshin; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammah Hossein; Enjezab, Behnaz; Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed; Askarshahi, Mohsen

    2015-11-17

    One of the most preventable cancers in women is cervical cancer. Pap smear test is an effective screening program; however, it is not conducted very frequently. The aim of this study is explaining the determinants affecting women's participation in the Pap smear test based on precaution adoption process model with a qualitative approach. This study was a qualitative approach using a Directed Content Analysis methodology which was conducted in 2014. Participants were 30 rural women who participated in this study voluntarily in sarvabad, Iran. Purposive sampling was initiated and continued until data saturation. Semi-structured interviews were the primary method of data collection. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and continuous comparisons. Women`s information and awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear is insufficient and most of them believed that they were not at risk; however, they perceived the severity of the disease. Some of them had no adequate understanding of the test benefits. They pointed to the lack of time, financial difficulties, fear of test result and lack of awareness as the main barriers against the Pap smear test; however, they did not say that they were not willing to do the test. Findings could help health policy makers to find the right area and purpose to facilitate the participation of women in the Pap smear test.

  7. Cervical cancer screening in Australia: modelled evaluation of the impact of changing the recommended interval from two to three years

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    Howard Kirsten

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Cervical Screening Program in Australia currently recommends that sexually active women between the ages of 18-70 years attend routine screening every 2 years. The publically funded National HPV Vaccination Program commenced in 2007, with catch-up in females aged 12-26 years conducted until 2009; and this may prompt consideration of whether the screening interval and other aspects of the organized screening program could be reviewed. The aim of the current evaluation was to assess the epidemiologic outcomes and cost implications of changing the recommended screening interval in Australia to 3 years. Methods We used a modelling approach to evaluate the effects of moving to a 3-yearly recommended screening interval. We used data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry over the period 1997-2007 to model compliance with routine screening under current practice, and registry data from other countries with 3-yearly recommendations to inform assumptions about future screening behaviour under two alternative systems for screening organisation - retention of a reminder-based system (as in New Zealand, or a move to a call-and-recall system (as in England. Results A 3-yearly recommendation is predicted to be of similar effectiveness to the current 2-yearly recommendation, resulting in no substantial change to the total number of incident cervical cancer cases or cancer deaths, or to the estimated 0.68% average cumulative lifetime risk of cervical cancer in unvaccinated Australian women. However, a 3-yearly screening policy would be associated with decreases in the annual number of colposcopy and biopsy procedures performed (by 4-10% and decreases in the number of treatments for pre-invasive lesions (by 2-4%. The magnitude of the decrease in the number of diagnostic procedures and treatments would depend on the method of screening organization, with call-and-recall screening associated with the highest reductions. The

  8. Review on the medical and health economic evidence for an inclusion of colposcopy in primary screening programs for cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocon, Marc; Mittendorf, Thomas; Roll, Stephanie; Greiner, Wolfgang; Willich, Stefan N.; von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Introduction With 3.2% of all cancer cases in 2002, cervical carcinoma is the tenth most common cancer in Germany and causes 1.8% of all cancer deaths in women in Germany. To date diagnosis in Germany solely has been based on cervical cytology which has been criticised due to its low sensitivity and consequently high rate of false negative results. Objectives How does colposcopy compare to cytological tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and what may be the effects of changes in screening for cervical carcinoma in Germany? Is there health economic evidence that may foster an inclusion of colposcopy into national screening programms? Methods A systematic literature review was performed, including studies that compared colposcopy to cervical cytology in terms of sensitivity and specificity. In addition, a systematic review of the relevant health economic literature was performed to analyse cost-effectiveness issues relevant to the German setting. Results A total of four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which only two were of high methodologic quality. In all studies, the sensitivity of colposcopy was lower than that of cytology. In three studies the specificity of colposcopy was lower than that of cytology, in one study specificity of colposcopy and cytology was similar. No health economic data suggesting positive effects of adding colposcopy in primary screening could be identified. Discussion Only few studies have compared the test criteria of colposcopy with those of cytology for screening in cervical cancer. In all studies, sensitivity of colposcopy was even lower than the sensitivity of cytology, which has been critisized because of its low sensitivity. Conclusion Based on the present data, an inclusion of colposcopy in primary cervical cancer screening programmes can not be recommended. PMID:21289941

  9. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  10. Assessment of factors impacting cervical cancer screening among low-income women living with HIV-AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwale, Abayomi N; Coleman, Maame Aba; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Valverde, Ivan; Montealegre, Jane; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria; Anderson, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Very little is currently known about factors impacting the prevalence of cervical cancer screening among women living with HIV-AIDS (WLHA). To better understand this issue, we surveyed low-income, medically underserved women receiving subsidized gynecologic care through an integrated HIV clinic. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 209 women who self-identified as HIV positive. A total of 179 subjects (85.7%) reported having had a Pap test in the last three years. The majority of WLHA (95%) knew that the Pap test screens for cervical cancer. However, overall knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors, such as multiple sexual partners or sex with a man with multiple partners, was low (43% and 35%, respectively). Unscreened women were younger and more likely to be single with multiple current sexual partners. In multivariable analyses, the only factors associated with Pap testing were a woman's perception that her partner wants her to receive regular screening (aOR 4.64; 95% CI: 1.15-23.76; p = .04), number of clinic visits during the past year (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05-1.94; p = .04) and knowledge that the need for a Pap test does not depend on whether or not a woman is experiencing vaginal bleeding (aOR 6.52, 95% CI: 1.04-49.71; p = .05). We conclude that support from male partners in addition to effective contact with the health system and knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors influence Pap utilization among low-income WLHA. Future measures to improve the care for this population should increase knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and encourage social support for cervical cancer screening among WLHA.

  11. Family and cultural influences on cervical cancer screening among immigrant Latinas in Miami-Dade County, USA.

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    Madhivanan, Purnima; Valderrama, Diana; Krupp, Karl; Ibanez, Gladys

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer disproportionately affects minorities, immigrants and low-income women in the USA, with disparities greatest among Latino immigrants. We examined barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening practices among a group of immigrant Latino women in Florida, USA. Between January and May 2013, six focus group discussions, involving 35 participants, were conducted among Hispanic women in Miami to explore their knowledge, beliefs about cervical cancer and facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening using a theoretical framework. The data showed that family support, especially from female relatives, was an important facilitator of screening and treatment. Women, however, reported prioritising family health over their own, and some expressed fatalistic beliefs about cancer. Major obstacles to receiving a Pap smear included fear that it might result in removal of the uterus, discomfort about being seen by a male doctor and concern that testing might stigmatise them as being sexually promiscuous or having a sexually transmitted disease. Targeted education on cancer and prevention is critically needed in this population. Efforts should focus on women of all ages since younger women often turn to older female relatives for advice.

  12. Visual inspection with acetic acid (via screening program: 7 years experience in early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancers in rural South India

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    Usha Rani Poli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer continues to be a major public health problem in India in the absence of wide spread organised cervical screening programs. Visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA is an effective, inexpensive screening test that can be combined with simple treatment procedures for early cervical lesions, provided by trained health workers. We report 7 years experience in early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancers using the VIA test in a community-based program in rural Andhra Pradesh, India where there are no existing organised cervical screening programs. Materials and Methods: Eligible women aged between 26 and 60 were opportunistically screened by trained health wor kers using the VIA test. Women who tested positive were further evaluated and those with cervical lesions were treated either by cryotherapy in the screening clinic or referred to a higher center. Results: A total of 18,869 women were screened by a single round of VIA testing with a positive rate of 10.75%. Biopsy proven high-grade squamous intraepithelials (HSILs were 90 (0.48% and low-grade squamous intraepithelials (LSILs were 43 (0.28%. The overall prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+ lesion rate is 1.05%. A total of 312 (1.65% cryotherapies were done and 49 women underwent hysterectomy. Conclusions: VIA by trained female health workers is a safe, acceptable, and effective test that can save lives from cervical cancer even in remote areas with few resources. These results have important implications for efficient service delivery in cervical screening programs in low-resourced settings.

  13. The costs of reducing loss to follow-up in South African cervical cancer screening

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    Kuhn Louise

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to quantify the resources used in reestablishing contact with women who missed their scheduled cervical cancer screening visits and to assess the success of this effort in reducing loss to follow-up in a developing country setting. Methods Women were enrolled in this Cape Town, South Africa-based screening study between 2000 and 2003, and all had scheduled follow-up visits in 2003. Community health worker (CHW time, vehicle use, maintenance, and depreciation were estimated from weekly logs and cost accounting systems. The percentage of women who attended their scheduled visit, those who attended after CHW contact(s, and those who never returned despite attempted contact(s were determined. The number of CHW visits per woman was also estimated. Results 3,711 visits were scheduled in 2003. Of these, 2,321 (62.5% occurred without CHW contact, 918 (24.8% occurred after contact(s, and 472 (12.7% did not occur despite contact(s. Loss to follow-up was reduced from 21% to 6%, 39% to 10%, and 50% to 24% for 6, 12, and 24-month visits. CHWs attempted 3,200 contacts in 530 trips. On average, 3 CHWs attempted to contact 6 participants over each 111 minute trip. The per-person cost (2003 Rand for these activities was 12.75, 24.92, and 40.50 for 6, 12, and 24-month visits. Conclusion CHW contact with women who missed scheduled visits increased their return rate. Cost-effectiveness analyses aimed at policy decisions about cervical cancer screening in developing countries should incorporate these findings.

  14. A Qualitative Study about Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas Living in a Rural Area of California: Lessons for Health Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Perez, Miguel; Torres, Victor; Krenz, Vickie

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health concern for Latinas, who are also less likely to undergo a Pap smear exam than the general population. This study identifies alterable determinants of Pap smear screening for Latino women living in a rural area of California. It involved the design and pilot testing of a culturally appropriate instrument and the…

  15. Overview of Human Papillomavirus-Based and Other Novel Options for Cervical Cancer Screening in Developed and Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzick, Jack; Arbyn, Marc; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Tsu, Vivien; Ronco, Guglielmo; Mayrand, Marie-Helene; Dillner, Joakim; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    Screening for cervical cancer precursors by cytology has been very successful in countries where adequate resources exist to ensure high quality and good coverage of the population at risk. Mortality reductions in excess of 50% have been achieved in many developed countries; however the procedure is

  16. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for collecting samples for conventional and liquid-based cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbyn, M.; Herbert, A.; Schenck, U.; Nieminen, P.; Jordan, J.; Mcgoogan, E.; Patnick, J.; Bergeron, C.; Baldauf, J.J.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Martin-Hirsch, P.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper presents an annex in the second edition of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. It provides guidance on how to make a satisfactory conventional Pap smear or a liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample. Practitioners taking samples for cytology should

  17. Adherence to cervical cancer screening varies by human papillomavirus vaccination status in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Christopher A; Van Treeck, Benjamin J; Verdenius, Inge; Lau, Agnes W Y; Dhawan, Twinkle; Lash, Kayla A; Bergamini, Elizabeth A; Ekekezie, Chiazotam N; Hilal, Amna M; James, Kristen N; Alongi, Sadie; Harper, Sean M; Bonham, Aaron J; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; Harper, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer over the past 75 years. The primary aim of this study was to determine if women receiving Gardasil™ (HPV4 vaccine) participated in future cervical cancer screening at the same rate as that observed for unvaccinated women matched on birth year and health care campus. This is a retrospective cohort study of subjects selected from 27,786 females born from 1980 to 1992 who received health care in the Truman Medical Center safety net health system in Kansas City Missouri, USA. 1154 women 14-26 years old who received at least one dose of HPV4 vaccine between 2006 and 2009 were chosen at random from the vaccine records. 1154 randomly chosen unvaccinated women were age and health campus matched to the vaccinated women and all were followed until July 1, 2013. Women who were screened after 21 years and received three vaccine doses before 21 years, had the lowest screening rate of 24%. Their only predictive factor for screening, compared to the unvaccinated, was being closer to 21 years than 14 years at vaccination (aOR = 1.71 95% CI: 1.45, 2.00). Women vaccinated with three doses and screened at or after 21 years had the highest screening rate of 84% predicting a six-fold increase in screening participation over no vaccine received (aOR = 5.94 95% CI: 3.77, 9.35). Our results suggest that women who receive HPV4 vaccination closer to 21 years, not 14, are more likely to participate in cervical cancer screening in an underserved US population.

  18. Adherence to cervical cancer screening varies by human papillomavirus vaccination status in a high-risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Paynter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer over the past 75 years. The primary aim of this study was to determine if women receiving Gardasil™ (HPV4 vaccine participated in future cervical cancer screening at the same rate as that observed for unvaccinated women matched on birth year and health care campus. This is a retrospective cohort study of subjects selected from 27,786 females born from 1980 to 1992 who received health care in the Truman Medical Center safety net health system in Kansas City Missouri, USA. 1154 women 14–26 years old who received at least one dose of HPV4 vaccine between 2006 and 2009 were chosen at random from the vaccine records. 1154 randomly chosen unvaccinated women were age and health campus matched to the vaccinated women and all were followed until July 1, 2013. Women who were screened after 21 years and received three vaccine doses before 21 years, had the lowest screening rate of 24%. Their only predictive factor for screening, compared to the unvaccinated, was being closer to 21 years than 14 years at vaccination (aOR = 1.71 95% CI: 1.45, 2.00. Women vaccinated with three doses and screened at or after 21 years had the highest screening rate of 84% predicting a six-fold increase in screening participation over no vaccine received (aOR = 5.94 95% CI: 3.77, 9.35. Our results suggest that women who receive HPV4 vaccination closer to 21 years, not 14, are more likely to participate in cervical cancer screening in an underserved US population.

  19. DNA methylation analysis in liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolidou, Sophia; Hadwin, Richard; Burnell, Matthew; Jones, Allison; Baff, Donna; Pyndiah, Nitisha; Mould, Tim; Jacobs, Ian J; Beddows, Simon; Kocjan, Gabrijela; Widschwendter, Martin

    2009-12-15

    Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Preinvasive disease can be detected by cervical cytology. All currently available cytology technologies rely on the visual analysis of exfoliated cells from the uterine cervix. Improvement of conventional cytological screening has been proposed by the introduction of molecular-based markers applied to liquid-based cytology (LBC), the suspension of cells collected from the cervix. DNA methylation changes occur very early in carcinogenesis and identification of appropriate DNA methylation markers in such samples should be able to distinguish high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) from nonspecific cytology changes and the normal cervix. To address this potential, we have undertaken a proof-of-principle study of methylation status of LBC samples from HSIL cytology cases compared against matched normal controls. Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR on 28 genes, we found SOX1, HOXA11 and CADM1 to significantly discriminate between the groups analyzed (p<0.01). Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) demonstrated that methylation of SOX1, HOXA11 and CADM1 could discriminate between HSIL cases and controls with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC 0.910, 0.844 and 0.760, respectively). The results were further validated in an independent set. This proof-of-principle study is the first to validate the results in an independent case/control set and presents HOXA11, a gene that is important for cervical development, as a potentially useful DNA marker in LBC samples. Further assessment of these preliminary estimates will need to be performed in a larger cohort to confirm clinical utility.

  20. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications

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    Lyimo Frida S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Results Less than one quarter (22.6% of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03 and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10 were significantly associated with screening uptake. Conclusions Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of

  1. Introduction of molecular HPV testing as the primary technology in cervical cancer screening: Acting on evidence to change the current paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tota, Joseph E; Bentley, James; Blake, Jennifer; Coutlée, François; Duggan, Máire A; Ferenczy, Alex; Franco, Eduardo L; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael; Gotlieb, Walter; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; McLachlin, Meg; Murphy, Joan; Ogilvie, Gina; Ratnam, Sam

    2017-05-01

    Since being introduced in the 1940s, cervical cytology - despite its limitations - has had unequivocal success in reducing cervical cancer burden in many countries. However, we now know that infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and there is overwhelming evidence from large-scale clinical trials, feasibility studies and real-world experience that supports the introduction of molecular testing for HPV as the primary technology in cervical cancer screening (i.e., "HPV primary screening"). While questions remain about the most appropriate age groups for screening, screening interval and triage approach, these should not be considered barriers to implementation. Many countries are in various stages of adopting HPV primary screening, whereas others have not taken any major steps towards introduction of this approach. As a group of clinical experts and researchers in cervical cancer prevention from across Canada, we have jointly authored this comprehensive examination of the evidence to implement HPV primary screening. Our intention is to create a common understanding among policy makers, agencies, clinicians, researchers and other stakeholders about the evidence concerning HPV primary screening to catalyze the adoption of this improved approach to cervical cancer prevention. With the first cohort of vaccinated girls now turning 21, the age when routine screening typically begins, there is increased urgency to introduce HPV primary screening, whose performance may be less adversely affected compared with cervical cytology as a consequence of reduced lesion prevalence post-vaccination.

  2. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  3. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  4. Individual and community effectiveness of a cervical cancer screening program for semi-urban Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Muñoz Ledo, Adriana A; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Allen-Leigh, Betania

    2014-06-01

    The effectiveness at the individual and community level of an educational intervention to increase cervical cancer screening self-efficacy among semi-urban Mexican women was evaluated and changes in reported community barriers were measured after the intervention was implemented. The educational intervention was evaluated with a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design and a control group, based on the Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction and AMIGAS project materials. For the intervention group, increased self-efficacy increased requests to obtain a Pap (p system affect the women's perceived ability to get a Pap. Better care for users is needed to increase consistent use of the test. The study shows the importance of using culturally adapted, multilevel, comprehensive interventions to achieve successful results in target populations.

  5. Role of Protein Biomarkers in the Detection of High-Grade Disease in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Pap test was introduced in the 1940s, there has been an approximately 70% reduction in the incidence of squamous cell cervical cancers in many developed countries by the application of organized and opportunistic screening programs. The efficacy of the Pap test, however, is hampered by high interobserver variability and high false-negative and false-positive rates. The use of biomarkers has demonstrated the ability to overcome these issues, leading to improved positive predictive value of cervical screening results. In addition, the introduction of HPV primary screening programs will necessitate the use of a follow-up test with high specificity to triage the high number of HPV-positive tests. This paper will focus on protein biomarkers currently available for use in cervical cancer screening, which appear to improve the detection of women at greatest risk for developing cervical cancer, including Ki-67, p16INK4a, BD ProEx C, and Cytoactiv HPV L1.

  6. Cervical cancer screening in Turkey: a community-based experience after 60 years of pap smear usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhindi, Hakan; Nazlican, Ersin; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in females in the World with around 500,000 new cases occurring annually, but the first in the developing countries with a high mortality if not diagnosed early. Papanicolau (Pap) smear is a cheap, easy-to-apply and widely accepted test which has been long used to detect cervical cancer at very early stages. However, despite being available for nearly 60 years, the test can hardly be considered to have become successfully applied in many communities. We aimed in this study to present the results of a screening survey for cervical cancer which targeted a women population aged between 35 and 40 living in a semi-rural area in the province of Hatay, located in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey, with specific aims of increasing early diagnosis, education and raising population awareness about cancers. This community-based descriptive study covered 512 women between 35 and 40 years of age living at Armutlu with a mean age of 37.6±1.7. Gynecologic examinations revealed cervical erosion in 8 (1.6%), vaginitis in 193 (37.7%) and normal findings in 311 (60.7%); pathological evaluation reports of the smears were negative in 290 (56.6%), inflammation in 218 (42.6%) and ASC-US in 4 (0.8%), according to the 2001 Bethesda classification. It can be concluded that Pap smear test - proven to be a very valuable test at the clinical level- should also be widely used at the community level to detect cervical cancer at very early stages to reduce both the mortality and morbidity among healthy people. The need for continuous community-based cervical cancer screening programs is strongly suggested.

  7. Remote quality assurance in cervical cancer screening in low resource settings using a handheld smartphone-based colposcope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millien, Christophe; Jean-Baptiste, Meredith C.; Manite, Garçon; Levitz, David

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death for women all across the developing world, where much of the infrastructure required for effective cervical cancer screening is unavailable because of limited resources. One of the most common method to screen for cervical cancer is by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), in which the cervix is imaged with the naked eye. Given inherent challenges in analysis and documentation when characterizing cervical tissue with the naked eye, an optical solution is needed. To address this challenge, a smartphone was modified and transformed into a mobile colposcope (a device used to image the cervix from outside) by adding a custom-fit light source and optics. The mobile smartphone colposcope was designed such that it augments VIA and easily integrates within the standard of care. The mobile smartphone colposcope is controlled by an app, which, stores cervical images captured on the mobile smartphone colposcope on a portal, enabling remote doctors to evaluate images and the treatment chosen by the health worker. Images from patients undergoing cervical cancer screening by a nurse using VIA in the University Hospital of Mirebalais (HUM) GYN outpatient clinic in Haiti were captured on the mobile smartphone colposcope. These images were later analyzed by an experienced OB/GYN at HUM, who determined whether or not the patient should be treated with cryoablation; more complicated cases were also shared with a consulting doctor in the US. The opinions of the experienced OB/GYN doctors at HUM, as well as the experts from the US, were used to educate nurses and midwives performing mobile colposcopy. These results suggest that remote assessment offered by mobile colposcopy can improve training of health workers performing VIA, and ultimately affect the therapy administered to patients.

  8. Trichomonas, Candida , and Gardnerella in cervical smears of Iranian women for cancer screening

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    Narges Kalantari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardrenella vaginalis, and Candida sp are responsible for 90% of vaginitis which has been reported as important risk factors for cervical cancer. Aim: This study aimed to find the prevalence of T. vaginalis, Candida sp, and G. vaginalis in women attended the cancer clinic charity, Babol, Iran and to identify the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study carried out from 1996 to July 2012 on women who attended to a cancer screening program at the cancer clinics charity, Babol, Iran. Papanicolaou test and clinical examinations were performed for each woman. In addition to Papanicolaou test results, demographic data were collected. The data were analyzed with X 2 test using SPSS software, version 18. Results: In total, 2511 out of 33600 (7.5% cases had vaginal infections. A total of 71 (0.2%, 2248 (6.7%, and 192 (0.6% of subjects were infected by T. vaginalis, Candida sp, and Gardnerella, respectively. The highest rate of infection was seen in 20-30 and 30-40 years age group. The frequency of vaginal ulcers was higher in trichomoniasis (14.1%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the prevalence of T. vaginalis, Candida sp, and Gardnerella was low among the studied population. Moreover, malignant cytological alternations were not seen in any infected women.

  9. Home-based urinary HPV DNA testing in women who do not attend cervical cancer screening clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducancelle, Alexandra; Reiser, Justine; Pivert, Adeline; Le Guillou-Guillemette, Hélène; Le Duc-Banaszuk, Anne Sophie; Lunel-Fabiani, Françoise

    2015-09-01

    In France, cervical cancer screening is currently based on cytological examination of a Pap smear for women aged 25 to 65, but screening coverage is unsatisfactory. Previous studies have shown that self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing increases rates of compliance. With this purpose in mind, we performed the CapU study to evaluate the acceptance of a urinary HPV test. Letters proposing a new cervical cancer screening method using at-home urine self-sampling were sent to 5000 women aged 40-65 years who had not had a Pap smear over the past three years. The participating patients had to send their urine samples to the Angers Hospital Virology Laboratory for analysis using real-time PCR. Of the 771 samples received, 687 were analyzed. High-risk HPV were detected in 29 women. In follow-up, 28 women with positive urinary HPV results had a Pap smear or colposcopy done. The cytological results showed nine abnormal Pap smears, among which histology studies confirmed three cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III lesions. Our study shows that urinary HPV testing may be pertinent to women who do not have cervical Pap smears done and lead to the diagnosis of high-grade cervical lesions.

  10. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  11. The cervical cancer screening program in Mexico: problems with access and coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, E C; Nájera-Aguilar, P; Buiatti, E; Alonso-de-Ruiz, P; Kuri, P; Cantoral, L; Hernández-Avila, M

    1997-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in two geographic regions of Mexico - Oaxaca (rural area) and Mexico City (urban area) - to determine the main factors for predicting participation in Cervical Cytology Screening Programs (CCSP), in populations with high mortality due to cervical cancer. We included 4,208 women aged between 15 and 49 years, randomly selected through a national household-sample frame. Knowledge of what the Pap test is used for strongly predisposes use of CCSP in Mexico City (odds ratio [OR] = 46.1, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 33.1-64.1) and Oaxaca state (OR = 61.5, CI = 42.0-89.9), as well as high socioeconomic level (Mexico: OR = 2.0, CI = 1.1-7.6; Oaxaca: OR = 4.1, CI = 3.1-5.3), high education level (Mexico: OR = 3.6, CI = 1.5-8.8; Oaxaca: OR = 5.3, CI = 2.8-10.0), and access to social security (Mexico: OR = 1.7, CI = 1.4-2.2; Oaxaca: OR = 2.2, CI = 1.8-2.7). Low coverage of the CCSP is confirmed as an important problem in Mexico.

  12. Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus in women screened for cervical cancer in Labrador, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Severini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. A higher incidence of cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been reported in northern Canada and in First Nation, Métis and Inuit women, with some evidence to suggest that the HPV type distribution in these populations may be different from the rest of Canada. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the HPV type prevalence in Labrador women to determine if significant differences in HPV types could reduce the effectiveness of HPV vaccination. Design. The prevalence of HPV types was determined in 1,370 women presenting for routine pap screening in Labrador between February and November 2010. Cervical cytology and HPV genotyping were performed on the same liquid-based cytology specimens. Results. The overall prevalence of HPV was 21.4%; cytological abnormalities were found in 8.8% of the participants. HPV 16 and 18 were the most common high-risk HPV types. These two types were found in 52.4% of high-grade lesions. The prevalence in HPV infections was comparable across the Labrador regions. Conclusions. The present results support the potential effectiveness of the HPV immunization program in Labrador.

  13. Visual inspection for cervical cancer screening; evaluation by doctor versus paramedical worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatla Neerja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : In the absence of an effective cervical cancer screening programme, efforts are being made to explore the feasibility of using the existing infrastructure to develop effective low-cost screening methods. AIMS : To evaluate and compare test performance of visual inspection of the cervix by a doctor and a paramedical worker. SETTING AND DESIGN : Gynaecology outpatient department (OPD, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; cross-sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS : One hundred women with complaints of vaginal discharge, irregular bleeding, post coital bleeding or unhealthy cervix underwent visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA and Lugol′s iodine (VILI by a doctor and nurse, followed by colposcopy and biopsy. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated for each test and compared. Concordance was determined by kappa statistics. RESULTS : VIA by nurse had a higher sensitivity (100% versus 87.5%, but lower specificity (53% versus 63% when compared with the doctor, but it was not statistically significant. There was moderate agreement between their VIA findings (kappa=0.56. VILI findings were comparable to that of the VIA, both by the doctor and nurse. There was almost perfect agreement (kappa=0.89 between VILI by the doctor and nurse. CONCLUSION : Visual inspection can be performed reliably by trained paramedical workers and doctors and is an effective screening option in low resource settings.

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening Service Uptake and Associated Factors among Age Eligible Women in Mekelle Zone, Northern Ethiopia, 2015: A Community Based Study Using Health Belief Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinsermu Bayu

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, with about 500,000 new patients diagnosed and over 250,000 deaths every year. Cervical cancer screening offers protective benefits and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and cervical cancer mortality. But there is very low participation rate in screening for cervical cancer among low and middle-income countries.This study aimed to determine cervical cancer screening service uptake and its associated factor among age eligible women in Mekelle zone, northern Ethiopia, 2015.A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mekelle zone among age eligible women from February to June 2015. Systematic sampling technique was used to select 1286 women in to the study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Data was entered and cleaned using EPINFO and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software package. Bivariate and Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess association between dependent and independent variables with 95% CI and p-value less than 0.05 was set for association.The study revealed that among 1186 age eligible women, only 235(19.8% have been screened for cervical cancer. Age (AOR = 1.799, 95%CI = 1.182-2.739, history of multiple sexual partners (AOR = 1.635, 95%CI = 1.094-2.443, history of sexually transmitted disease (AOR = 1.635,95%CI = 1.094-2.443, HIV sero status (AOR = 5.614, 95%CI = 2.595-12.144, perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer (AOR = 2.225, 95%CI = 1.308-3.783, perceived barriers to premalignant cervical lesions screening (AOR = 2.256, 95%CI = 1.447-3.517 and knowledge on cervical cancer and screening (AOR = 2.355, 95%CI = 1.155-4.802 were significant predictors of cervical cancer screening service uptake.Magnitude of cervical cancer screening service uptake among age eligible women is still unacceptably low. Age of the women, history of multiple sexual partners

  15. Knowledge, practices and education of clients on cervical cancer screening among female health care workers in Plateau State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Utoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most patients with cancer of the cervix present late with poor prognosis. Health workers′ knowledge and utilization of the screening services might influence their clients. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, practice and education of clients on cervical cancer and its screening among female healthcare workers in plateau state. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 182 female healthcare workers in selected Primary Healthcare Centres (PHC in Plateau state Nigeria. Semi-structured, self- administered questionnaires were used to obtain data which was analyzed using Epi info statistical software version 3.3.2 Results: Those aware of cancer of the cervix comprised of Community Health Extension Workers (44.0% and Nurse/ Midwives (17.6% among others. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, multiple sexual partners and early sexual intercourse were among the cited risk factors. Although, 136(87.2% of the "aware" respondents accepted that cancer of the cervix could be prevented, 33.8% of them could not identify regular cervical screening as a preventive strategy. Similarly, 140(89% knew about the cervical cancer screening but only 12(8.6% had actually been screened (p < 0.005. Additionally, only 40% of the "aware" respondents had ever educated their clients. Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the health workers about cancer of the cervix has not been commensurately translated to utilization of screening services or education of clients. Strategies such as seminars and workshops to train as well as motivate health workers towards the utilization of screening services should be explored.

  16. 'We do the impossible': women overcoming barriers to cervical cancer screening in rural Honduras--a positive deviance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Jenna J; Barrington, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for women in Honduras, and sexual behaviour and low screening uptake are two major factors contributing to high rates of morbidity and mortality. A qualitative study was conducted to investigate barriers that prevent rural Honduran women from engaging in screening and ways that women overcome those barriers. This study examined examples of positive deviance, or individuals engaging in the uncommon but beneficial practise of screening. Amor por sí misma (self-love), and social support were identified as two constructs women employed to overcome barriers to screening. Participants defined self-love as the act of displaying care and concern for oneself and one's health and suggested that it compels women to participate in screening. Social support was defined as receiving tangible aid and advice from others that facilitated women's screening participation. Findings suggest that the concept of self-love could be used in future screening promotion efforts and that integrating social support would also be beneficial. Engaging men in sexual and reproductive health programming is suggested in order to ensure male partners offer social support for screening and to challenge the cultural, gender and sexual norms that place women at higher risk for cervical cancer.

  17. Differences in screening history, tumour characteristics and survival between women with screen-detected versus not screen-detected cervical cancer in the east of The Netherlands, 1992-2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, M.A. van der; Schutter, E.M.; Looijen-Salamon, M.; Martens, J.E.; Siesling, S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In The Netherlands, despite a national screening programme since 1996, invasive cervical cancers have been detected in screened and non-screened women. The aim of this study was to determine differences between Pap-smear history, tumour characteristics and survival of patients with a tumo

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  19. Effects of Application of Social Marketing Theory and the Health Belief Model in Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening among Targeted Women in Sisaket Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichachai, Suparp; Songserm, Nopparat; Akakul, Theerawut; Kuasiri, Chanapong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Thailand, being ranked second only to breast cancer. Thai women have been reported to have a low rate of cervical cancer screening (27.7% of the 80% goal of WHO). We therefore aimed to apply the social marketing theory and health belief model in promoting cervical cancer screening in Kanthararom District, Sisaket Province. A total of 92 from 974 targeted women aged 3060 years were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group underwent application of social marketing theory and a health belief model program promoting cervical cancer screening while the control group received normal services. Two research tools were used: (1) application of social marketing theory and health belief model program and (2) questionnaire used to evaluate perceptions of cervical cancer. Descriptive and inferential statistics including paired sample ttest and independent ttest were used to analyze the data. After the program had been used, the mean score of perception of cervical cancer of experimental group was at a higher level (x=4.09; S.D. =0.30), than in the control group (x=3.82; S.D. =0.20) with statistical significance (psocial marketing and the health belief model be used to promote cervical cancer screening in targeted women and it can be promoted as a guideline for other health services, especially in health promotion and disease prevention.

  20. A comparative study of cervical cancer screening methods in a rural community setting of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Satyanarayana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pap smear testing as a conventional cervical screening approach has limitations for implementation and aided visual cervical testing has varying results in different regions. Aims: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the performance of aided visual cervical screening tests as against conventional Pap smear testing in a rural community setting of North India. Settings and Design: This was a rural community based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: All 7603 ever married women of age 30-59 years surveyed in a pocket of Dadri Tehsil, Uttar Pradesh, India were targeted for screening by Pap, visual inspection of cervix using acetic acid (VIA and visual inspection of cervix using Lugol′s iodine (VILI methods. Screen positives were referred to colposcopy and confirmation by histology. Statistical Analysis Used: Detection of histological cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II + and CIN III + assessed separately by sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio′s and predictive values. Analysis of data was performed by using IBM SPSS statstics software version 16.0. Results: A total of 65.6%(4988/7604 eligible women of 30-59 years age group in the target population were screened. Out of 4988, further analysis was performed on 4148 after excluding those who did not complete all screenings, who lost to follow-up and had missing histology results. Screen positivity rates by Pap (ASCUS and above, VIA and VILI were 2.6%, 9.7% and 13.5% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of detecting the CIN III+ lesions were 87.5 and 98.8% for Pap, 50.0% and 96.7% for VIA and 50.0% and 95.7% for VILI respectively. Conclusions: VIA screening demonstrated as a feasible primary screening test for detecting high grade CIN and as to perform better when the Pap test is not feasible.

  1. Effects of HPV detection in population-based screening programmes for cervical cancer; a Dutch moment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.L.M.; Meijer, C.J.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Snijders, P.J.L.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Presently, large randomised studies are investigating the value of incorporating HPV detection in population-based cervical screening programmes to improve the effectiveness of these programmes. None of these studies, however, has assessed the effect of HPV detection on the participation rate of wom

  2. Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in the cervical cancer screening population of Czech women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Tachezy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVtypes has been recognized as a causal factor for the development of cervical cancer and a number of other malignancies. Today, vaccines against HPV, highly effective in the prevention of persistent infection and precancerous lesions, are available for the routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The data on the prevalence and type-specific HPV distribution in the population of each country are crucial for the surveillance of HPV type-specific prevalence at the onset of vaccination against HPV. METHODS: Women attending a preventive gynecological examination who had no history of abnormal cytological finding and/or surgery for cervical lesions were enrolled. All samples were tested for the presence of HPV by High-Risk Hybrid Capture 2 (HR HC2 and by a modified PCR-reverse line blot assay with broad spectrum primers (BS-RLB. RESULTS: Cervical smears of 1393 women were analyzed. In 6.5% of women, atypical cytological findings were detected. Altogether, 28.3% (394/1393 of women were positive for any HPV type by BS-RLB, 18.2% (254/1393 by HR HC2, and 22.3% (310/1393 by BS-RLB for HR HPV types. In women with atypical findings the prevalence for HR and any HPV types were significantly higher than in women with normal cytological findings. Overall, 36 different HPV types were detected, with HPV 16 being the most prevalent (4.8%. HPV positivity decreased with age; the highest prevalence was 31.5% in the age group 21-25 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study subjects represent the real screening population. HPV prevalence in this population in the Czech Republic is higher than in other countries of Eastern Europe. Also the spectrum of the most prevalent HPV types differs from those reported by others but HPV 16 is, concordantly, the most prevalent type. Country-specific HPV type-specific prevalences provide baseline information which will enable to measure the impact of HPV vaccination in the future.

  3. What are GPs' preferences for financial and non-financial incentives in cancer screening? Evidence for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicsic, Jonathan; Krucien, Nicolas; Franc, Carine

    2016-10-01

    General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in the delivery of preventive and screening services for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. In practice, GPs' involvement varies considerably across types of cancer and among GPs, raising important questions about the determinants of GPs' implication in screening activities: what is the relative impact of financial and non-financial incentives? Are GPs' preferences for financial and non-financial incentives cancer-specific? Is there preference heterogeneity and how much does it differ according to the screening context? This study investigates the determinants of GPs' involvement in cancer screening activities using the discrete choice experiment (DCE) methodology. A representative sample of 402 GPs' was recruited in France between March and April 2014. Marginal rates of substitution were used to compare GPs' preferences for being involved in screening activities across three types of cancers: breast, cervical, and colorectal. Variability of preferences was investigated using Hierarchical Bayes mixed logit models. The results indicate that GPs are sensitive to both financial and non-financial incentives, such as a compensated training and systematic transmission of information about screened patients, aimed to facilitate communication between doctors and patients. There is also evidence that the level and variability of preferences differ across screening contexts, although the variations are not statistically significant on average. GPs appear to be relatively more sensitive to financial incentives for being involved in colorectal cancer screening, whereas they have higher and more heterogeneous preferences for non-financial incentives in breast and cervical cancers. Our study provides new findings for policymakers interested in prioritizing levers to increase the supply of cancer screening services in general practice.

  4. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in Chile, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanda, Monserrat; Quiero, Andrea; Vergara, Nicolás; Espinoza, Gloria; Martín, Héctor San; Rojas, Giovanna; Ramírez, Eugenio

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women worldwide. In Chile, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, causing more than 600 deaths annually. This study was carried out to determine the burden and confirm the predominant human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in public health services in Chile. Women aged 18-64 years residing in the north and central areas covered by six primary care centers of Santiago, Chile, were invited to participate from March 2014 to August 2015. Cervical swabs were examined both HPV genotyping by PCR and Reverse Line Blot, and cervical cytology by Pap testing. A total of 1738 women were included in this study: 11.1 % were HPV positive, 9.7 % were high-risk types positive, 3.2 % were low-risk types positive, 1.4 % were Pap positive and 0.9 % were positive by both tests. The four most predominant genotypes were 16, 66, 51 and 59, with prevalence of 2.8, 1.4, 1.2 and 1.2 %, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected among 3.8 % participants. Age-specific prevalence of HPV showed a peak in HPV infection at younger ages (≤30 years), declining to a plateau in middle age. Among women with normal cytology, the 9.4 % were HPV positive, while 58.3 % of women with abnormal cytology were HPV positive. These findings show new epidemiological data confirming HPV 16 and 66 as the most predominant genotypes in Chile. These data are important for design successful strategies for prevention of cervical cancer in Chile.

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening between 35–40 Aged Women at Kisecik Region of Hatay Provinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Nazlican

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Cervical cancer is the most frequently seen genital system cancer in women after endometrium adenocarcinoma. Because cervical is an easy reach organ, early diagnosis can be done due to Papanicolau (Pap smear in the cancer cases of this organ and prognosis ameliorates considerably. In this ailment there are two peaks. The first one is around the ages 35-39, the second one is around the ages 60-64. The aim of the study is to scan cervical cancer among the women between the ages of 35-40 in the district of Kisecik health office. METHOD: This study is a definitional, society based sectional study performed among the women between the ages of 35- 40 in the district of Kisecik in Hatay. 187 women between the ages of 35- 40 were enrolled to the study; 10 out of 187 women who were single were not included to the study. The study was completed after enrolling 150 women out of 177. Cervical smear samples were taken from the participants; and these samples were evaluated in a pathology laboratory according to the Bethesda 2001 scale. RESULTS: The avarage age of the participants was 37.55±1.77. After the evaluation of the cervical smears in the pathology laboratory, the results were normal for 73 participants (%48.7. 36 participants (%24.0 had non specific inflamation, 20 participants (%13.3 had bacterial vaginosis, 19 participants (%12.7 had seconder reactive changes to the inflamation and 2 participants (%1.3 was reported to be ASC-US. CONCLUSION: By the help of cheap and easily applied Pap smear test, society based scanning programmes can be performed frequently and thus; servical lesions may be detected in early phases. Furthermore through education, the level of information about cervical cancer should be raised and consciousness should be created. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 471-474

  6. Cervical Cancer Screening in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Binational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Emily L.; Smith, Ruben; Rojas, Rosalba; Mirchandani, Gita G.; McDonald, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer mortality is high along the US–Mexico border. We describe the prevalence of a recent Papanicolaou screening test (Pap) among US and Mexican border women. We analyzed 2006 cross-sectional data from Mexico’s National Survey of Health and Nutrition and the US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Women aged 20–77 years in 44 US border counties (n = 1,724) and 80 Mexican border municipios (n = 1,454) were studied. We computed weighted proportions for a Pap within the past year by age, education, employment, marital status, health insurance, health status, risk behaviors, and ethnicity and adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) for the US, Mexico, and the region overall. Sixty-five percent (95 %CI 60.3–68.6) of US women and 32 % (95 %CI 28.7–35.2) of Mexican women had a recent Pap. US residence (APR = 2.01, 95 %CI 1.74–2.33), marriage (APR = 1.31, 95 %CI 1.17–1.47) and insurance (APR = 1.38, 95 %CI 1.22–1.56) were positively associated with a Pap test. Among US women, insurance and marriage were associated (APR = 1.21, 95 %CI 1.05–1.38 and 1.33, 95 %CI 1.10–1.61, respectively), and women aged 20–34 years were about 25 % more likely to have received a test than older women. Insurance and marriage were also positively associated with Pap testing among Mexican women (APR = 1.39, 95 %CI 1.17–1.64 and 1.50; 95 %CI 1.23–1.82, respectively), as were lower levels of education (≤8th grade or 9th–12th grade versus some college) (APR = 1.74; 95 %CI 1.21–2.52 and 1.60; 95 %CI 1.03–2.49, respectively). Marriage and insurance were associated with a recent Pap test on both sides of the border. Binational insurance coverage increases and/or cost reductions might bolster testing among unmarried and uninsured women, leading to earlier cervical cancer diagnosis and potentially lower mortality. PMID:22965734

  7. Smartphone Use for Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Resource Countries: A Pilot Study Conducted in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Catarino

    Full Text Available Visual inspection of the cervix after application of 5% acetic acid (VIA is a screening technique for cervical cancer used widely in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. To improve VIA screening performance, digital images after acid acetic application (D-VIA are taken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a smartphone for on- and off-site D-VIA diagnosis.Women aged 30-65 years, living in the city of Ambanja, Madagascar, were recruited through a cervical cancer screening campaign. Each performed a human papillomavirus (HPV self-sample as a primary screen. Women testing positive for HPV were referred for VIA followed by D-VIA, cervical biopsy and endocervical curettage according to routine protocol. In addition, the same day, the D-VIA was emailed to a tertiary care center for immediate assessment. Results were scored as either D-VIA normal or D-VIA abnormal, requiring immediate therapy or referral to a tertiary center. Each of the three off-site physicians were blinded to the result reported by the one on-site physician and each gave their individual assessment followed by a consensus diagnosis. Statistical analyses were conducted using STATA software.Of the 332 women recruited, 137 (41.2% were HPV-positive and recalled for VIA triage; compliance with this invitation was 69.3% (n = 95. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was detected in 17.7% and 21.7% of digital images by on-site and off-site physicians, respectively. The on-site physician had a sensitivity of 66.7% (95%CI: 30.0-90.3 and a specificity of 85.7% (95%CI: 76.7-91.6; the off-site physician consensus sensitivity was 66.7% (95%CI: 30.0-90.3 with a specificity of 82.3% (95%CI: 72.4-89.1.This pilot study supports the use of telemedicine for off-site diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, with diagnostic performance similar to those achieved on-site. Further studies need to determine if smartphones can improve cervical cancer screening efficiency in LMIC.

  8. Cervical cancer screening in partly HPV vaccinated cohorts - A cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Naber (Steffie); S.M. Matthijsse (Suzette); K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten); C. Penning (Corine); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Vaccination against the oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 will reduce the prevalence of these types, thereby also reducing cervical cancer risk in unvaccinated women. This (measurable) herd effect will be limited at first, but is expected to increase over t

  9. Evaluation of Human Papilloma Virus Communicative Education Strategies: A Pilot Screening Study for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Clavijo, Lizeth K.; Wiesner-Ceballos, Carolina; Rincón-Martínez, Lina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) is highly prevalent in sexually active men and women; HR-HPV has been classified as a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and as a necessary, but not sufficient, causal agent for cervical cancer. Women who test positive for HPV often experience serious psychosocial consequences such as fear,…

  10. Breast and cervical cancer-screening uptake among females in Ardabil, northwest Iran: a community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Heydari, Heshmatolah; Shekarchi, Ali Akbar; Kamran, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Breast and cervical cancers are the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer and cause of cancer-related deaths in Iranian females. In contrast to previous studies, this study was carried out with a large sample size for assessment of breast self-examination (BSE)-, clinical breast examination (CBE)-, mammography-, and Pap smear-uptake rates and determination of associations among these screening behaviors with sociodemographic and cognitive variables in Azeri females. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional, community-based study that was carried out among 1,134 females 20–60 years old during March–June 2016. Data-collection variables included sociodemographic questions, screening behaviors for breast and cervical cancer, self-efficacy, beliefs, and barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using χ2, Mann–Whitney U, and logistic regression tests. Results Among the 1,134 participants, 53.9%, 9.8%, and 28.1% had done BSE, CBE, and Pap smear tests, respectively, and among the 625 females aged >40 years, 187 (29.9%) had done the mammography test. Moreover, 416 (36.7%), 103 (16.5%), and 64 (5.6%) females had done BSE, mammography, and CBE regularly, respectively. Beliefs, barriers, income, health insurance, number of children, and age were all important factors for BSE and regular BSE and mammography. Females who had high belief scores were more likely to undertake mammography (odds ratio [OR]: 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.5), regular mammography (OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 1.9–9.3), regular CBE (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.2–1.3), and Pap smears (OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.4). Also, females who had high self-efficacy scores were more likely to perform regular BSE (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5) and mammography (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4–4.6) than females with lower self-efficacy scores. Conclusion The frequency of breast and cervical cancer screening was low in our study. The findings of this study

  11. [Assessment of the cervical cancer screening in the Family Health Strategy in Amparo, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Diama Bhadra Andrade Peixoto do; Morais, Sirlei Siani; Pimenta, Aparecida Linhares; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Uterine cervical cancer mortality has not been declining. The territorial distribution and registration of families in Brazil's Family Health Strategy help identify women that have performed a Pap smear or that have not had one for more than three years. This study analyzed whether cervical cancer screening in Amparo, São Paulo State, Brazil, made progress in complying with the prevailing guidelines during the seven years of experience with the Strategy. The annual examination rate remained high, with a slight trend towards greater intervals between follow-up tests. Distribution of tests tended to increase in the 40-59-year age bracket and decrease in the over-60 age group, while annual coverage tended to decrease. The proportions of excess tests varied from 61.2% to 65.5%. Concluding, the upgrading of cervical cancer screening was slight, and did not change the opportunistic pattern of follow-up tests. Considering that community health agents can act to increase the coverage of these measures, it is essential to train them for this work.

  12. Implementing visual cervical cancer screening in Senegal: a cross-sectional study of risk factors and prevalence highlighting service utilization barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, J Andrew; Linn, Annē M; Irwin, Tracy; Peters, Karen E; Pyra, Maria; Traoré, Fatoumata; Touré Diarra, Mariama; Hasnain, Memoona; Wallner, Katie; Linn, Patrick; Ndiaye, Youssoupha

    2017-01-01

    Background Senegal ranks 15th in the world in incidence of cervical cancer, the number one cause of cancer mortality among women in this country. The estimated participation rate for cervical cancer screening throughout Senegal is very low (6.9% of women 18–69 years old), especially in rural areas and among older age groups (only 1.9% of women above the age of 40 years). There are no reliable estimates of the prevalence of cervical dysplasia or risk factors for cervical dysplasia specific to rural Senegal. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of cervical dysplasia in a rural region using visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) and to assess risk factors for cervical cancer control. Patients and methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in which we randomly selected 38 villages across the Kédougou region using a three-stage clustering process. Between October 2013 and March 2014, we collected VIA screening results for women aged 30–50 years and cervical cancer risk factors linked to the screening result. Results We screened 509 women; 5.6% of the estimated target population (9,041) in the region. The point prevalence of cervical dysplasia (positive VIA test) was 2.10% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99–3.21). Moreover, 287 women completed the cervical cancer risk factor survey (56.4% response rate) and only 38% stated awareness of cervical cancer; 75.9% of the screened women were less than 40 years of age. Conclusion The overall prevalence of dysplasia in this sample was lower than anticipated. Despite both overall awareness and screening uptake being less than expected, our study highlights the need to address challenges in future prevalence estimates. Principally, we identified that the highest-risk women are the ones least likely to seek screening services, thus illustrating a need to fully understand demand-side barriers to accessing health services in this population. Targeted efforts to educate and motivate older

  13. Automation-assisted cervical cancer screening in manual liquid-based cytology with hematoxylin and eosin staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Kong, Hui; Ting Chin, Chien; Liu, Shaoxiong; Fan, Xinmin; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping

    2014-03-01

    Current automation-assisted technologies for screening cervical cancer mainly rely on automated liquid-based cytology slides with proprietary stain. This is not a cost-efficient approach to be utilized in developing countries. In this article, we propose the first automation-assisted system to screen cervical cancer in manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) slides with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, which is inexpensive and more applicable in developing countries. This system consists of three main modules: image acquisition, cell segmentation, and cell classification. First, an autofocusing scheme is proposed to find the global maximum of the focus curve by iteratively comparing image qualities of specific locations. On the autofocused images, the multiway graph cut (GC) is performed globally on the a* channel enhanced image to obtain cytoplasm segmentation. The nuclei, especially abnormal nuclei, are robustly segmented by using GC adaptively and locally. Two concave-based approaches are integrated to split the touching nuclei. To classify the segmented cells, features are selected and preprocessed to improve the sensitivity, and contextual and cytoplasm information are introduced to improve the specificity. Experiments on 26 consecutive image stacks demonstrated that the dynamic autofocusing accuracy was 2.06 μm. On 21 cervical cell images with nonideal imaging condition and pathology, our segmentation method achieved a 93% accuracy for cytoplasm, and a 87.3% F-measure for nuclei, both outperformed state of the art works in terms of accuracy. Additional clinical trials showed that both the sensitivity (88.1%) and the specificity (100%) of our system are satisfyingly high. These results proved the feasibility of automation-assisted cervical cancer screening in MLBC slides with H&E stain, which is highly desirable in community health centers and small hospitals.

  14. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Women's experiences with cervical cancer screening in a colposcopy referral clinic in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momberg, Mariette; Botha, Matthys H; Van der Merwe, Frederick H; Moodley, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore and understand women's experience with cervical cancer screening and with the referral pathways for abnormal Papanicolau (Pap) smears. Design and setting Focus group discussions were conducted with first time colposcopy clinic attendees at a tertiary hospital colposcopy clinic in Cape Town, South Africa during November 2014. A thematic analysis was conducted to identify key themes. Initial coding categories were drawn from the interview guide. Participants 27 women participated in 4 focus group discussions. Results Participants mean age was 34 years, most did not complete secondary level education and were unemployed. Negative community opinions relating to Pap smears and colposcopy referral might deter women from seeking treatment. Having a gynaecological symptom was the most commonly cited reason for having a Pap smear. Fear of having a HIV test performed at the same time as Pap smear and low encouragement from peers, were factors identified as potential access barriers. Participants commented on insufficient or lack of information from primary providers on referral to the colposcopy clinic and concerns and apprehension during waiting periods between receiving results and the colposcopy appointment were discussed. Conclusions There is a strong and urgent need to improve current knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smears and the necessity and benefits of timely access to screening programmes, results and treatment. Strategies such as community health education programmes and mass media interventions could be employed to disseminate cervical cancer information and address negative community perceptions. Better training and support mechanisms to equip healthcare providers with the skills to convey cervical cancer information to women are needed. The use of short message service (SMS) to deliver Pap smear results and provide patients with more information should be considered to improve waiting times for results

  16. Primary HPV screening for cervical cancer prevention: results from European trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2009-01-01

    for each extra detected CIN2+ case; although, in another trial, this number was 49 in women > or =35 years of age. The outcome of HPV testing versus cytological testing depends not only on the relative accuracy of the primary test but also on how radical the different triage procedures are. In two trials......Six European, randomized, controlled trials that will compare human papillomavirus (HPV) testing with cytological testing for cervical screening are under way. We reviewed the results published so far to compare the benefits and costs for participating women. At baseline screening, use of HPV...... testing increased the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2+. Detection of CIN3+ was significantly increased in two trials (relative risks [RRs] 1.70 and 2.26), but not in three other trials (RRs 1.03, 1.09 and 1.31). In three trials, seven extra women had a false-positive test...

  17. Racial and ethnic differences in personal cervical cancer screening amongst post-graduate physicians: Results from a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Joseph S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in cervical cancer screening have been attributed to socioeconomic, insurance, and cultural differences. Our objective was to explore racial and ethnic differences in adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations among female post-graduate physicians. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey at one university hospital among a convenience sample of 204 female post-graduate physicians (52% of all potential participants, examining adherence to United States Preventive Services Task Force cervical cancer screening recommendations, perception of adherence to recommendations, and barriers to obtaining care. Results Overall, 83% of women were adherent to screening recommendations and 84% accurately perceived adherence or non-adherence. Women who self-identified as Asian were significantly less adherent when compared with women who self-identified as white (69% vs. 87%; Relative Risk [RR] = 0.79, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.64–0.97; P Conclusion Among a small group of insured, highly-educated physicians who have access to health care, we found racial and ethnic differences in adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations, suggesting that culture may play a role in cervical cancer screening.

  18. [Health technology assessment report. Use of liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer precursors screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Guglielmo; Confortini, Massimo; Maccallini, Vincenzo; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Sideri, Mario; Zappa, Marco; Zorzi, Manuel; Calvia, Maria; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT: Purpose of this Report is to evaluate the impact of the introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in cervical cancer screening in terms of efficacy, undesired effects, costs and implications for organisation. EFFICACY AND UNDESIRED EFFECTS: LBC WITH MANUAL INTERPRETATION: The estimates of cross-sectional accuracy for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 or more severe and CIN3 or more severe) obtained by a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2008 were used. This review considered only studies in which all women underwent colposcopy or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with complete verification of test positives. A systematic search of RCTs published thereafter was performed. Three RCTs were identified. One of these studies was conducted in 6 Italian regions and was of large size (45,174 women randomised); a second one was conducted in another Italian region (Abruzzo) and was of smaller size (8,654 women randomised); a third RCT was conducted in the Netherlands and was of large size (89,784 women randomised). No longitudinal study was available. There is currently no clear evidence that LBC increases the sensitivity of cytology and even less that its introduction increases the efficacy of cervical screening in preventing invasive cancers. The Italian randomised study NTCC showed a decrease in specificity, which was not observed in the other two RCTs available. In addition, the 2008 meta-analysis observed a reduction - even if minimal - in specificity just at the ASC-US cytological cut-off, but also a remarkable heterogeneity between studies. These results suggest that the effect of LBC on specificity is variable and plausibly related to the local style of cytology interpretation. There is evidence that LBC reduces the proportion of unsatisfactory slides, although the size of this effect varies remarkably. LBC WITH COMPUTER-ASSISTED INTERPRETATION: An Australian study, based on double testing, showed a statistically

  19. Preventing premature deaths from breast and cervical cancer among underserved women in the United States: insights gained from a national cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C; Wong, Faye L

    2015-05-01

    This commentary highlights some of the valuable insights gained from a special collection of papers that utilized data from the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) and appear in this special issue. The data and experiences of the NBCCEDP can inform the identification of new opportunities and directions for meeting the cancer screening needs of underserved women in a complex and changing health care environment.

  20. Cervical cancer screening by visual inspection in Côte d'Ivoire, operational and clinical aspects according to HIV status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horo Apollinaire

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer screening is not yet standard of care of women attending HIV care clinics in Africa and presents operational challenges that need to be addressed. Methods A cervical cancer screening program based on visual inspection methods was conducted in clinics providing antiretroviral treatment (ART in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. An itinerant team of midwives was in charge of proposing cervical cancer screening to all HIV-positive women enrolled in ART clinics as well as to HIV-negative women who were attending the Abidjan national blood donor clinic. Positively screened women were systematically referred to a colposcopic examination. A phone-based tracking procedure was implemented to reach positively screened women who did not attend the medical consultation. The association between HIV status and cervical cancer screening outcomes was estimated using a multivariate logistic model. Results The frequency of positive visual inspection was 9.0% (95% CI 8.0-10.0 in the 2,998 HIV-positive women and 3.9% (95% CI 2.7-5.1 in the 1,047 HIV-negative ones (p -4. In multivariate analysis, HIV infection was associated with a higher risk of positive visual inspection [OR = 2.28 (95% CI 1.61-3.23] as well as more extensive lesions involving the endocervical canal [OR = 2.42 (95% CI 1.15-5.08]. The use of a phone-based tracking procedure enabled a significant reduction of women not attending medical consultation after initial positive screening from 36.5% to 19.8% (p -4. Conclusion The higher frequency of positive visual inspection among HIV-positive women supports the need to extend cervical cancer screening program to all HIV clinics in West Africa. Women loss to follow-up after being positively screened is a major concern in cervical screening programs but yet, partly amenable to a phone tracking procedure.

  1. Accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid and with Lugol's iodine for cervical cancer screening: Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Li, Bo; Long, Mei; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Anrong; Zhang, Guonan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this review was to provide an updated summary estimation of the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and with Lugol's iodine (VILI) in detecting cervical cancer and precancer. Studies on VIA/VILI accuracy were eligible in which VIA/VILI was performed on asymptomatic women who all underwent confirmatory testing of histology, combination of colposcopy and histology, or combination of multiple screening tests, colposcopy and histology, to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+ or CIN3+). A bivariate model was fitted to estimate the accuracy of VIA/VILI and provide estimates of heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis was used to investigate the source of heterogeneity. A total of 29 studies on VIA and 19 studies on VILI were included finally in the meta-analysis. The summary sensitivity and specificity of VIA for CIN2+ were 73.2% (95%CI: 66.5-80.0%) and 86.7% (95%CI: 82.9-90.4%), respectively, and those for VILI were 88.1% (95%CI: 81.5-94.7%) and 85.9% (95%CI: 81.7-90.0%), respectively. VIA and VILI were both more sensitive in detecting more severe outcome, although there was a slight loss in specificity. Apparent heterogeneity existed in sensitivity and specificity for both VIA and VILI. High sensitivity of both VIA and VILI for CIN2+ was found when a combination of colposcopy and histology was used as disease confirmation. VIA, VILI, even a combination of them in parallel, could be good options for cervical screening in low-resource settings. Significant differences in sensitivity between different gold standards might provide a proxy for optimization of ongoing cervical cancer screening programs.

  2. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the incidence of cervical cancer, but has a low sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and requires frequent testing. Several HPV tests have become available commercially. They appear to be more sensitive for high-grade CIN, and may further reduce the incidence of cervical cancer......Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduce...

  3. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...

  4. Breast- and cervical-cancer screening among Korean women--Santa Clara County, California, 1994 and 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-27

    Asians account for an increasing proportion of the U.S. population. Koreans are the fifth largest Asian subpopulation, totaling 1.2 million in 2000. In Santa Clara County (2000 population: 1.7 million), California, Koreans constitute 1.3% of the population. In 1994 and 2002, two population-based surveys were conducted among Korean women (2000 population: approximately 12,000) in Santa Clara County regarding breast- and cervical-cancer screening. The results were contrasted with two surveys of the general population of California women conducted during the same years. This report summarizes the findings of those surveys, which indicated that Korean women received less frequent breast- and cervical-cancer screening compared with all California women. This report also assesses compliance with the 2010 national health objectives for Papanicolaou (Pap) tests and mammography screening. Multifaceted community programs that include culturally and linguistically sensitive education of community members and their health-care providers, along with improved health-care access, will be required to achieve the 2010 national health objectives.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of adding vaccination with the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine to cervical cancer screening in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vokó Zoltán

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical cancer screening program implemented in Hungary to date has not been successful. Along with screening, vaccination is an effective intervention to prevent cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of adding vaccination with the human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine to the current cervical cancer screening program in Hungary. Methods We developed a cohort simulation state-transition Markov model to model the life course of 12-year-old girls. Eighty percent participation in the HPV vaccination program at 12 years of age was assumed. Transitional probabilities were estimated using data from the literature. Local data were used regarding screening participation rates, and the costs were estimated in US $. We applied the purchasing power parity exchange rate of 129 HUF/$ to the cost data. Only direct health care costs were considered. We used a 3.7% discount rate for both the cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. The time horizon was 88 years. Results Inclusion of HPV vaccination at age 12 in the cervical cancer prevention program was predicted to be cost-effective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of adding HPV vaccination to the current national cancer screening program was estimated to be 27 588 $/QALY. The results were sensitive to the price of the vaccine, the discount rate, the screening participation rate and whether herd immunity was taken into account. Conclusions Our modeling analysis showed that the vaccination of 12-year-old adolescent girls against cervical cancer with the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus 16/18 vaccine would be a cost-effective strategy to prevent cervical cancer in Hungary.

  6. WELL WOMAN CLINIC - SCREENING PROGRAM FOR CERVICAL C ARCINOMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Vani Padmaja

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common cancer occurring in women in the reproductive age group. It is also a cancer that can be easily prevented by taking Cervical Smears, staining them by the Papanicalou’s stain, diagnosing and treating them at an early stage . It is a very cost effective, sensitive, specific and easy method of early detection of cervical canc er and thereby helps in preventing the mortality and morbidity caused by invasive carcinomas. This screening program ...

  7. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal, and vulvar cancers. It is recommended for preteens (both boys and girls) aged 11 to 12 ... index. • D on’t smoke. • Use condoms during sex. * • Limit your number of sexual partners. * HPV infection ...

  8. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other things may increase the risk of developing cancer following a high-risk HPV infection. These other things include: Smoking Having HIV or reduced immunity Taking birth control pills for a long time ( ...

  9. Using community engagement to inform and implement a community-randomized controlled trial in the Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne eWood

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Social, political, and economic factors are directly and indirectly associated with the quality and distribution of health resources across Canada. First Nations (FN women in particular endure a disproportionate burden of ill health in contrast to the mainstream population. The complex relationship of health, social, and historical determinants are inherent to increased cervical cancer in FN women. This can be traced back to the colonial oppression suffered by Canadian FN and the social inequalities they have since faced. Screening - the Papinacolaou (Pap test – and early immunization have rendered cervical cancer almost entirely preventable but despite these options, FN women endure notably higher rates of diagnosis and mortality due to cervical cancer. The Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS is a participatory action research project investigating the factors underlying the cervical cancer burden in FN women. ACCSS is a collaboration with 11 FN communities in Northwest Ontario, Canada and a multidisciplinary research team from across Canada with expertise in cancer biology, epidemiology, medical anthropology, public health, virology, women’s health, and pathology. Interviews with healthcare providers and community members revealed that prior to any formal data collection education must be offered. Consequently, an educational component was integrated into the existing quantitative design of the study: a two-armed, community-randomized trial that compares the uptake of two different cervical screening modalities. In ACCSS, the Research Team integrates community engagement and the flexible nature of participatory research with the scientific rigor of a randomized controlled trial. ACCSS findings will inform culturally appropriate screening strategies, aiming to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical disease in concert with priorities of the partner FN communities.

  10. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...... human papillomavirus infections would help individualize screening guidelines and target immune-associated factors in the cervical cancer etiology....

  11. Cervical cancer control, priorities and new directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsonego, J; Bosch, F.X.; Coursaget, P.; Cox, JT; Franco, E; Frazer, I; Sankaranarayanan, R; Schiller, J; Singer, A; Wright, TCJr; Kinney, W; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Linder, J

    2004-01-01

    99% of cervical cancer is initiated by HPV infection. The estimated lifetime risk of cervical cancer is nevertheless relatively low (less than 1 in 20 for most community based studies). Although sensitivity and specificity of the available diagnostic techniques are suboptimal, screening for persiste

  12. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical...

  13. The Cervical Cancer Screening Technique of Application and Progression%子宫颈癌筛查方法的应用及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文娟; 东燕; 孙绪兰; 王萍; 曾燕

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common gynecologic tumor and it is the second-leading cause of death from cancer in women worldwide. It is critical to construct a sustainable, reasonable and efficient general survey method for the early detection of precancerosis of Cervical Cancer. At present, cervical cancer screening technique includes: (a) cervical cytological screening (papanicolaou smear, TCT and DNA quantification); (b) visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol'S iodine (VH.I) ; (c) vaginoscopy; (d) HPV detection. The article is to summarize the application and progression of technique for cervical cancer screening.%子宫颈癌是妇科常见恶性肿瘤之一,发病率居女性恶性肿瘤第二位.建立可持续、合理、有效的普查方法,早期发现癌前病变是防治宫颈癌的关键.目前宫颈癌筛查方法有宫颈细胞学筛查(巴氏涂片、液基薄层细胞学检测、细胞DNA定量分析技术)、肉眼观察辅以醋酸白和Lugol碘溶液检测法、阴道镜检查、病毒-HPV检测,本文就当前各种筛查方法的应用及研究进展进行概括.

  14. A review of screening strategies for cervical cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviano, Manuela; DeBeaudrap, Pierre; Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Fouogue, Jovanny T; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death and a major public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. This heavy burden parallels that of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which increases the risk of developing CC. Despite the progressive reduction of HIV prevalence in the past decade, the CC incidence and mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa remain high. The heterogeneity of the distribution of the two diseases in the African continent, together with the different availability of human and material resources, stands in the way of finding an appropriate screening strategy. The lack of high-quality evidence on the prevention of CC for HIV-positive women, which is necessary for the implementation of efficient screening and treatment strategies, results in the absence of a clearly defined program, which is responsible for the low screening uptake and high mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa. By taking advantage of the HIV-positive women’s frequent access to health facilities, one way to increase the CC screening coverage rates would be by providing integrated HIV and screening services within the same infrastructure. With the increasing availability of cost-effective methods, screening is becoming more and more available to women who have limited access to health care. Moreover, the introduction of point-of-care technologies for human papillomavirus testing and the subsequent implementation of screen-and-treat strategies, by reducing the number of clinical appointments and, in the long term, the loss to follow-up rates, open up new opportunities for all women, regardless of their HIV status. The purpose of this review is to provide an insight into the different screening practices for CC in order to help define one that is adapted to the resources and necessities of HIV-positive women living in middle-to-low income countries. PMID:28203108

  15. ACCISS study rationale and design: activating collaborative cancer information service support for cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullard Emily

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-quality cancer information resources are available but underutilized by the public. Despite greater awareness of the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service among low-income African Americans and Hispanics compared with Caucasians, actual Cancer Information Service usage is lower than expected, paralleling excess cancer-related morbidity and mortality for these subgroups. The proposed research examines how to connect the Cancer Information Service to low-income African-American and Hispanic women and their health care providers. The study will examine whether targeted physician mailing to women scheduled for colposcopy to follow up an abnormal Pap test can increase calls to the Cancer Information Service, enhance appropriate medical follow-up, and improve satisfaction with provider-patient communication. Methods/Design The study will be conducted in two clinics in ethnically diverse low-income communities in Chicago. During the formative phase, patients and providers will provide input regarding materials planned for use in the experimental phase of the study. The experimental phase will use a two-group prospective randomized controlled trial design. African American and Hispanic women with an abnormal Pap test will be randomized to Usual Care (routine colposcopy reminder letter or Intervention (reminder plus provider recommendation to call the Cancer Information Service and sample questions to ask. Primary outcomes will be: 1 calls to the Cancer Information Service; 2 timely medical follow-up, operationalized by whether the patient keeps her colposcopy appointment within six months of the abnormal Pap; and 3 patient satisfaction with provider-patient communication at follow-up. Discussion The study examines the effectiveness of a feasible, sustainable, and culturally sensitive strategy to increase awareness and use of the Cancer Information Service among an underserved population. The goal of linking a

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening in women visiting a tertiary care hospital of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer being a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women in developing countries, its awareness is essential. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of women regarding the basic screening test for detection of cancer cervix. Settings and Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional prospective study was conducted. Information from consenting participants (450 was collected using structured questionnaire. Answers were described in terms of knowledge, attitude and practice and their respective adequacy with respect to Papanicolaou (Pap test, the most common test used for early detection of cervical cancer. Adequacy was compared between the categories of socio demographic and clinical variables. Statistical Analysis: The data collected was analyzed using statistical package (SPSS version 18.0. Adequacy was compared between the categories of the control variables by χ2 test with a 5% significance level. Results: Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Pap test were adequate in 32.7%, 18.2% and 7.3% of women respectively. Major impediment to adequate practice was lack of request by physician. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were found to increase significantly with increasing age and education. Conclusion: Effective information, education and communication strategies are required to improve the level of awareness of public. Health-care professional should be proactive in imparting knowledge at every opportunity.

  17. Geographic Disparities in Cervical Cancer Mortality: What Are the Roles of Risk Factor Prevalence, Screening, and Use of Recommended Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabroff, K. Robin; Lawrence, William F.; King, Jason C.; Mangan, Patricia; Washington, Kathleen Shakira; Yi, Bin; Kerner, Jon F.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2005-01-01

    Despite advances in early detection and prevention of cervical cancer, women living in rural areas, and particularly in Appalachia, the rural South, the Texas-Mexico border, and the central valley of California, have had consistently higher rates of cervical cancer mortality than their counterparts in other areas during the past several decades.…

  18. Prevalência do HPV em mulheres rastreadas para o câncer cervical Prevalence of genital HPV infection among women screened for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Helena Rama

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência da infecção genital por papilomavírus humano (HPV de alto risco por faixa etária e fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra de 2.300 mulheres (15-65 anos que buscaram rastreamento para o câncer cervical entre fevereiro de 2002 e março de 2003 em São Paulo e Campinas, estado de São Paulo. Aplicou-se questionário epidemiológico e realizou-se coleta cervical para citologia oncológica e teste de captura híbrida II. As análises estatísticas empregadas foram teste de qui-quadrado de Pearson e análise multivariada pelo método forward likelihood ratio. RESULTADOS: A prevalência total da infecção genital por HPV de alto risco foi de 17,8%, distribuída nas faixas etárias: 27,1% (OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of high-risk genital human papillomavirus (HPV infection by age group and risk factors associated. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a sample of 2,300 women (15-65 years old who self-referred to cervical cancer screening in Sao Paulo and Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, between February 2002 and March 2003. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied and cervical specimens were obtained for cytology and hybrid capture II test (HCII for HPV detection. Statistical analysis included Pearson Chi-square and unconditional multiple logistic regression model (forward likelihood ratio. RESULTS: High-risk genital HPV infection prevalence in this sample was 17.8% and age distribution was as follows: 27.1% (<25 years, 21.3% (25-34 years, 12.1% (35-44 years, 12.0% (45-54 years and 13.9% (55-65 years. Subjects with the highest number of lifetime sexual partners had the highest rates of genital HPV infection. To be living with a partner, aged 35 to 44 years, and former smokers were protective factors. High-risk genital HPV infection was 14.3% in normal cytology, 77.8% in high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and in the two cases (100% of cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: High-risk HPV

  19. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in ...... with unchanged technology no trends in abnormality proportions were observed. The impact of LBC implementation on cytological abnormality proportions varied considerably across age groups.......Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends...... and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6...

  20. Manual liquid based cytology in primary screening for cervical cancer--a cost effective preposition for scarce resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandini, N M; Nandish, S M; Pallavi, P; Akshatha, S K; Chandrashekhar, A P; Anjali, S; Dhar, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Conventional pap smear (CPS) examination has been the mainstay for early detection of cervical cancer. However, its widespread use has not been possible due to the inherent limitations, like presence of obscuring blood and inflammation, reducing its sensitivity considerably. Automated methods in use in developed countries may not be affordable in the developing countries due to paucity of resources. On the other hand, manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) is a technique that is cost effective and improves detection of precursor lesions and specimen adequacy. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare the utility of MLBC with that of CPS in cervical cancer screening. A prospective study of 100 cases through MLBC and CPS was conducted from October 2009 to July 2010, in a Medical College in India, by two independent pathologists and correlated with histopathology (22 cases). Morphological features as seen through MLBC and CPS were compared. Subsequently, all the cases were grouped based on cytological diagnosis according to two methods into 10 groups and a subjective comparison was made. In order to compare the validity of MLBC with CPS in case of major diagnoses, sensitivity and specificity of the two methods were estimated considering histological examination as the gold standard. Increased detection rate with MLBC was 150%. The concordance rate by LBC/histopathology v/s CPS/histopathology was also improved (86% vs 77%) The percentage agreement by the two methods was 68%. MLBC was more sensitive in diagnosis of LSIL and more specific in the diagnosis of inflammation. Thus, MLBC was found to be better than CPS in diagnosis of precursor lesions. It provided better morphology with increased detection of abnormalities and preservation of specimen for cell block and ancillary studies like immunocytochemistry and HPV detection. Therefore, it can be used as alternative strategy for cervical cancer prevention in limited resource settings.

  1. How does HPV vaccination status relate to risk perceptions and intention to participate in cervical screening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Mie Sara; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kragstrup, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women in several countries will soon be covered by two preventive programmes targeting cervical cancer: HPV vaccination and cervical screening. The HPV vaccines are expected to prevent approximately 70 % of cervical cancers. It has been speculated, that HPV vaccinated women...... will not attend screening because they falsely think that the vaccine has eliminated their cervical cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HPV vaccination status and perceptions of cervical cancer risk; perceptions of vaccine effect; and intention to participate in cervical...... and intentions to participate in cervical screening. Main outcomes were: perceived lifetime-risk of cervical cancer; perceived HPV vaccine effect; and intention to participate in cervical screening. Results: HPV vaccinated women more often than unvaccinated women intended to participate in screening: adjusted...

  2. Self-perceived risk and barriers to cervical cancer screening among patients seeking care at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokeshwari Jayaraman

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: self-perception of not being at risk is documented to be associated with low uptake of screening. Concerned health education programs need to bring clearly to the end user the difference between precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer and the treatment options available. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 766-769

  3. Mitosis is a source of potential markers for screening and survival and therapeutic targets in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Espinosa

    Full Text Available The effect of preventive human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination on the reduction of the cervical cancer (CC burden will not be known for 30 years. Therefore, it's still necessary to improve the procedures for CC screening and treatment. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize cellular targets that could be considered potential markers for screening or therapeutic targets. A pyramidal strategy was used. Initially the expression of 8,638 genes was compared between 43 HPV16-positive CCs and 12 healthy cervical epitheliums using microarrays. A total of 997 genes were deregulated, and 21 genes that showed the greatest deregulation were validated using qRT-PCR. The 6 most upregulated genes (CCNB2, CDC20, PRC1, SYCP2, NUSAP1, CDKN3 belong to the mitosis pathway. They were further explored in 29 low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN1 and 21 high-grade CIN (CIN2/3 to investigate whether they could differentiate CC and CIN2/3 (CIN2+ from CIN1 and controls. CCNB2, PRC1, and SYCP2 were mostly associated with CC and CDC20, NUSAP1, and CDKN3 were also associated with CIN2/3. The sensitivity and specificity of CDKN3 and NUSAP1 to detect CIN2+ was approximately 90%. The proteins encoded by all 6 genes were shown upregulated in CC by immunohistochemistry. The association of these markers with survival was investigated in 42 CC patients followed up for at least 42 months. Only CDKN3 was associated with poor survival and it was independent from clinical stage (HR = 5.9, 95%CI = 1.4-23.8, p = 0.01. CDKN3 and NUSAP1 may be potential targets for the development of screening methods. Nevertheless, further studies with larger samples are needed to define the optimal sensitivity and specificity. Inhibition of mitosis is a well-known strategy to combat cancers. Therefore, CDKN3 may be not only a screening and survival marker but a potential therapeutic target in CC. However, whether it's indispensable for tumor growth remains

  4. Mitosis is a source of potential markers for screening and survival and therapeutic targets in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ana María; Alfaro, Ana; Roman-Basaure, Edgar; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Palma, Ícela; Serralde, Cyntia; Medina, Ingrid; Juárez, Eligia; Bermúdez, Miriam; Márquez, Edna; Borges-Ibáñez, Manuel; Muñoz-Cortez, Sergio; Alcántara-Vázquez, Avissai; Alonso, Patricia; Curiel-Valdez, José; Kofman, Susana; Villegas, Nicolas; Berumen, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The effect of preventive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on the reduction of the cervical cancer (CC) burden will not be known for 30 years. Therefore, it's still necessary to improve the procedures for CC screening and treatment. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize cellular targets that could be considered potential markers for screening or therapeutic targets. A pyramidal strategy was used. Initially the expression of 8,638 genes was compared between 43 HPV16-positive CCs and 12 healthy cervical epitheliums using microarrays. A total of 997 genes were deregulated, and 21 genes that showed the greatest deregulation were validated using qRT-PCR. The 6 most upregulated genes (CCNB2, CDC20, PRC1, SYCP2, NUSAP1, CDKN3) belong to the mitosis pathway. They were further explored in 29 low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN1) and 21 high-grade CIN (CIN2/3) to investigate whether they could differentiate CC and CIN2/3 (CIN2+) from CIN1 and controls. CCNB2, PRC1, and SYCP2 were mostly associated with CC and CDC20, NUSAP1, and CDKN3 were also associated with CIN2/3. The sensitivity and specificity of CDKN3 and NUSAP1 to detect CIN2+ was approximately 90%. The proteins encoded by all 6 genes were shown upregulated in CC by immunohistochemistry. The association of these markers with survival was investigated in 42 CC patients followed up for at least 42 months. Only CDKN3 was associated with poor survival and it was independent from clinical stage (HR = 5.9, 95%CI = 1.4-23.8, p = 0.01). CDKN3 and NUSAP1 may be potential targets for the development of screening methods. Nevertheless, further studies with larger samples are needed to define the optimal sensitivity and specificity. Inhibition of mitosis is a well-known strategy to combat cancers. Therefore, CDKN3 may be not only a screening and survival marker but a potential therapeutic target in CC. However, whether it's indispensable for tumor growth remains to be

  5. Evaluation of visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine as cervical cancer screening tools in a low-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Sabuhi; Das, Vinta; Zahra, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    In view of the failure of cytology screening programmes for cervical cancer in developing countries, the World Health Organization suggested unaided visual inspection of the cervix after an application of acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) as alternative screening methods. Our study evaluates the effectiveness of VIA and VILI compared to Pap smear as screening methods for carcinoma of the cervix in a low-resource setting. Three hundred and twenty-eight women were subjected to a Pap smear test, VIA, VILI and colposcopy. The results were as follows: Pap smear test (20.83%, specificity 98.38%), VIA (55.5%, 71.39%) and VILI (86.84%, 48.93%). Although VIA and VILI are less specific in comparison to the Pap smear test, they are more sensitive in detecting pre-invasive lesions. Hence VIA and VILI can be used as cervical cancer screening tools in low-resource settings.

  6. Economic evaluation of three populational screening strategies for cervical cancer in the county of Valles Occidental: CRICERVA clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonet Josep M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high percentage of cervical cancer cases have not undergone cytological tests within 10 years prior to diagnosis. Different population interventions could improve coverage in the public system, although costs will also increase. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and the costs of three types of population interventions to increase the number of female participants in the screening programmes for cancer of the cervix carried out by Primary Care in four basic health care areas. Methods/Design A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from the perspective of public health system including women from 30 to 70 years of age (n = 20,994 with incorrect screening criteria from four basic health care areas in the Valles Occidental, Barcelona, Spain. The patients will be randomly distributed into the control group and the three intervention groups (IG1: invitation letter to participate in the screening; IG2: invitation letter and informative leaflet; IG3: invitation letter, informative leaflet and a phone call reminder and followed for three years. Clinical effectiveness will be measured by the number of HPV, epithelial lesions and cancer of cervix cases detected. The number of deaths avoided will be secondary measures of effectiveness. The temporal horizon of the analysis will be the life expectancy of the female population in the study. Costs and effectiveness will be discounted at 3%. In addition, univariate and multivariate sensitivity analysis will be carried out. Discussion IG3 is expected to be more cost-effective intervention than IG1 and IG2, with greater detection of HPV infections, epithelial lesions and cancer than other strategies, albeit at a greater cost. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier NCT01373723

  7. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  8. Evaluation of a cervical cancer screening program based on HPV testing and LLETZ excision in a low resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret McAdam

    Full Text Available We conducted studies in Vanuatu to evaluate potential screening and treatment strategies to assist with control of cervical cancer. In a pilot study of 496 women, visual inspection and cytology were evaluated as screening tests for detection of CIN 2 or worse (CIN2+, observed in 21 of 206 subjects biopsied on the basis of abnormal visual inspection or cytology. Sensitivity of visual inspection with Lugol's Iodine for detection of CIN2+ on biopsy was 0.63, specificity was 0.32, and the positive predictive value was 0.09. For HSIL cytology, sensitivity was 0.99, specificity was 0.77, and the positive predictive value was 0.88. HSIL cytology was significantly more sensitive and had a significantly higher PPV for CIN 2+ than visual inspection (p<0.01. In a further study of 514 women, we compared testing for HR HPV and cytology as predictors of biopsy proven CIN 2+. Sensitivity of HSIL cytology for CIN2+ as established by loop excision of the cervix was 0.81, specificity was 0.94, and positive predictive value was 0.48. Sensitivity of a positive test for HR HPV for detection of CIN2+ was non-significantly different from cytology at 0.81, specificity was 0.94, and positive predictive value was 0.42. Combining the two tests gave a significantly lower sensitivity of 0.63, a specificity of 0.98, and a positive predictive value of 0.68. For women over 30 in a low resource setting without access to cytology, a single locally conducted test for high risk HPV with effective intervention could reduce cervical cancer risk as effectively as intervention based on cytology conducted in an accredited laboratory.

  9. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Erlend K.F. [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V. [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Sundfor, Kolbein [Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Kristensen, Gunnar B. [Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Institute for Medical Informatics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Lyng, Heidi [Department of Radiation Biology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Malinen, Eirik, E-mail: eirik.malinen@fys.uio.no [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  10. 宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查在筛选宫颈癌中的应用分析%Application Analysis the Cervical Scraping Cytology in Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸥

    2016-01-01

    目的:对宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查在筛选宫颈癌中的应用进行观察分析。方法选取我院2014年1月~2015年12月收治的214例进行宫颈癌筛查患者作为研究对象,进行宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查,将宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查结果同宫颈活组织病理检查相比较,观察分析宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查在诊断宫颈癌、癌前病变的敏感度、特异度、阴性预测值和阳性预测值等。结果宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查诊断宫颈癌、癌前病变敏感度为90.43%,特异度为89.17%,阳性预测值为86.73%,阴性预测值为92.24%,诊断准确率为89.72%。结论宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查在筛查宫颈癌方面具有较高的敏感度。%Objective To observe and analyze the application of cervical scraping cytology in screening of cervical cancer.Methods Selected 214 cases of patients with cervical cancer screening from January 2014 to December 2015 in our hospital, for example, cervical scraping cytology, cervical scraping cytology results with cervical biopsy compared toobserve and analyze the cervical scraping off cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of sensitivity, speciifcity, negative predictive and positive predictive value.Results The sensitivity of cervical cancer and precancerous lesion was 90.43%, the speciifcity was 89.17%, the positive predictive value was 86.73%, the negative predictive value was 92.24%, the diagnostic accuracy rate was 89.72%.Conclusion Cervical scraping cytology test in the screening of cervical cancer has a high sensitivity.

  11. An adverse event in a well-established cervical cancer screening program: an observational study of 19,000 females unsubscribed to the program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen MB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mette Bach Larsen,1 Hans Svanholm,1,2 Berit Andersen1 1Department of Public Health Programmes, 2Department of Pathology, Randers Regional Hospital, Randers, Denmark Introduction: In Denmark, an organized approach to cervical cancer screening has had national coverage since 1998. However, in 2013, it was discovered that 19,000 females had been unsubscribed from the Danish National Cervical Cancer Screening Program and had thus not received invitations or reminders as recommended by the health authorities. The study aims to report the essence of this adverse event and describe the outcomes of reestablishing invitations in terms of participation rates and screening results. Furthermore, patient compensations to affected females diagnosed with cervical cancer and coverage in the mass media was reported.Methods: An observational study based on information from the Danish Pathology Databank, the Department of Public Health Programs, and Infomedia (a Danish database of media coverage was carried out.Results: A total of 19,106 females were affected. Of those still in the screening age, 37.7% had been tested within 3 years or 5 years despite not receiving any invitation. A total of 21.6% reconfirmed their status as unsubscribed. Of the remaining females, 55.6% were tested within a year, and 94.6% of these test results were normal. Among females aged >64 years, 12.7% accepted the offer of a final screening test. Totally, 90% of these tests were normal. Nineteen females diagnosed with cervical cancer were compensated by the Danish Patient Compensation Association with a total of €693,000, ranging from €8,900 to €239,700. Coverage of cervical cancer screening in the mass media increased from 25 items in the 3 months prior to this adverse event to 590 items in the month when it became public.Conclusion: Even though more than one-third of the affected females were tested despite not receiving regular invitations to participate in the screening

  12. Research Development of Early Screening of Cervical Cancer%子宫颈癌早期筛查方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雨

    2011-01-01

    Cervical canrer , which threatens the health and life of women , is one of the gynecological malignant tumors. Early screening has great significance in prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. Conventional screening methods such as Pap smear, visual inspection, and recently developed methods such as liquid-based cytology, HPV-DNA testing, and colposcopy are non-invasive examinations. Invasive examinations include cervical biopsy , cervical conization ,etc. . Here is to review the research development of early screening of cervical cancer.%子宫颈癌是女性常见恶性肿瘤之一,严重危害着广大妇女的健康与生命.进行早期筛查,对子宫颈癌的防治有着重要的意义.传统筛查方法巴氏涂片、肉眼观察,以及如今发展的液基细胞学、人类乳头瘤病毒检测、阴道镜检查等都属于无创检查.有创检查包括子宫颈活检、锥切等病理检查.在此就子宫颈癌早期筛查方法研究进展予以综述.

  13. Everybody's talking: using entertainment-education video to reduce barriers to discussion of cervical cancer screening among Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, G D; Mouttapa, Michele; Tanjasiri, S P

    2009-10-01

    Although Southeast Asian women are at exceedingly high risk for cervical cancer, low rates of the Pap testing necessary for early detection and successful treatment continue among this group. Previous research suggests that discussions about Pap testing with important people in a woman's life, particularly her doctor, may increase the likelihood of screening; therefore increasing women's discussions about cancer screenings is an important step toward behavior change. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a culturally sensitive, seven-minute video intervention in reducing barriers to discussions about Pap tests among Thai women. This unique video presented Thai actors, speaking in Thai, in a soap opera format. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire at baseline, immediately after the intervention and at 3-month follow-up. The comparison group received an educational pamphlet. Although the results indicated that both groups experienced reductions in barriers to communicating with others about Pap tests, the intervention group had significantly stronger outcomes than the comparison group for communicating about Pap tests in general as well as to doctors. These findings suggest that intermediate communication effects such as self-efficacy, collective efficacy and perhaps interpersonal communication may reduce barriers to discussion and positive decision making regarding Pap tests.

  14. A molecular monopoly? HPV testing, the Pap smear and the molecularisation of cervical cancer screening in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Hopkins, Michael M; Rodriguez, Victor

    2012-02-01

    DNA-based molecular testing for human papillomavirus has emerged as a novel approach to cervical cancer screening in the context of well-entrenched existing technology, the Pap smear. This article seeks to elucidate the process of molecularisation in the context of screening programmes. We illustrate how, although Pap has long been problematised and could be seen as a competing technological option, the existing networks and regime for Pap were important in supporting the entrenchment process for the artefacts, techniques and new diagnostics industry entrant, Digene, associated with the new test. The article provides insights into how the molecularisation of screening unfolds in a mainstream market. We reveal an incremental and accretive, rather than revolutionary, process led by new commercial interests in an era when diagnostic innovation is increasingly privatised. We show Digene's reliance on patents, an international scientific network and their position as an obligatory point of passage in the clinical research field with regard to the new technology's role, as well as on controversial new marketing practices. The article is based on a mixed method approach, drawing on a wide range of contemporary sources (including patents, statutory filings by companies, scientific literature and news sources) as well as interviews.

  15. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    2004-01-01

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying ep

  16. Screening for cervical cancer: new alternatives and research Detección oportuna de cáncer cervical: nuevas alternativas y pautas de investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila T Lörincz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the clinical utility of human papillomavirus (HPV DNA testing has increased over the years and has now become very convincing. Some specific uses of HPV detection are a triage of women with cytological determinations of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US and related management strategies, b as a marker for test of cure post-treatment, and c most importantly, as an adjunct to cytology in routine cervical disease screening programs. There are many studies that support each of these applications and include 8 studies on ASC-US triage, 10 on test of cure and 13 on adjunctive or stand-alone HPV screening. The most notable investigation of ASC-US triage was ALTS, a randomized controlled trial of 3 488 women. With respect to routine HPV screening the combined studies included 77 000 women, providing as a histological endpoint more than 1 000 cases of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN or cancer. Testing methods were either the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 test or the polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. HPV testing of women with ASC-US cytology had on average a higher sensitivity (90% and specificity (70% than repeating the cytological test (sensitivity 75%, specificity 60% and was also more sensitive than colposcopy for follow-up. As an adjunct to the Papanicolaou (Pap cytology test in routine screening, HPV DNA testing was a more sensitive indicator for prevalent high-grade CIN than either conventional or liquid cytology. A combination of HPV DNA and Papanicolaou testing had almost 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value. The specificity of the combined tests was slightly lower than the specificity of the Papanicolaou test. One "double-negative" HPV DNA and Papanicolaou test indicated a higher prognostic assurance against risk of future CIN 3 than three subsequent negative conventional Papanicolaou tests and may safely allow three-year or longer screening intervals for such low- risk women. It

  17. Decision-analytic modeling to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV-DNA testing in primary cervical cancer screening in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krämer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Persistent infections with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV are associated with the development of cervical neoplasia. Compared to cytology HPV testing is more sensitive in detecting high-grade cervical cancer precursors, but with lower specificity. HPV based primary screening for cervical cancer is currently discussed in Germany. Decisions should be based on a systematic evaluation of the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV based primary screening. Research questions: What is the long-term clinical effectiveness (reduction in lifetime risk of cervical cancer and death due to cervical cancer, life years gained of HPV testing and what is the cost-effectiveness in Euro per life year gained (LYG of including HPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening in the German health care context? How can the screening program be improved with respect to test combination, age at start and end of screening and screening interval and which recommendations should be made for the German health care context? Methods: A previously published and validated decision-analytic model for the German health care context was extended and adapted to the natural history of HPV infection and cervical cancer in order to evaluate different screening strategies that differ by screening interval, and tests, including cytology alone, HPV testing alone or in combination with cytology, and HPV testing with cytology triage for HPV-positive women. German clinical, epidemiological and economic data were used. In the absence of individual data, screening adherence was modelled independently from screening history. Test accuracy data were retrieved from international meta-analyses. Predicted outcomes included reduction in lifetime-risk for cervical cancer cases and deaths, life expectancy, lifetime costs, and discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER. The perspective of the third party payer and 3% annual discount rate were

  18. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M; Hansen, B; Hjortebjerg, A; Rygaard, C; Schledermann, D; Wåhlin, A; Rebolj, M

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in a third laboratory using manually read conventional cytology continually. Data were collected from the Danish National Health Care Registers. For each laboratory, we compared proportions of abnormal cytology defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASCUS+) by age and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6.1%, relative proportion (RP): 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.61], and a decrease in women aged 45-59 years from 2.9 to 2.0%, RP: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60-0.83). Implementation of ThinPrep LBC was followed by a decrease in abnormal cytology both in women aged 23-29 years from 7.7 to 6.8%, RP: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) and in women aged 45-59 years from 3.4 to 1.0%, RP: 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24-0.37). With implementation of imaging-assisted reading, regardless of the brand of technology, the proportion of abnormality increased by around 30% in all age groups (range from 19 to 41%). In the laboratory with unchanged technology no trends in abnormality proportions were observed. The impact of LBC implementation on cytological abnormality proportions varied considerably across age groups.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of VIA and HPV detection as primary and sequential screening tests in a cervical cancer screening demonstration project in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Mittal, Srabani; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Singh, Priyanka; Panda, Chinmay; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Mandal, Ranajit; Das, Pradip; Biswas, Jaydip; Muwonge, Richard; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-08-15

    Visual inspection after acetic acid application (VIA) and human papillomavirus (HPV) detection tests have been recommended to screen women for cervical cancer in low and middle income countries. A demonstration project in rural India screened 39,740 women with both the tests to compare their accuracies in real population setting. The project also evaluated the model of screening women in the existing primary health care facilities, evaluating the screen positive women with colposcopy (and biopsy) in the same setup and recalling the women diagnosed to have disease for treatment at tertiary center. Accuracy of VIA and HPV test used sequentially was also studied. VIA was performed by trained health workers and Hybrid Capture II (HC II) assay was used for oncogenic HPV detection. Test positivity was 7.1% for VIA and 4.7% for HC II. Detection rate of CIN 3+ disease was significantly higher with HC II than VIA. Sensitivities of VIA and HC II to detect 162 histology proved CIN 3+ lesions were 67.9 and 91.2%, respectively after adjusting for verification bias. Specificity for the same disease outcome and verification bias correction was 93.2% for VIA and 96.9% for HC II. Triaging of VIA positive women with HPV test would have considerably improved the positive predictive value (4.0 to 37.5% to detect CIN 3+) without significant drop in sensitivity. All VIA positive women and 74.0% of HC II positive women had colposcopy. There was high compliance to treatment and significant stage-shift of the screen-detected cancers towards more early stage.

  20. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  1. Prognostic factors in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, P.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the standard of care for women with early stage cervical cancer; radiotherapy is the cornerstone in patients with advanced stages of disease. Recent changes in the treatment of cervical cancer involve less radical surgery in early stage cervical cancer, concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy

  2. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  3. Biomarkers for cervical cancer screening: the role of p16(INK4a) to highlight transforming HPV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Schmidt, Dietmar; Bergeron, Christine

    2012-04-01

    Biomarkers indicating the initiation of neoplastic transformation processes in human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected epithelial cells are moving into the focus of cancer prevention research, particularly for anogenital cancer, including cancer of the uterine cervix. Based on the in-depth understanding of the molecular events leading to neoplastic transformation of HPV-infected human cells, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) turned out to be substantially overexpressed in virtually all HPV-transformed cells. This finding opened novel avenues in diagnostic histopathology to substantially improve the diagnostic accuracy of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. Furthermore, it provides a novel technical platform to substantially improve the accuracy of cytology-based cancer early-detection programs. Here, we review the molecular background and the current evidence for the clinical utility of the p16(INK4a) biomarker for HPV-related cancers, and cervical cancer prevention in particular.

  4. Treatment protocols for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujkov Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer death among women. About 95% (90% in developed countries of invasive carcinomas are of sqamous types, and 5% (10% in developed countries are adenocarcinomas. FIGO classification of cervical carcinomas, based on clinical staging and prognostic factor dictate therapeutic procedures and help in designing treatment protocols. Therapeutic modalities Surgical therapy includes conization, radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and palliative operation urinary diversion and colostomy. Radiotherapy, brachytherapy and teletherapy are most recently combined with chemotherapy as concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion and conclusion No change in therapeutic modalities will ever decrease mortality rate of cervical carcinoma as much as education, prevention and early screening. The 5-year survival for locally advanced disease has not improved during the last 40 years as a result of failure to deliver therapy to the paraaortic region. Paraaortic lymph nodes should be evaluated before therapy planning by different imaging procedures, or more exactly by surgical staging: laparoscopy or laparotomy. Radical operations of cervical carcinoma should be performed by experienced surgeons, educated for this type of operation, with sufficient number of cases.

  5. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective. Nev...... with the introduction of screening. The data strongly suggested that the increased burden of cervical cancer in Greenlandic women was real and followed earlier changes in sexual behaviour; these changes were likely a consequence of the tremendous societal changes....

  6. Evaluation of an array-based method for human papillomavirus detection and genotyping in comparison with conventional methods used in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sierra, Nerea; Martró, Elisa; Castellà, Eva; Llatjós, Mariona; Tarrats, Antoni; Bascuñana, Elisabet; Díaz, Rosana; Carrasco, María; Sirera, Guillem; Matas, Lurdes; Ausina, Vicente

    2009-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the second-most prevalent cancer in young women around the world. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), especially high-risk HPV types (HR-HPV), is necessary for the development of this cancer. HPV-DNA detection is increasingly being used in cervical cancer screening programs, together with the Papanicolau smear test. We evaluated the usefulness of introducing this new array-based HPV genotyping method (i.e., Clinical Arrays Papillomavirus Humano) in the cervical cancer screening algorithm in our center. The results obtained using this method were compared to those obtained by the hybrid capture II high-risk HPV DNA test (HC-II) and Papanicolau in a selected group of 408 women. The array-based assay was performed in women that were HC-II positive or presented cytological alterations. Among 246 array-positive patients, 123 (50%) presented infection with >or=2 types, and HR-HPV types were detected in 206 (83.7%), mainly HPV-16 (24.0%). Up to 132 (33.2%) specimens were classified as ASCUS (for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), and only 48 (36.4%) of them were HPV-DNA positive by either assay; however, 78.7% of these cases were caused by HR-HPV types. The agreement between both HPV-DNA detection techniques was fairly good (n = 367). Screening with Papanicolau smear and HC-II tests, followed by HPV detection and genotyping, provided an optimal identification of women at risk for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, with the identification of specific genotypes, either in single or multiple infections, a better prediction of disease progression was achieved. The array method also made allowed us to determine the possible contribution of the available vaccines in our setting.

  7. The Peru Cervical Cancer Screening Study (PERCAPS): the design and implementation of a mother/daughter screen, treat, and vaccinate program in the Peruvian jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Carolina E; Levinson, Kimberly L; Salmeron, Jorge; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Fernandez, Maria Jose Vallejos; Belinson, Jerome L

    2014-06-01

    Peru struggles to prevent cervical cancer (CC). In the jungle, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers although technology exists to detect CC precursors. This study used community based participatory research (CBPR) methods to overcome barriers. The objective was to evaluate the utility of CBPR techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for CC prevention in the Peruvian jungle. The CC prevention program used self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) for screening, cryotherapy for treatment and the HPV vaccine Gardasil for vaccination. Community health leaders (HL) from around Iquitos participated in a two half day educational course. The HLs then decided how to implement interventions in their villages or urban sectors. The success of the program was measured by: (1) ability of the HLs to determine an implementation plan, (2) proper use of research forms, (3) participation and retention rates, and (4) participants' satisfaction. HLs successfully registered 320 women at soup kitchens, schools, and health posts. Screening, treatment, and vaccination were successfully carried out using forms for registration, consent, and results with minimum error. In the screen/treat intervention 100% of participants gave an HPV sample and 99.7% reported high satisfaction; 81% of HPV + women were treated, and 57% returned for 6-month followup. Vaccine intervention: 98% of girls received the 1st vaccine, 88% of those received the 2nd, and 65% the 3rd. CBPR techniques successfully helped implement a screen/treat and vaccinate CC prevention program around Iquitos, Peru. These techniques may be appropriate for large-scale preventive health-care interventions.

  8. On Screening Methods and Effectiveness of Cervical Cancer%浅谈子宫颈癌的筛查方法效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳辉

    2014-01-01

    Screening methods and strategies of cervical cancer are to be discussed. Reasonable screening method should depend on multiple technologies, rational al ocation and optimization in accordance with local resources and population risk level. Specific plan is decided by costs and availability of al kinds of technologies. Screen with different uterine neck screening projects to monitor uterine neck conditions and lower morbidity of cervical cancer. Keep cervical cancer’s threat on women healthy and life low to the largest extent.%探讨子宫颈癌的筛查方法、筛查策略。合理的筛查方案应该涉及多种技术的组合,按照地区资源条件和人群风险度进行优化配置,具体方案由各种技术的成本及可获得性决定。采用不同的宫颈筛查项目进行人群筛查,以监测宫颈状况,降低宫颈癌发病率,最大限度地降低子宫颈癌对妇女生命和健康的威胁。

  9. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cer

  10. Screening for cervical cancer precursors with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikenberg, Hans; Bergeron, Christine; Schmidt, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections...

  11. A Large Cross-Sectional Survey Investigating the Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Risk Aetiology and the Predictors of the Adherence to Cervical Cancer Screening Related to Mass Media Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado De Vito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aims of this study were to compare the characteristics of women who got a Pap-test during the mass media campaign, carried out in an Italian region by broadcasts advertising, and two years later and to identify the determinants of knowledge of cervical cancer etiology and of the adherence to the mass media campaign. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out through a self-administered questionnaire. Results. A total of 8570 randomly selected women were surveyed, 823 of these had a Pap-test during the mass media campaign period and 7747 two years later. Higher educational level, being not married, and living in urban areas were the main independent characteristics associated with a higher level of knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, although a previous treatment following a Pap smear abnormality was the strongest predictor (OR = 2.88; 95% CI: 2.43–3.41. During the campaign period women had the Pap-test more frequently as a consequence of the mass media campaign (OR = 8.28; 95% CI; 5.51–12.45. Conclusions. Mass media campaign is a useful tool to foster cervical screening compliance; however, its short-term effect suggests repeating it regularly.

  12. 'Organised' cervical screening 45 years on: How consistent are organised screening practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jane H; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2014-11-01

    Organised screening programmes have been remarkably successful in reducing incidence and mortality from cervical cancer, while opportunistic screening varies in its effectiveness. Experts recommend that cervical screening or HPV testing be carried out only in the context of an organised programme. We sought to answer the following study questions: What does it mean for a cervical screening programme to be organised? Is there a place for opportunistic screening (in an organised programme)? We reviewed 154 peer-reviewed papers on organised and opportunistic approaches to cervical screening published between 1970 and 2014 to understand how the term 'organised' is used, formally and in practice. We found that despite broad recognition of a prescriptive definition of organisation, in practice the meaning of organisation is much less clear. Our review revealed descriptions of organised programmes that differ significantly from prescribed norms and from each other, and a variety of ways that opportunistic and organised programmes intersect. We describe the breadth of the variation in cervical cancer screening programmes and examine the relationships and overlaps between organised and opportunistic screening. Implications emerging from the review include the need to better understand the breadth of organisation in practice, the drivers and impacts of opportunistic screening and the impact of opportunistic screening on population programme outcomes. Appreciation of the complexity of cervical screening programmes will benefit both screeners and women as programmes are changed to reflect a partially vaccinated population, new evidence and new technologies.

  13. Application effect of TruScreen system in cervical cancer screening%TruScreen系统在宫颈癌筛查中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佩; 王金声; 康媛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of TruScreen (TS) system as applied in cervical cancer screening. Method 368 patients were included in the retrospective analysis, and were randomized into TS group or TCT group, with 184 cases in each. The TS group was tested with TS detection, while the TCT group was administered with Thin Prep cytology test (TCT), and the effect of the two tests were compared with histopathology as the diagnostic standard. Result The detection sensitivity, specificity and the positive rate of the TS and TCT group were 93.2%and 100%, 76.0%and 75.0%, 64.7% and 55.7%, respectively. Conclusion TS detection is as good as TCT detection in cervical cancer screening, which is clinically applicable.%目的:探讨宫颈癌筛查系统TruScreen(TS)在宫颈癌筛查中的应用效果。方法回顾性分析368例检查者,分为TS检测组和TCT检测组,每组184例,TS检测组行TS检测,TCT检测组行液基薄层细胞学(TCT)检测,以组织病理学为诊断标准,比较TS与TCT检查在宫颈癌筛查中的应用效果。结果 TS检测组与TCT检测组检测敏感度分别为93.2%、100%,特异度分别为76.0%、75.0%,阳性符合率分别为64.7%、55.7%。结论 TS检测与TCT检测在宫颈癌筛查中具有相似的检测效果,值得临床推广和运用。

  14. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz, Nubia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs.Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infec¬tions in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in sponta¬neous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  15. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  16. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the se­cond cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV expo­sures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  17. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with HPV, those who have used oral contraceptives ("the Pill") for 5 to 9 years have a risk of cervical cancer that is 3 times greater than that of women who have never used oral contraceptives. The risk is 4 times greater after 10 ...

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE SCREENING RESULTS OF CANCER BREAST CANCER AND CERVICAL CANCER IN RURAL WOMEN%农村女性乳腺癌和宫颈癌筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛冬梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the rural female breast and cervical diseases .Methods 28208 rural women underwent rou‐tine breast and cervical cancer screening ,and the suspicious client underwent mammography or pathologi‐cal examination .Results The detection rate of breast cancer was 38 .99/100000 and the detection rate of cervical cancer w as 85 .08/100000 .Conclusion Breast and cervical cancer Screening can help to enhance ru‐ral w omen's health .%目的:分析农村女性乳腺和宫颈疾病流行病学特征,为疾病防治提供依据。方法组织28208名农村女性进行乳腺癌和宫颈癌常规筛查,对可疑受检者进行钼靶X线检查或病理检查。结果乳腺癌检出率为38.99/10万;宫颈癌检出率为85.08/10万。结论对乳腺癌和宫颈癌进行筛查有利于提升农村女性健康水平。

  19. Design and methods of the evaluation of an HPV-based cervical cancer screening strategy in Mexico: the Morelos HPV study Diseño y métodos de la evaluación del uso de la prueba de virus de papiloma humano para tamizaje de cáncer cervical en México: el estudio de VPH en Morelos

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne Flores; Keerti Shah; Eduardo Lazcano; Mauricio Hernández; David Bishai; Daron G. Ferris; Attila Lörincz; Pilar Hernández; Jorge Salmerón

    2002-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and methodology of the Morelos HPV Study. The main objective of this study is to examine the use of two different methods for obtaining HPV DNA specimens, self-collected vaginal and clinician-collected cervical, to detect pre-invasive cervical lesions and cancer. Material and Methods. This study was conducted within the regular population-based framework of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) cervical cancer screening ...

  20. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  1. January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health supports global activities to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to address the challenges of cancer and reduce cancer deaths worldwide. Towards these aims, NCI has partnered with Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, a global organization founded on public-private partnerships dedicated to saving women’s lives by advancing prevention, screening, and treatment for breast and cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

  2. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...... in the municipality of Copenhagen with conventional Papanicolaou technique (n = 82,116) and liquid-based cytology (n = 84,414). RESULTS: After the conversion to liquid-based cytology the percentage of unsatisfactory samples decreased from 2.3% to 0.3% (P ...-based technique. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the number of unsatisfactory samples to be significantly reduced with the liquid-based technique. The data suggest that there is an increased detection rate of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology, but the number of false positive tests is still...

  3. International Collaboration Enhances Cancer Screening Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH is working with the International Agency for Research on CancerExit Disclaimer (IARC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) on the ESTAMPA Study, a multi-centric study of cervical cancer screening and triage with HPV testing.

  4. Evaluation of primary HPV-DNA testing in relation to visual inspection methods for cervical cancer screening in rural China: an epidemiologic and cost-effectiveness modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yoon-Jung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new lower-cost rapid-throughput human papillomavirus (HPV test (careHPV, Qiagen, Gaithersburg, USA has been shown to have high sensitivity for the detection of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Methods We assessed the outcomes and cost-effectiveness of careHPV screening in rural China, compared to visual inspection with acetic acid, when used alone (VIA or in combination with Lugol's iodine (VIA/VILI. Using data on sexual behaviour, test accuracy, diagnostic practices and costs from studies performed in rural China, we estimated the cost-effectiveness ratio (CER and associated lifetime outcomes for once-lifetime and twice-lifetime screening strategies, and for routine screening at 5-yearly, 10-yearly and IARC-recommended intervals. The optimal age range for once-lifetime screening was also assessed. Results For all strategies, the relative ordering of test technologies in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality was VIA (least effective; VIA/VILI; careHPV@1.0 pg/ml and careHPV@0.5 pg/ml (most effective. For once-lifetime strategies, maximum effectiveness was achieved if screening occurred between 35-50 years. Assuming a participation rate of ~70%, once-lifetime screening at age 35 years would reduce cancer mortality by 8% (for VIA to 12% (for careHPV@0.5 over the long term, with a CER of US$557 (for VIA to $959 (for careHPV@1.0 per life year saved (LYS compared to no intervention; referenced to a 2008 GDP per capita in Shanxi Province of $2,975. Correspondingly, regular screening with an age-standardised participation rate of 62% (which has been shown to be achievable in this setting would reduce cervical cancer mortality by 19-28% (for 10-yearly screening to 43-54% (using IARC-recommended intervals, with corresponding CERs ranging from $665 (for 10-yearly VIA to $2,269 (for IARC-recommended intervals using careHPV@1.0 per LYS. Conclusions This modelled analysis suggests that primary careHPV screening

  5. HPV for cervical cancer screening (HPV FOCAL): Complete Round 1 results of a randomized trial comparing HPV-based primary screening to liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gina S; Krajden, Mel; van Niekerk, Dirk; Smith, Laurie W; Cook, Darrel; Ceballos, Kathy; Lee, Marette; Gentile, Laura; Gondara, Lovedeep; Elwood-Martin, Ruth; Peacock, Stuart; Stuart, Gavin; Franco, Eduardo L; Coldman, Andrew J

    2017-01-15

    Complete Round 1 data (baseline and 12-month follow-up) for HPV FOCAL, a randomized trial establishing the efficacy of HPV DNA testing with cytology triage as a primary screen for cervical cancer are presented. Women were randomized to one of three arms: Control arm - Baseline liquid-based cytology (LBC) with ASCUS results triaged with HPV testing; Intervention and Safety arms - Baseline HPV with LBC triage for HPV positives. Results are presented for 15,744 women allocated to the HPV (intervention and safety combined) and 9,408 to the control arms. For all age cohorts, the CIN3+ detection rate was higher in the HPV (7.5/1,000; 95%CI: 6.2, 8.9) compared to the control arm (4.6/1,000; 95%CI: 3.4, 6.2). The CIN2+ detection rates were also significantly higher in the HPV (16.5/1,000; 95%CI: 14.6, 18.6) vs. the control arm (10.1/1,000; 95%CI: 8.3, 12.4). In women ≥35 years, the overall detection rates for CIN2+ and CIN3+ were higher in the HPV vs. the control arm (CIN2+:10.0/1,000 vs. 5.2/1,000; CIN3+: 4.2/1,000 vs. 2.2/1,000 respectively, with a statistically significant difference for CIN2+). HPV testing detected significantly more CIN2+ in women 25-29 compared to LBC (63.7/1,000; 95%CI: 51.9, 78.0 vs. 32.4/1,000; 95%CI: 22.3, 46.8). HPV testing resulted in significantly higher colposcopy referral rates for all age cohorts (HPV: 58.9/1,000; 95%CI: 55.4, 62.7 vs.

  6. The impact of HPV vaccination on future cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Mie Sara; Lynge, Elsebeth; Kragstrup, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the interplay between primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer by estimating future screening outcomes in women offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination when they were sexually naïve. DESIGN: Estimation of outcome of liquid-based cytology screening for a post......-HPV vaccination cohort using pre-vaccination screening data combined with HPV vaccination efficacy data reported in the literature. SETTING: Denmark. DATA: The number of screening diagnoses at first screen in a pre-vaccination birth cohort was multiplied by reported risk reductions expected for women who were...... vaccinated for HPV before sexual debut. All identified studies were reviewed by two authors, and weighted pooled estimates of vaccine efficacies were used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions of positive and false-positive cervical cytologies and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated using cervical...

  7. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development Recomendaciones a programas de detección oportuna de cáncer cervical en países en desarrollo: necesidad de equidad y desarrollo tecnológico

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP) have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC) is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at ...

  8. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cervical cancer prevention based on a rapid human papillomavirus screening test in a high-risk region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Carol E; Sellors, John; Shi, Ju-Fang; Ma, Li; Qiao, You-lin; Ortendahl, Jesse; O'Shea, Meredith K H; Goldie, Sue J

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a new, rapid human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA screening test for cervical cancer prevention in the high-risk region of Shanxi, China. Using micro-costing methods, we estimated the resources needed to implement preventive strategies using cervical cytology or HPV-DNA testing, including the Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) test (QIAGEN Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) and the rapid HPV-DNA careHPV test (QIAGEN). Data were used in a previously published model and empirically calibrated to country-specific epidemiological data. Strategies differed by initial test, targeted age, frequency of screening, number of clinic visits required (1, 2 or 3) and service delivery setting (national, county and township levels). Outcomes included lifetime risk of cancer, years of life saved (YLS), lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per YLS). For all screening frequencies, the most efficient strategy used 2-visit rapid HPV-DNA testing at the county level, including screening and diagnostics in the first visit, and treatment in the second visit. Screening at ages 35, 40 and 45 reduced cancer risk by 50% among women compliant with all 3 screening rounds, and was US$ 150 per YLS, compared with this same strategy applied twice per lifetime. This would be considered very cost-effective evaluated against China's per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 1,702). By enhancing the linkage between screening and treatment through a reduced number of visits, rapid HPV-DNA testing 3 times per lifetime is more effective than traditional cytology, and is likely to be cost-effective in high-risk regions of China.

  10. Acceptability and Accuracy of Cervical Cancer Screening Using a Self-Collected Tampon for HPV Messenger-RNA Testing among HIV-Infected Women in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Adamson

    Full Text Available HIV increases women's risk for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV infection and invasive cervical cancer. South Africa has a high HIV prevalence but low cervical cancer screening coverage. Self-collection of cervical specimens and hrHPV testing, including hrHPV messenger-RNA (mRNA testing, are methods aimed at increasing screening rates. However, data are limited on the acceptability and accuracy of tampon-based self-collection for hrHPV mRNA testing in HIV-infected women.We recruited 325 HIV-infected women seeking care at a government HIV clinic in Pretoria, South Africa. A clinician performed a pelvic examination and obtained an endocervical specimen. Study participants performed self-collection using a tampon. Both clinician- and self-collected specimens were tested for hrHPV mRNA. Acceptability of both collection methods was assessed, the prevalence of hrHPV mRNA in our study population was estimated, test positivity of the two collection methods were compared, and test agreement was assessed by calculating the κ-statistic, sensitivity, and specificity.Over 90% of women reported no difficulties self-collecting specimens and 82% were willing to perform the tampon-collection at home. Based on clinician-collection specimens, the prevalence of hrHPV mRNA in our study population was 36.7% (95% CI: 31.4%- 42.0%. There was no difference in test positivity between clinician-collection, 36.7%, and tampon-collection, 43.5% (p-value = 0.08. Using clinician-collection as the reference test, the sensitivity and specificity for hrHPV mRNA of tampon-collection were 77.4% (95% CI: 69.8-85.0% and 77.8% (95% CI: 71.9-83.6%, respectively.Tampon-based self-collection is acceptable to women and has similar hrHPV mRNA positivity rates as clinician-collection, but has reduced sensitivity and specificity compared to clinician-collection. The hrHPV mRNA prevalence in our study population is high, but similar to other high-risk populations, and highlights the

  11. A randomized controlled trial of Human Papillomavirus (HPV testing for cervical cancer screening: trial design and preliminary results (HPV FOCAL Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Laurie W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the HPV FOCAL trial, we will establish the efficacy of hr-HPV DNA testing as a stand-alone screening test followed by liquid based cytology (LBC triage of hr-HPV-positive women compared to LBC followed by hr-HPV triage with ≥ CIN3 as the outcome. Methods/Design HPV-FOCAL is a randomized, controlled, three-armed study over a four year period conducted in British Columbia. It will recruit 33,000 women aged 25-65 through the province's population based cervical cancer screening program. Control arm: LBC at entry and two years, and combined LBC and hr-HPV at four years among those with initial negative results and hr-HPV triage of ASCUS cases; Two Year Safety Check arm: hr-HPV at entry and LBC at two years in those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positives; Four Year Intervention Arm: hr-HPV at entry and combined hr-HPV and LBC at four years among those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positive cases Discussion To date, 6150 participants have a completed sample and epidemiologic questionnaire. Of the 2019 women enrolled in the control arm, 1908 (94.5% were cytology negative. Women aged 25-29 had the highest rates of HSIL (1.4%. In the safety arm 92.2% of women were hr-HPV negative, with the highest rate of hr-HPV positivity found in 25-29 year old women (23.5%. Similar results were obtained in the intervention arm HPV FOCAL is the first randomized trial in North America to examine hr-HPV testing as the primary screen for cervical cancer within a population-based cervical cancer screening program. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register, ISRCTN79347302

  12. A Mixed Method Research to Identify Perceived Reasons and Solutions for Low Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening in Urban Families of Bhopal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low uptake of cervical cancer screening is not a matter of poor coverage of health care facilities only. We wish to identify the perceived reasons behind low uptake of screening in Bhopal region and also possible solutions for an urban setting. In a mixed research, through a series of focused group discussions, we wished to do thematic interpretation of the perceptions towards cervical cancer screening by deductive content analysis of FGD and also to obtain a free list of perceived causes and solutions with Smith’s saliency score and perform cluster analysis by pile sorting. We found that the perceived reasons could be grouped into three themes which were (1 information gap leading to fear of unknown, (2 casual attitude, and (3 resource constrains and affordability issues. For the perceived solutions there were 11 codes which could be grouped into two groups; these were increasing awareness and vaccination. Free list of perceived reasons and solutions has also been generated. No single solution can be suggested but a comprehensive approach with awareness campaigns, personalized encouragements, affordable and friendly health care with subsidized vaccination, and screening facilities are expected to increase awareness and acceptability and thus reduce burden of disease in the long run.

  13. Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Accuracy for Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) and Lugol’s Iodine (VILI) Performed by Nurse and Physician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raifu, Amidu O.; El-Zein, Mariam; Sangwa-Lugoma, Ghislain; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram; Walter, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol’s iodine (VILI) are used to screen women for cervical cancer in low-resource settings. Little is known about correlates of their diagnostic accuracy by healthcare provider. We examined determinants of VIA and VILI screening accuracy by examiner in a cross-sectional screening study of 1528 women aged 30 years or older in a suburb of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods We used a logistic regression model for sensitivity and specificity to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of VIA and VILI, independently performed by nurse and physician, as a function of sociodemographic and reproductive health characteristics. Results Nurses rated tests as positive more often than physicians (36.3% vs 30.2% for VIA, 26.2% vs 25.2% for VILI). Women’s age was the most important determinant of performance. It was inversely associated with sensitivity (nurse’s VIA: p<0.001, nurse’s VILI: p = 0.018, physician’s VIA: p = 0.005, physician’s VILI: p = 0.006) but positively associated with specificity (all four combinations: p<0.001). Increasing parity adversely affected sensitivity and specificity, but the effects on sensitivity were significant for nurses only. The screening performance of physician’s assessment was significantly better than the nurse’s (difference in sensitivity: VIA = 13%, VILI = 16%; difference in specificity: VIA = 6%, VILI = 1%). Conclusions Age and parity influence the performance of visual tests for cervical cancer screening. Proper training of local healthcare providers in the conduct of these tests should take into account these factors for improved performance of VIA and VILI in detecting cervical precancerous lesions among women in limited-resource settings. PMID:28107486

  14. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine Drugs Approved to Treat Cervical Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Blenoxane (Bleomycin) Bleomycin Hycamtin (Topotecan ...

  15. Analysis the effect of health education in the early screening of married women cervical cancer%健康教育对已婚妇女早期宫颈癌筛查的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马剑玲; 刘雪妮

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解已婚妇女对宫颈癌早期筛查认知情况,为正确开展宫颈癌早期筛查患者的健康教育提供依据.方法:对在我院妇产科门诊就诊接受宫颈癌筛查的患者同时进行宫颈癌相关知识宣传教育,应用自行设计的同卷评估干预效果.结果:已婚妇女对宫颈癌筛查认知程度较低.干预后患者宫颈癌相关性知识综合掌握情况和愿意接受宫颈癌筛查的患者明显提高.结论:开展多元素、多种形式的官颈癌筛查,有利于提高已婚妇女对宫颈癌筛查重要性的认识和宫颈癌筛查率,对早发现和早治疗宫颈癌具有重要意义.%Objective:To know the married women to cervical cancer early screening cognitive condition,for in cervical cancer early screening patients right of health education provides the basis.Methods:In obstetrics and gynecology clinical patients with cervical cancer screening accept the correlation between education and cervical cancer propaganda,the application of the self-designed questionnaire evaluation intervention effect.Results:The local married women cervical cancer screening of cognitive level was relatively low.After the intervention of cervical cancer patients with comprehensive knowledge and master the correlation between the neck cancer screening willing to accept the patients improved obviously.Conclusion:Multi-element,various forms of neck cancer screening the nursing intervention,to improve the region of married women cervical cancer screening and recognition of the importance of cervical cancer screening rate,There is important meaning to early detection and treatment cervical cancer.

  16. Cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Melissa S; Baker, Ellen S; Maza, Mauricio; Fontes-Cintra, Georgia; Lopez, Aldo; Carvajal, Juan M; Nozar, Fernanda; Fiol, Veronica; Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2017-02-07

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a known etiology (human papillomavirus), effective preventive vaccines, excellent screening methods, and a treatable pre-invasive phase. Surgery is the primary treatment for pre-invasive and early-stage disease and can safely be performed in many low-resource settings. However, cervical cancer rates remain high in many areas of Latin America. This article presents a number of evidence-based strategies being implemented to improve cervical cancer outcomes in Latin America.

  17. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  18. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  19. Testicular Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Testicular Cancer Treatment Testicular Cancer Screening Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Testicular Cancer Key Points Testicular cancer is a disease in ...

  20. Cervical cancer: A comprehensive approach towards extermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Smitha V; Thulasidasan, Arun Kumar T; Sreekanth, Chanickal N; Anto, Ruby John

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogen, globally. Oncogenic types of HPV are the causative agents of many neoplastic diseases, including cervical cancer, which ranks as the most common cancer affecting females in developing countries. HPV infection of the cervical epithelium and the subsequent integration of viral DNA into the host genome are the major risk factors for cervical cancer. The scientific discovery of HPV as the causal agent of cervical cancer has led to the development of HPV-based diagnostic tools. Prophylactic vaccines, based on the oncogenic HPV type virus-like particles have been introduced in several developed countries as a preliminary preventive approach. Nevertheless, it remains a continuous threat to women in developing countries, where the prophylactic vaccines are unaffordable and organized screening programmes are lacking. This warrants implementation of prevention strategies that will reduce cervical cancer-related mortality. In this review, we have discussed molecular pathogenesis of HPV infection and the risk factors associated with it. The diagnosis, treatment and prevention strategies of HPV-related cervical cancer have also been discussed.

  1. Study to assess the acceptability and feasibility of cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid and treatment of precancerous lesions using cryotherapy in low resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosha M. Sheth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective of current study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of cervical cancer screening using VIA, and treatment of precancerous lesions using cryotherapy in low resource settings Methods: 526 women from three primary health centers of Shinor taluka (population based approach and 250 women of Medical College, Vadodara (facility based approach were sensitized and screened for cervical cancer. Visual Inspection with Acetic acid (VIA was performed as the screening test. In the population based approach, VIA positive women were referred to a Community Health Centre (CHC for colposcopy and biopsy. Ablative treatment in the form of cryotherapy was offered. Patients requiring higher forms of treatment were referred to medical college, Vadodara. In the facility based approach, VIA positive women underwent colposcopy. Guided biopsy was performed in those with positive lesions on colposcopy. Cryotherapy was offered in the same sitting. Those not suitable for cryotherapy were offered loop electrosurgical excision procedure. Women found to have invasive cancer were offered definitive management. Results: VIA positivity rate was 18.8% in the population based approach and 27.2% in the facility based approach.58.8% women in the population based approach and 77.77% women in the facility based approach were treated with cryotherapy on the same day as screening and none reported any severe side effects. Dropout rate in the community approach was 32.32% whereas in the facility it was 0.4%. Conclusions: VIA and cryotherapy procedures were well tolerated by all screened women. This project has shown that the and ldquo;screen and treat and rdquo; approach can be successfully implemented in the existing health setup. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 615-621

  2. Tamizaje en cáncer cervical: conocimiento de la utilidad y uso de citología cervical en México Cervical cancer screening: knowledge of Pap smear benefits and utilization in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Aguilar-Pérez

    2003-02-01

    .OBJECTIVE: To identify and evaluate the predisposing factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in the population seen in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Mexico METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1997 through December 1998 in Mexico city. A questionnaire was applied to a total of 2,107 women of reproductive age who attended a family planning program and data was collected regarding the following topics: social-demographics, reproductive risk factors associated with cervical cancer, sexual behavior and partner history, birth control, knowledge about Pap smear' benefits, and its utilization. Statistic analysis was conducted using Student´s test and non-conditional multiple logistic regression model for determining significance. RESULTS: The predisposing factors were: knowledge about Pap smear's benefits (OR=6.00, CI 95% 4.70-7.67, history of using at least two birth control methods (OR=2.38, CI 95% 1.75-3.24, previous history of vaginal infection (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.73-2.75, sexual partner's approval of gynecological examinations (OR=1.56, CI 95% 1.07-2.29. CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs on cancer prevention in this population should include the benefits of screening tests. Pap smears for Mexican women of reproductive age are mostly offered opportunely. The previous use of health services is a determinant factor for the utilization of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. These results show the need to strengthen health promotion programs to women at high risk of cervical cancer and their sexual partners.

  3. The Significance of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus to Cervical Cancer Screening%高危型人类乳头瘤病毒对子宫颈癌筛查的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑蓉; 孙丽芳

    2011-01-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is a necessary condition for the occurrence of cervical cancer. In this paper, the authors discussed whether HR-HPV infection screening should be included into conventional cervical cancer screening. Based on the analysis of 2 505 cases of cervical cancer screening in our hospital, it is shown that for women with good economic condition or potentially suffering high risk of cervical cancer, primary cervical cancer screening combining TCT and HR-HPV screening will lead to clinical benefits in excess of cost benefits.%高危型人类乳头瘤病毒(HR- HPV)感染是宫颈癌发生的必要条件,本文就是否将HR- HPV纳入宫颈癌筛查进行探讨.通过对我院行宫颈癌筛查的2 505例患者资料分析,结果显示对于经济条件良好或有官颈癌高危因素的女性,细胞学检查(TCT)联合HR- HPV检测做为宫颈癌的初筛,其临床效益大于成本收益.

  4. Value for money from HPV vaccination and cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Toni; Sopina, Elizaveta (Liza)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs raises some important questions about the future organization of cervical screening programs. Two studies - from NZ and Canada - have addressed the question of what combination of vaccination and screening strategies might be most cost......-effective in preventing cervical cancer. Both studies indicate that some modifications to existing screening programs may be desirable as immunized females enter these programs. Variables in HPV vaccination that are likely to be particularly important for determining the future cost-effectiveness of cervical screening...... programs include: vaccine uptake rate, compliance with full doses, timely completion of doses, duration of protection, male vaccination and HPV infection rate. If value for money is to be achieved, it is important that the appropriate data are collected so that policy makers can consider the combined...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV vaccine can reduce risk of cervical cancer. HPV causes most cervical cancers. Only 1 in 3 girls and 1 in ... Signs – Cervical Cancer [PSA - 0:60 seconds] Cervical Cancer Preteen and Teen Vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Associated Cancers What Should I Know About ...

  6. The 836 Cases of Cervical Cancer Screening Lesions Result Analysis%宫颈癌前期病变筛查836例结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨惠新

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To summarize and analyze the results of precancerous lesion screening for cervical caner and provide evidence for cervical caner prevention.Methods:The characteristics such as age,education level,birth history and cervical laceration,episiotomy of the 836 participants were reviewed,the results of LCT and histopathologic diagnosis were compared,and the LCT results of foreign female labors and local females were also compared and analyzed.Results:The positive rate of LCT was 10.77%,the accuracy was 89.89%.The proportions of history of birth,episiotomy and cervical laceration in LCT positive participants were statistically significantly higher than in the LCT negative participants (P<0.05).Positive rate of LCT in foreign female labors was statistically higher than in local females (P<0.05). Conclusion:LCT is a ideal screening tool for cervical cancer in this area,gynecologic health care education should be enhanced in foreign female labors to improve the activity and compliance for participating the cervical cancer screening.%目的:总结分析宫颈癌前期病变LCT筛查结果,为本地区宫颈癌预防提供依据.方法:回顾调查836例参加宫颈癌前期病变LCT筛查妇女的年龄、文化程度、分娩史和宫颈撕裂、会阴切除术等病史,对比分析LCT检查及其与组织病理学诊断结果,对比分析外来务工妇女与本地妇女参加检查情况和检查结果.结果:LCT阳性率为10.77%,准确率为89.89%.LCT阳性者,有分娩、会阴切开术、宫颈撕裂史比例高于LCT阴性者,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).外来务工妇女LCT检出率高于本地居民,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:LCT是本地区较为理想的宫颈癌筛查方法;应大力加强外来务工妇女妇科保健宣传力度,提高其参加宫颈癌筛查的主动性和依从性.

  7. Prioritizing prevention: culture, context, and cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jessica; Nguyen-Truong, Connie K Y; Wang, Pei-ru; Kobus, Amy

    2011-12-01

    Few studies have investigated what Vietnamese American women believe about the Pap smear or how those beliefs might influence behavior. Thirty-one Vietnamese American women recruited through snowball sampling were interviewed about their beliefs regarding the Pap smear. Interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a theoretically informed, inductive approach. The women interviewed emphasized the importance of primary prevention of disease through culturally-informed personal health regimens. They were also largely unfamiliar with the Pap smear, but believed that gynecological exams in general were effective and necessary for disease detection. Finally, when access to gynecological care was difficult, women's faith in their own preventive behaviors helped alleviate their concerns over lack of care. While culturally associated beliefs do not simply "cause" Vietnamese American women to seek or avoid Pap smears, they do influence screening behaviors to a greater or lesser degree, depending on other contextual variables.

  8. Cervical Cancer: Reality and Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quiñones Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical carcinoma usually reaches its highest frequency between 35-50 years of age. The Cuban prevention program screens the female population aged 25 to 60 years using the Pap smear and reexamines them every three years. Despite this effort, advanced cancer is diagnosed in young women as well as in those 40 to 60 years of age.

  9. WELL WOMAN CLINIC - SCREENING PROGRAM FOR CERVICAL C ARCINOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Padmaja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a common cancer occurring in women in the reproductive age group. It is also a cancer that can be easily prevented by taking Cervical Smears, staining them by the Papanicalou’s stain, diagnosing and treating them at an early stage . It is a very cost effective, sensitive, specific and easy method of early detection of cervical canc er and thereby helps in preventing the mortality and morbidity caused by invasive carcinomas. This screening program was conducted in the outpatient department of Gandhi hospital. All th e women between the age of 21 and 65years were included. The antenatal women were excluded. A total of 2864 women were screened and 2562 Pap smears were done. 228 High grade intraepithelial lesions [HSIL ] and 365 Low Grade intraepithelial lesions [LSIL] were diagnosed. Cervical biopsy was done. Curative treatment was offered to all those who had intraepithelial lesions on biopsy. Hence such screening programs are of great help in detecting early cancer and preventing invasive cancers. Thus reducing mortality and morbidity associated with invasive cancers

  10. Real-time colorimetric detection of DNA methylation of the PAX1 gene in cervical scrapings for cervical cancer screening with thiol-labeled PCR primers and gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang J

    2016-10-01

    proposed method showed that the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs of PAX1 were 0.833, 0.742, and 0.739 for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasms grade 2 and worse lesions (CIN2+, cervical intraepithelial neoplasms grade 3 and worse lesions (CIN3+, and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting CIN2+ lesions were 0.941 and 0.600, respectively, with a cutoff value of 31.27%. The proposed method also showed superior sensitivity over qMSP methods for the detection of CIN2+ and CIN3+ (0.941 vs 0.824 and 1.000 vs 0.800, respectively. Furthermore, the novel method exhibited higher AUC (0.833 for the detection of CIN2+ than qMSP (0.807. Conclusion: The results of thiol-labeled AuNP method were clearly observed by the naked eyes without requiring any expensive equipment. Therefore, the thiol-labeled AuNP method could be a simple but efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening. Keywords: colorimetric detection, gold nanoparticles, DNA methylation, cervical cancer screening, UV-vis, high sensitivity, quantitative detection

  11. Cervical cancer screening among immigrant Hispanics: an analysis by country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Jandorf, Lina; King, Sheba; Thelemaque, Linda; Erwin, Deborah O

    2012-08-01

    As the largest and most diverse ethnic minority population in the U.S., it is important to examine differences in and correlates of Pap test adherence among Hispanics by country of origin. The data for these analyses are baseline responses from a Randomized Controlled Trial. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted among Hispanic immigrant women who identified as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Central/South American (n = 1,305). There were significant differences in Pap test adherence: Dominicans (81.6%), Mexicans (77.5%), Central/South Americans (71.2%), and Puerto Ricans (69.3%). In multivariable analyses, there were different correlates of Pap test adherence for each country of origin. For example, marriage status (P = .0001) and younger age (P = .006) were positively associated with adherence among Mexican women. This research provides insight into the variability that exists among Hispanics and can help improve understanding of important determinants that may influence Pap test screening among diverse Hispanics.

  12. Offering Self-Sampling Kits for HPV Testing to Reach Women Who Do Not Attend in the Regular Cervical Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Castle, Philip E

    2015-05-01

    In 2016, the Netherlands will switch, as first European country, from cytology-based to HPV-based cervical cancer screening, with cytology triage for those with a positive HPV test. The new Dutch program includes sending self-sampling devices to women who do not respond to an invitation to have a cervical sample taken by their general practitioner. The cost-effectiveness of this additional strategy will depend on its capacity to recruit nonscreened women and in particular those at increased risk of cervical (pre)cancer, the possible switch of previous responders to self-sampling, the accuracy and cost of the HPV assay-self-sampler combination, and the compliance of women being self-sample HPV-positive with further follow-up. Validated PCR-based assays, detecting high-risk HPV DNA, are as accurate on self-samples as on clinician-collected samples. On the contrary, HPV assays, based on signal amplification, are less sensitive and specific on self-samples. The introduction of self-sampling strategies should be carefully prepared and evaluated in pilot studies integrated in well-organized settings before general rollout. Opt-in procedures involving a request for a self-sampler may reduce response rates. Therefore, an affordable device that can be included with the invitation to all nonattendees may yield a stronger effect on participation.

  13. Analysis on cervical cancer screening results in Panyu district of Guangzhou city%广州市番禺区宫颈癌筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 范晓萍; 曾俐琴; 黄丽妮; 朱铭谊

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the cervical cancer screening status in Panyu district of Guangzhou city from 2000 to 2011.Methods:Cervical cytologic test was conducted among the women of the right age in Panyu district,the individual information and medical records were recorded.Results:A total of 119 648 women received cervical cancer screening,the mean age was (40.60 ±3.50) years,the total positive rates was 9.92%,the positive screening rate in 2000 was 8.91%,then it increased to 12.02% in 2011,the proportion of women under 40 years old increased from 43.00% in 2000 to 50.58% in 2011,the positive rated among rural women and urban women were 12.76% and 7.42%,respectively; 119 women with cervical cancer were carried out,the prevalence rate was 9.95/10 000.Conclusion:The incidence rates of cervical diseases among women in the right age increase year by year,which become younger and younger.The incidence rates of cervical diseases in rural women are higher than those in urban women,cervical cancer screening should be popularized,and maternal health education and publicity should be enhanced.%目的:了解广州市番禺区2000年~2011年12年间全区妇女宫颈癌筛查情况.方法:对辖区适龄妇女进行宫颈细胞学检查,并记录个人信息及病史.结果:共完成宫颈癌筛查119 648例,受检时平均年龄(40.60±3.50)岁,总阳性率为9.92%,2000年筛查阳性率为8.91%,2011年增加至12.02%,其中40岁以下构成比从2000年的43.00%增加到2011年的50.58%,农村妇女阳性率12.76%,城镇妇女阳性率7.42%,筛查出宫颈癌119例,发病率为9.95/万.结论:适龄女性宫颈疾病发病率逐年增高,呈年轻化趋势,农村妇女发病率高于城镇妇女,应普及宫颈癌筛查,加强妇女卫生教育宣传.

  14. [Breast and cervical cancer screening: beliefs and behaviors among the female population of the city of Liege (Belgium)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoyez, B; Mairiaux, Ph

    2003-05-01

    Several surveys have shown that in Belgium the coverage of the female population for both breast and cervix cancers screening is too low and not evenly distributed in the target population. In order to highlight modifiable behavioural factors about cancer screening and to know the profile of women who exhibit an inadequate preventive behaviour, a postal survey has been conducted in the city of Liège. A self-administrated questionnaire was sent to a randomised sample of 1.000 women from two age groups (25-37 and 45-57 years); 444 women returned the questionnaire (response rate: 45.4%). The results show that the responders who do not comply with the recommendations for cancer screening are more often unemployed women with a low educational level, women who have a poor perception of their health, or women who are not regularly followed by a gynaecologist. Those women have more often poor knowledge and wrong beliefs about prevention, a negative perception of the curability of a cancer detected early and of the efficacy of screening tests. In spite of an overrepresentation of women with an university degree among the responders, it was also observed that more than 1 woman out of 4 in the 25-37 years age group is not convinced of the pap smear efficacy. In view of these results, the design of screening campaigns for cancer prevention has to involve specific efforts targeted at under-privileged subgroups within the female population.

  15. Economic Evaluation of Screening Strategies Combined with HPV Vaccination of Preadolescent Girls for the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Vientiane, Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Several approaches to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancers exist. The approach adopted should take into account contextual factors that influence the cost-effectiveness of the available options. Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies combined with a vaccination program for 10-year old girls for cervical cancer prevention in Vientiane, Lao PDR. Methods A population-based dynamic compartment model was constructed. The interventions consisted of a 10-year old girl vaccination program only, or this program combined with screening strategies, i.e., visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), cytology-based screening, rapid human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing, or combined VIA and cytology testing. Simulations were run over 100 years. In base-case scenario analyses, we assumed a 70% vaccination coverage with lifelong protection and a 50% screening coverage. The outcome of interest was the incremental cost per Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted. Results In base-case scenarios, compared to the next best strategy, the model predicted that VIA screening of women aged 30–65 years old every three years, combined with vaccination, was the most attractive option, costing 2 544 international dollars (I$) per DALY averted. Meanwhile, rapid HPV DNA testing was predicted to be more attractive than cytology-based screening or its combination with VIA. Among cytology-based screening options, combined VIA with conventional cytology testing was predicted to be the most attractive option. Multi-way sensitivity analyses did not change the results. Compared to rapid HPV DNA testing, VIA had a probability of cost-effectiveness of 73%. Compared to the vaccination only option, the probability that a program consisting of screening women every five years would be cost-effective was around 60% and 80% if the willingness-to-pay threshold is fixed at one and three GDP per capita, respectively. Conclusions A VIA screening program

  16. Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  17. ROLE OF COLPOSCOPY USING MODIFIED REID’S INDEX IN SCREENING OF CERVICAL CANCER IN WOMEN WITH ABNORMAL CERVIX ON NAKED EYE EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of Colposcopy using Modified Reid's Index as a screening tool in cervical cancer in women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination . METHODS: This observational study was carried out in Government medical college, Aurangabad from June 2011 to May 2013 . Total 392 women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination of underwent colposcopy and diagnosis was made on the basis of Modified R eid’s Index. Colposcope directed biopsies were obtained from the abnormal areas. In women with normal colposcopic findings four quadrant biopsies from squamo - columnar junction were taken .Eight women were excluded from analysis owing to unsatisfactory colp oscopy. Results of colposcopy were validated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value in diagnosing histopathologically confirmed lesions which served as gold standard. RESULTS: Overall sensitivity of colposcopy in all grades of lesions is around 90% or more, touching 100% in high order of histological lesions.Overall specificity is also high.It does have an excellent negative predictive value but comparatively lower positive predictive value especially in high order lesions with fair degree of accuracy in all grades of lesions in the hands of an experienced operator. CONCLUSION: Colposcopy using Modified Reid’s Index with high sensitivity and specificity is a good screening tool for cervical cancer

  18. 桐乡市宫颈癌筛查成本效益分析%Cost-benefit analysis on cervical cancer screening in Tongxiang city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟钰平; 沈建生; 徐晓清; 董诀; 韩秋英; 徐敏娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening projects. Methods; Cost - benefit analysis on cervical cancer screening projects was conducted in Tongxiang city from 2009 to 2011. Results; Among 20 000 respondents, 754 cases were found with positive cytological results, the positive detection rate was 1. 51%. Colposcopy was carried out in 731 cases, 386 cases received biopsy and pathological diagnosis, finally, 218 cases with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were diagnosed definitely, including 38 cases with CIN I , 101 cases with CIN II , and 79 cases with CIN Ⅲ; 7 cases were diagnosed as microinvasive carcinoma, and 2 cases were diagnosed as invasive carcinoma. It was estimated that 22 911. 60 Yuan were spend to save one person per year, which was lower than per capita GDP in Tongxiang city in 2010 (60 830 Yuan) , the benefit - cost ratio was 2. 65: 1. Conclusion: The current cervical cancer screening mode used in Tongxiang city has good economic benefit, which is worthy to be further spread as routine public health project.%目的:探讨宫颈癌筛查项目有效性.方法:对2009 ~ 2011年桐乡市宫颈癌筛查项目进行成本效益分析.结果:50 000例中,细胞学阳性754例,阳性检出率1.51%.731例行阴道镜检查,活体组织检查(活检)病理诊断386例,最后诊断CIN 218例(CIN I 38例,CINⅡ101例,CINⅢ79例),微小浸润癌7例,浸润癌2例.据估算挽救1个寿命年平均需花费22 911.60元,小于桐乡市2010年人均GDP60 830元,效益成本比2.65:1.结论:桐乡市现行宫颈癌筛查模式具有良好的经济效益,值得作为常规性公共卫生项目进一步推广.

  19. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  20. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  1. Cancer Screening in Older Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Brooke; Beldowski, Kathryn; de la Paz, Amanda

    2016-04-15

    Although cancer is the second leading cause of death among persons 65 years and older, there is a paucity of clinical trial data about the effectiveness and harms of cancer screening in this population. Given the heterogeneous nature of the older population, cancer screening in these patients should not be based on age alone. Studies suggest that a life expectancy of at least 10 years is necessary to derive a survival benefit from screening for breast and colorectal cancers; therefore, screening for these cancers is not recommended in those with a life expectancy of less than 10 years. Prostate cancer screening, if performed at all, should not be performed after 69 years of age. Cervical cancer screening may be stopped after 65 years of age if the patient has an adequate history of negative screening results. An individualized approach to cancer screening decisions involves estimating life expectancy, determining the potential benefits and harms of screenings, and weighing those benefits and harms in relation to the patient's values and preferences.

  2. Advancing cervical cancer prevention in India: implementation science priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact.

  3. Intervention of awareness on opportunistic screening for cervical cancer in married women in Zhaoqing area%肇庆地区已婚妇女对宫颈癌机会性筛查认知度干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永翠; 丁敏芳; 刘志容; 梁莉; 何连珠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To comprehend awareness on opportunistic screening for cervical cancer in married women,and to provide support for health education on opportunistic screening for cervical cancer.Methods A survey on awareness of cervical cancer screening was conducted in 740 married women by self-designed questionnaires in our gynecology clinic.Nursing intervention of health education was performed and the effect was assessed before and after intervention.Results The awareness rate of cervical cancer screening(32.57%)was low in married women.High cost was one of the main factors of difficulty in cervical cancer screening,especially in rural patients.Conclusions Multi-element and various forms of cognitive intervention for cervical cancer screening is beneficial for improving married women's awareness on and the rate of cervical cancer screening and is of significance in the early detection and treatment of cervical cancer.%目的 了解肇庆地区已婚妇女对宫颈癌机会性筛查认知情况,为正确开展宫颈癌机会性筛查患者的健康教育工作提供依据.方法 采用自行设计的调查表,对740例在我院妇科门诊就诊已婚妇女进行宫颈癌筛查认知情况的问卷调查.并给予健康教育护理干预措施,对干预前后进行效果评价.结果本地区已婚妇女对宫颈癌筛查认知程度较低,为32.57%(241/740),干预后患者认知程度有明显提高,为59.05%(437/740).其中费用高是开展宫颈癌筛查难的主要因素之一,农村患者尤为明显.结论 开展多元素、多种形式的宫颈癌筛查认知干预,有利于提高已婚妇女对宫颈癌筛查重要性的认识和宫颈癌筛查率,对早发现和早治疗宫颈癌具有重要意义.

  4. System Design and Implementation for Cervical Cancer and Breast Cancer Screening%宫颈癌与乳腺癌筛查信息系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝; 武明辉; 韩历丽; 张娣

    2014-01-01

    Objective The application of modern information technology will be expected to improve the quality and management of cervical cancer, breast cancer screening in Beijing. Method Improved and reconstructed sub-system of cervical cancer and breast cancer screening based on the second phase development of the Beijing MCH information system. Results The screening information system is able to digitize the whole process of cervical cancer and breast cancer screening, including basic information collection, medical recording of screening and suspicious patients diagnosis, treatments and follow-ups which enables information sharing, management improving and data availability as well. Conclusion It is necessary to apply information technology to cervical cancer and breast cancer screening. The information system plays an important role to optimize the work flow, enhance the MCH information, and improve its efficiency and quality.%目的将现代信息技术引入宫颈癌、乳腺癌筛查工作,以提高两癌筛查工作的服务和管理水平。方法基于北京市妇幼保健信息系统二期开发建设,对两癌筛查子系统进行升级改造。结果两癌筛查信息系统可以实现从个人基本信息采集、筛查及诊断结果录入,到可疑病例确诊、治疗、随访等全过程的信息化,实现信息共享,提高了工作效率,提升了两癌筛查系统管理水平,为各级管理者提供及时有效的信息数据。结论将信息技术引入两癌筛查工作领域有其必要性,两癌筛查信息管理系统可以优化工作流程,提升妇幼保健信息管理层次,提高工作效率和质量。

  5. Transition from film to digital mammography: Impact for breast cancer screening through the national breast and cervical cancer early detection program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien); L. Van Lier (Lisanne); C.B. Schechter (Clyde); D.U. Ekwueme (Donatus U.); J. Royalty (Janet); J.W. Miller (Jacqueline W.); A.M. Near (Aimee); K.A. Cronin (Kathleen); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); J.S. Mandelblatt (Jeanne); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides mammograms and diagnostic services for low-income, uninsured women aged 40-64 years. Mammography facilities within the NBCCEDP gradually shifted from plain-film to digital mammography. The pur

  6. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... from the . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Several types of screening tests have been ...

  7. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  8. An analysis of free screening of cervical cancer and breast cancer in Xicheng district, Beijing%西城区"免费子宫颈癌乳腺癌筛查"情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓哲; 金英楠; 侯力

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare detectable rates of free two gynecological cancers ( cervical cancer and breast cancer) screening and past gynecopathy screening for cervical cancer and breast cancer, and to explore a new mode to prevent and treat gynecopathies. Methods The results of free two gynecological cancers screening were compared with those of past gynecopathy screening in three years of 2005, 2006 and 2007. The residents who received free two gynecological cancers screening were investigated with a questionnaire. And the attitudes of residents and doctors to free two gynecological cancers screening were investigated through group visiting. Results The detectable rates of cervical cancer and breast cancer in free two gynecological screening were higher than those in past gynecopathy screening. The ages of women who volunterily received free two gynecological cansers screening were almost all centralized in a span of 45 to 60 years of age. The residents had positive attitudes to screening flow sheet, health education, doctor' s service manner and screening skills of investigators. The investigators considered that the free two gynecological cancers screening enhanced their techniques and personal comprehensive abilities.Conclusion Free two gynecological cancers screening poses positive effects in service mode, screening method and service outcome, which provides reference basis for orientation of prevention and treatment of gynecopathy. In prevention and treatment of gynecopathy, the key steps should include paying more attention to community residents, adopting advanced screening method, improving multiple department cooperation and doing well services after screening.%目的 比较免费两癌(子宫颈癌、乳腺癌)筛查与既往妇女病普查对子宫颈及乳腺癌的检出效果,探讨妇女病防治工作新思路.方法 免费两癌筛查与2005、2006、2007年妇女病普查结果相比较;对参加免费两癌筛查的居民进行问卷调查;应用定

  9. 农村妇女宫颈癌和乳腺癌筛查的实践与探讨%The rural women cervical cancer and breast cancer screening practices and discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史少东; 赵方辉; 张永贞; 李旭亮; 乔友林

    2013-01-01

      Objective To practice two cancer screening for rural women. Methods From 2009 to 2011 in Xiangyuan County,the County Maternal and Child Health Hospital of women of childbearing age in cervical and breast cancer screening. Results Complete cervical cancer screening of 27 517 women,breast cancer screening of 6 122 women,including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2(CIN2)and the disease prevalence rate was 0.49%,the early diagnosis rate was 91.2%.Benign breast tumor in 33 cases(0.53%);2 cases of breast cancer(0.03%),the early diagnosis rate of 50%.Conclusion Cervical cancer screening with screening,screening and early diagnosis and early treatment effect is obvious.Screening for breast cancer still needs the specification,strengthen technology training,improve the screening level. Screening system and the technical team construction is the base of women's health service guarantee. At the same time,cervical cancer,breast cancer screening is better than a single project screening for rural women.%  目的通过对农村妇女宫颈癌和乳腺癌的筛查实践,探讨宫颈癌和乳腺癌联合筛查的模式及效果。方法2009年—2011年襄垣县妇幼保健院对该县适龄农村妇女开展宫颈癌和乳腺癌筛查。结果此次筛查共完成27517名妇女的宫颈癌筛查,6122名妇女的乳腺癌筛查,其中宫颈上皮内瘤变Ⅱ级(CINⅡ)及以上病变的患病率为0.49%,早诊率为91.2%。乳腺良性肿瘤33例(0.53%);乳腺癌2例(0.03%),早诊率为50%。结论宫颈癌检查有筛查基础,筛查及早诊、早治效果明显。乳腺癌筛查仍需规范,须加强技术培训,提高筛查水平。筛查体系和技术队伍建设是基层妇女保健服务的保证,对农村妇女同时进行宫颈癌、乳腺癌联合筛查优于单一项目筛查。

  10. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Emma J; Einstein, Mark H; Franceschi, Silvia; Kitchener, Henry C

    2013-09-07

    Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (especially type 16) can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature epithelial cells. Human papillomavirus disrupts normal cell-cycle control, promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18, and human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 6, and 11 virus-like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. Human papillomavirus testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low-grade cytology and as a test of cure after treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by human papillomavirus testing could enable screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved.

  11. Improving cervical cancer screening in Mexico: results from the Morelos HPV Study Mejorando la detección oportuna del cáncer cervical en México: resultados del Estudio de VPH en Morelos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Flores

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the results of the Morelos HPV Study. The main objective of the Morelos HPV Study is to evaluate the use of human papillomavirus (HPV DNA testing, as compared to the Papanicolaou (Pap test, for cervical cancer (CC screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Morelos HPV Study is currently being conducted in Mexico, to examine the possibility of using HPV testing for CC screening. The HPV testing of self-collected vaginal and clinician-collected cervical specimens was evaluated as part of this study. The acceptability of the HPV testing of self-collected specimens was compared to that of the Pap test. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA and cost-benefit analysis (CBA was also performed. RESULTS: The Morelos HPV Study results indicate that HPV testing has a greater sensitivity to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2/3 and CC than the Pap test. Our results also indicate an over-all lower acceptability of the Pap test as compared to the self-collected procedure. The results of the CEA and CBA indicate that screening women between the ages of 20-80 for CC using some type of HPV testing is always more cost-effective than screening for CC using the Pap test. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that self- and clinician-collected HPV testing could be used in CC prevention programs, as an effective complement or substitute for the Pap test.OBJETIVO: Describir algunos de los resultados del Estudio de VPH en Morelos. El objetivo principal del Estudio de VPH en Morelos es evaluar el uso de la prueba del virus de papiloma humano (VPH, en relación con la prueba de Papanicolaou, para el tamizaje de cáncer cervical. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El Estudio de VPH en Morelos actualmente se está llevando a cabo en México, para examinar la posibilidad de usar la prueba de VPH para la detección de cáncer cervical. Se evaluó el uso de la prueba de VPH en muestras auto-tomadas vaginales y en muestras cervicales

  12. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  13. Analysis on liquid-based cytology test in the screening of cervical cancer%宫颈癌筛查中液基细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赫

    2009-01-01

    目的:评价液基细胞学(LPT)薄片制片对宫颈癌筛查的准确性.方法:对3 600例和2 200例受检者分别进行LPT制片和传统宫颈细胞涂片法进行宫颈癌筛查.细胞诊断采用TBS分级系统,阳性诊断包括意义不明的不典型鳞状上皮(ASCUS)以上病变.所有ASCUS以上病变的受检者全部在阴道镜下活检.结果:LPT薄片法和传统涂片法对ASCUS以上病变检出阳性率分别为10.5%和5.2%,两种检测方法的阳性率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);两种制片方法的阳性结果与病理检查符合率比较:LPT薄片法检出SCC、HSIL、LSIL与阴道镜活检阳性符合率分别为100%、91%、82%,传统宫颈巴氏涂片法检出SCC、HSIL、LSIL与阴道镜活检阳性符合率分别为100%、60%、53%,两种方法比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:LPT液基细胞学检查敏感性明显高于传统宫颈细胞涂片法,能大大提高检出率,尤其是对宫颈癌前筛查的患者.%Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of liquid-based cytology test in the screening of cervical cancer. Methods: 3 600 and 2 200 subjects were screened for cervical cancer by liquid-based cytology test and traditional cervical cells smears, respectively. Cell diagnosis adopted TBS-group system, positive diagnosis included above-ASCUS pathological changes. All the subjects of above-ASCUS pathological changes were examined under colposcopo. Results: The detection rates of above-ASCUS pathological changes identified by liq-uid-based cytology test and traditional smears were 10. 5% and 5.2 %, respectively (P < 0. 01) . The coincidence rates of SCC, HSIL and LSIL detected by liquid-based cytology test and biopsy under eolposcepe were 100%, 91% and 82%, respectively, while the coinci-dence rates detected by traditional cervical cells smears and biopsy under colposcope were 100%, 60% and 53%, respectively (P <0. 05)Conclusion: The sensitivity and detection rate of liquid-based cytology test are higher than those

  14. Diagnosis Value Analysis of Gynecological Screening to Early Cervical Cancer%妇科普查对早期宫颈癌的筛查诊断价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹

    2016-01-01

    目的::妇科普查对早期宫颈癌的筛查诊断价值进行评价分析,为今后的临床诊断工作提供有价值的参考信息。方法:收集2012年1月~2014年12月间在某中心接受妇科疾病筛查的受试者资料进行研究。结果:接受宫颈筛查者5298名,检出妇科疾病者检出率为31.67%,其中宫颈病变检出率为10.65%,检出宫颈癌检出率为0.35%。结论:妇科普查对早期宫颈癌筛查具有重要意义,可为临床宫颈癌早期诊断提供可靠的参考依据,值得关注。%Objective:To analyze diagnostic value of gynecological screening to early cervical cancer and provide valuable information for future reference clinical diagnosis.Methods:To study the data of subj ects re-ceived gynecological diseases screening in a Community Health from January 2012 to December 2012.Re-sults:During this period,5298 patients received cervical screening,the detection rate was 31.67%,the de-tection rate of cervical lesions was 10.65%,the detection rate of cervical cancer was 0.35%.Conclusion:The gynecological screening is important for early cervical cancer screening,it can provide a reliable reference for the early diagnosis of cervical cancer and deserves attention.

  15. Encouraging the right women to attend for cervical cancer screening: results from a targeted television campaign in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Robyn; Wakefield, Melanie; Broun, Kate

    2008-06-01

    The study assessed whether a mass media campaign could encourage women who were overdue for a Papanicolaou (Pap) test to have one, without prompting unnecessary early re-screening. A telephone survey of a representative sample of 1000 Victorian women aged 25-65 years assessed recall of the advertisement and intention to act after seeing it. The television advertisement was recalled by 61.5% of women. Significantly more who said 'I mean to have a test every two years, but I usually leave it longer' indicated they would have a Pap test more often as a result of seeing the advertisement (63%), than women who had Pap tests every 1 (6%) or 2 (12%) years. Negative binomial regression analysis on data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry from the middle of 2002 to the end of 2004 showed that during the campaign the number of Pap tests conducted increased by 18% (coeff = 0.169, df campaign to encourage screening which is specific to women whose test is due or overdue.

  16. 不同筛查方法对宫颈癌的诊断价值%Evaluation of Different Screening Methods in Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨越波; 张宇; 唐虹

    2010-01-01

    Objective To retrospectivly analyze the value of Pap smear,liquid-based cells, colposcopy and colposcopic cervical biopsy in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Methods 116 cases of cervical cancer were retrospectively analyzed, and the value of Pap smear,liquid-based cells ,colposcopy,and colposcopic cervical biopsy in the diagnosis of cervical cancer were investigated. Result 116 patients were pathologically diagnosed with cervical cancer before and after surgery. Pap smear was performed for 30 patients (25.9%) ,and 10 patients (33.3%) were detected with HSIL. Liquid-based cells was performed for47 patients (40.5%) ,and 25 patients (53.1%) were detected with HSIL. Colposcopy was performed for 99 patients (85.3%), and 75 patients (75.8 % ) were detected with HSIL or invasive cancer. Preoperative colposcopic biopsy was performed for 99 patients, and the pathological coincidence rate was 94.9%. There was no significant difference statistically between two cytology screening ( P > 0.05 ). There was significant difference statistically between liquid-based cells and colposcopy ( P < 0.01 ). There were significant differences statistically among liquid-based cells,colposcopy ,and colposcopic cervical biopsy ( P <0.01 ). Conclusion Cytology, colposcopy, colposcopic cervical biopsy could not be individually more complete and accurate detection of cervical cancer. Colposcopy,colposcopic biopsy than cytology had higher accurate rate of diagnosis of cervical cancer. A reasonable combination of multiple detection methods could improve the diagnostic accuracy of cervical cancer.%目的 探讨巴氏涂片、液基细胞、阴道镜检和阴道镜下活检在子宫颈癌诊断中的价值.方法 116例子宫颈癌患者资料进行回顾性分析,进一步探讨巴氏涂片、液基细胞、阴道镜检和阴道镜下活检在宫颈癌诊断中的价值.结果 116例患者均为术前术后组织病理确诊为宫颈癌.其中30例曾行巴氏涂片检查,占25.9%,

  17. Validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cytology and HPV testing for cervical cancer screening: findings from a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi E Jones

    Full Text Available Self-sampling could increase cervical cancer screening uptake. While methods have been identified for human papillomavirus (HPV testing, to date, self-sampling has not provided adequate specimens for cytology. We piloted the validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cervical cytology and HPV testing. We enrolled 198 women in New York City in 2008-2009 from three ambulatory clinics where they received cervical cancer screening. All were asked to use the Delphi Screener™ to self-lavage 1-3 months after clinician-collected index cytological smear (100 normal; 98 abnormal. Women with abnormal cytology results from either specimen underwent colposcopy; 10 women with normal results from both specimens also underwent colposcopy. We calculated sensitivity of self-collected cytology to detect histologically confirmed high grade lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN, 2+; specificity for histology-negative (CIN 1 or lower, paired cytology negative, or a third cytology negative; and kappa for paired results. One hundred and ninety-seven (99.5% women self-collected a lavage. Seventy-five percent had moderate to excellent cellularity, two specimens were unsatisfactory for cytology. Seven of 167 (4% women with definitive results had CIN2+; one had normal and six abnormal cytology results with the self-lavage (sensitivity = 86%, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 42, 100. The kappa for paired cytology was low (0.36; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.47 primarily due to clinician specimens with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL coded as normal using Screener specimens. However, three cases of HSIL were coded as ASC-US and one as normal using Screener specimens. Seventy-three women had paired high-risk HPV tests with a kappa of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.84. Based on these preliminary findings, a larger study to estimate the performance of the Screener for co-testing cytology and

  18. Factors related to inadequate cervical cancer screening in two Brazilian state capitals Factores asociados al rastreo inadecuado del cáncer cervical en dos capitales brasileras Fatores associados ao rastreamento inadequado do câncer cervical em duas capitais brasileiras

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To analyze factors associated with cervical cancer screening failure. METHODS:Population-based cross-sectional study with self-weighted two-stage cluster sampling conducted in the cities of Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil) and Rio de Janeiro (Southeastern Brazil) in 2002. Subjects were women aged 25-59 years in the last three years prior to the study. Data were analyzed through Poisson regression using a hierarchical model. RESULTS: The proportion of women who did not undergo the Pap...

  19. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  20. Barriers to adoption of recent technology in cervical screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhala Darshana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Pap smear is one of the modern success stories in the field of preventive medicine. Since its introduction as a screening test, there has been a dramatic reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer. However, the search for a better screening test continues. The new technologies, including liquid-based cytology (LBC, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV testing and automated or machine-assisted screening have been introduced. However, there is continuous debate about whether society's limited resources are better spent on reaching the underserved rather than on these technologies. Another question is whether these technologies create yet another kind of disparity in delivering preventive care. For example, despite the wide use of LBC (99% of tests submitted to our laboratory are LBC, conventional Pap smears are still used to screen/follow up some women. It is not clear why some providers continue to prefer conventional smear over LBC and what are the barriers for adopting LBC in cervical cancer screening. We hypothesize the lower cost of conventional compared to LBC Pap testing, patient's lower socio-economic indices, a patient's medical history and provider's subspecialty/training all appear to play a role in the choice of using conventional Pap testing rather than LBC. Unintentionally, this choice results in repeat testing, delayed treatment and potentially higher costs than intended. The ultimate goal of this review article is to understand and explore possible barriers and disparities to adopting new technology in cancer screening.

  1. A randomized trial comparing the diagnostic accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid to Visual Inspection with Lugol's Iodine for cervical cancer screening in HIV-infected women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J Huchko

    Full Text Available Visual inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA and Visual Inspection with Lugol’s Iodine (VILI are increasingly recommended in various cervical cancer screening protocols in low-resource settings. Although VIA is more widely used, VILI has been advocated as an easier and more specific screening test. VILI has not been well-validated as a stand-alone screening test, compared to VIA or validated for use in HIV-infected women. We carried out a randomized clinical trial to compare the diagnostic accuracy of VIA and VILI among HIV-infected women. Women attending the Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES clinic in western Kenya were enrolled and randomized to undergo either VIA or VILI with colposcopy. Lesions suspicious for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater (CIN2+ were biopsied. Between October 2011 and June 2012, 654 were randomized to undergo VIA or VILI. The test positivity rates were 26.2% for VIA and 30.6% for VILI (p = 0.22. The rate of detection of CIN2+ was 7.7% in the VIA arm and 11.5% in the VILI arm (p = 0.10. There was no significant difference in the diagnostic performance of VIA and VILI for the detection of CIN2+. Sensitivity and specificity were 84.0% and 78.6%, respectively, for VIA and 84.2% and 76.4% for VILI. The positive and negative predictive values were 24.7% and 98.3% for VIA, and 31.7% and 97.4% for VILI. Among women with CD4+ count < 350, VILI had a significantly decreased specificity (66.2% compared to VIA in the same group (83.9%, p = 0.02 and compared to VILI performed among women with CD4+ count ≥ 350 (79.7%, p = 0.02. VIA and VILI had similar diagnostic accuracy and rates of CIN2+ detection among HIV-infected women.

  2. A randomized trial comparing the diagnostic accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid to Visual Inspection with Lugol's Iodine for cervical cancer screening in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchko, Megan J; Sneden, Jennifer; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Smith-McCune, Karen; Sawaya, George; Maloba, May; Bukusi, Elizabeth Ann; Cohen, Craig R

    2015-01-01

    Visual inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) and Visual Inspection with Lugol’s Iodine (VILI) are increasingly recommended in various cervical cancer screening protocols in low-resource settings. Although VIA is more widely used, VILI has been advocated as an easier and more specific screening test. VILI has not been well-validated as a stand-alone screening test, compared to VIA or validated for use in HIV-infected women. We carried out a randomized clinical trial to compare the diagnostic accuracy of VIA and VILI among HIV-infected women. Women attending the Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES) clinic in western Kenya were enrolled and randomized to undergo either VIA or VILI with colposcopy. Lesions suspicious for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater (CIN2+) were biopsied. Between October 2011 and June 2012, 654 were randomized to undergo VIA or VILI. The test positivity rates were 26.2% for VIA and 30.6% for VILI (p = 0.22). The rate of detection of CIN2+ was 7.7% in the VIA arm and 11.5% in the VILI arm (p = 0.10). There was no significant difference in the diagnostic performance of VIA and VILI for the detection of CIN2+. Sensitivity and specificity were 84.0% and 78.6%, respectively, for VIA and 84.2% and 76.4% for VILI. The positive and negative predictive values were 24.7% and 98.3% for VIA, and 31.7% and 97.4% for VILI. Among women with CD4+ count < 350, VILI had a significantly decreased specificity (66.2%) compared to VIA in the same group (83.9%, p = 0.02) and compared to VILI performed among women with CD4+ count ≥ 350 (79.7%, p = 0.02). VIA and VILI had similar diagnostic accuracy and rates of CIN2+ detection among HIV-infected women.

  3. Framing preventive care messaging and cervical cancer screening in a health-insured population in South Africa: Implications for population-based communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonis, Leegale; Paramanund, Jithen; Basu, Debashis; Luiz, John

    2016-02-17

    The impact of health message framing on cervical cancer screening uptake is poorly understood.We undertook a prospective randomized control study between August 2013 and February 2014 within a health-insuered population. The study consisted of 748 females, aged 21-65 years who had not had a Pap smear in the previous 3 years and were randomly selected to receive either a loss-framed, gain-framed, or neutral health message (control) regarding cervical cancer screening via email. Pap smear uptake was determined from medical claims data. The median age was 43 years (interquartile range: 26-60 years). Overall Pap smear screening rate was found to be 8.36 percent (confidence interval: 8.08%-8.64%). Screening rate in the control group was 9.58 percent (confidence interval: 9.29%-9.87%), 5.71 percent (confidence interval: 5.48%-6.98%) in the gain-framed group, and 8.53 percent (confidence interval: 8.24%-8.81%) in the loss-framed group. Statistically there was no difference between the screening rates of the groups (p = 0.75). Females were 43 percent (odds ratio = 0.57) less likely to have a Pap smear if exposed to a gain-framed message, compared to a neutral-framed message; however, this finding was non-significant (p = 0.13). When receiving a loss-framed message, females were only 23 percent (odds ratio = 0.87) less likely to have a Pap smear compared to a neutral-framed message, also not significant (p = 0.69). In addition, further age stratification revealed no differences in Pap smear uptake between different age groups. These findings indicate that Pap smear uptake in this health-insured population is low, with no difference in exposure to differently framed health messages when emailed. Framing of health messages may not be a significant consideration when constructing population-based communication through emails.

  4. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  5. A lectin-based diagnostic system using circulating antibodies to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yingji; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Ju, Woong; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we developed serological strategies using immunoglobulin fractions obtained by protein A chromatography to screen for cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN I). The reactivities of the immunoglobulins purified from sera of women with normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer were compared in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and enzyme-linked lectin assays (ELLAs). To capture the immunoglobulins, ELISAs and ELLAs were performed in protein A immobilized microplates. The reactivity of immunoglobulin in ELISA was in the increasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer, while that in ELLAs for detecting fucosylation was in the decreasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer. It was confirmed that women with CIN I were distinguishable from women with normal cytology or women with cervical cancer in the ELISA or the ELLA for detecting fucosylation with considerable sensitivity and specificity. Women with cervical cancer were also distinguishable from women with normal cytology with high sensitivity (ELISA: 97%, ELLA: 87%) and specificity (ELISA: 69%, ELLA: 72%). Moreover, the logistic regression model of the ELISA and the ELLA discriminated cervical cancer from normal cytology with 93% sensitivity and 93% specificity. These results indicate that the ELISAs and the ELLAs have great potential as strategies for primary screening of cervical cancer and CIN. It is expected that the ELISA and the ELLA can provide new insights to understand systemic changes of serum immunoglobulins during cervical cancer progression.

  6. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  7. Analysis on screen results of cervical cancer for 2 739 women in fishing village and countryside%渔农村妇女2739人宫颈癌筛选结果的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周悠燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analysis the screen results of cervical cancer and improve prevention for women with cervical cancer in fishing village and countryside. Method Analyze the information on cervical cancer for 2739 women in fishing village and countryside. Analyze the relation between age, marriage, education level, medical insurance, economic conditions and positive screen result of cervical cancer. Result 51 of 2739 women show positive results. Women with older age, lower education level and poorer economic conditions tend to have a higher rate of positive result. Conclusion Enhancing health education for women with cervical cancer in fishing village and countryside can improve the early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment of cervical cancer.%目的 分析渔农村妇女宫颈癌筛选的结果,提出对策.方法 对渔农村妇女 2 739 人的宫颈癌筛选资料进行分析,了解渔农村妇女年龄、婚姻状况、文化程度、医疗保险及经济状况与宫颈癌筛选阳性之间关系.结果 2 739 人中,宫颈癌筛选阳性检出 51 人,年龄越大阳性检出率越高,文化程度越低、经济状况越差阳性检出率越高.结论 加强渔农村妇女保健及健康教育工作,促使宫颈癌早发现、早诊断、早治疗.

  8. Delivering cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J; Barone, M; Mahé, C; Lewis, R; Luciani, S

    2005-05-01

    The goals of any cervical cancer prevention program should be threefold: to achieve high coverage of the population at risk, to screen women with an accurate test as part of high-quality services, and to ensure that women with positive test results are properly managed. This article focuses on the experiences of the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) in delivery of screening and treatment services as part of cervical cancer prevention projects in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Research and experience show that cervical cancer can be prevented when strategies and services are well planned and well managed and when attention is paid to program monitoring and evaluation. Coordination of program components, reduction of the number of visits, improvement of service quality, and flexibility in how services are delivered are all essential features of an effective service.

  9. Knowledge, Behavioral, and Sociocultural Factors Related to Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Inner-City Women in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Calvo, Arlene E; Daley, Ellen M; Giuliano, Anna R; López Castillo, Humberto

    2015-12-01

    Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of mortality in developing countries regardless of biomedical advances in prevention modalities. Specifically, Panama experiences one of the highest rates of cervical cancer worldwide. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge, behavioral, and sociocultural factors related to cervical cancer prevention among Panamanian women. A theory-guided, population-based quantitative survey following participatory processes was administered to a randomized sample of females (18-44 years) residing in a high-risk Panamanian community. Participants (n = 324) reported low knowledge regarding HPV, cervical cancer, and the purpose of the Pap test. Furthermore, low perceived susceptibility, high-risk sexual behaviors (e.g., low contraception and condom use) and adverse attitudes toward the Pap test (e.g., shame, fear) were identified. Television, newspapers/magazines, and relatives/friends/neighbors were common sources to receive health information. Significant gaps in knowledge and behavioral factors were identified, which may interfere with cervical cancer prevention efforts. Future strategies should reflect the sociocultural context, such as interpersonal relations, when developing and implementing cervical cancer programs, with the ultimate goal of decreasing the persistent burden among Latin American women.

  10. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  11. 薄层液基细胞学在宫颈癌及其癌前病变筛查中的价值%The value of Thin prep cytology test in cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷静; 万霖; 李惠新; 蒋瑛; 李瑞萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the detecting technology of thin layers of liquid base cytology (TCT) on the diagnosis of precancerous lesions of uterine cervix and the clinical value, accuracy of the cervical cancer screening. Methods: To collect and analysis 7340 patients who were did examine of TCT in gynecological clinic line of our hospital from May, 2009 ~ November, 2010. Take cytology diagnosed ASC - US and higher as positive results, and the positive results do pathohistological. Take histological diagnosis as gold standard. Results: Thin prep cytology test specimens of SCC, and satisfaction LSIL accuracy HSIL, respectively, 76.8% 97.3%, 100%. Conclusion: TCT combination diagnostic systems of TBS are ideal method of current diagnosis precancerous lesions of uterine cervix (CIN) and cervical cancer screening. Also it can be used as an indicator for cervical cancer detecting. There is some risk of precancerous lesions of young In ASC-US patients.%目的:评价薄层液基细胞学(Thin prep cytology test,TCT)检测技术对宫颈癌前病变的诊断和宫颈癌筛查的准确性及临床价值.方法:收集分析2009年5月~2010年11月在我院妇科门诊行TCT检查的受检者7340例,以细胞学诊断为未明确意义的不典型鳞状上皮细胞(ASC-US)及以上者为阳性结果,并对阳性结果行病理组织学诊断,以组织学诊断作为金标准.结果:液基细胞学标本满意度高,对SCC、HSIL、LSIL的准确率分别为76.8%、97.3%、100%.结论:TCT结合TBS诊断系统是目前诊断宫颈癌前病变和筛查宫颈癌的理想方法 [1],同时也可以作为一项宫颈癌术后随访的检测指标 [2].ASC-US患者中存在部分年轻的高危癌前病变者.

  12. HPV、TCT 及阴道镜对宫颈癌筛查的意义%Significance of HPV、TCT and Colposcopy for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳芝英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of HPV ,TCT and colposcopy in screening of early cervical le-sions clinical .Methods 1 260 cases of cervical cancer were detected by liquid-based cytology ( liquid-based thinlayer cytology test,TCT) ,high-risk human papilloma virus ( human papilloma virus ,HPV) DNA testing and colposcopy positioned under cervi-cal biopsy ,and cervical biopsy results confirmed standard histopathological evaluation HPV ,TCT and joint detection for early diag-nosis of cervical cancer effect .Results Liquid-based cytology test ( TCT) showed that there was no intraepithelial lesion or ma-lignant cells,normal and benign inflammation 1 037 cases,accounting for 82.30%;the remaining 223 cases occurred without a clear sense of atypical squamous cells ( ASCUS) ,low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions ( LSIL) ,high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL),squamous cell carcinoma (SCC),TCT showed positive detection rate of 17.70%.HPV-DNA testing found that 659 patients had 1 or more of the HPV infection ,HPV-DNA positive rate was 52.30%;For TCT combined with the highest and HPV-DNA genotyping sensitivity ,all indicators showed 262 patients had a positive indictor ,compared with a single TCT and HPV-DNA genotyping,the detection rate was significantly higher ,χ2 values was 71.610,40.971,P values was 0.000, 0.000 ratio.Conclusion The clinical use of HPV-DNA, liquid-based cytology and colposcopy for early screening of cervical cancer,is an efficient and feasible solution ,and the combined detection of cervical precancerous lesions can improve the detection rate and reduce the rate of misdiagnosis .Early screening for cervical cancer is important .%目的:探讨HPV、TCT联合阴道镜在筛查早期宫颈病变中的临床意义。方法本研究选取在门诊初次就诊接受宫颈癌筛查的患者1260例,通过液基细胞学检查(liquid-based thinlayer cytology test ,TCT)、高危型人类乳头状瘤病毒( human papilloma

  13. 不同检测方法在宫颈病变和早期宫颈癌筛查中的价值%The Screening Value of Different Detection Methods for Cervical Lesions and Early Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雯; 安红梅; 马丽莎; 邓继红

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价目前临床使用的几种筛查方法在宫颈病变和早期宫颈癌筛查中的价值,针对不同经济、文化及地理背景下的人群,探讨合理、经济、高灵敏度的筛查方案.方法:巴氏涂片、5%醋酸肉眼观察(VIA)、薄层液基细胞涂片法(TCT)结合TBS分类报告系统、HPV-DNA检测(HC-II)、阴道镜检查结合评分系统、镜下定点活检病理组织学检查合理联合应用.结果:1 594例病例进行活检,共检出CINⅡ及CINⅡ以上的宫颈病变65例,其中CINⅡ33例,CINⅢ 31例,浸润癌1例.HC-Ⅱ 诊断高度以上宫颈病变敏感度及约登指数最高分别为92.31%和0.81,TCT、VIA、阴道镜检查和巴氏涂片法诊断宫颈高度以上病变敏感度为中等敏感.HPV-DNA+TCT诊断宫颈高度以上病变敏感度、特异度和约登指数最高.结论:多技术联合互补检查可有效筛查宫颈癌前病变及宫颈癌,医务人员可根据患者的实际情况,为病员选择合适的筛查方案.推荐宫颈病变和早期宫颈癌筛查的最佳方案是同时进行TCT和HPV检测;次佳方案是传统巴氏涂片+HPV检测;一般方案:HPV检测+阴道镜检查;基础方案:巴氏涂片+VIA.%O b jectnve: To evaluate the clinical use of several screening methods for cervical lesions and early cervical cancer and to explore a reasonable choice of economical, high-sensitive screening piogran for the population with different economic, cultural and geographical background M e1hods: Pap smear, visual inspection of 5% acetic acid ( VIA) , thin layer liquid-based cytology smear( TCI) with TBS reporting system, HPV-DNA test( HC-Ⅱ), colposcopy combined scoring system, endoscopic sentinel bbpsy-histological diagnosis, and a reasonable combinatbn of the methods mentioned above were used h this study Results; Totally 1 594 cases undeiwent the biopsy with the results showing65 cases of C IN Ⅱ ormore severe than C IN Ⅱ ( hcluding33 cases of C IN Ⅱ ,31 cases ofCⅢ andl case

  14. Colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Randall W; Cannon, Jamie A; David, Donald S; Early, Dayna S; Ford, James M; Giardiello, Francis M; Halverson, Amy L; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hampel, Heather; Ismail, Mohammad K; Jasperson, Kory; Klapman, Jason B; Lazenby, Audrey J; Lynch, Patrick M; Mayer, Robert J; Ness, Reid M; Provenzale, Dawn; Rao, M Sambasiva; Shike, Moshe; Steinbach, Gideon; Terdiman, Jonathan P; Weinberg, David; Dwyer, Mary; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by early diagnosis and by cancer prevention through polypectomy. These NCCN Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening describe various colorectal screening modalities and recommended screening schedules for patients at average or increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. In addition, the guidelines provide recommendations for the management of patients with high-risk colorectal cancer syndromes, including Lynch syndrome. Screening approaches for Lynch syndrome are also described.

  15. An analysis of cervical cancer screening data in Miyun county, Beijing%北京市密云县宫颈癌筛查资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏艳霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investage prevalences of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN) among women in villages or towns in Miyun county, Beijing. Methods The screening data of cervical cancer of inhabitant women aged 25-65 years in 4 villages and 5 communities of downtowns in Miyun county were retrospectively analyzed. Results Totally, 20236 women were screened, including 14 433 women in villages and 5 923 women in towns. The positive rate of cervical cytologyical examination were 2. 49% (507/20 356 ). 219 women received HPV-DNA detection, among them, the high-rsk HPV (HR-HPV) infection rate in village women group was 69.37% (77/111 ), and that in town women group was 67.59% (73/108), there was no significant difference between the two women groups(x2 =0. 080, P > 0.05 ). The pathological results of colpoecopy and cervical biopsy showed that in village women group, positive rate of CIN Ⅱ was 36.66% (33/90), positive rate of CIN Ⅲ was 50.00% (45/90), and positive rate of cervical cancer was 3.33% (3/90), while in town women group, positive rate of CIN Ⅱ was 45.00% ( 36/80), positive rate of CIN Ⅲ was 45.00% (36/80) and positive rate of cervical cancer was 2.50% ( 2/80 ), there was no significant difference between the two women groups(x2 = 1. 220, 0. 424, 0. 103 respectively, all P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion In Miyun county, there are no significant differences between village women group and downtown women group in prevalences of cervical cancer and CIN.%目的 了解本地区农村和城镇妇女宫颈癌及癌前病变的患病情况.方法 回顾性分析2009年8月~2010年7月间,密云县妇幼保健院对县域内4个农村乡镇、5个社区的25~65岁户籍妇女进行宫颈癌普查的临床资料.结果 普查总数为20 356例,其中农村妇女14 433例、城镇妇女5 923例,细胞学检查阳性率为2.49%(507/20 356);进行HPV-DNA检测219例,农村组HR-HPV感染率为69.37%(77/111),

  16. 宫颈细胞DNA定量分析系统用于宫颈癌筛查的临床意义%The clinical significance of quantitative analysis of cervical cellular DNA in cervical cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟培根; 李末娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical significance of quantitative analysis of cellular DNA combined with hquidbased cytology in cervical cancer screening.Methods: 5 886 cases attending cervical cancer screening from October 2009 to April 2010 in our hospital were given quantitative analysis of celhdar DNA and liquid-based cytology.The cases whose results exceeding LSIL in cytological diagnosis or exceeding 3 heteroploid cells in quantitative analysis of cellular DNA were suggested to make a biopsy of histopathology of cervical celhdar, with the results of pathological diagnosis as a standard.Results: 285 cases were diagnosed positive by liquid-based cytology and 486 cases were diagnosed positive by quantitative analysis of cellular DNA, each positive diagnosis rate was 4.84% (285/5 886) and 8.25% (486/5 886).525 cases were diagnosed positive by quantitative analysis of cellular DNA and liquid-based cytology, the positive diagnosis rate of which was 8.92% (525/5 886).525 cases were made biopsyofcervix, among which, 375 cases were diagnosed positive, the positive diagnosis rate was 71.4% (375/525).Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of cellular DNA combined with liquid-based cytology can enhance the positive rate of cervical cancer screening obviously%目的:探讨宫颈细胞DNA定量分析结合液基细胞学诊断方法进行宫颈癌筛查的临床意义.方法:对2009年10月~2010年4月参加我院宫颈癌筛查的5 886例妇女,进行液基细胞学检查和细胞DNA定量分析诊断,在细胞学诊断≥低度鳞状上皮内病变或细胞DNA分析有≥3个异倍体细胞,建议做宫颈病理组织学活检,以病理诊断结果为标准.结果:液基细胞学诊断阳性285例,阳性率为4.84%(285/5 886);细胞DNA异倍体检出阳性486例,检出率为8.25%(486/5 886);细胞DNA定量分析结合液基细胞学诊断检出阳性525例,总阳性率为8.92%(525/5 886).525例患者需做宫颈组织活检,活检结果:阳性375例,阳性率为71

  17. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is for ...

  18. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  19. The male role in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  20. 北京市月坛社区妇女免费宫颈癌筛查结果分析%Results of Cervical Cancer Screening in Yuetan Community in Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳格; 张诗敏; 杜雪平; 张树静; 赖爱鸾

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence of cervical diseases in Yuetan community in Beijing, with an attempt to provide evidences for community — based prevention of cervical cancer. Methods Conventional cervical scraping smear screening was performed in 3850 women who attended the " Two Cancers Screening" project in Yuetan community from 2008 to 2009. Results In Yuetan community, 3850 women received screening, with an screening rate of 9. 9% and a government budget of 96250 RMB yuan. Abnormal pelvic conditions were found in 1209 women ( 31. 4% ). Of 165 women ( 4. 3% ) with abnormal cervical cytology, 23 ( 0. 6% ) had cervical lesions, including one case of cervical cancer. Conclusion The screening rate is low in Yuetan community in Beijing. The prevalence of cervical lesions is 0. 6% . Health education should be strengthened in rural communities in Beijing so as to urge more women to accept cervix screening.%目的 了解月坛社区妇女宫颈病变流行状况,为社区宫颈癌的防治提供依据.方法 回顾分析2008-2009年月坛社区"两癌筛查"项目中3 850例传统宫颈刮片筛查结果.结果 宫颈癌筛查妇女3 850例,筛查率为9.9%;政府投入9.625万元;3 850例妇女妇科检查异常者1 209例(31.4%);宫颈细胞学检查异常165例(4.3%);对165例宫颈细胞学异常者行病理检查宫颈病变23例(0.6%),其中宫颈癌1例.结论 月坛社区妇女宫颈癌筛查率较低,宫颈疾病患病率为0.6%,应进一步加对强居民的宣传和教育,使更多的妇女接受宫颈癌的筛查.

  1. HPV基因分型检测在宫颈癌筛查中的应用%The Application of HPV Genotypes in Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖凤静; 苏明权; 杨柳; 马越云; 郝晓柯

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the application value of HPV genotyped technology in screening of cervical cancer. Methods: Reverse dot blot hybridization was used to demonstrate the HPV genotypes, there were 23 genotypes including low-risk type and high-risk type. Results: In 98 samples, 38 cases were infected by HPV and the positive rate was 38.8%. The prevalence of HPV infection in the chronic cervicitis, CIN I, CIN II, CIN III and SCC was 30.4% (14/46), 15.4% (4/26), 71.4%(10/14), 75%(6/8) and 100% (4/4) respectively. The order of type-specific prevalence was HPV43, 11, 6, 31, 42 and 51 in the chronic cervicitis, HPV35, 16, 52, 53 and 59 in CIN I; HPV 16,6,11 and 51 in CIN II , HPV 16,18,31 and 53 in CIN III while the distribution order in SCC was HPV 1 6, followed by HPV52, 18, 33, 58, 59 and 66. Conclusions: Continuous HPV infection has a close relationship with cervical disease. Detection of HPV gene type provides great help for clinical screening, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cervical disease detection.%目的:探讨人乳头瘤病毒(human papilloma virus,HPV)基因分型技术在宫颈癌筛查中的临床应用价值.方法:采用反向斑点杂交法对HPV基因型进行分析,包括低危型(如6、11、42、43、44型等)和高危型(如16、18、31、33、35、MM4型等)共23个型别.结果:98例样本中检出HPV阳性者38例,23种基因型中共检出15种HPV型别,HPV总感染率38.8%(38/98).慢性宫颈炎患者中HPV感染率30.4% (14/46),检测到的HPV亚型主要是HPV43,11,6,42,31和51(其中HPV6,42,31,51检出率一致).CIN I患者HPV感染率15.4%(4/26),最常见的HPV亚型为HPV35,其次为HPV16,52,53和59(其中16,52,53,59检出率一致).CIN Ⅱ患者HPV感染率71.4%(10/14),以HPV16,6,11,51等亚型最常见.CINⅢ患者HPV感染率75%(6/8),HPV亚型以HPV16,18,31,53为主.SCC患者HPV阳性率为100%(4/4),HPV16检测率最高,其次为HPV52,18,33,58,59和66.结论:持续的HPV感染与宫颈疾病有着密切的关

  2. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, S; Jensen-Fangel, S;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical...... performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the interpretation of results. RESULTS: We followed 1140 WLWH and 17 046 controls with no prior history of ICC or hysterectomy for 9491 and 156 865 person-years, respectively. Compared with controls, the overall...

  3. Youtube as a source of information on cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Accurate information about cervical cancer to general public can lower the burden of the disease including its mortality. Aims: We aimed to look at the quality of information available in YouTube for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: We searched YouTube (http://www.youtube.com for videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. Videos were then analyzed for their source and content of information. Results: We studied 172 videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. We found that there were videos describing the personal stories, risk factors, and the importance of screening. However, videos discussing all the aspects of cancers were lacking. Likewise, videos from the reputed organization were also lacking. Conclusion: Although there were numerous videos available in cervical cancer, videos from reputed organizations including Center for Disease Control and Prevention, American Cancer Society, and World Health Organization were lacking. We strongly believe that quality videos from such organizations via YouTube can help lower the burden of disease.

  4. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas C; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and identifies areas for programmatic development to meet the global development goal to reduce cancer-related mortality. Advanced stage at presentation and gaps in prevention, screening, diagnostic, and treatment capacities contribute to reduced cervical cancer survival. Cost-effective cervical cancer screening strategies implemented in low resource settings can reduce cervical cancer mortality. Patient- and system-based barriers need to be addressed as part of any cervical cancer control program. Limited human capacity and infrastructure in SSA are major barriers to comprehensive cervical cancer care. Management of early-stage, locally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer involves multispecialty care, including gynecology oncology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, radiation oncology, and palliative care. Investment in cervical cancer care programs in low- and middle-income countries will need to include effective recruitment programs to engage women in the community to access cancer screening and diagnosis services. Though cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable cancer, the challenges to cervical control in SSA are great and will require a broadly integrated and sustained effort by multiple stakeholders before meaningful progress can be achieved.

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening System and Liquid Based Cytology Test in ervical Lesion Screening Study%宫颈癌筛查系统与液基细胞学检测在宫颈病变初筛中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 黄俊霞

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨宫颈癌筛查系统(TruScreen)与液基细胞学检测(TCT)在宫颈病变初筛中的应用价值.方法:对1 201例患者依次进行TruScreen、TCT及宫颈活检病理学检查,将其病理结果与TruScreen和TCT结果对照分析.结果:TruScreen、TCT阳性结果分别为316例和207例,病理学检查阳性结果为115例.TruScreen、TCT检测的敏感度分别为81.7%、71.3%,特异度分别为79.6%、88.5%,假阴性率分别为18.3%、28.7%,假阳性率分别为20.4%、11.5%.TruScreen检查敏感度略高于TCT,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:TruScreen的效果评价略优于TCT,具有较低的假阴性率及相对不高的假阳性率,有望成为我国宫颈病变初筛的独立方法.%Objective:To study the value of cervical cancer screening system and liquid based cytology test in detection of cervical lesions.Methods:Cervical cancer screening system,liquid based cytology test and pathological test were performed in a 1201 cases,and the results of the former two were compared with pathological outcomes.Results:A total of 316,207 and 115 cases were shown as positive according to cervical cancer screening system, liquid based cytology test and pathological test respectively indicating sensitivity of 81.7%,71.3%;specificity of 79.6%,88.5%;false negative rate of 18.3%,28.7%;and false positive rate of 20.4%,11.5% for cervical cancer screening system and liquid based cytology test.Sensitivity of cervical cancer screening system was slightly higher than that of the liquid based cytology test,while the difference was insignificant (P>0.05).Conclusion: Efficacy of cervical cancer screening system is better than that of liquid based cytology test. With low false negative rate and comparatively low false positive rate,it might be used alone as primary screening method for cervical lesions in China.

  6. 阴道镜检查联合醋酸白试验在宫颈癌普查中的应用探讨%Application of colposcopy detection and acetic acid in cervical cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨阴道镜检查联合醋酸白试验在宫颈癌普查中的应用效果。方法分析本院1000例研究对象宫颈癌普查情况,分别采用多功能醋酸白溶液试验、液基薄层细胞学检测、阴道镜检查、组织病理学进行诊断。结果阴道镜检查联合多功能醋酸白溶液试验在宫颈癌普查中的敏感度明显高于任意单一的诊断结果, P<0.05,差异均有统计学意义。结论阴道镜检查联合多功能醋酸白溶液试验可以更加客观的进行宫颈癌筛查,提高临床诊断准确率,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To approach the effect of colposcopy detection and acetic acid in cervical cancer screening. Methods To choose 1000 cases of cervical cancer screening in our hospital as research object, which was detected by multifunction experimental acetic acid solution test, liquid based cytology test, colposcopy, histopathology. Results The susceptibility of cervical cancer screening by colposcopy detection and multifunction experimental acetic acid solution was higher than diagnostic results of any single, P<0.05, the difference were statistical significance. Conclusion The colposcopy combined and multifunction experimental acetic acid solution test can be more objective in cervical cancer screening, to improve the accuracy of clinical diagnosis, which was to be used.

  7. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  8. 2986例农村妇女宫颈癌筛查结果分析%Results of cervical cancer screening in 2986 rural women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛涛; 李红颖; 刘丽丽; 臧永宏

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨农村妇女宫颈癌发生的危险因素,为宫颈癌的防治提供参考.方法 以2014年3月至2014年6月威海市郊区3个乡镇中居住时间超过1年、年龄为35~65岁的农村妇女作为普查对象,均接受妇科内诊检查及液基超薄细胞学(TCT)检查.分析宫颈疾病的发生情况及宫颈糜烂、宫颈息肉、宫颈原位癌发生的危险因素.结果 2 986例妇女中宫颈异常率为64.9%,35~45岁组的异常率最高,其次为46 ~ 55岁组,56 ~ 65岁组则最低.1 938例宫颈异常的妇女中,81.1%为宫颈糜烂、15.4%为宫颈息肉、0.2%为宫颈原位癌、3.3%为宫颈陈旧裂伤.1 938例宫颈异常者的TCT检查结果异常率为2.1%.以ASC-US发生率最高,最低为HISL.宫颈糜烂发生率在35~45岁、已婚人群、经济收入<1000元、中学及以下、性伴侣数≥2、初次妊娠年龄≤20岁、怀孕次数>2次、产次>2次、未定期普查妇女中较高(P< 0.05).宫颈息肉发生率在35~45岁、已婚和离异、小学及以下学历、经济收入<1000元、初次性交年龄<16岁、性伴侣数≥2、初次妊娠年龄≤20岁妇女中较高(P<0.05).宫颈原位癌发生率在初次性交年龄< 16岁、性伴侣数≥2的妇女中发生率较高(P<0.05).结论 对农村妇女加强婚前性知识的宣教及避孕的正确方法,提高其自我保健意识;提倡晚婚、晚育、少育;重视宫颈疾病的筛查,有性生活的妇女、特别是早婚早育、有流产史、性病史、多个性伴侣的妇女应定期普查,必要情况下可行病理活检或阴道镜检查.%Objective To investigate the risk factors of cervical cancer in rural women and to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer.Methods From March to June,2014,the 35~65 years old rural women who lived in three towns of Weihai suburbs for over one year were selected as investigation objects.All the women received gynecological

  9. 农村妇女宫颈糜烂样改变者对宫颈癌前期筛查的认知、态度、行为及相关因素分析%Awareness, Attitudes and Behaviors of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Women with Cervical Erosion and Related Factors Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娇; 王瑞; 任岩峰

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查农村妇女宫颈糜烂样改变者对宫颈癌前筛查的认知、态度和行为状况。方法:选择2015年3月25日至9月25日下乡生殖健康普查中,具有宫颈糜烂样改变者妇女700例为调查对象,自行设计调查问卷,统计问卷结果。结果:686例宫颈糜烂样改变者妇女对宫颈癌前筛查的认知、态度、行为状况调查结果存在一定的差异性,其认知程度与文化程度、职业、家庭收入呈正相关,年龄越小或年龄越大者对其认知越差,其态度与对癌前筛查的了解程度呈正相关,对其行为具有一定影响。结论:农村妇女宫颈糜烂样改变者对宫颈癌前筛查的认知、态度和行为状况可相互影响。因此,加强对宫颈糜烂样改变正确认知、宫颈癌防控意识的知识普及和宣教,对提高自我保健意识和加强预防工作至关重要。%Objective:To analysis awareness,attitudes and behavior conditions of cervical cancer screening in rural women with cervical erosion. Methods:From Mar 25, 2015 to Sep 25, 2015, 700 rural women with cervical erosion were checked-out in reproductive health survey. Self-designed questionnaire was used. Results:Awareness, attitudes, behaviors situation of cervical cancer screening existed some differences in 686 rural women with cervical erosion. Cognition was correlated positively with cultural level, occupation, household income. Awareness of younger or older person was poorer, their attitudes and understanding was positively correlated with the precancerous screening. Conclusions:Awareness of rural women with cervical erosion on cervical cancer screening can affect health attitudes and behavior. So, the strengthening of the awareness of cervical erosion and cervical cancer screening can essentially improve prevention efforts.

  10. Challenges to cervical screening in a developing country: The case of Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman, Nor Hayati; Rebolj, Matejka

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many developing countries, including Malaysia, will need to continue relying on cervical screening because they will not be able to cover their entire female adolescent populations with HPV vaccination. The aim of this paper was to establish the extent of the health care, informational......, financial and psychosocial barriers to cervical screening in Malaysia. METHODS: A literature search was made for reports on implementation, perceptions and reception of cervical screening in Malaysia published between January 2000 and September 2008. RESULTS: Despite offering Pap smears for free since 1995......: Improving screening coverage will remain an important strategy for combating cervical cancer in Malaysia. The focus should be on the policy-making context, improving awareness and the screening infrastructure, and making the service better accessible to women....

  11. Glycoprotein and Glycan in Tissue and Blood Samples of Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  12. 新疆塔城市农牧区妇女宫颈癌普查结果分析%The analysis of cervical cancer screening of women in urban and pastoral areas in Xinjiang tachen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 孔伟琴; 吴桂香

    2013-01-01

    objective: Agricultural and pastoral areas of the city by women for cervical cancer screening, Understanding of rural women in our city the prevalence of cervical disease, For the city to rural women, cervical cancer screening method in the future, to provide the scientific basis for control measures, Method: Participating in the 6023 cervical cancer screening 30 years old to 50-year-old women between the agricultural and pastoral areas of cervical cytology, 5% acetic acid test, Compound iodine test, Any of the above three methods abnormal colposcopy examination, Colposcopy and biopsy pathological abnormalities line, The test results were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Checked out the CIN Ⅰ 9 people (1.49 ‰), CIN Ⅱ 5 people (0.8 ‰), CIN Ⅲ 11 people (1.8 ‰), Early invasive cervical 3 (0.4‰). Were higher than those in Beijing, Shanghai and other developed areas average. Conclusion:Women's cancer screening is the early detection of cervical precancerous lesions (OIN) and cervical cancer an important measure, Popularity should increase efforts to control knowledge and advocacy, to strengthen health education, Promote the participation of rural women perceived cancer screening, cervical cancer effectively reduce the prevalence of women, improve women's health.%目的:通过对我市农牧区妇女进行宫颈癌的普查,了解我市农牧区妇女宫颈疾病的患病情况,为我市今后农牧区妇女宫颈癌的普查方法、防治措施提供科学依据。方法:对参加宫颈癌普查的6023名30~60岁的农村牧区妇女进行宫颈脱落细胞学检查,5%醋酸试验、复方碘试验,上述三种检查方法任何一种异常行阴道镜检查,阴道镜检查异常者行组织活检病理学检查,现将检查结果进行回顾性分析。结果:共检查出CINⅠ9人(1.49‰)、CIN Ⅱ5人(0.8‰)、CINⅢ11人(1.8‰),宫颈早期浸润3人(0.4‰)。患病人数均高于北京、上海等经济发达

  13. 三亚地区农村妇女宫颈癌认知度和筛查状况分析%Analysis of cervical cancer awareness and screening situationcervical cancer awareness and screening condition of of rural married women in the rural areas of Sanya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑛; 李丽霞; 张亲凤; 李凤玉; 林燕玲; 曾祥丽

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解三亚地区农村妇女宫颈癌的认知度和筛查状况,并分析二者之间的关系.方法 用随机整群抽样的方法选择三亚辖区内两个乡镇的农村已婚妇女为调查对象,研究宫颈癌的认知和筛查水平,Pearson 直线相关分析确定二者之间的相关性.结果 共发放问卷2 650 份,回收2 355 份有效问卷,回收率为88.87%;31.93%和19.75%的调查对象能正确的认识人类乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)和宫颈癌筛查,23.86%、19.62%和4.33%的调查对象在1 年内、1~3年和3 年以前接受过宫颈癌筛查,52.2%的调查对象从未接受过宫颈癌筛查,宫颈癌认知和筛查水平之间存在相关性(r=0.681,P<0.05).结论 三亚地区农村妇女宫颈癌认知和筛查水平均较低,应加大宫颈癌筛查的宣传力度,提高妇女对宫颈癌的认知和筛查水平.%Objective To study the cervical cancer awareness and screening situation of married women in the rural areas of Sanya, and to investigate the relationship between them. Methods Questionnaires were distributed in married women in rural areas of Sanya. The general information, awareness of cervical cancer and screening situation were recorded and analyzed. Results A total of 2 650 questionnaires were distributed, and 2 355 (88.87%) were retrieved. 31.93% and 19.75% of the subjects got correct awareness of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer screening, respectively. 23.86%, 19.62% and 4.33% of the subjects received cervical cancer screening within the previous 1 year, the previous 1~3 years, and 3 years ago, respectively, while 52.2% never received cervical cancer screening. There was significant correlation between the awareness of cervical cancer and screening rates of cervical cancer. Conclusion The awareness and screening rates of cervical cancer are low in the rural areas of Sanya, publicity and education must be taken to improve the current condition.

  14. 北京市大兴区宫颈癌筛查宫颈细胞学结果分析%Analysis of cervical cytology results in cervical cancer screening in Daxing District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂艳华; 于洪艳; 贾国华; 刘爽

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解北京市大兴区适龄妇女的生殖健康状况。方法对2013至2014年北京市大兴区35~64岁户籍妇女进行妇科及宫颈细胞学检查,记录个人基本信息、个人病史及检查结果。结果宫颈癌筛查39224人,进行传统巴氏细胞学检查的妇女共有25544人,阳性(未明确诊断意义的不典型鳞状上皮细胞及以上)检出率为2.22%。国产液基细胞学技术检查13680人,阳性检出率为2.84%。液基细胞学检查与巴氏涂片相比,不满意涂片率低,经比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=20.00,P<0.01)。液基细胞学检查在癌前病变和癌的阳性检出率均高于巴氏涂片,主要体现在未明确诊断意义的不典型鳞状上皮细胞、鳞状上皮内低度病变、鳞状上皮内高度病变的阳性检出率高,差异均有统计学意义(χ2值分别为6.78、6.68、5.83,均P<0.01)。在细胞学结果为鳞状上皮内高度病变的51人中,有1人被最终确诊为宫颈癌,并且有22人最终诊断为宫颈上皮内瘤变。在细胞学结果为鳞状细胞癌的2人中,均被最终确诊为宫颈癌。结论宫颈细胞学检查在早期发现和及时治疗宫颈癌及癌前病变中起到了非常重要的作用,但由于阅片人员有限及其能力水平的问题,使得细胞学阅片结果阳性率偏低。%Objective To investigate the reproductive health status of women in Daxing District of Beijing.Methods From 2013 to 2014 women aged 35-64 years old accepted cervical cytological and gynecological examination, and personal basic information, personal history and examination results were recorded.Results Totally 39 224 women received cervical cancer screening and a total of 25 544 people received traditional pap cytological examination.The positive detection rate ( ASC-US and above) was 2.22%.Domestic technology of liquid based cytology check was performed among 13 680 people with positive

  15. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  16. Motivators for women to attend cervical screening: the influential role of GPs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Mairead

    2014-08-01

    Participation in organized cervical cancer screening has declined recently. While research has focussed on barriers to screening participation, less attention has been paid to what motivates women to attend. Moreover, little is known about health care provider\\/practitioner-level barriers and facilitators to participation. Better understanding of these issues could help inform strategies to improve participation.

  17. Study on TCT split-flow for HPV positive method on Xinjiang cervical cancer screening%careHPV 初筛及 TCT 分流法在新疆宫颈癌筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帕提曼·米吉提; 唐努尔·阿布力米提; 古扎丽努尔·阿不力孜; 李华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of TCT split-flow for HPV positive method on Xinjiang cervical cancer screening project.Methods Colposcopy and cervical biopsy were given to the women with positive result of the careHPV test and Thinprep test.Diagnostic evaluation was conducted to detect the sensitivity,specificity,predictive positive value and predictive negative value and the AUC.Diagnostic val-ue was compared by ROC curve and analyzed by SPSS19.0 software.Results It showed better value for the test of TCT split-flow for HPV positive result than HPV split-flow for TCT positive method,with their AUC 0.743 and 0.680 respectively.Conclusions Split-flow by TCT after screening by careHPV method showed high diagnostic value in Xinjiang cervical cancer screening.%果以careHPV 为初筛、薄层液基细胞学为分流的筛查方法 AUC 值为0.743,高于以细胞学初筛、HPV 分流法。结论careHPV 初筛、细胞学分流法在新疆农村地区妇女宫颈癌筛查中有较好的应用前景。

  18. Screening and identification of the peptides specifically binding to cervical cancer HeLa cell%宫颈癌HeLa细胞特异性结合肽的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓娟; 郭彩霞; 杨陈; 梁晓秋

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Molecular targeted therapy was paid much attention for its good therapeutic effects on cervical cancer and deeply decreased the injuries of the human body. This study aimed to screen and identify the peptides specifically binding to cervical cancer by using phage display in vivo. It may be the targeting vector of the chemotherapeutics and be the basic of the targeted drugs of cervical cancer. Methods: Human cervical cancer HeLa cell was cultured in vivo and the tumor animal model was made in nude mice. After phage peptide library was injected in mouse by intravenous injection and heart perfusion was carried out after 15 minutes, cervical cancer was harvested. Cervical cancer specific peptides that used in the next screening were obtained after amplification and purification in vivo. After 3 circulations, the affinity and specificity of phage clones to cervical cancer cells were preliminary indentified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry. The positive phage clone was amplified and the sequences were analyzed to determine the collective sequence. Results: The 10 phage clones were identified by ELISA, 8 of them were specially bound to the HeLa cell line which had the same amino acid sequence that is LLRSTGF. Conclusion: The peptides specifically binding to cervical cancer HeLa cell are screened and identified. All the results lay the foundation for the development of diagnostic reagents and drugs of cervical cancer.%背景与目的:宫颈癌的分子靶向治疗具有很好的疗效,同时可以显著减少抗癌药物对人体自身的损伤,因此备受关注.本研究利用噬菌体体内展示技术筛选及鉴定宫颈癌特异性结合肽,将有可能成为化疗药物的靶向载体,为宫颈癌靶向药物治疗奠定基础.方法:体外培养宫颈癌HeLa细胞接种裸鼠,建立肿瘤动物模型.将随机肽库尾静脉注入裸鼠体内,循环15 min,心脏灌注后回收肿瘤组织噬菌体扩增

  19. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy.

  20. Cancer screening status in Korea, 2011: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Seo, Hong Gwan

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the use of screening for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers, which are included in the Korean National Cancer Screening Programme. In 2011 the National Cancer Centre in Korea conducted a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional interview survey using multi-stage random sampling. Participants included 4,100 cancer-free men 40 years and over of age and women over 30 years of age. The lifetime screening rates for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 76.2%, 54.3%, 56.1%, 79.0%, and, 74.8%, respectively. The rates of recommended screening for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 64.6%, 22.9%, 35.3%, 60.4%, and 62.4%, respectively. More than 70% of all screening was attributed to organised cancer screening programmes. The main reason given for non attendance was 'no symptoms'. A greater effort is needed to increase screening rates, especially for liver and colorectal cancers.

  1. Are immigrants and nationals born to immigrants at higher risk for delayed or no lifetime breast and cervical cancer screening? The results from a population-based survey in Paris metropolitan area in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Rondet

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare breast cancer screening (BCS and cervical cancer screening (CCS practices of French women born to French parents with those of immigrants and nationals born to immigrants, taking their socioeconomic status into account. METHODS: The study is based on data collected in 2010 in the Paris metropolitan area among a representative sample of 3000 French-speaking adults. For women with no history of breast or cervical cancer, multivariate logistic regressions and structural equation models were used to investigate the factors associated with never having undergone BCS or CCS. RESULTS: We confirmed the existence of a strong gradient, with respect to migration origin, for delaying or never having undergone BCS or CCS. Thus, being a foreign immigrant or being French of immigrant parentage were risk factors for delayed and no lifetime screening. Interestingly, we found that this gradient persisted (at least partially after adjusting for the women's socioeconomic characteristics. Only the level of income seemed to play a mediating role, but only partially. We observed differences between BCS and CCS which suggest that organized CCS could be effective in reducing socioeconomic and/or ethnic inequities. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic status partially explained the screening nonparticipation on the part of French women of immigrant origin and foreign immigrants. This was more so the case with CCS than with BCS, which suggests that organized prevention programs might reduce social inequalities.

  2. Cancer screening: Should cancer screening be essential component of primary health care in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study highlights the availability and success of visual screening tools in early detection and mortality reduction of major neoplasia in resource-poor health care settings and recommends implementation of oral and cervical cancer screening as part of assured primary health care package in developing countries.

  3. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of malignancies showing the greatest benefit from preventive measures, especially screening or secondary prevention. Several screening strategies are available with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency. The most widely used are the faecal occult blood test in countries with population-based screening programmes, and colonoscopy in those conducting opportunistic screening. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal cancer screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Washington in 2015, with special emphasis on the medium-term results of faecal occult blood testing strategies and determining factors and on strategies to reduce the development of interval cancer after colonoscopy.

  4. Frequency of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia treatment in a well-screened population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel Svennekjaer; Rebolj, Matejka; Andersen, Erik Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    a nationwide population-based estimate of the frequency of CIN treatment per prevented cervical cancer case in a well-screened population. We retrieved the data from the Danish National Population, Patient, Health Insurance, Pathology, and Cancer Registers, and calculated annual age-standardized CIN treatment...

  5. Preventing cervical cancer : overviews of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and 2 US immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kris; Curtis, C Robinette; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Stokley, Shannon; Walker, Chastity; Roland, Katherine; Benard, Vicki; Saraiya, Mona

    2008-11-15

    Three federal programs with the potential to reduce cervical cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, especially among underserved populations, are administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program, and the Section 317 immunization grant program. The NBCCEDP provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to uninsured and underinsured women. The VFC program and the Section 317 immunization grant program provide vaccines, including human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, to targeted populations at no cost for these vaccines. This article describes the programs, their histories, populations served, services offered, and roles in preventing cervical cancer through HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Potential long-term reduction in healthcare costs resulting from HPV vaccination is also discussed. As an example of an initiative to vaccinate uninsured women aged 19-26 years through a cancer services program, a state-based effort that was recently launched in New York, is highlighted.

  6. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  7. Development of a community cancer education program: the Forsyth County, NC cervical cancer prevention project.

    OpenAIRE

    Michielutte, R; Dignan, M B; Wells, H B; Young, L. D.; Jackson, D S; Sharp, P C

    1989-01-01

    The authors outline the development and implementation of a public health education program for cervical cancer screening among black women in Forsyth County, NC. The educational program includes distributing electronic and printed information media messages, a program of direct education for women, and providing information on current issues in cervical screening to primary-care physicians. Program development was based on social marketing principles, the PRECEDE model, and the communication...

  8. HPV检测联合液基细胞学对宫颈癌筛查的临床研究%Clinical Study on HPV Test Combined With Thinprep Cytologic Test in Cervical Cancer Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长虹

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析HPV检测联合液基细胞学在宫颈癌筛查中的临床应用。方法8000例接受宫颈癌筛查的女性分别对其进行HPV检测和液基细胞学检查,比较HPV检测联合液基细胞学检查、HPV检测及液基细胞学检查三种检查方法对各期宫颈病变的检测阳性率。结果HPV+TCT检测对早期瘤样病变和癌变的检出率为69.6%,高于HPV检测的55.6%和TCT检测的64.1%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 HPV检测联合液基细胞学检查对宫颈癌早期病变和癌变检出率高。%ObjectiveTo analyze the clinical use of HPV test combined with liquid-based cytology in cervical cancer screening.Methods 8 000 women undergoing cervical cancer screening received HPV test and liquid-based cytology test,the positive rate of al stages of cervical lesion detected by HPV test combined with liquid-based cytology,HPV test and liquid-based cytology were compared.ResultsThe detection rate of early neoplasia and canceration rate by HPV+CT detection was 69.6%,higher than that of HPV detection(55.6%)and TCT detection(64.1%),the difference was significant(P<0.05).Conclusion HPV detection combined with liquid-based cytology has high detection rate of early cervical neoplasia and canceration rate.

  9. Cervical cancer, quality issues in early detection and prognostic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, A.

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that cervical cancer incidence will reduce in The Netherlands over the next decades, as a result of hrHPV vaccination and hrHPV-based screening. Untill then, quality of care could need some improvements as suggested by the work described in this thesis. Novel tools are being indicated

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapy: There was a major advance in the treatment of cervical cancer when five NCI-sponsored clinical trials showed that ... to adding chemotherapy to radiation therapy in the treatment of invasive cervical cancer. (Cervical) HPV vaccine: Another major advance in the ...

  11. An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilakapati Murali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment modalities, cervical cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer death among women. Pap smear and colposcopy are the existing screening methods and histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these methods have been shown to be prone to reporting errors, which could be due to their subjective interpretation. Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the locally advanced stages of cervical cancers. The typical treatment regimen spans over 4 months, from the first fraction of radiation to clinical assessment of tumor response to radiotherapy. It is often noticed that due to intrinsic properties of tumors, patients with the same clinical stage and histological type respond differently to radiotherapy. Hence, there exists a need for the development of new methods for early diagnosis as well as for early prediction of tumor radioresponse. Optical spectroscopic methods have been shown to be potential alternatives for use in cancer diagnosis. In this review, we provide a brief background on the anatomy and histology of the uterine cervix and the etiology of cervical cancers; we briefly discuss the optical spectroscopic approach to cervical cancer diagnosis. A very brief discussion on radiation therapy and radiation resistance is also provided. We also share our experiences with the Raman spectroscopic methodologies in cervical cancer diagnosis as well as in the prediction of tumor radioresponse.

  12. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Reis Girianelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010 were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, disaggregated by capital city and municipality. The annual percent change in mortality rates was estimated by segmented linear regression using the joinpoint method. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were conducted between average mortality rate at the end of the three-year period and selected indicators in the state capital and each Brazilian state. RESULTS There was a decline in cervical cancer mortality rates throughout the period studied, except in municipalities outside of the capitals in the North and Northeast. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality in the capitals from the end of the 1990s onwards. Favorable socioeconomic indicators were inversely correlated with cervical cancer mortality. A strong direct correlation was found with favorable indicators and an inverse correlation with fertility rate and breast cancer mortality in inner cities. CONCLUSIONS There is an ongoing dynamic process of increased risk of cervical and breast cancer and attenuation of mortality because of increased, albeit unequal, access to and provision of screening, diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine: Future of Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatul Fardows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a deadly cancer that clutches lives of the women in most of the cases due to lack of consciousness about the disease in the developing countries. It remains a threat which is second only to breast cancer in overall disease burden for women throughout the world. Cervical cancer is almost a preventable disease by prophylactic vaccine and routine screening. Both Cervarix and Gardasil vaccines have been effective in preventing persistent infection with targeted HPV types and in preventing cervical intraepithelial lesions. It is safe and nearly 100% effective if given before onset of sexual activity. This review article is aimed to explore different aspects of this vaccine as well as to develop awareness among health professionals of different disciplines.

  14. Test of an Intervention to Improve Knowledge of Women with Intellectual Disabilities about Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaine, J. G.; Parish, S. L.; Luken, K.; Son, E.; Dickens, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a critical need for evidence-based health education interventions for women with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to promote receipt of preventive health screenings. Previous research has established "Women Be Healthy," an 8-week classroom-style intervention designed to teach women with IDs about breast and cervical…

  15. The diagnostic process of cervical cancer; areas of good practice, and windows of opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, A.; de Wilde, Marlieke; Duk, M.J.; Graziosi, G.C.M.; van Haaften, Maarten; von Mensdorff-Pouilly, S.; van Diest, Paul J.; Zweemer, RP; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Verheijen, RHM

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite an extensive screening programme in The Netherlands, some cases of cervical cancer are still diagnosed in late stages of disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate which elements in the diagnostic process of cervical cancer may be improved. Methods This is a retrospec

  16. 2009-2013年广州北部山区妇女宫颈癌筛查结果分析%Analysis about cervical cancer screening results of women in Guangzhou northern mountainous area from 2009 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓波; 付君红; 彭秀瑜; 毕婉仪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze screening rate,detection rate,early diagnosis rate about cervical cancer of rural women in Guangzhou northern mountainous area.Method By using the epidemiological retrospective method,studied cervical cancer screening results of agricultural census register 35 ~ 64 years old women in Guangzhou northern mountainous area from 2009 to 2013.Results A total of 62,147 women attended the screening with an average age of 48.65 years old.The screening rate of cervical cancer was 110.76% (62,147/56,112).The detectable rate of CIN Ⅱ and above precancerous lesions and] a period of cervical lesions was 135.16/100,000 (84/62,147).The detectable rate of CIN Ⅱ and above precancerous lesions and cervical cancer was 156.08/100,000 (97/62,147).The detectable rate of cervical cancer was 20.92/100,000 (13/62,147).The early diagnosis rate was 86.60% (84/97).Conclusion Rural women's reproductive health are not allowed to ignore.Regular cervical cancer screening should be carried out for early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions and to improve women's health.%目的 分析广州市北部山区农村适龄妇女宫颈癌筛查率、检出率、早诊率状况.方法 采用流行病学回顾性研究方法,对2009至2013年广州北部山区农业户籍35~64岁妇女的宫颈癌筛查结果进行分析.结果 本次宫颈癌筛查62 147例,宫颈癌筛查平均年龄48.65岁,宫颈癌筛查率为110.76%(62 147/56 112).宫颈癌筛查检出宫颈上皮内瘤变(CINⅡ、CINⅢ/原位癌)+Ⅰa期宫颈癌病变检出率135.16/10万(84/62 147),宫颈癌及癌前病变(CINⅡ、CINⅢ)检出率为156.08/10万(97/62 147),其中宫颈癌检出率为20.92/10万(13/62 147).宫颈癌的早诊率为86.60%(84/97).结论 山区适龄妇女生殖健康状况不容忽视,应定期开展宫颈癌筛查,早期发现并治疗宫颈癌前病变,提高妇女健康水平.

  17. Linking International Cancer Screening Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drs. Sudha Sivaram and Steve Taplin speak at the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) Meeting, which brings together individuals involved in cancer screening research and cancer screening programs from the ICSN’s member countries.

  18. Vibrational Microspectroscopy for Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Lyng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational spectroscopy analyses vibrations within a molecule and can be used to characterise a molecular structure. Raman spectroscopy is one of the vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in which incident radiation is used to induce vibrations in the molecules of a sample, and the scattered radiation may be used to characterise the sample in a rapid and non-destructive manner. Infrared (IR spectroscopy is a complementary vibrational spectroscopic technique based on the absorption of IR radiation by the sample. Molecules absorb specific frequencies of the incident light which are characteristic of their structure. IR and Raman spectroscopy are sensitive to subtle biochemical changes occurring at the molecular level allowing spectral variations corresponding to disease onset to be detected. Over the past 15 years, there have been numerous reports demonstrating the potential of IR and Raman spectroscopy together with multivariate statistical analysis techniques for the detection of a variety of cancers including, breast, lung, brain, colon, oral, oesophageal, prostate and cervical cancer. This paper discusses the recent advances and the future perspectives in relation to cancer screening applications, focussing on cervical and oral cancer.

  19. Cervical Cancer Prevention in Malaysia: Knowledge and Attitude of Undergraduate Pharmacy Students Towards Human Papillomavirus Infection, Screening and Vaccination in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Sze Fang, Kelly Num; Lui, Lai Yun

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate knowledge of undergraduate pharmacy students about human papillomavirus infection and their attitude towards its prevention. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 270 undergraduate pharmacy students using a validated questionnaire to assess knowledge about human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer and their attitudes towards human papillomavirus vaccines. Eighty-one percent of the respondents knew that human papillomavirus is a cause of cervical cancer, and 87.8 % knew that this infection is preventable. The gender of the respondents showed the strongest correlations with human papillomavirus knowledge. There were no significant correlations between the ethnic group of the respondents and their human papillomavirus-related knowledge. Higher perceptions of risk were associated with relationship status, and respondents who were in a relationship showed greater interest in vaccinating themselves; relationship status emerged as a unique predictor. The results indicated a moderately high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards human papillomavirus vaccination with few disagreements. The results of this study will help to develop and plan appropriate education campaigns for pharmacy students that aim to reduce human papillomavirus infection and, consequently, the incidence of and mortality caused by cervical cancer in Malaysia.

  20. Implementation of cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid in rural Mozambique: successes and challenges using HIV care and treatment programme investments in Zambézia Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J Baptista

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to maximize the benefits of HIV care and treatment investments in sub-Saharan Africa, programs can broaden to target other diseases amenable to screening and efficient management. We nested cervical cancer screening into family planning clinics at select sites also receiving PEPFAR support for antiretroviral therapy (ART rollout. This was done using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA by maternal child health nurses. We report on achievements and obstacles in the first year of the program in rural Mozambique. Methods: VIA was taught to clinic nurses and hospital physicians, with a regular clinical feedback loop for quality evaluation and retraining. Cryotherapy using carbon dioxide as the refrigerant was provided at clinics; loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP and surgery were provided at the provincial hospital for serious cases. No pathology services were available. Results: Nurses screened 4651 women using VIA in Zambézia Province in year one of the program, more than double the Ministry of Health service target. VIA was judged positive for squamous intraepithelial lesions in 8% (n=380 of the women (9% if age ≥30 years (n=3154 and 7% if age <30 years (n=1497; p=0.02. Of the 380 VIA-positive women, 4% (n=16 had lesions (0.3% of 4651 total screened requiring referral to Quelimane Provincial Hospital. Fourteen (88% of these 16 women were seen at the hospital, but records were inadequate to judge outcomes. Of women screened, 2714 (58% either had knowledge of their HIV status prior to VIA or were subsequently sent for HIV testing, of which 583 (21% were HIV positive. Conclusions: Screening and clinical services were successfully provided on a large scale for the first time ever in these rural clinics. However, health manpower shortages, equipment problems, poor paper record systems and a limited ability to follow-up patients inhibited the quality of the cervical cancer screening services. Using prior HIV

  1. [Human papillomavirus detection in cervical cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picconi, María Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC), which is strongly associated to high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection, continues being a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had no major impact on reducing CC incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. New screening tools to detect precancerous lesions became available, which provide great opportunities for CC prevention, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. Currently, hr-HPV testing represents an invaluable component of clinical guidelines for screening, management and treatment of CC and their precursor lesions. Many testing strategies have been developed that can detect a broad spectrum of hr-HPV types in a single assay; however, only a small subset of them has documented clinical performance for any of the standard HPV testing indications. HPV tests that have not been validated and lack proof of reliability, reproducibility and accuracy should not be used in clinical management. Once incorporated into the lab, it is essential to submit the whole procedure of HPV testing to continuous and rigorous quality assurance to avoid sub-optimal, potentially harmful practices. Recent progress and current status of these methods are discussed in this article.

  2. What's next? Perspectives and future needs of cervical screening in Europe in the era of molecular testing and vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Antilla, Ahti; Arbyn, Marc;

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To outline the perspectives for future control of cervical cancer in Europe. METHODS: Review of current status for major cervical cancer control tools. The review was based on PubMed searches for cervical cancer prevention, Human Papillomavirus, HPV-test, HPV-vaccination, and treatment...... with large loop excision of the transformation zone, LLETZ. RESULTS: Recent studies suggest that condom use offers some but not complete protection against HPV-infection. High quality cytology screening with good population coverage reduces the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Randomised...... controlled trials have found HPV-testing to increase the detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+, CIN2+, compared with cytology. Two studies found a decreased detection rate of CIN3+ in the HPV-testing arm at the subsequent screening. Randomised controlled trials found that women...

  3. New paradigms in cervical cancer prevention: opportunities and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Rossi Paolo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing for the DNA of high-risk types of papilloma virus (HPV is more sensitive than cytology in detecting pre-cancerous lesions. One of the main advantages will be the possibility of applying prolonged screening intervals. However adequate screening protocols (age of start and stop, screening intervals, management of HPV positive women need to be applied in order to avoid over-referral to colposcopy and over-treatment and to maintain sustainable costs. Further follow-up of running trials and research on molecular markers will better define these parameters. The new situation will require organised screening programmes with rigorous protocols and monitoring. This will be even more needed when women vaccinated for HPV 16 and 18 will be screened. Research on how to best screen vaccinated women is a priority. This paper proposes an overview of the plausible impact of new technologies in cervical cancer screening in the near future and in the vaccinated cohorts.

  4. [Epidemiology of cervical cancer in a region of western Algeria, 2006-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boublenza, L; Hadef, K; Beldjillali, H; Chabni, N; Reguegba, D; Meguenni, K

    2013-05-01

    The authors present a retrospective analysis of data about cervical cancer from 2006 through 2010 in the province (wilaya) of Tlemcen (Algeria). During this five-year study period, 196 cases of cervical cancer were recorded, with a mean age at onset of 48.5 years. These cervical cancers accounted for 13% of all gynecologic cancers. It is the second leading cancer among women in this province, with an incidence of 13.3 per 100 000 women. The health authorities in Algeria must set up an organized screening policy and appropriate treatment to reduce the mortality rate from this cancer.

  5. Exploiting biospectroscopy as a novel screening tool for cervical cancer: towards a framework to validate its accuracy in a routine clinical setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Purandare, Nikhil C

    2013-11-01

    Biospectroscopy is an emerging field that harnesses the platform of physical sciences with computational analysis in order to shed novel insights on biological questions. An area where this approach seems to have potential is in screening or diagnostic clinical settings, where there is an urgent need for new approaches to objectively interrogate large numbers of samples in an objective fashion with acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity. This review outlines the benefits of biospectroscopy in screening for precancer lesions of the cervix due to its ability to separate different grades of dysplasia. It evaluates the feasibility of introducing this technique into cervical screening programs on the basis of its ability to identify biomarkers of progression within derived spectra (\\'biochemical‑cell fingerprints\\').

  6. Exploiting biospectroscopy as a novel screening tool for cervical cancer: towards a framework to validate its accuracy in a routine clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purandare, Nikhil C; Trevisan, Júlio; Patel, Imran I; Gajjar, Ketan; Mitchell, Alana L; Theophilou, Georgios; Valasoulis, George; Martin, Mary; von Bünau, Günther; Kyrgiou, Maria; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Prendiville, Walter J; Martin, Francis L

    2013-11-01

    Biospectroscopy is an emerging field that harnesses the platform of physical sciences with computational analysis in order to shed novel insights on biological questions. An area where this approach seems to have potential is in screening or diagnostic clinical settings, where there is an urgent need for new approaches to objectively interrogate large numbers of samples in an objective fashion with acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity. This review outlines the benefits of biospectroscopy in screening for precancer lesions of the cervix due to its ability to separate different grades of dysplasia. It evaluates the feasibility of introducing this technique into cervical screening programs on the basis of its ability to identify biomarkers of progression within derived spectra ('biochemical‑cell fingerprints').

  7. Preprocessing: A Step in Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  8. Preprocessing for Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  9. Network Topologies Decoding Cervical Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Jalan

    Full Text Available According to the GLOBOCAN statistics, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. It is found to be gradually increasing in the younger population, specifically in the developing countries. We analyzed the protein-protein interaction networks of the uterine cervix cells for the normal and disease states. It was found that the disease network was less random than the normal one, providing an insight into the change in complexity of the underlying network in disease state. The study also portrayed that, the disease state has faster signal processing as the diameter of the underlying network was very close to its corresponding random control. This may be a reason for the normal cells to change into malignant state. Further, the analysis revealed VEGFA and IL-6 proteins as the distinctly high degree nodes in the disease network, which are known to manifest a major contribution in promoting cervical cancer. Our analysis, being time proficient and cost effective, provides a direction for developing novel drugs, therapeutic targets and biomarkers by identifying specific interaction patterns, that have structural importance.

  10. Cancer Screening in Women with Intellectual Disabilities: An Irish perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Mary; Denieffe, Suzanne; Foran, Sinéad

    2014-01-01

    In the Republic of Ireland, more than 8000 women with intellectual disabilities (IDs), aged 20 years and over, are registered for service provision. Their health needs challenge preventative health services including breast and cervical cancer screening programmes. This review explores the literature about cancer screening participation rates and…

  11. Teenage cervical screening in a high risk American population

    OpenAIRE

    Songlin Zhang; Jaiyeola Thomas; Joel Thibodeaux; Ami Bhalodia; Fleurette Abreo

    2011-01-01

    Background: The new 2009 ACOG guideline for cervical cytology screening changed the starting age to 21 years regardless of the age of onset of sexual intercourse. However, many recent studies have shown a dramatic increase in the incidence of cervical epithelial abnormalities among adolescents within the past two decades. Materials and Methods: For this study, the reports of 156,342 cervical cytology were available of which 12,226 (7.8%) were from teenagers. A total of 192 teenagers with high...

  12. HPV screening for cervical cancer in the research progress%几种人乳头瘤病毒检测方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红艳; 王少明; 乔友林; 段仙芝

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecologic malignant tumor.Human papillomavirus is the main patho-genic factor of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions.And HPV detection has the vital significance for early diagnosis,cor-rect treatment of cervical lesions and effective prevention and forecast lesion progress.There are many HPV detection methods, for different detection principles,lesion detective rates and different advantages and disadvantages ,they require reasonable ap-plicationin the practical application.%宫颈癌是妇科最常见的恶性肿瘤之一。高危型人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)持续感染是子宫颈癌及其癌前病变的必要因素。而 HPV 筛查对宫颈癌前病变及宫颈癌的早期诊断、正确处理、有效预防及预测病变进展具有重要的意义。目前已有多种 HPV 检测技术,但因其检测原理,对病变的检出率以及它的优缺点不同,在子宫颈癌筛查中还需合理的应用。

  13. The Diagnosis Value of Transvaginal Elastography in Cervical Cancer Screening%经阴道超声弹性成像在宫颈癌筛查中诊断价值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪波; 谢志敏; 张冉; 申丽; 黄跃龙; 周磊; 银宇

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨经阴道超声弹性成像在宫颈癌筛查中的诊断价值。方法:宫颈病变患者共92例,分别行经阴道超声检查、实时组织弹性成像检查及经阴道超声联合弹性成像检查,以病理结果为金标准,分析三种检查方法在宫颈癌筛查中的诊断价值。结果:经阴道超声诊断宫颈恶性病变的灵敏度、特异度、准确度分别为58.3%、69.0%、64.3%;超声弹性评分法分别为68.1%、73.5%、70.0%;两者联合分别为79.7%、81.8%、84.8%。结论:经阴道超声弹性成像在宫颈癌筛查中具有较高的诊断价值。%Objective To investigate the clinical value of transvaginal elastography in cervical cancer screening.Methods A total of92 patients with92 cervical lesions were examined with transvaginal ultrasound, real-time ultrasonic elastography, transvaginal elastography, respectively. The results were diagnosed by histopathology as the gold standard for comparion to analysis the diagnostic value of three methods in cervical cancer screening. Results When the transvaginal ultrasound in cervi-cal malignant lesions is adopted,its diagnostic sensitivity,specificity and accuracy is58.3%,69.0%,64.3%; when ultrasound elastographyscore diagnosis method,61.8%,73.5% and70.0%. When these two methods are combined,it is79.7%,81.8%, 84.8% respectively.Conclusion Transvaginal elastography possess high diagnostic value and clinical practicability in cervical cancer screening.

  14. High-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-infected women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Lilongwe, Malawi: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Deepa; Njala, Joseph; Stocker, Penny; Schooley, Alan; Flores, Martiniano; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Pfaff, Colin; Jansen, Perry; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T; Hoffman, Risa M

    2015-05-01

    Rates of abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid and prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes have not been well characterized in HIV-infected women in Malawi. We performed a prospective cohort study of visual inspection with acetic acid (N = 440) in HIV-infected women aged 25--59 years, with a nested study of HPV subtypes in first 300 women enrolled. Of 440 women screened, 9.5% (N = 42) had abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid with 69.0% (N = 29) having advanced disease not amenable to cryotherapy. Of 294 women with HPV results, 39% (N = 114) of women were positive for high-risk HPV infection. Only lower CD4 count (287 cells/mm(3) versus 339 cells/mm(3), p = 0.03) and high-risk HPV (66.7% versus 35.6%, p < 0.01) were associated with abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid. The most common high-risk HPV subtypes in women with abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid were 35 (33.3%), 16 (26.7%), and 58 (23.3%). Low CD4 cell count was associated with abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid and raises the importance of early antiretroviral therapy and expanded availability of visual inspection with acetic acid. HPV vaccines targeting additional non-16/18 high-risk HPV subtypes may have greater protective advantages in countries such as Malawi.

  15. 北京大兴区榆垡镇2009至2011年两癌筛查结果分析%Screening results of cervical and breast cancer in Yufazhen of Daxing district from 2009 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉娟; 李蔓

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the reproductive health status of women aged 35-59 years old in Yufazhen of Daxing district in Beijing. Methods Women aged 35-59 years old received gynecological and cervical cytology examinations and women aged 40-59 years old underwent breast cancer screening from 2009 to 2011. Personal information and medical records were collected . Results A total of 10 122 women accepting cervical cancer screening , and the positive cervical smear rate was 810/100 000. ASC-US was detected in 39 women and the detection rate was 385. 3/100 000. ASC-H was detected in 14 women with detection rate of 138. 3/100 000. LSIL and above were detected in 29 women with detection rate of 286. 5/100 000, including 2 cases of cervical cancer ( 19. 8/100 000). A total of 9 074 women received breast cancer screening. Breast cancer was detected in 2 persons, and the detection rate was 22. 0/100 000. In gynecological diseases, the prevalence rate of vaginitis was highest ( 18. 2% ) , followed by chronic cervicitis and uterine fibroids ( 10. 4% , 6. 9% ). Conclusion Two cancer screening is an effective measure for early detection , diagnosis and treatment of cervical and breast cancer . It is imperative to strengthen the prevention and treatment of reproductive tract infection among rural women .%目的 了解北京市大兴区榆垡镇35~59岁妇女生殖健康状况.方法 2009至2011年对榆垡镇35~59岁的妇女进行妇科及宫颈细胞学检查;对40~59岁的妇女进行乳腺筛查,并记录个人基本信息及病史.结果 宫颈癌筛查共10 122人,宫颈刮片阳性率为810/10万.检出未明确意义非典型鳞状上皮内细胞39人,检出率为385.3/10万;不典型鳞状上皮内细胞14人,检出率为138.3/10万;低度鳞状上皮内病变及以上29人,检出率为286.5/10万,其中发现宫颈癌2例,检出率为19.8/10万.乳腺癌筛查共9 074人,检出乳腺癌2人,检出率为22.0/10万.妇科疾病中阴道炎患病率最高,达18.2%,其次

  16. Exploring colposcopists' attitudes towards use of HPV testing as a primary screening tool for cervical cancer in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Dean A; van der Hoek, Kim; Ogilvie, Gina; Smith, Laurie; Henwood, Elena; Miller, Dianne M; McTaggart-Cowan, Helen; Peacock, Stuart J

    2013-07-01

    Objectif : Examiner les attitudes des colposcopistes à l’égard du dépistage de l’ADN du virus du papillome humain (VPH) à titre d’outil principal de dépistage du cancer du col utérin. Méthodes : Des questionnaires administrés en 2010 et en 2011 dans le cadre d’ateliers offerts en Colombie-Britannique se sont penchés sur les attitudes des colposcopistes au moyen de séries d’échelles en cinq points de type Likert (de « fortement en désaccord » à « fortement en accord ») et de questions à réponse binaire (oui / non). La fréquence des réponses « en accord » ou « fortement en accord » a été utilisée pour caractériser les attitudes. Des analyses de régression ont examiné les modifications significatives sur le plan statistique en ce qui concerne les attitudes à la suite de l’atelier de 2010. Résultats : Les réponses ont généralement indiqué des modifications positives en ce qui concerne les attitudes envers le dépistage du VPH. À la suite de l’atelier de 2010, des modifications significatives sur le plan statistique ont été constatées pour ce qui est des articles liés au fait d’être fortement en accord avec la déclaration voulant que le VPH constitue une cause nécessaire du cancer du col utérin (hausse de 39 %; P VPH (hausse de 19 %; P VPH était trop long; en 2011, 53 % ont fait une telle déclaration. Conclusion : Les colposcopistes sont perçus comme étant des leaders d’opinion; ils joueront donc un rôle crucial dans la mise en œuvre du dépistage du VPH en Colombie-Britannique. Notre étude a obtenu des réponses de la part de 73 % (2010) et de 84 % (2011) des colposcopistes inscrits en C.-B. Les colposcopistes étaient en faveur de l’utilisation du dépistage du VPH aux fins du dépistage primaire du cancer du col utérin, mais ne soutenaient pas la mise en œuvre d’un intervalle prolongé dans le cadre du dépistage du VPH, ce qui semble indiquer que la tenue de futurs

  17. Barriers to cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womeodu, R J; Bailey, J E

    1996-01-01

    Many barriers to cancer screening have been summarized and discussed. Barriers have been documented in all patient populations, but some groups such as ethnic minorities and the elderly face unique barriers. The barriers to cancer screening, are multifactorial, but much of the responsibility for change must lie with health care providers and the health care delivery industry. This is not to free the patient of all responsibility, but some significant barriers are beyond their direct control. Take, for example, socioeconomic status, disease knowledge, and culturally related perceptions and myths about cancer detection and treatment. The health care industry must do a better job identifying and overcoming these barriers. The significant effects of provider counseling and advice must not be underestimated. Patients must first be advised, and then further actions must be taken if they reject the screening advice. Did they refuse adherence to recommendations because they do not view themselves as susceptible, because of overwhelming personal barriers, or because of a fatalistic attitude toward cancer detection and treatment? If that is the case, physicians and health care institutions must attempt to change perceptions, educate, and personalize the message so that patients accept their disease susceptibility [table: see text]. Multiple patient and provider risk factors have been identified that can be used to target patients particularly at high risk for inadequate cancer screening and providers at high risk for performing inadequate screening. Research has clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions to improve tracking of patient and physician compliance with screening recommendations. Further research is needed to show the impact of managed-care penetration and payer status on screening efforts, and incentive schemes need to be tested that reward institutions and third-party payers who develop uniform standards and procedures for cancer screening. The

  18. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C;

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  19. Cervical Screening within HIV Care: Findings from an HIV-Positive Cohort in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Heather; Thorne, Claire; Semenenko, Igor; Malyuta, Ruslan; Tereschenko, Rostislav; Adeyanova, Irina; Kulakovskaya, Elena; Ostrovskaya, Lyudmila; Kvasha, Liliana; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Townsend, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction HIV-positive women have an increased risk of invasive cervical cancer but cytologic screening is effective in reducing incidence. Little is known about cervical screening coverage or the prevalence of abnormal cytology among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, which has the most severe HIV epidemic in Europe. Methods Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 1120 women enrolled at three sites of the Ukraine Cohort Study of HIV-infected Childbearing Women to investigate factors associated with receiving cervical screening as part of HIV care. All women had been diagnosed as HIV-positive before or during their most recent pregnancy. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities (high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) among women who had been screened was estimated, and associated factors explored. Results Overall, 30% (337/1120) of women had received a cervical screening test as part of HIV care at study enrolment (median 10 months postpartum), a third (115/334) of whom had been tested >12 months previously. In adjusted analyses, women diagnosed as HIV-positive during (vs before) their most recent pregnancy were significantly less likely to have a screening test reported, on adjusting for other potential risk factors (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 0.62, 95% CI 0.51–0.75 p<0.01 for 1st/2nd trimester diagnosis and APR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28–0.63 p<0.01 for 3rd trimester/intrapartum diagnosis). Among those with a cervical screening result reported at any time (including follow-up), 21% (68/325) had a finding of cervical abnormality. In adjusted analyses, Herpes simplex virus 2 seropositivity and a recent diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis were associated with an increased risk of abnormal cervical cytology (APR 1.83 95% CI 1.07–3.11 and APR 3.49 95% CI 2.11–5.76 respectively). Conclusions In this high risk population, cervical screening coverage as part of HIV care was low and could be improved by an organised cervical screening programme for HIV

  20. Cervical screening within HIV care: findings from an HIV-positive cohort in Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bailey

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV-positive women have an increased risk of invasive cervical cancer but cytologic screening is effective in reducing incidence. Little is known about cervical screening coverage or the prevalence of abnormal cytology among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, which has the most severe HIV epidemic in Europe. METHODS: Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 1120 women enrolled at three sites of the Ukraine Cohort Study of HIV-infected Childbearing Women to investigate factors associated with receiving cervical screening as part of HIV care. All women had been diagnosed as HIV-positive before or during their most recent pregnancy. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities (high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions among women who had been screened was estimated, and associated factors explored. RESULTS: Overall, 30% (337/1120 of women had received a cervical screening test as part of HIV care at study enrolment (median 10 months postpartum, a third (115/334 of whom had been tested >12 months previously. In adjusted analyses, women diagnosed as HIV-positive during (vs before their most recent pregnancy were significantly less likely to have a screening test reported, on adjusting for other potential risk factors (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR 0.62, 95% CI 0.51-0.75 p<0.01 for 1(st/2(nd trimester diagnosis and APR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28-0.63 p<0.01 for 3(rd trimester/intrapartum diagnosis. Among those with a cervical screening result reported at any time (including follow-up, 21% (68/325 had a finding of cervical abnormality. In adjusted analyses, Herpes simplex virus 2 seropositivity and a recent diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis were associated with an increased risk of abnormal cervical cytology (APR 1.83 95% CI 1.07-3.11 and APR 3.49 95% CI 2.11-5.76 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this high risk population, cervical screening coverage as part of HIV care was low and could be improved by an organised cervical screening programme

  1. Triapine With Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With IB2-IVA Cervical or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Vulvar Adenocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  2. 宫颈病变与人乳头瘤病毒感染临床病例分析%Human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer and precancerous lesions screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 王巧燕; 张小伟; 沈湘萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价人乳头瘤病毒( Human Papillomavirus,HPV)感染在宫颈病变早期筛查中的作用,为进一步诊断和判断预后提供依据。方法来我院进行宫颈癌筛查,因宫颈液基薄层细胞学检查存在异常细胞妇女413例,均进行阴道镜下组织活检和HPV-DNA分型。结果上皮内瘤样病变( CIN) I患者中以ASCUS检出符合率最高,CIN II患者中以LSIL检出符合率最高,CIN III患者中以HSIL检出符合率最高。慢性宫颈炎患者一种或多种高危型HPV (HR-HPV)感染率要低于CIN患者(χ2=32.105,P=0.000),宫颈癌HR-HPV感染率为100%;慢性宫颈炎患者与CIN患者低危型HPV(LR-HPV)感染率比较,差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.205,P=0.650)。宫颈病变患者以单一HR-HPV亚型感染更常见。结论宫颈癌及癌前病变与HPV感染密切相关,HR-HPV基因检测及分型在宫颈病变的预后判断、疗效监测等方面具有重要价值。%Objective To evaluate the role of HPV testing in early screening for cervical cancer and precancerous lesions so as to obtain scientific knowledge for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.Method 413 women admitted to Dongyang People's Hospital for cervical cancer or precancerous lesions screening were subjected to cervical tissue biopsy under colposcopy and HPV DNA gene typing.Findings Atypical squamous cells ( ASCUS) with the highest rate were found in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia ( CIN) I.Low squamous intraepithelial lesion ( LSIL) with the highest rate were found in patients with CIN II, and high squamous intraepithelial lesion ( HSIL) with the highest rate were found in patients with CIN III.One or more high risk HPV ( HR-HPV) types were detected in 32.6% of the chronic cervicitis patients compared to 63.0% of the CIN patients.HR-HPV infection rate was 100% in cervical cancer patients.The difference was statistically significant.Single HR

  3. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  4. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  5. Decreased cervical cancer cell adhesion on nanotubular titanium for the treatment of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Crear J; Kummer KM; Webster TJ

    2013-01-01

    Jara Crear, Kim M Kummer, Thomas J Webster School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Cervical cancer can be treated by surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. Titanium biomaterials have been suggested as a tool to help in the local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiation to cervical cancer sites. However, current titanium medical devices used for treating cervical cancer do not by themselves possess any anticancer properties; such devices...

  6. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Paola; Villain, Patricia; Suonio, Eero; Almonte, Maribel; Anttila, Ahti; Atkin, Wendy S; Dean, Peter B; de Koning, Harry J; Dillner, Lena; Herrero, Rolando; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Minozzi, Silvia; Paci, Eugenio; Regula, Jaroslaw; Törnberg, Sven; Segnan, Nereo

    2015-12-01

    In order to update the previous version of the European Code against Cancer and formulate evidence-based recommendations, a systematic search of the literature was performed according to the methodology agreed by the Code Working Groups. Based on the review, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends: "Take part in organized cancer screening programmes for: Bowel cancer (men and women); Breast cancer (women); Cervical cancer (women)." Organized screening programs are preferable because they provide better conditions to ensure that the Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Screening are followed in order to achieve the greatest benefit with the least harm. Screening is recommended only for those cancers where a demonstrated life-saving effect substantially outweighs the potential harm of examining very large numbers of people who may otherwise never have, or suffer from, these cancers, and when an adequate quality of the screening is achieved. EU citizens are recommended to participate in cancer screening each time an invitation from the national or regional screening program is received and after having read the information materials provided and carefully considered the potential benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs in the European Union vary with respect to the age groups invited and to the interval between invitations, depending on each country's cancer burden, local resources, and the type of screening test used For colorectal cancer, most programs in the EU invite men and women starting at the age of 50-60 years, and from then on every 2 years if the screening test is the guaiac-based fecal occult blood test or fecal immunochemical test, or every 10 years or more if the screening test is flexible sigmoidoscopy or total colonoscopy. Most programs continue sending invitations to screening up to the age of 70-75 years. For breast cancer, most programs in the EU invite women starting at the age of 50 years, and not before the age

  7. Comparison on the predictive values of four screening methods regarding cervical cancer%四种宫颈癌筛查方法的预测值比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 王彤; 胡尚英; 赵方辉; 张询; 潘秦镜; 章文华; 李凌; 乔友林

    2013-01-01

    To compare the predictive values of 5% acetic acid stain and visual inspection,human papillomavirus (HPV) Self test,ThinPrep Pap and HPV direct test in screening for cervical cancer with biopsy as gold standard.Positive predictive values and negative predictive values were compared simultaneously by joint hypothesis tests and then either positive predictive values or negative predictive values of the any two screening tests were compared by marginal regression based on both GEE and weighted least square methods.Hochberg method was used for multiplicity adjustment.It was showed that HPV direct test had the highest negative predictive value and ThinPrep Pap the highest positive predictive value.5% acetic acid stain and visual inspection had both the lowest positive predictive value and negative predictive value.Both HPV direct test and ThinPrep Pap were efficient,but the latter required compatible infrastructure and skilled caregivers to go with.Both 5% acetic acid stain and visual inspection were inexpensive,and their positive predictive value and negative predictive value were lower than HPV self-test.They also had similar positive predictive value with HPV direct test and similar negative predictive value with ThinPrep Pap.HPV self-test appeared to be efficient,suggesting that it had significant potential for screening program to be implemented in the rural areas of China since the test could be performed without speculum examination in low-resource regions.%以病理组织学诊断为金标准,比较宫颈癌筛查中5%醋酸染色肉眼观察法(VIA)、薄层液基细胞学(LBC)、人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)自体采样法和HPV医生采样法的预测值.首先采用联合假设检验方法比较四种筛检方法的阳性预测值(PPV)和阴性预测值(NPV),并对两预测值进行组间两两比较,再采用边际回归法和加权最小二乘法分别比较该两预测值,多重性调整采用Hochberg法.结果表明HPV医生采样法的NPV最高,LBC的PPV最

  8. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening tests have different risks or harms. Screening tests may cause anxiety when you are thinking about or getting ready ... is cancer when there really isn't) can cause anxiety and is usually followed by more tests (such as biopsy ), which also have risks. The ...

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of early screening of cervical cancer cytological examination%宫颈癌早期筛查细胞学检查方法综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉瑰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To appraise the comprehensive evaluation of early screening of cervical cancer cytological examination.Methods From October 2012 to October 2014, 1000 cases of gynecology clinic admissions were selected, and they were randomly divided into group A and group B, with 500 cases in each group, group A was given Pap cytology, while B group was given ThinPrep cytology (TCT), comparative analysis of test results, while the colposcopic biopsy histology results were analyzed.Results CIN and cervical cancer diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was significantly higher in group B than those in group A (P < 0.05).Conclusions Early cervical cancer screening to take ThinPrep cytology diagnosis can be achieved relatively good sensitivity and specificity, it is worth learning from.%目的 综合评价宫颈癌早期筛查细胞学检查方法.方法 抽取2012年10月至2014年10月妇科门诊接诊的患者1000例,随机分为A组与B组,每组500例,其中A组采取巴氏细胞学检查,而B组采取液基薄层细胞学检查(TCT),对比分析检查结果,同时与阴道镜组织学活检结果进行对比分析.结果 B组诊断CIN及宫颈癌的敏感性与特异性皆高于A组(P<0.05).结论 宫颈癌早期筛查采取液基薄层细胞学检查诊断可取得比较好的敏感性与特异性,值得借鉴.

  10. Efficacy of hybrid capture 2 HPV DNA testing on the screening of cervical cancer: a Meta-analysis%HPV DNA检测(HC2)用于宫颈癌筛查价值的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 尚玉敏; 杨阳

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the screening value of hybrid capture 2 (HC2) HPV DNA testing for cervical cancer by meta-analysis.Methods:By searching PubMed,Central(the Cochrane central register of controlled trials)、Embase、CBM、CNKI and WANFANG et al.All studies about HPV DNA test using HC2 for cervical cancer screening were retrieved from the data bases.The quality of included studies was evaluated by QUADAS items.The sensitivity,specificity and systematic receiver operating characteristic curves (SROC) were calculated to assess the screening value of individual diagnostic test.The data was analyzed by using statistic software Meta-Disc1.4 and STATA11.0.Results:Twelve cross-sectional studies that included a total of 12492 participants were analyzed in the current meta-analysis.The pooled values of sensitivity,specificity were 83% (95% CI 82% ~ 85%) and 88% (95% CI 87% ~ 89%) respectively.The area under SROC curve (AUC) of HPV DNA (HC2) array for cervical cancer screening was 0.91 (95%CI0.88 ~0.93).Condusion:HPV DNA test using HC2 has relative high sensitivity and specificity in screening of cervical cancer,which can be used as an useful method for cervical cancer screening.%目的:探讨2代杂交捕获法(HC2)检测HPV DNA在宫颈癌筛查中的应用价值.方法:计算机检索PubMed、Embase、Central、CNKI、CBMDisc、万方数据库等.纳入公开发表的有关HC2检测HPV DNA用于筛查宫颈癌的诊断试验,质量评价后,应用STATA11.0和Meta-discl.4软件进行Meta分析,评价HC2筛查宫颈癌的敏感性、特异性和ROC曲线下面积(AUC).结果:最终纳入12篇文献,共计12 492例.Meta分析结果显示,HC2检测HPV DNA筛查宫颈癌的敏感性和特异性分别为83%(95% CI为82%~85%)和88%(95%CI为87% ~89%);AUC为0.91(95% CI为0.88~0.93).结论:HC2检测HPV DNA筛查宫颈癌的敏感性和特异性均较高,可作为临床大规模宫颈癌筛查的有效方法.

  11. Analysis on cervical cancer screening situation of 3 838 urban women in Zhongshan city of Guangdong province%广东省中山市3838例城区妇女宫颈癌筛查情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 黄华勇; 杨彩梅; 齐青萍; 肖琳; 何坚庭; 黄月生; 匡晓梅; 何一雄; 林钰叶; 张静

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the necessity of thin layer liquid - based cytological test (TCT) in screening of early cervical cancer in communities of Zhongshan city. Methods: Among the women receiving screening, the women with positive TCT (TBS classification; atypical squamous cell or above lesions) underwent HC2 - human papillomavirus ( HPV) detection, colposcopy, and biopsy under col-poscope; the screening proportion of community population in Zhongshan city, the positive rate of TCT, and the prevalence of cervical pre-cancerous lesion were analyzed. Results-. A total of 3 838 women in Eastern district of Zhongshan city participated in screening, the screening rate was 19. 39%. Sixty - one women (1. 59% ) with positive TCT were found, including 36 women aged 31-40 years old and 25 women aged 41 -50 years old; 27 women (44. 26% ) were found with abnormal colposcopic results; 15 women (24. 60% ) with CIN Ⅰ , 6 women with CIN Ⅱ , and 6 women with CIN Ⅲ were diagnosed by biopsy. Conclusion: The screening rate of cervical caner among the women in communities of the city was low, carrying out propaganda and education of prevention and control of cervical cancer and screening of cervical cancer have large social requires.%目的:探讨在城市社区进行液基薄层细胞学制片技术(TCT)筛查早期宫颈癌的必要性.方法:对筛查妇女中TCT阳性(细胞学TBS分类为不典型鳞状细胞以上)者进行hc2 - HPV检测、阴道镜及镜下多点活组织检查,分析城市社区人群的筛查比例、TCT检查阳性率及子宫颈癌前病变患病率.结果:中山市东区共有3 838例妇女参加筛查,筛查率为19.39%.共检出TCT阳性61例(1.59%),31 ~40岁36例,41~50岁25例;阴道镜检查结果显示异常27例(44.26%);活检结果CINⅠ15例(24.60%),CINⅡ6例(9.84%),CINⅢ6例(9.84%).结论:城市社区妇女宫颈癌筛查率较低,在城市社区开展宫颈癌防治的宣传教育及筛查有着巨大的社会需求.

  12. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  13. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  14. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  15. Pre-invasive cervical disease and uterine cervical cancer in Brazilian adolescents: prevalence and related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Denise Leite Maia; Trajano, Alexandre José Baptista; Silva,Kátia Silveira da; Russomano, Fábio Bastos

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to describe the prevalence and factors associated with uterine cervical cancer (CA) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 702 sexually active adolescents treated at a general hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1993 to 2002. Screening was performed by cytopathology and colposcopy and confirmation by biopsy. Exposure variables were socio-demographic characteristics and those related to reproduc...

  16. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  17. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Stages IB2-IIB or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Node; Positive Pelvic Lymph Node; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  18. Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix by 3% acetic acid (VIA versus Pap smear by Bethesda method in sexually active women aged 25-50 years as an equally or more effective cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Rajendra Saraogi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Indian women and is a preventable cancer. Pap smear being an expensive screening test, increased emphasis is being laid on the development of a reliable and cost effective screening method for cervical cancer. This study aims at early detection of cervical dysplastic lesions using a simple and cost-effective screening test like visual inspection of cervix with 3% acetic acid (VIA and comparing its diagnostic efficacy with the more expensive Pap screening by Bethesda method. Methods: Ours was a prospective study carried out on a 100 sexually active women aged 25-50 years, coming to our OPD. The women were subjected to both a VIA and Pap smear. All Pap and VIA positive women were subjected to a cervical biopsy, whose histopathological report was taken as the gold standard. Results: In our study the sensitivity of VIA was more than that of cytology (100% versus 66.67% but the specificity was significantly lesser (47.83% compared to the 73.91%. The negative predictive value of VIA was comparable with Pap smear (100% and 85% respectively as was the positive predictive value (42.86% and 50%. However the diagnostic accuracy of VIA was lower than that of Pap smear (66.67% and 81.25% in our study. Conclusions: In this study VIA was found to have efficacy comparable to Pap smear in screening cervical cancer. Thus we recommend that VIA could be used as an alternative screening tool to detect early cervical dysplasia - especially in poor resource settings. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 688-691

  19. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer<