WorldWideScience

Sample records for cervical cancer prevention

  1. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  2. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk? What Are the Symptoms? What Should I Know About Screening? Statistics Related Links Inside Knowledge Campaign What CDC Is Doing Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-877KB] High-quality PDF for professional ...

  3. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  4. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

  5. Prevention program of cervical cancer - Enrique Pouey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the first basic objectives in the prevention of cervical cancer in Uruguay. The Papanicolaou test, the biopsia, and the colposcopy are important studies for the early cervical cancer detection

  6. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  7. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention. No woman should die of cervical cancer. Doctors, nurses, and health systems can: Help women understand what ... Cancer Early Detection Program , Title X Family Planning Doctors, nurses, and health systems can Help women understand which ...

  9. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  10. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  11. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Pakhee

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is...

  12. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pakhee

    2014-10-10

    Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is determined by the population coverage and the efficacy of the screening technique. A number of techniques are in use, including cytology, visual inspection (using the naked eye, magnivisualizer, acetic acid and Lugol's iodine), HPV testing and a combination of these methods. Updated screening guidelines have been advocated by the American Cancer Society in light of the role of HPV on cervical carcinogenesis. Recent research has also focussed on novel biomarkers that can predict progression to cancer in screen positive women and help to differentiate those who need treatment from those who can be left for follow-up. Last but not the least, effective treatment of precancerous lesions can help to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and this constitutes tertiary prevention. A combination of these approaches can help to prevent the burden of cervical cancer and its antecedent morbidity and mortality, but all of these are not feasible in all settings due to resource and allocation constraints. Thus, all countries, especially low and middle income ones, have to determine their own cocktail of approaches that work before we can say with certainty that yes, cervical cancer can be prevented. PMID:25302177

  13. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Majidi; Reza Ghiasvand; Maryam Hadji; Azin Nahvijou; Azam-Sadat Mousavi; Minoo Pakgohar; Nahid Khodakarami; Mehrandokht Abedini; Farnaz Amouzegar Hashemi; Marjan Rahnamaye Farzami; Reza Shahsiah; Sima Sajedinejhad; Mohammad Ali Mohagheghi; Fatemeh Nadali; Arash Rashidian

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor progn...

  14. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  15. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to see your doctor. www.cdc.gov/cancer/knowledge 1-800-CDC-INFO Are there tests that can prevent cervical cancer or find it early? There are two tests that can either help prevent cervical cancer or find it early: • The Pap test (or Pap smear)looks for precancers, cell changes, on the cervix ...

  16. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  17. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Azam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hadji, Maryam; Nahvijou, Azin; Mousavi, Azam-Sadat; Pakgohar, Minoo; Khodakarami, Nahid; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rahnamaye Farzami, Marjan; Shahsiah, Reza; Sajedinejhad, Sima; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Nadali, Fatemeh; Rashidian, Arash; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Mogensen, Ole; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods: We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results: From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  18. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  19. Behaviour among women in the scope of cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Słopiecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cytological examination is a simple and inexpensive method used in the prevention of cervical cancer. In Poland, too low proportions of women still have the test. Aim of the research : To analyse the attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention. Material and methods : Two hundred and ten hospitalized women were invited to take part in the investigation. The research used the diagnostic poll method, using the author’s original questionnaire form. The research was carried out in four gynaecological wards. Results : Of the women who participated in the research, 16.2% by the time of diagnosis had never received a Pap test. In the analysed group, 88.2% of women were not referred to a specialist for a Pap test. Among all respondents, only 35.7% underwent cervix cytology regularly, i.e. once a year or once every 2 years. Conclusions : The effort made by the women towards the attitudes of cervical cancer prevention was insufficient; still too many women had not reported to the specialist for taking material from the cervix, or did not do so regularly. A significant relation in the behaviour of women was found depending on their level of education and place of residence. Greater activity of nurses, midwives and family physicians in stimulating Polish women to participate in prevention programmes for cervical cancer is advisable. To increase the health awareness of girls and women, it is important to include in the curriculum, especially in secondary schools, the issues of prevention of female reproductive system cancer.

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  1. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas C.; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and identifies areas for programmatic development to meet the global development goal to reduce cancer-related mortality. Advanced stage at presentation and gaps in prevention, screening, diagnostic, and treatment capacities contribute to reduced cervical cancer survival. Cost-effective cervical cancer screening strategies implemented in low resource settings can reduce cervical cancer mortality. Patient- and system-based barriers need to be addressed as part of any cervical cancer control program. Limited human capacity and infrastructure in SSA are major barriers to comprehensive cervical cancer care. Management of early-stage, locally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer involves multispecialty care, including gynecology oncology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, radiation oncology, and palliative care. Investment in cervical cancer care programs in low- and middle-income countries will need to include effective recruitment programs to engage women in the community to access cancer screening and diagnosis services. Though cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable cancer, the challenges to cervical control in SSA are great and will require a broadly integrated and sustained effort by multiple stakeholders before meaningful progress can be achieved. PMID:27446806

  2. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas C; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and identifies areas for programmatic development to meet the global development goal to reduce cancer-related mortality. Advanced stage at presentation and gaps in prevention, screening, diagnostic, and treatment capacities contribute to reduced cervical cancer survival. Cost-effective cervical cancer screening strategies implemented in low resource settings can reduce cervical cancer mortality. Patient- and system-based barriers need to be addressed as part of any cervical cancer control program. Limited human capacity and infrastructure in SSA are major barriers to comprehensive cervical cancer care. Management of early-stage, locally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer involves multispecialty care, including gynecology oncology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, radiation oncology, and palliative care. Investment in cervical cancer care programs in low- and middle-income countries will need to include effective recruitment programs to engage women in the community to access cancer screening and diagnosis services. Though cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable cancer, the challenges to cervical control in SSA are great and will require a broadly integrated and sustained effort by multiple stakeholders before meaningful progress can be achieved. PMID:27446806

  3. Knowledge of medical school students on breast cancer and cervical cancer, and their prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Liszcz; Badowska-Kozakiewicz, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer and cervical cancer are the most common cancers in women. Early diagnosis of the disease can reduce mortality, so it plays an important role in the field of prevention measures. An important aspect is education, the aim of which is to provide information on the risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, as well as the possibility of eliminating them from the life of women, but also shaping women’s need to perform regular diagnostics. Aim of the resea...

  4. Cervical cancer: The preventive role of HPV vaccine (review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Behtash

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common gynecologic cancer. A steady 70% annual decline in mortality from cervical cancers has been observed since the mid 20th century after the introduction of widespread papanicolaou cytological screening. But also cervical cancer continues to be an important world health problem for women. Cervical cancer is one of the best- understood neoplasm given its well known viral cause of persistent infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HPV. To date, two manufacturers have developed HPV vaccines composed of noninfectious, recombinant HPV viral-like particles (VLPs. This article presents current advances and perspectives on HPV vaccines.The vaccine is administered by intramuscular injection, and the recommended schedule is a 3-dose series with the second and third doses administered 2 and 6 months after the first dose. The recommended age for vaccination of females is 11-12 years. Vaccine can be administered as young as age 9 years. Catch-up vaccination is recommended for females aged 13--26 years who have not been previously vaccinated. Vaccination is not a substitute for routine cervical cancer screening, and vaccinated females should have cervical cancer screening as recommended.

  5. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  6. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination...... insufficient, with only two of 21 countries and territories having achieved coverage of cervical cancer screening above 40%. Ten of 21 countries and territories had included HPV vaccination in their immunization schedule, but only two countries reported coverage of HPV vaccination above 60% among the targeted...... population. Key barriers to the introduction and continuation of HPV vaccination were reported to be: (i) Lack of sustainable financing for HPV vaccine programs; (ii) Lack of visible government endorsement; (iii) Critical public perception of the value and safety of the HPV vaccine; and (iv) Lack of clear...

  7. Genital HPV: links to cervical cancer, treatment, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, L A

    2001-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted viruses. It consists of over 230 different subtypes and infects the squamous epithelial cells in humans producing cutaneous, mucosal, and epidermodysplasia verruciformis type infections. There are several risk factors for human papillomavirus infections. These include a sexually active life-style beginning at a young age, having multiple lifetime sex partners, having sex with a partner with genital warts, and long term oral contraceptive use. Approximately 80% of sexually active individuals acquire the virus in their lifetime. Clinical and laboratory detection of the virus consists of macroscopic, serologic, and molecular techniques. Although removal of the lesions is preferable, treatment of human papillomavirus infections may include cryotherapy, loop electrosurgical excision procedure, laser surgery, and drug therapy. Certain human papillomavirus subtypes, particularly human papillomavirus 16, have been linked to cervical cancer, therefore, prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines are currently being developed to prevent or fight the virus. PMID:11517629

  8. Knowledge and views of secondary school students in Kuala Lumpur on cervical cancer and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Hesham; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Sawalludin, Nurhidayah

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (pstudents from the art stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:23725172

  9. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer Vacunas para prevenir el cáncer cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSETTE M WHEELER

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.El potencial uso de vacunas de virus del papiloma humano (VPH en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer cervical posiblemente será implementado durante los próximos años. Cerca de los 20 genotipos de VPH de los 75 que se encuentran identificados infectan el tracto genital femenino, pero son cuatro subtipos: 16, 18, 31 y 45 los que se han asociado en cerca de 80% a cáncer cervical. En este ensayo se plantea que para poder diseñar una vacuna profiláctica contra la infección de VPH, efectiva, se debe garantizar una adecuada respuesta inmune a través de cuatro metas: a activación de antígenos presentes en la célula; b superar la respuesta del huésped y la variabilidad genética viral en la respuesta de células T; c generación de altos niveles de células T y B de memoria, y d persistencia de antígenos.

  10. Role of HPV Vaccine in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh JA; Yusuph H; Zailani ZB

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer which affects relatively young women of child bearing age is considered to be the second most common cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developing countries, a reflection of global health inequity. There are more than 450,000 newly diagnosed cases annually with over a quarter of million deaths recorded out of which over 80 percent are from the developing countries especially Africa, South Asia, South and Central America, and the Caribbe...

  11. Human papillomavirus research on the prevention, diagnosis, and prognosis of cervical cancer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Angel; Huang, Huei-Jean; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is third in incidence and fourth in mortality among cancers of women worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, if not sufficient, to cause nearly 100% of cervical cancers. HPV testing is useful in primary screening for cervical neoplasms. The value of HPV detection or genotyping is potentially useful in triage of borderline or low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, follow-up after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, assessment of prognosis and treatment planning for invasive cervical cancer. Studies from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital have defined the genotype distribution of cervical cancer in Taiwan and confirmed the independent prognostic value of the HPV genotype in cervical cancer. The cost-effectiveness of using HPV testing in prevention and management of cervical neoplasms depends on the medical and public health infrastructure of the individual country. The population-based HPV prevalence and genotype distribution as well as longitudinal follow-up studies have established strong support for incorporating HPV testing with cervical cytology and for future comparisons of HPV epidemiology before and after implementation of HPV prophylactic vaccines in Taiwan. Future directions in HPV research are discussed. PMID:22913856

  12. Awareness of HPV and cervical cancer prevention among Cameroonian healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doh Anderson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer, although largely preventable, remains the most common cause of cancer mortality among women in low-resource countries. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer prevention among Cameroonian healthcare workers. Methods A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire in 5 parts with 46 items regarding cervical cancer etiology and prevention was addressed to healthcare workers in six hospitals of Yaoundé, Cameroon. The investigators enlisted heads of nursing and midwifery to distribute questionnaires to their staff, recruited doctors individually, in hospitals and during conferences and distributed questionnaires to students in Yaoundé University Hospital and Medical School. Eight hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed, 401 collected. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0. Chi-square tests were used and P-values Results Mean age of respondents was 38 years (range 20-71 years. Most participants were aware that cervical cancer is a major public health concern (86%, were able to identify the most important etiological factors (58% and believed that screening may prevent cervical cancer (90% and may be performed by Pap test (84%. However, less than half considered VIA or HPV tests screening tests (38 and 47%, respectively. Knowledge about cancer etiology and screening was lowest among nurse/midwives. Conclusion Knowledge of cervical cancer and prevention by screening showed several gaps and important misconceptions regarding screening methods. Creating awareness among healthcare workers on risk factors and current methods for cervical cancer screening is a necessary step towards implementing effective prevention programs.

  13. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  14. Measuring Health Belief Model components in adopting preventive behaviors of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Namdar; Shiva Bigizadeh; Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Background & Objective: Cervical cancer is the second prevalent women cancer in the world. This cancer is found preventable because of having the prolong time before the appearance, its complications and the available proper screening program and possibility of the primary lesion treatment. Since the Health Belief Model is one of the applicable praxeology model in health education to prevent and control of diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the Health Belief Model componen...

  15. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162 KB) This information in Spanish (en español) Female reproductive system Select image to view larger Related ... D., FACS, Captain, U.S. Public Health Service Medical Director, National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, ...

  16. New paradigms in cervical cancer prevention: opportunities and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Rossi Paolo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing for the DNA of high-risk types of papilloma virus (HPV is more sensitive than cytology in detecting pre-cancerous lesions. One of the main advantages will be the possibility of applying prolonged screening intervals. However adequate screening protocols (age of start and stop, screening intervals, management of HPV positive women need to be applied in order to avoid over-referral to colposcopy and over-treatment and to maintain sustainable costs. Further follow-up of running trials and research on molecular markers will better define these parameters. The new situation will require organised screening programmes with rigorous protocols and monitoring. This will be even more needed when women vaccinated for HPV 16 and 18 will be screened. Research on how to best screen vaccinated women is a priority. This paper proposes an overview of the plausible impact of new technologies in cervical cancer screening in the near future and in the vaccinated cohorts.

  17. Factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingham Allison

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for introducing or strengthening cervical cancer prevention programs must focus on ensuring that appropriate, cost-effective services are available and that women who most need the services will, in fact, use them. This article summarizes the experiences of research projects in Bolivia, Peru, Kenya, South Africa, and Mexico. Factors that affect participation rates in cervical cancer prevention programs are categorized in three sections. The first section describes factors that arise from prevailing sociocultural norms that influence women's views on reproductive health, well being, and notions of illness. The second section discusses factors related to the clinical requirements and the type of service delivery system in which a woman is being asked to participate. The third section discusses factors related to quality of care. Examples of strategies that programs are using to encourage women's participation in cervical cancer prevention services are provided.

  18. Cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: Epidemiological evidence and perspectives for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ NUBIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem, as it is the second most common cancer in women world-wide after breast cancer. About 80% of the half a million cases estimated to occur annually in the world, occur in developing countries. The epidemiological evidence linking human papillomavirus (HPV to cervical cancer is reviewed. It is concluded that over 90% of cervical cancers can be attributed to certain HPV types. HPV 16 accounts for the highest proportion (50% followed by HPV 18 (12%, HPV 45 (8% and HPV 31 (5%. The associations with these HPV types are very b and consistent with odds ratios over 15 in all case-control studies in high- and low-risk countries for cervical cancer. However, HPV is not a sufficient cause of this malignancy; certain cofactors are necessary for a proportion of HPV persistent infections to eventually progress to cancer. These include host factors such as histocompatibilidad types and immunological response, hormonal influences and infections with other sexually transmitted agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition, results from our studies carried out in Spain and Colombia support the hypothesis that male carriers of HPV play an important role in the development of cervical cancer in their wives. The recognition of the central role of HPV in cervical cancer has far-reaching implications for the primary and secondary prevention of this malignancy. Prophylactic and therapeutic HPV vaccines are now under development and HPV typing is being integrated into screening programmes in pilot studies in a few developed countries. In developing countries, well conducted conventional screening programmes remain the best approach for the control of cervical cancer until a safe and efficient HPV vaccine can be used in the general population.

  19. Prevention cervical cancer: Conceptions of Basic Unit of a Health of a municipality baiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vieira Simões

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the conception of users on the prevention of cervical cancer in a primary care unit of a State of Bahia, to identify the knowledge of the users about prevention and risk factors for cervical cancer; ascertain the understanding of the users regarding the importance of this test and know the frequency with which users do preventive screening, to identify possible interference for this exam.Descriptive, exploratory study, qualitative, conducted a Basic Health Unit of a State of Bahia in a preventive service with 10 users in the age group 25-60 years, using a semistructured interview. The results showed that the respondents have an incipient knowledge about the prevention of cervical, particularly in relation to cancer risk factors. As to the timing of the Pap smear, the majority reported making between one and two years and marking the biggest difficulty was pointed out in the exam. Thus, it is necessary to wider dissemination to women about the risk factors of cervical cancer, providing greater focus on educational activities as well as the awareness of managers to invest in public health policies, effecting the right to health guaranteed by constituent, expanding its range of preventive screening making the service accessible to all women screening.

  20. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Health Education Intervention in Cervical Cancer Prevention in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chania

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be

  1. Second primary cancers in survivors of cervical cancer in the Netherlands: Implications for prevention and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: We investigated the effects of socio-demographic, treatment- and tumor-specific determinants on the risk of developing a second malignancy among patients treated for cervical cancer. Material and methods: We included patients with a first cervical cancer (N = 12,048) from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR), 1989–2008. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and absolute excess risks (AER) per 10,000 person-years were calculated to estimate the burden of second cancers in cervical cancer survivors. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed to identify predictors for second cancers among cervical cancer survivors. Results: During the study period, 676 (5.6%) patients were diagnosed with a second cancer. Smoking-related cancers contributed the most to the overall burden of second cancers (AER = 21) and risks remained elevated after 10 years of follow-up (SIR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.2), yet it decreased markedly in the younger birth cohorts. Cervical cancer survivors who underwent radiotherapy were at higher risk for a second tumor when compared to those without radiotherapy, especially at smoking-related sites (IRR = 1.6 (1.2–2.3)). Conclusion: Patients with cervical cancer had a significantly increased risk for a second cancer compared to the general population, especially for smoking- and irradiation-related tumors. Long-term follow-up suggested the importance of smoking cessation and the benefits of counseling cervical cancer patients accordingly, particularly those who received radiotherapy

  2. HPV infection in cervical and other cancers in Saudi Arabia: implication for prevention and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi eAlsbeih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap Smear and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and 18. Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and 18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program.

  3. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Chi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a system to prevent and control Cervical Cancer. This systemruns on a handheld using infrared technology from a service point to make the current process moreefficient for the staff responsible for carrying out diagnostic tests, as well as for doctors from healthclinics in communities belonging to the city of Tizimín, Yucatan, Mexico.

  4. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is ... the NCI website . Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy General Information About Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy Treatment of cervical ...

  5. KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE REGARDING PREVENTION OF CERVICAL CANCER AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE OF TRIPURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer, common among Indian women is now considered as preventable. OBJECTIVES: To find out the knowledge regarding prevention of cervical cancer, practices towards its prevention and its determinants among women attending a tertiary care centre of Tripura. METHODOLOGY: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted during 8th April 2014 to 17th May 2014 using a pretested structured interview schedule among 289 women attending the Gynaecology O.P.D of AGMC & G.B.P Hospital recruited by systematic random sampling. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data entry and analysis were performed in computer using SPSS 15. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used for presenting data and testing the significance. RESULTS: Cervical cancer was known as preventable to 61.9 % of the study women. About 59.2% women knew multiple sex partners, 42.6% knew exposure to sexual intercourse at early life, 72.7 % knew poor sexual hygiene and 26.0% knew heredity as the risk factors for getting cervical cancer. Approximately 16.3% women knew about the vaccine against cervical cancer, 59.86% knew it as a treatable disease and 15.57% have heard about PAP smear test. Only 10.38 % of the study women underwent PAP smear test and 0.3 % were vaccinated against cervical cancer. Regarding cervical cancer, 29.41% women knew either by studying or from the media, 22.49% from friends and relatives and only 16.26% from health workers whereas 31.84% were unaware. Literacy of the women was found to be significantly associated with their awareness and practices regarding prevention of cervical cancer. CONCLUSION: Knowledge regarding possibility of early diagnosis, preventability and treatability of cervical cancer is found to be low among women. Role of health workers for making people aware was inadequate; hence IEC and BCC activities need acceleration for awareness generation and motivation for undergoing vaccination and screening for cervical cancer.

  6. Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jenkins(University of York, UK)

    2003-01-01

    Of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV), more than 30 infect the genital tract. The association between certain oncogenic (high-risk) strains of HPV and cervical cancer is well established. Although HPV is essential to the transformation of cervical epithelial cells, it is not sufficient, and a variety of cofactors and molecular events influence whether cervical cancer will develop. Early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions can prevent progression to cervical cancer. Ident...

  7. Human Papillomavirus Research on the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Prognosis of Cervical Cancer in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chyong-Huey Lai; Angel Chao; Huei-Jean Huang

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is third in incidence and fourth in mortality among cancers of women worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, if not sufficient, to cause nearly 100% of cervical cancers. HPV testing is useful in primary screening for cervical neoplasms. The value of HPV detection or genotyping is potentially useful in triage of borderline or low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, follow-up after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,...

  8. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm

  9. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Hang Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.

  10. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin Hang, E-mail: shlee01@snet.net; Vigliotti, Jessica S.; Vigliotti, Veronica S.; Jones, William [Department of Pathology, Milford Hospital, 300 Seaside Ave., Milford, CT 06460 (United States)

    2014-10-02

    The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.

  11. EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION PROGRAM, BELÉM, PARÁ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Nascimento Pinheiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Health Education is primordial in primary care, can contribute to the success of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program (CCPP. The objective of this study was to verify the women knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV virus, with emphasis on educational aspects. The study’s sample was represented by 157 women attending by the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program (CCPP of a public health unit in Belém/PA, in 2012. The age ranged from 17 to 80 years old, with a median of 37 years old, 60.5% of the people have not completed the high school and some of them has college, 71.3% had a family income of one minimum wage. Of all women, 10.2% were examined by Papanicolaou test for the first time, 56.1% for annual control. The spontaneous seeking by the examination was 79%. Among the women investigated, 0.6% have not known about the neoplasia. Part of them believes in cure and prevention of this disease, 79.6% and 89.2% of the women, respectively. 76.4% of the women have heard some information about HPV vírus and 40.2% about the vaccine. Therefore, is necessary to raise the level of knowing of women enrolled in Cervical Cancer Prevention Program (CCPP in the perspective of primary and secondary prevention of this neoplasia through of educational activities and the insertion of these actions in the elementary and high schools. These are important steps that can contribute with the Program in Belém, whose indices have been alarming.

  12. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections: new options for cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch F. Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the cervical cancer puzzle has become a coherent description that includes the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV as the sexually transmitted etiologic agent and the characterization of the major determinants of HPV acquisition. Triage studies have consistently shown that HPV testing is more sensitive that repeated cytology in identifying underlying high-grade lesions in women with atypical scamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. Studies that reflect primary screening conditions have shown that the sensitivity of HPV tests is higher than standard cytology in detecting high-grade lesions whereas the specificity is similar only in women aged 30-35 and above. HPV vaccines have an intrinsic attraction as a preventive strategy in populations with limited resources. However, vaccines designed to widespread use are still in development and testing phases. Time is ripe for exploring in depth the clinical implications of current achievements and to devise novel strategies for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  13. Knowledge of young Polish women of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Biała

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HPV infection is the most frequent sexually transmitted disease and a major epidemiological problem in the world. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are responsible for over 70.0% cases of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of young women concerning HPV infection as well as possibilities of cervical cancer prevention. Moreover, the study had to determine which groups of young women especially required educational campaigns. Material and methods. The questionnaire survey was carried out among 126 young Polish women aged 18–35. The results were statistically analyzed. Results. The survey found that 41.3% women had heard about HPV before interview. Nearly 38.5% of women correctly indicated the occurrence of cancer which is associated with HPV infection. About 23.0% of women received a vaccination against HPV, only 19.2% of women correctly identified who should be subjected to vaccination. The best knowledge about cervical cancer and disease prevention was manifested among female university graduates and groups living in urban areas. Those women also more often underwent cytological screening. Conclusions. Educational campaigns should particularly include group of women living in the rural areas and women with primary and secondary education.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Song-Nan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been shown to be a major risk factor for cervical cancer. Vaccines against HPV-16 and HPV-18 are highly effective in preventing type-specific HPV infections and related cervical lesions. There is, however, limited data available describing the health and economic impacts of HPV vaccination in Taiwan. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer in Taiwan. Methods We developed a Markov model to compare the health and economic outcomes of vaccinating preadolescent girls (at the age of 12 years for the prevention of cervical cancer with current practice, including cervical cytological screening. Data were synthesized from published papers or reports, and whenever possible, those specific to Taiwan were used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for important uncertainties and different vaccination scenarios. Results Under the assumption that the HPV vaccine could provide lifelong protection, the massive vaccination among preadolescent girls in Taiwan would lead to reduction in 73.3% of the total incident cervical cancer cases and would result in a life expectancy gain of 4.9 days or 8.7 quality-adjusted life days at a cost of US$324 as compared to the current practice. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was US$23,939 per life year gained or US$13,674 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained given the discount rate of 3%. Sensitivity analyses showed that this ICER would remain below US$30,000 per QALY under most conditions, even when vaccine efficacy was suboptimal or when vaccine-induced immunity required booster shots every 13 years. Conclusions Although gains in life expectancy may be modest at the individual level, the results indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccination of preadolescent girls in Taiwan would result in substantial population benefits with a favorable cost

  15. Patients with cervical cancer: why did screening not prevent these cases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, R.P. de; Vergers-Spooren, H.C.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Siebers, A.G.; Salet-van der Pol, M.R.; Vedder, J.E.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bulten, J.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the screening history of women with cervical cancer and review normal cervical smears 5 years preceding the diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Cytological and histological results of 401 women treated for invasive cervical cancer between 1991 and 2008 at the

  16. Measuring Health Belief Model components in adopting preventive behaviors of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Namdar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Cervical cancer is the second prevalent women cancer in the world. This cancer is found preventable because of having the prolong time before the appearance, its complications and the available proper screening program and possibility of the primary lesion treatment. Since the Health Belief Model is one of the applicable praxeology model in health education to prevent and control of diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the Health Belief Model components in adopting preventive behaviors in cervical cancer in women. Materials & Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out on 213 married 20-65 year-old women selected by a two-stage sampling method. The data was collected by a valid and reliable questionnaire and interview. This questionnaire based on health belief model correlation (components Perceived Susceptibility and Severity, Perceived Barriers and Benefits, Self-efficacy with behavior survey. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whhitney test, Kruskal-wallis test, and Regression by SPSS software. Results: The mean age of the study group was 40.6 ± 12.1. The results show that 32.5% of them had at least one time examined for Pap smear test out of which only 7.9% of them had this test on a regular interval. Only 12% of them had an adequate knowledge about the cervical cancer and its preventive measure. 90% of them had inappropriate behavior. The average score of knowledge was 6.73± 2.97 which considered as moderate. Regression analysis showed the knowledge (P=0.009, job (P=0.005, perceived barriers (P<0.001 and perceived severity (P=0.036 determine as predictors in the final behavior. Conclusion: Perceived barriers and knowledge behind the strongest predictor of behavior. Educational programs are recommended based on the health belief model with emphasis on reducing barriers and increasing awareness to improve behavior.

  17. The human papillomavirus vaccine: A powerful tool for the primary prevention of cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine is the most promissory public health tool for primary prevention of cervical cancer. Immunization of females before the acquisition of HPV infection has the greatest impact in preventing pre-neoplasic lesions and cervical cancer. Current HPV vaccines do not eliminate cervical cancer risk, therefore, screening should continue covering vaccinated as well as women that do not get the vaccine. The strategies that include combination of high-coverage vaccination of HPV-unexposed adolescents with screening using methods with higher sensitivity than cytology as HPV test may be more cost-effective than the strategies currently used. The cytology-based screening programs of Latin America countries including Colombia are very ineffective. The evidence in favor of the cost-effectiveness of other screening strategies such as HPV tests and visual inspection followed by immediate treatment for women with difficult access to health care services in developing countries warrants the immediate revision of the current strategies.

  18. Strengthening prevention programs to eliminate cervical cancer in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, L.; Pagliusi, S.; Bray, F.;

    2008-01-01

    Disease trend studies based on birth cohort analysis and serological studies indicate that recent generations have a higher prevalence of oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types, and are likely to be at higher risk of cancer than previous generations. This implies that prevention strategies t...... to eliminate cervical cancer in the Nordic countries and globally Udgivelsesdato: 2008......Disease trend studies based on birth cohort analysis and serological studies indicate that recent generations have a higher prevalence of oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types, and are likely to be at higher risk of cancer than previous generations. This implies that prevention strategies...... to protect young populations from HPV-associated cancers need to be strengthened, and hence organized implementation of vaccination and better screening programs are being considered. In this context, randomized large-scale policy evaluations will be instrumental in accelerating disease control and improve...

  19. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  20. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute ...

  2. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  3. Secondary prevention of cervical cancer through the development and implementation of a system to optimize diagnostic and therapeutic and rehabilitation measures in the background and precancerous cervical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Badretdinova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of a comprehensive evaluation and treatment of background and pre-cancerous cervical cancer of women were studied (n = 1022. There is the complex assessment of social and obstetric gynecological risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. A system for optimizing diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive and rehabilitative measures, taking into account the differentiated approach to the choice of treatment, follow-up in the near and long-term postoperative period. An individual approach to the selection of organ presentation or radical treatment using new technologies of surgical treatment are identified. Application of the developed system enabled a statistically significantly improve the results of treatment of background and precancerous cervical disease.

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  5. Knowledge and attitude of women regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, its relationship to cervical cancer and prevention methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Farah; Shirvani, Hamidreza Esmaeilnia; Barouti, Esmat; Salehpour, Saghar; Khodakarami, Nahid; Alizadeh, Kamyab

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to determine knowledge and attitude of women to HPV and its association with cervical cancer and prevention methods. In a cross-sectional study, 500 women, aged between 20 and 50 presenting to local health centers in Tehran, were asked about demographic factors and questioned about cervical cancer, HPV, and prevention methods. Responses were tabulated and summarized. Although knowledge of HPV, its relation to cervical cancer and prevention methods among Iranian women is not enough, their attitude towards education in this regards is extremely high. The results reflect the need of advertising and educational programs for public about HPV prevention methods, to reduce the prevalence of this infection and its severe consequences. PMID:22390103

  6. HPV Infection in Cervical and Other Cancers in Saudi Arabia: Implication for Prevention and Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Alsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, des...

  7. Profile and retrospective analysis of the use of preventive strategies in patients with cervical cancer in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey Goddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy of the female genital tract in developing countries, with a global burden of 530,000 new cases annually. This study aims to review the current situation of this important malignancy and to assess the previous use of preventive measures in patients with cervical cancer at the Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of all cases of cervical cancer managed at the UPTH, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between 1 January 2008 and 31 December, 2012. Results: The prevalence of cervical cancer was 3.53% of all gynaecological admissions. The peak age of incidence was 50-59 years, accounting for 40% of the study population. Women with high parity contributed to 93.3% of the study population. Early coitarche was observed in 78.7% and a history of multiple sexual partners in 65.3%. Vaginal bleeding was the commonest clinical feature seen in all the women studied, followed by pelvic pain in 84% of cases. Advanced-stage cervical cancer was seen in 93.4%. None of the women studied had been previously vaccinated against human papilloma virus (HPV, and only 1.3% had had any form of screening methods for early detection of cervical cancer. Conclusion: Cervical cancer remains an important cancer in our environment, and late presentation with advance disease is still the norm despite advances in screening and preventive modalities. The reason for this is buttressed on the finding that despite the availability of these preventive strategies, women in the South-South of Nigeria did not partake of these measures. There is an urgent need to develop programmes to re-sensitise women on the need for screening and vaccination to reduce cancer-associated morbidity and mortality in Port Harcourt, South-South Nigeria.

  8. Implementation of mass media community health education: the Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignan, M; Bahnson, J; Sharp, P; Beal, P; Smith, M; Michielutte, R

    1991-09-01

    The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project (FCP) is a community-based health education project funded by the National Cancer Institute. The target population includes around 25 000 black women age 18 and older who reside in Forsyth County, North Carolina. The overall goal of the program is to prevent mortality from cervical cancer by promoting Pap smears and return for follow-up care when needed. Based on the principles of social marketing, a plan to reach the target population with mass media educational messages through electronic and print channels was developed. Guided by marketing objectives, the target population was divided into relatively discrete segments. The segments included church attenders, patients in waiting rooms of public and selected health providers, female students at local colleges, shoppers, viewers of radio and television, newspaper readers, and business owners and managers. Introduction of the program was based on strategies developed for reaching the target population in each segment with television, radio and print mass media messages. Qualitative assessment of the mass media developed by the program indicated that all forms of communication helped to increase awareness of the program. PMID:10148691

  9. A strategic assessment of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzuba Ilana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a preventable disease, cervical cancer claims the lives of almost half a million women worldwide each year. India bears one-fifth of the global burden of the disease, with approximately 130,000 new cases a year. In an effort to assess the need and potential for improving the quality of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in Uttar Pradesh, a strategic assessment was conducted in three of the state's districts: Agra, Lucknow, and Saharanpur. Methods Using an adaptation of stage one of the World Health Organization's Strategic Approach to Improving Reproductive Health Policies and Programmes, an assessment of the quality of cervical cancer services was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of stakeholders. The assessment included a review of the available literature, observations of services, collection of hospital statistics and the conduct of qualitative research (in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to assess the perspectives of women, providers, policy makers and community members. Results There were gaps in provider knowledge and practices, potentially attributable to limited provider training and professional development opportunities. In the absence of a state policy on cervical cancer, screening of asymptomatic women was practically absent, except in the military sector. Cytology-based cancer screening tests (i.e. pap smears were often used to help diagnose women with symptoms of reproductive tract infections but not routinely screen asymptomatic women. Access to appropriate treatment of precancerous lesions was limited and often inappropriately managed by hysterectomy in many urban centers. Cancer treatment facilities were well equipped but mostly inaccessible for women in need. Finally, policy makers, community members and clients were mostly unaware about cervical cancer and its preventable nature, although with information, expressed a strong interest in having services

  10. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  11. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  12. Marketing communication in the area of breast and cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Innovative marketing campaigns and promotional activities can successfully contribute to the improvement of public health by raising the level of general knowledge about health issues and benefits that the change of habits, eradication of undesirable behaviour and regular medical controls have. The focus should be on continuous marketing communication through various mass media or direct communication between medical staff and patients. The aim of this paper was to define the role that various communication channels have in the process of informing and educating the target group in case of breast and cervical cancer prevention. Methods. The survey based on polling a sample of 2,100 female patients of the Serbian Railways Medical Centre was conducted in the period October-December 2013. The questionnaire included questions about demographic characteristics, prevention habits of women, their level of information on that topic and communication channels they prefer. Results. There is a difference among respondents’ awareness level about preventive measures depending on demographic and geographical criteria. The results indicate the existence of variations in frequency of performing gynaecological examinations and Pap tests depending on different age, educational and residential groups. Although the largest percentage of women stated familiarity with the way of performing breast self-examination (78%, the majority of them had never per-formed mammography or ultrasonography (67%. The greatest number of women were informed about the possibility of preventing breast and cervical cancer by posters or brochures in health institutions (71% and mass media - television on the first place (74%, then specialized magazines about health (48%, radio (48%, web sites about health (42%, and daily newspapers (34%. The respondents consider the Ministry of Health and health institutions as the most responsible subjects for education of women about

  13. Prevent cervical cancer by screening with reliable human papillomavirus detection and genotyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of cervical cancer is expected to rise sharply in China. A reliable routine human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and genotyping test to be supplemented by the limited Papanicolaou cytology facilities is urgently needed to help identify the patients with cervical precancer for preventive interventions. To this end, we evaluated a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for detection of HPV L1 gene DNA in cervicovaginal cells. The PCR amplicons were genotyped by direct DNA sequencing. In parallel, split samples were subjected to a Digene HC2 HPV test which has been widely used for “cervical cancer risk” screen. Of the 1826 specimens, 1655 contained sufficient materials for analysis and 657 were truly negative. PCR/DNA sequencing showed 674 infected by a single high-risk HPV, 188 by a single low-risk HPV, and 136 by multiple HPV genotypes with up to five HPV genotypes in one specimen. In comparison, the HC2 test classified 713 specimens as infected by high-risk HPV, and 942 as negative for HPV infections. The high-risk HC2 test correctly detected 388 (57.6%) of the 674 high-risk HPV isolates in clinical specimens, mislabeled 88 (46.8%) of the 188 low-risk HPV isolates as high-risk genotypes, and classified 180 (27.4%) of the 657 “true-negative” samples as being infected by high-risk HPV. It was found to cross-react with 20 low-risk HPV genotypes. We conclude that nested PCR detection of HPV followed by short target DNA sequencing can be used for screening and genotyping to formulate a paradigm in clinical management of HPV-related disorders in a rapidly developing economy

  14. HPV infection in cervical and other cancers in Saudi Arabia: implication for prevention and vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi eAlsbeih

    2014-01-01

    HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of natio...

  15. Improving Cervical Cancer Prevention by HPV Self-sampling, Colposcopy and Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Baars (Romy)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The worldwide incidence rate of cervical cancer is around 500 000 per year with a mortality rate of around 270 000 women per year. With these figures, it represents the third most common cancer among women worldwide, after breast and colorectal cancer. However, the inc

  16. Mothers' and their daughters' use of preventive measures against cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Vazquez-Prada Baillet, Miguel; Rebolj, Matejka;

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) and screening are complementary preventive measures against cervical cancer. In Denmark, screening and vaccination are free of charge for the women. In total, 75% of women are screened and about 90% of girls are vaccinated with at least one dose....... Our aim was to determine whether, in Denmark, daughters of unscreened mothers are less likely to be vaccinated against HPV than are daughters of screened mothers. Methods: We used population-based data from the Danish Patient Register, Health Service Registration, Pathology Data Bank, and Civil...... Registration System. Individual-level data on screening, vaccination, and vital status until 31 December 2010 were retrieved. Daughters were linked to their mothers through the link provided in the Civil Registration System. The study population included 149,147 girls born in 1993-1997 and their mothers. We...

  17. Prevention of cervical, vaginal, and vulval cancers: role of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lina Diaz

    2010-01-01

    Maria Lina DiazSection of Ambulatory Gynecology Cleveland Clinic Florida Weston, Florida, USAAbstract: The relationship between the human papillomavirus (HPV) and malignancies of the uterine cervix, vagina, and vulva has been established. The development of a quadrivalent HPV recombinant prophylactic vaccine represents the first time in history that primary prevention of these cancers is offered to girls and women. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV subtypes in cervical cancers has been the most...

  18. Cervical cancer in Iquitos, Peru: local realities to guide prevention planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America, and in much of the underdeveloped world. This issue has not historically been addressed as a health priority, but in recent years is receiving increased attention and funding. This ethnographic study on the experience of cervical cancer was conducted in Iquitos, Peru, between August 1998 and May 1999. Research methodologies included: (1 observation and household interviews to obtain background knowledge about the region, medical systems, and local cultural understanding of illness; (2 cancer experience interviews; and (3 case studies of women in various stages of cervical cancer or diagnosis. Findings are presented related to local knowledge and experience of Pap smears and cervical cancer and the ineffectiveness of a recently initiated cervical cancer screening program. The findings guide recommendations for interventions in the region in relation to: (1 needed changes in health education, (2 screening frequency and age, (3 sites for screening and treatment, (4 type and availability of treatment, (5 payment issues, (6 documentation of care, and (7 the potential of herbal remedies.

  19. 30 years of preventive studies of uterine cervical cancer 1982-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido JL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To show and describe the clinical evolution of cervical cancer screening patients following the protocol established by the University of Padua. Methods: 12,679 patients were examined using Pap smear, colposcopy and biopsy in cases it was required. Results: From these large group of patients, 6,411 were diagnosed as patients at risk of developing cancer, from which 4,257 only had HPV infection, 1,150 had dysplastic lesions, 210 had cervical cancer and 794 cases were classified as simple oncogenic risk.

  20. Development of a Theory-Based (PEN-3 and Health Belief Model), Culturally Relevant Intervention on Cervical Cancer Prevention Among Latina Immigrants Using Intervention Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief M...

  1. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed CDC’s Cervical Cancer Study Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... year. As part of CDC’s Cervical Cancer (Cx3) Study, we surveyed a sample of both health care ...

  2. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ...

  3. Preventing cervical cancer and genital warts - How much protection is enough for HPV vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    HPV associated disease is a global health problem: 5.2% of all cancers are HPV associated with HPV 16 and 18 accounting for 70% of cases of cervical cancer. Genital warts caused by HPV 6 and 11 have a lifetime risk of acquisition of 10%. HPV vaccines are subunit vaccines consisting of virus like particles comprised of the L1 major capsid protein. Two vaccines have been licenced since 2006/2007 and are in the National Immunisation programmes in 62 countries. Both vaccines include HPV 16 and 18 VLPs and one also includes HPV 6 and 11. The vaccines are highly immunogenic and well tolerated. Genital HPV is a sexually transmitted infection with peak incidence occurring just after the onset of sexual activity and the routine cohort for immunisation in almost all countries are adolescent girls 9-15 years of age with or without catch up for older adolescents and young women. Population effectiveness is now being demonstrated for these vaccines in countries with high vaccine coverage. HPV vaccines are highly immunogenic and effective and the original 3 dose schedules have already been reduced, for those 14 years and under, to 2 for both licenced vaccines. There is preliminary evidence that 1 dose of vaccine is as effective as 2 or 3 in preventing persistent HPV infection in the cervix in young women and further reductions in dosage may be possible if supported by appropriate virological, immunological and modelling studies. PMID:27211079

  4. How Are Cervical Cancers and Pre-Cancers Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some find disturbing. Some places provide headphones with music to block this noise out. A mild sedative ... in Cervical Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms ...

  5. Human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam

    2013-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more reliable and sensitive but less specific than Papanicolaou (Pap) testing/cervical cytology for the detection of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV-negative women are at lower risk of cervical cancer than Pap-negative women. In high-resource settings, HPV testing can be used to make cervical cancer prevention programs more efficient by focusing clinical attention on women who have HPV. In lower-resource settings, where Pap testing has not been sustained or widespread, new, lower-cost HPV tests may make cervical cancer screening feasible. PMID:23732037

  6. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical Cancer Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview ... be cured. How often should I get screened (tested)? How often you should get screened for cervical ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  8. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  9. Population-level scale-up of cervical cancer prevention services in a low-resource setting: development, implementation, and evaluation of the cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groesbeck P Parham

    Full Text Available Very few efforts have been undertaken to scale-up low-cost approaches to cervical cancer prevention in low-resource countries.In a public sector cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia, nurses provided visual-inspection with acetic acid (VIA and cryotherapy in clinics co-housed with HIV/AIDS programs, and referred women with complex lesions for histopathologic evaluation. Low-cost technological adaptations were deployed for improving VIA detection, facilitating expert physician opinion, and ensuring quality assurance. Key process and outcome indicators were derived by analyzing electronic medical records to evaluate program expansion efforts.Between 2006-2013, screening services were expanded from 2 to 12 clinics in Lusaka, the most-populous province in Zambia, through which 102,942 women were screened. The majority (71.7% were in the target age-range of 25-49 years; 28% were HIV-positive. Out of 101,867 with evaluable data, 20,419 (20% were VIA positive, of whom 11,508 (56.4% were treated with cryotherapy, and 8,911 (43.6% were referred for histopathologic evaluation. Most women (87%, 86,301 of 98,961 evaluable received same-day services (including 5% undergoing same-visit cryotherapy and 82% screening VIA-negative. The proportion of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and worse (CIN2+ among those referred for histopathologic evaluation was 44.1% (1,735/3,938 with histopathology results. Detection rates for CIN2+ and invasive cervical cancer were 17 and 7 per 1,000 women screened, respectively. Women with HIV were more likely to screen positive, to be referred for histopathologic evaluation, and to have cervical precancer and cancer than HIV-negative women.We creatively disrupted the 'no screening' status quo prevailing in Zambia and addressed the heavy burden of cervical disease among previously unscreened women by establishing and scaling-up public-sector screening and treatment services at a population level. Key

  10. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... section Overview 2 of 5 sections The Basics: Pap Test What happens during a Pap test? A Pap test takes about 2 to ... steps to help prevent cervical cancer. Schedule your Pap test. Call a doctor’s office or health clinic ...

  11. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  12. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical cancer: • Cytology: This test, also called a Pap test or Pap smear, looks for abnormal changes in cells in ... women ages 21 to 65, screening with a Pap test every 3 years has the highest benefits ...

  13. Assessing the Influence of Health Literacy on HIV-Positive Women’s Cervical Cancer Prevention Knowledge and Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Bynum, Shalanda A.; Wigfall, Lisa T.; Brandt, Heather M.; Richter, Donna L.; Glover, Saundra H.; Hébert, James R

    2013-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLH) bear a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer and may face challenges understanding health information. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of health literacy on WLH cervical cancer screening knowledge and behaviors. WLH were recruited from clinic- and community-based settings in the southeastern USA. The majority of women completing a questionnaire assessing factors related to cervical cancer were African American (90 %). About 38 % of women ...

  14. Get Vaccinated! and Get Tested! Developing Primary and Secondary Cervical Cancer Prevention Videos for a Haitian Kreyòl-Speaking Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frett, Brigitte; Aquino, Myra; Fatil, Marie; Seay, Julia; Trevil, Dinah; Fièvre, Michèle Jessica; Kobetz, Erin

    2016-05-01

    Although routine screening reduces cervical cancer rates between 60% and 90%, thousands of women worldwide are diagnosed with the disease on an annual basis because of inadequate screening. Haitian women in South Florida experience a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer, with disease rates 4 times higher than the average for women in Miami. An ongoing community-based participatory research initiative to assess and reduce this burden has revealed that a complex interplay of factors contributes to a lack of access to screening in this community, including socioeconomics, language barriers, and traditional understandings of health and disease. In an effort to address some of these barriers and encourage uptake of primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention strategies, 2 videos on cervical cancer prevention were created using a community-based participatory research framework. The video screenplays were created by a Haitian screenwriter using evidence-based medical information provided by academic researchers. The films feature Haitian actors speaking a Haitian Kreyòl dialogue with a storyline portraying friends and family discussing human papillomavirus disease and vaccination, Papanicolaou testing, and cervical cancer. Focus groups held with Haitian women in South Florida suggested that the films are engaging; feature relatable characters; and impact knowledge about human papillomavirus, cervical cancer development, and current prevention recommendations. PMID:27050619

  15. Knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and its prevention among nursing staff of a tertiary care teaching institute in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Badwe Dhodapkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the females worldwide. India has the highest burden of cervical cancer patients, accounting for approximately one-fifth of the cases in world. Nurses being an important link between the doctors and female patients in OPD or wards, it is imperative that they should be aware of the facts about cervical cancer and especially of screening techniques which can be utilized in low-resource settings. Methods: A cross-sectional interview based study was done among 200 nurses of a tertiary care teaching institute from June 2013 to July 2013, to assess the knowledge and awareness of nursing staff regarding causes of cervical cancer and its prevention and early detection. Results: Among all participated nurses, 85% (n=170 were aware of the term cancer cervix and 45% reported that it is the most frequent gynaecological cancer in India. Only 30.6% reported that it is the leading cause of death among women due to cancer. Young age at first intercourse, multiple sex partners, cigarette smoking, high parity and lower socio-economic status were correctly responded by 13%, 48%, 16%, 9% and 13% of participants respectively, as risk factors for cervical cancer. None of the participants knew about the VIA method of screening for cervical cancer. Among 119 of those participants who knew that cervical cancer can be detected by Pap smear, only 5 (4% had ever undergone Pap smear examination. Conclusions: Nurses identify certain aspects of cervical cancer correctly but their knowledge is not adequate, hence necessary changes should be made in their curriculum. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1056-1060

  16. Prevent excessive toxicity conservative treatment of locally forms of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was proved chemoradiotherapy of 149 patients with advance forms of cervical cancer IIB-IIIB (T2b-3bN0-1M0) according to developed methods of complex conservative therapy taking into consideration an individual planning of radiotherapy by norms of not surpassing the level of normal tissue's tolerance. It was estimated the expression of common and local chemoradio reactions of critical organs and tissues. Toxic effects of treatment of researched and control groups did not differ from each other and did not exceed the second rate

  17. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in women, the cause ...

  18. The role of health education in the prevention of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chania M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of present research is the briefing and sensitization of women in the prefectures Arkadia and Lakonia with concrete methodology of health education , with final objective their mobilisation so that they proceed in screening making the essential examinations (test-pap, for the convenient diagnosis of cervical cancer. In the study of needs and in the intervention participated 300 women from the prefectures Arkadia and Lakonia. The method of estimate of needs that was used follows the cognitive model and concretely the model of beliefs for the health (Health Belief Model HBM. As method of health education it was used traditional and concretely the techniques that were used were lectures that were realised in women’s’ associations in the previously mentioned prefectures, with the help of program of presentations of computer and the distribution of informative booklets of Health Ministry and Social Solidarity. For the evaluation of direct result of intervention (change in the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, was used questionnaire, before the beginning of lecture From the treatment of data it resulted that the sample is constituted by women that belong mainly in the age-related groups of the 25-30 years and 45-60 years. Evaluating the direct result of intervention were observed important change in the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of women towards cervical cancer and the methods of its’ convenient diagnosis.

  19. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón- Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; De León-Leal, Silvia; Vázquez-Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Farías-Calderón, Ana Gabriela; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Elizondo-Zapién, Rosa María; Hernandez-Hernandez, Dulce María; Garza-Moya, Rubén; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo Martín

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prevention programs have not achieved the expected results in preventing mortality from breast and cervical cancer in Mexico. Therefore, we propose a complementary strategy. Methodology An educational strategy for high school students in Mexico (2011–2013) was designed (longitudinal design, two measurements and a single intervention). The postintervention assessment included: 1) knowledge acquired by students about cancer prevention and 2) The performance of the student as a health promoter in their household. The strategy was based on analysis of cases and developed in three sessions. An assessment tool was designed and validated (Test–Retest). The levels of knowledge according to the qualifications expected by chance were determined. Wilcoxon test compared results before and after intervention. Results An assessment instrument with 0.80 reliability was obtained. 831 high school students were analyzed. Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed a significant learning after the intervention (Z = − 2.64, p = 0.008) with improvement of levels of knowledge in a 154.5%. 49% of students had a good performance as health promoters. Conclusions The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way. PMID:26844079

  20. Promoting Quality of Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, S.; Madsen, E.; Porterfield, D.; Varghese, B.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening is highly cost effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable in higher and lower income settings across the world. According to the World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum, screening for cervical cancer is an evidence-based best buy prevention intervention (1). However, to be effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality, screenin...

  1. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. [Prevention of cervical and breast cancer in health services and non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Marisa

    2013-08-01

    The article analyzes actions for the prevention of cervical and breast cancer in public, private, and employment-based health services and in non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires. The article seeks to reflect on the reach and limitations of the approaches implemented in the three subsectors of the health care system and the community to prevent women from suffering or eventually dying as a consequence of these diseases, in the fragmented context of a health system with great heterogeneity in access and deep social inequalities in the use of preventive actions. The study utilizes a broad definition of prevention which integrates education, awareness-building and early detection of pre-carcinogenic and carcinogenic lesions, among other medical and non-medical components. The results were obtained using semi-structured interviews with subjects from public hospitals, employment-based health care services, private medical companies and non-governmental organizations with work in cancer prevention. These results show that contrary to a comprehensive approach, each institution limits its actions to only one aspect of prevention, implementing predominately isolated or disconnected actions inadequate to generate an autonomous and well-informed demand for treatment and health care among women. PMID:23989627

  3. The health beliefs of mothers about preventing cervical cancer and their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Mothers have a primary role in the prevention of cervical cancer in Korea. This study aimed to determine the awareness and health beliefs of mothers about preventing cervical cancer in their daughters, their intention to recommend the Pap test to their daughters, and the factors influencing this intention. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was employed, and the study enrolled mothers (n = 1,581) of pubescent girls aged 13 to 18 years who were living nationwide in Korea. The s...

  4. Factors influencing the return rate in a direct mail campaign to inform minority women about prevention of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignan, M B; Michielutte, R; Jones-Lighty, D D; Bahnson, J

    1994-01-01

    The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project was a 5-year community-based health education program funded by the National Cancer Institute. The program was developed to reduce cervical cancer mortality among black women in Forsyth County, and it was targeted to those ages 18 and older. The program tried to educate the target population through a combination of mass media and direct education. This paper reports on an experiment conducted to investigate sources of influence on the effectiveness of direct mail, a technique used to augment mass media health education. Direct mail has shown promise as a method for reaching target populations that are difficult to reach with other mass media approaches. Using commercially prepared mailing lists sorted by zip code and other characteristics of the resident, health-related materials can be targeted to persons at their homes. A randomized experiment involving 1,000 households was carried out to estimate the influence of type of postage and address (name versus "resident or occupant") on the response rate to direct mail. Results indicated that there was no significant advantage from use of first class over bulk rate postage, but the return was significantly greater when the envelope bore a name rather than "resident or occupant." PMID:8041850

  5. Quantifying the decisional satisfaction to accept or reject the Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine: a preference for cervical cancer prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Harper

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Only a portion of the US population is willing to consider HPV vaccination to date. The primary aim of this study is to determine the decisional satisfaction associated with HPV vaccination. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective survey conducted at an urban college where women 18-26 years old completed a decisional satisfaction survey about their HPV vaccine experience. RESULTS: Regardless of the decision to accept or reject HPV vaccination, the decisional satisfaction was very high (mean 5-item score = 21.2 (SD 3.8. Women without HPV vaccination were decisionally neutral significantly more often than those already vaccinated; 22% were decisionally neutral for the option to accept HPV vaccination at that visit. Cervical cancer prevention was preferred significantly more often than genital wart prevention in all analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting those who are decisionally neutral about HPV vaccination may result in a higher uptake of HPV vaccination.

  6. ["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body. PMID:24068222

  7. Cervical dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by your provider. Make sure to get the HPV vaccine when it is offered to you. This vaccine prevents many cervical cancers. ... Early diagnosis and prompt treatment cures most cases of cervical ... severe cervical dysplasia may change into cervical cancer.

  8. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  9. Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of women getting cervical cancer or dying from cervical cancer varies by race ...

  10. Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kaarthigeyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine′s efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context.

  11. Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarthigeyan, K

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine's efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context. PMID:22754202

  12. The Effectiveness of a Facebook-Assisted Teaching Method on Knowledge and Attitudes about Cervical Cancer Prevention and HPV Vaccination Intention among Female Adolescent Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Liang, Shu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of education is a known barrier to vaccination, but data on the design and effectiveness of interventions remain limited. Objective: This study aims to identify the effectiveness of a Facebook-assisted teaching method on female adolescents' knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention and on their human papillomavirus…

  13. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  14. Epidemiology and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemanns, Peter; Soergel, Phillip; Hertel, Hermann; Jentschke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The new German S3 guideline 'Prevention of Cervical Cancer' published in 2016 is based on the latest available evidence about cervical cancer screening and treatment of cervical precancer. Large randomized controlled trials indicate that human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening may provide better protection against cervical cancer than cytology alone through improved detection of premalignant disease in the first screening round prior to progression. Therefore, women aged 30 years and older should preferably be screened with HPV testing every 3-5 years (cytology alone every 2 years is an acceptable alternative). Co-testing is not recommended. Screening should start at 25 years using cytology alone every 2 years. The preferred triage test after a positive HPV screening test is cytology. Women positive for HPV 16 and HPV 18 should receive immediate colposcopy. Another alternative triage method is p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology. The mean yearly participation rate in Germany is between 45 and 50%. Offering devices for HPV self-sampling has the potential to increase participation rates in those women who are at higher risk of developing cervical cancer. Regarding primary prevention, the 9-valent vaccine may provide protection against up to 85% of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 and 90% of cervical cancer, and is available in Europe as a 2-dose schedule from May 2016. PMID:27614953

  15. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  16. Primary health care of women: an educational-preventive approach to combat cancer cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rúbia Maciel Cardoso do Prado, Carmen Lúcia Paiva Silveira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: analyzing the acceptance of women in the Polyclinic Dr. Evaristo Pereira de Carvalho for performing the Pap examination, linked to SUS (Health Unique System, in Muriaé, Minas Gerais. Method: quantitative research, which had the object of the study 76 women. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: having a cervical smear with the nurse researcher, participation in the waiting room, accompanied by a period of one year. It was used for the data collection a questionnaire administered to participants after the educational lectures in the waiting room. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee on Faminas Muriaé under protocol number 007/2008. Results: we could see the influence of the practices of health education in the accession of women to take preventive and return in range for carrying out further tests. Final considerations: There was the importance of educational practices that affected women, which had the positive consequence of the accession of all the Pap test. Descriptors: education’s health; primary health care; women's health; papanicolau exam.

  17. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz, Nubia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs.Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infec¬tions in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in sponta¬neous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  18. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical screening recommendations for both breast and cervical cancer on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  19. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and...

  20. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-12

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.  Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  1. Radiotherapy of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Curative-intent radical radiotherapy of cervical cancer consists of external-beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and concomitant chemotherapy with cisplatin. For each element, new developments aim to improve tumor control rates or treatment tolerance. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has been shown to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity and can be used to selectively increase the radiotherapy dose. Individualized, image-guided brachytherapy enables better adaptation of high-dose volumes to the tumor extension. Intensification of concomitant or sequential systemic therapy is under evaluation. PMID:27614991

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  3. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hutubessy, Raymond; Levin, Ann; Wang, Susan; Morgan, Winthrop; Ally, Mariam; John, Theopista; Broutet, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO) Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P) tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehe...

  4. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hutubessy Raymond; Levin Ann; Wang Susan; Morgan Winthrop; Ally Mariam; John Theopista; Broutet Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO) Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P) tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national...

  5. Exploration of knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening amongst HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Maree

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although preventable, cervical cancer, an AIDS-related disease, is the second most common cancer amongst South African women and the most common cancer amongst black women. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine what women being treated for HIV and AIDS at a specific healthcare centre in Johannesburg knew about cervical cancer and cervical screening. Method: A survey design was used, with data gathered by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Convenience sampling selected 315 women to participate (n = 315. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and chi-square testing found associations between categorical variables. Results: The majority of respondents (78.7%; n = 248 indicated that they had heard of cervical cancer and 62.9% (n = 198 knew about the Pap smear, with nurses and doctors being the primary source of information. Of the women who knew about the Pap smear, less than one-third had had a smear done, the main reason being fear of the procedure. Conclusion: The study provided evidence that women attending the specific HIV clinic were more knowledgeable about cervical cancer and screening than those of unknown HIV status involved in previous studies. Knowledge was still at a low level, especially when their exceptionally high risk was taken into account. Once again it was found that having knowledge did not necessarily mean having had a Pap smear, which remains a huge challenge in the prevention of cervical cancer.

  6. Primary HPV screening for cervical cancer prevention: results from European trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2009-01-01

    Six European, randomized, controlled trials that will compare human papillomavirus (HPV) testing with cytological testing for cervical screening are under way. We reviewed the results published so far to compare the benefits and costs for participating women. At baseline screening, use of HPV...... for each extra detected CIN2+ case; although, in another trial, this number was 49 in women > or =35 years of age. The outcome of HPV testing versus cytological testing depends not only on the relative accuracy of the primary test but also on how radical the different triage procedures are. In two trials...... of a switch from primary screening with cytological testing to primary screening with HPV testing....

  7. Cervical Cancer: Reality and Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quiñones Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical carcinoma usually reaches its highest frequency between 35-50 years of age. The Cuban prevention program screens the female population aged 25 to 60 years using the Pap smear and reexamines them every three years. Despite this effort, advanced cancer is diagnosed in young women as well as in those 40 to 60 years of age.

  8. Inhibitory effect of snake venom toxin on NF-κB activity prevents human cervical cancer cell growth via increase of death receptor 3 and 5 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Lim; Park, Mi Hee; Hong, Ji Eun; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Ji Young; Seo, Hyen Ok; Han, Sang-Bae; Yoon, Joo Hee; Lee, Won Hyoung; Song, Ho Sueb; Lee, Ji In; Lee, Ung Soo; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-02-01

    We previously found that snake venom toxin inhibits nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity in several cancer cells. NF-κB is implicated in cancer cell growth and chemoresistance. In our present study, we investigated whether snake venom toxin (SVT) inhibits NF-κB, thereby preventing human cervical cancer cell growth (Ca Ski and C33A). SVT (0-12 μg/ml) inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cells by the induction of apoptotic cell death. These inhibitory effects were associated with the inhibition of NF-κB activity. However, SVT dose dependently increased the expression of death receptors (DRs): DR3, DR5 and DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins. Exploration of NF-κB inhibitor (Phenylarsine oxide, 0.1 μM) synergistically further increased SVT-induced DR3 and DR5 expressions accompanied with further inhibition of cancer cells growth. Moreover, deletion of DR3 and DR5 by small interfering RNA significantly abolished SVT-induced cell growth inhibitory effects, as well as NF-κB inactivation. Using TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand resistance cancer cells (A549 and MCF-7), we also found that SVT enhanced the susceptibility of chemoresistance of these cancer cells through down-regulation of NF-κB, but up-regulation of DR3 and DR5. In vivo study also showed that SVT (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth accompanied with inactivation of NF-κB. Thus, our present study indicates that SVT could be applicable as an anticancer agent for cervical cancer, or as an adjuvant agent for chemoresistant cancer cells. PMID:25417048

  9. Efficacy and safety of human papillomavirus vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer: A review of evidence from phase III trials and national programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Basu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been widely introduced in the national immunization programs in most of the medium and high income countries following endorsement from national and international advisory bodies. HPV vaccine is unique and its introduction is challenging in many ways - it is the first vaccine developed to prevent any cancer, the vaccine is gender specific, it targets adolescent females who are difficult to reach by any health intervention programs. It is not unusual for such a vaccine to face scepticism and reservations not only from lay public but also from professionals in spite of the clinical trial results convincingly and consistently proving their efficacy and safety. Over the last few years millions of doses of the HPV vaccine have been administered round the world and the efficacy and safety data have started coming from the real life programs. A comprehensive cervical cancer control program involving HPV vaccination of the adolescent girls and screening of the adult women has been proved to be the most cost-effective approach to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. The present article discusses the justification of HPV vaccination in the backdrop of natural history of cervical cancer, the mechanism of action of the vaccines, efficacy and safety data from phase III randomized controlled trials as well as from the national immunization programs of various countries.

  10. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  11. Prevalence, Predictors, and Same Day Treatment of Positive VIA Enhanced by Digital Cervicography and Histopathology Results in a Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Geneva A.; Bradford, Leslie S.; Manga, Simon; Tih, Pius M.; Wamai, Richard; Ogembo, Rebecca; Sando, Zacharie; Liu, Yuxin; Schwaiger, Constance; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kalmakis, Karen; Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa; Nulah, Kathleen; Welty, Edith; Welty, Thomas; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2007, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) implemented a screen-and-treat cervical cancer prevention program using visual inspection with acetic acid enhanced by digital cervicography (VIA-DC). Methods We retrospectively analyzed 46,048 medical records of women who received care through the CBCHS Women’s Health Program from 2007 through 2014 to determine the prevalence and predictors of positive VIA-DC, rates of same day treatment, and cohort prevalence of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Results Of the 44,979 women who were screened for cervical cancer, 9.0% were VIA-DC-positive, 66.8% were VIA-DC-negative, 22.0% were VIA-DC-inadequate (normal ectocervix, but portions of the transformation zone were obscured), and 2.2% were VIA-DC-uncertain (cervical abnormalities confounding VIA-DC interpretation). Risk factors significantly associated with VIA-DC-positive screen were HIV-positivity, young age at sexual debut, higher lifetime number of sexual partners, low education status and higher gravidity. In 2014, 31.1% of women eligible for cryotherapy underwent same day treatment. Among the 32,788 women screened from 2007 through 2013, 201 cases of ICC were identified corresponding to a cohort prevalence of 613 per 100,000. Conclusions High rate of VIA-DC-positive screens suggests a significant burden of potential cervical cancer cases and highlights the need for expansion of cervical cancer screening and prevention throughout the 10 regions of Cameroon. VIA-DC-inadequate rates were also high, especially in older women, and additional screening methods are needed to confirm whether these results are truly negative. In comparison to similar screening programs in sub-Saharan Africa there was low utilization of same day cryotherapy treatment. Further studies are required to characterize possible program specific barriers to treatment, for example cultural demands, health system challenges and cost of procedure. The prevalence of ICC among

  12. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  13. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  14. Cervical cancer awareness and risk factors among female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, G A

    1998-07-01

    Population cervical screening programmes are necessary for meaningfully reducing cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. Because of the high incidence of cervical cancer in South Africa, the need for a national screening programme has become evident. The success of such a programme will depend on, among others, the level of cervical cancer awareness among the target population, and their willingness to utilise cytological services and to comply with treatment and follow up protocols. We conducted a survey among female university students, as an elite group of women, to determine their level of cervical cancer awareness and the prevalence of the major risk factors for cervical cancer among them, their rate of utilisation of existing Pap smear services, and their attitudes to Pap smears in general. The majority of respondents were young, single (93.0%) and sexually active (86.9%,) having initiated sexual activity at a mean age of 17.27 +/- 2.18 years. There was a high prevalence of the major risk factors for cervical cancer among the respondents, and these included initiation of coitus before 18 years (53.3%), multiple sexual partners (73.6%), male partner with other partners (37.7%), and previous history of sexually transmitted diseases (42.2%) and vulval warts (4.7%). Their overall knowledge of cervical cancer was poor, although the majority of respondents were able to identify the major risk factors from a given list. This level of awareness of cervical cancer risk factors, however, did not translate into appreciation of personal risk of cervical cancer, safer sex practices or utilisation of Pap smear services. In conclusion, this elite group of women is at a high risk of cervical cancer and would benefit from cervical screening programmes. This would have to be coupled with measures to increase the level of awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention. PMID:9803633

  15. Women health professionals’ knowledge regarding the cervical cancer, and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesouli-Voltyraki E.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge of women health professionals regarding thecervical cancer and the capabilities of secondary prevention. Material and method: 151 women health professionals,aged 18-65 years old took part in the study. A cloded–type questionnaire, consisting of 66 items was used.Descriptive statistics was applied. Results: 64 % of women knew that cervical cancer is curable to a great extent.Less than half women of the sample (Ν=57, 38% answered that cervical cancer is related to sexual activity. 46% ofthe women knew that Pap test is the base of prevention One out of ten women ignored the method of prevention,while 76% believed it is a very frequent disease. 40% did not know exactly the purpose of the test. Conclusion:Women health professionals’ knowledge regarding cervical cancer is deficient. The introduction of educationalprograms on cervical cancer prevention issues is necessary.

  16. Why is there no progress against cervical cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M M

    1996-01-01

    The author reflects on the disheartening report given by Dr. E. Jean Parboosingh and associates on Canadian screening programs for cervical cancer (see pages 1847 to 1853 of this issue). Although cancer of the cervix is one of the few preventable forms of cancer, little progress has been made toward the establishment of programs to control this disease. Barriers to progress include a lack of priority given to women's health issues, insufficient public awareness of cervical cancer, the absence...

  17. Role Of Family Planning Practices In The Control And Prevention of Uterine Cervical Cancer- A Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Does acceptance of family planning reduce the risk of uterine cervical cancer? Objective: To study the association between usage of contraceptive methods and cervical carcinogenesis. Study design: Case control study. Settings: Urban Area â€" Hospital Based. Participants: 160 women having different degrees of dysplasia and 173 women having normal pap smears. Statistical Analysis: Multivariate Analysis. Results: None of the three widely prevalent Family Planning practices viz. IUD condoms and tubectomy turned out to be significant in the development of dysplasia, however, age at consummation of marriage before 18 years and illiteracy were significant. Use of IUD offered protection against carcinoma in situ (CIS and disease of invasive nature. Non- users of condoms were also at risk marginally failing to attain statistical significance.

  18. ¡Prevenga el cáncer de cuello uterino! (Prevent Cervical Cancer!)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    El cáncer de cuello uterino se puede prevenir. Escuche a dos amigas —una de ellas es doctora— que hablan sobre las pruebas de detección y la detección temprana. Sepa qué prueba podría necesitar.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  19. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  20. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

  2. A review of cervical cancer research in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridah, S

    2014-08-01

    Despite cervical cancer being potentially preventable, it is the second most common cancer among women in Malaysia. One hundred and five articles related to Cervical Cancer were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Fifty seven articles were selected and reviewed for the articles' clinical relevance and future research implications. This article reviews the various aspects of cervical cancer in Malaysia, mainly persistent infection of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), primary prevention (HPV vaccination), screening method (Pap smear issues), and the attitude and knowledge of various groups of Malaysian women that contributed to the failure to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Most of the studies focused on prevention, Pap smear issues, HPV DNA testing, HPV vaccination and various recommendations for prevention of cervical cancer. Secondary prevention by screening is still an important aspect because even with HPV vaccination, screening still plays an important role as vaccination does not cover all high risk HPVs. There is a need to seriously consider a properly organised screening programme, taking into consideration what we already know about the attitude and knowledge of Malaysian women, economic factors and psychosocial issues of the screening method. There is also a large gap in clinical studies on the outcome, management and survival of cervical cancer patients in Malaysia. PMID:25417949

  3. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... redness, tenderness, or warmth at the place of injection . Allergic reactions are rare. Using barrier protection during ... Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department ...

  4. Human papillomavirus vaccination in the prevention of cervical neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Astbury, Katharine

    2012-02-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women worldwide. Although the introduction of comprehensive screening programs has reduced the disease incidence in developed countries, it remains a major problem in the developing world. The recent licensing of 2 vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and HPV-18, the viruses responsible for 70% of cervical cancer cases, offers the hope of disease prevention. In this article, we review the role of HPV in the etiology of cervical cancer and the evidence to support the introduction of vaccination programs in young women and discuss the potential obstacles to widespread vaccination. In addition, we discuss the issues that remain to be elucidated, including the potential need for booster doses of the vaccine and the role of concomitant vaccination in men.

  5. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC POSSIBILITIES IN THE PROPHYLAXIS OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Wrześniewska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Poland is one of the countries with high cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The main means to change this situation is to manage an active and modern programme of cervical cancer prophylaxis and diagnostics. To a large extent, the effectiveness of a cervical cancer prophylaxis programme is decided by the availability of modern diagnostic research. The conventional Papanicolaou test and modern LBC cytology techniques were discussed in the article, taking into consideration HPV diagnostics in the procedures for carefully selected cytological diagnosis, in the so called in-depth stage of preventive screening tests and the role of the p16 biomarker in predicting the development of a higher degree of epithelial-cell pathologies of the cervix. Colposcopy as a diagnostic method for the verification of cytological and virological abnormalities. The modern LEEP/LLETZ procedure used in diagnosis and treatment of cervical changes is used to realise the in-depth stage of cervical cancer prophylaxis programmes.

  6. Molecular imaging in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sairah R; Rockall, Andrea G; Barwick, Tara D

    2016-06-01

    Despite the development of screening and of a vaccine, cervix cancer is a major cause of cancer death in young women worldwide. A third of women treated for the disease will recur, almost inevitably leading to death. Functional imaging has the potential to stratify patients at higher risk of poor response or relapse by improved delineation of disease extent and tumor characteristics. A number of molecular imaging biomarkers have been shown to predict outcome at baseline and/or early during therapy in cervical cancer. In future this could help tailor the treatment plan which could include selection of patients for close follow up, adjuvant therapy or trial entry for novel agents or adaptive clinical trials. The use of molecular imaging techniques, FDG PET/CT and functional MRI, in staging and response assessment of cervical cancer is reviewed. PMID:26859085

  7. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  8. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  9. Cervical cancer : incidence, screening and prognosis among immigrant women in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Azerkan, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant studies may help further our understanding of the aetiology of cervical cancer and improve its prevention. The overall aim of this thesis is to study the risk of cervical cancer among immigrant women in Sweden, their cervical screening attendance and their prognosis after cervical cancer diagnosis. Quantitative cohort study designs using data from population-based registers were carried out and analysed using Poisson regression and Cox proportional hazard models. A quantitative expl...

  10. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  11. Newsprint media representations of the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme for cervical cancer prevention in the UK (2005-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate; Langan, Mairi; Bedford, Helen; Petticrew, Mark

    2010-03-01

    In September 2008, the human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme was introduced in the UK for schoolgirls aged between 12 and 18 years of age. The vaccine shows high efficacy in preventing infection against HPV types 16 and 18 responsible for 70% of cervical cancer. However, to be most effective, the vaccine needs to be administered before exposure to the viruses and therefore, ideally, before young people become sexually active. The introduction of any new vaccine, and perhaps particularly one given to young teenage girls to prevent a sexually transmitted cancer-causing virus, has the potential to attract a great deal of media attention. This paper reports on content analysis of 344 articles published between January 2005 and December 2008 in 15 UK newspapers. It includes both manifest and latent analysis to examine newsprint media coverage of the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme and its role in HPV advocacy. We concluded that the newspapers were generally positive towards the new HPV vaccination and that over the 4 years period the newsworthiness of the HPV vaccination programme increased. In 2008 two events dominated coverage, firstly, the introduction of the HPV programme in September 2008 and secondly, in August 2008 the diagnosis on camera of cervical cancer given to Jade Goody, a 27 year old mother of two, who gained fame and notoriety in the UK through her participation in several reality television shows. There are two conclusions from this study. Firstly, the positive media coverage surrounding the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme is to be welcomed as it is likely to contribute towards influencing public perceptions about the acceptability and need for HPV vaccination. Secondly, the focus on prevalence rates of HPV infection among women and on women's sexual behaviours, in relation to HPV vaccination 'encouraging' promiscuity, is an unhelpful aspect of media coverage. PMID:20064682

  12. Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection-Associated Risk of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of cervical cancer is controversial in the literature, we performed a meta-analysis. Based on a comprehensive search of publications in the Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases, we identified and extracted data from all relevant articles examining C. trachomatis infection and the risk of cervical cancer. The quality of each included study was assessed according to the 9-star Newcastle–Ottawa scale. The strength of association between the C. trachomatis and risk of cervical cancer was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This review was registered at PROSPERO with registration No. CRD42014015672. A total of 22 studies with 4291 cervical cancer cases and 7628 controls were identified. Overall, C. trachomatis was significantly linked to increased cervical cancer risk in prospective studies (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.88–2.61, P papilloma virus and C. trachomatis has a higher risk of cervical cancer (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 3.15–5.16, P papilloma virus infections. This approach will not only protect against pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility, but may also prevent cervical cancer. PMID:27043670

  13. 人乳头瘤病毒疫苗预防宫颈癌的应用%Application of HPV Vaccines in Preventing Development of the Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏巧凡; 何莲芝

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer causes serious damage to women′s health. It is clear that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major pathogenic factor. HPV invades the organism by subtle injures. When E6 or E7 oncoprotein is continous expression in the epithelial tissue, high-risk HPV infections contribute to tumorigenicity. Detection of high-risk HPV infection and virus oncoprotein still cannot prevent cervical cancer effectively. Researchers begin to develop a vaccine against the HPV virus, and to prevent HPV infections from the sources, hoping to achieve the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Currently bivalent vaccine Cervarix against HPV 16/18 and quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil against HPV 16/18/11/16 have been approved for marketing. Prophylactic HPV vaccines have been used widely on a global scale and obtained significant effect. A new generation of prophylactic HPV vaccines have made a breakthrough in solving problems including cost, persistence and broad-spectrum immune. Cervical cancer is expected to become the first preventable cancer in the history of human anti-tumor. This review concentrates on the biological characteristics and pathogenic mechanism of HPV and the current application and situation of prophylactic HPV vaccines.%宫颈癌严重危害女性健康,现已明确人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染是其主要致病因素。HPV通过机体的细微损伤入侵,HPV E6和E7癌蛋白中的1种或2种持续表达是高危型HPV感染致瘤的关键所在,检测高危型HPV感染及病毒癌蛋白仍不能有效预防宫颈癌。研究者们正着手研制针对HPV的病毒疫苗,从源头预防HPV感染,以期实现宫颈癌的一级预防。目前已有针对HPV16/18型的二价疫苗Cervarix和针对HPV16/18/11/6型的四价疫苗Gardasil的认证上市,预防性HPV疫苗已在全球范围内推广使用并取得显著效果。新一代预防性HPV疫苗在解决疫苗的成本、持久性和广谱免疫问题上取得突破性进展,

  14. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  15. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, T.A.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Dorsman, S.; Tutuhatunewa, E.D.; Vrij, E.L. de; Nijman, H.W.; Daemen, T.; Wilschut, J.C.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides a

  16. Cervical cancer: evaluation of our results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Cervical cancer in women occupies 3rd place in incidence and 5th as a cause of cancer death in our country. The evolution is mainly determined by the stage, nodal status and histological type. The treatment of these tumors is surgical, radiant and / or systemic, depending on your choice mainly Stadium. Objective: To analyze the characteristics, evolution, treatment and survival of patients carriers of cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: The medical records were retrospectively analyzed for patients with cervical cancer treated at the Department of Oncology the Clinical Hospital in the period 1994-2004. Curves were constructed survival (sv) of total and free enfemedad sv sv by stage and after relapse by the method of Kaplan-Meier. Results: n = 75 patients, median age 45 years (24-90 years). Histological type: Epidermoid carcinomas 93% 5% 2% adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous. stadium (E) Initial: 31% IE, 38% EII, EIII 25%, 6% EIVA. Treatment was according to the stadium, considering that until 1999 was not standard concurrent chemoradiation. The median sv considering all stages was 124 months. The sv to 5 years for EI was 90% (median 188 sv months), for the ISI 65% (95 months) and the median sv CIRTs was 24 months. Followed for 13 months, 12 patients relapsed and the median after sv relapse was 8 months (95% CI 4-13 months) Conclusions: Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Our results are consistent with those reported in the literature, however far from the optimal, so it is necessary to continue clinical trials in this regard

  17. Youtube as a source of information on cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Accurate information about cervical cancer to general public can lower the burden of the disease including its mortality. Aims: We aimed to look at the quality of information available in YouTube for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: We searched YouTube (http://www.youtube.com for videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. Videos were then analyzed for their source and content of information. Results: We studied 172 videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. We found that there were videos describing the personal stories, risk factors, and the importance of screening. However, videos discussing all the aspects of cancers were lacking. Likewise, videos from the reputed organization were also lacking. Conclusion: Although there were numerous videos available in cervical cancer, videos from reputed organizations including Center for Disease Control and Prevention, American Cancer Society, and World Health Organization were lacking. We strongly believe that quality videos from such organizations via YouTube can help lower the burden of disease.

  18. “If you can’t treat HPV, why test for it?” Women’s attitudes to the changing face of cervical cancer prevention: a focus group study

    OpenAIRE

    O'Leary, John

    2014-01-01

    Open Access Research article “If you can’t treat HPV, why test for it?” Women’s attitudes to the changing face of cervical cancer prevention: a focus group study Judith McRae1*, Cara Martin2, John O’Leary3, Linda Sharp1 and On behalf of the Irish Cervical Screening Research Consortium (CERVIVA) * Corresponding author: Judith McRae Author Affiliations 1 National Cancer Registry, Building 6800, Cork Airport Business Park, Kinsale Road, Cork, Irelan...

  19. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  20. Laparoscopic Fertility Sparing Management of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Facchini; Giuseppina Rapacchia; Giulia Montanari; Paolo Casadio; Gianluigi Pilu; Renato Seracchioli

    2014-01-01

    Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC) for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery ...

  1. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  2. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections: new options for cervical cancer prevention Epidemiología de las infecciones por el papilomavirus humano: nuevas opciones para la prevención del cáncer cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the cervical cancer puzzle has become a coherent description that includes the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV as the sexually transmitted etiologic agent and the characterization of the major determinants of HPV acquisition. Triage studies have consistently shown that HPV testing is more sensitive that repeated cytology in identifying underlying high-grade lesions in women with atypical scamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. Studies that reflect primary screening conditions have shown that the sensitivity of HPV tests is higher than standard cytology in detecting high-grade lesions whereas the specificity is similar only in women aged 30-35 and above. HPV vaccines have an intrinsic attraction as a preventive strategy in populations with limited resources. However, vaccines designed to widespread use are still in development and testing phases. Time is ripe for exploring in depth the clinical implications of current achievements and to devise novel strategies for the prevention of cervical cancer.En las ultimas dos décadas, el enigma del cáncer cervical (CaCu ha comenzado a ser dilucidado y actualmente se ha identificado a la infección por virus de papiloma humano (VPH como su agente etiológico transmitido sexualmente, y se han caracterizado los principales determinantes de infección por VPH. Estudios epidemiológicos han mostrado consistentemente que las pruebas de determinación de ADN de VPH son más sensibles que la citología repetida para la identificación de lesiones de alto grado en mujeres con diagnóstico de células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado (ASCUS. Diversos estudios que evalúan el tamizaje primario en CaCu, han mostrado que la sensibilidad de las pruebas de VPH es más alta que la citología estándar para detectar lesiones de alto grado, donde la especificidad es similar sólo en mujeres con edades entre 30 y 35 años o mayores. Las vacunas de VPH tienen

  3. BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCER EARLY DETECTION PROGRAM OR MINIMUM DATA ELEMENTS (MDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help improve access to early detection screening for breast and cervical cancers for underserved women, Congress passed the Breast and Cervical Cancer Mortality Prevention Act of 1990, which created the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Breast and Cer...

  4. The potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Priyanka Dwarampudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of invasive cervical carcinoma several molecular events were reported and these molecular events resulting in multiple genetic abnormalities. In order to control these tumors multiple molecular therapeutic targets are needed with different molecular mechanisms. Unfortunately, these molecular targets were in early stages of development. Because of less degree of success of conventional therapeutics for late stages of cervical cancer and lowering of prognosis of patients there is an increase in interest for the development of potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer. This review article emphasizes the current molecular targeted agents; with special attention to estrogen receptors for human papilloma virus infected cervical cancer.

  5. Distribution of Human papilloma virus genotypes in cervical cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates in Serbia are among the highest in Europe and data on Human papilloma virus (HPV type distribution are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV types in archival specimens of cervical cancer tissues of women in the Serbian population. A total of 45 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of cervical carcinoma were used in this study. The procedure included deparaffinization of tissue samples, DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis and HPV genotyping by direct sequencing. HPV was detected in 32 samples (71%. Genotyping revealed the presence of 6 high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 33, 45, 53 and 58, where HPV type 16 was the most prevalent type (73.7%. The results of this study and further studies will provide more detailed information about HPV genotype distribution and may contribute to the formulation of national guidelines for the prevention of cervical cancer. [175073

  6. Using Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Strategy: Development of a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Theresa L.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Smith, Judith Lee; Heckert, Andrea; Orians, Carlyn E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria E.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable with treatment of precancerous lesions and treatable at early stages. Hispanics have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of screening. "Ayndando a las Mujeres con Informaccion, Guia, y Amor para su Salud" (AMIGAS) is an intervention to increase cervical cancer screening in U.S. women of Mexican origin.…

  7. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions and Screening Behaviour Among Female University Students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females. PMID:25957285

  8. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  9. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  10. Knowledge of cervical cancer and acceptance of HPV vaccination among secondary school students in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Hesham; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ni, Kiat Aun

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women in peninsular Malaysia and very prevalent worldwide. HPV vaccination and routine Pap smear testing are the best preventive measures. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge level of secondary school students from Sarawak, East Malaysia regarding cervical cancer and its prevention. Multistage random sampling with various methods in each step was employed to select the sample of 76 students. Results showed that 61.8% had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer and its prevention. There were 60.5% of students who were aware of cervical cancer with Chinese and form four students showing significantly the highest awareness (pstudents was 22.3% and an association was found between knowledge of cervical cancer with race and HPV vaccination acceptance (pstudents had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer, its prevention and HPV vaccination acceptance. More efforts should be made to improve cervical cancer knowledge and awareness of the public especially secondary school students in Sarawak. This in turn will enhance the practice of prevention against cervical cancer among students. PMID:22126576

  11. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    A markedly increased risk of cervical cancer is known in women immunosuppressed due to AIDS or therapy following organ transplantation. The aim of this review is to determine the association between other conditions affecting the immune system and the risk of cervical cancer. Patients with end......-stage renal disease seem to be at an increased risk of cervical cancer. A higher risk of cervical precancerous lesions was found in patients with some autoimmune diseases; particularly if treated with immunosuppressants. Among behavioral factors weakening the immune system, smoking appeared to strongly...... increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...

  12. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  13. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor Hugo; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Salazar-León, Jonathan; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%-95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development. PMID:23144564

  14. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C;

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  15. [Induction chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkhov, K Yu; Nechushkina, V M; Kuznetsov, V V

    2015-01-01

    The main methods of treatment for cervical cancer are surgery, radiotherapy or their combination. During past two decades chemotherapy are increasingly being used not only in patients with disseminated forms of this disease but also in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy or as induction therapy. Possibilities of adjuvant chemotherapy for cervical cancer are being studied. According to A.D.Kaprin and V.V. Starinskiy in 2013 in Russia, 32% of patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer underwent only radiation therapy, 32%--combined or complex treatment, 27.3%--only surgery, and just 8.7%--chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26087600

  16. Decreased cervical cancer cell adhesion on nanotubular titanium for the treatment of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Crear J; Kummer KM; Webster TJ

    2013-01-01

    Jara Crear, Kim M Kummer, Thomas J Webster School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Cervical cancer can be treated by surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. Titanium biomaterials have been suggested as a tool to help in the local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiation to cervical cancer sites. However, current titanium medical devices used for treating cervical cancer do not by themselves possess any anticancer properties; such devices...

  17. Radiosensitizers in cervical cancer. Cisplatin and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health burden worldwide. Globally, the majority of cancers are locally advanced at diagnosis; hence, radiation remains the most frequently used therapeutical modality. Currently, the value of adding cisplatin or cisplatin-based chemotherapy to radiation for treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is strongly supported by randomized studies and meta-analyses. Nevertheless, despite these significant achievements, therapeutic results are far from optimal; thus, novel therapies need to be assayed. A strategy currently being investigated is the use of newer radiosensitizers alone or in combination with platinum compounds. In the present work, we present preclinical information on known and newer cytotoxic agents as radiosensitizers on cervical cancer models, as well as the clinical information emanating from early phase trials that incorporate them to the cervical cancer management. In addition, we present the perspectives on the combined approach of radiation therapy and molecular target-based drugs with proven radiosensitizing capacity

  18. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective....... Nevertheless, little has been reported about long-term cancer trends in Greenland. Our aim was to describe and interpret the incidence of cervical cancer from 1950 to 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for articles reporting the incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland. We...... supplemented this with data for 1980-2009 obtained from the Chief Medical Officer of Greenland. RESULTS: Incidence of cervical cancer was around 10 per 100 000 women (age-standardised, world population, ASW) in the 1950s, 30 per 100 000 in the 1960s, and in the 1980s around 60 per 100 000. From 1985 onwards...

  19. Preservation of ovary function during combined treatment for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Sidorenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fixation of the preserved ovaries to uterine round ligament allow to retain ovarian function, not only during postoperative radiotherapy of stage Ib cervical cancer due to their transposition, but also after completing pelvic radiation because of preserved ovarian blood vessels in physiological place. This method prevents surgical and radiologic castration.

  20. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  1. Progression of the Clinical Application of HPV Vaccine in Cervical Cancer Prevention%HPV疫苗预防子宫颈癌的临床应用进展及思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱巧玲; 吴宜林

    2012-01-01

    子宫颈癌是引起女性死亡的第二大癌症.研究证实人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染与子宫颈癌有着十分密切的关系.近年来,HPV疫苗在预防和治疗子宫颈癌方面备受关注,多种新型预防性HPV疫苗已在部分国家上市.但是HPV疫苗的研制、使用、推广仍面临许多难题,有待广大医疗工作者共同思考和解决.%Cervical cancer is the second\\cause of cancer death in women, many studies confirm that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer has, a very close relationship. In recent years, HPV vaccines get much attention in the fields of cervical cancer prevention and treatment, a variety of new preventive HPV vaccines have been used in some countries. But the development, use and promotion of HPV vaccine are still facing many challenges, so we need think about that and solve the problems together.

  2. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  3. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westra Tjalke A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides additional protection against HPV 31, 33, and 45 and the quadrivalent vaccine against HPV31. The quadrivalent vaccine additionally protects against low-risk HPV type 6 and 11, responsible for most cases of genital warts. In this study, we made an analytical comparison of the two vaccines in terms of cost-effectiveness including the additional benefits of cross-protection and protection against genital warts in comparison with a screening-only strategy. Methods We used a Markov model, simulating the progression from HPV infection to cervical cancer or genital warts. The model was used to estimate the difference in future costs and health effects of both HPV-vaccines separately. Results In a cohort of 100,000 women, use of the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine (both at 50% vaccination coverage reduces the cervical cancer incidence by 221 and 207 cases, corresponding to ICERs of €17,600/QALY and €18,900/QALY, respectively. It was estimated that the quadrivalent vaccine additionally prevents 4390 cases of genital warts, reducing the ICER to €16,300/QALY. Assuming a comparable willingness to pay for cancer and genital warts prevention, the difference in ICERs could justify a slightly higher price (~7% per dose in favor of the quadrivalent vaccine. Conclusions Clearly, HPV vaccination has been implemented for the prevention of cervical cancer. From this perspective, use of the bivalent HPV vaccine appears to be most effective and cost-effective. Including the benefits of prevention against genital warts, the ICER of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was found to be slightly more favourable. However, current decision-making on the introduction of HPV

  4. Laparoscopic Fertility Sparing Management of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Facchini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach associated with less pain and faster recovery, feasible even in obese women.

  5. Laparoscopic fertility sparing management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Chiara; Rapacchia, Giuseppina; Montanari, Giulia; Casadio, Paolo; Pilu, Gianluigi; Seracchioli, Renato

    2014-04-01

    Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC) for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach associated with less pain and faster recovery, feasible even in obese women. PMID:24696772

  6. Prospects for primary prevention of cervical cancer in developing countries Perspectivas de prevención primaria de cáncer cervical en países en desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Franceschi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The HPV types that cause cervical cancer are sexually transmitted, but there is little evidence that infection can be avoided by behavioural changes, such as condom use. In contrast, prophylactic vaccines against HPV infection are likely to have high efficacy. In principle, the effectiveness of HPV vaccination as a strategy for cervical cancer control can be measured either by monitoring secular trends in cervical cancer incidence or by conducting randomized trials. The former approach is unlikely to provide convincing evidence of effectiveness, since cervical cancer rates are subject to strong secular trends that are independent of intervention measures. A few phase III trials of HPV prophylactic vaccines are now being started. Such trials are very expensive studies involving frequent and complicated investigations. It is important, however, to start as soon as possible simpler trials designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of HPV vaccine in field conditions, i.e. in developing or intermediate countries which suffer the major burden of mortality from cervical cancer. Such trials may capture a difference in the most severe, and rarest, preinvasive cervical lesions (i.e., the real target of any HPV vaccine over a prolonged follow-up (20 years at least. The design of such studies is briefly considered for two areas: Southern India and South Korea.Los tipos de virus de papiloma humano (VPH que causan cáncer cervical son sexualmente transmisibles, pero existe muy poca evidencia sobre que la infección pueda ser evitada por cambios en las conductas sexuales de alto riesgo, tales como el uso del condón. En contraste, vacunas profilácticas en contra del VPH pueden llegar a tener una muy elevada eficacia en la prevención de cáncer cervical. En principio, la efectividad de la vacunación contra el VPH, como estrategia para el control de cáncer cervical, puede ser evaluada por monitoreo secular en las tendencias de incidencia de cáncer cervical o

  7. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  8. Genotypic distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cytology findings in 5906 Thai women undergoing cervical cancer screening programs

    OpenAIRE

    Kantathavorn, Nuttavut; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Sritana, Narongrit; Sricharunrat, Thaniya; Phoolcharoen, Natacha; Auewarakul, Chirayu; Teerayathanakul, Narongchai; Taepisitpong, Chantanee; Saeloo, Siriporn; Sornsamdang, Gaidganok; Udomchaiprasertkul, Wandee; Krongthong, Waraphorn; Arnamwong, Arpaporn

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Thai women. Nevertheless, the preventive strategy such as HPV vaccination program has not been implemented at the national level. This study explored the HPV prevalence and genotypic distribution in a large cohort of Thai women. Methods A hospital-based cervical cancer screening program at Chulabhorn Hospital, Bangkok and a population-based screening program at a rural Pathum Thani Province were conducted using liquid...

  9. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D;

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region....... There are only few comprehensive studies examining the epidemiology of cervical cancer in this region and no published data have hitherto described the current cervical cancer prevention initiatives in this region....... is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines...

  10. HPV与宫颈癌%Hunum papillomavirus and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁玉兰; 梁新芳

    2008-01-01

    It has been approved that the genital human papillomavirus(HPV) infection is one of the leading causes of cervical cancer.Over two-thirds of cervical cancer cases are associated with infection of either HPV16 or HPV18.The success of HPV prophylactic vaccine development is the milestone of cervical cancer prevention of humankind.%人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)的感染已被证实与宫颈癌的发生有密切关系.超过2/3的宫颈癌与HPV16或HPV18感染有关.HPV预防性疫苗研制的成功则是子宫颈癌预防研究的里程碑.

  11. Preprocessing for Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  12. Preprocessing: A Step in Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  13. Cervical Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cervical Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cervicalcancer.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  14. Second Primary Cancer after Diagnosis and Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Myong Cheol; Won, Young-Joo; Lim, Jiwon; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Seo, Sang Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Lee, Eun Sook; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to investigate the incidence and survival outcomes of second primary cancers after the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry between 1993 and 2010 were reviewed and analyzed. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of second primary cancers among women with cervical cancer were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed for cervical cancer patients with or without a second primary cancer. Results Among 72,805 women with cervical cancer, 2,678 (3.68%) developed a second primary cancer within a mean follow-up period of 7.34 years. The overall SIR for a second cancer was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.12). The most frequent sites of second primary cancers were the vagina, bone and joints, vulva, anus, bladder, lung and bronchus, corpus uteri, and esophagus. However, the incidence rates of four second primary cancers (breast, rectum, liver, and brain) were decreased. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 78.3% and 72.7% in all women with cervical cancer, and for women with a second primary cancer, these rates were 83.2% and 65.5% from the onset of cervical cancer and 54.9% and 46.7% from the onset of the second primary cancer, respectively. Conclusion The incidence rates of second primary cancers were increased in women with cervical cancer compared to the general population, with the exception of four decreasing cancers. The 10-year overall survival rates were decreased in cervical cancer patients with a second primary cancer. PMID:26194366

  15. Cervical cancer risk factors among HIV-infected Nigerian women

    OpenAIRE

    Ononogbu, Uzoma; Almujtaba, Maryam; Modibbo, Fatima; Lawal, Ishak; Offiong, Richard; Olaniyan, Olayinka; Dakum, Patrick; Spiegelman, Donna; Blattner, William; Adebamowo, Clement

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, and in Nigeria it is the second most common female cancer. Cervical cancer is an AIDS-defining cancer; however, HIV only marginally increases the risk of cervical pre-cancer and cancer. In this study, we examine the risk factors for cervical pre-cancer and cancer among HIV-positive women screened for cervical cancer at two medical institutions in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 2,501 HIV-positive women part...

  16. CERVICAL CANCER – THE PRESENT SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Recent advances in cervical cancer management with well defined indications of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have resulted in significant increase in survivors with better QOL. Ongoing recent trials pertaining to further refinement of treatment protocols to make it more cure specific and less morbid will bring more changes in the present scene. This article is a concise review of salient features regarding cervical cancer screening diag nosis & management at present.

  17. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer ... that can lead to cervical cancer, a new study shows. Canadian researchers found that young women who ...

  18. The roles and clinical significance of microRNAs in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenfen; Li, Baohua; Xie, Xing

    2016-02-01

    Cervical carcinogenesis induced by persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection represents a stepwise progression from precursors to invasive cervical cancer. Accumulated evidence has shown aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cervical cancer tissues and cells. Further studies reveal that miRNAs play key roles in the initiation and progression of cervical cancer, via specific signaling pathways, including E6-p53, E7-pRb, phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt, Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, and Hedgehog pathways. Some studies demonstrate that miRNAs might serve as biomarkers or therapeutic targets, presenting a potential prospect in clinical practice. All results provide new insights into the function of miRNAs and the pathogenesis of cervical cancer induced by viral oncoproteins. New approaches for miRNA-based prevention and management for cervical cancer will be developed in the future. PMID:26356641

  19. Holistic care of the patient with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, M

    1992-12-01

    Participation by women in screening programs for cervical cancer is far from optimal, and many lives are lost because of this. Cervical cancer is common, and is easily detected and treated. It has a good prognosis for cure if detected early in its course. Effective screening has been shown to have a major role in decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. Therefore, there is a need for increased public health education and availability of screening programs for women. It is particularly important that public health efforts reach women in the lower socioeconomic groups who are less apt to exhibit health promotive behaviors. Women of Latin American heritage are at particularly high risk because of cultural barriers to the discussion of sexual practices. Until public health interventions are more successful, cervical cancer will continue to pose a major threat to women who are either too embarrassed or too misinformed to understand that prevention is an integral part of women's health care. Nurses view patients in a holistic way. It is this philosophy of care that offers women who are diagnosed with cervical cancer a means to adapt successfully to the psychologic and physiologic stresses associated with the diagnosis. Nurses need to recognize this strength and to offer holistic approaches to women in crisis. No two patients deal with a diagnosis of cancer in the same manner. A major challenge to nurses across a hospital community continuum is to provide comprehensive psychologic and physiologic assessment of a women's response to a diagnosis of cervical cancer and to provide effective and holistic intervention when necessary. PMID:1448360

  20. Studying the Physical Function and Quality of Life Before and After Surgery in Patients With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lymphedema; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IB1 Cervical Cancer

  1. Development and Validation of the Assessment of Health Literacy in Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Kim, Miyong T.; Kim, Jiyun; Nguyen, Tam

    2014-01-01

    For many people limited health literacy is a major barrier to effective preventive health behavior such as cancer screening, yet a comprehensive health literacy measure that is specific to breast and cervical cancer screening is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a new instrument to measure health literacy in the context of breast and cervical cancer screening, the Assessment of Health Literacy in Cancer Screening (AHL-C). The AHL-C ...

  2. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections: new options for cervical cancer prevention Epidemiología de las infecciones por el papilomavirus humano: nuevas opciones para la prevención del cáncer cervical

    OpenAIRE

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2003-01-01

    In the last two decades, the cervical cancer puzzle has become a coherent description that includes the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the sexually transmitted etiologic agent and the characterization of the major determinants of HPV acquisition. Triage studies have consistently shown that HPV testing is more sensitive that repeated cytology in identifying underlying high-grade lesions in women with atypical scamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). Studies that ref...

  3. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutubessy Raymond

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on, social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E. The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015, the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5 in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs and US$31.5 million (with vaccine assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. This is equivalent to a

  4. Community-Based Health Education has Positive Influence on the Attitude to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Sunila; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Afset, Jan Egil; Bofin, Anna; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Syversen, Unni; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal and explore the feasibility and impact of a community-based awareness program on cervical cancer. Community-based educational meetings on cervical cancer and its prevention were conducted among women's groups in rural Nepal. Through a questionnaire, the women's baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and perceived risk of cervical cancer were identified. The willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening was compared before and after the educational meeting. The meetings were followed by a cervical cancer screening program. Among the 122 participants at the educational meeting, only 6 % had heard of cervical cancer. Their baseline knowledge of risk factors and symptoms was poor. The proportion of women willing to participate in cervical screening increased from 15.6 to 100 % after attending the educational meeting. All the study subjects participated in the screening program. Additionally, the study participants recruited a further 222 of their peers for screening. Poor knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal highlights the urgency of public awareness programs for cervical cancer at a national level. A community-based awareness program can change women's attitude to cervical screening, and women's groups can play a major role in promoting participation in cervical cancer screening programs. PMID:26031906

  5. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among female students and staff in a tertiary institution in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoeye I.O.G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer has reduced substantially following the introduction of effective cervical screening programmes. This is in contrast to what is obtained in Africa including Nigeria where cervical screening is rudimentary or non- existent. Aim: This study seeks to assess the knowledge, level of perception and the attitude of female staff and students of Niger Delta University, Nigeria, towards cervical cancer screening. Methods: A questionnaire was used for data collection. The questions were made to capture the objectives of the study. Results: Most of the respondents 278 (72% were aware of cervical cancer, while only 182 (50.6% were aware of cervical cancer screening. Pap smear was the most popular screening test mentioned by respondents 100 (41.2%, while some respondents (8.5% of staff and 16.3% of students wrongly believed that blood test is used for cervical cancer screening. There is a significant association between awareness and practice of cervical cancer screening amongst staff and students (X2 = 29.4, P=0.00. Conclusion: The study shows that awareness of cervical cancer screening was higher amongst students than staff of Niger Delta University. Uptake was low in both staff and students. There was an association between awareness and practice of cervical cancer screening amongst respondents. Overall, a greater proportion of the staff respondents had little or no knowledge of cervical cancer screening.

  6. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  7. Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer But study found just 30 minutes of exercise ... who are sedentary appear more likely to develop cervical cancer, but just 30 minutes of exercise each week ...

  8. Toe metastasis: A rare pattern of cervical cancer spread ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Marcia A.; Conturie, Charlotte L.; Lee, Cassie M.; Matsuo, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Highlights • Toe metastasis is a rare pattern of cervical cancer spread. • Enlarged erythematous toe is an important sign suggesting bone metastasis. • Toe metastasis represents a grave prognostic indicator of cervical cancer.

  9. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Cervical Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after treatment for cervical cancer? What should you ask your doctor about cervical cancer? It is important ... your work schedule. Or you may want to ask about second opinions or about clinical trial options. ...

  10. The potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    L Priyanka Dwarampudi; Gowthamarajan, K.; Shanmugam, R; Madhuri, K.; Nilani, P.; M N Satish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In case of invasive cervical carcinoma several molecular events were reported and these molecular events resulting in multiple genetic abnormalities. In order to control these tumors multiple molecular therapeutic targets are needed with different molecular mechanisms. Unfortunately, these molecular targets were in early stages of development. Because of less degree of success of conventional therapeutics for late stages of cervical cancer and lowering of prognosis of patients there is an inc...

  11. Progress of cervical cancer genetic-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although cervical cancer gene therapy has a distance to clinical use due to some problems, the combinating of irradiation and gene therapy holds much promise in cancer therapy based on the traditional radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. This review focuses on the group of radiogenic therapy that are either. (authors)

  12. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna;

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  13. Relations between breast and cervical cancer prevention behaviour of female students at a school of health and their healthy life style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, Arzu Tuna; Yilmaz, Derya; Tuna, Aslan; Gümüs, Aysun Babacan; Turgay, Ayse San

    2010-01-01

    Regular breast self-examination (BSE) and pap-smear tests are the two of the positive heath behaviors for improving, promoting and protecting the health of adolescent girls. The present quasi-experimental research was carried out with the purpose of analyzing the relations between breast and cervical cancer prevention behavior of female students at a School of Health and their health lifestyle. The research was conducted at Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University School of Health between November 2008 and February 2009. A total of 77 female students attending the first and second grades were included in the sample. Education pertinent to the matter was provided and evaluation was made three months later. A knowledge evaluation form for breast and gynecological examination, the Healthy Life-Style Behavior Scale (HPLP), was used in data collection. Number percentages, the McNemar Bowker test, the t test and the Mann Whitney U test were used in the evaluation. Despite the information they had received, not all of the students performed regular breast self-examination (BSE) prior to the education. For 24.7% (n=19) the reason for not doing regular BSE was their having no symptoms and for 29.9% (n=23) it was due to thinking that they would not have breast cancer. The reason for not having pap smear test was a virgin status. Three months after the education, knowledge level scores of the students increased approximately three and a half times (from 23.8-9.8) to 81.2-8.0). The rate of having regular BSE was 88.3% after three months, however; there was no pap smear test probably due to the fact that it was a taboo. When the rate of having regular BSE three months after the education and HLPL scores were compared, the scores of those having it regularly and the scores of those not having it regularly were found to be close and no statistically significant difference was detected (p> 0.05). In conclusion, consultancy service units should be established to comprehend the barriers

  14. Diagnosis of cervical cancer with transvaginal color Doppler sonography

    OpenAIRE

    Li-bo DENG; Wei ZHOU; Chang, Shu-Fang; Ming-jie LIN

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the imaging features of cervical cancer by transvaginal color Doppler sonography(TVCS),and evaluate the diagnostic value of TVCS.Methods A hundred and thirty cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN) grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ and cervical cancer,diagnosed by Thinprep cytologic test(TCT),cervical biopsy and pathological examination,received TVCS examination.The image characters and color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI) were collected and analyzed.Another 41 cases with normal cervice...

  15. Diagnosis of cervical cancer with transvaginal color Doppler sonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-bo DENG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the imaging features of cervical cancer by transvaginal color Doppler sonography(TVCS,and evaluate the diagnostic value of TVCS.Methods A hundred and thirty cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ and cervical cancer,diagnosed by Thinprep cytologic test(TCT,cervical biopsy and pathological examination,received TVCS examination.The image characters and color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI were collected and analyzed.Another 41 cases with normal cervices as determined by inspection and cytological examination were involved as control.Results In order of normal cervix,CIN,cancer in situ and cervical cancer,the cervical diameter showed a tendency of increase,also with an increase incidence of low-level echo focus in cervix.As a specific image of cervical cancer,the low level echo focus occurred only in cervical cancer with a specificity of 100%.The absence of mucosal line in cervical canal was a specific character of stage Ⅱ cervical cancer with a specificity of 100%.CDFI and resistance index(RI revealed that the local blood flow was more abundant in invasive cancer than in CIN and cancer in situ,and significant difference was found between stage Ⅰ and stage Ⅱ cervical cancer(P < 0.05.The sensitivity and specificity of enlarged cervical diameters in diagnosis of cervical cancer were 89.1% and 82.8%.The specificity of cervical low level echo focus in diagnosis of cervical cancer and invasive cervical cancer were 100% and 94.8%,respectively.The specificity of abundant blood flow in dendritic form in diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer was 100%.Conclusions Invasive cervical cancer may present several specific features in TVCS images.TVCS examination is of high reliability in diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer,but is not so reliable in diagnosing precancerous lesion and preinvasive cancer.Combined with other auxiliary examinations,TVCS could be considered as one of the methods to diagnose cervical

  16. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    2004-01-01

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying ep

  17. New molecular targets against cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duenas-Gonzalez A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfonso Duenas-Gonzalez,1,2 Alberto Serrano-Olvera,3 Lucely Cetina,4 Jaime Coronel4 1Unit of Biomedical Research in Cancer, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas UNAM/Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City, 2ISSEMyM Cancer Center, Toluca, 3Medical Oncology Service, ABC Medical Center, Mexico City, 4Division of Clinical Research, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City, Mexico On behalf of the Tumor Study Group Abstract: Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women. Major advances but still insufficient achievements in the treatment of locally advanced and high-risk early stage patients have occurred in the last decade with the incorporation of concurrent cisplatin with radiation and, lately, gemcitabine added to cisplatin chemoradiation. Despite a number of clinical studies incorporating molecular-targeted therapy as radiosensitizers being in progress, so far, only antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab added to cisplatin chemoradiation has demonstrated safety and shown encouraging results in a Phase II study. In advanced disease, cisplatin doublets do not have a great impact on the natural history of the disease with median survival rates not exceeding 13 months. The first Phase III study of bevacizumab, added to cisplatin or a non-cisplatin-containing doublet, showed significant increase in both overall survival and progression-free survival. Further studies are needed before bevacizumab plus chemotherapy can be considered the standard of care for advanced disease. Characterization of the mutational landscape of cervical cancer has already been initiated, indicating that, for now, few of these targetable alterations match with available agents. Progress in both the mutational landscape knowledge and developments of novel targeted therapies may result in more effective and individualized treatments for cervical cancer. The potential efficacy of

  18. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine for the prevention of cervical cancer and HPV-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, S Rachel; Apter, Dan; De Carvalho, Newton; Harper, Diane M; Konno, Ryo; Paavonen, Jorma; Romanowski, Barbara; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Burlet, Nansa; Mihalyi, Attila; Struyf, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are available against human papillomavirus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical and other cancers. Efficacy data from the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine clinical trial program were reviewed. Six randomized, controlled phase II/III trials evaluating cervical endpoints enrolled women from diverse populations and geographical locations. The program analyzed extensively the cohorts most relevant from a public health perspective: the total vaccinated cohort (TVC), approximating a general population including those with existing or previous HPV infection, and TVC-naïve, approximating a population of young women before sexual debut. Results show that the vaccine reduces HPV-16/18 infection and associated cervical endpoints in women regardless of age, location, or sexual experience. It provides cross-protection against some non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types and types causing genital warts, and may be effective against vulvar, oral, and anal HPV infection. Early epidemiology data following its introduction suggest a decline in the prevalence of vaccine and some non-vaccine HPV types. PMID:26902666

  19. 宫颈癌防治用人乳头瘤病毒疫苗的研究进展%Research progress of human papillomavirus vaccine in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏和霞; 张炜

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely related to the development of cervical cancer. The role of HPV vaccine in the prevention and treatment of cervical diseases caused by HPV infection is gradually taken into account. This review summarizes the recent research progress of preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. Quadrivalent HPV (HPV6/11/16/18) vaccine Gardasil, bivalent HPV (HPV16/18) vaccine Cervarix, and a new nine-valent HPV (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine Gardasil 9 have been listed and applied in clinic among the preventive vaccines. However, therapeutic HPV vaccines are still in the research stage and more experiments are needed to improve the immunogenicity and safety for clinical trials in humankind.%高危型人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus, HPV)感染与宫颈癌的发生、发展关系密切。HPV疫苗在HPV感染所致宫颈疾病防治中的作用逐渐受到重视。本文介绍宫颈癌防治用预防性和治疗性HPV疫苗的研究进展。预防性HPV疫苗中的四价HPV(HPV6/11/16/18)疫苗Gardasil、二价HPV(HPV16/18)疫苗Cervarix和九价HPV (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58)疫苗Gardasil 9已获准上市并用于临床。治疗性HPV疫苗均尚处于研究阶段,且免疫原性与安全性仍有待提高。

  20. HPV vaccination and allocative efficiency: regional analysis of the costs and benefits with the bivalent AS04-adjuvanted vaccine, from the perspective of public health, for the prevention of cervical cancer and its pre-cancerous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonanni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: by means of the decisions on whether to introduce the HPV vaccination, Public Health has already established the importance of associating the vaccination strategy to the policy of secondary prevention. The screening + vaccination strategy is more effective than the two methods taken individually. In support of this combined strategy and in order to make available per each region concrete elements for their regional planning, an assessment has been made, which also takes into account the effect of cross-protection regarding high-risk strains not contained in both vaccines, bivalent and quadrivalent, and more frequently responsible for pre-cancerous lesions and cervical cancer (CCU. This analysis evaluates the costs and benefits of screening + vaccination strategy in a 12-year-old female cohort. Furthermore, the paper provides results that may be useful to assess the opportunity to extend the vaccination to a second cohort of 24-25-year-old women. The analysis is preceded by a brief summary of CCU epidemiology available data, public health policies that give precise guidelines for vaccination strategies and analytical tools suitable to support public policy makers to efficiently allocate resources. Methods: two different models were used for two regional analyses.The vaccines may have different sustained- and cross-protection levels against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV-types. In the first analysis, a prevalence-based model estimated the potential net difference in HPV-related lesions (abnormal pap smear, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, cervical cancer (CC and genital warts (GW and associated costs generated by the two vaccines. Vaccine efficacy rates were based on published data for each vaccine. Lifetime vaccine efficacy was assumed. Results are reported over one year after reaching a steady state. Incidence and treatment costs were obtained from Italian and European sources. We also performed a cost-effectiveness analysis

  1. Sociodemographic and reproductive risk factors in cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tajinder Kaur; Shaveta Garg; Sunita Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. In India, cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women followed by breast cancer. A numbers of risk factors reproductive as well as sociodemographic have been widely studied for cervical cancer. The countries where universal screening is restricted because of various reasons economical, lack of resources etcetera, a modified screening procedure which is targeted on the high risk population can help solve the pro...

  2. Effects of irradiation for cervical cancer on subsequent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research suggests that cervical cancer patients have a lower risk of breast cancer than women in the general population. Possible explanations include opposing risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, the effect of irradiation used to treat cervical cancer, or both. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between irradiation for cervical cancer and the subsequent development of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between radiation to the ovarian area and the risk of breast cancer in this study. However, the results were consistent with a 19% reduction in risk for women irradiated for cervical cancer when compared to nonirradiated women. In a dose-response analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend of decreased risk of breast cancer with increased radiation up to 1800 rad. There was no consistent pattern for higher doses. The trend, although nonsignificant, differed by age. Women <60 years of age at irradiation were generally at a lower risk of breast cancer than nonirradiated women. Women over 59 years were at an increased risk. There are some potentially important findings from this study which might influence medical care. These should be examined in the larger International Radiation Study

  3. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Harris, MD, MPH, MBA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network is a national network recently established to focus on developing new interventions and disseminating and translating proven interventions into practice to reduce cancer burden and disparities, especially among minority and medically underserved populations. Jointly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consists of sites administered through Prevention Research Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The five sites are located in Kentucky, Massachusetts, South Carolina, Texas, Washington State, and West Virginia. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s intervention areas include primary prevention of cancer through healthy eating, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco control, and early detection of cancer through screening. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network uses the methods of community-based participatory research and seeks to build on the cancer-relevant systematic reviews of the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Initial foci for the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s research work groups include projects to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers; to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening; and to validate educational materials developed for low-literacy populations.

  4. Nanomechanical clues from morphologically normal cervical squamous cells could improve cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Li; Feng, Jiantao; Sun, Quanmei; Liu, Jing; Hua, Wenda; Li, Jing; Ao, Zhuo; You, Ke; Guo, Yanli; Liao, Fulong; Zhang, Youyi; Guo, Hongyan; Han, Jinsong; Xiong, Guangwu; Zhang, Lufang; Han, Dong

    2015-09-01

    Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis.Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03662c

  5. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  6. Epidemiology and biology of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, W M; Janicek, M F; Mirhashemi, R

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide, cancer of the cervix is the second leading cause of cancer death in women: each year, an estimated 500,000 cases are newly diagnosed. Among populations, there are large differences in incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer: these reflect the influence of environmental factors, screening Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, and treatment of pre-invasive lesions. The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, and 51 have been recovered from more than 95% of cervical cancers. We have made great strides in understanding the molecular mechanism of oncogenesis of this virus, focusing on the action of the E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins. These oncoproteins function by inactivating cell cycle regulators p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb), thus providing the initial event in progression to malignancy. Cervical cancers develop from precursor lesions, which are termed squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and are graded as high or low, depending on the degree of disruption of epithelial differentiation. Viral production occurs in low-grade lesions and is restricted to basal cells. In carcinomas, viral DNA is found integrated into the host genome, but no viral production is seen. The well-defined pre-invasive stages, as well as the viral factors involved at the molecular level, make cervical carcinoma a good model for investigating immune therapeutic alternatives or adjuvants to standard treatments. PMID:10225296

  7. Preoperative Arterial Interventional Chemotherapy on Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LING HU-Hua; TANG Liang-dan; ZHANG Xing-hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the therapeutic effect of preoperative interventional chemotherapy on cervical cancer.Methods:Preoperative interventional chemotherapy by femoral intubation was performed in 25 patients with bulky cervical cancer.The patients received bleomycin 45 mg and cisplatin or oxaliplatin 80 mg/m2.Results:25 cases(including 8 cases with stage Ⅰ and 17 cases with stage Ⅱ)received one or two courses of preoperative interventional chemotherapy.The size of the focal lesions was decreased greatly and radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy were performed successfully in all the patients.All of the specimens were sent for pathological examination.Lymphocyte infiltration was found more obvious in the cancer tissues as compared with their counterpart before treatment.As a result,relevant vaginal bleeding was stopped completely shortly after the treatment.Conclusion:Arterial interventional chemotherapy was proved to reduce the local size of cervical cancer and thus control the hemorrhage efficiently.The patients with cervical cancer can receive radical hysterectomy therapy after the interventional chemotherapy.

  8. Accelerating the reduction in cervical cancer: what can we learn from the Safe Motherhood movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, Vivien D; Jeronimo, Jose

    2013-10-01

    As we move toward the post-2015 development agenda, we should reflect on the accomplishments of the Safe Motherhood movement and derive potential lessons to strengthen programs to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. Five key areas have been the focus of attention over the years: definition of the magnitude and distribution of maternal mortality; identification of effective and feasible clinical solutions; advocacy to increase attention, resources, and commitment; leadership through international coalitions; and development of a framework for accountability, with targets and indicators. While efforts have been made in each of these areas for cervical cancer prevention, progress has been constrained by inadequate resources. Data are of variable quality, with few cancer registries in the countries where cervical cancer is most prevalent. There has been substantial progress in identifying feasible and effective clinical and programmatic interventions, and a growing consensus around meaningful indicators. Advocacy on behalf of cervical cancer prevention has been gaining momentum but leadership is still fragmented. With so many of the basic elements for cervical cancer prevention in place, we must use the lessons learned from the Safe Motherhood movement to accelerate the pace of scaling-up cervical cancer prevention activities, saving millions of women's lives in the next decade. PMID:23910179

  9. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed

  10. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Allie K. [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wise-Draper, Trisha M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wells, Susanne I., E-mail: Susanne.Wells@cchmc.org [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed.

  11. Evaluation of an educational program on cervical cancer for rural women in Mangalore, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Bright; D'Sa, Juliana Linnette

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer in women worldwide. One way by which the incidence of this malignant disease can be minimized is by imparting knowledge through health education. This study aimed at developing an educational package on cervical cancer (EPCC) and determining its effectiveness in terms of significant increase in knowledge of rural women regarding cervical cancer. A one group pre-test, post-test design was adopted. Thirty rural women were selected using a convenient sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the researchers. The EPCC was designed for a duration of one hour and 10 minutes. The structured knowledge questionnaire was first administered as the pre-test, following which knowledge on cervical cancer was imparted using the EPCC. On the 8th day, the post-test was administered. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was significantly higher than that of their mean pre-test score, indicating that the EPCC was effective in improving the knowledge of rural women on cervical cancer. The association between pre-test knowledge scores and selected demo-graphic variables were computed using chi-square test showed that pre-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was independent of all the socio-demographic variables. It was concluded that the EPCC is effective in improving the knowledge of women, regarding cervical cancer. Since the prevalence of cervical cancer is high, there is an immediate need to educate women on prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25169495

  12. Should Male Circumcision be Advocated for Genital Cancer Prevention?

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Brian J.; Mindel, Adrian; Tobian, Aaron AR; Hankins, Catherine A.; Ronald H Gray; Bailey, Robert C.; Bosch, Xavier; Wodak, Alex D

    2012-01-01

    The recent policy statement by the Cancer Council of Australia on infant circumcision and cancer prevention and the announcement that the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine will be made available for boys in Australia prompted us to provide an assessment of genital cancer prevention. While HPV vaccination of boys should help reduce anal cancer in homosexual men and cervical cancer in women, it will have little or no impact on penile or prostate cancer. Male circumcision can reduc...

  13. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  14. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cer

  15. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  16. Impact of 2-, 4- and 9-valent HPV vaccines on morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rebecca; Feldman, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most cervical cancers are associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), and vaccination with any of 3 available HPV vaccines is anticipated to greatly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. This review provides an overview of the burden of HPV, the efficacy and clinical effectiveness of the bivalent (HPV 16, 18), quadrivalent (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) and 9vHPV (HPV 6, 11, 16, 1831, 33, 45, 52, 58) vaccines in order to assess the anticipated impact on cervical cancer. All three vaccines show high efficacy in prevention of vaccine-specific HPV-type infection and associated high-grade cervical dysplasia in HPV-naïve women. Early clinical effectiveness data for the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine demonstrate reduced rates of HPV 16 and 18 prevalence in vaccinated cohorts; data evaluating cervical dysplasia and cervical procedures as outcomes will shed further light on the clinical effectiveness of both vaccines. The bivalent vaccine has demonstrated cross-protection to non-vaccine HPV types, including the types in the 9vHPV vaccine. No clinical effectiveness data is yet available for the 9vHPV vaccine.  While HPV vaccination has great promise to reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, estimated benefits are largely theoretical at present. Large population-based clinical effectiveness studies will provide long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness, as well as assessment of cervical cancer as an endpoint, particularly as young vaccinated women enter the appropriate age range to initiate screening for cervical cancer. Strengthening screening and treatment programs will likely have the greatest impact in the short-term on cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:26588179

  17. Flexitouch® Home Maintenance Therapy or Standard Home Maintenance Therapy in Treating Patients With Lower-Extremity Lymphedema Caused by Treatment for Cervical Cancer, Vulvar Cancer, or Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Lymphedema; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  18. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCI Division of Cancer Prevention Web site at http://prevention.cancer.gov on the Internet. More information on cholesterol-lowering drugs can be obtained from the FDA Web site at http://www.fda.gov on the Internet. Related Resources Causes and Prevention Posted: June 2, ...

  19. Epidemiology of cervical cancer with special focus on India

    OpenAIRE

    Sreedevi A; Javed R; Dinesh A

    2015-01-01

    Aswathy Sreedevi, Reshma Javed, Avani Dinesh Community Medicine, AIMS, Kochi, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India Abstract: Cervical cancer is on the declining trend in India according to the population-based registries; yet it continues to be a major public health problem for women in India. Multifactorial causation, potential for prevention, and the sheer threat it poses make cervical cancer an important disease for in-depth studies, as has been attempted by this paper. This pa...

  20. Geographic Disparities in Cervical Cancer Mortality: What Are the Roles of Risk Factor Prevalence, Screening, and Use of Recommended Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabroff, K. Robin; Lawrence, William F.; King, Jason C.; Mangan, Patricia; Washington, Kathleen Shakira; Yi, Bin; Kerner, Jon F.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2005-01-01

    Despite advances in early detection and prevention of cervical cancer, women living in rural areas, and particularly in Appalachia, the rural South, the Texas-Mexico border, and the central valley of California, have had consistently higher rates of cervical cancer mortality than their counterparts in other areas during the past several decades.…

  1. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  2. Quantitative DNA Methylation Analysis of Candidate Genes in Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Erin M Siegel; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L.; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and ...

  3. Accessibility of breast and cervical cancer services in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Despite the fact that Malaysia has good treatment centers for reproductive cancer, mortality rates from breast and cervical cancer are high because of a lack of early detection. Breast cancer mortality rates have risen since 1985, while cervical cancer mortality rates declined from 1985 to 1993 and then increased in 1997. There is no standardized cancer registry, so incidence and mortality rates are likely to be higher than reported. In 1995, the government launched its first nationwide cancer prevention campaign and stressed breast self-examination and yearly examination by a medical professional for woman aged 20 years and above. The same year, eligibility for pap smears was extended to all women who have been or are sexually active and are aged 20-65 years. Between 1993 and 1996, 35% of the breast cancer cases presented at stage 3 or 4, and 93% of these women had a lump of a mean size of 5.3 cm. Cultural taboos prevent women from examining their own bodies, and women fear their husbands will leave them if they have a mastectomy. Malay women also deny themselves preventive care, and sometimes physicians and nurses deny Pap smears to unmarried women. Women are not empowered with the knowledge they need to seek preventive screenings, and older women are difficult to reach with information because they are unlikely to visit maternal-child health or family planning clinics. Malaysia needs to institute a standardized cancer registry and to conduct research that will address the barriers faced by women. PMID:12294552

  4. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Epidemiology of cervical cancer with special focus on India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aswathy Sreedevi, Reshma Javed, Avani Dinesh Community Medicine, AIMS, Kochi, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kerala, India Abstract: Cervical cancer is on the declining trend in India according to the population-based registries; yet it continues to be a major public health problem for women in India. Multifactorial causation, potential for prevention, and the sheer threat it poses make cervical cancer an important disease for in-depth studies, as has been attempted by this paper. This paper attempts to review the available knowledge regarding the epidemiology and pattern of cervical cancer; types of HPV (human papilloma virus prevalent among cervical cancer patients and among women in general, high-risk groups such as commercial sex workers, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus-positive women; and the role of the national program on cancer in control efforts. The peak age of incidence of cervical cancer is 55–59 years, and a considerable proportion of women report in the late stages of disease. Specific types of oncogenic HPV-16, 18 have been identified in patients with cervical cancer. Other epidemiological risk factors are early age at marriage, multiple sexual partners, multiple pregnancies, poor genital hygiene, malnutrition, use of oral contraceptives, and lack of awareness. A multipronged approach is necessary which can target areas of high prevalence identified by registries with a combination of behavior change communication exercises and routine early screening with VIA. Sensitizing the people of the area, including menfolk, is necessary to increase uptake levels. Vaccination against types 16 and 18 can also be undertaken after taking into confidence all stakeholders, including the parents of adolescent girls. Preventing and treating cervical cancer and reducing the burden are possible by targeting resources to the areas with high prevalence. Keywords: cervical cancer, HPV, screening, prevention, epidemiology, India

  6. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves. PMID:26320444

  7. Factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings Factores determinantes de utilización de programas de detección oportuna de cáncer cervical en población de bajos recursos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Bingham

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for introducing or strengthening cervical cancer prevention programs must focus on ensuring that appropriate, cost-effective services are available and that women who most need the services will, in fact, use them. This article summarizes the experiences of research projects in Bolivia, Peru, Kenya, South Africa, and Mexico. Factors that affect participation rates in cervical cancer prevention programs are categorized in three sections. The first section describes factors that arise from prevailing sociocultural norms that influence women's views on reproductive health, well being, and notions of illness. The second section discusses factors related to the clinical requirements and the type of service delivery system in which a woman is being asked to participate. The third section discusses factors related to quality of care. Examples of strategies that programs are using to encourage women's participation in cervical cancer prevention services are provided.Las estrategias para introducir o fortalecer programas de prevención de cáncer cervical deben enfocarse hacia garantizar servicios costo-efectivos, que se encuentren disponibles para que las mujeres que los necesiten puedan utilizarlos. Este artículo resume la experiencia de proyectos de investigación realizados en Bolivia, Perú, Kenya, Sudáfrica y México. Los factores que afectan la tasa de participación en programas de prevención son categorizados en tres secciones. La primera describe los factores que surgen predominantemente por normas socioculturales que influyen en la visión que las mujeres tienen sobre la salud reproductiva. La segunda discute los factores relacionados con los requerimientos clínicos y el tipo de servicio ofrecido, así como el sistema mediante el cual las mujeres están siendo invitadas a participar. La tercera sección discute factores relacionados con la calidad de la atención. Finalmente, se proveen ejemplos de las estrategias sobre los

  8. Detection of STAT2 in early stage of cervical premalignancy and in cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zeng; Li-Hua Gao; Li-Jun Cao; De-Yun Feng; Ya Cao; Qi-Zhi Luo; Ping Yu; Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To measure the expression pattern ofSTAT2 in cervical cancer initiation and progression in tissue sections from patients with cervicitis, dysplasia, and cervical cancer. Methods:Antibody against humanSTAT2 was confirmed by plasmids transient transfection andWestern blot.Immunohistochemistry was used to detectSTAT2 expression in the cervical biopsies by using the confirmed antibody againstSTAT2 as the primary antibody.Results:It was found that the overall rate of positiveSTAT2 expression in the cervicitis, dysplasia and cervical cancer groups were38.5%,69.4% and76.9%, respectively.TheSTAT2 levels are significantly increased in premalignant dysplasia and cervical cancer, as compared to cervicitis(P<0.05). Noticeably,STAT2 signals were mainly found in the cytoplasm, implying thatSTAT2 was not biologically active.Conclusions:These findings reveal an association between cervical cancer progression and augmentedSTAT2 expression.In conclusion,STAT2 increase appears to be an early detectable cellular event in cervical cancer development.

  9. Brazilian research about prevention of cervical neoplasia: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Apolônio de Freitas Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This is an integrative review that aimed to synthesize the scientific knowledge published in national nursing journals about the prevention of cervical cancer. It was made a literature review in May 2009 in BIREME, covering the national nursing publications, from 1999 to 2009. We identified 15 articles that comprised the study sample. Of these, 11 addressed the nursing care, 6 were about prevention of cancer and 5 were about risk factors for such disease. In 4 articles the studies were accomplished in the Family Health Care Unit (UBASF which was the most prevalent place. It was found out that 6 of the articles used the qualitative method. The most studied population was formed by users of the Family Health Care Unit, in 3 studies. It was so concluded that the national research about this topic was related to the problems identified in health places, either in the effectiveness of the examination, in the knowledge of users or in conducted health education.

  10. Barriers to cervical cancer screening in Mulanje, Malawi: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K Fort

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Victoria K Fort1, Mary Sue Makin2, Aaron J Siegler1, Kevin Ault3, Roger Rochat11Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Mulanje Mission Hospital, Mulanje, Malawi; 3Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, Georgia, USABackground: In Malawi, cervical cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among women, with an 80% mortality rate. The Mulanje Mission Hospital has offered free cervical cancer screening for eight years; however, patients primarily seek medical help for gynecologic complaints after the disease is inoperable.Methods: We investigated how women in rural Malawi make health-seeking decisions regarding cervical cancer screening using qualitative research methods. The study was conducted between May and August of 2009 in Mulanje, Malawi.Results: This study found that the primary cue to action for cervical cancer screening was symptoms of cervical cancer. Major barriers to seeking preventative screening included low knowledge levels, low perceived susceptibility and low perceived benefits from the service. Study participants did not view cervical cancer screening as critical health care. Interviews suggested that use of the service could increase if women are recruited while visiting the hospital for a different service.Conclusion: This study recommends that health care providers and health educators target aspects of perceived susceptibility among their patients, including knowledge levels and personal risk assessment. We believe that continued support and advertisement of cervical cancer screening programs along with innovative recruitment strategies will increase usage density and decrease unnecessary deaths from cervical cancer in Malawi.Keywords: cervical cancer, interviews, health care, Mulanje Mission Hospital

  11. The male role in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  12. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities. PMID:25424677

  13. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening.......7% were not screened. We found a minimum of one abnormal test in 28 (10.8%) after subtotal hysterectomy and one after total hysterectomy. No cervical cancers were found. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy in a Danish population is suboptimal and some patients...... have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster...

  14. Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace X. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.

  15. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC POSSIBILITIES IN THE PROPHYLAXIS OF CERVICAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Wrześniewska; Olga Adamczyk-Gruszka; Jakub Gruszka; Beata Bąk

    2013-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries with high cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The main means to change this situation is to manage an active and modern programme of cervical cancer prophylaxis and diagnostics. To a large extent, the effectiveness of a cervical cancer prophylaxis programme is decided by the availability of modern diagnostic research. The conventional Papanicolaou test and modern LBC cytology techniques were discussed in the article, taking into consideration HPV diagno...

  16. Cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: Epidemiological evidence and perspectives for prevention Cáncer del cérvix y virus del papiloma humano: evidencia epidemiológica y perspectivas para su prevención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUBIA MUÑOZ

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem, as it is the second most common cancer in women world-wide after breast cancer. About 80% of the half a million cases estimated to occur annually in the world, occur in developing countries. The epidemiological evidence linking human papillomavirus (HPV to cervical cancer is reviewed. It is concluded that over 90% of cervical cancers can be attributed to certain HPV types. HPV 16 accounts for the highest proportion (50% followed by HPV 18 (12%, HPV 45 (8% and HPV 31 (5%. The associations with these HPV types are very b and consistent with odds ratios over 15 in all case-control studies in high- and low-risk countries for cervical cancer. However, HPV is not a sufficient cause of this malignancy; certain cofactors are necessary for a proportion of HPV persistent infections to eventually progress to cancer. These include host factors such as histocompatibilidad types and immunological response, hormonal influences and infections with other sexually transmitted agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition, results from our studies carried out in Spain and Colombia support the hypothesis that male carriers of HPV play an important role in the development of cervical cancer in their wives. The recognition of the central role of HPV in cervical cancer has far-reaching implications for the primary and secondary prevention of this malignancy. Prophylactic and therapeutic HPV vaccines are now under development and HPV typing is being integrated into screening programmes in pilot studies in a few developed countries. In developing countries, well conducted conventional screening programmes remain the best approach for the control of cervical cancer until a safe and efficient HPV vaccine can be used in the general population.El cáncer del cérvix constituye un problema importante de salud pública y es el más común en el mundo, después del de mama. Aproximadamente 80% de los 500 000 casos que se

  17. Drug Delivery Approaches for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Farideh Ordikhani; Mustafa Erdem Arslan; Raymundo Marcelo; Ilyas Sahin; Perry Grigsby; Schwarz, Julie K.; Abdel Kareem Azab

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a highly prevalent cancer that affects women around the world. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have increased their efforts to develop new drug delivery systems in cervical cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we summarized some of the recent research in systematic and localized drug delivery systems and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  18. Cytological diagnosis in cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Bratu; Florentina Pricop; Ovidiu Toma; Dragos Crauciuc; Eduard Crauciuc

    2010-01-01

    Aim. The cytological test has multiple valences, allowing the early discovery and location of feminine genital cancer. Material and methods. In the period of time between 2001 and 2009, the study made within the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of „Sf. Apostol Andrei” Emergency Hospital in Galaţi, revealed that from 415 cases with a changed PAP smear, the cytological diagnosis showed cancerous and pre-cancerous lesions in 53 patients (12.8%). We harvested cytological smears fo...

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Ethiopian health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kress CM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catherine M Kress,1 Lisa Sharling,2 Ashli A Owen-Smith,3 Dawit Desalegn,4 Henry M Blumberg,2 Jennifer Goedken1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 3Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Addis Ababa University School of Medicine, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Though cervical cancer incidence has dramatically decreased in resource rich regions due to the implementation of universal screening programs, it remains one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide and has one of the highest mortality rates. The vast majority of cervical cancer-related deaths are among women that have never been screened. Prior to implementation of a screening program in Addis Ababa University-affiliated hospitals in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, risk factors, and screening, as well as attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer screening among women’s health care providers.Methods: Between February and March 2012 an anonymous, self-administered survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cervical cancer and its prevention was distributed to 334 health care providers at three government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and three Family Guidance Association clinics in Awassa, Adama, and Bahir Dar. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square test was used to test differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practices across provider type.Results: Overall knowledge surrounding cervical cancer was high, although awareness of etiology and risk factors was low among nurses and midwives. Providers had no experience performing cervical cancer screening on a routine basis with <40% having performed any type of cervical cancer screening. Reported barriers to performing screening were lack of

  20. The Influence of Absolute and Comparative Risk Perceptions on Cervical Cancer Screening and the Mediating Role of Cancer Worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyan; Nan, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the interrelationships between cancer risk perceptions (absolute and comparative risk perceptions), cancer worry, and cervical cancer screening. Using a nationally representative survey data set (N = 2,304) from the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey Circle 1, we found that although neither absolute risk perceptions nor comparative risk perceptions exerted a direct impact on women's compliance with the cervical cancer screening recommendation (i.e., that women ages 21 to 65 obtain Pap smear every 3 years; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2012 ), both types of risk perceptions had an indirect effect on cervical cancer screening through the mediation of cancer worry. These results suggest a primal role of affect in health decision making. Implications of the findings for cancer risk communication are discussed. PMID:26312444

  1. Assessment of quality of life for the patients with cervical cancer at different clinical stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Xia Yang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With improved overall survival of cervical cancer patients, the importance of the quality of life (QOL is increasingly recognized. This study was conducted to compare the QOL of women with different stage cervical cancer before and after treatment to facilitate improved cervical cancer prevention and treatment. We used the generic Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36 to collect QOL information. Based on SF-36, we interviewed cervical cancer patients at West China Second Affiliated Hospital and Sichuan Cancer Hospital between May 2010 and January 2011. A total of 92 patients with precancerous lesions, 93 with early cancer, and 35 with advanced cancer responded to our survey. Average physical component summary (PCS scores were significantly different between the three groups at every time point (P < 0.05. Average mental component summary (MCS scores were significantly different between the three groups after treatment (P < 0.05. Average PCS and MCS scores increased gradually from the pretreatment to posttreatment period for patients with precancerous lesions. However, they reached the lowest at 1 month after treatment for patients with early and advanced cancers and rebounded between 1 and 6 months after treatment. Our results indicate that patients with precancerous lesions and early cervical cancer show better overall QOL than do those with advanced cervical cancer. Additionally, patients with early cancer recover more quickly than do those with advanced cancer in terms of both physical and mental functions. Thus, early detection and treatment initiatives may improve the QOL for patients with precancerous lesions and cervical cancer.

  2. Assessment of quality of life for the patients with cervical cancer at different clinical stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Xie; Fang-Hui Zhao; Si-Han Lu; He Huang; Xiong-Fei Pan; Chun-Xia Yang; You-Lin Qiao

    2013-01-01

    With improved overall survival of cervical cancer patients,the importance of the quality of life (QOL)is increasingly recognized.This study was conducted to compare the QOL of women with different stage cervical cancer before and after treatment to facilitate improved cervical cancer prevention and treatment.We used the generic Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) to collect QOL information.Based on SF-36,we interviewed cervical cancer patients at West China Second Affiliated Hospital and Sichuan Cancer Hospital between May 2010 and January 2011.A total of 92 patients with precancerous lesions,93 with early cancer,and 35 with advanced cancer responded to our survey.Average physical component summary (PCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups at every time point (P < 0.05).Average mental component summary (MCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups after treatment (P < 0.05).Average PCS and MCS scores increased gradually from the pretreatment to posttreatment period for patients with precancerous lesions.However,they reached the lowest at 1 month after treatment for patients with early and advanced cancers and rebounded between 1and 6 months after treatment.Our results indicate that patients with precancerous lesions and early cervical cancer show better overall QOL than do those with advanced cervical cancer.Additionally,patients with early cancer recover more quickly than do those with advanced cancer in terms of both physical and mental functions.Thus,early detection and treatment initiatives may improve the QOL for patients with precancerous lesions and cervical cancer.

  3. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India. PMID:25355525

  4. Predictors of cervical cancer screening adherence in the United States: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Karen; LoBiondo-Wood, Geri; Dains, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer incidence rates have decreased dramatically since the implementation of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Nevertheless, the American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates for 2013 predicted more than 12,000 new cases of cervical cancer in the United States. Given that some subpopulations in the United States are at a higher risk for cervical cancer than others, efforts to increase screening adherence are warranted. Many studies have explored the demographics of underscreened women, but no systematic reviews of screening demographics in adult US women were identified in the past 10 years, after release of the 2002 ACS cervical cancer screening guidelines. Knowledge of adherence to these guidelines becomes important as new guidelines were developed and released in 2012. The purpose of this systematic review of relevant studies was to identify factors that predict the use of cervical cancer screening in US women. Variables found to be significantly associated with adherence to screening included education, financial status, acculturation, psychosocial issues, and marital status. Using this information, nurse practitioners and other providers can target specific at-risk populations to increase screening by educating women about the need for cervical cancer screening and ensuring access to methods for prevention and early detection of the disease. PMID:25032031

  5. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in Invasive Cervical Cancer in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Asif; Serrano, Beatriz; Rasheed, Farah; Tous, Sara; Hassan, Mariam; Clavero, Omar; Raza, Muhammad; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Pakistan. We aim to provide specific information on HPV-type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the country. A total of 280 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were consecutively selected from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (Lahore, Pakistan). HPV-DNA was detected by SPF10 broad-spectrum PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by LiPA25. HPV-DNA prevalence was 87.5% (95%CI: 83.0-91.1), with 96.1% of cases histologically classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the HPV-DNA positive cases presented single infections (95.9%). HPV16 was the most common type followed by HPV18 and 45. Among HPV-DNA positive, a significantly higher contribution of HPV16/18 was detected in Pakistan (78.4%; 72.7-83.3), compared to Asia (71.6%; 69.9-73.4) and worldwide (70.8%; 69.9-71.8) and a lower contribution of HPVs31/33/45/52/58 (11.1%; 7.9-15.7 vs. 19.8%; 18.3-21.3 and 18.5%; 17.7-19.3). HPV18 or HPV45 positive ICC cases were significantly younger than cases infected by HPV16 (mean age: 43.3, 44.4, 50.5 years, respectively). A routine cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination program does not yet exist in Pakistan; however, the country could benefit from national integrated efforts for cervical cancer prevention and control. Calculated estimations based on our results show that current HPV vaccine could potentially prevent new ICC cases. PMID:27483322

  6. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanbi, Olusola Anuoluwapo; Iyanda, Abiodun; Osundare, Folakemi; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9%) of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3%) are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5%) know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1%) are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7%) had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3%) of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9%) have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5%) are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma. PMID:26550522

  7. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9% of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3% are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5% know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1% are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7% had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3% of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9% have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5% are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  8. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible

  9. THE TREATMENT AND EVOLUTION OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Crauciuc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the evolution of cervical cancer after applying a conventional treatment. Materials and methods. The study was performed on a number of 1249 patients who were suspected of having cervical neoplasia, and who were monitored between 2006-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved the effectiveness of the conservative treatment for the patients who were diagnosed using cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and histopathology, with or without HPV viral infection. Conclusions. The patients with an early diagnose have a 15% higher surviving probability. The patients who responded to the conservative preoperative treatment well are more likely to survive than the patients who did not respond favourably to the conservative preoperative treatment.

  10. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  11. Awareness and Practice of Cervical Smear as A Screening Procedure for Cervical Cancer among Female Nurses in A Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoh Unang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Carcinoma of the cervix, the second most common cancer among women remains a public health problem. Though this preventable cancer occurs more commonly in the developing world, it is almost non-existent in developed countries where there are well established screening programs. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of awareness and practice of cervical smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer among female nurses in a tertiary health facility in south-south Nigeria. METHOD: Semi-structured questionnaires were distributed to all the female nurses at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. RESULTS: The ages of the respondents were between 21 - 60 years with the modal age group being 31- 40 years (48.9%. Majority of the respondents were married (59.7% and 36.4% of them had practiced nursing for over 10 years. Majority of the respondents (94.3% had heard of the cervical smear and 79.5% of the nurses knew that cervical smears were used to detect premalignant diseases of the cervix. Only 7.4% of the nurses had undergone screening for cervical cancer. Common reasons given by the respondents who had not screened were not being a candidate for cervical cancer (31.9% and ignorance as to where screening is done (28.8%. The most common sources of information about cervical smear were the hospital (87.5% and textbooks (13.6%. CONCLUSION: The level of awareness of the cervical smear as a preventive tool for cervical cancer was high but utilization of the test was disappointingly low. Modern concepts of cancer prevention and control should be included in the curriculum of the school of nursing and nurses should be involved in the organisation of health talks to members of the community on cervical cancer and its prevention. The print and electronic media should be made to participate in the dissemination of information on the prevention of cervical cancer in our environment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 675-680

  12. Childhood indicators of susceptibility to subsequent cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, S M; Ehlin, A G C; Sparén, P.; Björkstén, B; Ekbom, A.

    2002-01-01

    Common warts could indicate cervical cancer susceptibility, as both are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Eczema was also investigated, as atopic eczema has been negatively associated with warts, but non-atopic eczema may be associated with compromised host defences, as observed in patients with HIV, suggesting increased susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical cancer. ‘Cervical cancer’ was self-reported during an interview by 87 of 7594 women members of two longitudinal British birth...

  13. Understanding cervical cancer in the context of developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. Among the women, gynecological cancers are most common. Cervical cancer is a main gynecological cancer of the women. The global burden of cervical cancer is disproportionately high among the developing countries where 85 per cent of the estimated 493, 000 new cases and 273, 000 deaths occur worldwide. There are several dimensions of the problem. Cervical cancer is a problem where people are poor, where the socio-economic status of the women is low and sometimes specific ethnicity also posses additional risk to the women to develop cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus infection is a main risk factor for the cervical cancer however there are some other factors which increase the risk. Among them some are number of sexual partners, age of first sexual intercourse, infection of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormonal contraceptives, parity, age, smoking, food and diet. Apart from these factors, some other issues, such as policy on cancer, capacity of health system, socio-economic and cultural factors and awareness among the women are also associated with the cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality across the developing countries. There some interventions which give promising results in terms of reducing cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality. Among them visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid followed by treatment is one such effective method.

  14. Cancer risk following radiotherapy of cervical cancer: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women treated for cervical cancer were selected for study because (a) doses to body organs following radiotherapy can be accurately determined and vary sufficiently to permit dose-response evaluations, (b) organs remote from the cervix receive low-dose exposures in the range of current scientific interest, (c) treatment is relatively successful and many patients survive long enough to be at risk of late complications of radiotherapy, and (d) several nonexposed groups of women with cervical cancer are also available for comparison. In addition, population-based cancer registries provide an opportunity to inexpensively study large numbers of individuals over many decades. The careful procedures normally used by cancer registries to record second primary cancers facilitate the study of cancer incidence for which a wider view of radiation risk is expected than can be seen in investigations of mortality. Other special features of studies of cervical cancer patients include the ability to assess the effects of very large partial-body exposures, differences in organ sensitivities to radiation, interactions of radiation with biological factors such as age, and the duration of carcinogenic response

  15. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage screening…

  16. European cervical cancer screening:experiences and results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Europe has devoted great efforts to cervical cancer screening over 30 years.The mortality was generally declining although incidence rates of cervical cancer among young women have been increasing in many countries of Europe.The efficiency of screening,however,needs to be addressed by planners for an improved cost-effectiveness in the future.

  17. Reducing uncertainties about the effects of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Claire; Jakobsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a 1999 National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical alert was issued, chemoradiotherapy has become widely used in treating women with cervical cancer. Two subsequent systematic reviews found that interpretation of the benefits was complicated, and some important clinical questions...

  18. Aberrant Expression of Notch1 in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sun; Qimin Zhan; Wenhua Zhang; Yongmei Song; Tong Tong

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the putative role of the Notch1 receptor in cervical cancer carcinogenesis and progression.METHODS The expression of the Notch1 protein was analyzed by a Western-blotting approach in 40 cervical cancer and 30 normal cervical tissues.Some tissues were examined using RT-PCR To determine Mrna levels.Celluar localization of the Notch1 protein in the paraffin-embedded cervical tissues was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS The Notch1 protein was detected in all 30 normal cervical tissues.In contrast.only 6 samples of 40 cervical cancer tissues showed Notch1 expression.The level of the Notch1 protein expression was significantly lower in cervical cancer tissues than that in normal tissue samples.In agreement with these observations.levels of Notch1 Mrna were found to be substantially down-regulated in cervical cancer tissues.In the immunohistochemistry staining assay,the Notch1 protein was shown to localize predominantly in the cytoplasm and nucleoli of the normal cervical squamous epithelium of the cervix,but no staining was observed in the cervical cancer cells.Notch1 expression was observed to correlate with the clinical disease stage.but there were no correlations with age,tumor size,grade or lymph node metastasis (P>0.05).The levels of Notchl protein expression were significantly higher in early stages(I~lla,66.7%) compared to those in the advanced stages (Iib~IV,12.6%)(P=0.001).CONCLUSION Notch1 may play a role as a tumor suppressor in cervical tumorigenesis.Determination of Notch1 expression may be helpful for preoperative diagnosis and accuracy of staging.But its clinical use for cervical cancer requires further investigation.

  19. Cervical acid phosphatase detection: A guide to abnormal cells in cytology smear screening for cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Deb Prabal; Iyer Venkateswaran; Bhatla Neerja; Markovic O; Verma Kusum

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP) test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap) staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistical evaluation ...

  20. [Gene therapy with cytokines against cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Morales, Victor Hugo; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    Gene therapy is an excellent alternative for treatment of many diseases. Capacity to manipulate the DNA has allowed direct the gene therapy to correct the function of an altered gene, to increase the expression of a gene and to favour the activation of the immune response. This way, it can intend the use of the DNA like medication able to control, to correct or to cure many diseases. Gene therapy against cancer has an enormous potential, and actually the use of the DNA has increased to control diverse cancer in animal models, with very encouraging results that have allowed its applications in experimental protocols in human. This work concentrates a review of the foundations of the gene therapy and its application on cervical cancer, from the point of view of the alterations of the immune system focused on the tumour micro-environment, and the use of the cytokines as immunomodulators. PMID:16983992

  1. Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG...... mutations, R501X and 2282del4, using blood from the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, Denmark. Controls (n = 8050) were genotyped in previous population-based studies. Information on cervical cancer, mortality and emigration were obtained from national registers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic...... and stratification by cancer stage. RESULTS: The primary results showed that FLG mutations were not associated with the risk of cervical cancer (6.3% of cases and 7.7% of controls were carriers; OR adjusted 0.81, 95% CI 0.57-1.14; OR adjusted+ weighted 0.96, 95% CI 0.58-1.57). Among cases, FLG mutations increased...

  2. Mitochondrial DNA variation analysis in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Bhat, Samatha; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Mallya, Sandeep; Bhat, Manoj; Pandey, Deeksha; Kushtagi, Pralhad; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Gopinath, P M; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2014-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in non-malignant and malignant cervical tissue samples. We have identified 229 and 739 variations non-malignant and malignant tissues respectively distributed over 321 locations in the D-loop (50 in non-malignant and 166 in malignant; 216 variations), coding region (139 in non-malignant and 455 in malignant; 594 variations) tRNA and rRNA genes (39 in non-malignant and 119 in malignant; 158 variations). Besides, 77 novel and 34 various other disease associated variations were identified in non-malignant and malignant samples. A total of 236 tumor specific variations in 201 locations representing 30.1% in D-loop, 59.3% in coding regions and 10.6% in RNA genes were also identified. Our study shows that D loop (in 67 locations) is highly altered followed by ND5 (35 locations) region. Moreover, mtDNA alterations were significantly higher in malignant samples by two tailed Fisher's exact test (P≤0.05) with decreased mtDNA copy numbers. Bioinformatic analysis of 59 non-synonymous changes predicted several variations as damaging leading to decreased stability of the proteins. Taken together, mtDNA is highly altered in cervical cancer and functional studies are needed to be investigated to understand the consequence of these variations in cervical carcinogenesis and their potential application as biomarkers. PMID:23851045

  3. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Prophylactic Human Papillomavirus Vaccination on Prevention of Cervical Cancer%人乳头瘤病毒疫苗对宫颈癌预防作用的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐青萍; 罗小婉; 甘玉杰; 熊小英

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨接种人乳头瘤病毒疫苗在预防宫颈癌中的作用.方法 通过计算机检索Medline、EMBASE、CENTRAL、中国生物医学文献数据库系统(CBM)、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、万方数据库等,收集国内外公开发表的关于人乳头瘤病毒疫苗在预防宫颈癌中作用的随机对照研究(RCT).应用统计软件Stata 11.0进行数据分析.研究人群为成年女性;干预措施为预防性接种人乳头瘤病毒疫苗;对照组为安慰剂;结局指标为宫颈上皮内瘤样变和宫颈癌的发生率,并以相对危险度(RR)及相应的95%可信区间(95%CI)作为效应指标对结局进行比较.Q统计量的I2检验来检测各研究间的统计学异质性.双侧以P<0.05为各研究间存在明显的异质性.采用倒漏斗图对发表偏倚进行直观检测.结果 最终纳入分析的文献有7篇,共41 572例受试者,其中接种疫苗组20 769例、对照组20 803例.合并分析的结果显示:预防性接种人乳头瘤病毒疫苗可以使宫颈上皮内瘤样变的发生率降低95%[RR=0.15,95%CI(0.06,0.38),Z=4.00,P=0.000];使Ⅱ/Ⅲ级宫颈上皮内瘤样变、原位癌的发生率降低67%[RR=0.33,95%CI(0.19,0.59),Z=3.76,P=0.000].结论 接种人乳头瘤病毒疫苗可以明显降低宫颈上皮内瘤样变及宫颈癌的发生率.%Objective To analyze the effects of human papillomavirus vaccine on the prevention of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia ( CIN ) and cervical cancer. Methods Through searching Medline EMBSE, CENTRAL ( the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials ), CBM, CNKI, WANFANG data, and so on, we collected both domestic and oversea randomized controled trials ( RCTs ) on the preventive effects of human papillomavirus vaccine on CIN and cervical cancer. Data was analysised using statistic software Stata11.0. Subjects enrolled in the study were females aged 18 or over; prophylactic vaccination of human papillomavirus vaccine were performed to prevent CIN and cervical

  4. Breast and cervical cancer screening in Great Britain: Dynamic interrelated processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeit, Alexander; Peinemann, Frank

    2015-12-01

    No previous analysis has investigated the determinants of screening uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening for possible spillover effects from one type of screening examination to the other type of screening examination with a dynamic bivariate panel probit model. For our analysis, we used a dynamic random effects bivariate panel probit model with initial conditions (Wooldridge-type estimator) and dependent variables were the participation of breast and cervical cancer screening in the recent year. The balanced panel sample consisted of 844 women from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) from the time period 1992 to 2008. Our analysis showed the high relevance of past screening behaviour and the importance of state dependency for the same and the other type of cancer screening examinations even after controlling for covariates and unobserved heterogeneity. The uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening was higher when the same screening examination was done one or three years earlier. This result is in accordance with the medical screening programmes in Great Britain. With regard to breast and cervical cancer screening positive spillover effects existed between screening examinations in the third order lags. Women with a previous visit to a general practitioner and individuals in the recommended age groups had a higher uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening. Other socioeconomic and health related variables had non-uniform results in both screening examinations. Promoting the uptake of one female prevention activity could also enhance the uptake of the other prevention activity. PMID:26487452

  5. Immunotherapy for human papillomavirus-associated disease and cervical cancer: review of clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Jong; Yang, Andrew; Wu, T C; Hung, Chien Fu

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most lethal women's cancer worldwide. Current treatments against cervical cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and anti-angiogenic agents. However, despite the various treatments utilized for the treatment of cervical cancer, its disease burden remains a global issue. Persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an essential step of pathogenesis of cervical cancer and many other cancers, and nation-wide HPV screening as well as preventative HPV vaccination program have been introduced globally. However, even though the commercially available prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil (Merck) and Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline), are effective in blocking the entry of HPV into the epithelium of cervix through generation of HPV-specific neutralizing antibodies, they cannot eliminate the pre-existing HPV infection. For these reason, other immunotherapeutic options against HPV-associated diseases, including therapeutic vaccines, have been continuously explored. Therapeutic HPV vaccines enhance cell-mediated immunity targeting HPV E6 and E7 antigens by modulating primarily dendritic cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential of immune checkpoint inhibitors that have recently been adopted and tested for their treatment efficacy against HPV-induced cervical cancer. PMID:27329199

  6. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  7. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf;

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination...... on cervical cancer prevention. More than 6,000 women diagnosed with HG-CIN or ICC from 17 European countries were enrolled in two parallel cross-sectional studies (108288/108290). Centralised histopathology review and standardised HPV-DNA typing were applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical...... common HPV types in women with HG-CIN were HPV16/33/31 (59.9/10.5/9.0%) and in ICC were HPV16/18/45 (63.3/15.2/5.3%). In squamous cell carcinomas, HPV16/18/33 were most frequent (66.2/10.8/5.3%), and in adenocarcinomas, HPV16/18/45 (54.2/40.4/8.3%). The prevalence of HPV16/18/45 was 1.1/3.5/2.5 times...

  8. 唯阴康预防宫颈癌放射治疗阴道并发症的观察%Wei yin kang to prevent cervical cancer radiotherapy vagina observation of complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱青

    2015-01-01

    目的:对宫颈癌放射治疗的患者应用唯阴康预防放射性阴道并发症的效果观察。方法选择2008年3月至2012年12月宫颈癌患者160例,随机分为2组,80例为观察组,80例为对照组,对照组每日常规给予阴道冲洗,观察组,每日常规给予阴道冲洗后隔日给予阴道填塞唯阴康1支,共2个月,第3个月每周用2支。结果观察组使用唯阴康后阴道并发症明显低于对照组。%Objective:To apply only in patients with cervical cancer radiotherapy of Yin, prevention of complications of the vagina effect observation. Methods:March 2008-December 2012 160 cases of cervical cancer patients, randomly divided into 2 groups, 80 cases in observation group, 80 cases as control group, control group a daily routine for vagina washing, observation group, a day after the daily routine for vagina washing give vaginal tamponade wei Yin kang 1, 2 months, 3 months, two a week. Results:the observation group USES the vagina after wei Yin kang complications were significantly lower than the control group.

  9. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  10. Cervical cancer screening: on the way to a shift from cytology to full molecular screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, M G; Snijders, P J F; Arbyn, M; Rijkaart, D C; Berkhof, J; Meijer, C J L M

    2014-05-01

    Cytology-based nation-wide cervical screening has led to a substantial reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer in western countries. However, the sensitivity of cytology for the detection of high-grade precursor lesions or cervical cancer is limited; therefore, repeated testing is necessary to achieve program effectiveness. Additionally, adenocarcinomas and its precursors are often missed by cytology. Consequently, there is a need for a better screening test. The insight that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the causal agent of cervical cancer and its precursors has led to the development of molecular tests for the detection of hrHPV. Strong evidence now supports the use of hrHPV testing in the prevention of cervical cancer. In this review, we will discuss the arguments in favor of, and concerns on aspects of implementation of hrHPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening, such as the age to start hrHPV-based screening, ways to increase screening attendance, requirements for candidate hrHPV tests to be used, and triage algorithms for screen-positive women. PMID:24445150

  11. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cervical cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilancheran, Arunachalam

    2016-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer encountered in pregnancy. The standard treatment of early cervical cancer is usually surgical removal of the cervix (in selected cases) or, more commonly, the uterus. However, when cervical cancer develops during pregnancy, definitive surgical treatment often needs to be postponed until the fetus reaches maturity. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is an innovative approach in the management of these patients. It helps in controlling the disease and delaying delivery. The paper presents a literature review of the history of NACT, as well as practice points and agenda for further research. PMID:26536815

  12. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  13. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago Hospital, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiderpass Elisabete

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer of women in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, the biggest hospital in Uganda, have advanced disease. Pap smear screening, on opportunistic rather than systematic basis, is offered free in the gynaecological outpatients clinic and the postnatal/family planning clinics. Medical students in the third and final clerkships are expected to learn the techniques of screening. Objectives of this study were to describe knowledge on cervical cancer, attitudes and practices towards cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago hospital. Methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a weighted sample of 310 medical workers including nurses, doctors and final year medical students were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. We measured knowledge about cervical cancer: (risk factors, eligibility for screening and screening techniques, attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and practices regarding screening. Results Response rate was 92% (285. Of these, 93% considered cancer of the cervix a public health problem and knowledge about Pap smear was 83% among respondents. Less than 40% knew risk factors for cervical cancer, eligibility for and screening interval. Of the female respondents, 65% didn't feel susceptible to cervical cancer and 81% had never been screened. Of the male respondents, only 26% had partners who had ever been screened. Only 14% of the final year medical students felt skilled enough to use a vaginal speculum and 87% had never performed a pap smear. Conclusion Despite knowledge of the gravity of cervical cancer and prevention by screening using a Pap smear, attitudes and practices towards screening were negative. The medical workers who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. There is need to explain/understand the cause

  15. Review of recommendations on cervical cancer screening in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnick, J

    2003-08-01

    In 2000 the European Commission Advisory Committee on Cancer Prevention published a position paper on cancer screening with recommendations. This followed working party deliberations in 1998 and conference discussion in 1999. Scientific advances, particularly in knowledge about the relationship of HPV and cervical cancer and political developments with the enlargement of the European Union, mean that the position paper and recommendations may shortly need revising in the light of changed circumstances. PMID:14581854

  16. LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY ON CHROMOSOME 17p13.3 IN OVARIAN CANCER AND CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guoling; Yang Huijian; Xu Kaili; Zhou Jin; Qin Ruidi; Lu Minghua

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To identify the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 17p13.3 in ovarian cancer and cervical cancer. Methods: The frequency of LOH on chromosome 17p13.3 in DNA samples from 24 ovarian cancers, 9 cervical cancers, and 13 non-malignant gynecological diseases were determined respectively, using Southern blot method with probe PYNZ.22. Results:LOH on 17p13.3 was found in 12 of 24 (50.0%) ovarian cancers (including a borderline mucinous cystadenoma), 4of 9 (44.4%) cervical carcinomas, and 1 of 13 (7.7%) nonmalignant gynecological diseases, which was cervical intraepithelial neoplasm HI (CIN Ⅲ) (P<0.01).Conclusion: These results show that LOH on 17p13.3 is associated with ovarian cancer and cervical cancer,suggesting that detection of LOH on 17p13.3 may be helpful to understand the molecular pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and cervical cancer.

  17. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Cervical Cancer and Screening among Haitian Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilah Zahedi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27 in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27 of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective “screen-and-treat” programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Haitian health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Leilah; Sizemore, Emma; Malcolm, Stuart; Grossniklaus, Emily; Nwosu, Oguchi

    2014-11-01

    It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective "screen-and-treat" programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population. PMID:25390794

  19. Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  20. STUDY OF DEPRESSION IN WOMEN WITH CERVICAL AND BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : There is considerable lack of scientific estimate of depressive disorder among cancer patients in India. OBJECTIVES : (1 To associate the depressive disorders between the cervical cancer and breast cancer patients and (2 to compare the level of depressi on score among cervical and breast cancer patients , and with medically ill inpatient population with some other medical illnesses. SETTING AND DESIGN: A cross - sectional study at inpatient Department of Bharath Cancer Hospital and JSS Medical College Hospit al , Mysore. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study was conducted on admitted thirty breast and thirty cervical cancer inpatients in medical ward of JSS Hospital and Bharath Cancer Hospital , Mysore from D ecember 2007 to august 2009. Data analysis was done for the both groups of cancer and with thirty control group of medically ill inpatient population with some other medical illnesses. Detailed psychological , sociodemographic characteristics were recorded in proforma specially designed for the study. Depression was assessed using MINI plus , HAMD scale and scoring was done. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : Descriptive statistics , Cross tabs procedure , r epeated measure ANOVA statistical methods were carried out through the SPSS for Windows (version 16.0. RESULTS: Major depressi ve disorder was present in 16.7% of breast cancer and 23.3% of cervical cancer patients. . There was no significant asso ciation between type of cancer (B reast cancer and cervical cancer and depressive disorder. Depression score was found high in cervical c ancer cases compare to breast cancer cases though difference in these scores were not statistically significant in between two cancer groups. Depression score was high and significant in both cancer groups as compare to control group. CONCLUSION : Depressio n is more prevalent in cancer patients than in other several medical illneses and adequate knowledge is required for psychosocial interventions and designing

  1. New strategies in advanced cervical cancer: from angiogenesis blockade to immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishnansu S; Monk, Bradley J

    2014-11-01

    Cervical cancer remains unique among solid tumor malignancies. Persistent infection with oncogenic subtypes of the human papillomavirus (HPV) results in carcinogenesis, predominantly occurring at the cervical transformation zone where endocervical columnar cells undergo metaplasia to a stratified squamous epithelium. The molecular cascade involving viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7 and their degradative interactions with cellular tumor suppressor gene products, p53 and pRb, respectively, has been precisely delineated. The precursor state of cervical neoplasia may last for years allowing for ready detection through successful screening programs in developed countries using cervical cytology and/or high-risk HPV DNA testing. Prophylactic HPV L1 capsid protein vaccines using virus-like-particle technology have been developed to prevent primary infection by the most common high-risk HPVs (16 and 18). Women who lack access to health care and those who undergo sporadic screening remain at risk. Although radical surgery (including fertility-sparing surgery) is available for patients with early-stage cancers, and chemoradiation plus high-dose-rate brachytherapy can cure the majority of those with locally advanced disease, patients with metastatic and nonoperable recurrent cervical cancer constitute a high-risk population with an unmet clinical need. On August 14, 2014, the FDA approved the antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab for women with advanced cervical cancer. This review will highlight advances in translational science, antiangiogenesis therapy and immunotherapy for advanced disease. PMID:25104084

  2. Cervical cytology in serous and endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofsen, Thijs; Geels, Yvette P; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; van Ham, Maaike A P C; Zomer, Saskia F; van Tilburg, Johanna M Wiersma; Snijders, Marc P M L; Siebers, Albert G; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. In this multicentre study, EEC patients diagnosed at two hospitals from 1999 to 2009 and UPSC patients diagnosed at five hospitals from 1992 to 2009, were included. Revision of the histologic slides was performed systematically and independently by 3 gynecopathologists. Cervical cytology within six months before histopathologic diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma was available for 267 EEC and 80 UPSC patients. Cervical cytology with atypical, malignant, or normal endometrial cells in postmenopausal women was considered as abnormal cytology, specific for endometrial pathology. Abnormal cervical cytology was found in 87.5% of UPSC patients, compared with 37.8% in EEC patients. In UPSC, abnormal cytology was associated with extrauterine spread of disease (P=0.043). In EEC, abnormal cytology was associated with cervical involvement (P=0.034). In both EEC and UPSC patients, abnormal cervical cytology was not associated with survival. In conclusion, abnormal cervical cytology was more frequently found in UPSC patients. It was associated with extrauterine disease in UPSC patients, and with cervical involvement in EEC patients. More prospective research should be performed to assess the true clinical value of preoperative cervical cytology in endometrial cancer patients. PMID:23722512

  3. Needs and priorities of women with endometrial and cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Mette Moustgaard; Mogensen, Ole; Dehn, Pernille;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rehabilitation after cancer is important, and efficient rehabilitation requires knowledge of patient's needs. This study aimed to identify short-term rehabilitation needs of women with endometrial and cervical cancer. METHODS: Ninety-six women (82.6%) were included in an exploratory......-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. RESULTS: Forty-four of the included women were diagnosed with cervical cancer (median age 45 years). Of these, 22 had FIGO-stage 1 disease (50%) and 23 received radiation therapy (52.3%). The remaining 52 women (median age 66.5 years) were diagnosed...... with endometrial cancer. Of these, 38 had FIGO-stage 1 disease (73.1%) and 25 were treated with laparoscopic surgery (48.1%). Emotional functioning was significantly worse prior to treatment in both the cancers (p cervical and p = 0.002 endometrial) and worry constituted an unmet need in 70.7% of cervical...

  4. GENERAL AWARNANCE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS VACCINE AGAINST CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFILA NAVEED

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a survey program on the awarnance of HPV vaccine of cervical cancer in common people. Methods: For this survey we perform 2 steps. First we made a questionnaires in which we ask to female of different belongs to different education field either they are married or not. Secondly we gone in the different hospitals of Karachi and observe treatment, diagnosis, vaccination availability and frequency of cervical cancer. Results:From questionnaire we observed that only 1 % female are aware about cervical cancer and its vaccine i.e. HPV, even female belongs medical field are not aware about it. Form hospital survey we observed that frequency of cervical cancer is very less but in Shaukat Khanum hospital 90 cases reported out of 1803 cancer. The given treatment is radiology, chemotherapy and surgery.

  5. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the...

  6. 77 FR 71193 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Federal Advisory Committee Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register...

  7. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  8. High aldehyde dehydrogenase activity identifies cancer stem cells in human cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shu-Yan; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity characterizes a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in several malignancies. To clarify whether ALDH can be used as a marker of cervical cancer stem cells (CCSCs), ALDHhigh and ALDHlow cells were sorted from 4 cervical cancer cell lines and 5 primary tumor xenografts and examined for CSC characteristics. Here, we demonstrate that cervical cancer cells with high ALDH activity fulfill the functional criteria for CSCs: (1) ALD...

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Makuza, Jean Damascène; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Muhimpundu, Marie Aimee; Pace, Lydia Eleanor; Ntaganira, Joseph; Riedel, David James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer prevalence in Rwanda has not been well-described. Visual inspection with acetic acid or Lugol solution has been shown to be effective for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings. The aim of the study is to understand the prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre- cancerous lesions among Rwandan women between 30 and 50 old undergoing screening. Methods This cross-sectional analytical study was done in 3 districts of Rwanda from October 2010...

  10. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. Methods In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Results Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country’s political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country’s political crisis, the MoPH’s campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. Conclusion The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a

  11. Human papillomavirus genotypes distribution in 175 invasive cervical cancer cases from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive cervical cancer is the second most common malignant tumor affecting Brazilian women. Knowledge on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in invasive cervical cancer cases is crucial to guide the introduction and further evaluate the impact of new preventive strategies based on HPV. We aimed to provide updated comprehensive data about the HPV types’ distribution in patients with invasive cervical cancer. Fresh tumor tissue samples of histologically confirmed invasive cervical cancer were collected from 175 women attending two cancer reference hospitals from São Paulo State: ICESP and Hospital de Câncer de Barretos. HPV detection and genotyping were performed by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Pleasanton,USA). 170 out of 172 valid samples (99%) were HPV DNA positive. The most frequent types were HPV16 (77.6%), HPV18 (12.3%), HPV31 (8.8%), HPV33 (7.1%) and HPV35 (5.9%). Most infections (75%) were caused by individual HPV types. Women with adenocarcinoma were not younger than those with squamous cell carcinoma, as well, as women infected with HPV33 were older than those infected by other HPV types. Some differences between results obtained in the two hospitals were observed: higher overall prevalence of HPV16, absence of single infection by HPV31 and HPV45 was verified in HC-Barretos in comparison to ICESP patients. To our knowledge, this is one of the largest studies made with fresh tumor tissues of invasive cervical cancer cases in Brazil. This study depicted a distinct HPV genotype distribution between two centers that may reflect the local epidemiology of HPV transmission among these populations. Due to the impact of these findings on cervical cancer preventive strategies, extension of this investigation to routine screening populations is warranted

  12. Chromosomal instability as a prognostic marker in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women globally, and despite treatment, distant metastasis and nodal recurrence will still develop in approximately 30% of patients. The ability to predict which patients are likely to experience distant relapse would allow clinicians to better tailor treatment. Previous studies have investigated the role of chromosomal instability (CIN) in cancer, which can promote tumour initiation and growth; a hallmark of human malignancies. In this study, we sought to examine the published CIN70 gene signature in a cohort of cervical cancer patients treated at the Princess Margaret (PM) Cancer Centre and an independent cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cervical cancer patients, to determine if this CIN signature associated with patient outcome. Cervical cancer samples were collected from 79 patients, treated between 2000–2007 at the PM, prior to undergoing curative chemo-radiation. Total RNA was extracted from each patient sample and analyzed using the GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 array (Affymetrix). High CIN70 scores were significantly related to increased chromosomal alterations in TCGA cervical cancer patients, including a higher percentage of genome altered and a higher number of copy number alterations. In addition, this same CIN70 signature was shown to be predictive of para-aortic nodal relapse in the PM Cancer Centre cohort. These findings demonstrate that chromosomal instability plays an important role in cervical cancer, and is significantly associated with patient outcome. For the first time, this CIN70 gene signature provided prognostic value for patients with cervical cancer

  13. Cervical cancer in Indigenous women: The case of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Geordan D; Franco, Oscar H; Powles, John; Leng, Yue; Pashayan, Nora

    2011-11-01

    Globally, health inequities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations exist. The disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians is exemplified by cervical cancer. Current evidence suggests that Indigenous women have higher age standardised incidence and mortality than non-Indigenous women when adjusted for stage at diagnosis and co-morbidities; however, there is little information pertaining to national estimates of cervical cancer in Indigenous women. In this paper we review available evidence on the difference in occurrence and case fatality of cervical cancer among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women. The Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and State- or Territory-based Cancer Registries were utilised to collect surveillance data. To corroborate existing data, further available journal literature was identified through Medline and Embase. All papers selected for review were cross-referenced to identify further relevant studies. The most recent national estimate of age-standardised cervical cancer incidence rate was 16.9 and 7.1 per 100,000 women-years in Indigenous and non-Indigenous women respectively (incidence ratio 2.4). The Indigenous age-standardised mortality rate was 9.9 per 100,000 women years (95% CI 7.1-13.3), over 5 times the non-Indigenous rate. Cervical cancer incidence, in both Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, has decreased since 1991. Despite the decline, age-standardised incidence among Indigenous women is still higher than non-Indigenous women. The pattern of cervical cancer incidence and survival corroborates the health inequities that exist in Australia. Indigenous women are more likely than non-Indigenous women to develop cervical cancer and are less likely to survive it. Similar patterns exist in Indigenous populations worldwide, such as New Zealander Maoris and Canadian Aboriginals, suggesting that high rates of cervical cancer incidence and

  14. Survival analysis of cervical cancer using stratified Cox regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, S. W.; Inayati, K. D.; Sari, N. W. Wulan; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the mostly widely cancer cause of the women death in the world including Indonesia. Most cervical cancer patients come to the hospital already in an advanced stadium. As a result, the treatment of cervical cancer becomes more difficult and even can increase the death's risk. One of parameter that can be used to assess successfully of treatment is the probability of survival. This study raises the issue of cervical cancer survival patients at Dr. Soetomo Hospital using stratified Cox regression based on six factors such as age, stadium, treatment initiation, companion disease, complication, and anemia. Stratified Cox model is used because there is one independent variable that does not satisfy the proportional hazards assumption that is stadium. The results of the stratified Cox model show that the complication variable is significant factor which influent survival probability of cervical cancer patient. The obtained hazard ratio is 7.35. It means that cervical cancer patient who has complication is at risk of dying 7.35 times greater than patient who did not has complication. While the adjusted survival curves showed that stadium IV had the lowest probability of survival.

  15. Developing the Evidence Base to Inform Best Practice: A Scoping Study of Breast and Cervical Cancer Reviews in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M Demment

    Full Text Available Breast and cervical cancers have emerged as major global health challenges and disproportionately lead to excess morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs when compared to high-income countries. The objective of this paper was to highlight key findings, recommendations, and gaps in research and practice identified through a scoping study of recent reviews in breast and cervical cancer in LMICs.We conducted a scoping study based on the six-stage framework of Arskey and O'Malley. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, and CINAHL with the following inclusion criteria: 1 published between 2005-February 2015, 2 focused on breast or cervical cancer 3 focused on LMIC, 4 review article, and 5 published in English.Through our systematic search, 63 out of the 94 identified cervical cancer reviews met our selection criteria and 36 of the 54 in breast cancer. Cervical cancer reviews were more likely to focus upon prevention and screening, while breast cancer reviews were more likely to focus upon treatment and survivorship. Few of the breast cancer reviews referenced research and data from LMICs themselves; cervical cancer reviews were more likely to do so. Most reviews did not include elements of the PRISMA checklist.Overall, a limited evidence base supports breast and cervical cancer control in LMICs. Further breast and cervical cancer prevention and control studies are necessary in LMICs.

  16. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality in New Mexico's Hispanics, American Indians, and non-Hispanic whites.

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, T M; Wheeler, C. M.; Key, C R; Samet, J M

    1992-01-01

    High rates of cervical cancer were reported in New Mexico in the early 1970s, with especially high rates for minority women. We examined data collected from 1970 to 1987 for invasive cervical cancer and cervical carcinoma in situ for New Mexico's Hispanic, American Indian, and non-Hispanic white women to determine whether changes had occurred in cervical cancer rates since earlier reports. To further characterize the epidemiology of cervical cancer in New Mexico, we reviewed state vital stati...

  17. Prognostic significance of annexin A2 and annexin A4 expression in patients with cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chel Hun; Chung, Joon-Yong; Chung, Eun Joo; Sears, John D.; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Hewitt, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The annexins (ANXs) have diverse roles in tumor development and progression, however, their clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been elucidated. The present study was to investigate the clinical significance of annexin A2 (ANXA2) and annexin A4 (ANXA4) expression in cervical cancer. Methods ANXA2 and ANXA4 immunohistochemical staining were performed on a cervical cancer tissue microarray consisting of 46 normal cervical epithelium samples and 336 cervical cancer cases ...

  18. A risk evaluation model of cervical cancer based on etiology and human leukocyte antigen allele susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bicheng Hu; Ning Tao; Fanyu Zeng; Min Zhao; Lixin Qiu; Wen Chen; Yun Tan; Yun Wei; Xufeng Wu; Xinxing Wu

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no reliable risk factors to accurately predict progression to cervical cancer in patients with chronic cervicitis infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). The aim of this study was to create a validated predictive model based on the risk factors for cervical cancer. A model to estimate the risk of cervical cancer may help select patients for intervention therapy in order to reduce the occurrence of cervical cancer after HPV infection. Methods: This retrospective anal...

  19. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  20. Intestinal obstructions following the cervical cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-six intestinal obstructions occured among 2149 patients of cervical cancer treated during period 1961 - 1975. They are divided into four groups, that is, 1.29 cases living with no signs of recurrence after the treatment for obstructions, 2.7 cases that died of obstructions or of complications from its treatment, 3.6 cases that once cured from the obstructions but died from the cancer more than one year after the treatment, 4.24 cases that died from the cancer within one year after the treatment for obstructions. With significantly high incidence, intestinal obstructions are observed with the post-operatory irradiation over 5,000 rads to the whole pelvis or post operatory irradiation using combined telecobalt and small sources. The common sites of obstructions are small intestine to the operated group and sigmoid colon or rectum to the radiotherapy group. Twenty-nine of the patients were treated conservatively and of them 15 are living, intestinal resections and end to end anastomoses were performed to 8 patients, 5 of them are living, but 7 of them suffered from wound disruptions, so the indication for this operation should be carefully decided. (auth.)

  1. Gene expression profiling in cervical cancer: identification of novel markers for disease diagnosis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, Cara M

    2012-02-01

    Cervical cancer, a potentially preventable disease, remains the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus is the single most important etiological agent in cervical cancer. HPV contributes to neoplastic progression through the action of two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7, which interfere with critical cell cycle pathways, p53, and retinoblastoma. However, evidence suggests that HPV infection alone is insufficient to induce malignant changes and other host genetic variations are important in the development of cervical cancer. Advances in molecular biology and high throughput gene expression profiling technologies have heralded a new era in biomarker discovery and identification of molecular targets related to carcinogenesis. These advancements have improved our understanding of carcinogenesis and will facilitate screening, early detection, management, and personalised targeted therapy. In this chapter, we have described the use of high density microarrays to assess gene expression profiles in cervical cancer. Using this approach we have identified a number of novel genes which are differentially expressed in cervical cancer, including several genes involved in cell cycle regulation. These include p16ink4a, MCM 3 and 5, CDC6, Geminin, Cyclins A-D, TOPO2A, CDCA1, and BIRC5. We have validated expression of mRNA using real-time PCR and protein by immunohistochemistry.

  2. Sources of Breast and Cervical Cancer Information for Hmong Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    THORBURN, SHERYL; KEON, KAREN LEVY; KUE, JENNIFER

    2013-01-01

    Despite low breast and cervical cancer screening levels among Hmong women in the U.S. reported in the literature, understanding of the barriers to screening for Hmong women is limited. Health literacy issues may influence screening behavior for this population. This qualitative study explored sources of information about breast and cervical cancer including screening and identified barriers to seeking such information for Hmong women and men. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 84 Hmong women and men living in Oregon, USA. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts of 83 usable interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Health care providers and the Internet were the most frequently cited sources of information about breast and cervical cancer including screening. Other sources were family, friends, and other media. Over half of the participants indicated that nothing would prevent them from seeking information about these topics. These findings suggested that health care providers and the Internet may be important sources of information about breast and cervical cancer screening for Hmong women. Additional research is needed to examine further Hmong women’s health literacy needs and preferences with regards to breast and cervical cancer screening. PMID:23879458

  3. FGFR3–TACC3: A novel gene fusion in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito A. Carneiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer epitomizes the success of cancer prevention through the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine, but significant challenges remain in the treatment of advanced disease. We report the first three cases of cervical carcinoma harboring an FGFR3–TACC3 fusion, which serves as a novel therapeutic target. The fusion, identified by comprehensive genomic profiling, activates the FGFR pathway that has been implicated in HPV-driven carcinogenesis. One of the patients whose tumor contained the FGFR3–TACC3 fusion was treated with an investigational FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Concomitant molecular alterations involving the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAF/MEK pathways were also identified and suggest other treatment strategies that deserve investigation. This case series highlights the role of comprehensive genomic profiling in the identification of new therapeutic targets and in targeted therapy selection for patients with cervical cancer.

  4. Virus and Cervical Cancer: Role and implication: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Raju

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers in women worldwide especially in developing countries. Various etiological factors are described, of which Human papiloma virus (HPV is proved by various molecular epidemiological studies to play a major role. However many co-factors are required and thought to facilitate the action of HPV in cervical carcinogenesis. Here the role of various viruses in cervical cancer and its implication in screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer is highlighted. In-depth knowledge of role of different viruses helps in better screening methods and probably in target therapy / development of an appropriate vaccine. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(3.000: 220-30

  5. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  6. IMAGE-GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY AND -BRACHYTHERAPY FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh eDutta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional radiotherapy for cervical cancer relies on clinical examination, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT, and 2-dimensional intracavitary brachytherapy.Excellent local control and survival have been obtained for small early stage cervical cancer with definitive radiotherapy. For bulky and locally advanced disease, the addition of chemotherapy has improved the prognosis but toxicity remains significant. New imaging technology such as positron emission tomography (PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has improved tumor delineation for radiotherapy planning. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT may decrease treatment toxicity of whole pelvic radiation because of its potential for bone marrow, bowel, and bladder sparring. Tumor shrinkage during whole pelvic IGRT may optimize image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT, allowing for better local control and reduced toxicity for patients with cervical cancer. IGRT and IGBT should be integrated in future prospective studies for cervical cancer.

  7. Bevacizumab improves survival for patients with advanced cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis

  8. Image-guided radiotherapy and -brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suresh; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Vock, Jacqueline; Kerr, Christine; Godinez, Juan; Bose, Satya; Jang, Siyoung; Chi, Alexander; Almeida, Fabio; Woods, William; Desai, Anand; David, Rick; Karlsson, Ulf Lennart; Altdorfer, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiotherapy for cervical cancer relies on clinical examination, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional intracavitary brachytherapy. Excellent local control and survival have been obtained for small early stage cervical cancer with definitive radiotherapy. For bulky and locally advanced disease, the addition of chemotherapy has improved the prognosis but toxicity remains significant. New imaging technology such as positron-emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has improved tumor delineation for radiotherapy planning. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) may decrease treatment toxicity of whole pelvic radiation because of its potential for bone marrow, bowel, and bladder sparring. Tumor shrinkage during whole pelvic IGRT may optimize image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT), allowing for better local control and reduced toxicity for patients with cervical cancer. IGRT and IGBT should be integrated in future prospective studies for cervical cancer. PMID:25853092

  9. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Pedersen, Gitte; Junge, Jette; Helleberg, Marie; Storgaard, Merete; Obel, Niels; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH in...... hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are...

  10. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  11. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, S; Jensen-Fangel, S;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical......, which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were...... in both groups were adherent to the national ICC screening programme and had a normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH developed more cervical disease than controls. Yet, in WLWH and controls adherent to the national ICC screening programme...

  12. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Haiyan Zhu, Hui Luo, Wenwen Zhang, Zhaojun Shen, Xiaoli Hu, Xueqiong Zhu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%–20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to tr...

  13. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu H; Luo H; Zhang W; Shen Z; Hu X; Zhu X

    2016-01-01

    Haiyan Zhu, Hui Luo, Wenwen Zhang, Zhaojun Shen, Xiaoli Hu, Xueqiong Zhu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%–20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to treat the ...

  14. Quality of Care in Women With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Joseph; Polissar, Lincoln; Tamimi, Hisham K.

    1982-01-01

    A study was done to assess the quality of care received by women with stage I cervical cancer. Through a population-based registry serving 13 counties of western Washington, including Seattle, we identified all women residents in whom local-stage cervical cancer developed between January 1974 and December 1978 (N=369). The cases were subdivided into stage IA (microinvasive) and stage IB (frankly invasive). Quality of care was defined as optimal or suboptimal at the outset of the study; this d...

  15. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections. Expression of two viral ...

  16. Socioeconomic Disparities across Ethnicities: An Application to Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, B.; O'Neill, C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim is to investigate socioeconomic disparities in cervical cancer screening utilization among and between ethnic groups in the United States. Study Design: Observational study. Methods: Data on 26,338 women aged 21 to 64 years were obtained from the 2007 to 2011 years of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Data on cervical cancer screening utilization in the preceding 12 months and 3 years, and a range of sociodemographic characteristics were included. Analyses were...

  17. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vania Reis Girianelli; Carmen Justina Gamarra; Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010) were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, ...

  18. Quality of life characteristics inpatients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Jensen, Pernille T; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic;

    2012-01-01

    Annually about 500,000 women worldwide are diagnosed with cervical cancer. For many patients, young age at the time of diagnosis and a good prognosis regarding the disease imply a long life with the side-effects and sequels of various treatment options. The present study investigated the extent...... to which different quality of life (QoL) domains in patients during and after treatment for cervical cancer are affected according to menopausal status, treatment status and treatment modality....

  19. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W; Dillner, J; Tornberg, S; Sparen, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  20. [Current Status and Perspective of Chemoradiotherapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toita, Takafumi; Ariga, Takuro; Kasuya, Goro; Hashimoto, Seiji; Maemoto, Hitoshi; Heianna, Joichi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2015-10-01

    Fifteen years has passed since the NCI announced the clinical importance of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in radiotherapy for patients with locoregionally advanced uterine cervical cancer. Numerous clinical trials have been performed to further improve the outcomes of CCRT. In addition to investigations of chemotherapeutic regimens and schedules, adaptation of novel radiotherapy methods such as image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is encouraged in CCRT for cervical cancer. PMID:26489545

  1. Barriers and Motivators Related to Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bokaee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: modern knowledge could protect against cancer for individuals in community with early stage and premalignat state. Screening of cancer is best instrument for early detection of malignancy. Between women’s cancers breast and cervical cancer have more incidence and mortality than other cancers . But could be prevented by simple and cheep screening programs. Despite specific statistics in Iran evidence shows that women’s participation in screening program is poor , so cancers are diagnosed in advanced stage. The purpose of this study was to identify major barriers and motivators for breast and cervical screening . Methods: This survey was a descriptive study in which 400 women participated in health and treatment centers in Yazd. Sampling method was done in two simple and random stages. Data was collected by inventory and questionnaire . Then data were analyzed by SPSS soft ware . Results: Findings showed that 80% of them never refereed to a health provider for clinical breast exam (C B E and only 3% of them did regularly C B E . 46% of them had never done pap smear and only 14.5 % of them did regularly pap smear. The findings showed that major motivators were as follow: advice of health’s personnel , using of contraceptive methods , and awareness of media. Also the major barriers were as follow : Not having knowledge of these exams , not having knowledge of the existence of these centers of education and practice , not having precious health problems , fear of examination , Embarrassment of examination and health providers not to teach them . to consider the most important barriers were propounded which showed that health education role to eliminate barriers for referring women for screening . Discussion: Based on the results of this sample , screening was the least expected . considering barriers and motivators observed it was revealed that health education was required for prevention of common women’s cancers. Also

  2. Experiences of Cervical Cancer Survivors in Rural Eastern North Carolina: a Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Alice R; Troutman, Jamie L; Torres, Essie

    2016-06-01

    Little qualitative research has been conducted with cervical cancer survivors. We sought to understand the experiences of survivors in rural Eastern North Carolina and identify any barriers which may have kept women from receiving preventive Papanicolaou screenings or follow-up care. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 low-income and underserved cervical cancer survivors living in Eastern North Carolina. Participants included English-speaking women who attended a large cancer center for care between March 2012 and March 2013. Participants ranged from being recently diagnosed with cervical cancer to being 15 years post-diagnosis. Interviews lasted approximately 1 h and were audio-tape-recorded. On average, women were 55 years old (range 35-85) and were diagnosed with cervical cancer 3 years prior to the interview (range 0.2 to 180 months). A good proportion was uninsured or Medicaid-insured (60 %). Half reported an annual household income of less than $20,000, and 13 % reported having a college degree. The majority of survivors had limited understanding of cervical cancer, experienced persistent symptoms related to their cancer before seeking care, and were nonadherent to Papanicolaou screening recommendations. The main barriers to care reported by participants was lack of money and health insurance, followed by the perception of overall health (which equated to the belief that medical care was not needed), transportation issues, and discomfort with provider. Health professionals should focus educational efforts on the benefits of Papanicolaou screenings, the symptoms sometimes associated with cervical cancer, and the free or low-cost services available to low-income women. PMID:25778774

  3. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by

  4. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  5. Biorepositories | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  6. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL), 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression

  7. Cervical cancer: beyond what it is. The perception of women from Antioquia (Colombia and Colima (Mexico, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia S. Tamayo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and interpret women’s perceptions about cervical cancer, its causes, prevention and self care. Methodology: qualitative studie, through the discussion group, 22 groups were formed in three municipalities in Antioquia (Colombia and one municipality of Colima (Mexico, with 108 women. Results: descriptions and interpretations are collectively influenced by information from the health sector, the media and the family. Most women are not related cervical cancer or cervical infections with sexual and reproductive behavior. The acceptance of the Pap smear is a product of experience and responsibility. Conclusions: equity in access considers cultural differences and specific needs of women, breaking cultural barriers and opens up opportunities for participation in health services. In body care, women recognize the level of severity of signs and gynecoobstetrical symptoms and the need for medical care. There is little knowledge about cervical cancer, its causes and prevention, due to lack of information and education from health care providers.

  8. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks. PMID:24863746

  9. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  10. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Can ovarian cancer be found early? Can ovarian cancer be prevented? Most women have one or ... strategies for women with a family history of ovarian cancer or BRCA mutation If your family history ...

  11. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  12. Understanding the Disparities in Cervical Cancer Screening for Economically Disadvantaged Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gatchell, Melissa Sue

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for 22% of all deaths among women. Despite the importance of the Pap test in preventing and detecting cervical cancer, screening rates among poor women remain low. The pathways linking poverty with lower Pap test use remain unclear. The screening disparity for this low-cost test suggests that poor women may face other transaction costs, opportunity costs and barriers in accessing Pap tests that are no...

  13. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  14. Distribution of HPV genotypes in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer in Tanzanian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Adriana C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is associated with uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and invasive cancers (ICC. Approximately 80% of ICC cases are diagnosed in under-developed countries. Vaccine development relies on knowledge of HPV genotypes characteristic of LSIL, HSIL and cancer; however, these genotypes remain poorly characterized in many African countries. To contribute to the characterization of HPV genotypes in Northeastern Tanzania, we recruited 215 women from the Reproductive Health Clinic at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre. Cervical scrapes and biopsies were obtained for cytology and HPV DNA detection. Results 79 out of 215 (36.7% enrolled participants tested positive for HPV DNA, with a large proportion being multiple infections (74%. The prevalence of HPV infection increased with lesion grade (14% in controls, 67% in CIN1 cases and 88% in CIN2-3. Among ICC cases, 89% had detectable HPV. Overall, 31 HPV genotypes were detected; the three most common HPV genotypes among ICC were HPV16, 35 and 45. In addition to these genotypes, co-infection with HPV18, 31, 33, 52, 58, 68 and 82 was found in 91% of ICC. Among women with CIN2-3, HPV53, 58 and 84/83 were the most common. HPV35, 45, 53/58/59 were the most common among CIN1 cases. Conclusions In women with no evidence of cytological abnormalities, the most prevalent genotypes were HPV58 with HPV16, 35, 52, 66 and 73 occurring equally. Although numerical constraints limit inference, findings that 91% of ICC harbor only a small number of HPV genotypes suggests that prevention efforts including vaccine development or adjuvant screening should focus on these genotypes.

  15. Small cell cervical cancer: an unusual finding at cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, Emily

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare cancer, comprising less than 3% of all cervical neoplasms. It uniformly has a poor prognosis, and has a high mortality even with early stage disease. It can metastasise rapidly and metastatic sites include lung, liver, brain, bone, pancreas and lymph nodes. CASE: Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman with no symptoms of cervical pathology who developed post-renal failure following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cause was bilateral ureteric obstruction from metastatic small cell cervical cancer and metastases were subsequently found on her gallbladder specimen. CONCLUSION: This is an unusual presentation of small cell cervical cancer and demonstrates the aggressive nature of this disease.

  16. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV infections. Expression of two viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, in epithelial stem cells is required to initiate and maintain cervical carcinogenesis and results in significant overexpression of the cellular p16INK4a protein. Since this protein is not expressed in normal cervical squamous epithelia, screening for p16INK4a over-expressing cells allows to specifically identify dysplastic lesions, and significantly reduces the inter-observer disagreement of the conventional cytological or histological tests. Progression of preneoplastic lesions to invasive cancers is associated with extensive recombination of viral and cellular genomes which can be monitored by detection of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts (APOT assay derived from integrated viral genome copies. Detection of integrated type oncogene transcripts points to far advanced dysplasia or invasive cancers and thus represents a progression marker for cervical lesions. These new assays discussed here will help to improve current limitations in cervical cancer screening, diagnosis, and therapy control.

  17. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Radical Surgery in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yousefi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For pregnant patients with cervical cancer, treatment recommendations are individualized and dependent on the stage of the disease, gestational age at the time of diagnosis, and the patient's desire as to the cosntinuation of the pregnancy. The aim of this study is to describe the outcome of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with radical surgery and pelvic lymphadenectomy in a woman with cervical cancer who wished to maintain her pregnancy. This is a report of a 26-week pregnant woman with locally advanced cervical cancer stage Ib2 (FIGO who was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy Paclitaxel plus platinum, followed by C/S and radical surgery. Her neonate was healthy and had no abnormalities. This case was the first cervical cancer during pregnancy that was treated using this method at the tumor clinic, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an effort to allow time for the fetal to reach viability by preventing the progression of the disease.

  18. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D90 of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  19. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T., E-mail: ryan-flynn@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  20. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Reis Girianelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010 were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, disaggregated by capital city and municipality. The annual percent change in mortality rates was estimated by segmented linear regression using the joinpoint method. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were conducted between average mortality rate at the end of the three-year period and selected indicators in the state capital and each Brazilian state. RESULTS There was a decline in cervical cancer mortality rates throughout the period studied, except in municipalities outside of the capitals in the North and Northeast. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality in the capitals from the end of the 1990s onwards. Favorable socioeconomic indicators were inversely correlated with cervical cancer mortality. A strong direct correlation was found with favorable indicators and an inverse correlation with fertility rate and breast cancer mortality in inner cities. CONCLUSIONS There is an ongoing dynamic process of increased risk of cervical and breast cancer and attenuation of mortality because of increased, albeit unequal, access to and provision of screening, diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Age-specific prevalence of HPV16/18 genotypes in cervical cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Anne; Rositch, Anne; Qeadan, Fares; Gravitt, Patti E; Blaakaer, Jan

    2016-06-15

    The prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer has been reported to decline with age in some papers. However, whether this decline in proportion of cancers positive for HPV16/18 is consistently observed across studies remains to be elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify papers reporting data on age-specific prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer and to summarize the results. We employed MEDLINE and Embase for a systematic literature search and thereby identified a total of 644 papers published in the period 1999-2015, of which 15 papers, reporting cross-sectional data, were included for review (11,526 cervical cancers). The prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer declined significantly with age (ρ = -0.83, p = 0.04) from 74.8% (95% CI 67.6-80.8) in women aged 30-39 years to 56.8% (95% CI 43.9-68.8) in women aged ≥70 years. As the HPV16/18 positive cancers are prevented in fully vaccinated cohorts, the age-specific epidemiology of cervical cancer is anticipated to change, with a shift in peak incidence rate to older ages. It will be important for integrated vaccination and screening strategies to consider predicted change in the age-specific epidemiology of cervical cancer. PMID:26661889

  2. Significant cancer prevention factor extraction: an association rule discovery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Jesmin; Tickle, Kevin S; Ali, A B M Shawkat; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2011-06-01

    Cancer is increasing the total number of unexpected deaths around the world. Until now, cancer research could not significantly contribute to a proper solution for the cancer patient, and as a result, the high death rate is uncontrolled. The present research aim is to extract the significant prevention factors for particular types of cancer. To find out the prevention factors, we first constructed a prevention factor data set with an extensive literature review on bladder, breast, cervical, lung, prostate and skin cancer. We subsequently employed three association rule mining algorithms, Apriori, Predictive apriori and Tertius algorithms in order to discover most of the significant prevention factors against these specific types of cancer. Experimental results illustrate that Apriori is the most useful association rule-mining algorithm to be used in the discovery of prevention factors. PMID:20703554

  3. Potential opportunities to reduce cervical cancer by addressing risk factors other than HPV

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ramaiah Vinay; Bhasker, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in developing world and 80% of global burden is reported from these nations. Human papillomavirus along with poverty, illiteracy/lower education level and standards, multi-parity, tobacco, malnutrition and poor genital hygiene may act synergistically to cause cervical cancer. Risk factor of cervical cancer may in itself be the reason for non-viability of cervical cancer vaccine program in this part of the world. Interventions to address these risk fac...

  4. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N.; Fleshner, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (pca) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (pcpt) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are im...

  5. Cervical cancer screening in Belgium and overscreening of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin

    2016-03-01

    There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25812038

  6. Vaccines against human papillomavirus and perspectives for the prevention and control of cervical cancer Vacunas contra virus del papiloma humano y perspectivas para la prevención y el control del cáncer cervicouterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García-Carrancá

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, "persistent" infections by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV are considered necessary for developing cervical cancer. Producing efficient vaccines against these viruses may eventually lead to a great reduction in incidence and mortality rates of this cancer. In the case of HPV, the production of traditional vaccines usually based in dead or attenuated viruses is not possible due in part to the lack of systems where large quantities of viral particles could be obtained. Fortunately, the expression of the late L1 protein alone, or in combination with L2, leads to the generation of structures resembling true virions that have been called virus-like particles (VLPs and constitute excellent candidates as prophylactic vaccines. VLPs have shown to be very immunogenic, and have prevented development of natural or challenged infections in both animal systems and humans. Recently, HPV16 VLPs were shown to be very efficient to prevent the development of "persistent" infections, as determined by PCR assays, in a large group of vaccinated women. Therapeutic vaccines, on the other hand, are expected to have an impact on advanced lesions and residual illness, by taking advantaje of the fact that early E6 and E7 genes are thought to be constitutively expressed in cervical tumors and precursor lesions. Finally, DNA-based vaccines could represent a useful alternative for preventing infections by genital HPV.Actualmente, las infecciones "persistentes" por algunos tipos del virus del papiloma humano se consideran como necesarias para desarrollar cáncer cervicouterino. Por ello, el desarrollo de vacunas eficientes contra estos virus se ha considerado de suma importancia para poder eventualmente ayudar a controlar esta enfermedad, en países donde los programas de detección oportuna no han dado aún los resultados deseados. En el caso de estos virus no es posible el desarrollo de vacunas tradicionales, las cuales están basadas generalmente en el

  7. HPV Literacy and Associated Factors Among Hmong American Immigrants: Implications for Reducing Cervical Cancer Disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Raiza; Simms, Tina; Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies show that certain minority and ethnic communities experience low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates despite a higher cervical cancer burden. HPV is known to be responsible for almost all cervical cancer cases. Hmong Americans, a growing Asian American population, appear to be at increased risk. The cervical cancer incidence rate among Hmong American women is three times higher than other Asian/Pacific Islanders and more than four times higher than Non-Hispanic Whites. Despite such alarming statistics, there is limited research focusing on HPV literacy and its associated factors in the Hmong American community. This study's objectives are to investigate: (1) the level of HPV knowledge among Hmong Americans; (2) HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates of Hmong Americans; and (3) factors associated with HPV literacy in the Hmong American community. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use was used as the study's theoretical framework. A self-administered paper and online health survey was completed by192 Hmong Americans living in a major metropolitan area in Minnesota. Results revealed a mean score of 4.76 (SD 1.67) for the 7-item questionnaire measuring HPV knowledge. The HPV vaccination initiation rate was 46.3 % (n = 56), with 32.7 % completing the recommended three doses. Multiple regression analysis found that participants' level of education, number of doctor visits, and cervical cancer screening literacy were significantly associated with HPV knowledge. This study's results indicate the important role of health providers in educating Hmong Americans patients about HPV and cervical cancer prevention to decrease the cervical cancer burden in this high-risk population. PMID:26696118

  8. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  9. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Wu, Xiaohua; Cheng, Xi

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The outcome of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor. We reviewed the relevant literature concerning the treatment and diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. There are two types of metastasis related to different treatments and survival rates: hematogenous metastasis and lymphatic metastasis. Patients with hematogenous metastasis have a higher risk of death than those with lymphatic metastasis. In terms of diagnosis, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-computed tomography are effective tools for the evaluation of distant metastasis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy are well-tolerated and efficient for lymphatic metastasis. As for lung metastasis, chemotherapy and/or surgery are valuable treatments for resistant, recurrent metastatic cervical cancer and chemoradiotherapy may be the optimal choice for stage IVB cervical cancer. Chemotherapy and bone irradiation are promising for bone metastasis. A better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy. Craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an optimal choice combined with radiotherapy for solitary brain metastases. Chemotherapy and palliative brain radiation may be considered for multiple brain metastases and other organ metastases. PMID:27171673

  10. Awareness of cervical cancer and Pap smear among nursing staff at a rural tertiary care hospital in Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in developing countries and one in five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear among nurses working in a tertiary care institute. Study Setting and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care institute. Materials and Methods: Nurses working at our institute excluding those who have worked or working in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department were provided with a pre-designed questionnaire testing their knowledge about cervical cancer. Results: Approximately, 86% were aware about cancer cervix and 69% were aware of a pre-cancerous stage. 42.3% were not aware of any risk factor and 27.6% were not aware of any symptom of cancer cervix. 86.2% were aware about Pap smear, but only 58.6% were aware that facilities of Pap smear were available at our hospital. Conclusions: Knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of Pap smear as screening test was inadequate in nursing staff. Awareness programs about cervical cancer and screening are needed to increase awareness for this preventable condition. Recommendation: There is a need to arrange reorientation programs to sensitize nurses and establish cytology clinics to offer facilities for easily accessible and affordable screening.

  11. Nominated Texture Based Cervical Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Jayasingh Mariarputham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate classification of Pap smear images becomes the challenging task in medical image processing. This can be improved in two ways. One way is by selecting suitable well defined specific features and the other is by selecting the best classifier. This paper presents a nominated texture based cervical cancer (NTCC classification system which classifies the Pap smear images into any one of the seven classes. This can be achieved by extracting well defined texture features and selecting best classifier. Seven sets of texture features (24 features are extracted which include relative size of nucleus and cytoplasm, dynamic range and first four moments of intensities of nucleus and cytoplasm, relative displacement of nucleus within the cytoplasm, gray level cooccurrence matrix, local binary pattern histogram, tamura features, and edge orientation histogram. Few types of support vector machine (SVM and neural network (NN classifiers are used for the classification. The performance of the NTCC algorithm is tested and compared to other algorithms on public image database of Herlev University Hospital, Denmark, with 917 Pap smear images. The output of SVM is found to be best for the most of the classes and better results for the remaining classes.

  12. Cervical Microbiome and Cytokine Profile at Various Stages of Cervical Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahena-Román, Margarita; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús; Cortina-Ceballos, Bernardo; López-Estrada, Guillermina; Delgado-Romero, Karina; Burguete-García, Ana I.; Cantú, David; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by high-risk human papillomavirus persistence due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines. Vaginal microbiota determines the presence of certain cytokines locally. We assessed the association between cervical microbiota diversity and the histopathological diagnosis of each stage of CC, and we evaluated mRNA cervical expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α and IFN-γ across the histopathological diagnosis and specific bacterial clusters. We determined the cervical microbiota by high throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons and classified it in community state types (CST). Mean difference analyses between alpha-diversity and histopathological diagnosis were carried out, as well as a β-diversity analysis within the histological diagnosis. Cervical cytokine mRNA expression was analyzed across the CSTs and the histopathological diagnoses. We found a significant difference in microbiota's diversity in NCL-HPV negative women vs those with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and CC(p = 0.006, p = 0.036).When β-diversity was evaluated, the CC samples showed the highest variation within groups (p<0.0006) and the largest distance compared to NCL-HPV negative ones (p<0.00001). The predominant bacteria in women with normal cytology were L. crispatus and L. iners, whereas for SIL, it was Sneathia spp. and for CC, Fusobacterium spp. We found higher median cervical levels of IL-4 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the CST dominated by Fusobacterium spp. These results suggest that the cervical microbiota may be implicated in cervical cancer pathology. Further cohort studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:27115350

  13. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Lopamudra Das; Soumen Das; Jyotirmoy Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cy...

  14. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero;

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation...... of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at...... diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan....

  15. Bevacizumab Significantly Improves Survival for Patients with Recurrent and Metastatic Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves survival for patients with recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer Posted: February 7, 2013 Updated: June 2, 2013 ... 496-6641 Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who ...

  16. Inadequate cervical cancer screening among mid-aged Australian women who have experienced partner violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Schofield, Margot; Hussain, Rafat; Hosking, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Partner violence is linked to cervical cancer and other gynaecological conditions. However, results of current research into associations between partner violence and cervical cancer screening have been inconclusive. Therefore, the current research investigates the association between pa

  17. Tc17 Cells in Patients with Uterine Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhang; Fei Hou; Xin Liu; Daoxin Ma; Youzhong Zhang; Beihua Kong; Baoxia Cui

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The existence of Tc17 cells was recently shown in several types of infectious and autoimmune diseases, but their distribution and functions in uterine cervical cancer (UCC) have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: The frequency of Tc17 cells in peripheral blood samples obtained from UCC patients, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients and healthy controls was determined by flow cytometry. Besides, the prevalence of Tc17 cells and their relationships to Th17 cells and Fo...

  18. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Improvements in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme since 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B Bos (A.)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, and therefore an important public health problem (1 ). In developing countries, the age standardised incidence rate varies between 16 - 40 per 100,000 women in 1988- 1992 (2). In the same period, in d

  20. Design The Cervical Cancer Detector Use The Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is one of the contagious diseases that become a public health issue, both in the world and in Indonesia. In the world, 12% of all deaths caused by cancer and is the second killer after cardiovascular disease. Early detection using the IVA is a practical and inexpensive (only requiring acetic acid). However, the accuracy of the method is quite low, as it can not detect the stage of the cancer. While other methods have a better sensitivity than the IVA method, is a method of PAP smear. However, this method is relatively expensive, and requires an experienced pathologist-cytologist. According to the case above, Considered important to make the cancer cervics detector that is used to detect the abnormality and cervical cancer stage and consists of a digital microscope, as well as a computer application based on artificial neural network. The use of cervical cancer detector software and hardware are integrated each other. After the specifications met, the steps to design the cervical cancer detection are: Modifying a conventional microscope by adding a lens, image recording, and the lights, Programming the tools, designing computer applications, Programming features abnormality detection and staging of cancer.

  1. Design The Cervical Cancer Detector Use The Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Af'idah, Dwi; Didik Widianto, Eko; Setyawan, Budi

    2013-06-01

    Cancer is one of the contagious diseases that become a public health issue, both in the world and in Indonesia. In the world, 12% of all deaths caused by cancer and is the second killer after cardiovascular disease. Early detection using the IVA is a practical and inexpensive (only requiring acetic acid). However, the accuracy of the method is quite low, as it can not detect the stage of the cancer. While other methods have a better sensitivity than the IVA method, is a method of PAP smear. However, this method is relatively expensive, and requires an experienced pathologist-cytologist. According to the case above, Considered important to make the cancer cervics detector that is used to detect the abnormality and cervical cancer stage and consists of a digital microscope, as well as a computer application based on artificial neural network. The use of cervical cancer detector software and hardware are integrated each other. After the specifications met, the steps to design the cervical cancer detection are: Modifying a conventional microscope by adding a lens, image recording, and the lights, Programming the tools, designing computer applications, Programming features abnormality detection and staging of cancer.

  2. Analysis of clinical characteristics of 950 cases of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-li ZHU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the clinical features of the patients suffering from cervical cancer who visited Daping Hospital affiliated to Third Military Medical University in recent 10 years. Methods The clinical data of the patients who were pathologically diagnosed as invasive cervical cancer in Daping Hospital of TMMU from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into different age groups and analyzed according to age, clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approach. Results Clinical data of 950 patients with invasive cervical cancer were reviewed in this study. The mean age of the patients was 46.9 years. The clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approaches were different in different age groups. Analysis of the age structure of the patients, the onset age of cervical cancer seemed to increase year by year. Conclusion The clinical features of cervical cancer are diversity in different age, and the strategy for controlling its development should be varied according to age. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.09

  3. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer reduces surgical risks and lymph-vascular space involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yue; Wang, Guang; Wei, Li-Hui; Huang, Ling-Hui; Wang, Jian-Liu; Wang, Shi-Jun; Li, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Dan-Hua; Bao, Dong-Mei; Gao, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), which can reduce the size and therefore increase the resectability of tumors, has recently evolved as a treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. NACT has been reported to decrease the risk of pathologic factors related to prognosis of cervical cancer. To further assess the effects of NACT on surgery and the pathologic characteristics of cervical cancer, we reviewed 110 cases of locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy with or w...

  4. Methylation and silencing of the retinoic acid receptor-β2 gene in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expression of the retinoic acid receptor β2 (RAR-β2), a putative tumor suppressor gene, is reduced in various human cancers, including squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix. The mechanism of the inhibition of RAR-β2 expression remains obscure. We examined whether methylation of RAR-β2 gene could be responsible for this silencing in cervical SCC. Expression of RAR-β2 mRNA and methylation status of the 5' region of RAR-β2 gene were examined in 20 matched specimens from patients with cervical SCC and in three cervical cancer cell lines by Northern blot analysis and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay or Southern blot analysis respectively. In 8 out 20 cervical SCC (40%) the levels of RAR-β2 mRNA were decreased or undetectable in comparison with non-neoplastic cervix tissues. All 8 tumors with reduced levels of RAR-β2 mRNA expression showed methylation of the promoter and the first exon expressed in the RAR-β2 transcript. The RAR-β2 gene from non-neoplastic cervical tissues was mostly unmethylated and expressed, but methylated alleles of the gene were found in three samples of the morphologically normal tissues adjacent to the tumors. Three cervical cancer cell lines with extremely low level of RAR-β2 mRNA expression, SiHA, HeLA and CaSki, also showed methylation of this region of the RAR-β2 gene. These findings suggest that methylation of the 5' region of RAR-β2 gene may contribute to gene silencing and that methylation of this region may be an important and early event in cervical carcinogenesis. These findings may be useful to make retinoids more effective as preventive and therapeutic agents in combination with inhibitors of DNA methylation

  5. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  6. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated. PMID:25826459

  7. Leptomeningeal metastasis of uterine cervical cancer 17 years after primary tumor treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Oike, Takahiro; Ohno, Tatsuya; Noda, Shin‐Ei; Murata, Tomomi; Hirakawa, Takashi; Hirato, Junko; Furuya, Mio; Sato, Hiro; Hirota, Yuka; Minegishi, Takashi; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) of uterine cervical cancer is extremely rare. A 54‐year‐old woman with uterine cervical cancer treated with surgery and radiotherapy developed LM manifesting as ptosis 17 years later. Although rare, LM should be considered in patients with a history of uterine cervical cancer presenting with cranial nerve symptoms.

  8. College Students' Knowledge of the Connection between HPV and Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Trent E.; Jones, Iesha K.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated college students' knowledge of the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Few students knew what HPV was. Most of the females who had been screened knew that a Pap smear could detect HPV and cervical cancer. Over half of the students did not realize the link between HPV and cervical cancer. Students…

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

  10. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  11. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  12. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  13. Awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolau′s smear and its utilization among female, final year undergraduates in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ehsanul Hoque

    2013-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to find association and the significant predictor for doing Pap smear test. Results: Over half (53.3% of the participants had heard about cervical cancer and its detection method. More than half (60% and over a third (37.8% of the participants knew about human papilloma virus (HPV and multiple sexual partner respectively as risk factors for cervical cancer. More than half (55.3% indicated that they were not aware if cervical cancer can be prevented. Majority (76.7% knew that Papanicolau′s (Pap smear test is used for detection or prevention of cervical cancer. Among those who were sexually active and knew about Pap smear test 79.3% did not do the test mainly because of personal factors such as fear of the procedure, or were not ill. Conclusions: Level of awareness regarding cervical cancer and its detection method was low among these female students. The university management should focus on developing policies on health education and promotion to prevent transmission of the HPV.

  14. Can radical parametrectomy be omitted inoccult cervical cancer afterextrafascial hysterectomy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-WuLu,; JingLi,; Yun-YunLiu,; Chang-HaoLiu,; Guo-CaiXu,; Ling-LingXie,; Miao-FangWu; Zhong-QiuLin

    2015-01-01

    Background:Occult invasive cervical cancer discovered after simple hysterectomy is not common, radical parame‑trectomy (RP) is a preferred option for young women. However, the morbidity of RP was high. The aim of our study is to assess the incidence of parametrial involvement in patients who underwent radical parametrectomy for occult cervical cancer or radical hysterectomy for early‑stage cervical cancer and to suggest an algorithm for the triage of patients with occult cervical cancer to avoid RP. Methods:A total of 13 patients with occult cervical cancer who had undergone RP with an upper vaginectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were included in this retrospective study. Data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of the cases were collected. The published literature was also reviewed, and low risk factors for parametrial involvement in early‑stage cervical cancer were analyzed. Results:Of the 13 patients, 9 had a stage IB1 lesion, and 4 had a stage IA2 lesion. There were four patients with grade 1 disease, seven with grade 2 disease, and two with grade 3 disease. The median age of the entire patients was 41years. The most common indication for extrafascial hysterectomy was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3. Three patients had visible lesions measuring 10–30mm, in diameter and ten patients had cervical stromal invasions with depths ranging from 4 to 9mm; only one patient had more than 50% stromal invasion, and four patients had lymph‑vascular space invasion (LVSI). Perioperative complications included intraoperative bowel injury, blood transfusion, vesico‑vaginal ifstula, and ileus (1 case for each). Postoperative pathologic examination results did not show residual disease or parametrial involvement. One patient with positive lymph nodes received concurrent radiation therapy. Only one patient experienced recurrence. Conclusions:Perioperative complications following RP were common, whereas the incidence of parametrial involve‑ment was very low

  15. [Cigarette smoking among women attending cervical cancer screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Małgorzata; Sadłecki, Paweł; Marszałek, Andrzej; Grabiec, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is recognized as tobacco-related malignancy. HPV vaccination and introducing screening protocols were found as the best way to decrease cervical cancer related mortality. Besides the cytological screening programs of the uterine cervix smear, nowadays co-factors of carcinogenesis are taken into consideration, also. The aim of our study was to analyse data included in questionnaire of 310 women who underwent cytological examination wi thin cervical cancer screening program in our Department in 2011. There were no differences found between studied groups on rate of oral contraceptive or hormonal therapy use, as well as age and tobacco smoking. However, taking into account education and smoking, there was a significant correlation observed. Patients with higher education level smoked less often. The special attention should be paid to promote smoking cessation in the group of women who finished education on elementary level. PMID:23421059

  16. DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODE IN EARLY CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 李斌; 章文华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection in early cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 27 patients with operable invasive early cervical cancer and clinically proved negative pelvic lymph nodes were included in this study. The 99Tcm-dextran of 74 MBq (2 mCi) was injected around the cervix at 2( and 10(. Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection were used to find the SLN. Results: The SLN was identified in 27 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the SLN detection to predict the metastasis of the pelvic lymph node were 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: Identification of the SLN using radionuclide is feasible and possible in women with early cervical cancer.

  17. Highlights on recurrence after surgery for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Blaakær, Jan

    Objective After surgery due to cervical cancer women are offered to attend a follow-up program 10 times during five years with the purpose for early diagnosis of recurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the follow-up program, which has remained unchanged for 20 years even though reminding...... and concerning women, who we consider healthy after surgery. Methods A retrospective longitudinal study of women attending follow-up program after surgery due to cervical cancer at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital. 524 patients were identified from 1996 to 2011...... with the diagnosis of cervical cancer combined with a surgical procedure. From the national pathological database and patient files information was extracted. Information was stored in Epidata. Associations were calculated using stratified analysis and logistic regression. Results 133(25%) women of 524 needed...

  18. The epidemiology of hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, C R; Bertesteanu, S V G; Mirea, D; Grigore, Raluca; lonescu, Diana; Popescu, B

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century the hypopharynx and the cervical esophagus cancer represents a major issue for all countries of the world. The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer deals with the spread of the disease in the human population with regard to sex, age, profession, time and space, as well as risk factors that contribute to these phenomena. The main goal is to investigate the causes and the factors involved in the development of the tumors at the pharyngoesophageal junction, knowledge that contributes to the latest therapeutic assessment through interdisciplinary collaboration (E.N.T. surgeon, general surgeon, radiation oncologist, chemotherapist, and nutritionist). The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer includes three major areas of interest: descriptive (the study of the spread in mass population), analytical (the study of causal risk factors on the disease) and experimental (that verifies by experiments on animals the prior identified hypothesis). PMID:21254737

  19. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  20. Integration of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Eduardo L; Tsu, Vivien; Herrero, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hildesheim, Allan; Muñoz, Nubia; Murillo, Raul; Sánchez, Gloria Ines; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2008-08-19

    Despite substantial efforts to control cervical cancer by screening, most Latin American and Caribbean countries continue to experience incidence rates of this disease that are much higher than those of other Western countries. The implementation of universal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for young adolescent women is the best prospect for changing this situation. Even though there are financial challenges to overcome to implement such a policy, there is broad political support in the region for adopting universal HPV vaccination. The costs of implementing this policy could be largely alleviated by changing cervical cancer control practices that rely on inefficient use of resources presently allocated to cytology screening. In view of the strong evidence base concerning cervical cancer prevention technologies in the region and the expected impact of vaccination on the performance of cytology, we propose a reformulation of cervical cancer screening policies to be based on HPV testing using validated methods followed by cytologic triage. This approach would serve as the central component of a system that plays the dual role of providing screening and surveillance as integrated and complementary activities sharing centralized resources and coordination. PMID:18945406

  1. Roles of plant extracts and constituents in cervical cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kma, Lakhan

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health problem worldwide and is the most frequent cause of cancer in women in India. Early detection and affordable drugs with clinical efficacy have to go hand-in-hand in order to comprehensibly address this serious health challenge. Plant-based drugs with potent anticancer effects should add to the efforts to find a cheap drug with limited clinical side effects. Keeping this very purpose in mind, an attempt has been made in this review to explore the potential of plant extracts or constituents known to exhibit antitumorigenic activity or exert cytotoxic effect in human cervical carcinoma cells. Alkaloids such as those isolated from C. vincetoxicum and T. Tanakae, naucleaorals A and B, isolated from the roots of N. orientalis, (6aR)-normecambroline, isolated from the bark of N. dealbata appear promising in different human cervical carcinoma cells with the IC50 of 4.0-8 μg/mL. However, other compounds such as rhinacanthone and neolignans isolated from different plants are not far behind and kill cervical cancer cells at a very low concentrations. Among plant extracts or its constituents that enhance the effect of known anticancer drugs, noni, derived from the plant M. citrifolia perhaps is the best candidate. The cytotoxic potency and apoptotic index of cisplatin was found to significantly enhanced in combination with noni in different human cervical carcinoma cells and it therefore holds significance as promising herbal-based anticancer agent. However, efficacy needs to be further investigated in various cervical cell lines and more importantly, in in vivo cervical cancer models for possible use as an alternative and safe anticancer drug. PMID:23886123

  2. Twist and YB-1 gene expression in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue as well as its correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Liu; Hong Li; Yu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the Twist and YB-1 gene expression in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue as well as its correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Methods:Normal cervical tissue, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue and cervical cancer tissue were collected for study. ELISA kits were used to detect Twist, YB-1, E-cadherin,β-catenin, N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical tissue, and immunohistochemistry was used to detect Twist and YB-1 expression levels in cervical tissue.Results:Twist and YB-1 contents, cell positive rate and immunohistochemical scores as well as N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical cancer tissue and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissue while E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents were lower than those in normal cervical tissue; Twist and YB-1 contents, cell positive rate and immunohistochemical scores as well as N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue while E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents were lower than those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue; the higher the Twist and YB-1 expression levels in cervical cancer tissue, the lower the E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents, and the higher the N-cadherin and Vimentin contents.Conclusions: Twist and YB-1 gene overexpression can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition to be involved in the occurrence of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  3. Human Papillomavirus 16E6 Oncogene Mutation in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Sun; Xiao-qin Ha; Tong-de Lv; Chuan-ping Xing; Bin Liu; Xiao-zhe Cao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide, after breast cancer. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are considered to be the major causes of cervical cancer. HPV16 is the most common type of HR-HPVs and HPV16 E6 gene is one of the major oncogenes. Specific mutations are considered as dangerous factors causing CC. This study was designed to find mutations of HPV16 E6 and the relationship between the mutations and the happening of CC.Methods: The tissue DNA was extracted from 15 biopsies of CC. Part of HPV16 E6 gene (nucleotide 201-523) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the CC tissue DNA. The PCR fragments were sequenced and analyzed.Results: The result of PCR showed that the positive rate of HPV16 E6 was 93.33% (14/15). After sequencing and analyzing, in the 13 out of 14 PCR fragments, 4 maintained prototype (30.77%), 8 had a same 350G mutation (61.54%), and 1 had a 249G mutation (7.69%).Conclusion: This study suggest that there is a high infection rate of HPV in cervical cancer and most of the HPV16 E6 gene has mutations. Those mutations may have an association with the development of cervical cancer.

  4. Nuevos paradigmas y desafíos en la prevención y control del cáncer de cuello uterino en América Latina New paradigms and challenges in cervical cancer prevention and control in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Almonte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de cuello uterino sigue siendo un problema de salud pública en Latinoamérica. El uso de la citología para la detección de lesiones pre-cancerosas no ha tenido mayor impacto en las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad, que aún se mantienen altas en la región. La disponibilidad de nuevas técnicas de tamizaje para la detección de lesiones pre-cancerosas y de vacunas altamente eficaces que previenen casi todas las lesiones relacionadas con VPH-16 y VPH-18 en mujeres no expuestas previamente al virus representan una gran oportunidad para la prevención del cáncer de cuello uterino en la región. En este manuscrito resumimos la evidencia científica y la experiencia de la región en i el uso de pruebas de VPH y de la inspección visual después del ácido acético (IVAA en tamizaje primario, y ii la implementación de programas de vacunación en adolescentes. Finalmente enumeramos una serie de recomendaciones adecuadas para distintos escenarios. La factibilidad de implementar un programa nacional de prevención de cáncer de cuello uterino exitoso y sostenible en países latinoamericanos dependerá de las prioridades de salud, la infraestructura y personal de salud disponible, determinadas luego de un riguroso análisis situacional local.Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had almost no major impact on reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. The availability of new screening tools to detect precancerous lesions provide great opportunities for cervical cancer prevention in the region, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. This paper summarizes the scientific evidence and regional experiences related to: i the use of HPV testing and visual inspection after the

  5. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits

  6. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor and UTM Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  7. Surgical Treatment of Early-Stage Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Sara Y; Ulrich, Uwe A

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of cervical cancer has been a cornerstone in the management of this malignancy for more than 100 years. Today, for early-stage and low-risk cervical cancer, surgery is still considered the gold standard. If the preoperative assessment of the tumor reveals a situation prompting postoperative adjuvant radiochemotherapy, the latter should be planned as the primary treatment option, being preceded by staging laparoscopy including pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection. As an alternative to the open approach, the definitive surgical treatment should be either performed laparoscopically, or be laparoscopic-assisted, or laparoscopically robotic-assisted. PMID:27614875

  8. A Gompertzian model with random effects to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni; Rosli, Norhayati [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a Gompertzian model with random effects is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via maximum likehood estimation. We apply 4-stage Runge-Kutta (SRK4) for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of the cervical cancer growth. Low values of root mean-square error (RMSE) of Gompertzian model with random effect indicate good fits.

  9. The epidemiology of hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, CR; Bertesteanu, SVG; Mirea, D; Grigore, R; Ionescu, D.; Popescu, B

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer represents a major issue for all countries of the world. The epidemiology of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus cancer deals with the spread of the disease in human population in regards to sex, age, profession, time and space, as well as risk factors that contribute to these phenomena. The main goal is to investigate the causes and the factors involved in the development of the tumors at the pharyngo–esophagea...

  10. High-risk human papillomavirus in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Mazian; Rahman Sarah A; Khim Tan P; Saini Rajan; Tang Thean H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Association of High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) with oral cancer has been established recently. Detecting these viruses in oral cavity is important to prevent oral lesions related to them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children. A total of 70 women, previously diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 46 children of these women, born by vaginal delivery only, were selected for...

  11. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyimo Frida S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Results Less than one quarter (22.6% of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03 and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10 were significantly associated with screening uptake. Conclusions Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of

  12. The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Esther; Travier, Noémie; Waterboer, Tim; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Pawlita, Michael; Pala, Valeria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Margall, Núria; Dillner, Joakim; Gram, Inger T; Tjønneland, Anne; Munk, Christian; Palli, Domenico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Polidoro, Silvia; Mattiello, Amalia; Lund, Eiliv; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ekström, Johanna; Lindquist, David; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of...... developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants.......7). CONCLUSIONS: Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to current cervical cancer screening guidelines should minimize the increased risk of CC associated with these hormonal risk factors....

  13. Signos Vitales de los CDC-¡El cáncer de cuello uterino se puede prevenir! (Cervical Cancer is Preventable!)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de noviembre del 2014 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Cada cita médica es una oportunidad para prevenir el cáncer de cuello uterino. Las mujeres pueden hacerse la prueba de Papanicoláu y la del VPH para ayudar a prevenir el cáncer de cuello uterino, y los niños y las niñas adolescentes pueden recibir la vacuna contra el VPH para ayudar a prevenir esta enfermedad y otros tipos de cáncer.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Cobtrol (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  14. Efficacy and safety of fosaprepitant for the prevention of nausea and emesis during 5 weeks of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer (the GAND-emesis study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Christensen, Thomas Broe; Dohn, Line Hammer;

    2016-01-01

    randomisation numbers that was split up in blocks of six numbers. All patients received oral dexamethasone 8 mg twice a day on day 2, 4 mg twice a day on day 3, and 4 mg once on day 4. The treatment was repeated for 5 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with sustained no emesis after 5...... adverse event (neutropenia), in the fosaprepitant group. No deaths were recorded in either group. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate safety and efficacy of a NK-1 receptor antagonist during 5 weeks of radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin. Patients receiving......BACKGROUND: The role of the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists in the prevention of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting has not been established. The purpose of the GAND-emesis study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of fosaprepitant in combination with palonosetron and...

  15. Women’s perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer screening services in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Hami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi provides cervical cancer screening services free of charge at some public health facilities. Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and many women continue to be diagnosed with cervical cancer only during the late inoperable stages of the condition. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to discover whether the perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, amongst Malawian women aged 42 and older, influenced their intentions to utilise the available free cervical cancer screening services. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted. Structured interviews were conducted with 381 women who visited 3 health centres in the Blantyre District of Malawi. Results: A statistically-significant association existed between women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer and their knowledge about cervical cancer (X² = 8.9; df = 1; p = 0.003 and with having heard about HPV infection (X² = 4.2; df = 1; p = 0.041 at the 5% significance level. Cervical cancer screening services are provided free of charge in government health institutions in Malawi. Nevertheless, low perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer amongst women, aged 42 and older, might contribute to limited utilisation of cervical screening services, explaining why 80% of cervical cancer patients in Malawi were diagnosed during the late inoperable stages. Conclusion: Malawian women lacked awareness regarding their susceptibility to cervical cancer and required information about the available cervical cancer screening services. Malawi’s women, aged 42 and older, must be informed about the advantages of cervical cancer screening and about the importance of effective treatment if an early diagnosis has been made. Women aged 42 and older rarely attend antenatal, post-natal, well baby or family-planning clinics, where health education about cervical cancer screening is often provided. Consequently, these women

  16. Human papillomavirus infection, vaccination, and cervical cancer communication: the protection dilemma faced by women in southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Sadie P; Dorgan, Kelly A; Duvall, Kathryn L; Garrett, Linda H

    2011-11-30

    Human papillomavirus is the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted infection and has been recognized as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Understanding the shift in public awareness caused by recent changes to cervical prevention is critical to addressing cervical cancer disparities in Appalachia. Since the human papillomavirus vaccine was approved for prevention, little data have been collected regarding human papillomavirus risk assessment and vaccine perceptions among Appalachian women. The purpose of the authors in this study was to investigate communication and cultural issues via a social scripting framework that could influence human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among southern Appalachian women; and explore participants' perceptions of human papillomavirus, cervical cancer, and the vaccine. A qualitative, descriptive design was employed to examine these issues in eight counties in northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia. Thirty-nine women aged 18-49 years participated in a single individual interview or focus group session from October 2007 through August 2008. Interview and focus group data were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Two major themes emerged from the data: the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma and spheres of silence surrounding the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma. Study findings suggested areas for future research and may assist healthcare professionals in approaching southern Appalachian women as they make decisions regarding cervical cancer prevention. PMID:22185292

  17. Management of Cervical Cancer: Strategies for Limited-Resource Centres - A Guide for Radiation Oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among women globally, even though it is the cancer with the greatest demonstrated potential for secondary prevention. In some regions of the world the incidence is alarmingly high, such as in sub-Saharan Africa, some countries in Latin America, India and South-East Asia. This disease is highly preventable and curable at a relatively low risk and low cost when screening of asymptomatic women is available, together with appropriate diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. In developing clinical guidelines, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has selected forms of cancer or clinical situations that are very common in low and middle income Member States and for which radiation oncologists consistently express a need for guidance. Clinical guidelines for the management of cervical cancer do exist in the published literature. However, these guidelines have usually been developed in and for affluent environments where all modern diagnosis and treatment modalities are available for the practitioner. In limited resource environments, the radiation oncologist is faced with the question, what would be the minimally acceptable line of action with the limited resources available? Clinical guidelines focusing on low and middle income countries provide a practical tool to these practitioners. This publication is aimed at the radiation oncologist working in centres with limited resources and treating a large number of patients with cervical cancer on a daily basis. The approach and techniques are intended to be simple, feasible and resource sparing to the extent that this is possible when dealing with a complex treatment modality. The Division of Human Health is placing special emphasis on the subject of cervical cancer, which is addressed not only in this guide but also in regional training courses and coordinated research projects on the subject

  18. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  19. Folate receptor and Ki-67 nucleoprotein expressions in cervical cancer tissue and their correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Yan; Feng Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To detect the expression of both FR-α protein and ki-67 in cervical cancer tissues, and discuss the relationship between them and clinical significance.Methods:Using immunohistochemical method test normal cervical tissue and cervical cancer tissue before FR-α protein expression and the expression of Ki-67.Results:FR- protein expression in normal cervical tissues was positive for 7.0% while in cervical cancer tissue the positive rate was 82.1%. The difference was statistically significant. Ki-67 protein expression in normal cervical tissues was 0% while in cervical cancer tissue the positive rate was 80.2%. The difference was statistically significant. The two protein expression in cervical cancer stageⅠ,Ⅱ and stageⅢ were different, but the difference was not statistically significant. In cervical cancer tissues, both the two protein were positively correlated. There are correlations between them. Difference was statistically significant.Conclusion:FR-α elevated protein expression is involved in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. FR-α protein expression in cervical cancer and precancerous tissue has correlation with Ki-67, FR-α protein maybe participate in the occurrence and development of the cell proliferation in cervical cancer.

  20. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination. PMID:19901435

  1. Public Health National Approach to Reducing Breast and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jacqueline W.; Plescia, Marcus; Ekwueme, Donatus U.

    2014-01-01

    Breast and cervical cancer have had disparate impact on the lives of women. The burden of breast and cervical cancer is more prominent among some racial and ethnic minority women. Providing comprehensive care to all medically underserved women is a critical element in continuing the battle to reduce cancer burden and eliminate disparities. The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program is the only nationally organized cancer screening program for underserved women in the Unit...

  2. Is cervical screening preventing adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanon, Alejandra; Landy, Rebecca; Sasieni, Peter D

    2016-09-01

    While the incidence of squamous carcinoma of the cervix has declined in countries with organised screening, adenocarcinoma has become more common. Cervical screening by cytology often fails to prevent adenocarcinoma. Using prospectively recorded cervical screening data in England and Wales, we conducted a population-based case-control study to examine whether cervical screening leads to early diagnosis and down-staging of adenocarcinoma. Conditional logistic regression modelling was carried out to provide odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) on 12,418 women with cervical cancer diagnosed between ages 30 and 69 and 24,453 age-matched controls. Of women with adenocarcinoma of the cervix, 44.3% were up to date with screening and 14.6% were non-attenders. The overall OR comparing women up to date with screening with non-attenders was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.39-0.55) for adenocarcinoma. The odds were significantly decreased (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.15-0.33) in up to date women with Stage 2 or worse adenocarcinoma, but not for women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma 0.71 (95% CI: 0.46-1.09). The odds of Stage 1A adenocarcinoma was double among lapsed attenders (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.52-3.62) compared to non-attenders. Relative to women with no negative cytology within 7 years of diagnosis, women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma were very unlikely to be detected within 3 years of a negative cytology test (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.05-0.13); however, the odds doubled 3-5 years after a negative test (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.67-3.18). ORs associated with up to date screening were smaller for squamous and adenosquamous cervical carcinoma. Although cytology screening is inefficient at preventing adenocarcinomas, invasive adenocarcinomas are detected earlier than they would be in the absence of screening, substantially preventing Stage 2 and worse adenocarcinomas. PMID:27096255

  3. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. (author)

  4. Should helical tomotherapy replace brachytherapy for cervical cancer? Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) administered via a helical tomotherapy (HT) system is an effective modality for treating lung cancer and metastatic liver tumors. Whether SBRT delivered via HT is a feasible alternative to brachytherapy in treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer in patients with unusual anatomic configurations of the uterus has never been studied. A 46-year-old woman presented with an 8-month history of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a cervical tumor with direct invasion of the right parametrium, bilateral hydronephrosis, and multiple uterine myomas. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIIB cervical cancer was diagnosed. Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) followed by SBRT delivered via HT was administered instead of brachytherapy because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas with bleeding tendency. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed after 6 weeks of treatment because of the presence of multiple uterine myomas. Neither pelvic MRI nor results of histopathologic examination at X-month follow-up showed evidence of tumor recurrence. Only grade 1 nausea and vomiting during treatment were noted. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding was noted at 14-month follow-up. No fistula formation and no evidence of haematological, gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities were noted on the most recent follow-up. CCRT followed by SBRT appears to be an effective and safe modality for treatment of cervical cancer. Larger-scale studies are warranted

  5. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  6. Cervical cancer detection using colposcopic images: a temporal approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acosta-Mesa, H. G.; Zitová, Barbara; Ríos-Figueroa, H. V.; Cruz-Ramírez, N. V.; Marín-Hernández, A.; Hernández-Jiménez, R.; Cocotle-Ronzón, B. E.; Hernández-Galicia, E.

    Los Alamitos : IEEE, 2005, s. 1-7. ISBN 0-7695-2454-0. [Mexican International Conference in Computer Science. ENC'05. Puebla (MX), 26.09.2005-30.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : cervical cancer detection * colposcopy * digital image processing * time analysis Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  7. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  8. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  9. Evolution of the health economics of cervical cancer vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferko, Nicole; Postma, Maarten; Gallivan, Steve; Kruzikas, Denise; Drummond, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of modelling for cervical cancer vaccination. We provide an interpretation and summary of conclusions pertaining to the usefulness of different models, the predicted epidemiological impact of vaccination and the cost-effectiveness of adolescent, catch-up and sex-specif

  10. Optoelectronic method for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruski, D.; Przybylski, M.; Kędzia, W.; Kędzia, H.; Jagielska-Pruska, J.; Spaczyński, M.

    2011-12-01

    The optoelectronic method is one of the most promising concepts of biophysical program of the diagnostics of CIN and cervical cancer. Objectives of the work are evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of the optoelectronic method in the detection of CIN and cervical cancer. The paper shows correlation between the pNOR number and sensitivity/specificity of the optoelectronic method. The study included 293 patients with abnormal cervical cytology result and the following examinations: examination with the use of the optoelectronic method — Truscreen, colposcopic examination, and histopathologic biopsy. Specificity of the optoelectronic method for LGSIL was estimated at 65.70%, for HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix amounted to 90.38%. Specificity of the optoelectronic method used to confirm lack of cervical pathology was estimated at 78.89%. The field under the ROC curve for the optoelectronic method was estimated at 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) which shows high diagnostic value of the test in the detection of HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma. The optoelectronic method is characterised by high usefulness in the detection of CIN, present in the squamous epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix.

  11. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in human cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown that IAPs, in particular XIAP, survivin and c-IAP1, are overexpressed in several malignancies. In the present study we investigate the expression of c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP and survivin and its isoforms in cervical cancer. We used semiquantitative RT-PCR assays to analyze 41 cancer and 6 normal tissues. The study included 8 stage I cases; 16 stage II; 17 stageIII; and a control group of 6 samples of normal cervical squamous epithelial tissue. c-IAP2 and XIAP mRNA levels were similar among the samples, cervical tumors had lower c-IAP1 mRNA levels. Unexpectedly, a clear positive association was found between low levels of XIAP and disease relapse. A log-rank test showed a significant inverse association (p = 0.02) between XIAP expression and tumor aggressiveness, as indicated by disease relapse rates. There were no statistically significant differences in the presence or expression levels of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 among any of the clinical variables studied. Survivin and its isoforms were undetectable in normal cervical tissues, in contrast with the clear upregulation observed in cancer samples. We found no association between survivin expression and age, clinical stage, histology or menopausal state. Nevertheless, we found that adenocarcinoma tumors expressed higher levels of survivin 2B and DeltaEx3 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04 respectively, by Kruskal-Wallis). A multivariate Cox's partial likelihood-based analysis showed that only FIGO stage was an independent predictor of outcome. There are no differences in the expression of c-IAP2 and XIAP between normal vs. cancer samples, but XIAP expression correlate in cervical cancer with relapse of this disease in the patients. Otherwise, c-IAP1 was downregulated in the cervical cancer samples. The expression of survivin was upregulated in the patients with cervical cancer. We have found that adenocarcinoma presented higher levels of survivin isoforms 2B and DeltaEx3

  12. The evaluation of older patients with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Y

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ying Gao,1 Jin-lu Ma,1,* Fei Gao,2,* Li-ping Song11Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 2Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: The number of elderly patients being diagnosed with cervical cancer is increasing, and the outcome of cervical cancer related to age is controversial. We conducted a retrospective analysis in patients treated for advanced cervical cancer in order to investigate patient characteristics and prognosis of older patients.Methods: Medical records were collected of 159 patients with cervical cancer who had been treated with radiotherapy or combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy from January 2007 to January 2009. The patients were divided into two age groups: (1 patients ≥65 years old, and (2 patients 0.05. Seventy-six patients had human papillomavirus (HPV at diagnosis (twelve women ≥65 years, 64 women ≤65 years; P = 0.000. Forty-two women tested positive for HPV 16, while 32 women tested positive for HPV 18 respectively. Pelvic and/or paraaortic lymph-node metastasis was found in 25 patients (eight in group 1, 17 in group 2; P = 0.960 on computed tomography scan. Of the 159 patients analyzed, sixteen patients (16/52 in group 1 received concurrent chemotherapy, while 96 (96/107 in group 2 completed that treatment.Conclusions: Cervical cancer has the same prognosis in old and young women. Age may not be an independent increased risk of death in women with cervical cancer, and the age-group is at lower risk for virulent HPV strands (HPV 16/18 compared to younger patients. Treatment recommendations were implemented less often for older patients. Radiotherapy remained the most common treatment chosen for elderly patients. This confirms that there is a stronger need to pay attention to the elderly patient.Keywords: cervical cancer, older

  13. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  14. French women’s knowledge of and attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention and the acceptability of HPV vaccination among those with 14 – 18 year old daughters: a quantitative-qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haesebaert Julie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In France, it is recommended that girls and women aged 14–23 are vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV. However, French women’s knowledge of and attitude towards the vaccine has been little studied. Methods Thirty-nine general practitioners, representative of those working in the large Rhône-Alpes region, offered a self-administered questionnaire on cervical cancer (CC prevention to all 18–65 year-old women who came for consultation during June and July 2008. In addition, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a sample of those who had daughters aged 14–18. Results Of the 1,478 women who completed the questionnaire, only 16.9% mentioned HPV as the cause of CC, even though 76.2% knew of the vaccine. 210 women had daughters aged 14–18, and 32 were interviewed. Compared with the wider group, more of these women were aware of the HPV vaccine (91.4%. 44.8% knew the target population and 17.1% the recommended ages for vaccination. 54.3% favoured HPV vaccination; 37.2% were undecided and only 0.9% were opposed. The main barrier to acceptance was the recency of the vaccine’s introduction and concern about possible side effects (54.9%; 14.1% preferred to rely on their GP’s decision. Factors associated with acceptance of the HPV vaccine were having previously vaccinated a child against pneumococcus (OR=3.28 [1.32-8.11] and knowing the target population for HPV vaccination (OR=2.12 [1.15-3.90]. Knowing the recommended frequency of Papanicolaou smear testing (Pap test screening was associated with lower acceptance (OR=0.32 [0.13-0.82]. Conclusions Few mothers are opposed to HPV vaccination. Factors associated with acceptability were knowledge about the vaccine, acceptance of other vaccines and, unexpectedly, lack of knowledge about the recommended frequency of Pap testing. On multivariate analysis, compliance with recommendations for Pap test screening and socioeconomic factors had no effect on views

  15. Cervical cancer in Iquitos, Peru: local realities to guide prevention planning Câncer cérvico-uterino em Iquitos, Peru: realidade local como guia para planejamento da prevenção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hunter

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America, and in much of the underdeveloped world. This issue has not historically been addressed as a health priority, but in recent years is receiving increased attention and funding. This ethnographic study on the experience of cervical cancer was conducted in Iquitos, Peru, between August 1998 and May 1999. Research methodologies included: (1 observation and household interviews to obtain background knowledge about the region, medical systems, and local cultural understanding of illness; (2 cancer experience interviews; and (3 case studies of women in various stages of cervical cancer or diagnosis. Findings are presented related to local knowledge and experience of Pap smears and cervical cancer and the ineffectiveness of a recently initiated cervical cancer screening program. The findings guide recommendations for interventions in the region in relation to: (1 needed changes in health education, (2 screening frequency and age, (3 sites for screening and treatment, (4 type and availability of treatment, (5 payment issues, (6 documentation of care, and (7 the potential of herbal remedies.O câncer cérvico-uterino representa um desafio para a saúde pública na América Latina e em grande parte do mundo subdesenvolvido como um todo. Historicamente, a questão não tem sido tratada como prioridade de saúde; entretanto, nos últimos anos houve um aumento de interesse e de financiamento para enfrentar o problema. Este estudo etnográfico sobre a experiência com o câncer cérvico-uterino foi realizado em Iquitos, Peru, entre agosto de 1998 e maio de 1999. As metodologias de pesquisa incluíram: (1 observação e entrevistas domiciliares para levantar dados sobre a ocorrência na região, sobre os sistemas de saúde e a cultura local em relação ao processo da doença; (2 entrevistas sobre experiências pessoais e familiares com o câncer; e (3 estudos de caso de mulheres em diversas

  16. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass from

  17. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass

  18. 人乳头瘤病毒疫苗预防宫颈癌及其相关感染有效性及安全性的 Meta 分析%Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Preventing Cervical Cancer and HPV - ralated Infection Prevention:A Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 何艳; 马彩玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess efficacy and safety of prophylactic human papillomavirus( HPV)vaccines in preventing cervical cancer and HPV - related infection,a systematic review and meta - analysis were conducted. Methods Searched in PubMed, EMBase, Cochrane Library, OVID, CBM, CNKI and Wanfang database to identify randomized controlled trials( RCT)on vaccines in preventing cervical cancer and HPV - related infection,and also manually searched relevant magazines and references,the time range for publishing dates of the literatures was from databases establishment to July 2014. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria,two reviewers independently screened studies,extracted data,and evaluated the quality of studies. The meta - analysis was performed using RevMan software version 5. 2. Results 23 RCTs were included. According to the meta - analysis results,the frequency of CINⅡ + ,VINⅡ + / VaINⅡ + ,6 - months persistent HPV infections,12 - months persistent HPV infections,exophytic genital wart,high - risk HPV - related infections and diseases in vaccine group was significantly lower than that in control group,respectively(P 0. 05). Conclusion Prophylactic HPV vaccines are safe and effective in preventing cervical precancerous lesions,HPV persistent infections and HPV - related genital lesions,and have cross - protection effect and efficient protective effect. However, according to existing literature,long - term efficacy of HPV vaccines in preventing cervical cancer is not clear,due to the lack of direct evidence of prophylactic HPV vaccines in preventing cervical cancer,more high quality RCT with duration follow - up should be carried out.%目的:系统评价人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)疫苗预防宫颈癌及 HPV 相关感染的有效性与安全性。方法计算机检索 PubMed、EMBase、Cochrane Library、OVID、中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)、中国知网、万方数据库,并辅以手工检索相关杂志和纳入研究

  19. Treatment results of neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment results of neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for hypopharyngeal cancer were analyzed retrospectively by comparing neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves and that with the resection of cervical nerves. Pharyngolaryngectomy or pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy with bilateral neck dissection was performed in 76 hypopharyngeal cancer cases between January 1992 and November 2001. Neck dissection with the resection of cervical nerves was performed on 42 sides of the neck in 21 cases (the cervical nerve-resected group). In 55 cases we attempted to employ neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves, but in 9 cases the cervical nerves were resected because of their nodal adhesion or involvement Neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves was performed on 92 sides of the neck in 46 cases (the cervical nerve-preserved group). There were significant differences between background factors of two groups about age, sex, induction chemotherapy, preservation of accessory nerve, and pN classification. The 5-year cumulative control rates of cervical lymph nodes were 81.3% for the cervical nerve-resected group and 79.7% for the cervical nerve-preserved group. There was no significant difference between the two groups. It was suggested that neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for cases whose cervical nerves were able to be preserved from metastatic lymph nodes under induction chemotherapy and post-operative irradiation was as effective to control cervical lymph nodes as neck dissection with the resection of cervical nerves. (author)

  20. Knowledge, practice, and barriers toward cervical cancer screening in Elmina, Southern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebu NI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Innocentia Ebu,1 Sylvia C Mupepi,2 Mate Peter Siakwa,1 Carolyn M Sampselle3 1University of Cape Coast, School of Nursing, Cape Coast, Ghana; 2Kirkhof College of Nursing, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, MI, USA; 3School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Aims: The aims of this study were: 1 to assess the level of knowledge of women about Pap smear tests, 2 to determine the practices of women regarding Pap smear tests, and 3 to determine the barriers to Pap smear tests in Elmina, Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 392 randomly selected sexually active females aged 10–74 years using structured interview questions. The Institutional Review Board of the University of Cape Coast gave ethical approval for the study and informed consent was obtained from participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (v19.0 using frequencies, chi-square test, and exploratory factor analysis. Results: The results revealed that 68.4% had never heard about cervical cancer, 93.6% had no knowledge on the risk factors, nine (2.3% reported multiple sexual partners and being sexually active as risk factors, and 92% did not know about the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. The majority (97.7% had never heard of the Pap smear test. Only three (0.8% women out of 392 had had a Pap smear test. Reasons for seeking a Pap smear test included referral, fear of cervical cancer, and radio campaigns. A significant association was found between institutional and personal barriers and having a Pap smear test. Conclusion: Comprehensive education on cervical cancer screening and removal of access barriers are critical in reducing risk associated with the disease and promoting women's health. Keywords: women, cervical screening, awareness, factors, community, developing countries

  1. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  2. 10-year epidemiological profile changes for cervical and endometrial cancer patients treated by radiotherapy in the Pernambuco state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem, its prevention and control are included within 16 strategic objectives of the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the period 2011-2015. Cervical cancer is the fourth most common tumor in the female population, being new 15,590 cases estimated for 2014 according to the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA). Pernambuco is the fifth state with the highest number of cases of cervical cancer and the seventh in cases of endometrial ones, both estimative for 2014. The understanding of the epidemiological profile of these pathologies corroborates strategies for prevention, control and treatment. As Pernambuco has implemented the radiotherapy for cancer treatment since 1998-1999, this work encompassed the comparison of the 1998-1999 epidemiological profile of patients treated by radiotherapy for cervical and endometrial cancer in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, with 2008-2009 profile - ten years after. Medical record of 490 patients treated at the Center of Radiotherapy of Pernambuco (CERAPE) were compiled according to the patient origin, the affected uterus region, the staging of disease, the type and cell differentiation of the tumor, the age group, and, finally, the realization of hysterectomy as part of the treatment. More than 90% of the patients were affected by cervical cancer in the two investigated periods. For the interval of 1998-1999 the proportion of patients submitted to hysterectomy was quite higher compared to those after ten years. The results also showed a change in the origin of the patients, in which, in 1999, most of the patients were from the capital and the metropolitan area, while, after ten years, patients were mostly from the interior of the State. There was a predominance of squamous cell type tumors in both periods evaluated. For the 1998-1999 interval, tumors were stage 2, moderately differentiated type. Differently, the tumors were mostly stage 3, not differentiated type, for the 2008-2009 period

  3. 10-year epidemiological profile changes for cervical and endometrial cancer patients treated by radiotherapy in the Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Franca, Elvis J., E-mail: ejfranca@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Pessoa, Juanna G.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Amancio, Francisco F., E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: amanciobike@gmail.com, E-mail: juannapessoa@gmail.com, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Oliveira Neto, Aristides M.; Melo, Jonathan A., E-mail: aristidesoliveira466@hotmail.com, E-mail: jonathan@truenet.com.br [Centro de Radioterapia de Pernambuco (CERAPE), Santo Amaro, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem, its prevention and control are included within 16 strategic objectives of the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the period 2011-2015. Cervical cancer is the fourth most common tumor in the female population, being new 15,590 cases estimated for 2014 according to the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA). Pernambuco is the fifth state with the highest number of cases of cervical cancer and the seventh in cases of endometrial ones, both estimative for 2014. The understanding of the epidemiological profile of these pathologies corroborates strategies for prevention, control and treatment. As Pernambuco has implemented the radiotherapy for cancer treatment since 1998-1999, this work encompassed the comparison of the 1998-1999 epidemiological profile of patients treated by radiotherapy for cervical and endometrial cancer in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, with 2008-2009 profile - ten years after. Medical record of 490 patients treated at the Center of Radiotherapy of Pernambuco (CERAPE) were compiled according to the patient origin, the affected uterus region, the staging of disease, the type and cell differentiation of the tumor, the age group, and, finally, the realization of hysterectomy as part of the treatment. More than 90% of the patients were affected by cervical cancer in the two investigated periods. For the interval of 1998-1999 the proportion of patients submitted to hysterectomy was quite higher compared to those after ten years. The results also showed a change in the origin of the patients, in which, in 1999, most of the patients were from the capital and the metropolitan area, while, after ten years, patients were mostly from the interior of the State. There was a predominance of squamous cell type tumors in both periods evaluated. For the 1998-1999 interval, tumors were stage 2, moderately differentiated type. Differently, the tumors were mostly stage 3, not differentiated type, for the 2008-2009 period

  4. FDA Approves Two HPV Vaccines: Cervarix for Girls, Gardasil for Boys | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FDA has approved a second vaccine to prevent cervical cancer and cervical precancers, the vaccine’s manufacturer, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), announced last week. The approval is based on data from a large clinical trial showing that the vaccine, Cervarix, prevented precancerous lesions in 93 percent of those who received the full vaccine sequence of three injections over 6 months. |

  5. The reporting of cervical cancer in the mass media: a study of UK newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L; Seale, C

    2011-05-01

    Cervical cancer disproportionately affects those in lower socio-economic groups. Mass media, including newspapers, are an important source of information about disease and how to prevent it. An analysis of UK national newspaper content between 2000 and 2009 is reported, assessing the extent to which information is provided about early signs and symptoms, risk factors and ways of preventing cervical cancer. The messages in newspapers targeted at readers in lower socio-economic groups are compared with the messages in other newspapers, and the impact of reporting the illness and death of the reality TV star, Jade Goody, on the level of medical information contained in articles is assessed. Tabloid or 'popular' newspapers are found to provide more information about early signs and symptoms, and no less information about risk factors, when compared with broadsheets or 'serious' papers. This is due to their greater use of personal stories of people with cervical cancer. The Jade Goody story was associated with an increase in information about early signs and symptoms, and about screening, but not (with the exception of the role played by social deprivation) about risk factors. Suggestions about how to approach public education via an entertainment format in mass media are made. PMID:20825461

  6. Effects of Application of Social Marketing Theory and the Health Belief Model in Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening among Targeted Women in Sisaket Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichachai, Suparp; Songserm, Nopparat; Akakul, Theerawut; Kuasiri, Chanapong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Thailand, being ranked second only to breast cancer. Thai women have been reported to have a low rate of cervical cancer screening (27.7% of the 80% goal of WHO). We therefore aimed to apply the social marketing theory and health belief model in promoting cervical cancer screening in Kanthararom District, Sisaket Province. A total of 92 from 974 targeted women aged 3060 years were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group underwent application of social marketing theory and a health belief model program promoting cervical cancer screening while the control group received normal services. Two research tools were used: (1) application of social marketing theory and health belief model program and (2) questionnaire used to evaluate perceptions of cervical cancer. Descriptive and inferential statistics including paired sample ttest and independent ttest were used to analyze the data. After the program had been used, the mean score of perception of cervical cancer of experimental group was at a higher level (x=4.09; S.D. =0.30), than in the control group (x=3.82; S.D. =0.20) with statistical significance (psocial marketing and the health belief model be used to promote cervical cancer screening in targeted women and it can be promoted as a guideline for other health services, especially in health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27510000

  7. Tc17 cells in patients with uterine cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The existence of Tc17 cells was recently shown in several types of infectious and autoimmune diseases, but their distribution and functions in uterine cervical cancer (UCC have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: The frequency of Tc17 cells in peripheral blood samples obtained from UCC patients, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN patients and healthy controls was determined by flow cytometry. Besides, the prevalence of Tc17 cells and their relationships to Th17 cells and Foxp3-expressing T cells as well as microvessels in tissue samples of the patients were assessed by immunohistochemistry staining. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients with UCC or CIN had a higher proportion of Tc17 cells in both peripheral blood and cervical tissues, but the level of Tc17 cells in UCC tissues was significantly higher than that in CIN tissues. Besides, the increased level of Tc17 in UCC patients was associated with the status of pelvic lymph node metastases and increased microvessel density. Finally, significant correlations of infiltration between Tc17 cells and Th17 cells or Foxp3-expressing T cells were observed in UCC and CIN tissues. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that Tc17 cell infiltration in cervical cancers is associated with cancer progression accompanied by increased infiltrations of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells as well as promoted tumor vasculogenesis.

  8. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large amount of arsenic has been linked to skin , bladder, and lung cancers. Studies have been done ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate cancer increases as men get older. Family history of prostate cancer A man whose father, brother, ... some foods, such as green vegetables, beans and orange juice. Folic acid is a man-made form ...

  10. Future directions in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Asad; Dunn, Barbara K; Greenwald, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Prevention of cancer remains the most promising strategy for reducing both its incidence and the mortality due to this disease. For more than four decades, findings from epidemiology, basic research and clinical trials have informed the development of lifestyle and medical approaches to cancer prevention. These include selective oestrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer, the 5-α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer, and the development of vaccines for viruses that are associated with specific cancers. Future directions include genetic, proteomic and other molecular approaches for identifying pathways that are associated with cancer initiation and development, as well as refining the search for immunologically modifiable causes of cancer. PMID:23151603

  11. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or other cancers, including lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and cancers of the lung, bladder, pancreas, and colon and rectum ( 26 ). Overall, these nine ... the incidence and mortality of carcinoma of the pancreas in a randomized, controlled trial. Cancer 1999; 86(1):37-42. [PubMed Abstract] Virtamo ...

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices for Cervical Cancer Screening Among the Bhutanese Refugee Community in Omaha, Nebraska

    OpenAIRE

    Haworth, Rebecca J.; Margalit, Ruth; Ross, Christine; Nepal, Tikka; Soliman, Amr S.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women with the vast majority of patients in developing countries. Bhutanese refugees in the United States are from South Central Asia, the 4th leading region of the world for cervical cancer incidence. Over the past few years, Bhutanese refugees have increased significantly in Nebraska. This study evaluates current knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices among the Bhutanese refugee women in Omaha, Nebraska....

  13. Cervical cancer vaccine: Exploring new opportunities and challenges for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Ray Laskar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, and the burden of the disease is disproportionately high in the developing world (>80%. With the advent of two new vaccines, "Gardasil" developed by Merck & Co. New Jersey, USA and "Cervarix" developed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK in Philadelphia, USA, the future holds newer promises for prevention and control of the disease. However, various regulatory and policy changes also may be required to be undertaken and the various new challenges need to be addressed.

  14. Screening for cervical cancer: new alternatives and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lörincz Attila T

    2003-01-01

    appears that HPV DNA testing is on the way to becoming a common testing strategy in cervical cancer prevention programs. Research continues into approaches for improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of HPV detection methods. Hybrid Capture 3 will offer improved HPV typing capabilities and the Rapid Capture machine allows for robot- assisted HPV DNA testing, permitting greater test throughput. PCR test improvements are expected to contribute to the growth of flexible accurate and cost-effective HPV DNA tests. It is likely that improved diagnostic technology along with HPV genotyping and quantitation may provide more value in future. A particularly promising approach is to combine HPV DNA testing with expression levels of other markers such as proliferative or cell cycle regulatory proteins to subdivide HPV- positive women into those who are at greater risk of cancer and those who can be safely followed by screening at longer intervals.

  15. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  16. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cytosensors over a frequency range offers instantaneous and quantitative means to monitor cellular events and is an upcoming technique in real time to classify cells as normal and abnormal ones. This technology is exploited for label-free detection of diseases by identifying and measuring nonbiological parameters of the cell which may carry the disease signature.

  17. Biologia molecular do câncer cervical Molecular biology of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Augusto Rivoire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A carcinogênese é um processo de múltiplas etapas. Alterações no equilíbrio citogenético ocorrem na transformação do epitélio normal a câncer cervical. Numerosos estudos apoiam a hipótese de que a infecção por HPV está associada com o desenvolvimento de alterações malignas e pré-malignas do trato genital inferior. Neste trabalho são apresentadas as bases para a compreensão da oncogênese cervical. O ciclo celular é controlado por proto-oncogenes e genes supressores. Quando ocorrem mutações, proto-oncogenes tornam-se oncogenes, que são carcinogênicos e causam multiplicação celular excessiva. A perda da ação de genes supressores funcionais pode levar a célula ao crescimento inadequado. O ciclo celular também pode ser alterado pela ação de vírus, entre eles o HPV (Human Papiloma Virus, de especial interesse na oncogênese cervical. Os tipos de HPV 16 e 18 são os de maior interesse, freqüentemente associados a câncer cervical e anal. O conhecimento das bases moleculares que estão envolvidas na oncogênese cervical tem sido possível devido a utilização de técnicas avançadas de biologia molecular. A associação destas técnicas aos métodos diagnósticos clássicos, poderão levar a uma melhor avaliação das neoplasias cervicais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento de novas terapias, talvez menos invasivas e mais efetivas.Carcinogenesis involves several steps. Disorders of the cytogenetic balance occur during the evolution from normal epithelium to cervical cancer. Several studies support the hypothesis that the Human Papiloma Virus (HPV infection is associated to development of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical cancer. In this review we show the basis to understand cervical oncogenesis. The cell cycle is controlled by protooncogenes and supressive genes. This orchestrated cell cycle can be affected by virus such as HPV. Of special interest in the cervical carcinogenesis are the HPV subtypes 16 and 18

  18. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015 Keynote Lecture HPV Vaccination: Preventing More with Less A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 23, 2015 at 3:00pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Douglas Lowy, NCI Acting Director. |

  19. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linking the development of this disease, in many cases, with exposure to the hormone estrogen. The focus of recent breast cancer prevention studies has been on testing the effectiveness of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). SERMs are ...

  1. A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer vaccination in preadolescent Canadian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merid Maraki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that approximately 70% of Canadian women undergo cervical cancer screening at least once every 3 years, approximately 1,300 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and approximately 380 died from it in 2008. This study estimates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccinating 12-year old Canadian females with an AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. The indirect effect of vaccination, via herd immunity, is also estimated. Methods A 12-health-state 1-year-cycle Markov model was developed to estimate lifetime HPV related events for a cohort of 12-year old females. Annual transition probabilities between health-states were derived from published literature and Canadian population statistics. The model was calibrated using Canadian cancer statistics. From a healthcare perspective, the cost-effectiveness of introducing a vaccine with efficacy against HPV-16/18 and evidence of cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types was evaluated in a population undergoing current screening practices. The base-case analysis included 70% screening coverage, 75% vaccination coverage, $135/dose for vaccine, and 3% discount rate on future costs and health effects. Conservative herd immunity effects were taken into account by estimated HPV incidence using a mathematical model parameterized by reported age-stratified sexual mixing data. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address parameter uncertainties. Results Vaccinating 12-year old females (n = 100,000 was estimated to prevent between 390-633 undiscounted cervical cancer cases (reduction of 47%-77% and 168-275 undiscounted deaths (48%-78% over their lifetime, depending on whether or not herd immunity and cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types were included. Vaccination was estimated to cost $18,672-$31,687 per QALY-gained, the lower range representing inclusion of cross-protective efficacy and herd immunity. The cost per QALY-gained was most

  2. Elimination of Specular reflection and Identification of ROI: The First Step in Automated Detection of Cervical Cancer using Digital Colposcopy

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, Specular Reflections (SR) appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light. These occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface, which act like mirrors reflecting light from the illumination source. Apart from camouflaging the actual features, the SR also affects subsequent segmentation routines and hence must be removed. Our novel technique eliminates the SR and makes the colposcopic images (cervigram) ready for segmentation algorithms. The cervix region occupies about half of the cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. The first step is, therefore, focusing on the cervical bor...

  3. Efficacy and safety of a bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in prevention of cervical cancer and HPV-related infection:a meta analysis%二价HPV疫苗预防宫颈癌及HPV相关感染的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋云焕; 周自广

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价二价HPV疫苗预防宫颈癌及HPV相关感染的有效性与安全性.方法 计算机检索Cochrane图书馆、MEDLINE、EMBASE、CBM,纳入所有关于二价HPV疫苗的随机对照试验,由两名研究者独立提取数据并进行方法学质量评估.数据的统计分析采用Cochrane协作网提供的RevMan 4.2软件进行.结果共纳入6个随机对照试验(RCT),包括25 007例女性.meta分析结果显示:与安慰剂相比,预防性二价疫苗明显降低了与HPV16,18型相关的Ⅱ/Ⅲ级宫颈上皮内瘤变、原位癌及相关类型HPV持续感染的发病率.主要的副作用较轻微,严重的副作用在疫苗组和安慰剂组保持均衡.结论二价HPV疫苗对于预防相关类型HPV所导致宫颈癌是安全和有效的.%Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of prophylactic bivalent human papillomavirus ( HPV ) vaccine in the prevention of cervical cancer and infection associated with vaccine-type HPV. Methods By searching the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EM-BASE and CBM ,the randomized controlled trials ( RCTs ) about prophylactic bivalent HPV vaccine in the prevention of cervical cancer and infection associated with vaccine-type HPV were included. Two authors independently reviewed the data and assessed the quality. The data were input and analyzed by RevMan4. 2 software. Results Six randomized controlled trials ( RCT ) involving 25 007 women met the inclusion criteria. The meta analysis showed that prophylactic HPV vaccine was associated with a reduction in the incidence of grade Ⅱ/Ⅲ cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, carcinoma in situ and persistent infection caused by vaccine-type HPV strains compared with the placebo. The majority of adverse events was minor. The incidence of serious adverse events was balanced between the vaccine and the placebo. Conclusion Bivalent HPV vaccine is effective and safe in the prevention of cervical cancer associated with vaccine-type HPV.

  4. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  5. Molecular diagnosis of human papillomavirus in the development of cervical cancer Diagnóstico molecular del virus del papiloma humano en el desarrollo del cáncer cervical

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Gutiérrez-Xicoténcatl; Tanya Plett-Torres; Claudia L Madrid-González; Vicente Madrid-Marina

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a major public health problem in developing countries and its most significant etiological risk factor is infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The main approach to date for the prevention of CC has been through screening programs, using the cervical smear (PAP test) to detect precursory lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of the PAP smear depend on the skills of the observer to recognize and classify a variety of cellular abnormalities. The development of ...

  6. Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as the skin on the genital or anal area. Still, condoms do provide some protection against HPV, and they also protect against HIV and some ... cancers. They are also approved to help prevent anal and genital warts, as well ... cancers. More HPV vaccines are being developed and tested. For more ...

  7. Application of Oesophagogastric Cervical Mechanical Anastomosis in Oesophagectomy for Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Xiao

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to explore the safety and the feasibility of the application of digestive tract-specific circular anastomats in oesophagogastric cervical anastomosis after oesophagectomy for cancer. We retrospectively analysed the clinical data of 241 patients undergoing oesophagogastric cervical anastomosis using disposable circular staplings after oesophagectomy in the People's Hospital of Henan Province, from August 2009 to July 2012. A total of 240 patients were anastomosed successfully. One patient had a partially torn oesophagus and underwent repair because the wrong stapler size was used. No operative death occurred. Seven patients (2.9 %) had postoperative cervical anastomotic leakage but recovered after short-term conservative treatment, and three patients had obvious gastro-oesophageal reflux after eating. No intrathoracic anastomotic leakage or other anastomotic instrument-related complications occurred. During a median follow-up period of 13.8 months, no anastomotic stricture was found in each patient. The application of oesophagogastric cervical anastomosis using circular anastomat after oesophagectomy for cancer was safe and feasible. PMID:27011487

  8. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life questionnaire cervical cancer module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede R; Kuljanic Vlasic, Karin; Waldenstrom, Ann-Charlotte;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors report on the development and validation of a cervical cancer module for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life (QoL) questionnaire (QLQ), which was designed to assess disease-specific and treatment-specific aspects of Qo......L in patients with cervical cancer. METHODS: The cervical cancer module (EORTC QLQ-CX24) was developed in a multicultural, multidisciplinary setting to supplement the EORTC QLQ-C30 core questionnaire. The QLQ-C30 and the cervical cancer module were administered to 346 patients with cervical cancer who underwent...... of the EORTC QLQ-CX24 module. This newly developed module is a useful instrument for assessing the QoL of patients who are treated for cervical cancer both in clinical trials and in clinical practice....

  9. Optoelectronic image processing for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Sharpe, John P.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1994-05-01

    Automation of the Pap-smear cervical screening method is highly desirable as it relieves tedium for the human operators, reduces cost and should increase accuracy and provide repeatability. We present here the design for a high-throughput optoelectronic system which forms the first stage of a two stage system to automate pap-smear screening. We use a mathematical morphological technique called the hit-or-miss transform to identify the suspicious areas on a pap-smear slide. This algorithm is implemented using a VanderLugt architecture and a time-sequential ANDing smart pixel array.

  10. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis B, which greatly lowers the risk of getting the ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis C, which ... infected with hepatitis B. It is caused by hepatitis D virus (HDV) ...

  11. Innovative approaches to promoting cervical health and raising cervical cancer awareness by use of existing cultural structures in resource-limited countries: experiences with traditional marriage counseling in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapambwe, Sharon; Parham, Groesbeck; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi; Chirwa, Susan; Mwanza, Jacob; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary

    2013-12-01

    The Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia (CCPPZ) has increasingly used community-level structures to increase the uptake and ensure the sustainability of the program. Traditional marriage counselors, the alangizi, who have existed in the Zambian society for many years, are one of the structures used by the program to impart cervical cancer knowledge and increase access to screening and care using an existing community structure. Several steps were followed in developing this intervention: (a) ensuring the alangizi understood the process of screening by encouraging them to go through the screening process; (b) workshops were arranged for the alangizi to meet and share experiences during which lessons were given on cervical cancer by health workers as well; and (c) eight alangizi were chosen to help document the lessons as part of ensuring that cervical cancer information is accurate and passed in a consistent manner. Over 70 alangizi, who had undergone cervical cancer screening, were trained by CCPPZ. A 'Cervical Cancer Training Manual for Marriage Counsellors' was developed to help the alangizi integrate cervical cancer lessons in their routine teachings. An evaluation was conducted during the training of the alangizi that forms the basis for this paper. The results show that although the alangizi face key challenges in their work (e.g. changing social contexts), they are still considered relevant by most communities in Zambia and are potentially an important avenue for cervical cancer and other health information. This paper shows that it is possible to integrate sexual and reproductive health messages into existing structures in the community. However, it is important to design culturally specific and sensitive healthcare strategies that embrace locally accepted good practices. PMID:24722743

  12. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of cervical cancer and the coverage in cervical cancer screening are usually reported by including in the denominator all women from the general population. However, after hysterectomy women are not at risk anymore of developing cervical cancer. Therefore, it makes...... sense to determine the indicators also for the true at-risk populations. We described the frequency of total hysterectomy in Denmark and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and the screening coverage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With data from five Danish population-based registries......, the incidence rate of cervical cancer and the screening coverage for women aged 23-64 years on 31 December 2010 were calculated with and without adjustments for hysterectomies undertaken for reasons other than cervical cancer. They were calculated as the number of cases divided by 1) the total number of woman...

  13. Prevention strategies for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2012-12-01

    Through the last decade consideration of the role of vitamins and minerals in primary prevention of genitourinary tumors has dramatically changed. Despite all efforts efficacy of a specific compound has not been proven, so far. In consequence, recommendations for a use of vitamins or other supplements with the intention of prostate cancer prevention should be avoided today. In contrast, there is some evidence that life style modification might be helpful: recent investigations suggest that smoking may be involved in prostate cancer carcinogenesis. In addition, there is evidence that moderate food consumption, reduction of dairy products and an Asian or Mediterranean diet might not only prevent prostate cancer but also harbors additional beneficial effects on general health. This move from single compounds to more complex diets can be considered as a change of paradigm in prostate cancer prevention and could be the starting point of future epidemiological research. Disappointing findings with regards to nutritional cancer prevention contrast with a solid evidence concerning the efficacy of chemoprevention using 5a-reductase inhibitors: Long-term use of Finasteride and Dutasteride significantly reduces prostate cancer detection. Further candidate drugs are under investigation. However, translation of these findings into urological practice remains a matter of controversial discussion. PMID:23288209

  14. Image-Based Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical cancer is a disease that requires considerable multidisciplinary coordination of care and labor in order to maximize tumor control and survival while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As with external beam radiation therapy, the use of advanced imaging and 3-dimensional treatment planning has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The use of image-based brachytherapy, most commonly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires additional attention and effort by the treating physician to prescribe dose to the proper volume and account for adjacent organs at risk. This represents a dramatic change from the classic Manchester approach of orthogonal radiographic images and prescribing dose to point A. We reviewed the history and currently evolving data and recommendations for the clinical use of image-based brachytherapy with an emphasis on MRI-based brachytherapy

  15. Journey of a Woman With Terminal Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Theresa A

    2016-06-01

    When a cervical cancer diagnosis is made during a terminal stage, a woman is faced with many challenges. Although a terminal illness has many negative effects, such as physical pain, scarring, fear, and sexual dysfunction, women may experience a positive impact on their life, such as improved well-being and a greater appreciation of daily life. The individual experience can lead to personal revelations. Sometimes, the diagnosis can even be seen as a blessing. Understanding a personal experience in a real-life context of the terminal stages of disease is important. This story shares the day-to-day journey of a woman living with a terminal illness of cervical cancer. PMID:27206304

  16. Image-Based Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkenrider, Matthew M., E-mail: mharkenrider@lumc.edu; Alite, Fiori; Silva, Scott R.; Small, William

    2015-07-15

    Cervical cancer is a disease that requires considerable multidisciplinary coordination of care and labor in order to maximize tumor control and survival while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As with external beam radiation therapy, the use of advanced imaging and 3-dimensional treatment planning has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The use of image-based brachytherapy, most commonly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires additional attention and effort by the treating physician to prescribe dose to the proper volume and account for adjacent organs at risk. This represents a dramatic change from the classic Manchester approach of orthogonal radiographic images and prescribing dose to point A. We reviewed the history and currently evolving data and recommendations for the clinical use of image-based brachytherapy with an emphasis on MRI-based brachytherapy.

  17. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan......OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values......, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009-2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant...

  18. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPES 16, 18 AND 31 SEROSTATUS AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK IN THE PROSTATE CANCER PREVENTION TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hoque, Ashraful M.; Hsing, Ann W.; Thompson, Ian M; Zenilman, Jonathan M; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was first identified as a risk factor for cervical cancer, several seroepidemiologic and tissue-based studies have investigated HPV in relation to prostate cancer, another common genitourinary malignancy, with mixed results. To further inform this potential association, we conducted a large, prospective investigation of HPV types 16, 18, and 31 in relation to risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Cases were a sample ...

  19. Patient age, tumor appearance and tumor size are risk factors for early recurrence of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Juan; WANG, Tao; YANG, YUN-YI; CHAI, YAN-LAN; Shi, Fan; Liu, Zi

    2014-01-01

    The recurrence and metastasis of cervical cancer contribute to a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for cervical cancer progression. A total of 284 patients with recurrent cervical cancer were retrospectively recruited to evaluate the association of disease recurrence with clinicopathological data. The univariate analysis demonstrated that patient age, tumor appearance and tumor size were significantly associated with early recurrence and metastasis of t...

  20. Roles of Foxp3 in the occurrence and development of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qingshuang; Zhang, Shulan; Wei, Heng; Pang, Xiaoao; Zhang, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) expression and clinicopathological characteristics of cervical cancer and to explore the influence of Foxp3 on the biological behaviors of cervical cancer cells. Methods: In this study, immunohistochemistry, lentivirus mediated transfection, Transwell assay; CCK-8 assay, real-time PCR and flow cytometry were employed to confirm the roles of Foxp3 in the occurrence and development of cervical cancer. Resul...

  1. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnant. This increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Tamoxifen Tamoxifen is one of a group of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators , or SERMs. Tamoxifen acts like estrogen on some tissues in the ...

  2. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of breast cancer: Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more ... does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial Boards ...

  3. The results of combination therapy for local cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of the developed technique os combination treatment based on split course of combination radiotherapy against a background of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to 275 patients with stage II-III cervical cancer allowed to transfer an immobile tumor process to the respectable in 46.0% og cases, which was followed by the uterus and appendages removal, while with traditional course of radiotherapy operability index was only 6.9%

  4. Combined clinical and genetic testing algorithm for cervical cancer diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Liou, Yu-Ligh; Zhang, Tao-Lan; Yan, Tian; Yeh, Ching-Tung; Kang, Ya-Nan; Cao, Lanqin; Wu, Nayiyuan; Chang, Chi-Feng; Wang, Huei-Jen; Yen, Carolyn; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Background Opportunistic screening in hospitals is widely used to effectively reduce the incidence rate of cervical cancer in China and other developing countries. This study aimed to identify clinical risk factor algorithms that combine gynecologic examination and molecular testing (paired box gene 1 (PAX1) or zinc finger protein 582 (ZNF582) methylation or HPV16/18) results to improve diagnostic accuracy. Methods The delta Cp of methylated PAX1 and ZNF582 was obtained via quantitative methy...

  5. Overcoming Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening Among Asian American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality exist among ethnic minority women, and in particular, among Asian American women. These disparities have been attributed primarily to differences in screening rates across ethnic/racial groups. Asian American women have one of the lowest rates of screening compared to other ethnic/racial groups. Yet Asian Americans, who comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the United States, have received the least attention in c...

  6. Tailored radiotherapeutic strategies for disseminated uterine cervical cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the role of radiotherapy (RT) in and to suggest radiotherapeutic strategies for patients presenting with disseminated cervical cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients diagnosed as the disseminated cervical cancer with distant lymph nodal or visceral organ metastasis between September 1980 and August 2012. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to visceral organ metastasis: 35 patients diagnosed with distant lymph node metastasis only (group A) and 15 patients with visceral organ metastasis (group B). All patients received external beam RT to the pelvis (median dose 45 Gy) and high-dose rate intracavitary RT (median dose 30 Gy). Thirty-nine patients (78%) received chemotherapy. Median follow-up time was 74 months. The 5-year pelvic control rate (PCR) was 85.8%, and the progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 28.7%, and 36.2%, respectively. The major treatment failure was systemic progression (32 patients, 64%). The 5-year PCRs in groups A and B were 87.4% and 74.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Meanwhile, PFS and OS rates for group A were significantly better than those for group B (35.3% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.010; and 46.3% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.009, respectively). Our data revealed considerable prognostic heterogeneity in disseminated cervical cancer. Even though a high PCR was achieved in patients treated with definitive RT, survival outcomes were dependent on progression of visceral organ metastasis. Therefore, personalized RT and chemotherapy treatment strategies according to the presence of visceral organ metastasis in disseminated cervical cancer patients may help improve clinical outcomes

  7. Epidemiologic studies of cervical cancer in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    A case-control study of cervical cancer was conducted in Costa Rica, Co- lombia, Mexico and Panama from 1986 to 1987, to determine risk factors operating in these traditionally high-incidence areas. The study included 759 cases and 1,430 hospital and community controls, and accomplished more than 95% participation rates for both types of participants. The ma- jor risk factors identified were: detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 or 18, increasing number of livebi...

  8. Chemoradiation therapy in treatment of patients with IIB cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the experience of chemoradiation therapy application in patients with IIB cervical cancer. A combination of radiation with cisplatin and 5-fluoruracil in radiomodifying doses , 5-year relapse-free survival was 42%, 5-year total survival was 48%. Only in 6% of patients who died before 5 years the death was caused by distant metastases. The most frequent cause of death was relapses in the small pelvis, which made 67.5% of all relapses

  9. About DCP | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is the primary unit of the National Cancer Institute devoted to cancer prevention research. DCP provides funding and administrative support to clinical and laboratory researchers, community and multidisciplinary teams, and collaborative scientific networks. |

  10. Cervical cancer screening among South Asian women in Canada: the role of education and acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abha; Kumar, Ashesh; Stewart, Donna E

    2002-02-01

    Cervical cancer screening by Papanicolaou (Pap) smear lowers the incidence and provides early detection of cervical cancer and is a preventative health care measure that should be available on a regular basis to all women at risk. As the population of ethnic women increases, it is important to assess whether these women are aware of and are utilizing this health service. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 124 South Asian women, aged 18 to 60 years. Sixty-two South Asian students were selected from a university setting and 62 Tamil women were selected from a community center for South Asian women. This study examined the knowledge and use of Pap smears in South Asian women in Canada, and whether their level of acculturation or formal education influenced whether they know about and receive Pap smears. Low level of knowledge about the Pap test and a low prevalence of Pap testing behaviour was significantly correlated (p students were significantly more acculturated than Tamil women (p knowledge and prevalence of cervical cancer screening among South Asian women. This study highlights the need for educational interventions in Canada directed to ethnic women especially from South Asia. PMID:11868960

  11. A Proof of Concept Imaging System for Automated Cervical Cancer Screening in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Garcia, Mabel Karel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women around the world and affects half a million women per year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 275,000 women die every year, and 80% to 85% of these deaths occur in low-resource countries in Africa and South America. In Peru, cervical cancer has the highest incidence and…

  12. Socioeconomic position and stage of cervical cancer in Danish women diagnosed 2005 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Else; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Johansen, Christoffer; Høgdall, Claus; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Osler, Merete; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2012-01-01

    To reduce social disparities in cervical cancer survival, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which social position influence cancer prognosis. We investigated the relations between socioeconomic factors, comorbidity, time since last Papanicolau smear, and stage at diagnosis in Danish...... women with cervical cancer....

  13. Preoperative transarterial chemoembolization for cervical cancer: analysis of efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate preoperative transarterial chemoembolization in treating locally advanced cervical cancer and to observe the pathological changes. Methods: Forty-three patients with pathologically proved cervical cancer were enrolled in this study. All patients were treated with transarterial chemoembolization before radical hysterectomy. Bleomycin and cisplantin were infused via bilateral uterine arteries, followed by arterial embolization with gelfoam particles as embolic agent. Radical hysterectomy was performed 20-87 days (mean 38.3 days) after chemoembolization, and the specimen was taken for pathologic examination. Results: (1) complete response (CR) was seen in 4 cases and partial response (PR) in 29 cases, with a total effective rate of 76.7%. (2) The interval between chemoembolization and hysterectomy was a risk factor related to the effect of chemoembolization, i.e. the longer the interval was, the poorer the effect of chemoembolization would be. (3) Pathologically, the tumoral parauterine infiltration was not so severe as estimated before surgery. Conclusion: Preoperative chemoembolization is a safe and effective adjunctive means for the treatment of cervical cancer, which is very helpful for the subsequent radical hysterectomy. (authors)

  14. Therapeutic vaccines against human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid-Arregui, Angel

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer and its precursor intra-epithelial lesions are linked to infection by a subset of so-called "highrisk" human papillomavirus types, which are estimated to infect nearly four hundred million women worldwide. Two prophylactic vaccines have been commercialized recently targeting HPV16 and 18, the most prevalent viral types found in cervical cancer, which operate through induction of capsid-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, in patients with persistent infection these vaccines have not been found to protect against progression to neoplasia. Attempts are being made to develop therapeutic vaccines targeting nonstructural early viral proteins. Among these, E6 and E7 are the preferred targets, since they are essential for induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype and are constitutively expressed by the transformed epithelial cells. Here are reviewed the most relevant potential vaccines based on HPV early antigens that have shown efficacy in preclinical models and that are being tested in clinical studies, which should determine their therapeutic capacity for eradicating HPV-induced premalignant and malignant lesions and cure cervical cancer. PMID:19915722

  15. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Alonso, C. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Llanos, M. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Lacasta, A. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Fuentes, J. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Mendoza, L.A. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Badia, J.M. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Delgado, E. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Ojeda, B. [Dept. of Oncology, Hospital de La Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    Radiotherapy has been standard therapy for locally advanced squamous cell cervical cancer. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is being studied to improve responses and survival. We report a phase II study in locally advanced squamous cell cervical cancer (FIGO stages III and IV A) using chemotherapy with bleomycin, methotrexate and cisplatin (BMP) followed by radical radiotherapy. Of the 35 patients, 31 in stage III and 4 in stage IV A, 3 complete responses (CR) and 22 partial responses (PR) were achieved after chemotherapy treatment. Thirty-one patients completed radiotherapy; 19 achieved CR and 4 PR. Five-year actuarial survival for the entire group was 45% (95% confidence interval, 37-53%) with a median survival of 56 months. Patients with CR had a significantly better survival: The 5-year actuarial survival was 74% (95% CI, 59-89%). Recurrence developed at 4 to 19 patients. The most frequent side-effects were nausea and vomiting. Myelosuppression and impaired renal function also occurred. There was no evidence of radiotherapy toxicity enhancement. The stage and Karnofsky index were significant prognostic factors. It is concluded that MBP chemotherapy in advanced cervical cancer is effective and, followed by radiotherapy, allows a good control of this tumor. The group of patients with complete response have a low rate of recurrences and a long survival chance. (orig.).

  16. Combined modality therapy for stage ⅠB cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qiuan; Qian Shao; Yang Xingsheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the current approaches for multimodality therapy for stage ⅠB cervical cancer. Methods:The relevant literature has served as a source for identified high or intermediate risks and management of stage ⅠB cervical cancer. Result:The high risks include pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM), positive resection margin (PRM), and the in-volvement of parametrium (IPM). The intermediate risks include deep stromal invasion (DSI), bulky tumor size ( BTS), lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI). Adeno-carcinomatous histo-type is the new risk feature relevant to poor prognoses. Both radical hysterectomy plus bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection(PLND) and radical radiotherapy have proven to be equally effec-tive. Surgery is more performed for stage ⅠB1 disease;radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is preferable for stage ⅠB2 disease. For patients with one high risk or two of intermediate risks, radical hysterectomy plus PLND followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy can improve overall survival(OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Conclusion:The management should be indi-vidualized for stage ⅠB cervical cancer. The optimized multidisciplinary therapy can benefit pa-tients with the best cure and minimum morbidity and complications.

  17. Psychosocial concerns of Nigerian women with breast and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohaeri, J U; Campbell, O B; Ilesanmil, A O; Ohaeri, B M

    1998-01-01

    Cancer has the potential to provoke worries which should be assessed in order to adequately respond to patients' problems. We highlight in this paper the problems that concerned 30 women with cervical cancer (mean age 51.2) and 76 with breast cancer (mean age 44.9), how these concerns affected their emotional lives, and the factors associated with these worries. They were interviewed with the 33-item modified version of a German questionnaire rating psychosocial concerns (FBS) by Sullwold, and Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for psychopathological symptoms. Cervical cancer patients had significantly higher FBS and GHQ-12 scores than breast cancer. Breast cancer cases had FBS scores similar to those of women with sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The commonest recurrent worries in both groups were depression about their condition (45%), thoughts of death (37%), insomnia (33.3%), bodily odour (30%), impairment of work efficiency (30%) terrifying dreams (27%) and fear of illness being life-long (25%). Over 90% denied experience of worries indicating social stigma. FBS scores were significantly correlated with GHQ scores and both were negatively associated with adequacy of social contacts. These data suggest the need for psychosocial intervention in such cases in Nigeria. PMID:9885090

  18. Human Papillomavirus Genotype as a Major Determinant of the Course of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niakan M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Certain types of human papillomavrus (HPV are associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. The aim of theobservations reported here was to determine whether the prognosis for invasive cancers of the uterine cervix is related to the type of human papillomavirus asociated with the tumor. Material and Methods: Twenty Patients with invasive cervical cancer were prospectively registered from 2000 to 2001. HPV typing was performed by insitu hybridization(ISH on DNA extracted from frozen, formal in-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens. The specimens mostly represented classifications SCC Stage 1 and Stage 2 of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (Table 1. HPV- DNA was detected by insituhybridization, using three different DNA Probes: types 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33/51. Results: HPV DNA was detected in the nuclei of SCC tumor cells in 13(65% of 20 cases. Of the 13 HPV-DNA positive cases three reacted only with the HPV 31/33/51 probe, two reacted only with the 16/18 probe, three showed strong hybridization for both 31/33/51 and 6/11probes, four showed 6/11 and 16/18 genotypes and one case reacted with 31/33/51,6/11and16/18probes. Conclusion: The prognosis for invasive cancers of the uterine cervix is dependent on the oncogenic potential of the associated HPV type. HPV typing may provide a prognostic indicator for individual patients and is of potential use in defining specific therapies against HPV harboring tumor cells. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that HPV infection is the primary cause of cervical neoplasia. Furthermore, they support HPV vaccine research to prevent cervical cancer and efforts to develop HPV DNA diagnostic tests.

  19. Early detection of cervical cancer with visual inspection methods: a summary of completed and on-going studies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaranarayanan R

    2003-01-01

    in two cluster randomized controlled intervention trials in India. One of these studies is a 4-arm trial addressing the comparative efficacy of VIA, cytology and primary screening with HPV DNA testing. This trial will provide valuable information on comparative detection rates of CIN 2-3 lesions by the middle of 2003. The expected outcomes from the Indian studies will contribute valuable information for guiding the development of public health policies on cervical cancer prevention in countries with different levels of socio-economic and health services development and open up new avenues of research.

  20. Early detection of cervical cancer with visual inspection methods: a summary of completed and on-going studies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Nene, B M; Dinshaw, K; Rajkumar, R; Shastri, S; Wesley, R; Basu, P; Sharma, R; Thara, S; Budukh, A; Parkin, D M

    2003-01-01

    cluster randomized controlled intervention trials in India. One of these studies is a 4-arm trial addressing the comparative efficacy of VIA, cytology and primary screening with HPV DNA testing. This trial will provide valuable information on comparative detection rates of CIN 2-3 lesions by the middle of 2003. The expected outcomes from the Indian studies will contribute valuable information for guiding the development of public health policies on cervical cancer prevention in countries with different levels of socio-economic and health services development and open up new avenues of research. This paper is available too at: http//www.insp.mx/salud/index.html. PMID:14746033