WorldWideScience

Sample records for cervical cancer prevention

  1. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  2. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  3. [Preventing cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Noël, J-C

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer has hopefully been dropping down in our industrialized countries since the introduction of both primary and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, it is still lethal in one out of two affected women though the introduction of cytological screening has dramatically reduced the mortality. Progressive diffusion of anti-HPV vaccination, the broadening of the viral types concerned, its association with existing screening measures and finally the introduction of viral detection as a screening tool must optimize the results already obtained.

  4. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with HPV, those who have used oral contraceptives ("the Pill") for 5 to 9 years have a risk of cervical cancer that is 3 times greater than that of women who have never used oral contraceptives. The risk is 4 times greater after 10 ...

  6. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  7. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  8. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV vaccine can reduce risk of cervical cancer. HPV causes most cervical cancers. Only 1 in 3 girls and 1 in ... Signs – Cervical Cancer [PSA - 0:60 seconds] Cervical Cancer Preteen and Teen Vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Associated Cancers What Should I Know About ...

  10. Cervical cancer prevention: new tools and old barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kobetz, Erin; Partridge, Edward E; Brandt, Heather M; Bell, Maria C; Dignan, Mark; Ma, Grace X; Daye, Jane L; Castle, Philip E

    2010-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female tumor worldwide, and its incidence is disproportionately high (>80%) in the developing world. In the United States, in which Papanicolaou (Pap) tests have reduced the annual incidence to approximately 11,000 cervical cancers, >60% of cases are reported to occur in medically underserved populations as part of a complex of diseases linked to poverty, race/ethnicity, and/or health disparities. Because carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause virtually all cervical cancer, 2 new approaches for cervical cancer prevention have emerged: 1) HPV vaccination to prevent infections in younger women (aged or =30 years). Together, HPV vaccination and testing, if used in an age-appropriate manner, have the potential to transform cervical cancer prevention, particularly among underserved populations. Nevertheless, significant barriers of access, acceptability, and adoption to any cervical cancer prevention strategy remain. Without understanding and addressing these obstacles, these promising new tools for cervical cancer prevention may be futile. In the current study, the delivery of cervical cancer prevention strategies to these US populations that experience a high cervical cancer burden (African-American women in South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi; Haitian immigrant women in Miami; Hispanic women in the US-Mexico Border; Sioux/Native American women in the Northern Plains; white women in the Appalachia; and Vietnamese-American women in Pennsylvania and New Jersey) is reviewed. The goal was to inform future research and outreach efforts to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in underserved populations.

  11. Cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Melissa S; Baker, Ellen S; Maza, Mauricio; Fontes-Cintra, Georgia; Lopez, Aldo; Carvajal, Juan M; Nozar, Fernanda; Fiol, Veronica; Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2017-02-07

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a known etiology (human papillomavirus), effective preventive vaccines, excellent screening methods, and a treatable pre-invasive phase. Surgery is the primary treatment for pre-invasive and early-stage disease and can safely be performed in many low-resource settings. However, cervical cancer rates remain high in many areas of Latin America. This article presents a number of evidence-based strategies being implemented to improve cervical cancer outcomes in Latin America.

  12. Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163464.html Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA Agency recommends ... cancer, which is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). An FDA-approved vaccine called Gardasil 9 protects ...

  13. [Human papillomavirus detection in cervical cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picconi, María Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC), which is strongly associated to high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection, continues being a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had no major impact on reducing CC incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. New screening tools to detect precancerous lesions became available, which provide great opportunities for CC prevention, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. Currently, hr-HPV testing represents an invaluable component of clinical guidelines for screening, management and treatment of CC and their precursor lesions. Many testing strategies have been developed that can detect a broad spectrum of hr-HPV types in a single assay; however, only a small subset of them has documented clinical performance for any of the standard HPV testing indications. HPV tests that have not been validated and lack proof of reliability, reproducibility and accuracy should not be used in clinical management. Once incorporated into the lab, it is essential to submit the whole procedure of HPV testing to continuous and rigorous quality assurance to avoid sub-optimal, potentially harmful practices. Recent progress and current status of these methods are discussed in this article.

  14. Advancing cervical cancer prevention in India: implementation science priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact.

  15. Delivering cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J; Barone, M; Mahé, C; Lewis, R; Luciani, S

    2005-05-01

    The goals of any cervical cancer prevention program should be threefold: to achieve high coverage of the population at risk, to screen women with an accurate test as part of high-quality services, and to ensure that women with positive test results are properly managed. This article focuses on the experiences of the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) in delivery of screening and treatment services as part of cervical cancer prevention projects in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Research and experience show that cervical cancer can be prevented when strategies and services are well planned and well managed and when attention is paid to program monitoring and evaluation. Coordination of program components, reduction of the number of visits, improvement of service quality, and flexibility in how services are delivered are all essential features of an effective service.

  16. Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

  17. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  18. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  19. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine: Future of Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatul Fardows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a deadly cancer that clutches lives of the women in most of the cases due to lack of consciousness about the disease in the developing countries. It remains a threat which is second only to breast cancer in overall disease burden for women throughout the world. Cervical cancer is almost a preventable disease by prophylactic vaccine and routine screening. Both Cervarix and Gardasil vaccines have been effective in preventing persistent infection with targeted HPV types and in preventing cervical intraepithelial lesions. It is safe and nearly 100% effective if given before onset of sexual activity. This review article is aimed to explore different aspects of this vaccine as well as to develop awareness among health professionals of different disciplines.

  20. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination...... guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. CONCLUSION: Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation...

  1. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer Vacunas para prevenir el cáncer cervical

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Cosette M.

    1997-01-01

    The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV) in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45) have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guarant...

  2. Behaviour among women in the scope of cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Słopiecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cytological examination is a simple and inexpensive method used in the prevention of cervical cancer. In Poland, too low proportions of women still have the test. Aim of the research : To analyse the attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention. Material and methods : Two hundred and ten hospitalized women were invited to take part in the investigation. The research used the diagnostic poll method, using the author’s original questionnaire form. The research was carried out in four gynaecological wards. Results : Of the women who participated in the research, 16.2% by the time of diagnosis had never received a Pap test. In the analysed group, 88.2% of women were not referred to a specialist for a Pap test. Among all respondents, only 35.7% underwent cervix cytology regularly, i.e. once a year or once every 2 years. Conclusions : The effort made by the women towards the attitudes of cervical cancer prevention was insufficient; still too many women had not reported to the specialist for taking material from the cervix, or did not do so regularly. A significant relation in the behaviour of women was found depending on their level of education and place of residence. Greater activity of nurses, midwives and family physicians in stimulating Polish women to participate in prevention programmes for cervical cancer is advisable. To increase the health awareness of girls and women, it is important to include in the curriculum, especially in secondary schools, the issues of prevention of female reproductive system cancer.

  3. [Consensus for the prevention of cervical cancer in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; Ruiz Moreno, José Antonio; Ponce, Eduardo Lazcano; Vargas Hernández, Victor Manuel; Aguado Pérez, Rogelio A; Alonso de Ruiz, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Cervical cancer remains a serious public health problem in the world; that is why the Mexican Federation of Schools of Obstetrics and Gynecology convened the elaboration of a consensus that is devoted this number of Ginecologia y Obstetricia de Mexico. In recent years has strengthened perceptions (public and private) in the need for preventive strategies in the medium and long terms. The development of effective vaccines against the human papilloma virus and the application of new methods of detection from viral DNA (completely automated for personal application) allow some degree of optimism. It is proposed a consensus with general recommendations in two consecutive stages: (a) primary prevention consisting of education for the prevention of cervical cancer and universal immunization and (b) secondary prevention by early detection of infections or injuries that could favor carcinogenesis. The consensus reviewed characteristics of available vaccines in detail and proposes strategies for implementation in Mexican population. Also, check out main methods of early detection of infection (or predisposing lesions) and suggests public and private strategies for implementation. Consensus places particular emphasis on early immunization for female population and correct use of methods for detection of infections or injuries that might cause cervical cancer.

  4. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Thomas C.; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Sahar...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  6. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas C; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and identifies areas for programmatic development to meet the global development goal to reduce cancer-related mortality. Advanced stage at presentation and gaps in prevention, screening, diagnostic, and treatment capacities contribute to reduced cervical cancer survival. Cost-effective cervical cancer screening strategies implemented in low resource settings can reduce cervical cancer mortality. Patient- and system-based barriers need to be addressed as part of any cervical cancer control program. Limited human capacity and infrastructure in SSA are major barriers to comprehensive cervical cancer care. Management of early-stage, locally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer involves multispecialty care, including gynecology oncology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, radiation oncology, and palliative care. Investment in cervical cancer care programs in low- and middle-income countries will need to include effective recruitment programs to engage women in the community to access cancer screening and diagnosis services. Though cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable cancer, the challenges to cervical control in SSA are great and will require a broadly integrated and sustained effort by multiple stakeholders before meaningful progress can be achieved.

  7. Preventing cervical cancer : overviews of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and 2 US immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kris; Curtis, C Robinette; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Stokley, Shannon; Walker, Chastity; Roland, Katherine; Benard, Vicki; Saraiya, Mona

    2008-11-15

    Three federal programs with the potential to reduce cervical cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, especially among underserved populations, are administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program, and the Section 317 immunization grant program. The NBCCEDP provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to uninsured and underinsured women. The VFC program and the Section 317 immunization grant program provide vaccines, including human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, to targeted populations at no cost for these vaccines. This article describes the programs, their histories, populations served, services offered, and roles in preventing cervical cancer through HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Potential long-term reduction in healthcare costs resulting from HPV vaccination is also discussed. As an example of an initiative to vaccinate uninsured women aged 19-26 years through a cancer services program, a state-based effort that was recently launched in New York, is highlighted.

  8. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  9. Prospects for primary prevention of cervical cancer in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franceschi Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The HPV types that cause cervical cancer are sexually transmitted, but there is little evidence that infection can be avoided by behavioural changes, such as condom use. In contrast, prophylactic vaccines against HPV infection are likely to have high efficacy. In principle, the effectiveness of HPV vaccination as a strategy for cervical cancer control can be measured either by monitoring secular trends in cervical cancer incidence or by conducting randomized trials. The former approach is unlikely to provide convincing evidence of effectiveness, since cervical cancer rates are subject to strong secular trends that are independent of intervention measures. A few phase III trials of HPV prophylactic vaccines are now being started. Such trials are very expensive studies involving frequent and complicated investigations. It is important, however, to start as soon as possible simpler trials designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of HPV vaccine in field conditions, i.e. in developing or intermediate countries which suffer the major burden of mortality from cervical cancer. Such trials may capture a difference in the most severe, and rarest, preinvasive cervical lesions (i.e., the real target of any HPV vaccine over a prolonged follow-up (20 years at least. The design of such studies is briefly considered for two areas: Southern India and South Korea.

  10. The cervical cancer prevention programme in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ileana Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Cervical and uterine cancer continues to be an important issue for women around the world, although neoplasia has the greatest demonstrated potential for prevention. Costa Rica has achieved important advances in the reduction of the incidence and mortality of these cancers since the last century. This is the result of a series of policies, programmes, and plans, not only at the level of the health care system, but also in other areas. Increased access for women to care in health centres, fundamentally at the primary level, has been vital, as has ensuring the quality of cytology readings and access to diagnosis and treatment for precursor lesions for in situ and invasive cancers. Despite all of these achievements, there are still challenges to be overcome, which are widespread in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is important to learn from the experiences of other countries in order to improve women's health not only as a health objective, but also as an ethical imperative to promote the exercise of women's rights to life and health.

  11. Knowledge and views of secondary school students in Kuala Lumpur on cervical cancer and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Hesham; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Sawalludin, Nurhidayah

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (p<0.001) compared to students from the art stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer.

  12. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer Vacunas para prevenir el cáncer cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSETTE M WHEELER

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.El potencial uso de vacunas de virus del papiloma humano (VPH en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer cervical posiblemente será implementado durante los próximos años. Cerca de los 20 genotipos de VPH de los 75 que se encuentran identificados infectan el tracto genital femenino, pero son cuatro subtipos: 16, 18, 31 y 45 los que se han asociado en cerca de 80% a cáncer cervical. En este ensayo se plantea que para poder diseñar una vacuna profiláctica contra la infección de VPH, efectiva, se debe garantizar una adecuada respuesta inmune a través de cuatro metas: a activación de antígenos presentes en la célula; b superar la respuesta del huésped y la variabilidad genética viral en la respuesta de células T; c generación de altos niveles de células T y B de memoria, y d persistencia de antígenos.

  13. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majidi, A.; Ghiasvand, R.; Hadji, M.

    2016-01-01

    , ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention...... of ICC in this setting. Methods: We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go......-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results: From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management...

  14. Vaginal delivery of carboplatin-loaded thermosensitive hydrogel to prevent local cervical cancer recurrence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Jin; Wu, Wenbin; Li, Hongjun

    2016-11-01

    Local tumor recurrence after cervical cancer surgery remains a clinical problem. Vaginal delivery of thermosensitive hydrogel may be suited to reduce tumor relapse rate with more efficacy and safety. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of carboplatin-loaded poloxamer hydrogel to prevent local recurrence of cervical cancer after surgery. In vivo vaginal retention evaluation of 27% poloxamer hydrogel in mice was proven to be a suitable vaginal drug delivery formulation due to its low gelation temperature. A mimic orthotopic cervical/vaginal cancer recurrence model after surgery was established by injecting murine cervical cancer cell line U14 into the vaginal submucosa to simulate the residual tumor cells infiltrated in the surgical site, followed by drug administration 24 h later to interfere with the formation/recurrence of the tumor. By infusing fluorescein sodium-loaded hydrogel into the vagina of mice, a maximized accumulation of fluorescein sodium (Flu) in the vagina was achieved and few signals were observed in other organs. When used in the prevention of the cervical cancer formation/recurrence in mice, the carboplatin-loaded poloxamer hydrogel exhibited great efficacy and systemic safety. In conclusion, thermosensitive hydrogel presents a simple, practical approach for the local drug delivery via vagina against cervical cancer recurrence.

  15. Factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingham Allison

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for introducing or strengthening cervical cancer prevention programs must focus on ensuring that appropriate, cost-effective services are available and that women who most need the services will, in fact, use them. This article summarizes the experiences of research projects in Bolivia, Peru, Kenya, South Africa, and Mexico. Factors that affect participation rates in cervical cancer prevention programs are categorized in three sections. The first section describes factors that arise from prevailing sociocultural norms that influence women's views on reproductive health, well being, and notions of illness. The second section discusses factors related to the clinical requirements and the type of service delivery system in which a woman is being asked to participate. The third section discusses factors related to quality of care. Examples of strategies that programs are using to encourage women's participation in cervical cancer prevention services are provided.

  16. New paradigms in cervical cancer prevention: opportunities and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Rossi Paolo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing for the DNA of high-risk types of papilloma virus (HPV is more sensitive than cytology in detecting pre-cancerous lesions. One of the main advantages will be the possibility of applying prolonged screening intervals. However adequate screening protocols (age of start and stop, screening intervals, management of HPV positive women need to be applied in order to avoid over-referral to colposcopy and over-treatment and to maintain sustainable costs. Further follow-up of running trials and research on molecular markers will better define these parameters. The new situation will require organised screening programmes with rigorous protocols and monitoring. This will be even more needed when women vaccinated for HPV 16 and 18 will be screened. Research on how to best screen vaccinated women is a priority. This paper proposes an overview of the plausible impact of new technologies in cervical cancer screening in the near future and in the vaccinated cohorts.

  17. Cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: Epidemiological evidence and perspectives for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ NUBIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem, as it is the second most common cancer in women world-wide after breast cancer. About 80% of the half a million cases estimated to occur annually in the world, occur in developing countries. The epidemiological evidence linking human papillomavirus (HPV to cervical cancer is reviewed. It is concluded that over 90% of cervical cancers can be attributed to certain HPV types. HPV 16 accounts for the highest proportion (50% followed by HPV 18 (12%, HPV 45 (8% and HPV 31 (5%. The associations with these HPV types are very b and consistent with odds ratios over 15 in all case-control studies in high- and low-risk countries for cervical cancer. However, HPV is not a sufficient cause of this malignancy; certain cofactors are necessary for a proportion of HPV persistent infections to eventually progress to cancer. These include host factors such as histocompatibilidad types and immunological response, hormonal influences and infections with other sexually transmitted agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition, results from our studies carried out in Spain and Colombia support the hypothesis that male carriers of HPV play an important role in the development of cervical cancer in their wives. The recognition of the central role of HPV in cervical cancer has far-reaching implications for the primary and secondary prevention of this malignancy. Prophylactic and therapeutic HPV vaccines are now under development and HPV typing is being integrated into screening programmes in pilot studies in a few developed countries. In developing countries, well conducted conventional screening programmes remain the best approach for the control of cervical cancer until a safe and efficient HPV vaccine can be used in the general population.

  18. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Health Education Intervention in Cervical Cancer Prevention in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chania

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be

  19. [New paradigms and challenges in cervical cancer prevention and control in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Murillo, Raúl; Sánchez, Gloria Inés; Jerónimo, José; Salmerón, Jorge; Ferreccio, Catterina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Herrero, Rolando

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had almost no major impact on reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. The availability of new screening tools to detect precancerous lesions provide great opportunities for cervical cancer prevention in the region, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. This paper summarizes the scientific evidence and regional experiences related to: i) the use of HPV testing and visual inspection after the application of acetic acid (VIA) in primary screening and ii) the implementation of adolescent HPV vaccination programs. Finally, we outline a number of recommendations for different resource settings. The feasibility of implementing successful and sustainable national cervical cancer prevention programs in Latin American countries in the region will depend on health priorities and the availability of infrastructure and health personnel--as determined by rigorous local situational analysis.

  20. Etiology and Prevention of Cervical Cancer%宫颈癌病因及预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红杰; 李忻琳

    2011-01-01

    This article discussed the cause and prevention of cervical cancer from a philosophical point of view. Cervical cancer is the combined result of internal reason and external reason. Experimental and clinical studies found that high- risk HPV (one of human papillomavirus family) infection is the ongoing occurrence of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions, it's the main external factor. This article will discuss the HPV genotyping as an important elemen of cervical cancer screening system in the prevention of cervical cancer.%从哲学角度讨论宫颈癌的病因,思考临床工作中如何预防宫颈癌.宫颈癌的发生是内因外因综合作用的结果.实验与临床研究发现人类乳头瘤病毒(HPV)家族中的高危型HPV的持续感染是宫颈癌及其癌前痛变发生的主要外因.本文将讨论HPV分型检测作为宫颈癌筛查系统的一个重要元素在预防宫颈癌发生中所处的地位.

  1. HPV infection in cervical and other cancers in Saudi Arabia: implication for prevention and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi eAlsbeih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap Smear and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and 18. Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and 18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program.

  2. Cervical cancer in Mexico and importance of sex education for early prevention in young people and rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl S. Moran García

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a serious health problem due to high mortality rates that are associated with it. The high incidence rates can be explained by women and their families’ ignorance about this disease. In fact, cervical cancer can be diagnosed early and, if detected on time, the likelihood of cure is high. Latin America is considered at high risk for cervical cancer. More specifically, cervical cancer in Mexico ranks second in incidence after breast cancer, in spite of having a screening program for over 20 years, which has only been able to prevent 13% of potentially preventable cases. The purpose of this analysis is to once again address the importance cervical cancer, to offer a general overview of the nature of this disease, but most of all, to underscore the relevance of education as a means of detection and prevention.

  3. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF CERVICAL CANCER

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    Victor Chi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a system to prevent and control Cervical Cancer. This systemruns on a handheld using infrared technology from a service point to make the current process moreefficient for the staff responsible for carrying out diagnostic tests, as well as for doctors from healthclinics in communities belonging to the city of Tizimín, Yucatan, Mexico.

  4. Evaluation of the knowledge regarding prevention of cervical cancer among women from a Health Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernandes Gonçalves Dias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cervical cancer is a disease with high degree of morbidity and mortality, but has early detection by performing screening test which allows healing. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge regarding prevention of Cervical Cancer among women in a Basic Health Unit in Minas Gerais. Methods: This is a study descriptive with approach qualitative with 44 women. Was used as the data collection instrument of a semistructured script consisting of subjective questions. Data were collected between March April 2014. Results: The women had age of 40-57 years old, 33 (75% were married, 43(97,73% had children, 20 (45,45% had incomplete primary education, 36 (81,82% were responsible for all financial income of the family and lived with up to the minimum wage. As for the Pap smear, considered important, however showed little clarity as to the meaning of prevention. Performed the test as means of prevention and early diagnosis of Cervical Cancer. Among women who did not perform the preventive the cause was discouragement. Conclusion: We conclude that although the Pap smear be offered for free, there is still women who do not have adequate knowledge about the same and not makes periodically, fitting to health services intensify health education programs to seeking to raise awareness about the importance of regular practice of the Pap smear. Keywords: Cervix Uteri. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms. Health centers.

  5. The Role of Natural Polyphenols in the Prevention and Treatment of Cervical Cancer-An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, Marius Alexandru; Dimienescu, Oana Gabriela; Arvatescu, Cristian Andrei; Mironescu, Aurel; Dracea, Laura; Ples, Liana

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer represents the second leading cause of death for women worldwide. The importance of the diet and its impact on specific types of neoplasia has been highlighted, focusing again interest in the analysis of dietary phytochemicals. Polyphenols have shown a wide range of cellular effects: they may prevent carcinogens from reaching the targeted sites, support detoxification of reactive molecules, improve the elimination of transformed cells, increase the immune surveillance and the most important factor is that they can influence tumor suppressors and inhibit cellular proliferation, interfering in this way with the steps of carcinogenesis. From the studies reviewed in this paper, it is clear that certain dietary polyphenols hold great potential in the prevention and therapy of cervical cancer, because they interfere in carcinogenesis (in the initiation, development and progression) by modulating the critical processes of cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Specifically, polyphenols inhibit the proliferation of HPV cells, through induction of apoptosis, growth arrest, inhibition of DNA synthesis and modulation of signal transduction pathways. The effects of combinations of polyphenols with chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in the treatment of cervical cancer showed results in the resistance of cervical tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy, one of the main problems in the treatment of cervical neoplasia that can lead to failure of the treatment because of the decreased efficiency of the therapy.

  6. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin Hang, E-mail: shlee01@snet.net; Vigliotti, Jessica S.; Vigliotti, Veronica S.; Jones, William [Department of Pathology, Milford Hospital, 300 Seaside Ave., Milford, CT 06460 (United States)

    2014-10-02

    The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.

  7. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Hang Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.

  8. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  9. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections: new options for cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch F. Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the cervical cancer puzzle has become a coherent description that includes the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV as the sexually transmitted etiologic agent and the characterization of the major determinants of HPV acquisition. Triage studies have consistently shown that HPV testing is more sensitive that repeated cytology in identifying underlying high-grade lesions in women with atypical scamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. Studies that reflect primary screening conditions have shown that the sensitivity of HPV tests is higher than standard cytology in detecting high-grade lesions whereas the specificity is similar only in women aged 30-35 and above. HPV vaccines have an intrinsic attraction as a preventive strategy in populations with limited resources. However, vaccines designed to widespread use are still in development and testing phases. Time is ripe for exploring in depth the clinical implications of current achievements and to devise novel strategies for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  10. Knowledge of young Polish women of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer prevention

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    Martyna Biała

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HPV infection is the most frequent sexually transmitted disease and a major epidemiological problem in the world. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are responsible for over 70.0% cases of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of young women concerning HPV infection as well as possibilities of cervical cancer prevention. Moreover, the study had to determine which groups of young women especially required educational campaigns. Material and methods. The questionnaire survey was carried out among 126 young Polish women aged 18–35. The results were statistically analyzed. Results. The survey found that 41.3% women had heard about HPV before interview. Nearly 38.5% of women correctly indicated the occurrence of cancer which is associated with HPV infection. About 23.0% of women received a vaccination against HPV, only 19.2% of women correctly identified who should be subjected to vaccination. The best knowledge about cervical cancer and disease prevention was manifested among female university graduates and groups living in urban areas. Those women also more often underwent cytological screening. Conclusions. Educational campaigns should particularly include group of women living in the rural areas and women with primary and secondary education.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan

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    Chow Song-Nan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been shown to be a major risk factor for cervical cancer. Vaccines against HPV-16 and HPV-18 are highly effective in preventing type-specific HPV infections and related cervical lesions. There is, however, limited data available describing the health and economic impacts of HPV vaccination in Taiwan. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan. Methods We developed a Markov model to compare the health and economic outcomes of vaccinating preadolescent girls (at the age of 12 years for the prevention of cervical cancer with current practice, including cervical cytological screening. Data were synthesized from published papers or reports, and whenever possible, those specific to Taiwan were used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for important uncertainties and different vaccination scenarios. Results Under the assumption that the HPV vaccine could provide lifelong protection, the massive vaccination among preadolescent girls in Taiwan would lead to reduction in 73.3% of the total incident cervical cancer cases and would result in a life expectancy gain of 4.9 days or 8.7 quality-adjusted life days at a cost of US$324 as compared to the current practice. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was US$23,939 per life year gained or US$13,674 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained given the discount rate of 3%. Sensitivity analyses showed that this ICER would remain below US$30,000 per QALY under most conditions, even when vaccine efficacy was suboptimal or when vaccine-induced immunity required booster shots every 13 years. Conclusions Although gains in life expectancy may be modest at the individual level, the results indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccination of preadolescent girls in Taiwan would result in substantial population benefits with a favorable cost

  12. Do women in rural areas of Serbia rarely apply preventive measures against cervical cancer?

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    Antić Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The incidence of cervical cancer in Central Serbia has the higher rate as compared with that in other European countries. Considering mortality rate for cervical cancer, the standardized rate in Serbia is 10.1 per 10,000 females, which is the second highest one after that in Romania with 13.0. The aim of this study was to examine application of preventive measures for cervical cancer in women both from rural and urban areas in Serbia and if they are associated with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviour. Methods. We analyzed secondary data of the 2006 National Health Survey of the population of Serbia focused on characteristics of adult females aged 25 to 65 years (5.314 in total taking into consideration that programme of the organized screening will include female population aged over 25 years. Results. Respondents from rural areas have gynecological examination less than once a year in comparison with those from urban areas (OR = 0.60, 95% Cl 0.54-0.68. Less women from rural areas did Pap test during the last 12 months in comparison with respondents from urban areas (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.48- 0.64. Respondents from urban areas less often do the Pap test on doctor's advice in comparison with those from rural one (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.42-0.62. Conclusion. This study shows that women in rural areas rarely implement preventive gynecological measures againt cervical cancer in comparison with those in urban areas. Implementation of preventive measures among rural women is conditioned by lower levels of education and lower socioeconomic status. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025

  13. Development of a community cancer education program: the Forsyth County, NC cervical cancer prevention project.

    OpenAIRE

    Michielutte, R; Dignan, M B; Wells, H B; Young, L. D.; Jackson, D S; Sharp, P C

    1989-01-01

    The authors outline the development and implementation of a public health education program for cervical cancer screening among black women in Forsyth County, NC. The educational program includes distributing electronic and printed information media messages, a program of direct education for women, and providing information on current issues in cervical screening to primary-care physicians. Program development was based on social marketing principles, the PRECEDE model, and the communication...

  14. Strengthening prevention programs to eliminate cervical cancer in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, L.; Pagliusi, S.; Bray, F.;

    2008-01-01

    Disease trend studies based on birth cohort analysis and serological studies indicate that recent generations have a higher prevalence of oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types, and are likely to be at higher risk of cancer than previous generations. This implies that prevention strategies t...... to eliminate cervical cancer in the Nordic countries and globally Udgivelsesdato: 2008......Disease trend studies based on birth cohort analysis and serological studies indicate that recent generations have a higher prevalence of oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types, and are likely to be at higher risk of cancer than previous generations. This implies that prevention strategies...... to protect young populations from HPV-associated cancers need to be strengthened, and hence organized implementation of vaccination and better screening programs are being considered. In this context, randomized large-scale policy evaluations will be instrumental in accelerating disease control and improve...

  15. The human papillomavirus vaccine: A powerful tool for the primary prevention of cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine is the most promissory public health tool for primary prevention of cervical cancer. Immunization of females before the acquisition of HPV infection has the greatest impact in preventing pre-neoplasic lesions and cervical cancer. Current HPV vaccines do not eliminate cervical cancer risk, therefore, screening should continue covering vaccinated as well as women that do not get the vaccine. The strategies that include combination of high-coverage vaccination of HPV-unexposed adolescents with screening using methods with higher sensitivity than cytology as HPV test may be more cost-effective than the strategies currently used. The cytology-based screening programs of Latin America countries including Colombia are very ineffective. The evidence in favor of the cost-effectiveness of other screening strategies such as HPV tests and visual inspection followed by immediate treatment for women with difficult access to health care services in developing countries warrants the immediate revision of the current strategies.

  16. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  17. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  18. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  19. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low

  20. Annual national direct and indirect cost estimates of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Itria, Alexander; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Rama, Cristina Helena; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil. METHODS: This cost description study used a "gross-costing" methodology and adopted the health system and societal perspectives. The estimates were grouped into sets of procedures performed in phases of cervical cancer care: the screening, diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions and the treatment of cervical cancer. The costs were estimated for the public and private health systems, using data from national health information systems, population surveys, and literature reviews. The cost estimates are presented in 2006 USD. RESULTS: From the societal perspective, the estimated total costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer amounted to USD $1,321,683,034, which was categorized as follows: procedures (USD $213,199,490), visits (USD $325,509,842), transportation (USD $106,521,537) and productivity losses (USD $676,452,166). Indirect costs represented 51% of the total costs, followed by direct medical costs (visits and procedures) at 41% and direct non-medical costs (transportation) at 8%. The public system represented 46% of the total costs, and the private system represented 54%. CONCLUSION: Our national cost estimates of cervical cancer prevention and treatment, indicating the economic importance of cervical cancer screening and care, will be useful in monitoring the effect of the HPV vaccine introduction and are of interest in research and health care management. PMID:26017797

  1. Secondary prevention of cervical cancer through the development and implementation of a system to optimize diagnostic and therapeutic and rehabilitation measures in the background and precancerous cervical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Badretdinova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a comprehensive evaluation and treatment of background and pre-cancerous cervical cancer of women were studied (n = 1022. There is the complex assessment of social and obstetric gynecological risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. A system for optimizing diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive and rehabilitative measures, taking into account the differentiated approach to the choice of treatment, follow-up in the near and long-term postoperative period. An individual approach to the selection of organ presentation or radical treatment using new technologies of surgical treatment are identified. Application of the developed system enabled a statistically significantly improve the results of treatment of background and precancerous cervical disease.

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  4. Profile and retrospective analysis of the use of preventive strategies in patients with cervical cancer in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey Goddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy of the female genital tract in developing countries, with a global burden of 530,000 new cases annually. This study aims to review the current situation of this important malignancy and to assess the previous use of preventive measures in patients with cervical cancer at the Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of all cases of cervical cancer managed at the UPTH, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between 1 January 2008 and 31 December, 2012. Results: The prevalence of cervical cancer was 3.53% of all gynaecological admissions. The peak age of incidence was 50-59 years, accounting for 40% of the study population. Women with high parity contributed to 93.3% of the study population. Early coitarche was observed in 78.7% and a history of multiple sexual partners in 65.3%. Vaginal bleeding was the commonest clinical feature seen in all the women studied, followed by pelvic pain in 84% of cases. Advanced-stage cervical cancer was seen in 93.4%. None of the women studied had been previously vaccinated against human papilloma virus (HPV, and only 1.3% had had any form of screening methods for early detection of cervical cancer. Conclusion: Cervical cancer remains an important cancer in our environment, and late presentation with advance disease is still the norm despite advances in screening and preventive modalities. The reason for this is buttressed on the finding that despite the availability of these preventive strategies, women in the South-South of Nigeria did not partake of these measures. There is an urgent need to develop programmes to re-sensitise women on the need for screening and vaccination to reduce cancer-associated morbidity and mortality in Port Harcourt, South-South Nigeria.

  5. Implementation of mass media community health education: the Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignan, M; Bahnson, J; Sharp, P; Beal, P; Smith, M; Michielutte, R

    1991-09-01

    The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project (FCP) is a community-based health education project funded by the National Cancer Institute. The target population includes around 25 000 black women age 18 and older who reside in Forsyth County, North Carolina. The overall goal of the program is to prevent mortality from cervical cancer by promoting Pap smears and return for follow-up care when needed. Based on the principles of social marketing, a plan to reach the target population with mass media educational messages through electronic and print channels was developed. Guided by marketing objectives, the target population was divided into relatively discrete segments. The segments included church attenders, patients in waiting rooms of public and selected health providers, female students at local colleges, shoppers, viewers of radio and television, newspaper readers, and business owners and managers. Introduction of the program was based on strategies developed for reaching the target population in each segment with television, radio and print mass media messages. Qualitative assessment of the mass media developed by the program indicated that all forms of communication helped to increase awareness of the program.

  6. Vaccines against human papillomavirus and perspectives for the prevention and control of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Carrancá Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, "persistent" infections by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV are considered necessary for developing cervical cancer. Producing efficient vaccines against these viruses may eventually lead to a great reduction in incidence and mortality rates of this cancer. In the case of HPV, the production of traditional vaccines usually based in dead or attenuated viruses is not possible due in part to the lack of systems where large quantities of viral particles could be obtained. Fortunately, the expression of the late L1 protein alone, or in combination with L2, leads to the generation of structures resembling true virions that have been called virus-like particles (VLPs and constitute excellent candidates as prophylactic vaccines. VLPs have shown to be very immunogenic, and have prevented development of natural or challenged infections in both animal systems and humans. Recently, HPV16 VLPs were shown to be very efficient to prevent the development of "persistent" infections, as determined by PCR assays, in a large group of vaccinated women. Therapeutic vaccines, on the other hand, are expected to have an impact on advanced lesions and residual illness, by taking advantaje of the fact that early E6 and E7 genes are thought to be constitutively expressed in cervical tumors and precursor lesions. Finally, DNA-based vaccines could represent a useful alternative for preventing infections by genital HPV.

  7. Resources Required for Cervical Cancer Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Nicole G.; Sharma, Monisha; Clark, Andrew; Kim, Jane J.; Resch, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women, with 85% of cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. While organized screening programs have reduced cervical cancer incidence in high-income countries through detection and treatment of precancerous lesions, the implementation of organized screening has not been effective in low-resource settings due to lack of infrastructure and limited budgets. Our objective was to estimate the cost of comprehensive primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention in low- and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings We performed a modeling analysis to estimate 1) for girls aged 10 years, the cost of 2-dose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination; and 2) for women aged 30 to 49 years, the cost of cervical cancer screening (with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), HPV testing, or cytology) and preventive treatment in 102 low- and middle-income countries from 2015 to 2024. We used an Excel-based costing and service utilization model to estimate financial costs (2013 US$) based on prevalence of HPV, prevalence of precancerous lesions, and screening test performance. Where epidemiologic data were unavailable, we extrapolated from settings with data using an individual-based microsimulation model of cervical carcinogenesis (calibrated to 20 settings) and multivariate regression. Total HPV vaccination costs ranged from US$8.6 billion to US$24.2 billion for all scenarios considered (immediate, 5-year, or 10-year roll-out; price per dose US$4.55-US$70 by country income level). The total cost of screening and preventive treatment ranged from US$5.1 billion (10-year roll-out, screening once at age 35 years) to US$42.3 billion (immediate roll-out, high intensity screening). Limitations of this analysis include the assumption of standardized protocols by country income level that did not account for the potential presence of multiple screening modalities or management strategies within a

  8. Exploring the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in Vietnam: insights for evidence-based cervical cancer prevention policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jane J; Kobus, Katie E; Diaz, Mireia; O'Shea, Meredith; Van Minh, Hoang; Goldie, Sue J

    2008-07-29

    Using mathematical models of cervical cancer for the northern and southern regions of Vietnam, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies and the tradeoffs between a national and region-based policy in Vietnam. With 70% vaccination and screening coverage, lifetime risk of cancer was reduced by 20.4-76.1% with vaccination of pre-adolescent girls and/or screening of older women. Only when the cost per vaccinated girl was low (i.e., I$100), screening alone was most cost-effective. When optimal policies differed between regions, implementing a national strategy resulted in health and economic inefficiencies. HPV vaccination appears to be an attractive cervical cancer prevention strategy for Vietnam, provided high coverage can be achieved in young pre-adolescent girls, cost per vaccinated girl is

  9. A strategic assessment of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzuba Ilana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a preventable disease, cervical cancer claims the lives of almost half a million women worldwide each year. India bears one-fifth of the global burden of the disease, with approximately 130,000 new cases a year. In an effort to assess the need and potential for improving the quality of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in Uttar Pradesh, a strategic assessment was conducted in three of the state's districts: Agra, Lucknow, and Saharanpur. Methods Using an adaptation of stage one of the World Health Organization's Strategic Approach to Improving Reproductive Health Policies and Programmes, an assessment of the quality of cervical cancer services was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of stakeholders. The assessment included a review of the available literature, observations of services, collection of hospital statistics and the conduct of qualitative research (in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to assess the perspectives of women, providers, policy makers and community members. Results There were gaps in provider knowledge and practices, potentially attributable to limited provider training and professional development opportunities. In the absence of a state policy on cervical cancer, screening of asymptomatic women was practically absent, except in the military sector. Cytology-based cancer screening tests (i.e. pap smears were often used to help diagnose women with symptoms of reproductive tract infections but not routinely screen asymptomatic women. Access to appropriate treatment of precancerous lesions was limited and often inappropriately managed by hysterectomy in many urban centers. Cancer treatment facilities were well equipped but mostly inaccessible for women in need. Finally, policy makers, community members and clients were mostly unaware about cervical cancer and its preventable nature, although with information, expressed a strong interest in having services

  10. Human papillomavirus vaccination: the policy debate over the prevention of cervical cancer--a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoops, Katherine E M; Twiggs, Leo B

    2008-07-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) family causes a variety of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions in men and women. HPV types 16 and 18 are responsible for causing 70% of all cases of cervical cancer each year. Recently, a vaccine that can prevent cervical cancer by protecting women from infection with the most common types of HPV has been made available. Following Food and Drug Administration approval and endorsement by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is the right and the duty of the state legislatures to implement vaccination programs. This vaccine, a vaccine for a sexually transmitted disease, has stirred a fierce debate. Religion and sexuality have dominated the discussion, and political calculations are inherent to the process; nonetheless, epidemiological analyses are also essential to the decision to mandate the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccine program implementation processes are at many stages in many states, and programs vary widely. Some provide information to families, whereas others allot a range of funding for voluntary vaccination. Virginia is, thus far, the only state to have enacted a mandate. This article discusses the various programs in place, the proposed legislation, and the debate surrounding the political process.

  11. Risk and protection factors for women’s health in the prevention of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the risk and protection factors for women who access health services for the realization of preventive screening for cervical cancer. Quantitative study conducted with 51 women in Teresina-PI, Brazil, in August 2013. The semi-structured form caught the variables of interest and the data were analyzed by the SPSS. Of the women, 72.5% were aged 25-39 years, 66.7% were married, and 55.0% accessed the service for prevention. With regard to the risk factors, 41.2% were overweight, 19.6% obese, and 72.5% were sedentary. Regarding the access to health services, 78.5% sought care in the past year. The cervical cancer screening program should be discussed in the sociocultural context, which will promote understanding and adherence to the recommendations of take the exam periodically. For this purpose, we recommend conducting immediate and effective measures to improve the viability of public policies for women’s health.

  12. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  13. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  14. Marketing communication in the area of breast and cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Innovative marketing campaigns and promotional activities can successfully contribute to the improvement of public health by raising the level of general knowledge about health issues and benefits that the change of habits, eradication of undesirable behaviour and regular medical controls have. The focus should be on continuous marketing communication through various mass media or direct communication between medical staff and patients. The aim of this paper was to define the role that various communication channels have in the process of informing and educating the target group in case of breast and cervical cancer prevention. Methods. The survey based on polling a sample of 2,100 female patients of the Serbian Railways Medical Centre was conducted in the period October-December 2013. The questionnaire included questions about demographic characteristics, prevention habits of women, their level of information on that topic and communication channels they prefer. Results. There is a difference among respondents’ awareness level about preventive measures depending on demographic and geographical criteria. The results indicate the existence of variations in frequency of performing gynaecological examinations and Pap tests depending on different age, educational and residential groups. Although the largest percentage of women stated familiarity with the way of performing breast self-examination (78%, the majority of them had never per-formed mammography or ultrasonography (67%. The greatest number of women were informed about the possibility of preventing breast and cervical cancer by posters or brochures in health institutions (71% and mass media - television on the first place (74%, then specialized magazines about health (48%, radio (48%, web sites about health (42%, and daily newspapers (34%. The respondents consider the Ministry of Health and health institutions as the most responsible subjects for education of women about

  15. An analysis of key stakeholders' attitudes and beliefs about barriers and facilitating factors in the development of a cervical cancer prevention program in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Shelley A; Leser, Kendall A; Esmont, Emma E; Griffith, Fareeda M

    2013-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Each year there are approximately 250,000 deaths; most of which occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America. The purpose of this report is to examine key stakeholders experience and knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer, examine their experiences with the current cervical cancer screening and treatment policy, and identify barriers and facilitating factors to vaccine implementation and uptake. Fifteen indepth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders in Cape Town and Johannesburg, South Africa. The interviews revealed several key findings including: 1) knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer varied across participants, 2) knowledge about cervical cancer was also mixed while knowledge about the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer was low among participants. Our findings indicate that key stakeholders are concerned about women's health and wellbeing. In addition, they believe that the government, families, and the media need to play a prominent role in prevention efforts.

  16. Cervical cancer prevention: new guidelines in the United States and new opportunities for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Alan G

    2013-06-01

    Developments from late 2011 to early 2013, including consensus conferences and the introduction of low-cost, rapid-turnaround testing of human papillomavirus, will change prevention strategies for cervical cancer in the United States and in low- and middle-income countries.

  17. Improving Cervical Cancer Prevention by HPV Self-sampling, Colposcopy and Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Baars (Romy)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The worldwide incidence rate of cervical cancer is around 500 000 per year with a mortality rate of around 270 000 women per year. With these figures, it represents the third most common cancer among women worldwide, after breast and colorectal cancer. However, the inc

  18. REGIONAL EXPERIENCE OF CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Afanaseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are evidences of increasing cervix uteri malignant tumors in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia in the period of 2003–2013. In such situation new, more effective, but less expensive organizational measures for prevention and early identification of oncological diseases should be developed. The recent epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that high-oncological-risk genital papilloma viral infection was certain risk factor of developing pre-cancer changes and cervical cancer. Detection of HPV regional epidemiological characteristics is extremely important for optimization of programs on diagnostics and prevention of cervix uteri cancer. The epidemiological and molecular-biological studies in Yakutia have detected more high infection rate in the female population than in male one. It was established that 11 high-oncological-risks genotypes of the virus circulating in the region with considerable prevalence of HPV Type 16. Since 2008 the program on vaccination against papilloma viral infection for girls and young women aged 10 to 25 years has been implemented in Yakutia Over six years, the number of vaccinated girls and women in Yakutsk reached 1093 persons. It has been the first experience in the Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Regions.

  19. Mothers' and their daughters' use of preventive measures against cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Vazquez-Prada Baillet, Miguel; Rebolj, Matejka;

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) and screening are complementary preventive measures against cervical cancer. In Denmark, screening and vaccination are free of charge for the women. In total, 75% of women are screened and about 90% of girls are vaccinated with at least one dose....... Our aim was to determine whether, in Denmark, daughters of unscreened mothers are less likely to be vaccinated against HPV than are daughters of screened mothers. Methods: We used population-based data from the Danish Patient Register, Health Service Registration, Pathology Data Bank, and Civil...... calculated birth cohort-specific relative risks (RRs) of non-initiation of HPV vaccination in daughters depending on their mothers' screening status. Results: In total, 8% of girls did not receive any vaccination, and 35% of their mothers were unscreened. Among the 92% of girls receiving at least one vaccine...

  20. Cervical cancer in Iquitos, Peru: local realities to guide prevention planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America, and in much of the underdeveloped world. This issue has not historically been addressed as a health priority, but in recent years is receiving increased attention and funding. This ethnographic study on the experience of cervical cancer was conducted in Iquitos, Peru, between August 1998 and May 1999. Research methodologies included: (1 observation and household interviews to obtain background knowledge about the region, medical systems, and local cultural understanding of illness; (2 cancer experience interviews; and (3 case studies of women in various stages of cervical cancer or diagnosis. Findings are presented related to local knowledge and experience of Pap smears and cervical cancer and the ineffectiveness of a recently initiated cervical cancer screening program. The findings guide recommendations for interventions in the region in relation to: (1 needed changes in health education, (2 screening frequency and age, (3 sites for screening and treatment, (4 type and availability of treatment, (5 payment issues, (6 documentation of care, and (7 the potential of herbal remedies.

  1. Cervical cancer in Iquitos, Peru: local realities to guide prevention planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hunter

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America, and in much of the underdeveloped world. This issue has not historically been addressed as a health priority, but in recent years is receiving increased attention and funding. This ethnographic study on the experience of cervical cancer was conducted in Iquitos, Peru, between August 1998 and May 1999. Research methodologies included: (1 observation and household interviews to obtain background knowledge about the region, medical systems, and local cultural understanding of illness; (2 cancer experience interviews; and (3 case studies of women in various stages of cervical cancer or diagnosis. Findings are presented related to local knowledge and experience of Pap smears and cervical cancer and the ineffectiveness of a recently initiated cervical cancer screening program. The findings guide recommendations for interventions in the region in relation to: (1 needed changes in health education, (2 screening frequency and age, (3 sites for screening and treatment, (4 type and availability of treatment, (5 payment issues, (6 documentation of care, and (7 the potential of herbal remedies.

  2. Cervical cancer in Iquitos, Peru: local realities to guide prevention planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer L

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America, and in much of the underdeveloped world. This issue has not historically been addressed as a health priority, but in recent years is receiving increased attention and funding. This ethnographic study on the experience of cervical cancer was conducted in Iquitos, Peru, between August 1998 and May 1999. Research methodologies included: (1) observation and household interviews to obtain background knowledge about the region, medical systems, and local cultural understanding of illness; (2) cancer experience interviews; and (3) case studies of women in various stages of cervical cancer or diagnosis. Findings are presented related to local knowledge and experience of Pap smears and cervical cancer and the ineffectiveness of a recently initiated cervical cancer screening program. The findings guide recommendations for interventions in the region in relation to: (1) needed changes in health education, (2) screening frequency and age, (3) sites for screening and treatment, (4) type and availability of treatment, (5) payment issues, (6) documentation of care, and (7) the potential of herbal remedies.

  3. 30 years of preventive studies of uterine cervical cancer 1982-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido JL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To show and describe the clinical evolution of cervical cancer screening patients following the protocol established by the University of Padua. Methods: 12,679 patients were examined using Pap smear, colposcopy and biopsy in cases it was required. Results: From these large group of patients, 6,411 were diagnosed as patients at risk of developing cancer, from which 4,257 only had HPV infection, 1,150 had dysplastic lesions, 210 had cervical cancer and 794 cases were classified as simple oncogenic risk.

  4. A Pan American Health Organization strategy for cervical cancer prevention and control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Silvana; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2008-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Latin America and the Caribbean, and disproportionately affects poorer women. Mortality rates in the region are seven times greater than in North America. In light of the significant public health burden, the Pan American Health Organization has drafted a Regional Strategy for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control. The Strategy calls for increased action to strengthen programmes through an integrated package of services: health information and education; screening and pre-cancer treatment; invasive cervical cancer treatment and palliative care; and evidence-based policy decisions on whether and how to introduce human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. It calls for a seven-point plan of action: conduct a situation analysis; intensify information, education and counselling; scale up screening and link to pre-cancer treatment; strengthen information systems and cancer registries; improve access to and quality of cancer treatment and palliative care; generate evidence to facilitate decision-making regarding HPV vaccine introduction; and advocate for equitable access and affordable HPV vaccines. This proposed strategy, approved by the PAHO Directing Council on 1 October 2008, has the possibility of stimulating and accelerating the introduction of new screening technology and HPV vaccines into programmes throughout Latin America and the Caribbean.

  5. Preventing cervical cancer and genital warts - How much protection is enough for HPV vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    HPV associated disease is a global health problem: 5.2% of all cancers are HPV associated with HPV 16 and 18 accounting for 70% of cases of cervical cancer. Genital warts caused by HPV 6 and 11 have a lifetime risk of acquisition of 10%. HPV vaccines are subunit vaccines consisting of virus like particles comprised of the L1 major capsid protein. Two vaccines have been licenced since 2006/2007 and are in the National Immunisation programmes in 62 countries. Both vaccines include HPV 16 and 18 VLPs and one also includes HPV 6 and 11. The vaccines are highly immunogenic and well tolerated. Genital HPV is a sexually transmitted infection with peak incidence occurring just after the onset of sexual activity and the routine cohort for immunisation in almost all countries are adolescent girls 9-15 years of age with or without catch up for older adolescents and young women. Population effectiveness is now being demonstrated for these vaccines in countries with high vaccine coverage. HPV vaccines are highly immunogenic and effective and the original 3 dose schedules have already been reduced, for those 14 years and under, to 2 for both licenced vaccines. There is preliminary evidence that 1 dose of vaccine is as effective as 2 or 3 in preventing persistent HPV infection in the cervix in young women and further reductions in dosage may be possible if supported by appropriate virological, immunological and modelling studies.

  6. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal, and vulvar cancers. It is recommended for preteens (both boys and girls) aged 11 to 12 ... index. • D on’t smoke. • Use condoms during sex. * • Limit your number of sexual partners. * HPV infection ...

  7. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other things may increase the risk of developing cancer following a high-risk HPV infection. These other things include: Smoking Having HIV or reduced immunity Taking birth control pills for a long time ( ...

  8. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  9. Primary human papillomavirus DNA screening for cervical cancer prevention: Can the screening interval be safely extended?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Margaretha A; Bogaards, Johannes A; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berkhof, Johannes

    2015-07-15

    Cytological screening has substantially decreased the cervical cancer incidence, but even better protection may be achieved by primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) screening. In the Netherlands, five-yearly cytological screening for women aged 30-60 years will be replaced by primary hrHPV screening in 2016. The new screening guidelines involve an extension of the screening interval from 5 to 10 years for hrHPV-negative women aged 40 or 50 years. We investigated the impact of this program change on the lifetime cancer risks in women without an hrHPV infection at age 30, 35, 40, 45 or 50 years. The time to cancer was estimated using 14-year follow-up data from a population-based screening intervention trial and the nationwide database of histopathology reports. The new screening guidelines are expected to lead to a reduced cervical cancer risk for all age groups. The average risk reduction was 34% and was smallest (25%) among women aged 35 years. The impact of hrHPV screening on the cancer risk was sensitive to the duration from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN2/3) to cancer; a small increase in the cancer risk was estimated for women aged 35 or 40 years in case a substantial proportion of CIN2/3 showed fast progression to cancer. Our results indicate that primary hrHPV screening with a ten-yearly interval for hrHPV-negative women of age 40 and beyond will lead to a further reduction in lifetime cancer risk compared to five-yearly cytology, provided that precancerous lesions progress slowly to cancer.

  10. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  11. Present and future of cervical cancer prevention in Spain: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgalis, Leonidas; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Esnaola, Mikel; Bosch, F Xavier; Diaz, Mireia

    2016-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination within a nonorganized setting creates a poor cost-effectiveness scenario. However, framed within an organized screening including primary HPV DNA testing with lengthening intervals may provide the best health value for invested money. To compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different cervical cancer (CC) prevention strategies, including current status and new proposed screening practices, to inform health decision-makers in Spain, a Markov model was developed to simulate the natural history of HPV and CC. Outcomes included cases averted, life expectancy, reduction in the lifetime risk of CC, life years saved, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), net health benefits, lifetime costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. The willingness-to-pay threshold is defined at 20 000&OV0556;/QALY. Both costs and health outcomes were discounted at an annual rate of 3%. A strategy of 5-year organized HPV testing has similar effectiveness, but higher efficiency than 3-year cytology. Screening alone and vaccination combined with cytology are dominated by vaccination followed by 5-year HPV testing with cytology triage (12 214&OV0556;/QALY). The optimal age for both ending screening and switching age from cytology to HPV testing in older women is 5 years later for unvaccinated than for vaccinated women. Net health benefits decrease faster with diminishing vaccination coverage than screening coverage. Primary HPV DNA testing is more effective and cost-effective than current cytological screening. Vaccination uptake improvements and a gradual change toward an organized screening practice are critical components for achieving higher effectiveness and efficiency in the prevention of CC in Spain.

  12. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy.

  13. Population-level scale-up of cervical cancer prevention services in a low-resource setting: development, implementation, and evaluation of the cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groesbeck P Parham

    Full Text Available Very few efforts have been undertaken to scale-up low-cost approaches to cervical cancer prevention in low-resource countries.In a public sector cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia, nurses provided visual-inspection with acetic acid (VIA and cryotherapy in clinics co-housed with HIV/AIDS programs, and referred women with complex lesions for histopathologic evaluation. Low-cost technological adaptations were deployed for improving VIA detection, facilitating expert physician opinion, and ensuring quality assurance. Key process and outcome indicators were derived by analyzing electronic medical records to evaluate program expansion efforts.Between 2006-2013, screening services were expanded from 2 to 12 clinics in Lusaka, the most-populous province in Zambia, through which 102,942 women were screened. The majority (71.7% were in the target age-range of 25-49 years; 28% were HIV-positive. Out of 101,867 with evaluable data, 20,419 (20% were VIA positive, of whom 11,508 (56.4% were treated with cryotherapy, and 8,911 (43.6% were referred for histopathologic evaluation. Most women (87%, 86,301 of 98,961 evaluable received same-day services (including 5% undergoing same-visit cryotherapy and 82% screening VIA-negative. The proportion of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and worse (CIN2+ among those referred for histopathologic evaluation was 44.1% (1,735/3,938 with histopathology results. Detection rates for CIN2+ and invasive cervical cancer were 17 and 7 per 1,000 women screened, respectively. Women with HIV were more likely to screen positive, to be referred for histopathologic evaluation, and to have cervical precancer and cancer than HIV-negative women.We creatively disrupted the 'no screening' status quo prevailing in Zambia and addressed the heavy burden of cervical disease among previously unscreened women by establishing and scaling-up public-sector screening and treatment services at a population level. Key

  14. Get Vaccinated! and Get Tested! Developing Primary and Secondary Cervical Cancer Prevention Videos for a Haitian Kreyòl-Speaking Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frett, Brigitte; Aquino, Myra; Fatil, Marie; Seay, Julia; Trevil, Dinah; Fièvre, Michèle Jessica; Kobetz, Erin

    2016-05-01

    Although routine screening reduces cervical cancer rates between 60% and 90%, thousands of women worldwide are diagnosed with the disease on an annual basis because of inadequate screening. Haitian women in South Florida experience a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer, with disease rates 4 times higher than the average for women in Miami. An ongoing community-based participatory research initiative to assess and reduce this burden has revealed that a complex interplay of factors contributes to a lack of access to screening in this community, including socioeconomics, language barriers, and traditional understandings of health and disease. In an effort to address some of these barriers and encourage uptake of primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention strategies, 2 videos on cervical cancer prevention were created using a community-based participatory research framework. The video screenplays were created by a Haitian screenwriter using evidence-based medical information provided by academic researchers. The films feature Haitian actors speaking a Haitian Kreyòl dialogue with a storyline portraying friends and family discussing human papillomavirus disease and vaccination, Papanicolaou testing, and cervical cancer. Focus groups held with Haitian women in South Florida suggested that the films are engaging; feature relatable characters; and impact knowledge about human papillomavirus, cervical cancer development, and current prevention recommendations.

  15. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  16. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical...

  17. Acceptability and correlates of primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer among medical students in southwest China: implications for cancer education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong-Fei Pan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To understand knowledge about, and acceptability of, cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccines among medical students; and to explore potential factors that influence their acceptability in China. METHODS: We conducted a survey among medical students at six universities across southwest China using a 58-item questionnaire regarding knowledge and perceptions of HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccines. RESULTS: We surveyed 1878 medical students with a mean age of 20.8 years (standard deviation: 1.3 years. Of these, 48.8% and 80.1% believed cervical cancer can be prevented by HPV vaccines and screening respectively, while 60.2% and 71.2% would like to receive or recommend HPV vaccines and screening. 35.4% thought HPV vaccines ought to be given to adolescents aged 13-18 years. 32% stated that women should start to undergo screening from the age of 25. 49.2% felt that women should receive screening every year. Concern about side effects (38.3% and 39.8%, and inadequate information (42.4% and 35.0% were the most cited barriers to receiving or recommending HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Females were more likely to accept HPV vaccines (OR, 1.86; 95% CI: 1.47-2.35 or cervical cancer screening (OR, 3.69; 95% CI: 2.88-4.74. Students with a higher level of related knowledge were much more willing to receive or recommend vaccines (P<0.001 or screening (P<0.001. Students who showed negative or uncertain attitudes towards premarital sex were less likely to accept either HPV vaccines (OR, 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47-0.96, or screening (OR, 0.68; 0.47-0.10. Non-clinical students showed lower acceptability of cervical screening compared to students in clinical medicine (OR, 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96. CONCLUSIONS: The acceptability of HPV vaccines and cervical cancer screening is relatively low among medical students in southwest China. Measures should be taken to improve knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of HPV vaccines and screening

  18. Human Papillomavirus Infection in HIV-1 Infected Women in Catalonia (Spain): Implications for Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuardo, Valeria; Agustí, Cristina; Godinez, José Manuel; Montoliu, Alexandra; Torné, Aureli; Tarrats, Antoni; Alcalde, Carmen; Martín, Dolores; Fernández-Montoli, Eulalia; Vanrell, Cristina; Solé, Josefa; Canet, Yolanda; Marqueta, José Manuel; Mohamed, Jadiyettu; Cuenca, Isabel; Lonca, Montserrat; Sirera, Guillem; Ferrer, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Lloveras, Belen; Miro, Josep María; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Casabona, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Background High-risk human Papillomavirus infection is a necessary factor for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical cancer. In HIV-1-infected women, HPV infection is more prevalent and a higher risk of cervical cancer has been identified. We aimed to calculate the prevalence of infection by HR-HPV, determine the factors associated with this infection and abnormal cytology findings and to describe the history of cervical cancer screening in HIV-1-infected women. Methods We enrolled 479 HIV-1–infected women from the PISCIS cohort. Each patient underwent a gynecological check-up, PAP smear, HPV AND Hybrid capture, HPV genotyping, and colposcopy and biopsy, if necessary. We applied questionnaires to obtain information on sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and cervical screening variables. We present a cross-sectional analysis. Results Median age was 42 years. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 33.2% and that of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) was 3.8%. The most common genotypes were 16(23%), 53(20.3%), and 52(16.2%). The factor associated with HR-HPV infection was age 500cells/mm3 (OR,8.4; 95%CI,3.7–19.2), HIV-1 viral load >10,000copies/mL versus <400copies/mL (OR,2.1; 95%CI,1.0–4.4), and use of oral contraceptives (OR,2.0; 95%CI,1.0–3.9). Sixty percent of HIV-1–infected women had had one Pap smear within the last 2 years. Conclusions The high prevalence of HPV infection and cervical lesions in the HIV-1–infected population in Catalonia, as well as the low coverage and frequency of screening in this group, means that better preventive efforts are necessary and should include vaccination against HPV, better accessibility to screening programs, training of health care professionals, and specific health education for HIV-1–infected women. PMID:23118894

  19. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón- Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; De León-Leal, Silvia; Vázquez-Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Farías-Calderón, Ana Gabriela; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Elizondo-Zapién, Rosa María; Hernandez-Hernandez, Dulce María; Garza-Moya, Rubén; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo Martín

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevention programs have not achieved the expected results in preventing mortality from breast and cervical cancer in Mexico. Therefore, we propose a complementary strategy. Methodology An educational strategy for high school students in Mexico (2011–2013) was designed (longitudinal design, two measurements and a single intervention). The postintervention assessment included: 1) knowledge acquired by students about cancer prevention and 2) The performance of the student as a health promoter in their household. The strategy was based on analysis of cases and developed in three sessions. An assessment tool was designed and validated (Test–Retest). The levels of knowledge according to the qualifications expected by chance were determined. Wilcoxon test compared results before and after intervention. Results An assessment instrument with 0.80 reliability was obtained. 831 high school students were analyzed. Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed a significant learning after the intervention (Z = − 2.64, p = 0.008) with improvement of levels of knowledge in a 154.5%. 49% of students had a good performance as health promoters. Conclusions The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way. PMID:26844079

  20. The role of health education in the prevention of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chania M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of present research is the briefing and sensitization of women in the prefectures Arkadia and Lakonia with concrete methodology of health education , with final objective their mobilisation so that they proceed in screening making the essential examinations (test-pap, for the convenient diagnosis of cervical cancer. In the study of needs and in the intervention participated 300 women from the prefectures Arkadia and Lakonia. The method of estimate of needs that was used follows the cognitive model and concretely the model of beliefs for the health (Health Belief Model HBM. As method of health education it was used traditional and concretely the techniques that were used were lectures that were realised in women’s’ associations in the previously mentioned prefectures, with the help of program of presentations of computer and the distribution of informative booklets of Health Ministry and Social Solidarity. For the evaluation of direct result of intervention (change in the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, was used questionnaire, before the beginning of lecture From the treatment of data it resulted that the sample is constituted by women that belong mainly in the age-related groups of the 25-30 years and 45-60 years. Evaluating the direct result of intervention were observed important change in the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of women towards cervical cancer and the methods of its’ convenient diagnosis.

  1. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  2. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  3. Prognostic factors in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, P.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the standard of care for women with early stage cervical cancer; radiotherapy is the cornerstone in patients with advanced stages of disease. Recent changes in the treatment of cervical cancer involve less radical surgery in early stage cervical cancer, concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy

  4. ["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

  5. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  6. Treatment protocols for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujkov Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer death among women. About 95% (90% in developed countries of invasive carcinomas are of sqamous types, and 5% (10% in developed countries are adenocarcinomas. FIGO classification of cervical carcinomas, based on clinical staging and prognostic factor dictate therapeutic procedures and help in designing treatment protocols. Therapeutic modalities Surgical therapy includes conization, radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and palliative operation urinary diversion and colostomy. Radiotherapy, brachytherapy and teletherapy are most recently combined with chemotherapy as concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion and conclusion No change in therapeutic modalities will ever decrease mortality rate of cervical carcinoma as much as education, prevention and early screening. The 5-year survival for locally advanced disease has not improved during the last 40 years as a result of failure to deliver therapy to the paraaortic region. Paraaortic lymph nodes should be evaluated before therapy planning by different imaging procedures, or more exactly by surgical staging: laparoscopy or laparotomy. Radical operations of cervical carcinoma should be performed by experienced surgeons, educated for this type of operation, with sufficient number of cases.

  7. The Effectiveness of a Facebook-Assisted Teaching Method on Knowledge and Attitudes about Cervical Cancer Prevention and HPV Vaccination Intention among Female Adolescent Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Liang, Shu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of education is a known barrier to vaccination, but data on the design and effectiveness of interventions remain limited. Objective: This study aims to identify the effectiveness of a Facebook-assisted teaching method on female adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention and on their human papillomavirus…

  8. Cervical cancer in India--strategy for control.

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar A

    1992-01-01

    The available information on the incidence of cancers by site in India have indicated that of incidence of cancer of uterine cervix among women is by far the highest compared to other sites in women. The epidemiology of cervical cancer has been studied extensively in India and in other countries. The majority of factors related to cervical cancer are associated with sexual behaviour. The available evidence for control of cervical cancer is through secondary prevention, namely--early detection...

  9. Cervical cancer: A comprehensive approach towards extermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Smitha V; Thulasidasan, Arun Kumar T; Sreekanth, Chanickal N; Anto, Ruby John

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogen, globally. Oncogenic types of HPV are the causative agents of many neoplastic diseases, including cervical cancer, which ranks as the most common cancer affecting females in developing countries. HPV infection of the cervical epithelium and the subsequent integration of viral DNA into the host genome are the major risk factors for cervical cancer. The scientific discovery of HPV as the causal agent of cervical cancer has led to the development of HPV-based diagnostic tools. Prophylactic vaccines, based on the oncogenic HPV type virus-like particles have been introduced in several developed countries as a preliminary preventive approach. Nevertheless, it remains a continuous threat to women in developing countries, where the prophylactic vaccines are unaffordable and organized screening programmes are lacking. This warrants implementation of prevention strategies that will reduce cervical cancer-related mortality. In this review, we have discussed molecular pathogenesis of HPV infection and the risk factors associated with it. The diagnosis, treatment and prevention strategies of HPV-related cervical cancer have also been discussed.

  10. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  11. Expanding the Scope of Nursing Research in Low Resource and Middle Resource Countries, Regions, and States Focused on Cervical Cancer Prevention, Early Detection, and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, Sandra Millon; Ramsay-Johnson, Edith; Dean, Asante; Russ, Jori; Ivalis, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. There are significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality globally as well as in the United States. The most significant global disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality are reported in low resource and middle resource countries, regions, and states. This report provides an overview of cervical cancer epidemiology and etiology, and identi...

  12. Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination for the prevention of HPV 16/18 induced cervical cancer and its precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Essential precondition for the development of cervical cancer is a persistent human papillomavirus (HPV infection. The majority - approximately 70% - of cervical carcinomas is caused by two high-risk HPV types (16 and 18. Recently, two vaccines have been approved to the German market with the potential to induce protection against HPV 16 and HPV 18 among additional low-risk virus types. Objectives: To analyse whether HPV vaccination is effective with regard to the reduction of cervical cancer and precursors of cervical carcinoma (CIN, respectively? Does HPV vaccination represent a cost-effective alternative or supplement to present screening practice? Are there any differences concerning cost-effectiveness between the two available vaccines? Should HPV vaccination be recommended from a health economic point of view? If so, which recommendations can be conveyed with respect to a (reorganization of the German vaccination strategy? Which ethical, social and legal implications have to be considered? Methods: Based on a systematic literature review, randomized controlled trials (RCT looking at the effectiveness of HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical carcinoma and its precursors - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - have been identified. In addition, health economic models were identified to address the health economic research questions. Quality assessment of medical and economic literature was assured by application of general assessment standards for the systematic and critical appraisal of scientific studies. Results: Vaccine efficacy in prevention of CIN 2 or higher lesions in HPV 16 or HPV 18 negative women, who received all vaccination doses, ranges between 98% and 100%. Side effects of the vaccination are mainly associated with injection site reactions (redness, turgor, pain. No significant differences concerning serious complications between the vaccination- and the placebo-groups were reported. Results of base case

  13. Cervical cancer: screening and therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Thara, Somanathan; Esmy, Pulikottil Okkuru; Basu, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown to have a wide range of sensitivity in most routine settings including in developing countries. Although liquid-based cytology improves sample adequacy, claims on improved sensitivity remain controversial. Human papillomavirus testing is more sensitive than cytology, but whether this gain represents protection against future cervical cancer is not clear. Recently, in a randomized trial, the use of visual inspection with 4% acetic acid was shown to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Cryotherapy and large loop excision of the transformation zone are effective and safe treatment methods for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The clinical stage of cancer is the single most important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal treatment between surgery and radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. At the public health level, health care infrastructure, affordability and capacity for initiating and sustaining vaccination and screening programmes are critical factors in cervical cancer control. On the other hand, an informed practitioner can utilize the multiple opportunities in routine primary care interactions for prevention, screening, early detection and prompt referral for treatment.

  14. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz, Nubia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs.Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infec¬tions in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in sponta¬neous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  15. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  16. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the se­cond cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV expo­sures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  17. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-12

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.  Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  18. Distinctive distribution of HPV genotypes in cervical cancers in multi-ethnic Suriname: implications for prevention and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, M G; Chan, M; Adhin, M R

    2017-01-01

    Suriname is ranked as high-risk country for cervical cancer, but recent national data of HPV prevalence and distribution in cervical cancer is scarce. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, cervical cancer incidence, HPV prevalence and HPV-type-specific distribution were investigated in all cervical cancer cases (n = 111), diagnosed in two consecutive years. HPV presence and type-specific prevalence were determined in paraffin-embedded biopsies utilizing master-nested multiplex PCR assays, targeting 14 HPV types. The age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer was 22·4/100 000 women, justifying revision of the current international ranking of Suriname. Eleven HPV types were detected, with the most common types in descending order of frequency: 16, 18, 45, 66, 58/52/35. HPV16 was predominant, although with markedly low presence (25%). HPV16 or 18 infections were detected in 43% of the cases, while 28% were untyped, implicating a divergent HPV-type distribution in Suriname with significant variation in the prevalence of less common high-risk virus types and/or presence of HPV16 variants. HPV-type distribution differed between ethnic groups. A vaccination efficacy of just 28-30% was anticipated, next to an uneven vaccination impact in different ethnic groups, cautioning Suriname and other multi-ethnic countries to tailor the information presented to different ethnic communities.

  19. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine Drugs Approved to Treat Cervical Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Blenoxane (Bleomycin) Bleomycin Hycamtin (Topotecan ...

  20. Development of a theory-based (PEN-3 and Health Belief Model), culturally relevant intervention on cervical cancer prevention among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief Model provided theoretical guidance for the intervention development and implementation. IM provides a logical five-step framework in intervention development: delineating proximal program objectives, selecting theory-based intervention methods and strategies, developing a program plan, planning for adoption in implementation, and creating evaluation plans and instruments. We first conducted an extensive literature review and qualitatively examined the sociocultural factors associated with primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. We then proceeded to quantitatively validate the qualitative findings, which led to development matrices linking the theoretical constructs with intervention objectives and strategies as well as evaluation. IM was a helpful tool in the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention addressing primary and secondary prevention among Latina immigrants.

  1. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  2. January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health supports global activities to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to address the challenges of cancer and reduce cancer deaths worldwide. Towards these aims, NCI has partnered with Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, a global organization founded on public-private partnerships dedicated to saving women’s lives by advancing prevention, screening, and treatment for breast and cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

  3. Evaluation of 'see-see and treat' strategy and role of HIV on cervical cancer prevention in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandin Sven

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is scant information on whether Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV seropositivity has an influence on the outcome of treatment of precancerous cervical lesions using cryotherapy. We studied the prevalence of cervical abnormalities detectable by visual inspection and cervical lesions diagnosed by colposcopy according to HIV serostatus and described the outcomes of cryotherapy treatment. Methods Trained nurses examined women not previously screened for cervical cancer using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA and Lugol's iodine (VILI in two family planning/post natal clinics in Kampala, Uganda, from February 2007 to August 2008. Women with abnormal visual inspection findings were referred for colposcopic evaluation and HIV testing. Women with precancerous cervical lesions detected at colposcopy were treated mainly by cryotherapy, and were evaluated for treatment outcome after 3 months by a second colposcopy. Results Of the 5 105 women screened, 834 presented a positive screening test and were referred for colposcopy. Of these 625 (75% returned for the colposcopic evaluation and were tested for HIV. For the 608 (97.5% women in the age range 20-60 years, colposcopy revealed 169 women with cervical lesions: 128 had inflammation, 19 had low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL, 13 had high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL, 9 had invasive cervical cancer and 2 had inconclusive findings. Detection rates per 1 000 women screened were higher among the older women (41-60 years compared to women aged 20-40 years. They were accordingly 55% and 20% for inflammation, 10% and 2% for LGSIL, 5% and 2% for HGSIL, 6% and 1% for invasive cervical cancer. Of the 608 women, 103 (16% were HIV positive. HIV positivity was associated with higher likelihood of inflammation (RR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4. Conclusions Detection rates were higher among older women 41-60 years. Visual inspection of the cervix uteri with acetic acid

  4. Primary HPV screening for cervical cancer prevention: results from European trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2009-01-01

    for each extra detected CIN2+ case; although, in another trial, this number was 49 in women > or =35 years of age. The outcome of HPV testing versus cytological testing depends not only on the relative accuracy of the primary test but also on how radical the different triage procedures are. In two trials......Six European, randomized, controlled trials that will compare human papillomavirus (HPV) testing with cytological testing for cervical screening are under way. We reviewed the results published so far to compare the benefits and costs for participating women. At baseline screening, use of HPV...... testing increased the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2+. Detection of CIN3+ was significantly increased in two trials (relative risks [RRs] 1.70 and 2.26), but not in three other trials (RRs 1.03, 1.09 and 1.31). In three trials, seven extra women had a false-positive test...

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  6. Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  7. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  8. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  9. Cervical Cancer Prevention in Malaysia: Knowledge and Attitude of Undergraduate Pharmacy Students Towards Human Papillomavirus Infection, Screening and Vaccination in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Sze Fang, Kelly Num; Lui, Lai Yun

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate knowledge of undergraduate pharmacy students about human papillomavirus infection and their attitude towards its prevention. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 270 undergraduate pharmacy students using a validated questionnaire to assess knowledge about human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer and their attitudes towards human papillomavirus vaccines. Eighty-one percent of the respondents knew that human papillomavirus is a cause of cervical cancer, and 87.8 % knew that this infection is preventable. The gender of the respondents showed the strongest correlations with human papillomavirus knowledge. There were no significant correlations between the ethnic group of the respondents and their human papillomavirus-related knowledge. Higher perceptions of risk were associated with relationship status, and respondents who were in a relationship showed greater interest in vaccinating themselves; relationship status emerged as a unique predictor. The results indicated a moderately high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards human papillomavirus vaccination with few disagreements. The results of this study will help to develop and plan appropriate education campaigns for pharmacy students that aim to reduce human papillomavirus infection and, consequently, the incidence of and mortality caused by cervical cancer in Malaysia.

  10. Cervical Cancer: Reality and Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quiñones Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical carcinoma usually reaches its highest frequency between 35-50 years of age. The Cuban prevention program screens the female population aged 25 to 60 years using the Pap smear and reexamines them every three years. Despite this effort, advanced cancer is diagnosed in young women as well as in those 40 to 60 years of age.

  11. Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results.

  12. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Calderón- Garcidueñas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way.

  13. Efficacy and safety of human papillomavirus vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer: A review of evidence from phase III trials and national programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Basu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been widely introduced in the national immunization programs in most of the medium and high income countries following endorsement from national and international advisory bodies. HPV vaccine is unique and its introduction is challenging in many ways - it is the first vaccine developed to prevent any cancer, the vaccine is gender specific, it targets adolescent females who are difficult to reach by any health intervention programs. It is not unusual for such a vaccine to face scepticism and reservations not only from lay public but also from professionals in spite of the clinical trial results convincingly and consistently proving their efficacy and safety. Over the last few years millions of doses of the HPV vaccine have been administered round the world and the efficacy and safety data have started coming from the real life programs. A comprehensive cervical cancer control program involving HPV vaccination of the adolescent girls and screening of the adult women has been proved to be the most cost-effective approach to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. The present article discusses the justification of HPV vaccination in the backdrop of natural history of cervical cancer, the mechanism of action of the vaccines, efficacy and safety data from phase III randomized controlled trials as well as from the national immunization programs of various countries.

  14. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  15. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  16. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Emma J; Einstein, Mark H; Franceschi, Silvia; Kitchener, Henry C

    2013-09-07

    Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (especially type 16) can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature epithelial cells. Human papillomavirus disrupts normal cell-cycle control, promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18, and human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 6, and 11 virus-like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. Human papillomavirus testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low-grade cytology and as a test of cure after treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by human papillomavirus testing could enable screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved.

  17. Prioritizing prevention: culture, context, and cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jessica; Nguyen-Truong, Connie K Y; Wang, Pei-ru; Kobus, Amy

    2011-12-01

    Few studies have investigated what Vietnamese American women believe about the Pap smear or how those beliefs might influence behavior. Thirty-one Vietnamese American women recruited through snowball sampling were interviewed about their beliefs regarding the Pap smear. Interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a theoretically informed, inductive approach. The women interviewed emphasized the importance of primary prevention of disease through culturally-informed personal health regimens. They were also largely unfamiliar with the Pap smear, but believed that gynecological exams in general were effective and necessary for disease detection. Finally, when access to gynecological care was difficult, women's faith in their own preventive behaviors helped alleviate their concerns over lack of care. While culturally associated beliefs do not simply "cause" Vietnamese American women to seek or avoid Pap smears, they do influence screening behaviors to a greater or lesser degree, depending on other contextual variables.

  18. Role Of Family Planning Practices In The Control And Prevention of Uterine Cervical Cancer- A Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Does acceptance of family planning reduce the risk of uterine cervical cancer? Objective: To study the association between usage of contraceptive methods and cervical carcinogenesis. Study design: Case control study. Settings: Urban Area â€" Hospital Based. Participants: 160 women having different degrees of dysplasia and 173 women having normal pap smears. Statistical Analysis: Multivariate Analysis. Results: None of the three widely prevalent Family Planning practices viz. IUD condoms and tubectomy turned out to be significant in the development of dysplasia, however, age at consummation of marriage before 18 years and illiteracy were significant. Use of IUD offered protection against carcinoma in situ (CIS and disease of invasive nature. Non- users of condoms were also at risk marginally failing to attain statistical significance.

  19. ¡Prevenga el cáncer de cuello uterino! (Prevent Cervical Cancer!)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    El cáncer de cuello uterino se puede prevenir. Escuche a dos amigas —una de ellas es doctora— que hablan sobre las pruebas de detección y la detección temprana. Sepa qué prueba podría necesitar.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  20. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  1. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  2. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. Screening for cervical cancer: when theory meets reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygård Mari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer. However, there are many factors that determine the success of any cervical cancer prevention effort: the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in general population, the existence of an organized screening program and the corresponding coverage, the existence and quality of the field and laboratory facilities for screening and diagnostic follow-up, and the facilities available for treating diagnosed lesions. Monitoring the patient path or "chain of action" for each patient with an abnormal screening result is of crucial importance. Cost-effectiveness models are widely used by decision-makers to determine which cervical cancer screening program would maximize health benefits within a given, usually limited, set of resources. Regardless of their level of sophistication, however, these models cannot replace empirical evaluations of the effectiveness of screening programs. Cervical cancer prevention activities need to be monitored and evaluated in each country where they are introduced to see that they meet performance standards. Policy-makers responsible for allocating resources for cervical cancer prevention have a duty to allocate resources not only for cervical cancer screening, but also for screening program surveillance.

  4. Preventing premature deaths from breast and cervical cancer among underserved women in the United States: insights gained from a national cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C; Wong, Faye L

    2015-05-01

    This commentary highlights some of the valuable insights gained from a special collection of papers that utilized data from the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) and appear in this special issue. The data and experiences of the NBCCEDP can inform the identification of new opportunities and directions for meeting the cancer screening needs of underserved women in a complex and changing health care environment.

  5. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  7. Human papillomavirus vaccination in the prevention of cervical neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Astbury, Katharine

    2012-02-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women worldwide. Although the introduction of comprehensive screening programs has reduced the disease incidence in developed countries, it remains a major problem in the developing world. The recent licensing of 2 vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and HPV-18, the viruses responsible for 70% of cervical cancer cases, offers the hope of disease prevention. In this article, we review the role of HPV in the etiology of cervical cancer and the evidence to support the introduction of vaccination programs in young women and discuss the potential obstacles to widespread vaccination. In addition, we discuss the issues that remain to be elucidated, including the potential need for booster doses of the vaccine and the role of concomitant vaccination in men.

  8. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  9. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  10. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... has stayed about the same since 2005. Stomach (gastric) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ...

  11. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  12. Application of HPV genotype detection in prevention and treatment of cervical cancer and cervical precancerous lesions%人乳头瘤病毒分型检测在宫颈癌及癌前病变防治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高忠媛; 何莲芝

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancers and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN).And different types of HPV have different carcinogenicity,different cervical cancer pathological types and prognoses of cervical cancer.The effective way to decrease the cervical cancer morbidity is to detect and classify the high-risk HPV infection in early time,and carry out intervention therapy in early time.Therefore,detecting HPV subtypes in clinic will have great significance in prevention and treatment of cervical cancer and cervical precancerous.%人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)与宫颈癌及宫颈癌前病变的发生密切相关,并且HPV亚型不同,其致癌力、宫颈癌病理分型以及宫颈癌的预后均有所不同.早期发现官颈高危型HPV感染与准确分型,及时进行早期干预治疗,是提高宫颈癌防治效果的有效途径,临床HPV分型检测对宫颈癌及癌前病变的防治有重要意义.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cervical cancer prevention based on a rapid human papillomavirus screening test in a high-risk region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Carol E; Sellors, John; Shi, Ju-Fang; Ma, Li; Qiao, You-lin; Ortendahl, Jesse; O'Shea, Meredith K H; Goldie, Sue J

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a new, rapid human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA screening test for cervical cancer prevention in the high-risk region of Shanxi, China. Using micro-costing methods, we estimated the resources needed to implement preventive strategies using cervical cytology or HPV-DNA testing, including the Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) test (QIAGEN Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) and the rapid HPV-DNA careHPV test (QIAGEN). Data were used in a previously published model and empirically calibrated to country-specific epidemiological data. Strategies differed by initial test, targeted age, frequency of screening, number of clinic visits required (1, 2 or 3) and service delivery setting (national, county and township levels). Outcomes included lifetime risk of cancer, years of life saved (YLS), lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per YLS). For all screening frequencies, the most efficient strategy used 2-visit rapid HPV-DNA testing at the county level, including screening and diagnostics in the first visit, and treatment in the second visit. Screening at ages 35, 40 and 45 reduced cancer risk by 50% among women compliant with all 3 screening rounds, and was US$ 150 per YLS, compared with this same strategy applied twice per lifetime. This would be considered very cost-effective evaluated against China's per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 1,702). By enhancing the linkage between screening and treatment through a reduced number of visits, rapid HPV-DNA testing 3 times per lifetime is more effective than traditional cytology, and is likely to be cost-effective in high-risk regions of China.

  14. Cost-Utility Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Cervical Screening on Cervical Cancer Patient in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Dolk, Franklin Christiaan; Suwantika, Auliya A.; Westra, Tjalke Arend; WIlschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, the clinical and economic burdens of cervical cancer are still substantial issues in Indonesia. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to model the costs, clinical benefits, and cost-utility of both visual inspection with acetic

  15. CERVICAL ACID PHOSPHATASE: EVALUATION AS AN ADJUVANT TO PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR SCREENING IN CERVICAL CANCER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Carcinoma of cervix accounts for 15% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide and is the second most common cancer in women. In the year 2000 there were over 4,71,000 new cases diagnosed and 2,88,000 deaths from cervical cancer. (1 Approximately 79% of these deaths occurred in developing countries. (2 Cervical cancer is preventable, but most women in poorer countries do not have access to effective screening programs. In India it is estimated that approximately 100,000 women develop cervical cancer each year. (3 Cancer cervix occupies either the top r ank or second among cancers in women in developing countries, whereas, in the developed countries cancer cervix does not find a place even in top five leading cancers in women. This is due to routine screening by cervical smear. Cervical smear cytology scr eening by Papanicolaou (Pap stained smears is the most efficacious and cost - effective method of cancer screening, decreasing the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. (4 However, cervical smear screening has significant rates of false - positive and false - negative results, ranging from 10.3% for false positive cases to 5.6% for false negative cases. (5,6 To improve the detection and screening of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix a number of sophisticated tests are available which are e xpensive and can be done only in a tertiary laboratory. To over - come this problems a cost effective cytochemical stain was introduced to measure the acid phosphatase activity in the cervical epithelium. (7 Since the description of the new Cervical Acid Phosphatase Test (CAP Test for visualization of cervical acid phosphatase activity (CAP inside abnormal cervical cells on smears, it has become possible to explore this enzyme as a biomarker for cervical dys plasia, and as a possible surrogate for PAP smear in detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of Cervical Acid

  16. 人乳头瘤病毒疫苗预防宫颈癌的应用%Application of HPV Vaccines in Preventing Development of the Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏巧凡; 何莲芝

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer causes serious damage to women′s health. It is clear that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major pathogenic factor. HPV invades the organism by subtle injures. When E6 or E7 oncoprotein is continous expression in the epithelial tissue, high-risk HPV infections contribute to tumorigenicity. Detection of high-risk HPV infection and virus oncoprotein still cannot prevent cervical cancer effectively. Researchers begin to develop a vaccine against the HPV virus, and to prevent HPV infections from the sources, hoping to achieve the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Currently bivalent vaccine Cervarix against HPV 16/18 and quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil against HPV 16/18/11/16 have been approved for marketing. Prophylactic HPV vaccines have been used widely on a global scale and obtained significant effect. A new generation of prophylactic HPV vaccines have made a breakthrough in solving problems including cost, persistence and broad-spectrum immune. Cervical cancer is expected to become the first preventable cancer in the history of human anti-tumor. This review concentrates on the biological characteristics and pathogenic mechanism of HPV and the current application and situation of prophylactic HPV vaccines.%宫颈癌严重危害女性健康,现已明确人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染是其主要致病因素。HPV通过机体的细微损伤入侵,HPV E6和E7癌蛋白中的1种或2种持续表达是高危型HPV感染致瘤的关键所在,检测高危型HPV感染及病毒癌蛋白仍不能有效预防宫颈癌。研究者们正着手研制针对HPV的病毒疫苗,从源头预防HPV感染,以期实现宫颈癌的一级预防。目前已有针对HPV16/18型的二价疫苗Cervarix和针对HPV16/18/11/6型的四价疫苗Gardasil的认证上市,预防性HPV疫苗已在全球范围内推广使用并取得显著效果。新一代预防性HPV疫苗在解决疫苗的成本、持久性和广谱免疫问题上取得突破性进展,

  17. Glycoprotein and Glycan in Tissue and Blood Samples of Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  18. Youtube as a source of information on cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Accurate information about cervical cancer to general public can lower the burden of the disease including its mortality. Aims: We aimed to look at the quality of information available in YouTube for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: We searched YouTube (http://www.youtube.com for videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. Videos were then analyzed for their source and content of information. Results: We studied 172 videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. We found that there were videos describing the personal stories, risk factors, and the importance of screening. However, videos discussing all the aspects of cancers were lacking. Likewise, videos from the reputed organization were also lacking. Conclusion: Although there were numerous videos available in cervical cancer, videos from reputed organizations including Center for Disease Control and Prevention, American Cancer Society, and World Health Organization were lacking. We strongly believe that quality videos from such organizations via YouTube can help lower the burden of disease.

  19. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  20. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections: new options for cervical cancer prevention Epidemiología de las infecciones por el papilomavirus humano: nuevas opciones para la prevención del cáncer cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the cervical cancer puzzle has become a coherent description that includes the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV as the sexually transmitted etiologic agent and the characterization of the major determinants of HPV acquisition. Triage studies have consistently shown that HPV testing is more sensitive that repeated cytology in identifying underlying high-grade lesions in women with atypical scamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. Studies that reflect primary screening conditions have shown that the sensitivity of HPV tests is higher than standard cytology in detecting high-grade lesions whereas the specificity is similar only in women aged 30-35 and above. HPV vaccines have an intrinsic attraction as a preventive strategy in populations with limited resources. However, vaccines designed to widespread use are still in development and testing phases. Time is ripe for exploring in depth the clinical implications of current achievements and to devise novel strategies for the prevention of cervical cancer.En las ultimas dos décadas, el enigma del cáncer cervical (CaCu ha comenzado a ser dilucidado y actualmente se ha identificado a la infección por virus de papiloma humano (VPH como su agente etiológico transmitido sexualmente, y se han caracterizado los principales determinantes de infección por VPH. Estudios epidemiológicos han mostrado consistentemente que las pruebas de determinación de ADN de VPH son más sensibles que la citología repetida para la identificación de lesiones de alto grado en mujeres con diagnóstico de células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado (ASCUS. Diversos estudios que evalúan el tamizaje primario en CaCu, han mostrado que la sensibilidad de las pruebas de VPH es más alta que la citología estándar para detectar lesiones de alto grado, donde la especificidad es similar sólo en mujeres con edades entre 30 y 35 años o mayores. Las vacunas de VPH tienen

  1. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions and Screening Behaviour Among Female University Students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females.

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapy: There was a major advance in the treatment of cervical cancer when five NCI-sponsored clinical trials showed that ... to adding chemotherapy to radiation therapy in the treatment of invasive cervical cancer. (Cervical) HPV vaccine: Another major advance in the ...

  3. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...... human papillomavirus infections would help individualize screening guidelines and target immune-associated factors in the cervical cancer etiology....

  4. Cervical cancer control, priorities and new directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsonego, J; Bosch, F.X.; Coursaget, P.; Cox, JT; Franco, E; Frazer, I; Sankaranarayanan, R; Schiller, J; Singer, A; Wright, TCJr; Kinney, W; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Linder, J

    2004-01-01

    99% of cervical cancer is initiated by HPV infection. The estimated lifetime risk of cervical cancer is nevertheless relatively low (less than 1 in 20 for most community based studies). Although sensitivity and specificity of the available diagnostic techniques are suboptimal, screening for persiste

  5. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  6. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  7. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  8. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  9. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Material and methods. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Conclusion. Despite...

  10. Network Topologies Decoding Cervical Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Jalan

    Full Text Available According to the GLOBOCAN statistics, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. It is found to be gradually increasing in the younger population, specifically in the developing countries. We analyzed the protein-protein interaction networks of the uterine cervix cells for the normal and disease states. It was found that the disease network was less random than the normal one, providing an insight into the change in complexity of the underlying network in disease state. The study also portrayed that, the disease state has faster signal processing as the diameter of the underlying network was very close to its corresponding random control. This may be a reason for the normal cells to change into malignant state. Further, the analysis revealed VEGFA and IL-6 proteins as the distinctly high degree nodes in the disease network, which are known to manifest a major contribution in promoting cervical cancer. Our analysis, being time proficient and cost effective, provides a direction for developing novel drugs, therapeutic targets and biomarkers by identifying specific interaction patterns, that have structural importance.

  11. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C;

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  12. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    within six months, much less than after HSIL (86%). Among women with histology assessment within six months, the incidence rate of cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than that after HSIL for up to 6.5 years. Conclusions AGC found at cervical screening is associated with a high and persistent risk of cervical cancer for up to 15 years, particularly for cervical adenocarcinoma and women with AGC at age 30-39. Compared with the reduction in risk of cancer seen after HSIL management, management of AGC seems to have been suboptimal in preventing cervical cancer. Research to optimise management is needed, and a more aggressive assessment strategy is warranted. PMID:26869597

  13. Triapine With Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With IB2-IVA Cervical or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Vulvar Adenocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  14. Progression of the Clinical Application of HPV Vaccine in Cervical Cancer Prevention%HPV疫苗预防子宫颈癌的临床应用进展及思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱巧玲; 吴宜林

    2012-01-01

    子宫颈癌是引起女性死亡的第二大癌症.研究证实人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染与子宫颈癌有着十分密切的关系.近年来,HPV疫苗在预防和治疗子宫颈癌方面备受关注,多种新型预防性HPV疫苗已在部分国家上市.但是HPV疫苗的研制、使用、推广仍面临许多难题,有待广大医疗工作者共同思考和解决.%Cervical cancer is the second\\cause of cancer death in women, many studies confirm that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer has, a very close relationship. In recent years, HPV vaccines get much attention in the fields of cervical cancer prevention and treatment, a variety of new preventive HPV vaccines have been used in some countries. But the development, use and promotion of HPV vaccine are still facing many challenges, so we need think about that and solve the problems together.

  15. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  16. Decreased cervical cancer cell adhesion on nanotubular titanium for the treatment of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Crear J; Kummer KM; Webster TJ

    2013-01-01

    Jara Crear, Kim M Kummer, Thomas J Webster School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Cervical cancer can be treated by surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. Titanium biomaterials have been suggested as a tool to help in the local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiation to cervical cancer sites. However, current titanium medical devices used for treating cervical cancer do not by themselves possess any anticancer properties; such devices...

  17. Issues and challenges in implementing cervical cancer screenings in the emergence of HPV vaccination in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Davidson, Patricia M; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the HPV vaccine has been a major breakthrough in preventing cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases around the globe. Cervical cancer is a significant public health problem in Thailand. Despite the long-time availability of cervical cancer screening programs in Thailand, the uptake among the target female population remains low. HPV vaccines were approved by the Food and Drug Administration of Thailand in 2007. As of March 2011, due to financial limitations, HPV vaccines have still not been included in the national immunization program under the public health benefit plans although individuals has the option to pay privately for the vaccine. This paper discusses the issues and challenges in implementing cervical cancer screening programs in the era of HPV vaccination in Thailand. Recommendations to increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening and further research to inform a policy regarding the cervical cancer screening measures are proposed.

  18. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westra Tjalke A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides additional protection against HPV 31, 33, and 45 and the quadrivalent vaccine against HPV31. The quadrivalent vaccine additionally protects against low-risk HPV type 6 and 11, responsible for most cases of genital warts. In this study, we made an analytical comparison of the two vaccines in terms of cost-effectiveness including the additional benefits of cross-protection and protection against genital warts in comparison with a screening-only strategy. Methods We used a Markov model, simulating the progression from HPV infection to cervical cancer or genital warts. The model was used to estimate the difference in future costs and health effects of both HPV-vaccines separately. Results In a cohort of 100,000 women, use of the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine (both at 50% vaccination coverage reduces the cervical cancer incidence by 221 and 207 cases, corresponding to ICERs of €17,600/QALY and €18,900/QALY, respectively. It was estimated that the quadrivalent vaccine additionally prevents 4390 cases of genital warts, reducing the ICER to €16,300/QALY. Assuming a comparable willingness to pay for cancer and genital warts prevention, the difference in ICERs could justify a slightly higher price (~7% per dose in favor of the quadrivalent vaccine. Conclusions Clearly, HPV vaccination has been implemented for the prevention of cervical cancer. From this perspective, use of the bivalent HPV vaccine appears to be most effective and cost-effective. Including the benefits of prevention against genital warts, the ICER of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was found to be slightly more favourable. However, current decision-making on the introduction of HPV

  19. Recent Developments in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rebolj (Matejka)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common female malignancy, diagnosed in 500,000 women each year, while 275,000 die from it. Without prevention, the peak incidence occurs at a relatively young age, between 40-55 years, when women are still active on the labour market and have

  20. Cytokine expression & TGF-beta signaling in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloth, Judith Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Immune surveillance is of utmost importance in preventing cervical carcinogenesis. Cytokines play a central role in directing and fine tuning the immune response. In cancer, cytokines can either be involved in stimulating the anti-tumor immune response or in tumor growth and progression. The studies

  1. Economic Evaluation of Screening Strategies Combined with HPV Vaccination of Preadolescent Girls for the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Vientiane, Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Several approaches to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancers exist. The approach adopted should take into account contextual factors that influence the cost-effectiveness of the available options. Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies combined with a vaccination program for 10-year old girls for cervical cancer prevention in Vientiane, Lao PDR. Methods A population-based dynamic compartment model was constructed. The interventions consisted of a 10-year old girl vaccination program only, or this program combined with screening strategies, i.e., visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), cytology-based screening, rapid human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing, or combined VIA and cytology testing. Simulations were run over 100 years. In base-case scenario analyses, we assumed a 70% vaccination coverage with lifelong protection and a 50% screening coverage. The outcome of interest was the incremental cost per Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted. Results In base-case scenarios, compared to the next best strategy, the model predicted that VIA screening of women aged 30–65 years old every three years, combined with vaccination, was the most attractive option, costing 2 544 international dollars (I$) per DALY averted. Meanwhile, rapid HPV DNA testing was predicted to be more attractive than cytology-based screening or its combination with VIA. Among cytology-based screening options, combined VIA with conventional cytology testing was predicted to be the most attractive option. Multi-way sensitivity analyses did not change the results. Compared to rapid HPV DNA testing, VIA had a probability of cost-effectiveness of 73%. Compared to the vaccination only option, the probability that a program consisting of screening women every five years would be cost-effective was around 60% and 80% if the willingness-to-pay threshold is fixed at one and three GDP per capita, respectively. Conclusions A VIA screening program

  2. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  3. Prospects for primary prevention of cervical cancer in developing countries Perspectivas de prevención primaria de cáncer cervical en países en desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Franceschi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The HPV types that cause cervical cancer are sexually transmitted, but there is little evidence that infection can be avoided by behavioural changes, such as condom use. In contrast, prophylactic vaccines against HPV infection are likely to have high efficacy. In principle, the effectiveness of HPV vaccination as a strategy for cervical cancer control can be measured either by monitoring secular trends in cervical cancer incidence or by conducting randomized trials. The former approach is unlikely to provide convincing evidence of effectiveness, since cervical cancer rates are subject to strong secular trends that are independent of intervention measures. A few phase III trials of HPV prophylactic vaccines are now being started. Such trials are very expensive studies involving frequent and complicated investigations. It is important, however, to start as soon as possible simpler trials designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of HPV vaccine in field conditions, i.e. in developing or intermediate countries which suffer the major burden of mortality from cervical cancer. Such trials may capture a difference in the most severe, and rarest, preinvasive cervical lesions (i.e., the real target of any HPV vaccine over a prolonged follow-up (20 years at least. The design of such studies is briefly considered for two areas: Southern India and South Korea.Los tipos de virus de papiloma humano (VPH que causan cáncer cervical son sexualmente transmisibles, pero existe muy poca evidencia sobre que la infección pueda ser evitada por cambios en las conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, tales como el uso del condón. En contraste, vacunas profilácticas en contra del VPH pueden llegar a tener una muy elevada eficacia en la prevención de cáncer cervical. En principio, la efectividad de la vacunación contra el VPH, como estrategia para el control de cáncer cervical, puede ser evaluada por monitoreo secular en las tendencias de incidencia de cáncer cervical o

  4. Preprocessing: A Step in Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  5. Preprocessing for Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  6. HPV与宫颈癌%Hunum papillomavirus and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁玉兰; 梁新芳

    2008-01-01

    It has been approved that the genital human papillomavirus(HPV) infection is one of the leading causes of cervical cancer.Over two-thirds of cervical cancer cases are associated with infection of either HPV16 or HPV18.The success of HPV prophylactic vaccine development is the milestone of cervical cancer prevention of humankind.%人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)的感染已被证实与宫颈癌的发生有密切关系.超过2/3的宫颈癌与HPV16或HPV18感染有关.HPV预防性疫苗研制的成功则是子宫颈癌预防研究的里程碑.

  7. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Stages IB2-IIB or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Node; Positive Pelvic Lymph Node; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  8. Fra-1 is downregulated in cervical cancer tissues and promotes cervical cancer cell apoptosis by p53 signaling pathway in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Songshu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Luo, Guijuan; Jiang, Bin; Tian, Qi; Li, Yueran; Xue, Min

    2015-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a potentially preventable disease; however, it is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Cervical cancer is thought to develop through a multistep process involving virus, tumor suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes and immunological factors. It is known that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but insufficient to cause malignancy. At present, the etiology of cervical carcinoma remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the expression of FOS-like antigen-1 (Fra-1) gene was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting techniques. To uncover the effect of Fra-1 on cervical cancer, we tested and confirmed that Fra-1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells by MMT assays in vitro. At the same time, overexpression of Fra-1 promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. To explore the possible mechanism of Fra-1 in cervical cancer, we tested the expression levels of key molecules in p53 signaling pathway by western blotting technology. The results showed that p53 was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues, but MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MDM2) was upregulated in cervical cancer. In vitro, the p53 was upregulated and MDM2 was downregulated in HeLa cells with Fra-1 overexpression. In summary, our results suggested that Fra-1 expression is low in cervical cancer tissues and promotes apoptosis of cervical cancer cells by p53 signaling pathway.

  9. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective. Nev...... with the introduction of screening. The data strongly suggested that the increased burden of cervical cancer in Greenlandic women was real and followed earlier changes in sexual behaviour; these changes were likely a consequence of the tremendous societal changes....

  10. Funded Projects | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer (vaccines)Plac1 vaccine for breast cancer preventionEfficacy of a multi-antigen vaccine in the prevention of methynitrosourea-induced mammary cancers (ER+) in female Sprague-Dawley rats Breast Cancer (small molecules and biomarkers)Chemopreventive effects in both standard chow diets and high-fat diets of known positive- and negative-chemopreventive agents employing both high-risk (but histologically normal) mammary epithelium and mammary cancers including correlative biomarkers | Breast Cancer (vaccines) Cervical Cancer (small molecule) Colon Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker) Lung Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker, vaccine) Pancreatic Cancer (small molecule) Prostate Cancer (small molecule) Oral Cancer (small molecule) Skin Cancer (small molecule)

  11. Investigation and analysis of newly married wife premarital examination and cervical cancer prevention KAP condition%新婚妻婚检与宫颈癌防治KAP情况的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷雁凌; 陈渊青; 罗红; 叶宜根

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查分析新婚婚检率和宫颈癌筛查及相关知、信、行情况,以便为提高婚检率和宫颈癌防治策略提供参考。方法:2013年6月-2014年3月选取新婚妻326例,作为调查对象,采用自行改编的《新婚女性宫颈癌防治相关KAP调查问卷》进行调查。结果:总计发放调查问卷326份,回收314份,有效问卷306份,回收率96.31%,有效率93.87%。经过统计学分析,认为新婚妻婚检率的高低和文化程度、经济收入、职业等方面差异存在统计学意义(P<0.01);婚检组妇女对宫颈癌防治相关知信行率上要明显优于未婚检组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:本次调查的婚检率相近于政府公布的婚检率,婚检率的高低和宫颈癌防治相关知、信、行与文化程度、经济收入、职业等方面有关,因此认为要提高婚检率和宫颈癌防治知识水平必须加强婚前、婚育健康宣教工作,提高婚检率和宫颈癌防治相关知信行率对女性健康极为重要。%Objective:To investigate and analyze the newly married,cervical cancer screening and related knowledge,attitude and practice condition,in order to provide reference for improving the premarital examination rate and cervical cancer prevention strategies.Methods:326 cases of newly married wives were selected from June 2013 to March 2014 as the investigation objects. Using self adaptation of"newly married women cervical cancer prevention related KAP questionnaire"had investigation.Results:A total of 326 copies of questionnaire were given out,314 copies were recycled,306 copies were valid questionnaires,the recovery rate was 96.31%,the effective rate was 93.87%.Through statistical analysis, there were significant differences between the high and low degree of newly married wife premarital examination rate and educational level,economic income and occupation and so on(P<0.01).The cervical cancer prevention related

  12. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  13. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  14. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutubessy Raymond

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on, social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E. The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015, the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5 in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs and US$31.5 million (with vaccine assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. This is equivalent to a

  15. Awareness of cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms: cross-sectional community survey in post-conflict northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mwaka, A. D.; Orach, C.G.; Were, E.M.; Lyratzopoulos, G; Wabinga, H.; Roland, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Lack of awareness of risk factors and symptoms for cancer may lead to late diagnosis and poor prognosis. Objective We assessed community awareness about cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms and perceptions about prevention and cure of cervical cancer in order to contribute data to inform interventions to improve cervical cancer survival. Design Cross‐sectional population‐based survey. Setting and participants We conducted this study in Gulu, a post‐conflict district i...

  16. Community-Based Health Education has Positive Influence on the Attitude to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Sunila; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Afset, Jan Egil; Bofin, Anna; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Syversen, Unni; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal and explore the feasibility and impact of a community-based awareness program on cervical cancer. Community-based educational meetings on cervical cancer and its prevention were conducted among women's groups in rural Nepal. Through a questionnaire, the women's baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and perceived risk of cervical cancer were identified. The willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening was compared before and after the educational meeting. The meetings were followed by a cervical cancer screening program. Among the 122 participants at the educational meeting, only 6 % had heard of cervical cancer. Their baseline knowledge of risk factors and symptoms was poor. The proportion of women willing to participate in cervical screening increased from 15.6 to 100 % after attending the educational meeting. All the study subjects participated in the screening program. Additionally, the study participants recruited a further 222 of their peers for screening. Poor knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal highlights the urgency of public awareness programs for cervical cancer at a national level. A community-based awareness program can change women's attitude to cervical screening, and women's groups can play a major role in promoting participation in cervical cancer screening programs.

  17. Improving population-based cervical cancer screening in general practice : effects of a national strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Tacken, M A; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a Dutch national prevention programme, aimed at general practitioners (GPs), on the adherence to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening in general practice. To identify the characteristics of general practices determining success. DESIGN

  18. Illness Perception, Knowledge and Self-Care about Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Kern de Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a central role in early detection of cervical cancer. Common Sense Model proposes that the nature and organization of illness representations can guide actions related to health and how self-care is exercised. The aim of this study was to describe and compare illness perception, knowledge and self-care in women with and without cancer precursor lesions. Participants were 92 women (aged 18-59 from primary care unity divided into two groups: women with and without premalignant lesion. Measures for illness perception, knowledge and self-care were used. There was no statistically significant difference (t test e chi-square test between groups in the variables analyzed. Despite the risk for cervical cancer, women with precursor lesions do not adjust their illness perceptions, knowledge and self-care to the situation. These data show the need to warn women against the cervical cancer risks, because their distorted perceptions and lack of knowledge about the disease may hamper the screening and control of cervical cancer.

  19. U.S. Deaths from Cervical Cancer May Be Underestimated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163192.html U.S. Deaths From Cervical Cancer May Be Underestimated Rates ... women were factored out, Rositch's team found that U.S. cervical cancer deaths are 77 percent higher among ...

  20. TRAILs towards improved cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, John

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a life threatening disease occurring world-wide, but affecting especially women in developing countries. Standard treatment for cevical cancer varies per FIGO stage and patient related factors. In general patients with non bulky (<4 cm) FIGO stage IB and IIA are treated with a rad

  1. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna;

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  2. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D;

    2014-01-01

    is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines......This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region...

  3. HPV vaccination and allocative efficiency: regional analysis of the costs and benefits with the bivalent AS04-adjuvanted vaccine, from the perspective of public health, for the prevention of cervical cancer and its pre-cancerous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonanni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: by means of the decisions on whether to introduce the HPV vaccination, Public Health has already established the importance of associating the vaccination strategy to the policy of secondary prevention. The screening + vaccination strategy is more effective than the two methods taken individually. In support of this combined strategy and in order to make available per each region concrete elements for their regional planning, an assessment has been made, which also takes into account the effect of cross-protection regarding high-risk strains not contained in both vaccines, bivalent and quadrivalent, and more frequently responsible for pre-cancerous lesions and cervical cancer (CCU. This analysis evaluates the costs and benefits of screening + vaccination strategy in a 12-year-old female cohort. Furthermore, the paper provides results that may be useful to assess the opportunity to extend the vaccination to a second cohort of 24-25-year-old women. The analysis is preceded by a brief summary of CCU epidemiology available data, public health policies that give precise guidelines for vaccination strategies and analytical tools suitable to support public policy makers to efficiently allocate resources. Methods: two different models were used for two regional analyses.The vaccines may have different sustained- and cross-protection levels against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV-types. In the first analysis, a prevalence-based model estimated the potential net difference in HPV-related lesions (abnormal pap smear, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, cervical cancer (CC and genital warts (GW and associated costs generated by the two vaccines. Vaccine efficacy rates were based on published data for each vaccine. Lifetime vaccine efficacy was assumed. Results are reported over one year after reaching a steady state. Incidence and treatment costs were obtained from Italian and European sources. We also performed a cost-effectiveness analysis

  4. 宫颈癌防治用人乳头瘤病毒疫苗的研究进展%Research progress of human papillomavirus vaccine in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏和霞; 张炜

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely related to the development of cervical cancer. The role of HPV vaccine in the prevention and treatment of cervical diseases caused by HPV infection is gradually taken into account. This review summarizes the recent research progress of preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. Quadrivalent HPV (HPV6/11/16/18) vaccine Gardasil, bivalent HPV (HPV16/18) vaccine Cervarix, and a new nine-valent HPV (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine Gardasil 9 have been listed and applied in clinic among the preventive vaccines. However, therapeutic HPV vaccines are still in the research stage and more experiments are needed to improve the immunogenicity and safety for clinical trials in humankind.%高危型人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus, HPV)感染与宫颈癌的发生、发展关系密切。HPV疫苗在HPV感染所致宫颈疾病防治中的作用逐渐受到重视。本文介绍宫颈癌防治用预防性和治疗性HPV疫苗的研究进展。预防性HPV疫苗中的四价HPV(HPV6/11/16/18)疫苗Gardasil、二价HPV(HPV16/18)疫苗Cervarix和九价HPV (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58)疫苗Gardasil 9已获准上市并用于临床。治疗性HPV疫苗均尚处于研究阶段,且免疫原性与安全性仍有待提高。

  5. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine for the prevention of cervical cancer and HPV-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, S Rachel; Apter, Dan; De Carvalho, Newton; Harper, Diane M; Konno, Ryo; Paavonen, Jorma; Romanowski, Barbara; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Burlet, Nansa; Mihalyi, Attila; Struyf, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines are available against human papillomavirus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical and other cancers. Efficacy data from the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine clinical trial program were reviewed. Six randomized, controlled phase II/III trials evaluating cervical endpoints enrolled women from diverse populations and geographical locations. The program analyzed extensively the cohorts most relevant from a public health perspective: the total vaccinated cohort (TVC), approximating a general population including those with existing or previous HPV infection, and TVC-naïve, approximating a population of young women before sexual debut. Results show that the vaccine reduces HPV-16/18 infection and associated cervical endpoints in women regardless of age, location, or sexual experience. It provides cross-protection against some non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types and types causing genital warts, and may be effective against vulvar, oral, and anal HPV infection. Early epidemiology data following its introduction suggest a decline in the prevalence of vaccine and some non-vaccine HPV types.

  6. "Inside and outside": Sikh women's perspectives on cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Nelly D; Vollman, Ardene Robinson

    2007-03-01

    Cervical cancer can be detected at an early stage through regular screening. The literature suggests that cervical cancer in immigrant women, a growing population in Canada, is less likely to be detected early than it is in the general population, as immigrant women tend not to take advantage of screening. Culturally appropriate screening services for immigrant women are few. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted with female members of an urban Sikh community in Canada to explore perspectives on cervical cancer screening. In-depth interviews (13) and focus groups (3) were carried out to uncover challenges to cervical cancer screening. The researchers identified a prevailing theme of "inside/outside" whereby the women felt confined to their community, finding it difficult to move "outside" into Canadian society in order to participate in screening. Lack of knowledge about the importance of prevention, influence of family and community, and health-provider issues affected the women's access to screening. The results will be helpful for nurses planning and delivering screening services to Sikh women.

  7. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    2004-01-01

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying ep

  8. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  9. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  10. Cervical cancer control in India: taking evidence to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Habib Hasan; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2012-05-01

    The most prevalent types of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer in India are HPV 16 and HPV 18, found in 60.7 per cent and 16 per cent of cases respectively. A comprehensive strategy with a judicious mix of interventions on health promotion, specific protection (vaccination), early diagnosis (screening), and treatment should be instituted to prevent and control cervical cancer in India. Proponents of vaccination and screening argue for enhanced investments on these interventions based on their relative cost-effectiveness. For policymakers, the major concerns about these interventions remain affordability and cost to government. Herein we try to review comprehensively the evidence on prevention and control interventions and to recommend appropriate policies to guide public health decision-making.

  11. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart Massad, L.; Evans, Charlesnika T.; Weber, Kathleen M.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Hessol, Nancy A.; Wright, Rodney L.; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe changes in knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccination among women at high risk for cervical cancer in the first five years after introduction of HPV vaccination. Methods In 2007, 2008–9, and 2011, women in a multicenter U.S. cohort study completed 44-item self-report questionnaires assessing knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and HPV vaccination. Results across time were assessed for individuals, and three study enrollment cohorts were compared. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic variables, measures of education and attention, and medical factors. Associations were assessed in multivariable models. Results In all, 974 women completed three serial questionnaires; most were minority, low income, and current or former smokers. The group included 652 (67%) HIV infected and 322 (33%) uninfected. Summary knowledge scores (possible range 0–24) increased from 2007 (12.8, S.D. 5.8) to 2008–9 (13.9, S.D. 5.3, P < 0.001) and to 2011 (14.3, S.D. 5.2, P < 0.0001 vs 2007 and < 0.04 vs 2008–9). Higher knowledge scores at first and follow-up administration of questionnaires, higher income, and higher education level were associated with improved knowledge score at third administration. Women not previously surveyed had scores similar to those of the longitudinal group at baseline. Conclusion Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding. PMID:25870859

  12. Quality of life of women undergoing treatment for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Ana Dallabrida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of women with cervical cancer. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study developed with 43 women undergoing oncological treatment assisted at an Oncology High Complexity Center, in the Southern region of Brazil. The instrument used was the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer – Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30, and the data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The average age was 54.6 years old. Married women prevailed (53.4%, with incomplete elementary education (72.1% and income from one to two minimum wages (62.8%. Quality of Life was considered very satisfactory. According to the development scales and emotional functioning, the result was from regular to satisfactory. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue, lack of appetite and pain. There is a need of structure of public health policies, for preventing cervical cancer in the most vulnerable population.

  13. Control of cervical cancer: women's options and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Joanna M; Ngan, Hextan; Garland, Suzanne; Wright, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Cervical cancer takes the lives of more than 250,000 women each year globally, particularly in under-resourced areas of low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Options for cancer control and treatment have reached a point that there are interventions for control that could be adopted for virtually every resource and demographic situation. Women die despite the availability of attractive control options, which means that educating policy makers, women's health professionals, as well as women themselves, must become a major focus for ongoing control of this disease. The human right to life, to prevention of suffering, and to education are all key rights linked to improving the control of cervical cancer and saving the lives of women, particularly in resource-poor parts of the world.

  14. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Aljoša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cyclooxygenase (COX or prostaglandin H2 synthase is the first enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. The aim of the study was to determine the expression level of COX-2 in patients with cervical cancer and compare it with that in the control group with no cervical pathology. Methods. The study included 76 patients divided into two groups: the control group - 30 patients without histopathological changes and the group A - 46 patients with cervical cancer, FIGO stage IB-IIA. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in these two groups of patients. Results. In the control group, the expression of COX-2 was not confirmed compared to the group A of 26 (56.52% patients. The expression of COX-2 showed a statistically significant difference in the presence of lymphocytic stromal infiltration (p = 0.0053. The expression of COX-2 was more pronounced in the stromal tissue without lymphocytic infiltration (80% vs 20%. Conclusion. A higher expression of COX-2 in cervical carcinoma without stromal lymphocytic infiltration suggests a possible paradoxical effect of COX-2 in immunosuppression. Frequent COX- 2 expression in the subgroup with poor prognostic histological parameters in the group A indicates the importance of COX-2 expression in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer.

  15. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Allie K. [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wise-Draper, Trisha M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wells, Susanne I., E-mail: Susanne.Wells@cchmc.org [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed.

  16. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allie K. Adams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed.

  17. Preoperative Arterial Interventional Chemotherapy on Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LING HU-Hua; TANG Liang-dan; ZHANG Xing-hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the therapeutic effect of preoperative interventional chemotherapy on cervical cancer.Methods:Preoperative interventional chemotherapy by femoral intubation was performed in 25 patients with bulky cervical cancer.The patients received bleomycin 45 mg and cisplatin or oxaliplatin 80 mg/m2.Results:25 cases(including 8 cases with stage Ⅰ and 17 cases with stage Ⅱ)received one or two courses of preoperative interventional chemotherapy.The size of the focal lesions was decreased greatly and radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy were performed successfully in all the patients.All of the specimens were sent for pathological examination.Lymphocyte infiltration was found more obvious in the cancer tissues as compared with their counterpart before treatment.As a result,relevant vaginal bleeding was stopped completely shortly after the treatment.Conclusion:Arterial interventional chemotherapy was proved to reduce the local size of cervical cancer and thus control the hemorrhage efficiently.The patients with cervical cancer can receive radical hysterectomy therapy after the interventional chemotherapy.

  18. From cancer screening to treatment: service delivery and referral in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Hanson, Vivien; Johnson, Gale D; Royalty, Janet E; Richardson, Lisa C

    2014-08-15

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income and underserved women through a network of providers and health care organizations. Although the program serves women 40-64 years old for breast cancer screening and 21-64 years old for cervical cancer screening, the priority populations are women 50-64 years old for breast cancer and women who have never or rarely been screened for cervical cancer. From 1991 through 2011, the NBCCEDP provided screening and diagnostic services to more than 4.3 million women, diagnosing 54,276 breast cancers, 2554 cervical cancers, and 123,563 precancerous cervical lesions. A critical component of providing screening services is to ensure that all women with abnormal screening results receive appropriate and timely diagnostic evaluations. Case management is provided to assist women with overcoming barriers that would delay or prevent follow-up care. Women diagnosed with cancer receive treatment through the states' Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Programs (a special waiver for Medicaid) if they are eligible. The NBCCEDP has performance measures that serve as benchmarks to monitor the completeness and timeliness of care. More than 90% of the women receive complete diagnostic care and initiate treatment less than 30 days from the time of their diagnosis. Provision of effective screening and diagnostic services depends on effective program management, networks of providers throughout the community, and the use of evidence-based knowledge, procedures, and technologies.

  19. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Increasing Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening in Jamaica: Effectiveness of a Theory-Based Educational Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Coronado Interis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite declines in cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates remain high in Jamaica due to low levels of screening. Effective interventions are needed to decrease barriers to preventive behaviors and increase adoption of behaviors and services to improve prospects of survival. We enrolled 225 women attending health facilities in an intervention consisting of a pre-test, educational presentation and post-test. The questionnaires assessed attitudes, knowledge, risk factors, and symptoms of cervical cancer among women. Changes in knowledge and intention to screen were assessed using paired t-tests and tests for correlated proportions. Participants were followed approximately six months post-intervention to determine cervical cancer screening rates. We found statistically significant increases from pre-test to post-test in the percentage of questions correctly answered and in participants’ intention to screen for cervical cancer. The greatest improvements were observed in responses to questions on knowledge, symptoms and prevention, with some items increasing up to 62% from pre-test to post-test. Of the 123 women reached for follow-up, 50 (40.7% screened for cervical cancer. This theory-based education intervention significantly increased knowledge of and intention to screen for cervical cancer, and may be replicated in similar settings to promote awareness and increase screening rates.

  1. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

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    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  2. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cer

  3. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... mystery. Most important, however, is to have a vaccine which potentially can ... focusing their research on helping to produce second-generation HPV vaccines ...

  4. Recurrent cervical cancer : detection and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyn, A; Van Eijkeren, M; Kenter, G; Zwinderman, K; Ansink, A

    2002-01-01

    Background. Only a small proportion of cervical cancer recurrences is detected during routine follow-up. We investigated which percentage of recurrences is detected during follow-up, which diagnostic tools are helpful to detect recurrent disease and which factors are of prognostic significance once

  5. Meta-analysis of type-specific human papillomavirus prevalence in Iranian women with normal cytology, precancerous cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer: Implications for screening and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilvand, Somayeh; Shoja, Zabihollah; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Tohidi, Hamid Reza; Hamkar, Rasool

    2015-02-01

    To predict the impact of current vaccines on cervical cancer and for the improvement of screening programs, regional data on distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with or without cervical cancer is crucial. The present meta-analysis intend to comprehensively evaluate the HPV burden in women with invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal cytology, as these data will help decision making in regards with screening programs and HPV vaccination in Iran. To determine the HPV prevalence and type distribution in Iranian women with or without cervical cancer, 20 published studies were included in this meta-analysis. In total, 713, 124, 104, 60, and 2577 women invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal were reviewed, respectively. Overall HPV prevalence in women with invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal cytology were 77.4%, 71.8%, 65.3%, 61.7%, and 8.4%, respectively. The six most common types were HPV 16, 18, 6/11, 31, and 33; among them HPV 16 was the most frequent type in all five different groups. According to this study, it was estimated that HPV vaccines could have a great impact on prevention of cervical cancer in Iran. In conclusion, this meta-analysis highlights the necessity of introducing vaccination program in Iran.

  6. Impact of cervical screening on cervical cancer mortality: estimation using stage-specific results from a nested case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Pesola, Francesca; Castañón, Alejandra; Sasieni, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that screening can prevent cervical cancer, but the magnitude of the impact of regular screening on cervical cancer mortality is unknown. Methods: Population-based case–control study using prospectively recorded cervical screening data, England 1988–2013. Case women had cervical cancer diagnosed during April 2007–March 2013 aged 25–79 years (N=11 619). Two cancer-free controls were individually age matched to each case. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of developing stage-specific cancer for women regularly screened or irregularly screened compared with women not screened in the preceding 15 years. Mortality was estimated from excess deaths within 5 years of diagnosis using stage-specific 5-year relative survival from England with adjustment for age within stage based on SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, USA) data. Results: In women aged 35–64 years, regular screening is associated with a 67% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62–73%) reduction in stage 1A cancer and a 95% (95% CI: 94–97%) reduction in stage 3 or worse cervical cancer: the estimated OR comparing regular (⩽5.5yearly) screening to no (or minimal) screening are 0.18 (95% CI: 0.16–0.19) for cancer incidence and 0.08 (95% CI: 0.07–0.09) for mortality. It is estimated that in England screening currently prevents 70% (95% CI: 66–73%) of cervical cancer deaths (all ages); however, if everyone attended screening regularly, 83% (95% CI: 82–84%) could be prevented. Conclusions: The association between cervical cancer screening and incidence is stronger in more advanced stage cancers, and screening is more effective at preventing death from cancer than preventing cancer itself. PMID:27632376

  7. Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study to comprehensively assess biomarkers of risk for progressive cervical neoplasia, and thus develop a new set of biomarkers that can distinguish those at highest risk of cervical cancer from those with benign infection

  8. The Prevention and Cure of Cervical Vertebra Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    CERVICAL vertebra problems are common and usually occur in middleaged and elderly people, especially those who often bend over. The symptoms patients might encounter are dizziness, headache, neck and shoulder pain and numbness, and even viscera trouble. The following exercises are a simple and convenient way to prevent and cure cervical vertebra problems. If you continue doing the exercises, you can prevent and cure them. Here are the exercises step by step:

  9. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  10. Geographic Disparities in Cervical Cancer Mortality: What Are the Roles of Risk Factor Prevalence, Screening, and Use of Recommended Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabroff, K. Robin; Lawrence, William F.; King, Jason C.; Mangan, Patricia; Washington, Kathleen Shakira; Yi, Bin; Kerner, Jon F.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2005-01-01

    Despite advances in early detection and prevention of cervical cancer, women living in rural areas, and particularly in Appalachia, the rural South, the Texas-Mexico border, and the central valley of California, have had consistently higher rates of cervical cancer mortality than their counterparts in other areas during the past several decades.…

  11. [Management of pregnant women with advanced cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincens, C; Dupaigne, D; de Tayrac, R; Mares, P

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to update the management of pregnant women with advanced cervical cancer, thanks to a literature review indexed in Medline((R)) (from 1980 till 2006 using those keywords: advanced cervix cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pregnancy), ScienceDirect (from 1990 till 2006) and the French Encyclopédie Médico-Chirurgicale. It occurs that pregnancy is a privileged period to diagnose cervical cancer, particularly in early stages. We ought to beware of symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, which could be underestimated during pregnancy. Colposcopically selected biopsies are reference techniques to confirm the diagnostic. The assessment of extension includes an abdominal and pelvic MRI and echography and a radiography of the chest for locally advanced stages. The decision to interrupt pregnancy should be based on a collegial evaluation and depends on state and histology of disease, patient's desire for pregnancy, as well as gestational age and disease evolution. Cesarean is preferred to natural delivery even though survival rates are the same. The cesarean section prevents from short-term complications and recurrence on the episiotomy, but the hysterotomy type is controversial throughout literature. The prognosis of cervical cancer does not seem to be influenced by pregnancy. Management is the same, even though we have to adapt the treatment from the pregnancy state. No study could show the benefit and the safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy during pregnancy, due to few cases, but it could be a solution with patients suffering from an advanced cancer and not willing to stop pregnancy. To conclude, the detection by cervical smears should be systematic during pregnancy. When cancer is diagnosed, cesarean section is the favourite way to deliver. Pregnancy does not modify disease's prognosis and the therapeutic choice depends on the stage of the disease.

  12. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves.

  13. Factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings Factores determinantes de utilización de programas de detección oportuna de cáncer cervical en población de bajos recursos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Bingham

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for introducing or strengthening cervical cancer prevention programs must focus on ensuring that appropriate, cost-effective services are available and that women who most need the services will, in fact, use them. This article summarizes the experiences of research projects in Bolivia, Peru, Kenya, South Africa, and Mexico. Factors that affect participation rates in cervical cancer prevention programs are categorized in three sections. The first section describes factors that arise from prevailing sociocultural norms that influence women's views on reproductive health, well being, and notions of illness. The second section discusses factors related to the clinical requirements and the type of service delivery system in which a woman is being asked to participate. The third section discusses factors related to quality of care. Examples of strategies that programs are using to encourage women's participation in cervical cancer prevention services are provided.Las estrategias para introducir o fortalecer programas de prevención de cáncer cervical deben enfocarse hacia garantizar servicios costo-efectivos, que se encuentren disponibles para que las mujeres que los necesiten puedan utilizarlos. Este artículo resume la experiencia de proyectos de investigación realizados en Bolivia, Perú, Kenya, Sudáfrica y México. Los factores que afectan la tasa de participación en programas de prevención son categorizados en tres secciones. La primera describe los factores que surgen predominantemente por normas socioculturales que influyen en la visión que las mujeres tienen sobre la salud reproductiva. La segunda discute los factores relacionados con los requerimientos clínicos y el tipo de servicio ofrecido, así como el sistema mediante el cual las mujeres están siendo invitadas a participar. La tercera sección discute factores relacionados con la calidad de la atención. Finalmente, se proveen ejemplos de las estrategias sobre los

  14. Barriers to cervical cancer screening in Mulanje, Malawi: a qualitative study

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    Victoria K Fort

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Victoria K Fort1, Mary Sue Makin2, Aaron J Siegler1, Kevin Ault3, Roger Rochat11Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Mulanje Mission Hospital, Mulanje, Malawi; 3Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, Georgia, USABackground: In Malawi, cervical cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among women, with an 80% mortality rate. The Mulanje Mission Hospital has offered free cervical cancer screening for eight years; however, patients primarily seek medical help for gynecologic complaints after the disease is inoperable.Methods: We investigated how women in rural Malawi make health-seeking decisions regarding cervical cancer screening using qualitative research methods. The study was conducted between May and August of 2009 in Mulanje, Malawi.Results: This study found that the primary cue to action for cervical cancer screening was symptoms of cervical cancer. Major barriers to seeking preventative screening included low knowledge levels, low perceived susceptibility and low perceived benefits from the service. Study participants did not view cervical cancer screening as critical health care. Interviews suggested that use of the service could increase if women are recruited while visiting the hospital for a different service.Conclusion: This study recommends that health care providers and health educators target aspects of perceived susceptibility among their patients, including knowledge levels and personal risk assessment. We believe that continued support and advertisement of cervical cancer screening programs along with innovative recruitment strategies will increase usage density and decrease unnecessary deaths from cervical cancer in Malawi.Keywords: cervical cancer, interviews, health care, Mulanje Mission Hospital

  15. Breast and cervical cancer risk in India: An update

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    Smita Asthana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast and cervical cancers are two major cancers among Indian women. Analysis of trends would help in planning and organization of programs for control of these cancers. Objective: The objective of the following study is to compute risk of breast and cervical cancers using updated data from different cancer registries of India and study of its trends. Materials and Methods: Data on incidence rates of breast and cervical cancers were obtained from six major cancer registries of India for the years 1982-2008 and from the recently initiated cancer registries, North Eastern Registries of India with a total of 21 registries. Annual percent change in incidence and risk in terms of one in number of women likely to develop cancer was estimated for both the cancers in various registries. Results: The annual percentage change in incidence ranged from 0.46 to 2.56 and −1.14 to −3.4 for breast and cervical cancers respectively. Trends were significant for both cancers in the registries of Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai and Delhi except Barshi and Bhopal. North East region showed decrease in risk for breast and cervical cancers whereas increasing trend was observed in Imphal (West and for cervical cancer in Silchar. Conclusion: North Eastern region recorded decline in the incidence of breast cancer which is contrary to the observation in other registries, which showed increase in breast cancer and decline in cervical cancer incidences.

  16. Detection of STAT2 in early stage of cervical premalignancy and in cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zeng; Li-Hua Gao; Li-Jun Cao; De-Yun Feng; Ya Cao; Qi-Zhi Luo; Ping Yu; Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To measure the expression pattern ofSTAT2 in cervical cancer initiation and progression in tissue sections from patients with cervicitis, dysplasia, and cervical cancer. Methods:Antibody against humanSTAT2 was confirmed by plasmids transient transfection andWestern blot.Immunohistochemistry was used to detectSTAT2 expression in the cervical biopsies by using the confirmed antibody againstSTAT2 as the primary antibody.Results:It was found that the overall rate of positiveSTAT2 expression in the cervicitis, dysplasia and cervical cancer groups were38.5%,69.4% and76.9%, respectively.TheSTAT2 levels are significantly increased in premalignant dysplasia and cervical cancer, as compared to cervicitis(P<0.05). Noticeably,STAT2 signals were mainly found in the cytoplasm, implying thatSTAT2 was not biologically active.Conclusions:These findings reveal an association between cervical cancer progression and augmentedSTAT2 expression.In conclusion,STAT2 increase appears to be an early detectable cellular event in cervical cancer development.

  17. Brazilian research about prevention of cervical neoplasia: an integrative review

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    Jaqueline Apolônio de Freitas Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This is an integrative review that aimed to synthesize the scientific knowledge published in national nursing journals about the prevention of cervical cancer. It was made a literature review in May 2009 in BIREME, covering the national nursing publications, from 1999 to 2009. We identified 15 articles that comprised the study sample. Of these, 11 addressed the nursing care, 6 were about prevention of cancer and 5 were about risk factors for such disease. In 4 articles the studies were accomplished in the Family Health Care Unit (UBASF which was the most prevalent place. It was found out that 6 of the articles used the qualitative method. The most studied population was formed by users of the Family Health Care Unit, in 3 studies. It was so concluded that the national research about this topic was related to the problems identified in health places, either in the effectiveness of the examination, in the knowledge of users or in conducted health education.

  18. The male role in cervical cancer

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    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  19. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  20. Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women

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    Grace X. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.

  1. Cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: Epidemiological evidence and perspectives for prevention Cáncer del cérvix y virus del papiloma humano: evidencia epidemiológica y perspectivas para su prevención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUBIA MUÑOZ

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem, as it is the second most common cancer in women world-wide after breast cancer. About 80% of the half a million cases estimated to occur annually in the world, occur in developing countries. The epidemiological evidence linking human papillomavirus (HPV to cervical cancer is reviewed. It is concluded that over 90% of cervical cancers can be attributed to certain HPV types. HPV 16 accounts for the highest proportion (50% followed by HPV 18 (12%, HPV 45 (8% and HPV 31 (5%. The associations with these HPV types are very b and consistent with odds ratios over 15 in all case-control studies in high- and low-risk countries for cervical cancer. However, HPV is not a sufficient cause of this malignancy; certain cofactors are necessary for a proportion of HPV persistent infections to eventually progress to cancer. These include host factors such as histocompatibilidad types and immunological response, hormonal influences and infections with other sexually transmitted agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition, results from our studies carried out in Spain and Colombia support the hypothesis that male carriers of HPV play an important role in the development of cervical cancer in their wives. The recognition of the central role of HPV in cervical cancer has far-reaching implications for the primary and secondary prevention of this malignancy. Prophylactic and therapeutic HPV vaccines are now under development and HPV typing is being integrated into screening programmes in pilot studies in a few developed countries. In developing countries, well conducted conventional screening programmes remain the best approach for the control of cervical cancer until a safe and efficient HPV vaccine can be used in the general population.El cáncer del cérvix constituye un problema importante de salud pública y es el más común en el mundo, después del de mama. Aproximadamente 80% de los 500 000 casos que se

  2. Drug Delivery Approaches for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Ordikhani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a highly prevalent cancer that affects women around the world. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have increased their efforts to develop new drug delivery systems in cervical cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we summarized some of the recent research in systematic and localized drug delivery systems and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  3. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage IB2, II, or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  4. Treatment of cervical cancer in the Republic of Srpska

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    Draganović Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since 1897, when the first radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy was done by Wertheim in Vienna, this operation has had the central role in the surgical treatment of invasive cervical tumors. Material and methods. In the period from 1997 to 2010, 177 patients diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage IB1 - II were operated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Banja Luka. All patients underwent radical hysterectomy by Wertheim - Meigs. The aim of this study is to present the technique of this operation, as well as its effectiveness in the treatment of cervical cancer. Results. The distribution of the patients having invasive cervical cancer according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics classification was as follows: I B1 - 35.67%, I B2 - 23.17%, II A - 15.48%, II B - 25.68% on average is 21.3 removed lymph glands. The rate of intraoperative and postoperative complications was 8 (4.51% and 17 (9.60%, respectively. Of the 26 patients who were operated in the period from 2005 - 2010, 13 had stage II B according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics; there were 6 lethal outcomes (23.08 and the five-year survival rate was 76.92%. Discussion and conclusion. By applying the proper surgical technique and early prevention of immediate complications, we achieved satisfactory results in operative morbity and mortality, intraoperative and postoperative complications of the lesion for radical surgery by the Wertheim- Meigs-in the treatment of cancer of the uterus in the I B - II B stage according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics classification.

  5. Framing preventive care messaging and cervical cancer screening in a health-insured population in South Africa: Implications for population-based communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonis, Leegale; Paramanund, Jithen; Basu, Debashis; Luiz, John

    2016-02-17

    The impact of health message framing on cervical cancer screening uptake is poorly understood.We undertook a prospective randomized control study between August 2013 and February 2014 within a health-insuered population. The study consisted of 748 females, aged 21-65 years who had not had a Pap smear in the previous 3 years and were randomly selected to receive either a loss-framed, gain-framed, or neutral health message (control) regarding cervical cancer screening via email. Pap smear uptake was determined from medical claims data. The median age was 43 years (interquartile range: 26-60 years). Overall Pap smear screening rate was found to be 8.36 percent (confidence interval: 8.08%-8.64%). Screening rate in the control group was 9.58 percent (confidence interval: 9.29%-9.87%), 5.71 percent (confidence interval: 5.48%-6.98%) in the gain-framed group, and 8.53 percent (confidence interval: 8.24%-8.81%) in the loss-framed group. Statistically there was no difference between the screening rates of the groups (p = 0.75). Females were 43 percent (odds ratio = 0.57) less likely to have a Pap smear if exposed to a gain-framed message, compared to a neutral-framed message; however, this finding was non-significant (p = 0.13). When receiving a loss-framed message, females were only 23 percent (odds ratio = 0.87) less likely to have a Pap smear compared to a neutral-framed message, also not significant (p = 0.69). In addition, further age stratification revealed no differences in Pap smear uptake between different age groups. These findings indicate that Pap smear uptake in this health-insured population is low, with no difference in exposure to differently framed health messages when emailed. Framing of health messages may not be a significant consideration when constructing population-based communication through emails.

  6. DNA probes for papillomavirus strains readied for cervical cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, B.

    1988-11-18

    New Papillomavirus tests are ready to come to the aid of the standard Papanicolauo test in screening for cervical cancer. The new tests, which detect the strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) most commonly associated with human cervical cancer, are designed to be used as an adjunct to rather than as a replacement for the Papanicolaou smears. Their developers say that they can be used to indicated a risk of developing cancer in women whose Papanicolaou smears indicate mild cervical dysplasia, and, eventually, to detect papillomavirus infection in normal Papanicolaou smears. The rationale for HPV testing is derived from a growing body of evidence that HPV is a major factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Three HPV tests were described recently in Chicago at the Third International Conference on Human Papillomavirus and Squamous Cervical Cancer. Each relies on DNA probes to detect the presence of papillomavirus in cervical cells and/or to distinguish the strain of papillomavirus present.

  7. Assessment of quality of life for the patients with cervical cancer at different clinical stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Xie; Fang-Hui Zhao; Si-Han Lu; He Huang; Xiong-Fei Pan; Chun-Xia Yang; You-Lin Qiao

    2013-01-01

    With improved overall survival of cervical cancer patients,the importance of the quality of life (QOL)is increasingly recognized.This study was conducted to compare the QOL of women with different stage cervical cancer before and after treatment to facilitate improved cervical cancer prevention and treatment.We used the generic Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) to collect QOL information.Based on SF-36,we interviewed cervical cancer patients at West China Second Affiliated Hospital and Sichuan Cancer Hospital between May 2010 and January 2011.A total of 92 patients with precancerous lesions,93 with early cancer,and 35 with advanced cancer responded to our survey.Average physical component summary (PCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups at every time point (P < 0.05).Average mental component summary (MCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups after treatment (P < 0.05).Average PCS and MCS scores increased gradually from the pretreatment to posttreatment period for patients with precancerous lesions.However,they reached the lowest at 1 month after treatment for patients with early and advanced cancers and rebounded between 1and 6 months after treatment.Our results indicate that patients with precancerous lesions and early cervical cancer show better overall QOL than do those with advanced cervical cancer.Additionally,patients with early cancer recover more quickly than do those with advanced cancer in terms of both physical and mental functions.Thus,early detection and treatment initiatives may improve the QOL for patients with precancerous lesions and cervical cancer.

  8. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Jia; Shuang Li; Ru Yang; Hang Zhou; Qunying Xiang; Ting Hu; Qinghua Zhang; Zhilan Chen; Ding Ma; Ling Feng

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. PARTICIPANTS ...

  9. Virally mediated cervical cancer in the iatrogenically immunocompromised: applications for psychoneuroimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sally E; Lehman, Brandy; Antoni, Michael H; Pereira, Deidre B

    2007-08-01

    Oncogenic or high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of cancers, including cervical cancer. HPV infected individuals who are immunocompromised secondary to acquired (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or iatrogenic (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE] patients and organ and hematopoeitic stem cell transplant recipients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy) immune deficiency are particularly at risk for HPV-initiated cervical neoplasia and cancer. Psychoneuroimmunologic (PNI) research has demonstrated that psychosocial factors such as stress, pessimism, and sleep quality may play a role in the promotion of HPV-mediated cervical neoplasia in HIV-positive women. However, no research to our knowledge has examined PNI mechanisms of HPV-mediated cervical neoplasia and cancer in women who are undergoing iatrogenic immunosuppressive therapy for the treatment of autoimmune disease or the prevention of graft-rejection. This article reviews the PNI mechanisms that may underlie the promotion of HPV-mediated cervical neoplasia and applies this model to HPV-infected women who are iatrogenically immunosuppressed, an understudied population at-risk for cervical cancer. Female transplant recipients, one such group, may provide a unique paradigm in which to explore further PNI mechanisms of HPV-mediated cervical neoplasia.

  10. A MicroRNA Expression Signature for Cervical Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoxia; Schwarz, Julie K.; Lewis, James S.; Huettner, Phyllis C.; Rader, Janet S.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Wang, Xiaowei

    2010-01-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide, resulting in about 300,000 deaths each year. The clinical outcomes of cervical cancer vary significantly and are difficult to predict. Thus, a method to reliably predict disease outcome would be important for individualized therapy by identifying patients with high-risk of treatment failures prior to therapy. In this study, we have identified a microRNA-based signature for the prediction of cervical cancer survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly identified family of small non-coding RNAs that are extensively involved in human cancers. Using our recently established PCR-based miRNA assays, we have analyzed 102 cervical cancers and identified two miRNAs (miR-200a and miR-9) that are likely to predict patient survival. A logistic regression model was developed based on these two miRNAs and the prognostic value of the model was subsequently validated with 42 independent cervical cancers. Furthermore, functional studies were performed to characterize the effect of miRNAs in cervical cancer cells. Our results suggest that both miR-200a and miR-9 could play important regulatory roles in cervical cancer control. In particular, miR-200a is likely to affect the metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells by simultaneously suppressing the expression of multiple genes that are important to cell motility. PMID:20124485

  11. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  12. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  13. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in Invasive Cervical Cancer in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Asif; Serrano, Beatriz; Rasheed, Farah; Tous, Sara; Hassan, Mariam; Clavero, Omar; Raza, Muhammad; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2016-07-30

    Few studies have assessed the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Pakistan. We aim to provide specific information on HPV-type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the country. A total of 280 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were consecutively selected from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (Lahore, Pakistan). HPV-DNA was detected by SPF10 broad-spectrum PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by LiPA25. HPV-DNA prevalence was 87.5% (95%CI: 83.0-91.1), with 96.1% of cases histologically classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the HPV-DNA positive cases presented single infections (95.9%). HPV16 was the most common type followed by HPV18 and 45. Among HPV-DNA positive, a significantly higher contribution of HPV16/18 was detected in Pakistan (78.4%; 72.7-83.3), compared to Asia (71.6%; 69.9-73.4) and worldwide (70.8%; 69.9-71.8) and a lower contribution of HPVs31/33/45/52/58 (11.1%; 7.9-15.7 vs. 19.8%; 18.3-21.3 and 18.5%; 17.7-19.3). HPV18 or HPV45 positive ICC cases were significantly younger than cases infected by HPV16 (mean age: 43.3, 44.4, 50.5 years, respectively). A routine cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination program does not yet exist in Pakistan; however, the country could benefit from national integrated efforts for cervical cancer prevention and control. Calculated estimations based on our results show that current HPV vaccine could potentially prevent new ICC cases.

  14. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanbi, Olusola Anuoluwapo; Iyanda, Abiodun; Osundare, Folakemi; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9%) of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3%) are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5%) know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1%) are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7%) had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3%) of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9%) have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5%) are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  15. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9% of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3% are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5% know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1% are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7% had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3% of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9% have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5% are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  16. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  17. THE TREATMENT AND EVOLUTION OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the evolution of cervical cancer after applying a conventional treatment. Materials and methods. The study was performed on a number of 1249 patients who were suspected of having cervical neoplasia, and who were monitored between 2006-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved the effectiveness of the conservative treatment for the patients who were diagnosed using cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and histopathology, with or without HPV viral infection. Conclusions. The patients with an early diagnose have a 15% higher surviving probability. The patients who responded to the conservative preoperative treatment well are more likely to survive than the patients who did not respond favourably to the conservative preoperative treatment.

  18. 高危HPV检测及随访对宫颈癌预防的临床意义%Clinical significance of the testing and follow up of high risk HPV on the prevention of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂香; 周自秀; 崔彭华; 冯振波; 邵雪斋; 庄新荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To test HR-HPV infection by HC-Ⅱ assay,and follow up the positive patients by combination with TCT,colposcopy,cervical biopsy and LEEP.Relationship between HR-HPV infection and cervical precancerous lesions were analyzed and the clinical significance of HR-HPV testing to the prevention of cervical cancer was evaluated.Methods:From the out-patient clinic patients of our hospital during Jan.2008 to Dec.2009,3 842 unpregnancy patients who were 25-45 years and received cervical cancer screening were selected.They were tested for HR-HPV by HC-Ⅱ and TCT.Patients with HPV positive simply were referred for reviewing regularly.Patients with HPV positive,and ASCUS,ASC-H or LSIL in cytology were referred for colposcopy and biopsy.Patients with HPV positive,and HSIL in cytology were referred for LEEP and diagnosed by histopathology result.783 cases of HPV positive patients were followed up for 3 years.SPSS 13.0 software was used for data processing and statistical analysis.Results:The positive rate of HR-HPV infection was 22.62% by HC-Ⅱ,which was higher than the rate of abnormal cytology by TCT which was only 5.62%.During the following up,only 16.72% HR-HPV positive cases turned to negative in the NILM group,however,more than 60% patients who had CIN and received treatment turned to negative.Conclusion:Testing HR-HPV infection during the TCT process,and giving treatment to the symptomatic HR-HPV infected patients is an effective method to prevent CIN and cervical cancer.%目的:采用HC-Ⅱ方法对HR-HPV感染进行检测,联合TCT、阴道镜检查、宫颈活检、宫颈锥切术,对HR-HPV阳性患者随访,分析高危型HPV感染与宫颈癌前病变的关系,从而评估HR-HPV检测对宫颈癌预防的临床意义.方法:选取自愿接受宫颈癌筛查的25~ 45岁非孕期患者3 842例为研究对象,同时进行TCT及HC-Ⅱ法HR-HPV检测.对单纯HPV阳性患者,予以定期观察;对HPV阳性,细胞学检查为ASCUS、ASC-H、LSIL,予

  19. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented? Most women have one or more ... strategies for women with a family history of ovarian cancer or BRCA mutation If your family history suggests ...

  20. Awareness and Practice of Cervical Smear as A Screening Procedure for Cervical Cancer among Female Nurses in A Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoh Unang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Carcinoma of the cervix, the second most common cancer among women remains a public health problem. Though this preventable cancer occurs more commonly in the developing world, it is almost non-existent in developed countries where there are well established screening programs. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of awareness and practice of cervical smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer among female nurses in a tertiary health facility in south-south Nigeria. METHOD: Semi-structured questionnaires were distributed to all the female nurses at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. RESULTS: The ages of the respondents were between 21 - 60 years with the modal age group being 31- 40 years (48.9%. Majority of the respondents were married (59.7% and 36.4% of them had practiced nursing for over 10 years. Majority of the respondents (94.3% had heard of the cervical smear and 79.5% of the nurses knew that cervical smears were used to detect premalignant diseases of the cervix. Only 7.4% of the nurses had undergone screening for cervical cancer. Common reasons given by the respondents who had not screened were not being a candidate for cervical cancer (31.9% and ignorance as to where screening is done (28.8%. The most common sources of information about cervical smear were the hospital (87.5% and textbooks (13.6%. CONCLUSION: The level of awareness of the cervical smear as a preventive tool for cervical cancer was high but utilization of the test was disappointingly low. Modern concepts of cancer prevention and control should be included in the curriculum of the school of nursing and nurses should be involved in the organisation of health talks to members of the community on cervical cancer and its prevention. The print and electronic media should be made to participate in the dissemination of information on the prevention of cervical cancer in our environment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 675-680

  1. Limitations of Colposcopy in Early Invasive Cervical Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Grubišić, Goran

    2007-01-01

    Colposcopy is a key element in the diagnostic chain required to reduce cervical cancer mortality but it has limitations in the diagnosis of malignant disease. In the Republic of Croatia the Croatian Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology started constructing guidelines for early detection, therapy and follow-up of patients with early invasive cervical cancer in order to achieve the best possible results in diagnosis, therapy and follow-up. From 2001 to 2006 Croatian society ...

  2. Understanding cervical cancer in the context of developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. Among the women, gynecological cancers are most common. Cervical cancer is a main gynecological cancer of the women. The global burden of cervical cancer is disproportionately high among the developing countries where 85 per cent of the estimated 493, 000 new cases and 273, 000 deaths occur worldwide. There are several dimensions of the problem. Cervical cancer is a problem where people are poor, where the socio-economic status of the women is low and sometimes specific ethnicity also posses additional risk to the women to develop cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus infection is a main risk factor for the cervical cancer however there are some other factors which increase the risk. Among them some are number of sexual partners, age of first sexual intercourse, infection of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormonal contraceptives, parity, age, smoking, food and diet. Apart from these factors, some other issues, such as policy on cancer, capacity of health system, socio-economic and cultural factors and awareness among the women are also associated with the cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality across the developing countries. There some interventions which give promising results in terms of reducing cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality. Among them visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid followed by treatment is one such effective method.

  3. Prevention of urological cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Ansari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many urological cancers like prostate and bladder have protracted course and maybe ideal for chemoprevention strategies. This article reviews the biol-ogy, epidemiology and possible preventive strategies for the various urological cancers. Methods: The author reviewed the relevant articles published in the last 20 years and studied the biology of the various urological cancers. An attempt is made to identify the various dietary, nutritional and occupation-related factors implicated in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. The various interventions and clinical trial results are described to prove the relevance of these factors. Results: Epidemiological reports provide the strongest evidence of protective role for dietary agents in cancer of prostate, bladder and kidney. Cancers of prostate and blad-der are uniquely suitable for chemopreventive strategies. For prostate cancer strong evidence exists for a preven-tive effect of reduced fat intake, vitamin E, selenium, lycopene and soya proteins. Vitamin A administration shows a strong inverse relation to bladder cancer. Better prevention is seen with combination of high doses of vita-mins A, C, E and B6. High-energy intake is related to the higher incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. While vitamins D and E supplementation has resulted in lower incidence of RCC. Conclusions: Numerous studies implicate dietary and nutritional factors in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. Hence, it is possible that bioactive compounds (anti-oxidants like vits. A, D, C, and E, min-erals like selenium and carotenoids like lycopene along with reduction of animal fat in diet can be a part of pre-ventive strategies for various urological cancers.

  4. Molecular diagnosis of human papillomavirus in the development of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Gutiérrez-Xicoténcatl; Tanya Plett-Torres; Claudia L Madrid-González; Vicente Madrid-Marina

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a major public health problem in developing countries and its most significant etiological risk factor is infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The main approach to date for the prevention of CC has been through screening programs, using the cervical smear (PAP test) to detect precursory lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of the PAP smear depend on the skills of the observer to recognize and classify a variety of cellular abnormalities. The development of ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Location and Density of Immune Cells in Precursor Lesions and Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Astrid M; Jaramillo, Roberto; Baena, Armando; Castaño, Jorge; Olaya, Natalia; Zea, Arnold H; Herrero, Rolando; Sanchez, Gloria I

    2013-04-01

    Only a small proportion of women infected with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) develop cervical cancer. Host immune response seems to play a role eliminating the viral infection and preventing progression to cancer. Characterization of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in cervical pre-neoplastic lesions and cervical cancer may be helpful to understand the mechanisms that mediate this protection. The aim of this study was to determine if there are differences in the localization and density (cells/mm(2)) of CD8+ T-cells, CD4+ T-cells and Tregs (CD25 + Foxp3+) in cervical pre-neoplastic lesions and cervical cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of sections of 96 (26 CIN1, 21 CIN2, 25 CIN3, and 24 SCC) samples revealed that regardless of CIN grades, CD8+ T-cells are more abundant than CD4+, CD25+ and Foxp3+ cells in both the stroma and epithelium. There was a higher density of CD8+ cells in the stroma of cervical cancer compared to CIN3 (OR = 4.20, 95% CI 1.2-15), CIN2 (OR = 7.86, 95% CI 1.7-36.4) and CIN1 (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.1-17). Studies evaluating whether these cells are recruited before or after cancer progression will be helpful to understand the role of these cells in the natural history of HPV-induced lesions.

  7. European cervical cancer screening:experiences and results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Europe has devoted great efforts to cervical cancer screening over 30 years.The mortality was generally declining although incidence rates of cervical cancer among young women have been increasing in many countries of Europe.The efficiency of screening,however,needs to be addressed by planners for an improved cost-effectiveness in the future.

  8. Paclitaxel and carboplatin concurrent with radiotherapy for primary cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, FYFL; Bos, AME; Gietema, JA; Pras, E; Van Der Zee, AGJ; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB

    2004-01-01

    Background: Concurrent radiochemotherapy is currently considered the new standard treatment in locally advanced cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: Eight women with cervical cancer stage IB2-IVA were treated with standard radiation therapy in combination with standard carboplatin (AUC=2, once wee

  9. An overview of innovative techniques to improve cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Reesink-Peters, Nathalie; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; van Zanden, Jelmer; Volders, Haukeline; Hollema, Harry; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; Schuuring, Ed; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Although current cytomorphology-based cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, Pap-smears are associated with high false positive and false negative rates. This has spurred the search for new technologies to improve current screening. New methodologies are automation o

  10. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Hylke W.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Vries, de Elisabeth G. E.; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects similar to 500,000 women worldwide, and similar to 275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%.

  11. Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine? Less testing could reduce risk of false positives ... said. Women vaccinated with earlier versions of the HPV vaccine -- which protect against the two worst cancer-causing ...

  12. Reducing uncertainties about the effects of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Claire; Jakobsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a 1999 National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical alert was issued, chemoradiotherapy has become widely used in treating women with cervical cancer. Two subsequent systematic reviews found that interpretation of the benefits was complicated, and some important clinical questions...

  13. Aberrant Expression of Notch1 in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sun; Qimin Zhan; Wenhua Zhang; Yongmei Song; Tong Tong

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the putative role of the Notch1 receptor in cervical cancer carcinogenesis and progression.METHODS The expression of the Notch1 protein was analyzed by a Western-blotting approach in 40 cervical cancer and 30 normal cervical tissues.Some tissues were examined using RT-PCR To determine Mrna levels.Celluar localization of the Notch1 protein in the paraffin-embedded cervical tissues was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS The Notch1 protein was detected in all 30 normal cervical tissues.In contrast.only 6 samples of 40 cervical cancer tissues showed Notch1 expression.The level of the Notch1 protein expression was significantly lower in cervical cancer tissues than that in normal tissue samples.In agreement with these observations.levels of Notch1 Mrna were found to be substantially down-regulated in cervical cancer tissues.In the immunohistochemistry staining assay,the Notch1 protein was shown to localize predominantly in the cytoplasm and nucleoli of the normal cervical squamous epithelium of the cervix,but no staining was observed in the cervical cancer cells.Notch1 expression was observed to correlate with the clinical disease stage.but there were no correlations with age,tumor size,grade or lymph node metastasis (P>0.05).The levels of Notchl protein expression were significantly higher in early stages(I~lla,66.7%) compared to those in the advanced stages (Iib~IV,12.6%)(P=0.001).CONCLUSION Notch1 may play a role as a tumor suppressor in cervical tumorigenesis.Determination of Notch1 expression may be helpful for preoperative diagnosis and accuracy of staging.But its clinical use for cervical cancer requires further investigation.

  14. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Prophylactic Human Papillomavirus Vaccination on Prevention of Cervical Cancer%人乳头瘤病毒疫苗对宫颈癌预防作用的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐青萍; 罗小婉; 甘玉杰; 熊小英

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨接种人乳头瘤病毒疫苗在预防宫颈癌中的作用.方法 通过计算机检索Medline、EMBASE、CENTRAL、中国生物医学文献数据库系统(CBM)、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、万方数据库等,收集国内外公开发表的关于人乳头瘤病毒疫苗在预防宫颈癌中作用的随机对照研究(RCT).应用统计软件Stata 11.0进行数据分析.研究人群为成年女性;干预措施为预防性接种人乳头瘤病毒疫苗;对照组为安慰剂;结局指标为宫颈上皮内瘤样变和宫颈癌的发生率,并以相对危险度(RR)及相应的95%可信区间(95%CI)作为效应指标对结局进行比较.Q统计量的I2检验来检测各研究间的统计学异质性.双侧以P<0.05为各研究间存在明显的异质性.采用倒漏斗图对发表偏倚进行直观检测.结果 最终纳入分析的文献有7篇,共41 572例受试者,其中接种疫苗组20 769例、对照组20 803例.合并分析的结果显示:预防性接种人乳头瘤病毒疫苗可以使宫颈上皮内瘤样变的发生率降低95%[RR=0.15,95%CI(0.06,0.38),Z=4.00,P=0.000];使Ⅱ/Ⅲ级宫颈上皮内瘤样变、原位癌的发生率降低67%[RR=0.33,95%CI(0.19,0.59),Z=3.76,P=0.000].结论 接种人乳头瘤病毒疫苗可以明显降低宫颈上皮内瘤样变及宫颈癌的发生率.%Objective To analyze the effects of human papillomavirus vaccine on the prevention of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia ( CIN ) and cervical cancer. Methods Through searching Medline EMBSE, CENTRAL ( the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials ), CBM, CNKI, WANFANG data, and so on, we collected both domestic and oversea randomized controled trials ( RCTs ) on the preventive effects of human papillomavirus vaccine on CIN and cervical cancer. Data was analysised using statistic software Stata11.0. Subjects enrolled in the study were females aged 18 or over; prophylactic vaccination of human papillomavirus vaccine were performed to prevent CIN and cervical

  15. Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG...... mutations, R501X and 2282del4, using blood from the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, Denmark. Controls (n = 8050) were genotyped in previous population-based studies. Information on cervical cancer, mortality and emigration were obtained from national registers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic...... and stratification by cancer stage. RESULTS: The primary results showed that FLG mutations were not associated with the risk of cervical cancer (6.3% of cases and 7.7% of controls were carriers; OR adjusted 0.81, 95% CI 0.57-1.14; OR adjusted+ weighted 0.96, 95% CI 0.58-1.57). Among cases, FLG mutations increased...

  16. Immunotherapy for human papillomavirus-associated disease and cervical cancer: review of clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Jong; Yang, Andrew; Wu, T C; Hung, Chien Fu

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most lethal women's cancer worldwide. Current treatments against cervical cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and anti-angiogenic agents. However, despite the various treatments utilized for the treatment of cervical cancer, its disease burden remains a global issue. Persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an essential step of pathogenesis of cervical cancer and many other cancers, and nation-wide HPV screening as well as preventative HPV vaccination program have been introduced globally. However, even though the commercially available prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil (Merck) and Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline), are effective in blocking the entry of HPV into the epithelium of cervix through generation of HPV-specific neutralizing antibodies, they cannot eliminate the pre-existing HPV infection. For these reason, other immunotherapeutic options against HPV-associated diseases, including therapeutic vaccines, have been continuously explored. Therapeutic HPV vaccines enhance cell-mediated immunity targeting HPV E6 and E7 antigens by modulating primarily dendritic cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential of immune checkpoint inhibitors that have recently been adopted and tested for their treatment efficacy against HPV-induced cervical cancer.

  17. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  18. Cancer prevention in Africa: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busolo, David S; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is an emerging crisis in Africa. Cancer was the seventh leading cause of death in 2004. If not controlled, cancer incidence in Africa is expected to reach 1.28 million cases annually and claim 970,000 lives yearly by 2030. This paper presents a review of the literature on current cancer prevention approaches in Africa, and consists of cancer prevention studies conducted in African countries (e.g. South Africa and Nigeria) from PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. Common female cancers in Africa are breast and cervical cancer while prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm among African males. Other common cancers are liver, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mortality related to these cancers comes as a result of delays in screening and treatment, unfamiliarity with cancer and cancer prevention, inaccessibility and unaffordability of care, and inefficiency of healthcare systems. Cancer prevention efforts are deficient because many governments lack cancer prevention and control policies. Also contributing to the lack of cancer prevention and control policies are low levels of awareness, scarce human and financial resources, and inadequacy of cancer registries. Overall, governments grapple with limited funds and competing healthcare priorities. As cancer continues to increase in Africa, the need for rigorous interdisciplinary research on cancer etiology and monitoring in Africa has never been timelier. Cost-effective cancer prevention programs, coordination of donor funding, advocacy, and education should be aggressively pursued. The call for more collaborative approaches in research and policy is urgently needed.

  19. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  20. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  1. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  2. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  3. Prospects for controlling cervical cancer at the turn of the century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Eduardo L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer morbidity and mortality have decreased substantially during the last 50 years mostly due to success-ful organized or opportunistic screening with Pap cytology in high and middle income countries. In many low income countries Pap cytology screening is yet to be effectively implemented or has failed to reduce cervical cancer rates to an appreciable extent. The fact that infection with certain human papillomavirus (HPV types is now recognized as a necessary cause of this disease has led to new research fronts on prevention of cervical cancer. Testing for HPV DNA has shown great promise as a screening tool with better sensitivity but somewhat lower specificity than Pap cytology. In combination with the latter, HPV testing has the potential to improve the negative predictive value of cytology, thus allowing for increased testing intervals, which would lower program costs with acceptable safety. Advances in cytology processing and automation have also led to new screening approaches that are increasingly gaining acceptance in high and middle income countries. For low income countries, visual inspection with acetic acid has proven to be an effective alternative to conventional Pap cytology, especially in settings where no screening programs have been implemented. Concerning primary prevention of cervical cancer, recent research on the safety and efficacy of candidate prophylactic vaccines against HPV have shown very promising results with nearly 100% efficacy in preventing persistent infections and development of cervical cancer precursors. However, policy makers are strongly cautioned to avoid deferring decisions concerning the implementation of cervical cancer screening under the expectation that a successful vaccine could obviate the need for secondary prevention strategies.

  4. LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY ON CHROMOSOME 17p13.3 IN OVARIAN CANCER AND CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guoling; Yang Huijian; Xu Kaili; Zhou Jin; Qin Ruidi; Lu Minghua

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To identify the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 17p13.3 in ovarian cancer and cervical cancer. Methods: The frequency of LOH on chromosome 17p13.3 in DNA samples from 24 ovarian cancers, 9 cervical cancers, and 13 non-malignant gynecological diseases were determined respectively, using Southern blot method with probe PYNZ.22. Results:LOH on 17p13.3 was found in 12 of 24 (50.0%) ovarian cancers (including a borderline mucinous cystadenoma), 4of 9 (44.4%) cervical carcinomas, and 1 of 13 (7.7%) nonmalignant gynecological diseases, which was cervical intraepithelial neoplasm HI (CIN Ⅲ) (P<0.01).Conclusion: These results show that LOH on 17p13.3 is associated with ovarian cancer and cervical cancer,suggesting that detection of LOH on 17p13.3 may be helpful to understand the molecular pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and cervical cancer.

  5. Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  6. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poynter, JN., et al. New England Journal of Medicine , May 26, 2005, (352:2184–92]. Is NCI supporting research with statins to prevent other types of cancer? NCI is developing a phase II placebo-controlled trial to evaluate whether lovastatin can reverse ...

  7. 深圳市低收入妇女人群宫颈癌防治知识知晓及筛查参与情况分析%Awareness Status of Knowledge About Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening Participation Among Low-income Women in Shenzhen City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓英; 刘植华; 王月云; 朱社宁; 梁绮文; 史红梅; 詹爱丁

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the awareness status of knowledge about cervical cancer prevention and screening participation among low-income women in Shenzhen city,to provide basis for cervical cancer prevention and control strategies.[Methods] An epidemiological questionnaires survey was conducted among 1 892 low-income women aged 30~59 years old recruited by the stratified cluster sampling in 8 districts,Shenzhen city.[Results] The awareness rate with HPV infection was the necessary cause of cervical cancer was 32.05%,sexual behavior disorder increased risk of cervical cancer occuring,49.63% ;good Sexual health habits can prevent cervical cancer,66.84% ;and having early detection methods of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions,51.76%.The difference of cervical cancer screening rate was statistically significant among various education levels groups (x2=68.616,P<0.001).Expensive screening cost or economic difficulty was the main cause of noparticipating in cervical cancer screening for low-income women.[Conclusion] The low-income women knew little knowledge about cervical cancer prevention.Health education diversity and the government-funds help could increase the screening rate of cervical cancer.%[目的]了解深圳市低收入妇女人群宫颈癌防治知识知晓及筛查参与情况,为制定宫颈癌防治策略提供参考依据.[方法]用多层次整群随机抽样的方法选择深圳市8个行政区30~59岁低收入妇女1 892例为研究对象,采用统一设计的问卷表进行宫颈癌防治知识和筛查参与情况调查.[结果] HPV病毒感染是宫颈癌发生的必要病因知晓率为32.05%、性行为紊乱增加宫颈癌发生危险性知晓率为49.63%、良好的性生活卫生习惯可以预防宫颈癌知晓率66.84%、已经有早期发现宫颈癌及癌前病变的检查方法的知晓率为51.67%、不同文化程度人群既往参加宫颈癌筛查率差异有统计学意义(x2=68.616,P<0.001),筛查费

  8. Angiogenesis and antiangiogenic agents in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomao F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Federica Tomao,1 Anselmo Papa,2 Luigi Rossi,2 Eleonora Zaccarelli,2 Davide Caruso,2 Federica Zoratto,2 Pierluigi Benedetti Panici,1 Silverio Tomao2 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sapienza University of Rome, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, 2Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Oncology Unit, ICOT, Latina, Italy Abstract: Standard treatment of cervical cancer (CC consists of surgery in the early stages and of chemoradiation in locally advanced disease. Metastatic CC has a poor prognosis and is usually treated with palliative platinum-based chemotherapy. Current chemotherapeutic regimens are associated with significant adverse effects and only limited activity, making identification of active and tolerable novel targeted agents a high priority. Angiogenesis is a complex process that plays a crucial role in the development of many types of cancer. The dominant role of angiogenesis in CC seems to be directly related to human papillomavirus-related inhibition of p53 and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Both of these mechanisms are able to increase expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Activation of VEGF promotes endothelial cell proliferation and migration, favoring formation of new blood vessels and increasing permeability of existing blood vessels. Since bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody binding to all isoforms of VEGF, has been demonstrated to significantly improve survival in gynecologic cancer, some recent clinical research has explored the possibility of using novel therapies directed toward inhibition of angiogenesis in CC too. Here we review the main results from studies concerning the use of antiangiogenic drugs that are being investigated for the treatment of CC. Keywords: cervical cancer, angiogenesis, human papillomavirus, bevacizumab, target therapies

  9. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  10. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untrea......Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... of analysis: naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation. Results These revealed that women were unprepared for screening results showing cervical cell changes, since they had no symptoms. When diagnosed, participants believed that they had early-stage cancer, leading to feelings...

  11. GENERAL AWARNANCE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS VACCINE AGAINST CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFILA NAVEED

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a survey program on the awarnance of HPV vaccine of cervical cancer in common people. Methods: For this survey we perform 2 steps. First we made a questionnaires in which we ask to female of different belongs to different education field either they are married or not. Secondly we gone in the different hospitals of Karachi and observe treatment, diagnosis, vaccination availability and frequency of cervical cancer. Results:From questionnaire we observed that only 1 % female are aware about cervical cancer and its vaccine i.e. HPV, even female belongs medical field are not aware about it. Form hospital survey we observed that frequency of cervical cancer is very less but in Shaukat Khanum hospital 90 cases reported out of 1803 cancer. The given treatment is radiology, chemotherapy and surgery.

  12. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the...

  13. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  14. Biorepositories- | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  15. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  16. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. Methods In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Results Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country’s political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country’s political crisis, the MoPH’s campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. Conclusion The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a

  17. Developing the Evidence Base to Inform Best Practice: A Scoping Study of Breast and Cervical Cancer Reviews in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M Demment

    Full Text Available Breast and cervical cancers have emerged as major global health challenges and disproportionately lead to excess morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs when compared to high-income countries. The objective of this paper was to highlight key findings, recommendations, and gaps in research and practice identified through a scoping study of recent reviews in breast and cervical cancer in LMICs.We conducted a scoping study based on the six-stage framework of Arskey and O'Malley. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, and CINAHL with the following inclusion criteria: 1 published between 2005-February 2015, 2 focused on breast or cervical cancer 3 focused on LMIC, 4 review article, and 5 published in English.Through our systematic search, 63 out of the 94 identified cervical cancer reviews met our selection criteria and 36 of the 54 in breast cancer. Cervical cancer reviews were more likely to focus upon prevention and screening, while breast cancer reviews were more likely to focus upon treatment and survivorship. Few of the breast cancer reviews referenced research and data from LMICs themselves; cervical cancer reviews were more likely to do so. Most reviews did not include elements of the PRISMA checklist.Overall, a limited evidence base supports breast and cervical cancer control in LMICs. Further breast and cervical cancer prevention and control studies are necessary in LMICs.

  18. Can Metformin Prevent Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubowicz, Salomón; Hospital Universitario de Caracas

    2015-01-01

    The drug metformin is widely used for 50 years by diabetics and patients with obesity. It has recently been found to prevent various cancers and reduces the aggressiveness of some tumors. El medicamento metformina es ampliamente utilizado desde hace cincuenta años por diabéticos y pacientes con obesidad. Recientemente se ha descubierto que previene varios tipos de cáncer y disminuye la agresividad de algunos tumores.

  19. Cervical cancer screening in Greenland, 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Signe; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Kjær, Susanne K;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In spite of the high incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland, no assessment has been made of the impact of organized cervical screening, introduced in 1998, in relation to occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions. The objectives of the present study were to estimate coverage...... of the screening program and to examine possible changes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) incidence in Greenland during 1997-2011 according to calendar period and age. METHODS: Using nationwide registries, we calculated age-standardized incidence rates for all women born and living in Greenland...

  20. Vaccines against human papillomavirus and perspectives for the prevention and control of cervical cancer Vacunas contra virus del papiloma humano y perspectivas para la prevención y el control del cáncer cervicouterino

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro García-Carrancá

    2003-01-01

    Today, "persistent" infections by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are considered necessary for developing cervical cancer. Producing efficient vaccines against these viruses may eventually lead to a great reduction in incidence and mortality rates of this cancer. In the case of HPV, the production of traditional vaccines usually based in dead or attenuated viruses is not possible due in part to the lack of systems where large quantities of viral particles could be obtained. Fortun...

  1. Gene expression profiling in cervical cancer: identification of novel markers for disease diagnosis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, Cara M

    2012-02-01

    Cervical cancer, a potentially preventable disease, remains the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus is the single most important etiological agent in cervical cancer. HPV contributes to neoplastic progression through the action of two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7, which interfere with critical cell cycle pathways, p53, and retinoblastoma. However, evidence suggests that HPV infection alone is insufficient to induce malignant changes and other host genetic variations are important in the development of cervical cancer. Advances in molecular biology and high throughput gene expression profiling technologies have heralded a new era in biomarker discovery and identification of molecular targets related to carcinogenesis. These advancements have improved our understanding of carcinogenesis and will facilitate screening, early detection, management, and personalised targeted therapy. In this chapter, we have described the use of high density microarrays to assess gene expression profiles in cervical cancer. Using this approach we have identified a number of novel genes which are differentially expressed in cervical cancer, including several genes involved in cell cycle regulation. These include p16ink4a, MCM 3 and 5, CDC6, Geminin, Cyclins A-D, TOPO2A, CDCA1, and BIRC5. We have validated expression of mRNA using real-time PCR and protein by immunohistochemistry.

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening Knowledge and Behavior among Women Attending an Urban HIV Clinic in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Joelle I; Njoroge, Betty; Huchko, Megan J

    2015-09-01

    Cervical cancer is a highly preventable disease that disproportionately affects women in developing countries and women with HIV. As integrated HIV and cervical cancer screening programs in Sub-Saharan Africa mature, we have an opportunity to measure the impact of outreach and education efforts and identify areas for future improvement. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 106 women enrolled in care at an integrated HIV clinic in the Nyanza Province of Kenya 5 years after the start of a cervical cancer screening program. Female clinic attendees who met clinic criteria for cervical cancer screening were asked to complete an oral questionnaire assessing their cervical cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening history. Ninety-nine percent of women had heard of screening, 70 % felt at risk, and 84 % had been screened. Increased duration of HIV diagnosis was associated with feeling at risk and with a screening history. Nearly half (48 %) of women said they would not get screened if they had to pay for it.

  3. FGFR3–TACC3: A novel gene fusion in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito A. Carneiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer epitomizes the success of cancer prevention through the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine, but significant challenges remain in the treatment of advanced disease. We report the first three cases of cervical carcinoma harboring an FGFR3–TACC3 fusion, which serves as a novel therapeutic target. The fusion, identified by comprehensive genomic profiling, activates the FGFR pathway that has been implicated in HPV-driven carcinogenesis. One of the patients whose tumor contained the FGFR3–TACC3 fusion was treated with an investigational FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Concomitant molecular alterations involving the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAF/MEK pathways were also identified and suggest other treatment strategies that deserve investigation. This case series highlights the role of comprehensive genomic profiling in the identification of new therapeutic targets and in targeted therapy selection for patients with cervical cancer.

  4. Survival analysis of cervical cancer using stratified Cox regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, S. W.; Inayati, K. D.; Sari, N. W. Wulan; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the mostly widely cancer cause of the women death in the world including Indonesia. Most cervical cancer patients come to the hospital already in an advanced stadium. As a result, the treatment of cervical cancer becomes more difficult and even can increase the death's risk. One of parameter that can be used to assess successfully of treatment is the probability of survival. This study raises the issue of cervical cancer survival patients at Dr. Soetomo Hospital using stratified Cox regression based on six factors such as age, stadium, treatment initiation, companion disease, complication, and anemia. Stratified Cox model is used because there is one independent variable that does not satisfy the proportional hazards assumption that is stadium. The results of the stratified Cox model show that the complication variable is significant factor which influent survival probability of cervical cancer patient. The obtained hazard ratio is 7.35. It means that cervical cancer patient who has complication is at risk of dying 7.35 times greater than patient who did not has complication. While the adjusted survival curves showed that stadium IV had the lowest probability of survival.

  5. Needs and priorities of women with endometrial and cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Mette Moustgaard; Mogensen, Ole; Dehn, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    and 34.7% of endometrial cancer patients. Both the patient groups experienced significant lymphedema post-treatment [endometrial cancer (p = 0.006) and cervical cancer (p = 0.002)]. Further, urological problems were more prevalent post-treatment in endometrial cancer patients (p = 0.018), while sexual...... with endometrial and cervical cancer experience emotional problems prior to therapy and lymphedema, and urological and sexual problems following treatment. An awareness of these problems may facilitate early identification of women with unmet needs and enable individualized follow-up adjusted for such patient...

  6. The risk of breast, cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer in oral contraceptive users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Oral contraceptives, mainly combined monophasic pills, are widely used by young women who expect their physicians to prescribe them safe drugs which will not harm their health and which will simplify their life. Numerous epidemiologic studies have been performed to determine the relation between oral contraceptive use and the development of neoplasms. Breast cancer. An increased incidence of breast cancer has occurred simultaneously with the growing use of oral contraceptives. The possibility of a link between the oral contraceptive use and breast cancer has led to intensive research, but studies have provided inconsistent results causing confusion among clinicians. It was noticed that the risk of breast cancer was slightly elevated in current and recent young oral contraceptives users. That finding could be influenced by a detection bias or could be due to the biologic effect of the pills. The absolute number of additional breast cancer cases will be very small because of low baseline incidence of the disease in young women. Oral contraceptives probably promote growth of the already existing cancer, they are probably promoters not initiators of breast cancer. The available data do not provide a conclusive answer that is need. Cervical cancer. Numerous factors may influence the development of cervical cancer. The evidence suggests that current and recent oral contraceptive users have an increased risk of cervical cancer which decline after discontinuation of the application of medication. Oral contraceptives might increase the biological vulnerability of the cervix. Cervical cancer develops slowly over a long time period and can be effectively prevented by periodic cervical screening. Fortunately, oral contraceptives do not mask abnormal cervical citology. Conclusions regarding invasive cervical cancer and oral contraceptive use are not definitive but if there is any increased risk, it is low. Endometrial cancer. In oral

  7. Bevacizumab improves survival for patients with advanced cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis

  8. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  9. Quality of life characteristics inpatients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Jensen, Pernille T; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic

    2012-01-01

    Annually about 500,000 women worldwide are diagnosed with cervical cancer. For many patients, young age at the time of diagnosis and a good prognosis regarding the disease imply a long life with the side-effects and sequels of various treatment options. The present study investigated the extent...... to which different quality of life (QoL) domains in patients during and after treatment for cervical cancer are affected according to menopausal status, treatment status and treatment modality....

  10. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W.; Dillner, J.; Tornberg, S.; Sparen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  11. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by

  12. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster......INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening...... and pathology results from the national Danish registry (Patobank) were obtained on women from a randomised clinical trial and an observational study of subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy from the time of surgery until 2014. RESULTS: We included 501 women (259 subtotal hysterectomies and 242 total...

  13. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  14. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  15. A lectin-based diagnostic system using circulating antibodies to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yingji; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Ju, Woong; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we developed serological strategies using immunoglobulin fractions obtained by protein A chromatography to screen for cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN I). The reactivities of the immunoglobulins purified from sera of women with normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer were compared in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and enzyme-linked lectin assays (ELLAs). To capture the immunoglobulins, ELISAs and ELLAs were performed in protein A immobilized microplates. The reactivity of immunoglobulin in ELISA was in the increasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer, while that in ELLAs for detecting fucosylation was in the decreasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer. It was confirmed that women with CIN I were distinguishable from women with normal cytology or women with cervical cancer in the ELISA or the ELLA for detecting fucosylation with considerable sensitivity and specificity. Women with cervical cancer were also distinguishable from women with normal cytology with high sensitivity (ELISA: 97%, ELLA: 87%) and specificity (ELISA: 69%, ELLA: 72%). Moreover, the logistic regression model of the ELISA and the ELLA discriminated cervical cancer from normal cytology with 93% sensitivity and 93% specificity. These results indicate that the ELISAs and the ELLAs have great potential as strategies for primary screening of cervical cancer and CIN. It is expected that the ELISA and the ELLA can provide new insights to understand systemic changes of serum immunoglobulins during cervical cancer progression.

  16. Objective Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer by Tissue Protein Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2011-07-01

    Protein profiles of homogenized normal cervical tissue samples from hysterectomy subjects and cancerous cervical tissues from biopsy samples collected from patients with different stages of cervical cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Laser Induced Fluorescence (HPLC-LIF). The Protein profiles were subjected to Principle Component Analysis to derive statistically significant parameters. Diagnosis of sample types were carried out by matching three parameters—scores of factors, squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance. ROC and Youden's Index curves for calibration standards were used for objective estimation of the optimum threshold for decision making and performance.

  17. Modeling human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in the United States for analyses of screening and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortendahl Jesse

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To provide quantitative insight into current U.S. policy choices for cervical cancer prevention, we developed a model of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, explicitly incorporating uncertainty about the natural history of disease. Methods We developed a stochastic microsimulation of cervical cancer that distinguishes different HPV types by their incidence, clearance, persistence, and progression. Input parameter sets were sampled randomly from uniform distributions, and simulations undertaken with each set. Through systematic reviews and formal data synthesis, we established multiple epidemiologic targets for model calibration, including age-specific prevalence of HPV by type, age-specific prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, HPV type distribution within CIN and cancer, and age-specific cancer incidence. For each set of sampled input parameters, likelihood-based goodness-of-fit (GOF scores were computed based on comparisons between model-predicted outcomes and calibration targets. Using 50 randomly resampled, good-fitting parameter sets, we assessed the external consistency and face validity of the model, comparing predicted screening outcomes to independent data. To illustrate the advantage of this approach in reflecting parameter uncertainty, we used the 50 sets to project the distribution of health outcomes in U.S. women under different cervical cancer prevention strategies. Results Approximately 200 good-fitting parameter sets were identified from 1,000,000 simulated sets. Modeled screening outcomes were externally consistent with results from multiple independent data sources. Based on 50 good-fitting parameter sets, the expected reductions in lifetime risk of cancer with annual or biennial screening were 76% (range across 50 sets: 69–82% and 69% (60–77%, respectively. The reduction from vaccination alone was 75%, although it ranged from 60% to 88%, reflecting considerable parameter

  18. Cervical cancer: beyond what it is. The perception of women from Antioquia (Colombia and Colima (Mexico, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia S. Tamayo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and interpret women’s perceptions about cervical cancer, its causes, prevention and self care. Methodology: qualitative studie, through the discussion group, 22 groups were formed in three municipalities in Antioquia (Colombia and one municipality of Colima (Mexico, with 108 women. Results: descriptions and interpretations are collectively influenced by information from the health sector, the media and the family. Most women are not related cervical cancer or cervical infections with sexual and reproductive behavior. The acceptance of the Pap smear is a product of experience and responsibility. Conclusions: equity in access considers cultural differences and specific needs of women, breaking cultural barriers and opens up opportunities for participation in health services. In body care, women recognize the level of severity of signs and gynecoobstetrical symptoms and the need for medical care. There is little knowledge about cervical cancer, its causes and prevention, due to lack of information and education from health care providers.

  19. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  20. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks.

  1. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  2. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values....../119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  4. Small cell cervical cancer: an unusual finding at cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, Emily

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare cancer, comprising less than 3% of all cervical neoplasms. It uniformly has a poor prognosis, and has a high mortality even with early stage disease. It can metastasise rapidly and metastatic sites include lung, liver, brain, bone, pancreas and lymph nodes. CASE: Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman with no symptoms of cervical pathology who developed post-renal failure following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cause was bilateral ureteric obstruction from metastatic small cell cervical cancer and metastases were subsequently found on her gallbladder specimen. CONCLUSION: This is an unusual presentation of small cell cervical cancer and demonstrates the aggressive nature of this disease.

  5. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Radical Surgery in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yousefi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For pregnant patients with cervical cancer, treatment recommendations are individualized and dependent on the stage of the disease, gestational age at the time of diagnosis, and the patient's desire as to the cosntinuation of the pregnancy. The aim of this study is to describe the outcome of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with radical surgery and pelvic lymphadenectomy in a woman with cervical cancer who wished to maintain her pregnancy. This is a report of a 26-week pregnant woman with locally advanced cervical cancer stage Ib2 (FIGO who was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy Paclitaxel plus platinum, followed by C/S and radical surgery. Her neonate was healthy and had no abnormalities. This case was the first cervical cancer during pregnancy that was treated using this method at the tumor clinic, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an effort to allow time for the fetal to reach viability by preventing the progression of the disease.

  6. Somatic LKB1 mutations promote cervical cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana N Wingo

    Full Text Available Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is the etiologic agent for cervical cancer. Yet, infection with HPV is not sufficient to cause cervical cancer, because most infected women develop transient epithelial dysplasias that spontaneously regress. Progression to invasive cancer has been attributed to diverse host factors such as immune or hormonal status, as no recurrent genetic alterations have been identified in cervical cancers. Thus, the pressing question as to the biological basis of cervical cancer progression has remained unresolved, hampering the development of novel therapies and prognostic tests. Here we show that at least 20% of cervical cancers harbor somatically-acquired mutations in the LKB1 tumor suppressor. Approximately one-half of tumors with mutations harbored single nucleotide substitutions or microdeletions identifiable by exon sequencing, while the other half harbored larger monoallelic or biallelic deletions detectable by multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA. Biallelic mutations were identified in most cervical cancer cell lines; HeLa, the first human cell line, harbors a homozygous 25 kb deletion that occurred in vivo. LKB1 inactivation in primary tumors was associated with accelerated disease progression. Median survival was only 13 months for patients with LKB1-deficient tumors, but >100 months for patients with LKB1-wild type tumors (P = 0.015, log rank test; hazard ratio = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.083 to 0.77. LKB1 is thus a major cervical tumor suppressor, demonstrating that acquired genetic alterations drive progression of HPV-induced dysplasias to invasive, lethal cancers. Furthermore, LKB1 status can be exploited clinically to predict disease recurrence.

  7. An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilakapati Murali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment modalities, cervical cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer death among women. Pap smear and colposcopy are the existing screening methods and histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these methods have been shown to be prone to reporting errors, which could be due to their subjective interpretation. Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the locally advanced stages of cervical cancers. The typical treatment regimen spans over 4 months, from the first fraction of radiation to clinical assessment of tumor response to radiotherapy. It is often noticed that due to intrinsic properties of tumors, patients with the same clinical stage and histological type respond differently to radiotherapy. Hence, there exists a need for the development of new methods for early diagnosis as well as for early prediction of tumor radioresponse. Optical spectroscopic methods have been shown to be potential alternatives for use in cancer diagnosis. In this review, we provide a brief background on the anatomy and histology of the uterine cervix and the etiology of cervical cancers; we briefly discuss the optical spectroscopic approach to cervical cancer diagnosis. A very brief discussion on radiation therapy and radiation resistance is also provided. We also share our experiences with the Raman spectroscopic methodologies in cervical cancer diagnosis as well as in the prediction of tumor radioresponse.

  8. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Reis Girianelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010 were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, disaggregated by capital city and municipality. The annual percent change in mortality rates was estimated by segmented linear regression using the joinpoint method. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were conducted between average mortality rate at the end of the three-year period and selected indicators in the state capital and each Brazilian state. RESULTS There was a decline in cervical cancer mortality rates throughout the period studied, except in municipalities outside of the capitals in the North and Northeast. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality in the capitals from the end of the 1990s onwards. Favorable socioeconomic indicators were inversely correlated with cervical cancer mortality. A strong direct correlation was found with favorable indicators and an inverse correlation with fertility rate and breast cancer mortality in inner cities. CONCLUSIONS There is an ongoing dynamic process of increased risk of cervical and breast cancer and attenuation of mortality because of increased, albeit unequal, access to and provision of screening, diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T., E-mail: ryan-flynn@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  10. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination...

  11. Vaccines against human papillomavirus and perspectives for the prevention and control of cervical cancer Vacunas contra virus del papiloma humano y perspectivas para la prevención y el control del cáncer cervicouterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García-Carrancá

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, "persistent" infections by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV are considered necessary for developing cervical cancer. Producing efficient vaccines against these viruses may eventually lead to a great reduction in incidence and mortality rates of this cancer. In the case of HPV, the production of traditional vaccines usually based in dead or attenuated viruses is not possible due in part to the lack of systems where large quantities of viral particles could be obtained. Fortunately, the expression of the late L1 protein alone, or in combination with L2, leads to the generation of structures resembling true virions that have been called virus-like particles (VLPs and constitute excellent candidates as prophylactic vaccines. VLPs have shown to be very immunogenic, and have prevented development of natural or challenged infections in both animal systems and humans. Recently, HPV16 VLPs were shown to be very efficient to prevent the development of "persistent" infections, as determined by PCR assays, in a large group of vaccinated women. Therapeutic vaccines, on the other hand, are expected to have an impact on advanced lesions and residual illness, by taking advantaje of the fact that early E6 and E7 genes are thought to be constitutively expressed in cervical tumors and precursor lesions. Finally, DNA-based vaccines could represent a useful alternative for preventing infections by genital HPV.Actualmente, las infecciones "persistentes" por algunos tipos del virus del papiloma humano se consideran como necesarias para desarrollar cáncer cervicouterino. Por ello, el desarrollo de vacunas eficientes contra estos virus se ha considerado de suma importancia para poder eventualmente ayudar a controlar esta enfermedad, en países donde los programas de detección oportuna no han dado aún los resultados deseados. En el caso de estos virus no es posible el desarrollo de vacunas tradicionales, las cuales están basadas generalmente en el

  12. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

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    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  13. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

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    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  14. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  15. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgioti, Charis; Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela

    2016-04-28

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age. Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and, therefore, accurate staging is crucial for optimal management. Cervical cancer is clinically staged, according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines, but, currently, there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size, parametrial invasion, endocervical extension, pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status. Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up, evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation. The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI; CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease. PET-CT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes. The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  16. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charis Bourgioti; Konstantinos Chatoupis; Lia Angela Moulopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age.Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and,therefore,accurate staging is crucial for optimal management.Cervical cancer is clinically staged,according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines,but,currently,there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography(CT),magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),positron emission tomography-CT(PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size,parametrial invasion,endocervical extension,pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status.Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up,evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation.The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI;CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease.PETCT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes.The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  17. A Markov Decision Process Model for Cervical Cancer Screening Policies in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan-Tabatabaei, Raha; Sánchez, Diana Marcela; Yeung, Thomas G

    2017-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women around the world, and the human papillomavirus (HPV) is universally known as the necessary agent for developing this disease. Through early detection of abnormal cells and HPV virus types, cervical cancer incidents can be reduced and disease progression prevented. We propose a finite-horizon Markov decision process model to determine the optimal screening policies for cervical cancer prevention. The optimal decision is given in terms of when and what type of screening test to be performed on a patient based on her current diagnosis, age, HPV contraction risk, and screening test results. The cost function considers the tradeoff between the cost of prevention and treatment procedures and the risk of taking no action while taking into account a cost assigned to loss of life quality in each state. We apply the model to data collected from a representative sample of 1141 affiliates at a health care provider located in Bogotá, Colombia. To track the disease incidence more effectively and avoid higher cancer rates and future costs, the optimal policies recommend more frequent colposcopies and Pap tests for women with riskier profiles.

  18. Zoledronic acid induces apoptosis and autophagy in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Te; Chou, Shou-Chu; Lin, Ying-Chin

    2014-12-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancers in association with high mortality and morbidity. The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on viability and induction of apoptosis and autophagy as well as inflammatory effects in three human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, SiHa, and CaSki). Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay. Induction of apoptosis was determined by quantitation of expression level of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bax messenger RNA (mRNA) and identification of the proteolytic cleavage of poly (ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3. Autophagic effects were examined by quantitation of mRNA expression of autophagy protein 5 (ATG5) and beclin1 and identifying accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II. Inflammatory effect was determined by measuring expression and production of IL-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). The results showed ZA significantly inhibited cell viability of cervical cancer cells. ZA-induced cell death displayed features characteristic to both apoptosis and autophagy and was associated with different changes in the levels of Bcl-2 and Bax in the various cervical cancer lines. Expression of metastatic cytokines, IL-6 and Cox-2, was upregulated in the presence of ZA at low concentration. Our data revealed that ZA inhibits cervical cancer cells through the synergistic effect of apoptosis induction and autophagy activation.

  19. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Wu, Xiaohua; Cheng, Xi

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The outcome of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor. We reviewed the relevant literature concerning the treatment and diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. There are two types of metastasis related to different treatments and survival rates: hematogenous metastasis and lymphatic metastasis. Patients with hematogenous metastasis have a higher risk of death than those with lymphatic metastasis. In terms of diagnosis, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-computed tomography are effective tools for the evaluation of distant metastasis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy are well-tolerated and efficient for lymphatic metastasis. As for lung metastasis, chemotherapy and/or surgery are valuable treatments for resistant, recurrent metastatic cervical cancer and chemoradiotherapy may be the optimal choice for stage IVB cervical cancer. Chemotherapy and bone irradiation are promising for bone metastasis. A better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy. Craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an optimal choice combined with radiotherapy for solitary brain metastases. Chemotherapy and palliative brain radiation may be considered for multiple brain metastases and other organ metastases.

  20. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower part of the esophagus, near the stomach. See the following PDQ summaries for more information about esophageal cancer: Esophageal Cancer Screening Esophageal Cancer Treatment Esophageal cancer is found more ...

  1. Inadequate cervical cancer screening among mid-aged Australian women who have experienced partner violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Schofield, Margot; Hussain, Rafat; Hosking, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Partner violence is linked to cervical cancer and other gynaecological conditions. However, results of current research into associations between partner violence and cervical cancer screening have been inconclusive. Therefore, the current research investigates the association between pa

  2. Improvements in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme since 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bos (Anita)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, and therefore an important public health problem (1 ). In developing countries, the age standardised incidence rate varies between 16 - 40 per 100,000 women in 1988- 1992 (2). In the same period, in d

  3. Cervical Microbiome and Cytokine Profile at Various Stages of Cervical Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahena-Román, Margarita; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús; Cortina-Ceballos, Bernardo; López-Estrada, Guillermina; Delgado-Romero, Karina; Burguete-García, Ana I.; Cantú, David; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by high-risk human papillomavirus persistence due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines. Vaginal microbiota determines the presence of certain cytokines locally. We assessed the association between cervical microbiota diversity and the histopathological diagnosis of each stage of CC, and we evaluated mRNA cervical expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α and IFN-γ across the histopathological diagnosis and specific bacterial clusters. We determined the cervical microbiota by high throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons and classified it in community state types (CST). Mean difference analyses between alpha-diversity and histopathological diagnosis were carried out, as well as a β-diversity analysis within the histological diagnosis. Cervical cytokine mRNA expression was analyzed across the CSTs and the histopathological diagnoses. We found a significant difference in microbiota's diversity in NCL-HPV negative women vs those with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and CC(p = 0.006, p = 0.036).When β-diversity was evaluated, the CC samples showed the highest variation within groups (p<0.0006) and the largest distance compared to NCL-HPV negative ones (p<0.00001). The predominant bacteria in women with normal cytology were L. crispatus and L. iners, whereas for SIL, it was Sneathia spp. and for CC, Fusobacterium spp. We found higher median cervical levels of IL-4 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the CST dominated by Fusobacterium spp. These results suggest that the cervical microbiota may be implicated in cervical cancer pathology. Further cohort studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:27115350

  4. HPV-based cervical cancer screening- facts, fiction, and misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Arbyn, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Several randomized trials have demonstrated that HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than cytology-based screening. A pooled analysis of long-term follow-up data from these trials has shown reduced cervical cancer mortality in women screened with HPV compared to cytology. As a consequence, many health systems are currently transitioning to HPV-based screening programs. However, there are several controversies that influence whether and how HPV-based cervical cancer screening is implemented in different settings. Here, we discuss the most important controversies surrounding cervical cancer screening using primary HPV testing in light of published data from clinical trials and large observational studies. Overall, there is strong and uniform evidence for the efficacy of HPV-based screening, and little evidence for the usefulness of adding cytology to primary screening. However, there is currently limited data on optimal triage strategies for HPV-positive women, a critical component of an HPV-based screening program. There will likely be multiple choices for integrated screening programs and implementation may differ depending on risk perception, healthcare funds, assay costs, and available infrastructure, among other factors, in different settings. A particular challenge is the integration of screening and vaccination programs, since increasingly vaccinated populations will have a continuous decrease of cervical cancer risk.

  5. Analysis of clinical characteristics of 950 cases of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-li ZHU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the clinical features of the patients suffering from cervical cancer who visited Daping Hospital affiliated to Third Military Medical University in recent 10 years. Methods The clinical data of the patients who were pathologically diagnosed as invasive cervical cancer in Daping Hospital of TMMU from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into different age groups and analyzed according to age, clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approach. Results Clinical data of 950 patients with invasive cervical cancer were reviewed in this study. The mean age of the patients was 46.9 years. The clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approaches were different in different age groups. Analysis of the age structure of the patients, the onset age of cervical cancer seemed to increase year by year. Conclusion The clinical features of cervical cancer are diversity in different age, and the strategy for controlling its development should be varied according to age. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.09

  6. Biomarkers for cervical cancer screening: the role of p16(INK4a) to highlight transforming HPV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Schmidt, Dietmar; Bergeron, Christine

    2012-04-01

    Biomarkers indicating the initiation of neoplastic transformation processes in human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected epithelial cells are moving into the focus of cancer prevention research, particularly for anogenital cancer, including cancer of the uterine cervix. Based on the in-depth understanding of the molecular events leading to neoplastic transformation of HPV-infected human cells, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) turned out to be substantially overexpressed in virtually all HPV-transformed cells. This finding opened novel avenues in diagnostic histopathology to substantially improve the diagnostic accuracy of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. Furthermore, it provides a novel technical platform to substantially improve the accuracy of cytology-based cancer early-detection programs. Here, we review the molecular background and the current evidence for the clinical utility of the p16(INK4a) biomarker for HPV-related cancers, and cervical cancer prevention in particular.

  7. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer

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    Lízia Maria Franco dos Reis Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON. METHODS: Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. RESULTS: Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 ± 7.8 and passive (7.2 ± 10.6 smoking versus no smoking (3.7 ± 5.1; with/without alcoholism (7.8 ± 1.4 and 6.9 ± 10.1; with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 ± 10.5 and 1.3 ± 1.7; and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 ± 4.3, 10.6 ± 5.3, 22.7 ± 11.9 and 1.3 ± 1.4 found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  8. Cancer risk and preventive behavior: persuasion as an intervention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonani, Marcela; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed that there are high risks for colon/rectum, cervical, and endometrial cancer; and moderate risks for the above as well as lung and breast cancer. In terms of persuasion, it was observed that cancer information was spread but not sustained for long periods. Moreover, there was no reinforcement. In view of cancer risk and the identified preventive behaviors, persuasion is considered a useful strategy to reduce these risks, as well as to encourage and sustain preventive behaviors, since it indicates routes to be followed.

  9. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  10. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  11. Therapeutic immunization strategies against cervical cancer : induction of cell-mediated immunity in murine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bungener, Laura Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this thesis is the development of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and pre-malignant precursor lesions of cervical cancer (CIN lesions). Cervical cancer is caused by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of high r

  12. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of cervical cancer and the coverage in cervical cancer screening are usually reported by including in the denominator all women from the general population. However, after hysterectomy women are not at risk anymore of developing cervical cancer. Therefore, it makes...

  13. Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

  14. Awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolau′s smear and its utilization among female, final year undergraduates in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ehsanul Hoque

    2013-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to find association and the significant predictor for doing Pap smear test. Results: Over half (53.3% of the participants had heard about cervical cancer and its detection method. More than half (60% and over a third (37.8% of the participants knew about human papilloma virus (HPV and multiple sexual partner respectively as risk factors for cervical cancer. More than half (55.3% indicated that they were not aware if cervical cancer can be prevented. Majority (76.7% knew that Papanicolau′s (Pap smear test is used for detection or prevention of cervical cancer. Among those who were sexually active and knew about Pap smear test 79.3% did not do the test mainly because of personal factors such as fear of the procedure, or were not ill. Conclusions: Level of awareness regarding cervical cancer and its detection method was low among these female students. The university management should focus on developing policies on health education and promotion to prevent transmission of the HPV.

  15. Can radical parametrectomy be omitted inoccult cervical cancer afterextrafascial hysterectomy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-WuLu,; JingLi,; Yun-YunLiu,; Chang-HaoLiu,; Guo-CaiXu,; Ling-LingXie,; Miao-FangWu; Zhong-QiuLin

    2015-01-01

    Background:Occult invasive cervical cancer discovered after simple hysterectomy is not common, radical parame‑trectomy (RP) is a preferred option for young women. However, the morbidity of RP was high. The aim of our study is to assess the incidence of parametrial involvement in patients who underwent radical parametrectomy for occult cervical cancer or radical hysterectomy for early‑stage cervical cancer and to suggest an algorithm for the triage of patients with occult cervical cancer to avoid RP. Methods:A total of 13 patients with occult cervical cancer who had undergone RP with an upper vaginectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were included in this retrospective study. Data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of the cases were collected. The published literature was also reviewed, and low risk factors for parametrial involvement in early‑stage cervical cancer were analyzed. Results:Of the 13 patients, 9 had a stage IB1 lesion, and 4 had a stage IA2 lesion. There were four patients with grade 1 disease, seven with grade 2 disease, and two with grade 3 disease. The median age of the entire patients was 41years. The most common indication for extrafascial hysterectomy was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3. Three patients had visible lesions measuring 10–30mm, in diameter and ten patients had cervical stromal invasions with depths ranging from 4 to 9mm; only one patient had more than 50% stromal invasion, and four patients had lymph‑vascular space invasion (LVSI). Perioperative complications included intraoperative bowel injury, blood transfusion, vesico‑vaginal ifstula, and ileus (1 case for each). Postoperative pathologic examination results did not show residual disease or parametrial involvement. One patient with positive lymph nodes received concurrent radiation therapy. Only one patient experienced recurrence. Conclusions:Perioperative complications following RP were common, whereas the incidence of parametrial involve‑ment was very low

  16. Highlights on recurrence after surgery for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Blaakær, Jan

    Objective After surgery due to cervical cancer women are offered to attend a follow-up program 10 times during five years with the purpose for early diagnosis of recurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the follow-up program, which has remained unchanged for 20 years even though reminding...... and concerning women, who we consider healthy after surgery. Methods A retrospective longitudinal study of women attending follow-up program after surgery due to cervical cancer at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital. 524 patients were identified from 1996 to 2011...... with the diagnosis of cervical cancer combined with a surgical procedure. From the national pathological database and patient files information was extracted. Information was stored in Epidata. Associations were calculated using stratified analysis and logistic regression. Results 133(25%) women of 524 needed...

  17. DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODE IN EARLY CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 李斌; 章文华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection in early cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 27 patients with operable invasive early cervical cancer and clinically proved negative pelvic lymph nodes were included in this study. The 99Tcm-dextran of 74 MBq (2 mCi) was injected around the cervix at 2( and 10(. Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection were used to find the SLN. Results: The SLN was identified in 27 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the SLN detection to predict the metastasis of the pelvic lymph node were 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: Identification of the SLN using radionuclide is feasible and possible in women with early cervical cancer.

  18. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Hylke W; van der Zee, Ate G J; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects ∼500,000 women worldwide, and ∼275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%. One of the factors thought to contribute to treatment failure is the ability of tumor cells to repair chemoradiotherapy-induced DNA damage. Therefore, sensitization of tumor cells for chemoradiotherapy via inhibition of the DNA damage response (DDR) as a novel strategy to improve therapy effect, is currently studied pre-clinically as well as in the clinic. Almost invariably, cervical carcinogenesis involves infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), which inactivates part of the DNA damage response. This HPV-mediated partial inactivation of the DDR presents therapeutic targeting of the residual DDR as an interesting approach to achieve chemoradio-sensitization for cervical cancer. How the DDR can be most efficiently targeted, however, remains unclear. The fact that cisplatin and radiotherapy activate multiple signaling axes within the DDR further complicates a rational choice of therapeutic targets within the DDR. In this review, we provide an overview of the current preclinical and clinical knowledge about targeting the DDR in cervical cancer.

  19. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

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    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  20. Synergic Effect of α-Mangostin on the Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin in a Cervical Cancer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Macías, Raquel; González-Cortes, Jaime; Jurado, Rafael; García-López, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among Mexican women. The treatment with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP) has some serious side effects. Alpha-mangostin (α-M), has a protective effect against CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity, as well as antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. Hence, we explored the in vitro and in vivo effect of α-M on human cervical cancer cell proliferation when combined with CDDP. In vitro, The cytotoxic effect of α-M and/or CDDP was measured by the 3-(3,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assay. Meanwhile, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the cell cycle were determined with flow cytometry. For α-M+CDDP treatment, both a coincubation and preincubation scheme were employed. In vivo, xenotransplantation was performed in female athymic BALB/c (nu/nu) mice, and then tumor volume and body weight were measured weekly, whereas α-M interfered with the antiproliferative activity of CDDP in the coincubation scheme, with preincubation with α-M+CDDP showing significantly greater cytotoxicity than CDDP or α-M alone, significantly inhibiting average tumor volume and preventing nephrotoxicity. This effect was accompanied by increased apoptosis and ROS production by HeLa cervical cancer cells, as well as an arrest in the cell cycle. These results suggest that α-M may be useful as a neoadjuvant agent in cervical cancer therapy. PMID:28053694

  1. Synergic Effect of α-Mangostin on the Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin in a Cervical Cancer Model

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    Jazmin M. Pérez-Rojas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among Mexican women. The treatment with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II (CDDP has some serious side effects. Alpha-mangostin (α-M, has a protective effect against CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity, as well as antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. Hence, we explored the in vitro and in vivo effect of α-M on human cervical cancer cell proliferation when combined with CDDP. In vitro, The cytotoxic effect of α-M and/or CDDP was measured by the 3-(3,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assay. Meanwhile, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and the cell cycle were determined with flow cytometry. For α-M+CDDP treatment, both a coincubation and preincubation scheme were employed. In vivo, xenotransplantation was performed in female athymic BALB/c (nu/nu mice, and then tumor volume and body weight were measured weekly, whereas α-M interfered with the antiproliferative activity of CDDP in the coincubation scheme, with preincubation with α-M+CDDP showing significantly greater cytotoxicity than CDDP or α-M alone, significantly inhibiting average tumor volume and preventing nephrotoxicity. This effect was accompanied by increased apoptosis and ROS production by HeLa cervical cancer cells, as well as an arrest in the cell cycle. These results suggest that α-M may be useful as a neoadjuvant agent in cervical cancer therapy.

  2. A study of the impact of adding HPV types to cervical cancer screening and triage tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Khan, Michelle J; Solomon, Diane; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Bratti, Maria C; Wheeler, Cosette M; Burk, Robert D

    2005-01-19

    Use of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in cervical cancer prevention is increasing rapidly. A DNA test for 13 HPV types that can cause cervical cancer is approved in the United States for co-screening with cytology of women >or=30 years old and for triage of women of all ages with equivocal cytology. However, most infections with HPV are benign. We evaluated trade-offs between specificity and sensitivity for approximately 40 HPV types in predicting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and cancer in two prospective studies: a population-based screening study that followed 6196 women aged 30-94 years from Costa Rica for 7 years and a triage study that followed 3363 women aged 18-90 years with equivocal cytology in four U.S. centers for 2 years. For both screening and triage, testing for more than about 10 HPV types decreased specificity more than it increased sensitivity. The minimal increases in sensitivity and in negative predictive value achieved by adding HPV types to DNA tests must be weighed against the projected burden to thousands of women falsely labeled as being at high risk of cervical cancer.

  3. Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and its relation with cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Idrees Muhammad; Khan Khalida; Zahra Amreen; Faridi Rabia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women. Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for decades. Keeping in mind the multiple risk factors related with cervical cancer such as early age sexual activities, t...

  4. Nuevos paradigmas y desafíos en la prevención y control del cáncer de cuello uterino en América Latina New paradigms and challenges in cervical cancer prevention and control in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Almonte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de cuello uterino sigue siendo un problema de salud pública en Latinoamérica. El uso de la citología para la detección de lesiones pre-cancerosas no ha tenido mayor impacto en las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad, que aún se mantienen altas en la región. La disponibilidad de nuevas técnicas de tamizaje para la detección de lesiones pre-cancerosas y de vacunas altamente eficaces que previenen casi todas las lesiones relacionadas con VPH-16 y VPH-18 en mujeres no expuestas previamente al virus representan una gran oportunidad para la prevención del cáncer de cuello uterino en la región. En este manuscrito resumimos la evidencia científica y la experiencia de la región en i el uso de pruebas de VPH y de la inspección visual después del ácido acético (IVAA en tamizaje primario, y ii la implementación de programas de vacunación en adolescentes. Finalmente enumeramos una serie de recomendaciones adecuadas para distintos escenarios. La factibilidad de implementar un programa nacional de prevención de cáncer de cuello uterino exitoso y sostenible en países latinoamericanos dependerá de las prioridades de salud, la infraestructura y personal de salud disponible, determinadas luego de un riguroso análisis situacional local.Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had almost no major impact on reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. The availability of new screening tools to detect precancerous lesions provide great opportunities for cervical cancer prevention in the region, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. This paper summarizes the scientific evidence and regional experiences related to: i the use of HPV testing and visual inspection after the

  5. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for cervical cytology terminology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbert, A.; Bergeron, C.; Wiener, H.; Schenck, U.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Arbyn, M.

    2007-01-01

    There are many different systems of cytology classification used in the member states of the European Union (EU) and many different languages. The following short annexe to Chapter 3 of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening provides a framework that will allow di

  6. Role of chemoradiation in advanced cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh T

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective randomized study was conducted in our department of Radiotherapy, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal to evaluating the role of chemoradiation in the management of advanced inoperable cervical cancer (stage IIB-IIIB taking only radiation treatment as control spanning the period 1996-1999. Of the fifty patients accumulated in the study group, three patients did not complete treatment, one expired due to other causes and three were lost to follow up. Likewise, of the forty-six patients in the control group, one patient did not complete treatment and 4 were lost to follow up. Thus only 43 and 41 patients were available for the result analysis for the study and control groups respectively. The early treatment response as assessed after two months of treatment conclusion were 79.1%, 13.9%, 93.0% and 58.5%, 31.7%, 90.2% as complete response (CR, partial response (PR, and total response (TR respectively for the study and control groups. Our patients included in this study had a median follow up of 35 months and 33 months for study and control groups respectively. For this follow up, the disease-free survival, survival with disease and overall survival were 67.4%, 7.0%, 74.4% and 43.9%, 12.2%, 56.1% for study and control groups respectively. There was an increase in early side-effects in the chemoradiation group but the difference was not significant. Because of the early side effects, treatment delays ensued in 7 patients (16.3% and in 3 patients (7.3% in the study and control groups respectively. There was no significant increase in the late treatment toxicities in both the groups.

  7. Human Papillomavirus 16E6 Oncogene Mutation in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Sun; Xiao-qin Ha; Tong-de Lv; Chuan-ping Xing; Bin Liu; Xiao-zhe Cao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide, after breast cancer. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are considered to be the major causes of cervical cancer. HPV16 is the most common type of HR-HPVs and HPV16 E6 gene is one of the major oncogenes. Specific mutations are considered as dangerous factors causing CC. This study was designed to find mutations of HPV16 E6 and the relationship between the mutations and the happening of CC.Methods: The tissue DNA was extracted from 15 biopsies of CC. Part of HPV16 E6 gene (nucleotide 201-523) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the CC tissue DNA. The PCR fragments were sequenced and analyzed.Results: The result of PCR showed that the positive rate of HPV16 E6 was 93.33% (14/15). After sequencing and analyzing, in the 13 out of 14 PCR fragments, 4 maintained prototype (30.77%), 8 had a same 350G mutation (61.54%), and 1 had a 249G mutation (7.69%).Conclusion: This study suggest that there is a high infection rate of HPV in cervical cancer and most of the HPV16 E6 gene has mutations. Those mutations may have an association with the development of cervical cancer.

  8. Twist and YB-1 gene expression in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue as well as its correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Liu; Hong Li; Yu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the Twist and YB-1 gene expression in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue as well as its correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Methods:Normal cervical tissue, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue and cervical cancer tissue were collected for study. ELISA kits were used to detect Twist, YB-1, E-cadherin,β-catenin, N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical tissue, and immunohistochemistry was used to detect Twist and YB-1 expression levels in cervical tissue.Results:Twist and YB-1 contents, cell positive rate and immunohistochemical scores as well as N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical cancer tissue and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissue while E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents were lower than those in normal cervical tissue; Twist and YB-1 contents, cell positive rate and immunohistochemical scores as well as N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue while E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents were lower than those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue; the higher the Twist and YB-1 expression levels in cervical cancer tissue, the lower the E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents, and the higher the N-cadherin and Vimentin contents.Conclusions: Twist and YB-1 gene overexpression can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition to be involved in the occurrence of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  9. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening.

  10. Efficacy and safety of fosaprepitant for the prevention of nausea and emesis during 5 weeks of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer (the GAND-emesis study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Christensen, Thomas Broe; Dohn, Line Hammer

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists in the prevention of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting has not been established. The purpose of the GAND-emesis study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of fosaprepitant in combination with palonosetron and dexametha......BACKGROUND: The role of the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists in the prevention of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting has not been established. The purpose of the GAND-emesis study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of fosaprepitant in combination with palonosetron...... weeks of treatment. The modified intention-to-treat population (all patients who received study medication) was used for the statistical analyses. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01074697. FINDINGS: Between June 15, 2010, and March 8, 2015, 246 patients from four countries...... adverse event (neutropenia), in the fosaprepitant group. No deaths were recorded in either group. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate safety and efficacy of a NK-1 receptor antagonist during 5 weeks of radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin. Patients receiving...

  11. A Gompertzian model with random effects to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni; Rosli, Norhayati [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a Gompertzian model with random effects is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via maximum likehood estimation. We apply 4-stage Runge-Kutta (SRK4) for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of the cervical cancer growth. Low values of root mean-square error (RMSE) of Gompertzian model with random effect indicate good fits.

  12. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor and UTM Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  13. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Sathwara, Jignasa; Jain, Aanchal; Balasubramaniam, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cytology (Pap smear), and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on visual screening test

  14. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA, magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI, cytology (Pap smear, and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on

  15. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  16. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyimo Frida S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Results Less than one quarter (22.6% of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03 and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10 were significantly associated with screening uptake. Conclusions Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of

  17. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  18. Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women.

  19. Signos Vitales de los CDC-¡El cáncer de cuello uterino se puede prevenir! (Cervical Cancer is Preventable!)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de noviembre del 2014 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Cada cita médica es una oportunidad para prevenir el cáncer de cuello uterino. Las mujeres pueden hacerse la prueba de Papanicoláu y la del VPH para ayudar a prevenir el cáncer de cuello uterino, y los niños y las niñas adolescentes pueden recibir la vacuna contra el VPH para ayudar a prevenir esta enfermedad y otros tipos de cáncer.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Cobtrol (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  20. [Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in México: a constant struggle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Given that human papillomavirus and cervical cancer are a health problem in México, since they affect women of reproductive age and have a negative impact on our society, it is crucial to prevent those diseases and to raise awareness among physicians who deal with their clinical and therapeutic management. That is the reason why we show three Original contributions and 13 Current themes in this supplement of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

  1. Prevalence and genotyping of high risk human papillomavirus in cervical cancer samples from Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqa, Abida; Zainab, Maidah; Qadri, Ishtiaq; Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz; Parish, Joanna L

    2014-07-17

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is established as the cause of cervical carcinoma, therefore, high risk HPV detection may have prognostic significance for the women who are at increased risk of disease progression. The paucity of data on the incidence of cervical cancer in Pakistan makes it difficult to determine disease burden. Even less information is available regarding the prevalent HPV strains in cervical specimens collected from this region. Cervical cancer is a neglected disease in Pakistan in terms of screening, prevention, and vaccination. Identification and accurate genotyping of the virus burden in cancer specimens is important to inform intervention policies for future management of HPV associated disease and to potentially stratify patients dependent on HPV status. In this study, detection and genotyping of HPV types 16 and 18 from 77 cervical specimens were carried out. Consensus primers GP5+/GP6+, which detect 44 genital HPV types, and type specific primers (TS16 and TS18) were used in conjunction with newly designed type specific primers. Using a combination of these methods of detection, a total of 94.81% (95% CI ±4.95) of cervical lesions were positive for HPV. Single infections of HPV16 were detected in 24.68% (95% CI ±9.63) of total samples and HPV18 was found in 25.97% (95% CI ±9.79) samples. Interestingly, a high proportion of samples (40.26%, 95% CI ±10.95) was positive for both HPV16 and 18, indicating a higher incidence of co-infection than previously reported for similar ethnic regions. The HPV genotype of 3.90% of HPV positive samples remained undetected, although these samples were positive with the GP5+/GP6+ primer set indicating infection with an HPV type other than 16 or 18. These data indicate that the overall incidence of high risk HPV infection in cervical cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia specimens in Punjab

  2. Human Papillomavirus-mediated cervical cancer awareness and Gardasil vaccination: a pilot survey among North Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Saumya; Chandravati

    2013-10-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide, including Indian women. Cervical cancer control and prevention strategies are being adopted in developing nations to reduce the increasing burden of HPV infection in the vaccine era. The present study, therefore, aimed to evaluate cervical cancer awareness and knowledge of Gardasil vaccination in North Indian women. A pilot survey was conducted among 103 women of North Indian ethnicity residing in Lucknow/adjoining areas in state of Uttar Pradesh, during routine screening/clinic visits from June 2012 to December 2012. The study subjects were interviewed in either Hindi or English; subsequently the awareness of HPV-mediated cervical cancer and knowledge of Gardasil vaccination was assessed in terms of "yes", "no" and "no response". The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was taken from the participants. Overall, the response of participants (n = 103) in our single-centre survey-based pilot study was well-defined. The response regarding HPV-mediated cervical cancer awareness in terms of "yes", "no" and "no response" among the study subjects was 43.7, 44.7 and 11.6 %, respectively. Furthermore, in response to knowledge of HPV vaccine Gardasil, out of 103 subjects, 28.1 % answered "yes" while 37.9 and 34.0 % stated "no" and "no response", respectively. Our pilot survey may help in assessing knowledge of HPV-mediated cervical cancer and Gardasil vaccination awareness in women, and accordingly develop cost-effective cervical cancer control and prevention/public health counseling sessions in a clinical setting.

  3. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, S; Jensen-Fangel, S;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical...... performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the interpretation of results. RESULTS: We followed 1140 WLWH and 17 046 controls with no prior history of ICC or hysterectomy for 9491 and 156 865 person-years, respectively. Compared with controls, the overall...

  4. Human papillomavirus infection, vaccination, and cervical cancer communication: the protection dilemma faced by women in southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Sadie P; Dorgan, Kelly A; Duvall, Kathryn L; Garrett, Linda H

    2011-11-30

    Human papillomavirus is the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted infection and has been recognized as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Understanding the shift in public awareness caused by recent changes to cervical prevention is critical to addressing cervical cancer disparities in Appalachia. Since the human papillomavirus vaccine was approved for prevention, little data have been collected regarding human papillomavirus risk assessment and vaccine perceptions among Appalachian women. The purpose of the authors in this study was to investigate communication and cultural issues via a social scripting framework that could influence human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among southern Appalachian women; and explore participants' perceptions of human papillomavirus, cervical cancer, and the vaccine. A qualitative, descriptive design was employed to examine these issues in eight counties in northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia. Thirty-nine women aged 18-49 years participated in a single individual interview or focus group session from October 2007 through August 2008. Interview and focus group data were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Two major themes emerged from the data: the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma and spheres of silence surrounding the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma. Study findings suggested areas for future research and may assist healthcare professionals in approaching southern Appalachian women as they make decisions regarding cervical cancer prevention.

  5. Cervical cancer in north-eastern Libya: 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khaial, F; Bodalal, Z; Elramli, A; Elkhwsky, F; Eltaguri, A; Bendardaf, R

    2014-08-01

    Libya is a country with a low population, listed under the EMRO. Using registers and patient records from a major primary oncology clinic, data was gathered from Libyan cervical cancer patients and various parameters were studied across 9 years. Out of 4,090 female cancer cases during the study period, 1.8% were cervical cancer (n = 74). The average age of presentation was 53 years, with most of the cases (60%, n = 44) being premenopausal. Approximately 65% (n = 48) of cervical cancer patients are diagnosed at later stages (i.e. stages III and IV). The majority of these cases are squamous cell carcinoma (83.8%, n = 62), while 16.2% (n = 12) were found to be adenocarcinoma. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma presented at later stages more often than those with adenocarcinoma. Human papilloma virus was strongly implicated in cervical cancer, with 94% (n = 63) of those who were tested being positive for HPV-16 (82.5%, n = 52) and HPV-18 (12.7%, n = 8). Diagnosis was most frequently made through biopsy (97.3%, n = 72) as opposed to Pap smears (2.7%, n = 2). Most Libyan patients were put through chemotherapy (75%, n = 55) and triple therapy (surgery with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy) was the most common (38%, n = 28) modality of treatment. Comparisons were made between Libya and other nations, either in the developed world or neighbouring countries. The major problem of cervical cancer in Libya is delayed presentation and hence, all the recommendations focus on increased awareness for the populace, implementation of a national cancer control plan and a national screening programme.

  6. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the α-Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species α5 (HPV51), α6 (HPV56), α7 (HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59) and α9 (HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58). Less evidence is available for a thirteenth type (HPV68, α7), which is classified as a 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic). Moreover, seven other phylogenetically related types (HPV26, HPV53, HPV66, HPV67, HPV68, HPV70 and HPV73) were identified as single HPV infections in certain rare cases of cervical cancer and were considered possibly carcinogenic (2B carcinogens). Recently, Halec et al [7] demonstrated that the molecular signature of HPV-induced carcinogenesis (presence of type-specific spliced E6*| mRNA; increased expression of p16; and decreased expression of cyclin D1, p53 and Rb) was similar in cervical cancers containing single infections with one of the eight afore-mentioned 2A or 2B carcinogens to those in cancers with single infections with group 1 carcinogens. Ninety six percent of cervical cancers are attributable to one of the 13 most common HPV types (groups 1 and 2A). Including the additional seven HPV types (group 2B) added 2.6%, to reach a total of 98.7% of all HPV-positive cervical cancers. From recently updated meta-analyses, it was shown that HPV68, HPV26, HPV66, HPV67, HPV73 and HPV82 were significantly more common in cancer cases than in women with normal cervical cytology, suggesting that for these HPV types, an upgrading of the carcinogen classification could be considered. However, there is no need to include them in HPV screening tests or vaccines, given their rarity in

  7. Folate receptor and Ki-67 nucleoprotein expressions in cervical cancer tissue and their correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Yan; Feng Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To detect the expression of both FR-α protein and ki-67 in cervical cancer tissues, and discuss the relationship between them and clinical significance.Methods:Using immunohistochemical method test normal cervical tissue and cervical cancer tissue before FR-α protein expression and the expression of Ki-67.Results:FR- protein expression in normal cervical tissues was positive for 7.0% while in cervical cancer tissue the positive rate was 82.1%. The difference was statistically significant. Ki-67 protein expression in normal cervical tissues was 0% while in cervical cancer tissue the positive rate was 80.2%. The difference was statistically significant. The two protein expression in cervical cancer stageⅠ,Ⅱ and stageⅢ were different, but the difference was not statistically significant. In cervical cancer tissues, both the two protein were positively correlated. There are correlations between them. Difference was statistically significant.Conclusion:FR-α elevated protein expression is involved in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. FR-α protein expression in cervical cancer and precancerous tissue has correlation with Ki-67, FR-α protein maybe participate in the occurrence and development of the cell proliferation in cervical cancer.

  8. Graphic Narratives and Cancer Prevention: A Case Study of an American Cancer Society Comic Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Melinda

    2017-05-01

    As the interest in graphic medicine grows, health communicators have started engaging readers with compelling visual and textual accounts of health and illness, including via comic books. One context where comics have shown promise is cancer communication. This brief report presents an early example of graphic medicine developed by the American Cancer Society. "Ladies … Wouldn't It Be Better to Know?" is a comic book produced in the 1960s to provide the public with lay information about the Pap test for cervical cancer prevention and detection. An analysis of a key narrative attribute, plot development, illustrates the central role that perceived barriers played in this midcentury public health message, a component that remains a consideration of cancer communication design today. This case study of an early graphic narrative identifies promising cancer message features that can be used to address and refute barriers to cervical cancer screening and connects contemporary research with historical efforts in public health communication.

  9. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  10. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  11. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Ilaria; Falasca, Marco

    2015-11-23

    Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  12. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  13. Cervical cancer screening and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in female sex workers using “screen and treat” approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Smita Joshi,1 Vinay Kulkarni,2 Trupti Darak,2 Uma Mahajan,1 Yogesh Srivastava,3 Sanjay Gupta,3 Sumitra Krishnan,1 Mahesh Mandolkar,2 Alok Chandra Bharti31Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute (HCJMRI, Jehangir Hospital Premises, Pune, Maharashtra, India; 2Prayas Health Group, Amrita Clinic, Pune, India; 3Institute for Cytology and Preventive Oncology, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, IndiaObjective: Female sex workers (FSWs are at an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV as well as human papillomavirus (HPV infections and thus have an increased risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer. We evaluated the feasibility of “screen and treat approach” for cervical cancer prevention and the performance of different screening tests among FSWs.Methods: Women were screened using cytology, VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid, and VILI (visual inspection with Lugol’s iodine and underwent colposcopy, biopsy, and immediate treatment using cold coagulation, if indicated, at the same visit.Results: We screened 300 FSWs of whom 200 (66.67% were HIV uninfected and 100 (33.34% were HIV infected. The overall prevalence of CIN 2–3 lesions was 4.7%. But all women with CIN 2–3 lesions were HIV infected, and thus the prevalence of CIN 2–3 lesions in HIV-infected FSWs was 14/100 (14%, 95% confidence interval: 7.2–20.8. All of them screened positive by all three screening tests. Cold coagulation was well tolerated, with no appreciable side effects.Conclusion: Cervical cancer prevention by “screen and treat” approach using VIA, followed by ablative treatment, in this high-risk group of women is feasible and can be implemented through various targeted intervention programs. Keywords: cytology, VIA, VILI, CIN, cold coagulation, cervical cancer, HPV, FSWs

  14. Uterine cervical neoplasia prevention in Parque Indigena do Xingu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, N M de Góis; Pereira, E R; Schaper, M; Tso, F K; de Freitas, V G; Ribalta, J C L

    2009-01-01

    Results of preventive health measures, diagnosis and treatment applied to Parque Indigena do Xingu native women were studied. Thirty-seven cases of uterine cervical intraepithelial lesions and invasive neoplasias were treated in the local villages without referral to an advanced medical center. LEEPs were carried out in 32 women, three cold knife conizations, one vaginal hysterectomy and one Wertheim Meigs procedure. Results of 53.1% of LEEP surgical procedures did not have margin involvement by the lesions. Bleeding complications were seen in 15.6%. Regular follow-up with two or three cytologic and colposcopic tests in 32 women was carried out. All cases were negative for lesions. Five women were not followed-up due mainly to logistical reasons. Health endeavors adopted in the period 2005-2007 brought about a significant reduction of precursor lesions in this native aboriginal population without screening resources.

  15. Human papillomavirus prevalence in paired urine and cervical samples in women invited for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Elena; Bonanni, Paolo; Sani, Cristina; Lastrucci, Vieri; Carozzi, Francesca; Iossa, Anna; Andersson, Karin Louise; Brandigi, Livia; Di Pierro, Carmelina; Confortini, Massimo; Levi, Miriam; Boccalini, Sara; Indiani, Laura; Sala, Antonino; Tanini, Tommaso; Bechini, Angela; Azzari, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    With the introduction of Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in young girls in 2007, it is important to monitor HPV infections and epidemiological changes in this target population. The present study has evaluated the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in paired cervical and urine samples to understand if HPV testing in urine could be used as non-invasive method to monitor HPV status in young women. The study enrolled 216 twenty five-year-old women, resident in Florence and invited for the first time to the cervical cancer Screening Program within a project evaluating the impact of HPV vaccination. HPV genotyping was performed on 216 paired urine and cervical samples. The overall concordance between cervix and urine samples, investigated by HPV genotyping (INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra), was: 85.6% (184/215), 84.6% (182/215), 80% (172/215) when the same HPV, at least the same HR HPV and all HR HPV, respectively, were detected. HPV type specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples was observed in 85.8% (175/204) of women with normal cytology and in seven out of nine women with abnormal cytology. Urine seems to be a suitable and reliable biological material for HPV DNA detection as evidenced by the high concordance with HPV detected in cervical samples. These results suggest that urine could be a good noninvasive tool to monitor HPV infection in vaccinated women.

  16. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  17. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  18. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  19. SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY AND CELLULAR IMMUNITY IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Kenbaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular mechanisms are quite important immunological components of tumor surveillance, being, however, most vulnerable to influence of different adverse factors, including surgery-associated stress and ionizing radiation. Our study was aimed for assessing specific effects of immunotherapy upon indices of cellular immunity in patients with cervical cancer. Eighty-eight patients with cervical cancer (clinical stage I-IIA, Т1аN0M0-T2aN0M0, who underwent appropriate surgery (for IA stage, or a combined treatment, including surgery gamma-ray teletherapy (IB, IIA stages are under study. The patients were distributed in two groups, depending on the therapy applied. Group 1 included patients subjected to surgical treatment plus and radiation therapy, Group 2 included those patients who were treated according to this protocol, with addition of a specific immunotherapy. Contents of T cells and various CD subpopulations of T-lymphocytes were identified by immunofluorescence techniques. Among patients with cervical cancer at clinical stages IA, IB, IIA, a reliable decrease in cellular immunity indices was registered, both after surgery, and during combined treatment. Introduction of specific immunotherapy to the conventional treatment schedule was associated with increase of cellular immune indices, and, in first line, the antineoplastic mechanisms (e.g., NK’s and NKT cell contents. One should point to a relatively low efficiency of this immunotherapy in combined treatment of patients with cervical cancer at IIA stage.

  20. Evolution of the health economics of cervical cancer vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferko, Nicole; Postma, Maarten; Gallivan, Steve; Kruzikas, Denise; Drummond, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of modelling for cervical cancer vaccination. We provide an interpretation and summary of conclusions pertaining to the usefulness of different models, the predicted epidemiological impact of vaccination and the cost-effectiveness of adolescent, catch-up and sex-specif

  1. Improving cervical cancer screening rates in an urban HIV clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sara L; Suharwardy, Sanaa H; Bodavula, Phani; Schechtman, Kenneth; Overton, E Turner; Onen, Nur F; Lane, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer; however, screening rates remain low. The objectives of this study were to analyze a quality improvement intervention to increase cervical cancer screening rates in an urban academic HIV clinic and to identify factors associated with inadequate screening. Barriers to screening were identified by a multidisciplinary quality improvement committee at the Washington University Infectious Diseases clinic. Several strategies were developed to address these barriers. The years pre- and post-implementation were analyzed to examine the clinical impact of the intervention. A total of 422 women were seen in both the pre-implementation and post-implementation periods. In the pre-implementation period, 222 women (53%) underwent cervical cancer screening in the form of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing. In the post-implementation period, 318 women (75.3%) underwent cervical cancer screening (p screening included fewer visits attended (pre: 4.2 ± 1.5; post: 3.4 ± 1.4; p screening rates in an urban academic HIV clinic.

  2. Cervical cancer, quality issues in early detection and prognostic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, A.

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that cervical cancer incidence will reduce in The Netherlands over the next decades, as a result of hrHPV vaccination and hrHPV-based screening. Untill then, quality of care could need some improvements as suggested by the work described in this thesis. Novel tools are being indicated

  3. Diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); N. van der Lubbe (Nils); H.M.A. van Agt (H. M A)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The amount of diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening has been assessed prospectively and related to mortality reduction. Assumptions are based on data from Dutch screening programmes and on a scenario for future developments. With 5 invita

  4. Early cervical cancer coexistent with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.; Kalter, C.; Roberts, W.S.; Cavanagh, D.

    1989-07-01

    Early invasive carcinoma of the cervix may be treated by surgery or radiation therapy. Two patients with early cervical cancer are presented whose concomitant inflammatory bowel disease figured significantly in the selection of surgery as treatment. The use of radiotherapy in the face of inflammatory bowel disease, however, is not clearly addressed in the literature.

  5. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  6. FDA Approves Two HPV Vaccines: Cervarix for Girls, Gardasil for Boys | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FDA has approved a second vaccine to prevent cervical cancer and cervical precancers, the vaccine’s manufacturer, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), announced last week. The approval is based on data from a large clinical trial showing that the vaccine, Cervarix, prevented precancerous lesions in 93 percent of those who received the full vaccine sequence of three injections over 6 months. |

  7. A risk evaluation model of cervical cancer based on etiology and human leukocyte antigen allele susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicheng Hu

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: This model, based on etiology and HLA allele susceptibility, can estimate the risk of cervical cancer in chronic cervicitis patients after HPV infection. It combines genetic and environmental factors and significantly enhances the accuracy of risk evaluation for cervical cancer. This model could be used to select patients for intervention therapy and to guide patient classification management.

  8. Methylated Host Cell Gene Promoters and Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and 18 Predicting Cervical Lesions and Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Milutin Gašperov

    Full Text Available Change in the host and/or human papillomavirus (HPV DNA methylation profile is probably one of the main factors responsible for the malignant progression of cervical lesions to cancer. To investigate those changes we studied 173 cervical samples with different grades of cervical lesion, from normal to cervical cancer. The methylation status of nine cellular gene promoters, CCNA1, CDH1, C13ORF18, DAPK1, HIC1, RARβ2, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1, was investigated by Methylation Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP. The methylation of HPV18 L1-gene was also investigated by MSP, while the methylated cytosines within four regions, L1, 5'LCR, enhancer, and promoter of the HPV16 genome covering 19 CpG sites were evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. Statistically significant methylation biomarkers distinguishing between cervical precursor lesions from normal cervix were primarily C13ORF18 and secondly CCNA1, and those distinguishing cervical cancer from normal or cervical precursor lesions were CCNA1, C13ORF18, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1. In addition, the methylation analysis of individual CpG sites of the HPV16 genome in different sample groups, notably the 7455 and 7694 sites, proved to be more important than the overall methylation frequency. The majority of HPV18 positive samples contained both methylated and unmethylated L1 gene, and samples with L1-gene methylated forms alone had better prognosis when correlated with the host cell gene promoters' methylation profiles. In conclusion, both cellular and viral methylation biomarkers should be used for monitoring cervical lesion progression to prevent invasive cervical cancer.

  9. Cervical dysplasia - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to detect cervical cancer. Limited or early cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ, or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or dysplasia) requires treatment with ablation therapy, usually in the form of ...

  10. French women’s knowledge of and attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention and the acceptability of HPV vaccination among those with 14 – 18 year old daughters: a quantitative-qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haesebaert Julie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In France, it is recommended that girls and women aged 14–23 are vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV. However, French women’s knowledge of and attitude towards the vaccine has been little studied. Methods Thirty-nine general practitioners, representative of those working in the large Rhône-Alpes region, offered a self-administered questionnaire on cervical cancer (CC prevention to all 18–65 year-old women who came for consultation during June and July 2008. In addition, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a sample of those who had daughters aged 14–18. Results Of the 1,478 women who completed the questionnaire, only 16.9% mentioned HPV as the cause of CC, even though 76.2% knew of the vaccine. 210 women had daughters aged 14–18, and 32 were interviewed. Compared with the wider group, more of these women were aware of the HPV vaccine (91.4%. 44.8% knew the target population and 17.1% the recommended ages for vaccination. 54.3% favoured HPV vaccination; 37.2% were undecided and only 0.9% were opposed. The main barrier to acceptance was the recency of the vaccine’s introduction and concern about possible side effects (54.9%; 14.1% preferred to rely on their GP’s decision. Factors associated with acceptance of the HPV vaccine were having previously vaccinated a child against pneumococcus (OR=3.28 [1.32-8.11] and knowing the target population for HPV vaccination (OR=2.12 [1.15-3.90]. Knowing the recommended frequency of Papanicolaou smear testing (Pap test screening was associated with lower acceptance (OR=0.32 [0.13-0.82]. Conclusions Few mothers are opposed to HPV vaccination. Factors associated with acceptability were knowledge about the vaccine, acceptance of other vaccines and, unexpectedly, lack of knowledge about the recommended frequency of Pap testing. On multivariate analysis, compliance with recommendations for Pap test screening and socioeconomic factors had no effect on views

  11. 人乳头瘤病毒疫苗预防宫颈癌及其相关感染有效性及安全性的 Meta 分析%Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Preventing Cervical Cancer and HPV - ralated Infection Prevention:A Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 何艳; 马彩玲

    2015-01-01

    papillomavirus( HPV)vaccines in preventing cervical cancer and HPV - related infection,a systematic review and meta - analysis were conducted. Methods Searched in PubMed, EMBase, Cochrane Library, OVID, CBM, CNKI and Wanfang database to identify randomized controlled trials( RCT)on vaccines in preventing cervical cancer and HPV - related infection,and also manually searched relevant magazines and references,the time range for publishing dates of the literatures was from databases establishment to July 2014. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria,two reviewers independently screened studies,extracted data,and evaluated the quality of studies. The meta - analysis was performed using RevMan software version 5. 2. Results 23 RCTs were included. According to the meta - analysis results,the frequency of CINⅡ + ,VINⅡ + / VaINⅡ + ,6 - months persistent HPV infections,12 - months persistent HPV infections,exophytic genital wart,high - risk HPV - related infections and diseases in vaccine group was significantly lower than that in control group,respectively(P 0. 05). Conclusion Prophylactic HPV vaccines are safe and effective in preventing cervical precancerous lesions,HPV persistent infections and HPV - related genital lesions,and have cross - protection effect and efficient protective effect. However, according to existing literature,long - term efficacy of HPV vaccines in preventing cervical cancer is not clear,due to the lack of direct evidence of prophylactic HPV vaccines in preventing cervical cancer,more high quality RCT with duration follow - up should be carried out.

  12. Optoelectronic method for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruski, D.; Przybylski, M.; Kędzia, W.; Kędzia, H.; Jagielska-Pruska, J.; Spaczyński, M.

    2011-12-01

    The optoelectronic method is one of the most promising concepts of biophysical program of the diagnostics of CIN and cervical cancer. Objectives of the work are evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of the optoelectronic method in the detection of CIN and cervical cancer. The paper shows correlation between the pNOR number and sensitivity/specificity of the optoelectronic method. The study included 293 patients with abnormal cervical cytology result and the following examinations: examination with the use of the optoelectronic method — Truscreen, colposcopic examination, and histopathologic biopsy. Specificity of the optoelectronic method for LGSIL was estimated at 65.70%, for HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix amounted to 90.38%. Specificity of the optoelectronic method used to confirm lack of cervical pathology was estimated at 78.89%. The field under the ROC curve for the optoelectronic method was estimated at 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) which shows high diagnostic value of the test in the detection of HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma. The optoelectronic method is characterised by high usefulness in the detection of CIN, present in the squamous epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix.

  13. Human papillomavirus 16 L1-E7 chimeric virus like particles show prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in murine model of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandresh; Dey, Bindu; Wahiduzzaman, Mohammed; Singh, Neeta

    2012-08-03

    Cervical cancer is found to be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, with HPV16 being the most prevalent. An effective vaccine against HPV can thus, be instrumental in controlling cervical cancer. An ideal HPV vaccine should aim to generate both humoral immune response to prevent new infection as well as cell-mediated immunity to eliminate established infection. In this study, we have generated a potential preventive and therapeutic candidate vaccine against HPV16. We expressed and purified recombinant HPV16 L1(ΔN26)-E7(ΔC38) protein in E. coli which was assembled into chimeric virus like particles (CVLPs) in vitro. These CVLPs were able to induce neutralizing antibodies and trigger cell-mediated immune response, in murine model of cervical cancer, exhibiting antitumor efficacy. Hence, this study has aimed to provide a vaccine candidate possessing both, prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against HPV16 associated cervical cancer.

  14. Prolactin and prolactin receptor expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascencio-Cedillo, Rafael; López-Pulido, Edgar Ivan; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Del Toro-Arreola, Susana; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Pérez-Montiel, Delia; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura

    2015-04-01

    Prolactin receptor (PRLR) overexpression could play a role in tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to determine prolactin (PRL) and PRLR expression in biopsies from patients with precursor lesions and uterine cervical cancer. PRLR expression was analyzed in 63 paraffin-embedded biopsies of uterine cervical tissue. In total, eleven low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 23 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), 21 uterine cervical cancers (UCC) and 8 normal epithelium (NE) were examined using immunoperoxidase staining and Western blot analysis. Additionally, PRL expression was identified in human cervical cancer serum and tissues. The PRLR expression was found to be significantly increased in cervical cancer in comparison with normal tissue and precursor lesions (P prolactin expression was similar in precursor lesions and cervical cancer by Western blot analysis. Our data suggest a possible role for PRLR in the progression of cervical cancer.

  15. Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. While the original hypothesis prompting the beta-carotene intervention trials was that beta-carotene exerts beneficial effects thro...

  16. [Cancer prevention and tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.

  17. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of endometrial cancer: Endometrial hyperplasia Estrogen Tamoxifen Obesity, weight gain, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes Genetic factors The following protective factors decrease the risk of ...

  18. 10-year epidemiological profile changes for cervical and endometrial cancer patients treated by radiotherapy in the Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Franca, Elvis J., E-mail: ejfranca@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Pessoa, Juanna G.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Amancio, Francisco F., E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: amanciobike@gmail.com, E-mail: juannapessoa@gmail.com, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Oliveira Neto, Aristides M.; Melo, Jonathan A., E-mail: aristidesoliveira466@hotmail.com, E-mail: jonathan@truenet.com.br [Centro de Radioterapia de Pernambuco (CERAPE), Santo Amaro, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem, its prevention and control are included within 16 strategic objectives of the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the period 2011-2015. Cervical cancer is the fourth most common tumor in the female population, being new 15,590 cases estimated for 2014 according to the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA). Pernambuco is the fifth state with the highest number of cases of cervical cancer and the seventh in cases of endometrial ones, both estimative for 2014. The understanding of the epidemiological profile of these pathologies corroborates strategies for prevention, control and treatment. As Pernambuco has implemented the radiotherapy for cancer treatment since 1998-1999, this work encompassed the comparison of the 1998-1999 epidemiological profile of patients treated by radiotherapy for cervical and endometrial cancer in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, with 2008-2009 profile - ten years after. Medical record of 490 patients treated at the Center of Radiotherapy of Pernambuco (CERAPE) were compiled according to the patient origin, the affected uterus region, the staging of disease, the type and cell differentiation of the tumor, the age group, and, finally, the realization of hysterectomy as part of the treatment. More than 90% of the patients were affected by cervical cancer in the two investigated periods. For the interval of 1998-1999 the proportion of patients submitted to hysterectomy was quite higher compared to those after ten years. The results also showed a change in the origin of the patients, in which, in 1999, most of the patients were from the capital and the metropolitan area, while, after ten years, patients were mostly from the interior of the State. There was a predominance of squamous cell type tumors in both periods evaluated. For the 1998-1999 interval, tumors were stage 2, moderately differentiated type. Differently, the tumors were mostly stage 3, not differentiated type, for the 2008-2009 period

  19. Preoperative serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels in clinical decision making for patients with early-stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; van der Velden, J; ten Hoor, KA; Boezen, HM; de Vries, EGE; Schilthuis, MS; Mourits, MJE; Nijman, HW; Aalders, JG; Hollema, H; Pras, E; Duk, JM; van der Zee, AGJ

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prevent morbidity associated with double modality treatment, early-stage cervical cancer patients should only be offered surgery when there is a low likelihood for adjuvant radiotherapy. We analyzed whether serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) analysis allows better preoperativ

  20. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  1. Effects of Application of Social Marketing Theory and the Health Belief Model in Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening among Targeted Women in Sisaket Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichachai, Suparp; Songserm, Nopparat; Akakul, Theerawut; Kuasiri, Chanapong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Thailand, being ranked second only to breast cancer. Thai women have been reported to have a low rate of cervical cancer screening (27.7% of the 80% goal of WHO). We therefore aimed to apply the social marketing theory and health belief model in promoting cervical cancer screening in Kanthararom District, Sisaket Province. A total of 92 from 974 targeted women aged 3060 years were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group underwent application of social marketing theory and a health belief model program promoting cervical cancer screening while the control group received normal services. Two research tools were used: (1) application of social marketing theory and health belief model program and (2) questionnaire used to evaluate perceptions of cervical cancer. Descriptive and inferential statistics including paired sample ttest and independent ttest were used to analyze the data. After the program had been used, the mean score of perception of cervical cancer of experimental group was at a higher level (x=4.09; S.D. =0.30), than in the control group (x=3.82; S.D. =0.20) with statistical significance (psocial marketing and the health belief model be used to promote cervical cancer screening in targeted women and it can be promoted as a guideline for other health services, especially in health promotion and disease prevention.

  2. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass

  3. The reporting of cervical cancer in the mass media: a study of UK newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L; Seale, C

    2011-05-01

    Cervical cancer disproportionately affects those in lower socio-economic groups. Mass media, including newspapers, are an important source of information about disease and how to prevent it. An analysis of UK national newspaper content between 2000 and 2009 is reported, assessing the extent to which information is provided about early signs and symptoms, risk factors and ways of preventing cervical cancer. The messages in newspapers targeted at readers in lower socio-economic groups are compared with the messages in other newspapers, and the impact of reporting the illness and death of the reality TV star, Jade Goody, on the level of medical information contained in articles is assessed. Tabloid or 'popular' newspapers are found to provide more information about early signs and symptoms, and no less information about risk factors, when compared with broadsheets or 'serious' papers. This is due to their greater use of personal stories of people with cervical cancer. The Jade Goody story was associated with an increase in information about early signs and symptoms, and about screening, but not (with the exception of the role played by social deprivation) about risk factors. Suggestions about how to approach public education via an entertainment format in mass media are made.

  4. Cervical cancer vaccine: Exploring new opportunities and challenges for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Ray Laskar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, and the burden of the disease is disproportionately high in the developing world (>80%. With the advent of two new vaccines, "Gardasil" developed by Merck & Co. New Jersey, USA and "Cervarix" developed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK in Philadelphia, USA, the future holds newer promises for prevention and control of the disease. However, various regulatory and policy changes also may be required to be undertaken and the various new challenges need to be addressed.

  5. Pre-invasive cervical disease and uterine cervical cancer in Brazilian adolescents: prevalence and related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Denise Leite Maia; Trajano, Alexandre José Baptista; Silva,Kátia Silveira da; Russomano, Fábio Bastos

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to describe the prevalence and factors associated with uterine cervical cancer (CA) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 702 sexually active adolescents treated at a general hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1993 to 2002. Screening was performed by cytopathology and colposcopy and confirmation by biopsy. Exposure variables were socio-demographic characteristics and those related to reproduc...

  6. Urinary selenium excretion in patients with cervical uterine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, M; Gaudry, A; Revel, G; Martínez, T; Cabrera, L

    2001-02-01

    In this work, we report on a relationship between urinary selenium and the development of cervical uterine cancer. A simple chemical method was developed to concentrate trace amounts of selenium from relatively large urine samples by use of small activated carbon filters. When these filters are irradiated with thermal neutrons, selenium can be determined either by 77mSe (t1/2 = 17.5 s) or 75Se (t1/2 = 120 d). In this article, we report the results for 82 urine samples from women with cervical uterine cancer in several stages of development and from healthy controls. These results show a statistically significant increase of selenium excretion in cancer patients as compared to controls. Urinary selenium excretion is highest for patients in the intermediate stages of the disease.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camisao, Claudia C. [Hospital Sao Lucas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ccamisao@inca.gov.br; Brenna, Sylvia M.F. [Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lombardelli, Karen V.P. [Hospital do Cancer (HCII), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Djahjah, Maria Celia R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Ginecologia

    2007-05-15

    Cervical cancer is the worldwide leading cause of cancer-related death of women, especially in developing countries. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommends staging during surgery, however, surgical-pathologic staging would not be feasible in cases of more advanced cancers. Generally, in these cases, the staging is performed by means of clinical and gynecological examination and basic imaging studies. However, such an approach fails to demonstrate the actual extent of the disease, and does not include significant prognostic factors such as tumor volume, stromal invasion and lymph node involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging has increasingly been utilized in cervical cancer staging, since at early stages of the disease its performance may be compared to intraoperative findings and, at advanced stages, it shows to be superior to the clinical evaluation. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging presents an excellent imaging resolution for the different densities of pelvic structures, does not require ionizing radiation, is comfortable for the patient, improves de staging, allowing the early detection of recurrence and the identification of reliable prognostic factors which contribute to the therapeutic decision making process and results prediction with an excellent cost-effectiveness. The present article is aimed at reviewing the most significant aspects of magnetic resonance imaging in the cervical cancer staging. (author)

  8. About DCP | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is the primary unit of the National Cancer Institute devoted to cancer prevention research. DCP provides funding and administrative support to clinical and laboratory researchers, community and multidisciplinary teams, and collaborative scientific networks. |

  9. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  10. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine 1996;334(18):1150-1155. [PubMed Abstract] Goodman ...

  11. Efficacy and safety of a bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in prevention of cervical cancer and HPV-related infection:a meta analysis%二价HPV疫苗预防宫颈癌及HPV相关感染的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋云焕; 周自广

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价二价HPV疫苗预防宫颈癌及HPV相关感染的有效性与安全性.方法 计算机检索Cochrane图书馆、MEDLINE、EMBASE、CBM,纳入所有关于二价HPV疫苗的随机对照试验,由两名研究者独立提取数据并进行方法学质量评估.数据的统计分析采用Cochrane协作网提供的RevMan 4.2软件进行.结果共纳入6个随机对照试验(RCT),包括25 007例女性.meta分析结果显示:与安慰剂相比,预防性二价疫苗明显降低了与HPV16,18型相关的Ⅱ/Ⅲ级宫颈上皮内瘤变、原位癌及相关类型HPV持续感染的发病率.主要的副作用较轻微,严重的副作用在疫苗组和安慰剂组保持均衡.结论二价HPV疫苗对于预防相关类型HPV所导致宫颈癌是安全和有效的.%Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of prophylactic bivalent human papillomavirus ( HPV ) vaccine in the prevention of cervical cancer and infection associated with vaccine-type HPV. Methods By searching the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EM-BASE and CBM ,the randomized controlled trials ( RCTs ) about prophylactic bivalent HPV vaccine in the prevention of cervical cancer and infection associated with vaccine-type HPV were included. Two authors independently reviewed the data and assessed the quality. The data were input and analyzed by RevMan4. 2 software. Results Six randomized controlled trials ( RCT ) involving 25 007 women met the inclusion criteria. The meta analysis showed that prophylactic HPV vaccine was associated with a reduction in the incidence of grade Ⅱ/Ⅲ cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, carcinoma in situ and persistent infection caused by vaccine-type HPV strains compared with the placebo. The majority of adverse events was minor. The incidence of serious adverse events was balanced between the vaccine and the placebo. Conclusion Bivalent HPV vaccine is effective and safe in the prevention of cervical cancer associated with vaccine-type HPV.

  12. Elimination of Specular reflection and Identification of ROI: The First Step in Automated Detection of Cervical Cancer using Digital Colposcopy

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, Specular Reflections (SR) appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light. These occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface, which act like mirrors reflecting light from the illumination source. Apart from camouflaging the actual features, the SR also affects subsequent segmentation routines and hence must be removed. Our novel technique eliminates the SR and makes the colposcopic images (cervigram) ready for segmentation algorithms. The cervix region occupies about half of the cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. The first step is, therefore, focusing on the cervical bor...

  13. A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer vaccination in preadolescent Canadian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merid Maraki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that approximately 70% of Canadian women undergo cervical cancer screening at least once every 3 years, approximately 1,300 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and approximately 380 died from it in 2008. This study estimates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccinating 12-year old Canadian females with an AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. The indirect effect of vaccination, via herd immunity, is also estimated. Methods A 12-health-state 1-year-cycle Markov model was developed to estimate lifetime HPV related events for a cohort of 12-year old females. Annual transition probabilities between health-states were derived from published literature and Canadian population statistics. The model was calibrated using Canadian cancer statistics. From a healthcare perspective, the cost-effectiveness of introducing a vaccine with efficacy against HPV-16/18 and evidence of cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types was evaluated in a population undergoing current screening practices. The base-case analysis included 70% screening coverage, 75% vaccination coverage, $135/dose for vaccine, and 3% discount rate on future costs and health effects. Conservative herd immunity effects were taken into account by estimated HPV incidence using a mathematical model parameterized by reported age-stratified sexual mixing data. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address parameter uncertainties. Results Vaccinating 12-year old females (n = 100,000 was estimated to prevent between 390-633 undiscounted cervical cancer cases (reduction of 47%-77% and 168-275 undiscounted deaths (48%-78% over their lifetime, depending on whether or not herd immunity and cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types were included. Vaccination was estimated to cost $18,672-$31,687 per QALY-gained, the lower range representing inclusion of cross-protective efficacy and herd immunity. The cost per QALY-gained was most

  14. Prevention Situation Analysis of Early Cervical Cancer in the Family Planning Service Station of Enping City%恩平市计划生育服务站开展早期宫颈癌防治情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To screen people with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and HPV infection in order to offer proper treatment and follow-up.Method:3953 out-patients were given cervical liquid based thin layer cell examination(TCT),892 of whom were tested with high-risk HPV-DNA at the same time.Patients whose grades were higher than Cervical CIN Ⅰalso received colposcopic multiple biopsy.Treatments were offered according to the cytological and pathological diagnosis of cervical lesions and their lesion degree.Result:There were 26 patients with cervical cancer or high squamous intraepithelial neoplasia combined with high-risk HPV infection,the infection rate was 100%.There were 98 patients with CINⅠincluding 96 patients with high-risk HPV infection.126 patients got ASCUS,among them 87 patients were with high risk HPV infection.10 patients were only with high-risk HPV infection.After six months follow-up,there were four patients with HPV infection,one patient with ASCUS and one patient with CINⅠ.After twelve months follow-up,it showed that CIN had subsided and no abnormality was found.HPV turned negative.Conclusion:Regular TCT and HPV-DNA test play a decisive role in the early detection,diagnosis, intervention and treatment of cervical cancer and precancerous disease.%目的:通过筛查发现宫颈上皮内瘤样病变及高危型HPV感染的人群并进行有效的防治、随访。方法:收集门诊接诊的患者3953例,行宫颈超薄液基细胞学检查(TCT),其中892例同时进行高危型HPV-DNA检测;宫颈CINⅠ以上的同时行阴道镜多点活检,根据细胞学及病理学诊断宫颈病变及病变程度,针对不同的病变程度进行治疗、随访。结果:宫颈癌及高度鳞状上皮内瘤变同时合并高危型HPV感染26例,感染率达100%,CINⅠ98例,其中96例合并高危型HPV感染;ASCUS126例,其中合并高危HPV感染87例,单纯高危型HPV感染10例。术后6个月回访HPV感染4例,ASCUS1

  15. Knowledge, Behavioral, and Sociocultural Factors Related to Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Inner-City Women in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Calvo, Arlene E; Daley, Ellen M; Giuliano, Anna R; López Castillo, Humberto

    2015-12-01

    Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of mortality in developing countries regardless of biomedical advances in prevention modalities. Specifically, Panama experiences one of the highest rates of cervical cancer worldwide. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge, behavioral, and sociocultural factors related to cervical cancer prevention among Panamanian women. A theory-guided, population-based quantitative survey following participatory processes was administered to a randomized sample of females (18-44 years) residing in a high-risk Panamanian community. Participants (n = 324) reported low knowledge regarding HPV, cervical cancer, and the purpose of the Pap test. Furthermore, low perceived susceptibility, high-risk sexual behaviors (e.g., low contraception and condom use) and adverse attitudes toward the Pap test (e.g., shame, fear) were identified. Television, newspapers/magazines, and relatives/friends/neighbors were common sources to receive health information. Significant gaps in knowledge and behavioral factors were identified, which may interfere with cervical cancer prevention efforts. Future strategies should reflect the sociocultural context, such as interpersonal relations, when developing and implementing cervical cancer programs, with the ultimate goal of decreasing the persistent burden among Latin American women.

  16. Adherence to cervical cancer screening in an Italian SLE cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talarico

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Papanicolau (Pap smear abnormalities are more frequently observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE respect to the general population. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the adherence to cervical cancer (CC screening in an Italian cohort of SLE patients and, secondly, to evaluate the disease-related factors possibly influencing the patients’ behavior. Methods: Consecutive 25 to 64 year old SLE patients and aged- matched healthy women were enrolled for the study. All patients were interviewed during ambulatory visits, at admission to the clinic or by a telephone contact; disease related variables were also collected from the clinical charts. Results: 140 SLE patients (mean age 48.3±12 years and 70 controls matched for demographic and sociocultural characteristics were enrolled. Ninety-three SLE patients (66.4% declared to perform the Pap test at least every three years (23.6% yearly and 42.8% when asked by the screening programs while 47 (33.6% did not perform regular CC screening (16.4% never did the test and 17.1% only occasionally. No significant differences were observed between patients and controls in cancer screening adherence. No significant associations were observed between the screening program behaviours and disease-related variables. Conclusions: Despite the growing evidence of an increased risk of CC in SLE, and regardless of the broad availability of screening programs and official recommendations, our results show insufficient CC surveillance among SLE patients and emphasize to rheumatologists and/or general practitioners the importance to discuss with patients this aspect during routine evaluations in order to encourage compliance to the recommended preventive measures.

  17. Biologia molecular do câncer cervical Molecular biology of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Augusto Rivoire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A carcinogênese é um processo de múltiplas etapas. Alterações no equilíbrio citogenético ocorrem na transformação do epitélio normal a câncer cervical. Numerosos estudos apoiam a hipótese de que a infecção por HPV está associada com o desenvolvimento de alterações malignas e pré-malignas do trato genital inferior. Neste trabalho são apresentadas as bases para a compreensão da oncogênese cervical. O ciclo celular é controlado por proto-oncogenes e genes supressores. Quando ocorrem mutações, proto-oncogenes tornam-se oncogenes, que são carcinogênicos e causam multiplicação celular excessiva. A perda da ação de genes supressores funcionais pode levar a célula ao crescimento inadequado. O ciclo celular também pode ser alterado pela ação de vírus, entre eles o HPV (Human Papiloma Virus, de especial interesse na oncogênese cervical. Os tipos de HPV 16 e 18 são os de maior interesse, freqüentemente associados a câncer cervical e anal. O conhecimento das bases moleculares que estão envolvidas na oncogênese cervical tem sido possível devido a utilização de técnicas avançadas de biologia molecular. A associação destas técnicas aos métodos diagnósticos clássicos, poderão levar a uma melhor avaliação das neoplasias cervicais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento de novas terapias, talvez menos invasivas e mais efetivas.Carcinogenesis involves several steps. Disorders of the cytogenetic balance occur during the evolution from normal epithelium to cervical cancer. Several studies support the hypothesis that the Human Papiloma Virus (HPV infection is associated to development of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical cancer. In this review we show the basis to understand cervical oncogenesis. The cell cycle is controlled by protooncogenes and supressive genes. This orchestrated cell cycle can be affected by virus such as HPV. Of special interest in the cervical carcinogenesis are the HPV subtypes 16 and 18

  18. Introduction of molecular HPV testing as the primary technology in cervical cancer screening: Acting on evidence to change the current paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tota, Joseph E; Bentley, James; Blake, Jennifer; Coutlée, François; Duggan, Máire A; Ferenczy, Alex; Franco, Eduardo L; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael; Gotlieb, Walter; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; McLachlin, Meg; Murphy, Joan; Ogilvie, Gina; Ratnam, Sam

    2017-05-01

    Since being introduced in the 1940s, cervical cytology - despite its limitations - has had unequivocal success in reducing cervical cancer burden in many countries. However, we now know that infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and there is overwhelming evidence from large-scale clinical trials, feasibility studies and real-world experience that supports the introduction of molecular testing for HPV as the primary technology in cervical cancer screening (i.e., "HPV primary screening"). While questions remain about the most appropriate age groups for screening, screening interval and triage approach, these should not be considered barriers to implementation. Many countries are in various stages of adopting HPV primary screening, whereas others have not taken any major steps towards introduction of this approach. As a group of clinical experts and researchers in cervical cancer prevention from across Canada, we have jointly authored this comprehensive examination of the evidence to implement HPV primary screening. Our intention is to create a common understanding among policy makers, agencies, clinicians, researchers and other stakeholders about the evidence concerning HPV primary screening to catalyze the adoption of this improved approach to cervical cancer prevention. With the first cohort of vaccinated girls now turning 21, the age when routine screening typically begins, there is increased urgency to introduce HPV primary screening, whose performance may be less adversely affected compared with cervical cytology as a consequence of reduced lesion prevalence post-vaccination.

  19. Reaching women in the Peruvian Andes through cervical cancer screening campaigns: assessing attitudes of stakeholders and patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, John S; Maupin, Jonathan N; Ferris, Daron G; Guevara Condorhuaman, Wendy S

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is characterized by high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. The country also experiences significant gaps in quality cervical cancer screening coverage for the population. Objective This descriptive mixed methods study conducted in Cusco, Peru, aimed to assess the attitudes and perceptions of medical staff, health care workers, and patients toward a cervical cancer screening program that included both clinic-based and community outreach services conducted by a nongovernmental organization clinic (CerviCusco). The study also explored patient knowledge and attitudes around cervical cancer and about the human papillomavirus (HPV) to inform patient education efforts. Methods The study employed structured interviews with key informants (n=16) primarily from CerviCusco, which provides cervical cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment services, and surveys with a sample of patients (n=30) receiving services at the clinic and at screening campaigns. Results The majority of key informant medical staff participants felt that the general public had a very negative view of government health services. One theme running throughout the interviews was the perception that the general population lacked a culture of preventive health care and would wait until symptoms were severe before seeking treatment. Regarding services that were received by patients at CerviCusco, the participants responded that the prices were reasonable and more affordable than some private clinics. Patients attending the rural health campaigns liked that the services were free and of good quality. Conclusion CerviCusco has demonstrated its capacity to provide screening outreach campaigns to populations who had not previously had access to liquid-based cytology services. The finding that patients had generally low levels of knowledge about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine prompted the development of culturally and linguistically appropriate educational and

  20. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  1. Aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical Epidemiological aspects of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aleixo Neto

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi efetuada revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical, um dos mais freqüentes em mulheres de países em desenvolvimento. No Brasil a incidência varia de 23,7/100.000, em Porto Alegre, a 83,2/100.000, em Recife. Nos Estados Unidos a incidência em 1978 foi de 6,8/100.000 entre as mulheres brancas e de 14,7/100.000 entre as negras. Várias observações sugerem a hipótese de que o câncer cervical esteja relacionado com algum aspecto da atividade sexual, possivelmente algum agente transmitido por via venérea. As evidências têm implicado o papilomavirus humano (HPV como o principal agente etiológico deste câncer. Vários trabalhos foram analisados quanto à validade desta hipótese etiológica, mostrando que há uma relação entre HPV e o câncer cervical. Foram analisados os fatores de risco mais conhecidos, tais como o comportamento sexual, o tabagismo e a contracepção, diante das várias possibilidades etiológicas existentes.A review concerning the epidemiological issues relating to cervical cancer, one of the most frequent in the women of developing countries, was undertaken in - Brazil, the incidence rate varies from 23.7/100,000 in Porto Alegre to 83.2/100,000 in Recife. In the United States, the 1978 incidence rate was 6.8/100,000 in white women and 14.7/100,000 among black women. Several studies have suggested the hypotheses that cervical cancer could be related to some venereal agent. The evidences have shown the human papillomavirus (HPV to be the main etiological agent. Several studies on the validity of such a hypotheses were realyzed and it became clear that there does infact exist a relationship between the HPV and cervical cancer. Finally, the better known risk factors, such as sexual behaviour, smoking and the contraception were studied in the light of the various etiological hypotheses.

  2. Clinical evaluation of chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneyasu, Yuko; Okawa, Tomohiko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan); Okawa-Kita, Midori

    1997-11-01

    Locally advanced cervical cancer has a poor prognosis, poor survival rate, and high local failure rate. A number of questions regarding the optimal agents and schedule of concurrent chemoradiation remain unanswered. To improve the cure rate for advanced or recurrent cervix cancer, we studied intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) with or without radiotherapy. We analyzed 52 cases of advanced or recurrent cervical cancer treated by IAIC with or without radiotherapy. IAIC regimen was separated into two groups: group I consisted of 5-FU+MMC{+-}ADM (30 cases) and group II of CDDP+MMC{+-}5-FU (22 cases). The tip of the catheter was placed in the bifurcation of abdominal aorta or the bilateral internal iliac arteries (7 cases). The overall response rate (CR+PR) was 71%, 87% in patients receiving radiotherapy, 50% in those without radiotherapy, and 100% in primary cases. The five-year survival rate was 20% in primary cases, 14% in recurrent cases, 3% in group I and 38% in group II by chemotherapy regimen. Severe (more than grade III) hematological acute side effects were found in 48% of all cases, but recovered by interruption of drugs. In 7 cases in which the tip of the catheter was placed in internal iliac arteries, there were severe skin ulcers in 2 cases and severe pain of leg or gluteal region which need narcotics in 2 cases. These data suggest that IAIC mainly with cisplatin with or without radiotherapy is one of the effective treatments for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. But we should check blood flow distribution periodically, and control the concentration of drugs. To improve the survival rate for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, we should discuss neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and maintenance systemic chemotherapy. (author)

  3. Innovative approaches to promoting cervical health and raising cervical cancer awareness by use of existing cultural structures in resource-limited countries: experiences with traditional marriage counseling in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapambwe, Sharon; Parham, Groesbeck; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi; Chirwa, Susan; Mwanza, Jacob; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary

    2013-12-01

    The Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia (CCPPZ) has increasingly used community-level structures to increase the uptake and ensure the sustainability of the program. Traditional marriage counselors, the alangizi, who have existed in the Zambian society for many years, are one of the structures used by the program to impart cervical cancer knowledge and increase access to screening and care using an existing community structure. Several steps were followed in developing this intervention: (a) ensuring the alangizi understood the process of screening by encouraging them to go through the screening process; (b) workshops were arranged for the alangizi to meet and share experiences during which lessons were given on cervical cancer by health workers as well; and (c) eight alangizi were chosen to help document the lessons as part of ensuring that cervical cancer information is accurate and passed in a consistent manner. Over 70 alangizi, who had undergone cervical cancer screening, were trained by CCPPZ. A 'Cervical Cancer Training Manual for Marriage Counsellors' was developed to help the alangizi integrate cervical cancer lessons in their routine teachings. An evaluation was conducted during the training of the alangizi that forms the basis for this paper. The results show that although the alangizi face key challenges in their work (e.g. changing social contexts), they are still considered relevant by most communities in Zambia and are potentially an important avenue for cervical cancer and other health information. This paper shows that it is possible to integrate sexual and reproductive health messages into existing structures in the community. However, it is important to design culturally specific and sensitive healthcare strategies that embrace locally accepted good practices.

  4. Awareness and practice of cervical cancer and Pap smear testing in a teaching hospital in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Ghaoomi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is known to be preventable because of long period of pre-invasive stage, availability of screening tools, and effective treatments for early invasive cervical lesions. Screening is main measures to prevent the disease and Pap smear is a screening strategy for cervical cancer. Current paper aimed to evaluate levels of awareness and practice regarding Pap smear screening among women aged between 20 to 65 years in Tehran (Iran. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study conducted in Tehran City of Iran in 2015 at Firoozgar Hospital. The research population included all married, widowed and divorced women aged 20-65 years. Data analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation and Student’s t-tests in SPSS, ver. 23 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: Among 90 individuals who have fill questionnaire completely, 66.6% subjects had Pap smear tests. 40% of the individuals aged between 30 to 39 and the education level is distributed equally between Intermediate, Diploma and graduate and only 3 percent of them, continue their education to higher level. There was a significant relationship between the awareness of Pap smear and educational level (of both wives and husbands. The people who have graduate degree, have the best awareness. Working women revealed higher level of awareness about Pap smear. Shame and fear of taking the cancer were the most common reasons which lead to avoidance in doing the test by the women, while the most encouraging factors for performing the test were the information mostly provided by physicians and after that, the information provided by friends. Conclusion: The awareness of Pap smear test which was measured by weighting different questions in the questionnaire by experts, prove that the women aged above 39, have an average level of awareness of Pap smear test. Due to high prevalence of cervical cancer and prolonged pre invasive course, role of Pap smear for early diagnosis necessitate the use

  5. The prevalence of precancerous cervical cancer lesion among HIV-infected women in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Gedefaw

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The magnitude of precancerous cervical cancer lesions as well as invasive cervical cancer is higher in HIV-infected women than non HIV-infected women. Thus, screening targeting HIV-infected women is being undertaken in developing countries, including Ethiopia. However, data on the prevalence and determinants of precancerous cervical cancer lesion among HIV-infected women in southern Ethiopia is lacking. Thus, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with precancerous cervical cancer lesion among HIV- infected women in southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013 among HIV-infected women in Southern Ethiopia. Four hundred forty eight HIV-infected women who had been screened and treated for precancerous cervical cancer lesion were included in the study. Data were collected by using structured and pretested questionnaire. Visual inspection with acetic acid was applied for screening and treatment. SPSS version 16.0 was used for data entry and analysis. Logistic regression analysis was fitted and odds ratios with 95% Confidence intervals and p-values were computed to identify factors associated with precancerous cervical cancer lesion. RESULTS: Out of 448 study participants, 99 (22.1% were found to be positive for precancerous cervical cancer. Being currently on highly active antiretroviral treatment (AOR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.35, 0.92, history of sexually transmitted disease (AOR=2.30, 95%CI: 1.23, 4.29 and having only one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=0.33, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.56 were factors associated with precancerous cervical cancer lesion. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of precancerous cervical cancer lesion among HIV-infected women in southern Ethiopia was found to be high. Intervention to access all HIV-infected women like scaling up the limited services and awareness creation should be undertaken. Measures aimed at preventing the acquisition and

  6. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

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    Yessi Jusman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data.

  7. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016 Keynote Lecture Polyvalent Vaccines Targeting Oncogenic Driver Pathways A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 21, 2016 at 1:30pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Mary L. (Nora) Disis, MD. |

  8. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  9. Image-Based Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkenrider, Matthew M., E-mail: mharkenrider@lumc.edu; Alite, Fiori; Silva, Scott R.; Small, William

    2015-07-15

    Cervical cancer is a disease that requires considerable multidisciplinary coordination of care and labor in order to maximize tumor control and survival while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As with external beam radiation therapy, the use of advanced imaging and 3-dimensional treatment planning has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The use of image-based brachytherapy, most commonly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires additional attention and effort by the treating physician to prescribe dose to the proper volume and account for adjacent organs at risk. This represents a dramatic change from the classic Manchester approach of orthogonal radiographic images and prescribing dose to point A. We reviewed the history and currently evolving data and recommendations for the clinical use of image-based brachytherapy with an emphasis on MRI-based brachytherapy.

  10. A Proof of Concept Imaging System for Automated Cervical Cancer Screening in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Garcia, Mabel Karel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women around the world and affects half a million women per year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 275,000 women die every year, and 80% to 85% of these deaths occur in low-resource countries in Africa and South America. In Peru, cervical cancer has the highest incidence and…

  11. Positive diagnostic values and histological detection ratios from the Rotterdam cervical cancer screening programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Kreuger; H. Beerman (Henk); H.G. Nijs (Huub); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In organized screening programmes for cervical cancer, pre-cancerous lesions are detected by cervical smears. However, during follow-up after a positive smear these pre-cancerous lesions are not always found. The purpose of the study is to analys

  12. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-07

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  13. Why worry about awareness in choice problems? Econometric analysis of screening for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkar, Rochelle; Fiebig, Denzil G; Haas, Marion; Viney, Rosalie

    2006-01-01

    The decision to undertake a screening test is conditional upon awareness of screening. From an econometric perspective there is a potential selection problem, if no distinction is made between aware and unaware non-screeners. This paper explores this problem through analysis of the determinants of cervical screening in Australia. Cervical cancer is one of the most preventable and curable forms of cancer. Since 1991 there has been a concerted effort in Australia to recommend and encourage women to have Pap smears every two years. The success of this program can be partly gauged by exploring the determinants of screening for cervical cancer. Using unit record data from the 1995 National Health Survey, an econometric model is developed for whether women have ever screened or not. A proportion of women in the sample contend that they have never heard of a Pap test. The analysis characterizes this group of women and accounts for their presence in the modelling. The paper demonstrates failing to model awareness can result in inconsistent parameter estimates even when the degree of censoring in the sample is relatively small.

  14. Green tea and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of green tea and green tea polyphenols have exhibited inhibitory effects against the formation and development of tumors at different organ sites in animals. These include animal models for skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder, mammary gland, and prostate cancers. In addition to suppressing cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, and modulating signaling transduction, green tea polyphenols, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also inhibit cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of green tea polyphenols, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between green tea consumption and human cancer risk.

  15. Strengthening breast and cervical cancer control through partnerships: American Indian and Alaska Native Women and the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, David; Castro, Georgina; Flagg, T'Ronda; Landis, Kate; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Benard, Vicki B; Royalty, Janet E

    2014-08-15

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) has played a critical role in providing cancer screening services to American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/ANs) women and strengthening tribal screening capacity. Since 1991, the NBCCEDP has funded states, tribal nations, and tribal organizations to develop and implement organized screening programs. The ultimate goal is to deliver breast and cervical cancer screening to women who do not have health insurance and cannot afford to pay for these services. The delivery of clinical services is supported through complementary program efforts such as professional development, public education and outreach, and patient navigation. This article seeks to describe the growth of NBCCEDP's tribal commitment and the unique history and aspects of serving the AI/AN population. The article describes: 1) how this program has demonstrated success in improving screening of AI/AN women; 2) innovative partnerships with the Indian Health Service, state programs, and other organizations that have improved tribal public health infrastructure; and 3) the evolution of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work with tribal communities.

  16. Family and cultural influences on cervical cancer screening among immigrant Latinas in Miami-Dade County, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Valderrama, Diana; Krupp, Karl; Ibanez, Gladys

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer disproportionately affects minorities, immigrants and low-income women in the USA, with disparities greatest among Latino immigrants. We examined barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening practices among a group of immigrant Latino women in Florida, USA. Between January and May 2013, six focus group discussions, involving 35 participants, were conducted among Hispanic women in Miami to explore their knowledge, beliefs about cervical cancer and facilitators and barriers to cervical cancer screening using a theoretical framework. The data showed that family support, especially from female relatives, was an important facilitator of screening and treatment. Women, however, reported prioritising family health over their own, and some expressed fatalistic beliefs about cancer. Major obstacles to receiving a Pap smear included fear that it might result in removal of the uterus, discomfort about being seen by a male doctor and concern that testing might stigmatise them as being sexually promiscuous or having a sexually transmitted disease. Targeted education on cancer and prevention is critically needed in this population. Efforts should focus on women of all ages since younger women often turn to older female relatives for advice.

  17. Human papillomavirus genotypes and cervical cancer in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natphopsuk, Sitakan; Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa; Pientong, Chamsai; Sinawat, Supat; Yuenyao, Pissamai; Ishida, Takafumi; Settheetham, Dariwan

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer. More than 100 HPV genotypes have been identified; however the distribution varies geographically and according to ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of HPV subtypes among Northeast Thai women. Subjects included 198 cases of SCCA and 198 age-matched, healthy controls. HPV-DNA was amplified by PCR using the consensus primers GP5+/6+ system followed by reverse line blot hybridization genotyping. The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 21 (10.1%) and 152 (76.8%) in the controls and in the cases, respectively. High-risk HPV significantly increased the risk for cervical cancer with an OR of 42.4 (95%CI: 22.4-81.4, p<0.001) and an adjusted OR of 40.7-fold (95%CI: 21.5-76.8, p <0.001). HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in the SCCA (56.2%) followed by HPV-58 (17.8%) and HPV-18 (13.6%); whereas HPV-58 (46.4%) was a prominent genotype in the controls followed by HPV-16 (39.3%) and unidentified HPV types (25.0%). These findings indicate that HPV infection remains a critical risk factor for SCCA; particularly, HPV-16, HPV-58 and HPV-18. In order to eradicate cervical cancer, sustained health education, promoted use of prophylactics and a HPV-58 vaccine should be introduced in this region.

  18. Triage of HPV positive women in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schiffman, Mark; Palmer, Timothy; Arbyn, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Despite HPV vaccines, screening will remain central for decades to control cervical cancer. Recently, HPV testing alone or with cytology was introduced as an alternative to cytology screening. However, most HPV infections are harmless and additional tests are required to identify women with progressing infections or precancer. With three options for primary screening, and without clear strategies for triage of screen-positive women, there is great confusion about the best approach. Also, increasing HPV vaccination coverage will lead to lower disease prevalence, and force new screening approaches. Currently recommended triage strategies for primary HPV screening include HPV genotyping for HPV16 and HPV18 and cytology. Other alternatives that are currently evaluated include p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology, host methylation, and viral methylation testing. Clinical management of women with cervical cancer screening results is moving to use risk thresholds rather than individual test results. Specific risk thresholds have been defined for return to primary screening, repeat testing, referral to colposcopy, and immediate treatment. Choice of test algorithms is based on comparison of absolute risk estimates from triage tests with established clinical thresholds. Importantly, triage tests need to be evaluated together with the primary screening test and the downstream clinical management. An optimal integrated screening and triage strategy should reassure the vast majority of women that they are at very low risk of cervical cancer, send the women at highest risk to colposcopy at the right time, when disease can be colposcopically detected, and minimize the intermediate risk group that requires continued surveillance.

  19. Early detection of cervical cancer with visual inspection methods: a summary of completed and on-going studies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaranarayanan R

    2003-01-01

    in two cluster randomized controlled intervention trials in India. One of these studies is a 4-arm trial addressing the comparative efficacy of VIA, cytology and primary screening with HPV DNA testing. This trial will provide valuable information on comparative detection rates of CIN 2-3 lesions by the middle of 2003. The expected outcomes from the Indian studies will contribute valuable information for guiding the development of public health policies on cervical cancer prevention in countries with different levels of socio-economic and health services development and open up new avenues of research.

  20. Human Papillomavirus Genotype as a Major Determinant of the Course of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niakan M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Certain types of human papillomavrus (HPV are associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. The aim of theobservations reported here was to determine whether the prognosis for invasive cancers of the uterine cervix is related to the type of human papillomavirus asociated with the tumor. Material and Methods: Twenty Patients with invasive cervical cancer were prospectively registered from 2000 to 2001. HPV typing was performed by insitu hybridization(ISH on DNA extracted from frozen, formal in-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens. The specimens mostly represented classifications SCC Stage 1 and Stage 2 of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Table 1. HPV- DNA was detected by insituhybridization, using three different DNA Probes: types 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33/51. Results: HPV DNA was detected in the nuclei of SCC tumor cells in 13(65% of 20 cases. Of the 13 HPV-DNA positive cases three reacted only with the HPV 31/33/51 probe, two reacted only with the 16/18 probe, three showed strong hybridization for both 31/33/51 and 6/11probes, four showed 6/11 and 16/18 genotypes and one case reacted with 31/33/51,6/11and16/18probes. Conclusion: The prognosis for invasive cancers of the uterine cervix is dependent on the oncogenic potential of the associated HPV type. HPV typing may provide a prognostic indicator for individual patients and is of potential use in defining specific therapies against HPV harboring tumor cells. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that HPV infection is the primary cause of cervical neoplasia. Furthermore, they support HPV vaccine research to prevent cervical cancer and efforts to develop HPV DNA diagnostic tests.

  1. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Leśniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków.

  2. Prevenção do câncer de colo do útero: um modelo teórico para analisar o acesso e a utilização do teste de Papanicolaou Cervical cancer prevention: a theoretical framework to analyze Papanicolaou test access and use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Araujo Pinho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Vários estudos têm apontado que a permanência das altas taxas de incidência e mortalidade por câncer cérvico-uterino deve-se à baixa qualidade e cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento. Pretende-se neste artigo analizar alguns pontos relacionados às medidas de prevenção e controle do câncer cervical quanto à efetividade do teste de Papanicolaou, a lógica operacional e científica por detrás das políticas públicas de prevenção ao câncer cervical e a cobertura do teste em países norte-americanos, europeus e na América Latina. Consideram-se, ainda, os modelos explicativos que estão sendo propostos para avaliar o acesso e a utilização deste serviço, a partir da análise dos fatores associados à realização do teste de Papanicolaou descritos pela literatura. Propõe-se uma nova abordagem na investigação destes fatores, buscando a integração e interlocução de outros aspectos de cunho social, cultural e organizacional na análise do acesso e da utilização deste exame, visando um planejamento mais coerente das ações de prevenção e promoção à saúde com as necessidades e direitos das mulheres.Several studies have indicated that the prevailing high incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer, mainly in developing countries, are due to the low quality and coverage of the cervical smear or Papanicolaou (Pap test. This article intends to analise some aspects related to measures of control and prevention of cervical cancer, such as the effectiveness of the Pap test, the operational and scientific rationale of public health policies for the prevention of cervical cancer and coverage of the Papanicolaou test in many countries. It also intends to review the explanatory models that have been proposed to analyze access to this service. For this latter objective, we investigated the factors associated to the use of the Pap test described within the epidemiological literature and

  3. Understanding women's hesitancy to undergo less frequent cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Melissa A; Kaltz, Emily A; Davis, Whitney J; Shepherd, Janet E

    2017-02-01

    Inappropriate cervical cancer screening (e.g., screening too often) can result in unnecessary medical procedures, treatment, and psychological distress. To balance the benefits and harms, cervical cancer screening guidelines were recently modified in favor of less frequent screening (i.e., every 3 to 5 years). This study investigated women's acceptance of less frequent cervical cancer screening and their primary concerns about extending the screening interval beyond one year. A national sample of 376 U.S. women ages 21-65 completed an online survey in 2014. Predictors of willingness to get a Pap test every 3 to 5 years were identified using logistic regression. We also examined perceived consequences of less frequent screening. Over two thirds were willing to undergo less frequent screening if it was recommended by their healthcare provider. Nevertheless, nearly 20% expressed discomfort with less frequent screening and 45% were either in opposition or unsure whether they would be comfortable replacing Pap testing with primary HPV testing. Women whose most recent Pap test was (vs. was not) within the past year and women who ever (vs. never) had an abnormal Pap test were less willing to extend the screening interval. Additionally, women who typically saw an obstetrician/gynecologist or nurse practitioner for their Pap test (vs. a family physician) were less accepting of the guidelines. Hesitancy about the longer screening interval appears to stem from concern about developing cancer between screenings. Findings contribute to the growing body of research on cancer overscreening and may inform interventions for improving adherence to cancer screening guidelines.

  4. Research Advancement of Relationship between Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer%人乳头瘤病毒感染与宫颈癌的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英华; 陈瑛

    2013-01-01

    宫颈癌是一种严重危害女性健康的恶性肿瘤,其发病率较高,位居女性恶性肿瘤的第二位,仅次于乳腺癌.流行病学治疗显示,99%的宫颈癌患者均感染高危型人乳头瘤病毒(Human papillomavirus,HPV),HPV是宫颈癌的首要病因.近年来,HPV分型检测技术的发展十分迅速,在宫颈癌筛查中与细胞学检测联合应用,对子宫颈病变的早期发现和预防有很重要的意义,可以提高诊断的敏感性,预防宫颈癌的发生和改善宫颈癌患者的预后.本文拟对HPV感染的检测方法与宫颈癌的研究进展做一综述.%Cervical cancer is a malignant tumor, and it has relatively high incidence, second only to breast cancer. Epidemiological treatment study showed that, 99% of the patients with cervical cancer are all infected with high-risk human papillomavirus which is the primary cause of cervical cancer. The HPV genotyping technology has developed rapidly in recent years, HPV detecting and genotyping combined with cytology in the cervical cancer screening is very important for early detection and prevention of cervical lesions, which not only can improve the sensitivity, but also can greatly prevent the incidence of cervical cancer and improve the prognosis of patient with cervical cancer. We briefly review the detection methods of HPV infection and the progress of cervical cancer.

  5. Can the Tomato Prevent Cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建明

    2009-01-01

    难度:★★★★☆字数:368建议时间:5分钟Apurple tomato genetically engineered to con-tain nutrients more commonly seen in dark berries helped prevent cancer in mice,British researchers said on Sunday.The finding,published in

  6. Association of insulin resistance with breast, ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancers in non-diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanwan; Lu, Jieli; Wu, Shengli; Bi, Yufang; Mu, Yiming; Zhao, Jiajun; Liu, Chao; Chen, Lulu; Shi, Lixin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Tao; Yan, Li; Wan, Qin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Guixia; Luo, Zuojie; Tang, Xulei; Chen, Gang; Huo, Yanan; Gao, Zhengnan; Su, Qing; Ye, Zhen; Wang, Youmin; Qin, Guijun; Deng, Huacong; Yu, Xuefeng; Shen, Feixia; Chen, Li; Zhao, Liebin; Wang, Tiange; Sun, Jichao; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Chen, Yuhong; Dai, Meng; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Di; Lai, Shenghan; Li, Donghui; Ning, Guang; Wang, Weiqing

    2016-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were reported to play a crucial role in diabetes-cancer relationship. This study aimed to explore the associations between insulin resistance and several female cancers in a non-diabetic population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 121,230 middle-aged and elderly non-diabetic women. Cancer diagnosis was self-reported and further validated by medical records. Insulin resistance was defined as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥ 2.50. The prevalence of both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer, postmenopausal ovarian cancer and premenopausal endometrial cancer were higher in insulin-resistant participants than in insulin-sensitive participants (premenopausal breast cancer, 0.45 vs 0.28%; postmenopausal breast cancer, 0.86 vs 0.63%; postmenopausal ovarian cancer, 0.17 vs 0.09%; premenopausal endometrial cancer, 0.43 vs 0.25%, respectively, all P insulin resistance had higher odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer, both premenopausal and postmenopausal (OR 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-3.32; OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.63), postmenopausal ovarian cancer (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.10-3.40) as well as total endometrial cancer (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.12). Subgroup analysis revealed that the possitive association between insulin resistance and risk of prevalent breast cancer was observed in popualtion with younger age, overweight or obesity, higher education and impaired glucose tolerance (IGR). No relationships were observed for the risk of prevalent cervical cancers with insulin resistance. Non-diabetic women with insulin resistance had higher risk of prevalent breast, ovarian and endomatrial cancer, which suggests special attentions to these female cancer screening and prevention.

  7. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the -Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species 5 (HPV51), 6 (HPV56), 7 (H...

  8. Morphological evaluation of rentgenendovaskular interventions for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vazhenin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an analysis of therapeutic pathomorphosis after rentgenoendovaskular interventions in patients with cervical cancer. Found more significant changes after chemoembolization with low (10% 3rd class pathomorphosis dominated by downward 2 nd degree. Index of effect indicates more effective therapy with chemoembolization than embolization. The morphological changes in cervi- cal tissue squamous cell cancer after rentgenoendovaskular treatment are followed by circulatory parenchyma tumor destruction. Changes of tumor cells are qualitatively consistent character and were based in nekrobiosis dystrophy with subsequent necrosis of tumor tissue, and varying degrees of popularity.

  9. Knowledge, Awareness and Attitude on HPV, HPV Vaccine and Cervical Cancer among the College Students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Shazia; Labani, Satyanarayana; Das, Bhudev C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infection of specific high risk Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is known to cause cervical cancer and two prophylactic vaccines have been developed against two major high risk HPV types 16 and 18 for prevention of cervical cancer. Because of societal, religious and ethical issues associated with the vaccination of adolescent girls in India together with lack of awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines, no successful HPV immunization program has been employed in India. Objective To determine knowledge, awareness and attitude of college students on HPV, HPV vaccine and cervical cancer. Method A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in a total of 1580 undergraduate students between the age group 16–26 years comprising 684 girls and 876 boys. Results Out of a total of 1580 students, girls had more knowledge about cervical cancer (82.45%, p<0.001), HPV (45.61%, p<0.001) and HPV vaccines (44%, p<0.001) when compared to those in boys. However, knowledge about the types of HPV and vaccines was poor. Interestingly, students from biology-major had more knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer (81.89%, p<0.001) and HPV (46.58%, <0.001) when compared to non-biology students. Girls from both biology and non-biology group had higher awareness compared to boys. Analysis of odds ratio (ORs) along with 95% CI showed older girls with 1.2 to 3 fold (p<0.05) higher knowledge than boys. All students agreed that girls should get vaccinated against HPV (p<0.001). Conclusion It is suggested that there is a need for educational intervention and awareness campaigns to augment HPV immunization program for control of cervical cancer in India. PMID:27861611

  10. Occupational cancer in Britain. Preventing occupational cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-06-19

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed.

  11. MicroRNA-373 functions as an oncogene and targets YOD1 gene in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Luo-Qiao; Zhang, Yue; Yan, Huan; Liu, Kai-Jiang, E-mail: liukaijiang@126.com; Zhang, Shu, E-mail: drzhangshu@126.com

    2015-04-10

    miR-373 was reported to be elevated in several tumors; however, the role of miR-373 in cervical cancer has not been investigated. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. The expression of miR-373 was investigated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay in 45 cervical specimens and cervical cancer cell lines. The role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells was assessed by cell proliferation, colony formation in vitro as well as tumor growth assays in vivo with the overexpression of miR-373 or gene silencing. The functional target gene of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells was identified using integrated bioinformatics analysis, gene expression arrays, and luciferase assay. We founded that the expression of miR-373 is upregulated in human cervical cancer tissues and cervical carcinoma cell lines when compared to the corresponding noncancerous tissues. Ectopic overexpression of miR-373 in human cervical cancer cells promoted cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, whereas silencing the expression of miR-373 decreased the rate of cell growth. YOD1 was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells. Expression levels of miR-373 were inversely correlated with YOD1 levels in human cervical cancer tissues. RNAi-mediated knockdown of YOD1 phenocopied the proliferation-promoting effect of miR-373. Moreover, overexpression of YOD1 abrogated miR-373-induced proliferation of cervical cancer cells. These results demonstrate that miR-373 increases proliferation by directly targeting YOD1, a new potential therapeutic target in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • The expression of miR-373 is upregulated in human cervical cancer tissues. • miR-373 effects as oncogenic miRNA in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. • miR-373 increases proliferation of cervical cancer cells by directly targeting YOD1.

  12. Expression and Effects of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoao Pang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of high- mobility group box1 (HMGB1 and T-cell-mediated immunity and prognostic value in cervical cancer. HMGB1, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3, IL-2, and IL-10 protein expression was analyzed in 100 cervical tissue samples including cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and healthy control samples using immunohistochemistry. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag was immunoradiometrically measured in 32 serum samples from 37 cases of squamous cervical cancer. HMGB1 and SCC-Ag were then correlated to clinicopathological characteristics. HMGB1 expression tends to increase as cervical cancer progresses and it was found to be significantly correlated to FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. These findings suggest that HMGB1 may be a useful prognostic indicator of cervical carcinoma. In addition, there were significant positive relationships between HMGB1 and FOXP3 or IL-10 expression (both p < 0.05. In contrast, HMGB1 and IL-2 expression was negatively correlated (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression may activate Tregs or facilitate Th2 polarization to promote immune evasion of cervical cancer. Elevated HMGB1 protein in cervical carcinoma samples was associated with a high recurrence of HPV infection in univariate analysis (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression and levels of SCC-Ag were directly correlated in SCC (p < 0.05. Thus, HMGB1 may be a useful biomarker for patient prognosis and cervical cancer prediction and treatment.

  13. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of cervical cancer in member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG focusing on details of radiotherapy...

  14. Early stage cervical cancer : quality of cancer care and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Quirine Dionne

    2007-01-01

    To improve quality of cancer care treatment-related information is needed. This could be acquired by registries. Since January 1984, the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) collects prospectively more than 200 relevant clinical and pathological parameters of women with cervical cancer treated in

  15. [Epidemiology of cervical cancer in a region of western Algeria, 2006-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boublenza, L; Hadef, K; Beldjillali, H; Chabni, N; Reguegba, D; Meguenni, K

    2013-05-01

    The authors present a retrospective analysis of data about cervical cancer from 2006 through 2010 in the province (wilaya) of Tlemcen (Algeria). During this five-year study period, 196 cases of cervical cancer were recorded, with a mean age at onset of 48.5 years. These cervical cancers accounted for 13% of all gynecologic cancers. It is the second leading cancer among women in this province, with an incidence of 13.3 per 100 000 women. The health authorities in Algeria must set up an organized screening policy and appropriate treatment to reduce the mortality rate from this cancer.

  16. Development of disulfiram-loaded vaginal rings for the localised treatment of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Peter; Major, Ian; Wang, Weiguang; McConville, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women and disproportionately affects those in low resource settings due to limited programs for screening and prevention. In the developed world treatment for the disease in the non-metastasised state usually takes the form of surgical intervention and/or radiotherapy. In the developing world such techniques are less widely available. This paper describes the development of an intravaginal ring for the localised delivery of a chemotherapeutic drug to the cervix that has the potential to reduce the need for surgical intervention and will also provide a novel anti-cancer therapy for women in low resource settings. Disulfiram has demonstrated antineoplastic action against prostate, breast and lung cancer. Both PEVA and silicone elastomer were investigated for suitability as materials in the manufacture of DSF eluting intravaginal rings. DSF inhibited the curing process of the silicone elastomer, therefore PEVA was chosen as the material to manufacture the DSF-loaded vaginal rings. The vaginal rings had an excellent content uniformity while the DSF remained stable throughout the manufacturing process. Furthermore, the rings provided diffusion controlled release of DSF at levels well in excess of the IC50 value for the HeLa cervical cancer cell line.

  17. Waiting time for radiotherapy in women with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the waiting time for radiotherapy for patients with cervical cancer. METHODS This descriptive study was conducted with 342 cervical cancer cases that were referred to primary radiotherapy, in the Baixada Fluminense region, RJ, Southeastern Brazil, from October 1995 to August 2010. The waiting time was calculated using the recommended 60-day deadline as a parameter to obtaining the first cancer treatment and considering the date at which the diagnosis was confirmed, the date of first oncological consultation and date when the radiotherapy began. Median and proportional comparisons were made using the Kruskal Wallis and Chi-square tests. RESULTS Most of the women (72.2% began their radiotherapy within 60 days from the diagnostic confirmation date. The median of this total waiting time was 41 days. This median worsened over the time period, going from 11 days (1995-1996 to 64 days (2009-2010. The median interval between the diagnostic confirmation and the first oncological consultation was 33 days, and between the first oncological consultation and the first radiotherapy session was four days. The median waiting time differed significantly (p = 0.003 according to different stages of the tumor, reaching 56 days, 35 days and 30 days for women whose cancers were classified up to IIA; from IIB to IIIB, and IVA-IVB, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Despite most of the women having had access to radiotherapy within the recommended 60 days, the implementation of procedures to define the stage of the tumor and to reestablish clinical conditions took a large part of this time, showing that at least one of these intervals needs to be improved. Even though the waiting times were ideal for all patients, the most advanced cases were quickly treated, which suggests that access to radiotherapy by women with cervical cancer has been reached with equity.

  18. Screening history of cervical cancers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: defining priorities to improve cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Caroli, Stefania; Mancini, Silvia; de' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Finarelli, Alba C; Naldoni, Carlo; Bucchi, Lauro; Falcini, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Most invasive cervical cancers in industrialized countries are due to the lack of Pap test coverage, very few are due to screening failures. This study aimed at quantifying the proportion of invasive cancers occurring in nonscreened or underscreened women and that in women with a previous negative screening, that is, screening failure, during the first two screening rounds (1996-2002) and in the following rounds (2003-2008) in the Emilia-Romagna region. All cases of invasive cancers registered in the regional cancer registry between 1996 and 2008 were classified according to screening history through a record linkage with the screening programme registry. The incidence significantly decreased from 11.6/100 000 to 8.7/100 000; this decrease is due to a reduction in squamous cell cancers (annual percentage change -6.2; confidence interval: -7.8, -4.6) and advanced cancers (annual percentage change -6.6; confidence interval: -8.8, -4.3), whereas adenocarcinomas and microinvasive cancers were essentially stable. The proportion of cancers among women not yet invited and among nonresponders decreased over the two periods, from 45.5 to 33.3%. In contrast, the proportion of women with a previous negative Pap test less than 5 years and 5 years or more before cancer incidence increased from 5.7 to 13.3% and from 0.3 to 5.5%, respectively. Although nonattendance of the screening programme remains the main barrier to cervical cancer control, the introduction of a more sensitive test, such as the human papillomavirus DNA test, could significantly reduce the burden of disease.

  19. Intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of cervical cancer and evaluation of response of uterine cervical cancer to radiochemotherapy:A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanchun Wang; Daoyu Hu; Shan Hu; Xuemei Hu; Jianjun Li; Yaqi Shen; Xiaoyu Liu; Zhi Wang; Xiaoyan Meng; Zhen Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) dif usion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose cervical cancer and to evaluate the response of uterine cervical cancer to radiochemotherapy (CRT). Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from al patients. A total of 23 patients with primary cervical cancer who were undergoing CRT and 16 age-matched healthy subjects were prospectively recruited for IVIM (b = 0–800 s/mm2) and stan-dard pelvic MRI. Bi-exponential analysis was performed to derive f (perfusion fraction), D* (pseudo-dif usion coef icient), and D (true molecular dif usion coef icient) in cervical cancer (n = 23) and the normal cervix (n= 16). The apparent dif usion coef icient (standard ADC) was calculated. The independent-samples t-test and paired-samples t-test were used for comparisons. Results Pre-treatment cervical cancer had the lowest standard ADC (1.15 ± 0.13 × 10-3 mm2/s) and D (0.89 ± 0.10 × 10-3 mm2/s) values, and these were significantly dif erent from the normal cervix and post-treatment cervical cancer (P = 0.00). The f (16.67 ± 5.85%) was lowest in pre-treatment cervical cancer and was significantly dif erent from the normal cervix and post-treatment cervical cancer (p = 0.012 and 0.00, respectively). No dif erence was observed in D*. Conclusion IVIM is potential y promising for dif erentiating between the normal cervix and cervical can-cer because pre-treated cervical cancer has low perfusion and dif usion IVIM characteristics. Further, the standard ADC, D, and f of cervical cancer showed a tendency to normalize after CRT; thus, IVIM may be useful for monitoring the response to CRT in cervical cancer.

  20. The expression andprognostic value ofprotein tyrosine kinase 6 inearly-stage cervical squamous cell cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoJingWang; YingXiong; ZeBiaoMa; JianChuanXia; YanFangLi

    2016-01-01

    Background:Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) is overexpressed in many epithelial tumors and predicts poor progno‑sis. However, PTK6 expression status and its role in cervical squamous cell cancer are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the expression level and clinical signiifcance of PTK6 in early‑stage cervical squamous cell cancer. Methods:Quantitative reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (qRT‑PCR) and western blotting analysis were performed to detect PTK6 mRNA and protein expression levels in 10 freshly frozen, early‑stage cervical squamous cell cancer specimens and adjacent non‑tumorous cervical tissues. The expression of PTK6 was detected using immuno‑histochemical staining in 150 formalin‑ifxed, paraffn‑embedded, early‑stage cervical squamous cell cancer sections and 10 normal cervical tissue sections. Results:The mRNA and protein levels of PTK6 in cancer tissues were higher than those in adjacent non‑tumorous cervical tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PTK6 was not expressed in normal cervical tissues but was overexpressed in the cytoplasm of cervical squamous cell cancer cells. The level of PTK6 expression was signiif‑cantly associated with tumor grade (P=0.020). The 5‑year overall survival rate of patients with high PTK6 expression was lower than that of patients with low PTK6 expression (81.3% vs. 96.2%,P=0.008). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the expression level of PTK6 in cervical squamous cell cancer was an independent prognostic factor for patient survival (hazard ratio=5.999, 95% conifdence interval 1.622–22.191,P Conclusions:PTK6 is overexpressed in cervical squamous cell cancer. Increased PTK6 expression is associated with reduced 5‑year overall survival. PTK6 expression is an independent prognostic predictor for cervical cancer.

  1. REPRODUCTIVE ASPECTS ASSOCIATED WITH PRECURSOR LESIONS FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ferrari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between reproductive variables and theprecursor lesions for cervical cancer in women attended the clinic of the lower genitaltract pathology and colposcopy (PTGIC, packed in the complex regional healthCaceres city, southwest of Mato Grosso, in the year 2009.Methods:We conducted across sectional study with data collection from medical records of 142 women withabnormal cytology, colposcopy and positive underwent directed biopsy, taking intoaccount the reproductive variables.Results:indicate that the minimum age at menarchewas 9 years and maximum age was 17 years, mean 12.6 years; on the average paritywas 3.4 children, the use of hormonal contraceptive method corresponds to 34 5% and38.1% female sterilization research, 46.5% are or have use of contraception for a periodgreater than five years, with a mean of 4.7 years and 67.2% of women surveyed do notuse condoms. The variables were not significantly associated to cervical cancer.Conclusion:the characteristics of the women studied may serve as a basis for workdirected to this population in order to seek to minimize this problem.Although the dataobtained were satisfactory, it was possible to trace the profile of the reproductiveaspects of women in the Clinic ofPTGIC, there is a lack of association betweenreproductive aspects and findings of the cervical biopsy, it may be associated with somelimiting factors of the study that need to be balanced

  2. Significance of Ebp1 and p53 protein expression in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Li, X D; Chen, H Y; Cui, J S; Xu, D Y

    2015-10-02

    In this study, the ErbB3-binding protein (Ebp1) and p53 protein expression in cervical cancer tissues, and its significance in the prognosis of the disease was investigated. Ebp1 and p53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemical analysis in cervical cancer tissues (N = 60) and normal tissues adjacent to the cancer tissues (N = 60). The rates of positive Ebp1 and p53 protein expression were 35.0 and 60.0%, respectively. Ebp1 and p53 were overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues, compared to normal tissues (P p53 protein expression was not correlated with age, tumor size, or family tumor history (P > 0.05). However, high levels of expression of Ebp1 and p53 were positively correlated with the TNM stage and lymphatic metastasis in cervical cancer patients (P p53 expression levels in cervical cancer patients could support the effective prediction of metastatic potential and patient prognosis.

  3. The Need for Cervical Cancer Control in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women from Romania by Primary Prevention and by Early Detection Using Clinically Validated HPV/DNA Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Gabriela Ursu

    Full Text Available In Romania, a country with no organized national surveillance program regarding cervical cancer, the early diagnosis of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus infections is a major requirement, especially in HIV-infected women. The objective of this study was to determine the HPV prevalence and type distribution in young HIV-positive women and to assess the difference in the risk factors for developing cervical cancer compared to those of HIV-negative women.We conducted one cross-sectional cohort study from June 2013-September 2014, including 1,032 women: 992 HIV- women who were 36.5 years old (limits: 17 ÷ 84 and 40 HIV + women who were 22.9 years old (limits: 17 ÷ 30 with iatrogenic HIV infected. We detected HPV types with the Linear Array HPV Genotyping test (Roche, Romania.DNA/HPV was detected in 18/40 (45% of the HIV+ patients and in 350/992 (35.2% of the HIV- patients (OR = 1.5, 95%CI 0.76÷2.96. After age adjustment, the overall HPV prevalence was 51.6% in HIV+ versus 63.2% in HIV- women aged under 25, and 22.2% in HPV+ versus 47.2% in HIV- women aged 25-34. We detect HIV being a risk factor for acquiring multiple HPV type infections (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 0.88÷5.97. The eight most common HPV types (high-risk, and low-risk for women below age 30, HIV+ / - were: HPV 16, 18, 31, 51, 58, 68, and 6 and 82 respectively. To assess the risk factors of HIV-positive women for acquiring HPV infection, we analyzed the CD4/μL, ARN/HIV copies/μL, the age group, the number of sexual partners, smoking, and the type of HPV infection (single versus multiple infections. We found that the number of sexual partners and smoking are statistically significant risk factors.Even though there are no significant differences regarding the prevalence of HPV infection in HIV + versus HIV - patients, multiple infections were more frequent in the first group. In our study group young HIV-infected patients under HAART therapy, high number of sexual partners (more than 3 and smoking

  4. Epidemiology of HPV 16 and cervical cancer in Finland and the potential impact of vaccination: mathematical modelling analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruanne V Barnabas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Candidate human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have demonstrated almost 90%-100% efficacy in preventing persistent, type-specific HPV infection over 18 mo in clinical trials. If these vaccines go on to demonstrate prevention of precancerous lesions in phase III clinical trials, they will be licensed for public use in the near future. How these vaccines will be used in countries with national cervical cancer screening programmes is an important question. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a transmission model of HPV 16 infection and progression to cervical cancer and calibrated it to Finnish HPV 16 seroprevalence over time. The model was used to estimate the transmission probability of the virus, to look at the effect of changes in patterns of sexual behaviour and smoking on age-specific trends in cancer incidence, and to explore the impact of HPV 16 vaccination. We estimated a high per-partnership transmission probability of HPV 16, of 0.6. The modelling analyses showed that changes in sexual behaviour and smoking accounted, in part, for the increase seen in cervical cancer incidence in 35- to 39-y-old women from 1990 to 1999. At both low (10% in opportunistic immunisation and high (90% in a national immunisation programme coverage of the adolescent population, vaccinating women and men had little benefit over vaccinating women alone. We estimate that vaccinating 90% of young women before sexual debut has the potential to decrease HPV type-specific (e.g., type 16 cervical cancer incidence by 91%. If older women are more likely to have persistent infections and progress to cancer, then vaccination with a duration of protection of less than 15 y could result in an older susceptible cohort and no decrease in cancer incidence. While vaccination has the potential to significantly reduce type-specific cancer incidence, its combination with screening further improves cancer prevention. CONCLUSIONS: HPV vaccination has the potential to

  5. Clinical Trials Management | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials.

  6. Expression of the CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 axes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Huang; Jia Zhang; Zhu-Mei Cui; Jing Zhao; Ye Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 is highly expressed in gynecologic tumors and is widely known to play a biologically relevant role in tumor growth and spread.Recent evidence suggests that CXCL16,a novel chemokine,is overexpressed in inflammation-associated tumors and mediates pro-tumorigenic effects of inflammation in prostate cancer.We therefore analyzed the expression of CXCL12 and CXCL16 and their respective receptors CXCR4 and CXCR6 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer and further assessed their association with clinicopathologic features and outcomes.Tissue chip technology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of CXCL12,CXCR4,CXCL16,and CXCR6 in healthy cervical tissue (21 cases),CIN (65 cases),and cervical carcinoma (60 cases).The association of protein expression with clinicopathologic features and overall survival was analyzed.These four proteins were clearly detected in membrane and cytoplasm of neoplastic epithelial cells,and their distribution and intensity of expression increased as neoplastic lesions progressed through CIN1,CIN2,and CIN3 to invasive cancer.Furthermore,the expression of CXCR4 was associated significantly with the histologic grade of cervical carcinoma,whereas the expression of CXCR6 was associated significantly with lymph node metastasis.In Kaplan-Meier analysis,patients with high CXCR6 expression had significantly shorter overall survival than did those with low CXCR6 expression.The elevated co-expression levels of CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 in CIN and cervical carcinoma suggest a durative process in cervical carcinoma development.Moreover,CXCR6 may be useful as a biomarker and a valuable prognostic factor for cervical cancer.

  7. Rectum separation in patients with cervical cancer for treatment planning in primary chemo-radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Marnitz Simone; Budach Volker; Weißer Friederike; Burova Elena; Gebauer Bernhard; Vercellino Filiberto; Köhler Christhardt

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To proof feasibility of hydrogel application in patients with advanced cervical cancer undergoing chemo-radiation in order to reduce rectal toxicity from external beam radiation as well as brachytherapy. Material and methods Under transrectal sonographic guidance five patients with proven cervical cancer underwent hydro gel (20 cc) instillation into the tip of rectovaginal septum adherent to posterior part of the visible cervical tumor. Five days after this procedure all pati...

  8. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  9. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  10. Pretreatment plasma levels and diagnostic utility of hematopoietic cytokines in cervical cancer or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ławicki, Sławomir; Będkowska, Grażyna E; Gacuta-Szumarska, Ewa; Knapp, Paweł; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2012-07-04

    In this study, we compared plasma levels and the diagnostic utility of hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) with SCC-Ag in cervical cancer patients in relation to control groups and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients and healthy subjects. Pretreatment plasma levels of HGFs (SCF, GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF) were determined by the use of immunoenzyme assay (ELISA), and SCC-Ag by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Significantly different concentrations of GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF were observed in the group of patients with cervical cancer and CIN compared to the healthy controls. Significant differences in plasma levels of GM-CSF and M-CSF between cervical cancer and benign lesions patients were also found. The HGFs and SCC-Ag diagnostic specificities received high values. The diagnostic sensitivity and the predictive value of a positive and negative test result were higher for M-CSF than for antigen SCC in the cancer group. The M-CSF area under the ROC curve (AUC) was the largest from hematopoietic cytokines and SCC-Ag. These results suggest the potential utility of M-CSF as a good candidate for a marker of cervical cancer as well as benign lesions of this organ (CIN).

  11. No Value for Routine Chest Radiography in the Work-Up of Early Stage Cervical Cancer Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, Jacob P.; Zweemer, Ronald P.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; de Jong, Pim A.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.; Verheijen, Rene H. M.; Veldhuis, WB

    2015-01-01

    Aim Evidence supporting the recommendation to include chest radiography in the work-up of all cervical cancer patients is limited. We investigated the diagnostic value of routine chest radiography in cervical cancer staging. Methods All consecutive cervical cancer patients who presented at our terti

  12. The utility of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jianyu, E-mail: Chenjianyu5562@163.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Zhang Yun, E-mail: Zhangyun.7@163.co [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou, 510060 (China) and Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060 (China); Liang Biling, E-mail: liangbil@126.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Yang Zehong, E-mail: Yangzehong2000@163.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in detection of cervical cancer, and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for evaluating cervical cancer before and after chemoradiotherapy. Materials and methods: Thirty-three patients with cervical squamous carcinoma and 20 patients with other pelvic abnormalities underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in addition to routine MR imaging. The ADC values of normal cervical tissue, cervical area before and after chemoradiotherapy were measured and compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to investigate whether ADC values could help in discrimination among normal cervical tissue, cervical cancer before and after therapy, and to obtain the optimal ADC threshold value. Results: Cervical cancer lesion demonstrated obviously hyperintensity on DWI images. The mean ADC value of cervical carcinoma (1.110 {+-} 0.175 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly lower than that of normal cervical tissue (1.593 {+-} 0.151 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) (P < 0.001). The mean ADC value of the cervical area in 22 patients treated by chemoradiotherapy (1.436 {+-} 0.129 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly higher than that before therapy (1.013 {+-} 0.094 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) (P < 0.001). The difference of ADC values between normal cervical tissue and cervical area after therapy was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The optimal ADC threshold values for distinguishing between normal cervical tissue and cervical carcinoma was 1.359 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, between cervical area before and after therapy was 1.255 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, between normal cervical tissue and cervical area after therapy was 1.525 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 84.8%, 95.5% and 100%, 70% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusion: DWI can be applied for the detection of cervical cancer because of its superior

  13. Expression of Pin1 and Ki67 in Cervical Cancer and Their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression levels of Pin1 mRNA and protein in cervical cancer and its association with Ki67 and their clinical significance, amplification of Pin1 gene was examined by RT-PCR, and the expression of both Pin1 and Ki67 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in cervical cancer tissues. It was shown that the expression levels of Pin1 were higher in cervical cancer than in normal cervical tissues (P<0.05). The expression of Pin1 protein was increased progressively along with the disease process from normal cervix to CIN and to cervical cancer (P<0. 05). No significant difference in the Pin1 expression was found between disease stages (FIGO),pathological grades or pelvic lymph node metastasis status (P>0.05). The expression of Pin1 was significantly higher in adenocarcinoma than insquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix (P<0.05).In cervical cancer, the overexpression of Pin1 was positively correlated with that of Ki67 (P<0.05). These results suggested that the overexpression of Pin1 was closely related with cancer cell proliferation or progression of cervical cancer and contributed to oncogenesis. Pin1 may serve as a potential marker for cervical cancer diagnosis.

  14. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  15. Optimization of adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer: Solutions for photon and proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, A.J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In cervical cancer radiation therapy, an adaptive strategy is required to compensate for interfraction anatomical variations in order to achieve adequate dose delivery. In this thesis, we have aimed at optimizing adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer to improve treatment efficiency and reduc

  16. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  17. Iodine-125 radioactive seed tissue implantation as a remedy treatment for recurrent cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Han

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Iodine-125 radioactive seed tissue implantation is a feasible, effective, and safe treatment method for remedying or palliative treatment of recurrent cervical cancer. Patients who have recurrent cervical cancer and responded effectively to radioactive seed implantation will have a longer survival period.

  18. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...

  19. Isolated mandibular condylar metastases: An uncommon manifestation of recurrent cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amey