WorldWideScience

Sample records for cervical cancer preliminary

  1. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep cancer from starting. General Information About Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... information about cervical cancer: Cervical Cancer Screening Cervical Cancer Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Key Points Avoiding risk factors and ...

  2. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  3. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  4. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV is a common virus that is passed from one person to another ... things also can increase your risk of cervical cancer: • Smoking. • Having HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) or another condition that makes ...

  5. Cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Hirsch, Pierre Leonard; Wood, Nicholas James

    2011-07-27

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women. In the UK, incidence fell after the introduction of the cervical screening programme, to the current level of approximately 2334 women in 2008, with a mortality to incidence ratio of 0.33. Survival ranges from almost 100% 5-year disease-free survival for treated stage Ia disease to 5-15% in stage IV disease. Survival is also influenced by tumour bulk, age, and comorbid conditions. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent cervical cancer? What are the effects of interventions to manage early-stage cervical cancer? What are the effects of interventions to manage bulky early-stage cervical cancer? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 14 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for preventing cervical cancer; conisation of the cervix for microinvasive carcinoma (stage Ia1), conisation of the cervix plus lymphadenectomy (stage Ia2 and low-volume, good prognostic factor stage Ib), radical trachelectomy for low-volume stage Ib disease, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, or different types of hysterectomy versus each other for treating early-stage and bulky early-stage cervical cancer.

  6. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they might mean for you. What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer that occurs in the cervix. ... to Know About™ Cancer of the Cervix ( National Cancer Institute) Cervical Cancer ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) March ...

  7. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about cervical cancer: Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Treatment Screening for cervical ...

  8. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer of the cervix, which is ... in women age 35 to 44. What causes cervical cancer? Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused ...

  9. Biomarkers in Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eun-Kyoung Yim; Jong-Sup Park

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer, a potentially preventable disease, remains the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the single most important etiological agent in cervical cancer, contributing to neoplastic progression through the action of viral oncoproteins, mainly E6 and E7. Cervical screening programs using Pap smear testing have dramatically improved cervical cancer incidence and reduced deaths, but cervical cancer still remains a global health burden. The bio...

  10. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  11. Cervical cancer. Latest data

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios KANELLOPOULOS

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer.The frequency of the disease in advanced countries is 6-10/100.000 women and the majority of those women are 40-50 years old. International epidemiological studies have associated cervical cancer with risk factors such as age of first sexual intercourse, smoking, multiparity, family history of cervical cancer and low socioeconomic level.These factors have been associated with sexual behaviour, with...

  12. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 232-4636) American Cancer Society Phone Number: 800-ACS-2345 (800-227-2345) American College of Obstetricians ... html/ Search Share Embed Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit The Office on ...

  13. Design and preliminary analysis of a vaginal inserter for speculum-free cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu, Mercy Nyamewaa; Agudogo, Júlia; Krieger, Marlee S; Miros, Robert; Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Schmitt, John W; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening usually requires use of a speculum to provide a clear view of the cervix. The speculum is one potential barrier to screening due to fear of pain, discomfort and embarrassment. The aim of this paper is to present and demonstrate the feasibility of a tampon-sized inserter and the POCkeT Colposcope, a miniature pen sized-colposcope, for comfortable, speculum-free and potentially self-colposcopy. We explored different designs using 3D computer-aided design (CAD) software and performed mechanical testing simulations on each. Designs were rapid prototyped and tested using a custom vaginal phantom across a range of vaginal pressures and uterine tilts to select an optimal design. Two final designs were tested with fifteen volunteers to assess cervix visualization, comfort and usability compared to the speculum and the optimal design, the curved-tip inserter, was selected for testing in volunteers. We present a vaginal inserter as an alternative to the standard speculum for use with the POCkeT Colposcope. The device has a slim tubular body with a funnel-like curved tip measuring approximately 2.5 cm in diameter. The inserter has a channel through which a 2 megapixel (MP) mini camera with LED illumination fits to enable image capture. Mechanical finite element testing simulations with an applied pressure of 15 cm H2O indicated a high factor of safety (90.9) for the inserter. Testing of the device with a custom vaginal phantom, across a range of supine vaginal pressures and uterine tilts (retroverted, anteverted and sideverted), demonstrated image capture with a visual area comparable to the speculum for a normal/axial positioned uteri and significantly better than the speculum for anteverted and sideverted uteri (p<0.00001). Volunteer studies with self-insertion and physician-assisted cervix image capture showed adequate cervix visualization for 83% of patients. In addition, questionnaire responses from volunteers indicated a 92.3% overall

  14. Fighting against cervical cancer:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach using VIA and cryotherapy as the only alternative for. Malawi in controlling cervical cancer. JHPIEGO, in conjunc- tion with the Ministry of Health, is currently in the process of developing a national cervical cancer VIA based prevention pro- gram. It will be interesting to see how this national—Wide pro- gram will ...

  15. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- oping countries. It is the commonest malignancy among black women in South. Africa. The quoted incidence of cervical cancer is approximately 30/100 000 women.1 Mortality is higher in developing countries, mainly due to the lack of.

  16. Integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of patients with primary cervical cancer: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueneisen, Johannes; Kinner, Sonja; Forsting, Michael; Lauenstein, Thomas; Umutlu, Lale [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael [University Hospital Dusseldorf, University of Dusseldorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Heubner, Martin; Aktas, Bahriye [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Essen (Germany); Ruhlmann, Verena [University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    To assess the diagnostic value of integrated PET/MRI for whole-body staging of cervical cancer patients, as well as to investigate a potential association between PET/MRI derived functional parameters and prognostic factors of cervical cancer. The present study was approved by the local institutional review board. Twenty-seven patients with histopathologically confirmed cervical cancer were prospectively enrolled in our study. All patients underwent a whole-body PET/MRI examination after written informed consent was obtained. Two radiologists separately evaluated the PET/MRI data sets regarding the determination of local tumor extent of primary cervical cancer lesions, as well as detection of nodal and distant metastases. Furthermore, SUV and ADC values of primary tumor lesions were analyzed and correlated with dedicated prognostic factors of cervical cancer. Results based on histopathology and cross-sectional imaging follow-up served as the reference standard. PET/MRI enabled the detection of all 27 primary tumor lesions of the uterine cervix and allowed for the correct determination of the T-stage in 23 (85 %) out of the 27 patients. Furthermore, the calculated sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of nodal positive patients (n = 11) were 91 %, 94 % and 93 %, respectively. PET/MRI correctly identified regional metastatic disease (N1-stage) in 8/10 (80 %) patients and non-regional lymph node metastases in 5/5 (100 %) patients. In addition, quantitative analysis of PET and MRI derived functional parameters (SUV; ADC values) revealed a significant correlation with pathological grade and tumor size (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the high potential of integrated PET/MRI for the assessment of primary tumor and the detection of lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer. Providing additional prognostic information, PET/MRI may serve as a valuable diagnostic tool for cervical cancer patients in a pretreatment setting

  17. Vaccinating against cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Since last year, it has become possible to vaccinate against the human papillomavirus (HPV) that causes most cases of cervical cancer, but countries face tough decisions before making the vaccine widely available.

  18. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  19. Preventing cervical cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer remains the most common cancer diagnosed in women in southern Africa, with an estimated lifetime risk of 1 in. 26.1. Unfortunately most of these cancers are also diagnosed at a late stage, with subsequent poor prognosis for long-term survival. This very high incidence is particularly sad in an era where.

  20. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Cancer Conference Stay Informed CDC’s Cervical Cancer Study Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... low-income, underserved women: providing insights into management strategies. ... a pilot study in U.S. Federally Qualified Health Centers. Vaccine 2014; ...

  1. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  2. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized phase III trial of chemotherapy plus epigenetic therapy with hydralazine valproate for advanced cervical cancer. Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, Jaime; Cetina, Lucely; Pacheco, Irlanda; Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; González-Fierro, Aurora; de la Cruz-Hernandez, Erick; Perez-Cardenas, Enrique; Taja-Chayeb, Lucia; Arias-Bofill, Daymi; Candelaria, Myrna; Vidal, Silvia; Dueñas-González, Alfonso

    2011-12-01

    The reversing of epigenetic aberrations using the inhibitors of DNA methylation and histone deacetylases may have therapeutic value in cervical cancer. This is a randomized phase III, placebo-controlled study of hydralazine and valproate (HV) added to cisplatin topotecan in advanced cervical cancer. Patients received hydralazine at 182 mg for rapid, or 83 mg for slow acetylators, and valproate at 30 mg/kg, beginning a week before chemotherapy and continued until disease progression. Response, toxicity, and PFS were evaluated, and 36 patients (17 CT + HV and 19 CT + PLA) were included. The median number of cycles was 6. There were four PRs to CT + HV and one in CT + PLA. Stable disease in five (29%) and six (32%) patients, respectively, whereas eight (47%) and 12 (63%) showed progression (P = 0.27). At a median follow-up time of 7 months (1-22), the median PFS is 6 months for CT + PLA and 10 months for CT + HV (P = 0.0384, two tailed). Although preliminary, this study represents the first randomized clinical trial to demonstrate a significant advantage in progression-free survival for epigenetic therapy over one of the current standard combination chemotherapy in cervical cancer. Molecular correlates with response and survival from this trial are pending to analyze.

  3. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  4. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  5. Treatment Options by Stage (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  6. Cervical cancer -- screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available to protect against the HPV types that cause most cervical cancer in women. The vaccine is: Given as a ... neoplasia of the lower genital tract (cervix, vulva): etiology, screening, ... Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening ...

  7. Preliminary Study on the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP of XRCC1 Gene Identificationto Improve the Outcomes of Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devita Tetriana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the most fatal disease among Indonesian women. In recognition of the substantial variation in the intrinsic response of individuals to radiation, an effort had been done to identify the genetic markers, primarily Single Nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, which are associated with responsiveness of cancer cells to radiation therapy. One of these SNPs is X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1 that is one of the most important genes in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA repair pathways. Meta-analysis in the determination of the association of XRCC1 polymorphisms with cervical cancer revealed the potential role of XRCC1 polymorphisms in predicting cell response to radiotherapy.Our preliminary study with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR showed that radiotherapy affected the XRCC1 gene analyzed in blood of cervical cancer patient. Other published study found three SNPs of XRCC1 (Arg194Trp, Arg280His, and Arg399Gln that cause amino acid substitutions. Arg194Trp is only SNPs that associated with high risk of cervical cancer but not others. Additionally, structure and function of this protein can be altered by functional SNPs, which may lead to the susceptibility of individuals to cancers. Anotherstudy found G399A polymorphisms. We concluded that SNP of this DNA repair genes have been found to be good predictors of efficacy of radiotherapy.Kanker serviks adalah penyakit yang paling fatal pada perempuan di Indonesia. Untuk memahami variasi substansial respon intrinsik individual terhadap radiasi, suatu usaha telah dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi petanda genetik, terutama Single Nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, yang berkaitan dengan responsel kanker terhadap terapi radiasi. Satu dari SNP tersebut adalah X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1 yang merupakan satu dari gen paling penting dalam lajur perbaikan asam deoksiribonukleat (DNA. Meta-analysis dalam penentuan hubungan polimorfisme XRCC1 dengan kanker serviks

  8. Practical aspects of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillaart, Sabrina Ada Hendrika Maria van den

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes studies on practical aspects of cervical cancer, concering surgical considerations, and aspects of tumour behaviour and tumour spread. The thesis comprises studies on: the comparison of nerve-sparing and non-nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer; a new surgical

  9. Evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer patients using real-time CT navigated ultrasonography: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Dae Kwon; Choi, Yoon Jung; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Kook, Shin Ho; Park, Hee Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of real-time neck computed tomography (CT)-guided ultrasonography (US) in detecting cervical neck lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We retrospectively reviewed data from 176 patients (mean age, 43 years; range, 23 to 74 years) with surgically confirmed PTC who underwent preoperative US, neck CT, and neck CTguided US. We then compared the sensitivities and diagnostic accuracies of each of the three above modalities in detecting cervical LNM. Preoperative US showed 17.3% sensitivity and 58.5% diagnostic accuracy in detecting central LNM compared with 64.3% sensitivity and 89.2% diagnostic accuracy in detecting lateral neck LNM. Neck CT showed 23.5% sensitivity and 55.7% diagnostic accuracy in detecting central LNM and 71.4% sensitivity with 90.9% diagnostic accuracy in detecting lateral neck LNM. CT-guided US exhibited 37.0% sensitivity and 63.1% diagnostic accuracy in detecting central LNM compared with 92.9% sensitivity and 96.0% diagnostic accuracy in detecting lateral LNM. CT-guided US showed higher diagnostic accuracy with superior sensitivity in detecting central and lateral LNM than did US (P<0.001, P=0.011) and CT (P=0.026, P=0.063). Neck CT-guided US is a more accurate technique with higher sensitivity for detecting cervical LNM than either US or CT alone. Therefore, our data indicate that neck CT-guided US is an especially useful technique in preoperative examinations.

  10. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Weekly Cisplatin and Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy With Simultaneous Integrated Boost for Radical Treatment of Advanced Cervical Cancer in Elderly Patients: Feasibility and Clinical Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Rosario; Ricchetti, Francesco; Fiorentino, Alba; Levra, Niccolò Giaj; Fersino, Sergio; Di Paola, Gioacchino; Ruggieri, Ruggero; Alongi, Filippo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and clinical preliminary results of weekly cisplatin and volumetric-modulated arc therapy to the pelvis with simultaneous integrated boost to macroscopic disease in a cohort of elderly patients. Inclusion criteria of this prospective study were age ≥70 years, Karnofsky performance status 70 to 100, locally advanced histologically proven squamous cervical carcinoma, and patients unable to undergo brachytherapy. Radiation doses prescribed were 66 Gy to the macroscopic disease and 54 Gy to the pelvic nodes in 30 fractions. Weekly cisplatin dose was 40 mg/mq. A total of 30 patients were recruited. Median follow-up was 32 months (range: 8-48 months). Median age was 72 years (range: 70-84 years). The 3-year overall survival and local control were 93% and 80%, respectively. The median time to progression was 24 months (range: 6-30 months). Analyzing clinical outcome grouping based on the stage of disease, II versus III, the 3-year overall survival was 100% and 85%, respectively. The 3-year local control was 91% for stage II and 67% for stage III. Acute and late toxicities were acceptable without severe events. Weekly cisplatin and volumetric-modulated arc therapy-simultaneous integrated boost for radical treatment of advanced cervical cancer in the current cohort of elderly patients were feasible. Long-term results and prospective randomized trials are advocated.

  12. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarewski, Anne

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and often affects women under 40 years with young families. Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major advance, since it offers primary prevention against the infectious agent that is the main cause of the disease. Two prophylactic vaccines have shown great promise in clinical trials. One of these (Gardasil(®)) contains all four HPV types, offering protection against genital warts (types 6 and 11) as well as cervical cancer (types 16 and 18). The other (Cervarix(®)) contains types 16 and 18, targeting cervical cancer alone, but also has a degree of cross-protection against types 31 and 45, which could significantly increase the level of protection. Adolescent girls remain the primary target of vaccination programmes, but the issues of vaccinating boys and older women are increasingly debated.

  14. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  16. Cervical cancer: A global health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, William; Bacon, Monica A; Bajaj, Amishi; Chuang, Linus T; Fisher, Brandon J; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Jhingran, Anuja; Kitchener, Henry C; Mileshkin, Linda R; Viswanathan, Akila N; Gaffney, David K

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy diagnosed in women worldwide. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer result from infection with the human papillomavirus, and the prevention of cervical cancer includes screening and vaccination. Primary treatment options for patients with cervical cancer may include surgery or a concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen consisting of cisplatin-based chemotherapy with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Cervical cancer causes more than one quarter of a million deaths per year as a result of grossly deficient treatments in many developing countries. This warrants a concerted global effort to counter the shocking loss of life and suffering that largely goes unreported. This article provides a review of the biology, prevention, and treatment of cervical cancer, and discusses the global cervical cancer crisis and efforts to improve the prevention and treatment of the disease in underdeveloped countries. Cancer 2017;123:2404-12. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. Cervical cancer: current knowledge, perception and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with knowledge and perception about cervical cancer. Results: Of all the interviews conducted, 89.1% were aware that cervical cancer is a life threatening situation, and 67.4% of the respondents knew that cervical cancer is linked to the virus, Human ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Vaccination | Ajiboye | Tropical Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This article provides an overview of cervical cancer vaccine including safety, efficacy and cost in the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Discussion: The quadrivalent human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. These HPV types are responsible for 70% of cervical cancers ...

  19. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Revilla, Tatiana; Seáñez-de-Villa, Jesús Manuel; León-Rovira, Noel; Barrón-Cano, Olivia Maricela

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer affects a great portion of the world’s female population,and it became the third cause of death for women in developing countries such as CostaRica.The most common method to diagnose this cancer is the Papanicolaou testor Papsmear; nevertheless, high levels of sensitivity and specificity are required. Consequently, different organizations have developed multiple methods to detect and classify this cancer. This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening with AMIGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairson, David R.; Chang, Yu-Chia; Byrd, Theresa L.; Smith, Judith Lee; Fernandez, Maria E.; Wilson, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hispanic women have a higher incidence of cervical cancer than all other races and ethnicities. In Hispanic subgroups, Mexican American women were among the least likely to have received cervical cancer screening. In a recent RCT, Ayudando a las Mujeres con Información, Guia, y Amor para su Salud (AMIGAS) was shown to increase cervical cancer screening rates among women of Mexican descent at 6 months in all intervention arms compared to the control arm. Limited information exists about the economics of interventions to increase cervical cancer screening rates among women of Mexican descent. Purpose This study aims to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the alternative AMIGAS intervention methods for increasing cervical cancer screening among low-income women of Mexican descent in three U.S. communities. Methods Cost data were collected from 2008 to 2011 alongside the AMIGAS study of 613 women. Receipt of Pap test within 6 months of intervention was the primary outcome measure in the cost-effectiveness analysis, conducted during 2012–2013. Results The cost per additional woman screened comparing the video-only intervention to usual care was $980. The cost increased to $1,309 with participant time cost included. With an additional cost per participant of $3.90 compared to flipchart only, the full AMIGAS program (video plus flipchart) yielded 6.8% additional women screened. Conclusions Results on the average and incremental cost-effectiveness of the AMIGAS program elements may assist health policymakers and program managers to select and appropriately budget for interventions shown to increase cervical cancer screening among low-income women of Mexican descent. PMID:24842738

  1. Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer were studied in black and white patients at ... cervical cancer. This serious yet preventable disease is still very prevalent in South Africa, especially among black women. S AIr Med J 1994; 84: 18-19. Aanalysis of rime trends in .... Dietary vitamin A and the risk of invasive cerncal ...

  2. Thiazolidinediones abrogate cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuertz, Beverly R., E-mail: knier003@umn.edu; Darrah, Lindsay, E-mail: ldarrah@obgynmn.com; Wudel, Justin, E-mail: drwudel@drwudel.com; Ondrey, Frank G., E-mail: ondre002@umn.edu

    2017-04-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) is activated by thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs) and can promote anti-cancer properties. We used three TZDs (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone) to target cervical cancer cell lines and a nude mouse animal model. Each agent increased activation of PPAR γ, as judged by a luciferase reporter gene assay in three HPV-associated cell lines (CaSki, SiHa, and HeLa cells) while decreasing cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. They also promoted Oil Red O accumulation in treated cell lines and upregulated the lipid differentiation marker adipsin. Interestingly, xenograft HeLa tumors in nude mice treated with 100 mg/kg/day pioglitazone exhibited decreased growth compared to control mice or mice treated with standard cervical chemotherapy. In conclusion, TZDs slow tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo with decreases in cell proliferation and increases in PPAR γ and adipsin. These agents may be interesting treatments or treatment adjuncts for HPV-associated cancers or perhaps even precancerous conditions. - Highlights: • Thiazolidinediones decreases cervical cancer proliferation. • Pioglitazone increases cervical cancer differentiation. • Pioglitazone decreases tumor growth in mice. • Pioglitazone may be a useful treatment adjunct.

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical tissue that is then examined under a microscope in a laboratory. Cervix: The lower, narrow end of the uterus at the top of the vagina. Colposcopy: Viewing of the cervix, vulva, or vagina under magnification with an instrument called a colposcope. Co-Testing: ...

  4. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ing is started, frequency of screening, ideal and cost-effective technique, provi- sion of screening services to the most needy ... Based on data from Cali, Colombia, the impact of starting cervical screening at different ages shows that starting ... Hospital, Durban, and obtained his. Fellowship in 1996. His current field of.

  5. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  6. EDITORIAL CERVICAL CANCER CAN BE CONTROLLED Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    palliative care of invasive cancer(9). But it must also be accepted that even these modest comparisons will mean little to countries where per capita annual expenditure on health is less than five US dollars. This is a realisation that has spurred the search for alternative approaches to cervical cancer screening.

  7. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  8. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  9. Raman spectroscopy in cervical cancers: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rubina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide. Developing countries contribute more than 80% towards global burden. Over the last 2 decades, Raman spectroscopy (RS has been actively pursued for cervical cancer detection. In view of latest development in Raman spectroscopic applications in cervical cancers, especially in vivo studies, an update of the same is presented in this article. This articles opens with a brief note on Anatomy of cervix followed by Etiology, and conventional Screening and Diagnosis of Cervical cancers. In subsequent sections, brief description of Theory and Instrumentation of RS is followed by a review of recent developments in cervical cancer detection; with emphasis on cell lines, exfoliated cells, ex vivo and in vivo, and therapeutic response monitoring applications in cervical cancer.

  10. Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The relative incidences of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer were studied in black and white patients at the academic hospitals of the University of the Orange Free State. ... This serious yet preventable disease is still very prevalent in South Africa, especially among black women.

  11. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging as a predictor of therapeutic response to concurrent chemoradiotherapy in cervical cancer: a preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Sung Yoon; Park, Byung Kwan [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    To investigate the value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a predictor of therapeutic response in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Thirty consecutive patients with biopsy-proven cervical cancer were examined by BOLD MRI before (preTx) and after CCRT (postTx). The R2* value (s{sup -1}) was calculated in the tumour and normal myometrium for preTx and postTx studies. Final tumour responses, as determined by changes of tumour size or volume on MRI, were correlated with tumour R2* values at preTx. The mean R2* values of tumours at preTx (21.1) were significantly lower than those at postTx (39.4 s{sup -1}) (p < 0.001), while those of normal myometrium were similar between preTx and postTx (p = 0.363). At preTx, tumour R2* values showed significantly negative correlation with final tumour size response (p = 0.022, Spearman's coefficient = -0.415). However, tumour R2* values at preTx were not associated with final tumour volume response (p = 0.069). BOLD MRI at 3 T, as an imaging biomarker, may have the potential to evaluate therapeutic response in cervical cancers. The association between BOLD MRI findings and CCRT responses warrants further validation. (orig.)

  12. THE CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING - UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cervical cancer (CC for many decades continues to be the center of attention leading foreign and domestic oncologists. Malignant cervical tumors occupy the leading position among malignant neoplasms of reproductive system in women, second only to breast cancer, despite having far more effective screening compared with this disease. On predictive expert estimates (taking into account population growth and the expected increase in life expectancy by 2020 in developing countries, the rising incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer is 40%, while in developed countries - 11%. If we do not perform timely interventions for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer, after 2050 cervical cancer every year in the world will become sick 1 million women. In the last decade inRussiathere has been a gradual increase in the incidence of cervical cancer: average annual growth rate of 2.21%, General 25,18%. Cervical cancer is one of nosological forms that meet all the requirements of population-based screening. The current Russian normative documents do not give clear answers to questions concerning the age of onset of cervical cancer screening and the time interval between tests, no clear program organized cytological screening of cervical cancer.

  13. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cervical cancer detection based on serum sample Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, José Luis; Martínez-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Torres-González, Luis Adolfo; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Palomares-Anda, Pascual

    2014-05-01

    carotene, and amide III. The preliminary results suggest that Raman spectroscopy could be a highly effective technique with a strong potential of support for current techniques as Papanicolaou smear by reducing the number of these tests; nevertheless, with the construction of a data library integrated with a large number of cervical cancer and control Raman spectra obtained from a wide range of healthy and cervical cancer population, Raman-PCA technique could be converted into a new technique for noninvasive real-time diagnosis of cervical cancer from serum samples.

  15. Stages of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram . This picture can be printed to be looked at later. Chest x-ray : ... use this content on your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US ... ...

  16. Cervical cancer management in Zaria, Nigeria SUMMARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    SUMMARY. The paper's objective was to identify factors influencing cervical cancer management in. Zaria with a view to improving the outcome of management. Case notes of patients managed for cervical cancer in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria between. January 1 1999 and December 31 ...

  17. Cervical cancer control, priorities and new directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsonego, J; Bosch, F.X.; Coursaget, P.; Cox, JT; Franco, E; Frazer, I; Sankaranarayanan, R; Schiller, J; Singer, A; Wright, TCJr; Kinney, W; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Linder, J

    2004-01-01

    99% of cervical cancer is initiated by HPV infection. The estimated lifetime risk of cervical cancer is nevertheless relatively low (less than 1 in 20 for most community based studies). Although sensitivity and specificity of the available diagnostic techniques are suboptimal, screening for

  18. A randomized controlled trial of Human Papillomavirus (HPV testing for cervical cancer screening: trial design and preliminary results (HPV FOCAL Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Laurie W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the HPV FOCAL trial, we will establish the efficacy of hr-HPV DNA testing as a stand-alone screening test followed by liquid based cytology (LBC triage of hr-HPV-positive women compared to LBC followed by hr-HPV triage with ≥ CIN3 as the outcome. Methods/Design HPV-FOCAL is a randomized, controlled, three-armed study over a four year period conducted in British Columbia. It will recruit 33,000 women aged 25-65 through the province's population based cervical cancer screening program. Control arm: LBC at entry and two years, and combined LBC and hr-HPV at four years among those with initial negative results and hr-HPV triage of ASCUS cases; Two Year Safety Check arm: hr-HPV at entry and LBC at two years in those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positives; Four Year Intervention Arm: hr-HPV at entry and combined hr-HPV and LBC at four years among those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positive cases Discussion To date, 6150 participants have a completed sample and epidemiologic questionnaire. Of the 2019 women enrolled in the control arm, 1908 (94.5% were cytology negative. Women aged 25-29 had the highest rates of HSIL (1.4%. In the safety arm 92.2% of women were hr-HPV negative, with the highest rate of hr-HPV positivity found in 25-29 year old women (23.5%. Similar results were obtained in the intervention arm HPV FOCAL is the first randomized trial in North America to examine hr-HPV testing as the primary screen for cervical cancer within a population-based cervical cancer screening program. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register, ISRCTN79347302

  19. Epidemiology of genital papillomaviruses and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, W C; Rawls, W E; Brinton, L A

    1989-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an extremely common disease. Its natural history has been well described, and individual risk factors have been defined. It is clear from the epidemiologic evidence that cervical cancer has a multifactorial etiology involving infection with sexually transmitted agents such as genital papillomaviruses and cofactors such as pregnancy, smoking, use of hormonal contraceptives, and diet. The evidence implicating papillomavirus as an etiologic agent of cervical cancer has come from a variety of observational laboratory studies. Genital papillomaviruses induce dysplastic lesions. Most invasive cervical cancers contain papillomavirus DNA, as do cell lines derived from cervical cancers. Viral DNA, appears to be integrated into cellular DNA, and integration involves highly conserved, transcriptionally active regions of the viral DNA.

  20. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    or underscreened birth cohorts. Conclusion: The current bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer can largely be explained by the different screening histories of successive birth cohorts. While it is reasonable to offer screening to elderly women today, birth cohort trends in disease burden......Aim: In many countries, the age-specific pattern of cervical cancer incidence is currently bipolar with peaks at for instance 45 and 65 years of age. Consequently, a large proportion of cervical cancer cases are presently diagnosed in women above the screening age. The purpose of the study...... was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...

  1. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    , screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... in women vaccinated later. The challenge now is therefore to find an algorithm for screening of a heterogeneous population including non-vaccinated women; women vaccinated prior to start of sexual activity; and women vaccinated later....

  2. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  3. Network Topologies Decoding Cervical Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Jalan

    Full Text Available According to the GLOBOCAN statistics, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. It is found to be gradually increasing in the younger population, specifically in the developing countries. We analyzed the protein-protein interaction networks of the uterine cervix cells for the normal and disease states. It was found that the disease network was less random than the normal one, providing an insight into the change in complexity of the underlying network in disease state. The study also portrayed that, the disease state has faster signal processing as the diameter of the underlying network was very close to its corresponding random control. This may be a reason for the normal cells to change into malignant state. Further, the analysis revealed VEGFA and IL-6 proteins as the distinctly high degree nodes in the disease network, which are known to manifest a major contribution in promoting cervical cancer. Our analysis, being time proficient and cost effective, provides a direction for developing novel drugs, therapeutic targets and biomarkers by identifying specific interaction patterns, that have structural importance.

  4. Cervical cancer screening in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, P; Sancho-Garnier, H; Fender, M; Dellenbach, P; Carbillet, J P; Monnet, E; Gauthier, G P; Garnier, A

    2000-11-01

    In France, as in other European countries the incidence and mortality rates of carcinoma of the cervix uteri indicate a clear decrease in invasive cancers. Opportunistic screening has spread and, presently, approximately 60% of the female population undergo a regular cytological test. This rate increases up to 80% in the younger age groups and decreases to 20% after the age of 60 years. In 1990, intervention procedures were defined at a consensus conference; the major recommendations were to screen all women exclusively by cervical smears, for ages 25-65 years over a 3-year period. Guidelines on the quality control of cervical smear taking and reading were published by the national agency of evaluation of health intervention (ANAES). Since 1990, four population-based, organised pilot programmes, have been implemented in Isère. Doubs, Bas-Rhin and Martinique. These programmes evaluate the participation rate (from approximately 20-80% depending upon the age and the geographical area), the rate of abnormal tests (0.2-3%), according to the laboratories, the cancer detection rate (0.04%-0.15%) and some other quality indicators. Recently (November 1998) a law was passed stipulating that the screening test will be free of charge when performed in agreement with the national recommendations. A specific organisation for cytological quality control will be implemented. An effort to better identify and to include the screening process the women in the population who are not yet participating has to be made.

  5. Overview and Prevention of Cervical Cancer | Ogu | Nigerian Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer though a preventable disease, still has an estimated mortality of 80% from invasive cervical cancer in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of cervical cancer and the various modalities available for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. Methodology: ...

  6. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent......A markedly increased risk of cervical cancer is known in women immunosuppressed due to AIDS or therapy following organ transplantation. The aim of this review is to determine the association between other conditions affecting the immune system and the risk of cervical cancer. Patients with end......-stage renal disease seem to be at an increased risk of cervical cancer. A higher risk of cervical precancerous lesions was found in patients with some autoimmune diseases; particularly if treated with immunosuppressants. Among behavioral factors weakening the immune system, smoking appeared to strongly...

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  8. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  9. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  10. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  11. Radiosensitizers in cervical cancer. Cisplatin and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetina Lucely

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health burden worldwide. Globally, the majority of cancers are locally advanced at diagnosis; hence, radiation remains the most frequently used therapeutical modality. Currently, the value of adding cisplatin or cisplatin-based chemotherapy to radiation for treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is strongly supported by randomized studies and meta-analyses. Nevertheless, despite these significant achievements, therapeutic results are far from optimal; thus, novel therapies need to be assayed. A strategy currently being investigated is the use of newer radiosensitizers alone or in combination with platinum compounds. In the present work, we present preclinical information on known and newer cytotoxic agents as radiosensitizers on cervical cancer models, as well as the clinical information emanating from early phase trials that incorporate them to the cervical cancer management. In addition, we present the perspectives on the combined approach of radiation therapy and molecular target-based drugs with proven radiosensitizing capacity.

  12. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective....... Nevertheless, little has been reported about long-term cancer trends in Greenland. Our aim was to describe and interpret the incidence of cervical cancer from 1950 to 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for articles reporting the incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland. We...... supplemented this with data for 1980-2009 obtained from the Chief Medical Officer of Greenland. RESULTS: Incidence of cervical cancer was around 10 per 100 000 women (age-standardised, world population, ASW) in the 1950s, 30 per 100 000 in the 1960s, and in the 1980s around 60 per 100 000. From 1985 onwards...

  13. The Korean guideline for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Yoon Jae; Suh, Mina; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lim, Myong Cheol; Choi, Jaekyung; Ki, Moran; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jae-Weon; Kim, Jea-Hoon; Park, Eal Whan; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Lim, Sung-Chul; Cho, Chi-Heum; Hong, Sung Ran; Dang, Ji Yeon; Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Yeol; Lee, Won-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The incidence rate of cervical cancer in Korea is still higher than in other developed countries, notwithstanding the national mass-screening program. Furthermore, a new method has been introduced in cervical cancer screening. Therefore, the committee for cervical cancer screening in Korea updated the recommendation statement established in 2002. The new version of the guideline was developed by the committee using evidence-based methods. The committee reviewed the evidence for the benefits and harms of the Papanicolaou test, liquid-based cytology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and reached conclusions after deliberation. The committee recommends screening for cervical cancer with cytology (Papanicolaou test or liquid-based cytology) every three years in women older than 20 years of age (recommendation A). The cervical cytology combined with HPV test is optionally recommended after taking into consideration individual risk or preference (recommendation C). The current evidence for primary HPV screening is insufficient to assess the benefits and harms of cervical cancer screening (recommendation I). Cervical cancer screening can be terminated at the age of 74 years if more than three consecutive negative cytology reports have been confirmed within 10 years (recommendation D). PMID:26197860

  14. Stereotactic body radiation therapy via helical tomotherapy to replace brachytherapy for brachytherapy-unsuitable cervical cancer patients – a preliminary result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh CH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Hsi Hsieh,1–3 Hui-Ju Tien,1 Sheng-Mou Hsiao,4 Ming-Chow Wei,4 Wen-Yih Wu,4 Hsu-Dong Sun,4 Li-Ying Wang,5 Yen-Ping Hsieh,6 Yu-Jen Chen,3,7–9 Pei-Wei Shueng1,101Department of Radiation Oncology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Medicine, 3Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 5School and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Department of Senior Citizen Service Management, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan; 7Department of Radiation Oncology, 8Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 9Graduate Institute of Sport Coaching Science, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan; 10Department of Radiation Oncology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, TaiwanAim: To review the experience and to evaluate the results of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT via helical tomotherapy (HT, for the treatment of brachytherapy-unsuitable cervical cancer.Methods: Between September 1, 2008 to January 31, 2012, nine cervical cancer patients unsuitable for brachytherapy were enrolled. All of the patients received definitive whole pelvic radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, followed by SBRT via HT.Results: The actuarial locoregional control rate at 3 years was 78%. The mean biological equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions of the tumor, rectum, bladder, and intestines was 76.0 ± 7.3, 73.8 ± 13.2, 70.5 ± 10.0, and 43.1 ± 7.1, respectively. Only two had residual tumors after treatment, and the others were tumor-free. Two patients experienced grade 3 acute toxicity: one had diarrhea; and another experienced thrombocytopenia. There were no grade 3 or 4 subacute toxicities. Three patients suffered from manageable rectal bleeding in

  15. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  16. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the incidence, mortality, time trends and prognostic factors for cervical cancer in Cali, Colombia, and to review the molecular epidemiological evidence showing that HPV is the major and necessary cause of cervical cancer and the implications of this discovery for primary and secondary prevention. Materials and methods. Incidence rates of cervical cancer during a 45-year period (1962-2007 were estimated based on the population-based cancer registry of Cali and the mortality statistics from the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali. Prognostic factors were estimated based on relative survival. Review of the molecular epidemiological evidence linking HPV to cervical cancer was focused on the studies carried out in Cali and in other countries. Results. Incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC declined from 120.4 per 100 000 in 1962-1966 to 25.7 in 2003-2007 while those of adenocarcinoma increased from 4.2 to 5.8. Mortality rates for cervical cancer declined from 18.5 in 1984-1988 to 7.0 per 100 000 in 2009-2011. Survival was lower in women over 65 years of age and in clinical stages 3-4. Review of the molecular epidemiological evidence showed that certain types of HPV are the central and necessary cause of cervical cancer. Conclusions. A decline in the incidence and mortality of SCC and an increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma during a 45-year period was documented in Cali, Colombia

  17. Stomach Cancer Following Hodgkin Lymphoma, Testicular Cancer and Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Curtis, Rochelle E; Hauptmann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To further understand the risk of stomach cancer after fractionated high-dose radiotherapy, we pooled individual-level data from three recent stomach cancer case-control studies. These studies were nested in cohorts of five-year survivors of first primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), testicular cancer...... (TC) or cervical cancer (CX) from seven countries. Detailed data were abstracted from patient records and radiation doses were reconstructed to the site of the stomach cancer for cases and to the corresponding sites for matched controls. Among 327 cases and 678 controls, mean doses to the stomach were...... 15.3 Gy, 24.7 Gy and 1.9 Gy, respectively, for Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer and cervical cancer survivors, with an overall mean dose of 10.3 Gy. Risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach cancer site (P

  18. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in women, the cause ...

  19. Worldwide burden of cervical cancer in 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arbyn, M; Castellsagué, X; de Sanjosé, S; Bruni, L; Saraiya, M; Bray, F; Ferlay, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: The knowledge that persistent human papillomavirus infection is the main cause of cervical cancer has resulted in the development of assays that detect nucleic acids of the virus and prophylactic vaccines...

  20. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  1. Conservative Treatment in Early Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Mousavi, Azamsadat; Gilani, Mitra Modares; Barooti, Esmat; Miratashi-Yazdi, Ashrafosadat; Dehghani, Atefe

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: The aim of this study was to describe fertility preservation methods to improve quality of life of early stages of cervical cancer. Recent finding: Although definite treatment of early stages of cervical cancer including stages IA,IB1 and IIA non-bulky is radial hysterectomy, this method is used in perimenopousal period in which fertility preservation is not important. Whenever fertility preservation is so important, some methods like radical trachelectomy and laparoscopic ...

  2. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W

    2015-01-01

    aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... of the Faroe Islands. They included information on cytology and HPV testing whereas information on histology was not registered consistently. Process indicators were calculated, including coverage rate, excess smears, proportion of abnormal cytological samples, and frequency of HPV testing. Data on cervical...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  3. Development of a community cancer education program: the Forsyth County, NC cervical cancer prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielutte, R; Dignan, M B; Wells, H B; Young, L D; Jackson, D S; Sharp, P C

    1989-01-01

    The authors outline the development and implementation of a public health education program for cervical cancer screening among black women in Forsyth County, NC. The educational program includes distributing electronic and printed information media messages, a program of direct education for women, and providing information on current issues in cervical screening to primary-care physicians. Program development was based on social marketing principles, the PRECEDE model, and the communication-behavior change (CBC) model. Since a true experimental design was not feasible, program evaluation is based on several complementary quasi-experimental designs. Analysis of baseline data indicate that the county where the intervention is taking place, and the control county, are similar with respect to both demographic characteristics and the current level of screening activity. Preliminary results indicate that the program has been successful in raising women's level of awareness of cervical cancer and cervical screening.

  4. Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Human Papilloma Virus-Related Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Human Papillomavirus Infection; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  5. Cervical cancer: Biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Subramanyam; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Valluru, Lokanatha

    2015-05-20

    Cervical cancer is a major gynecological cancer which involves uncontrolled cell division and tissue invasiveness of the female uterine cervix. With the availability of new technologies researchers have increased their efforts to develop novel biomarkers for early diagnosis, and evaluation and monitoring of therapeutic treatments. This approach will help in the development of early diagnosis and in increasing treatment efficacy with decreased recurrence. The present review explains the currently available biomarkers for cervical cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Apart from the currently available biomarkers the review also explains strategies for the development of biomarkers based on cellular and molecular approaches such as DNA, protein and other metabolic markers with suitable clinical examples. The investigations of specific proteins, enzymes and metabolites will establish more useful biomarkers for accurate detection and management of gynecological cancers especially cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer has reduced substantially following the introduction of effective cervical screening programmes. This is in contrast to what is obtained in Africa including Nigeria where cervical ...

  7. Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in Ghana, West Africa. The cervical cancer mortality rate in Ghana is more than three times the global cervical cancer mortality rate. Pap tests and visual inspection with acetic acid wash are widely available throughout Ghana, yet less that 3% ...

  8. Cervical cancer prevention practices amongst flower farm workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: WHO estimates that every year 500,000 cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed each year worldwide representing 12% of all cancers in females, and more than half of them die from it. Regular screening for cervical cancer with PAP smears or VIA/VILI has been shown to reduce the risk of cervical cancer ...

  9. Studying the Physical Function and Quality of Life Before and After Surgery in Patients With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-22

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lymphedema; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IB1 Cervical Cancer

  10. Detection of Actinomyces spp. in cervical exudates from women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Alejandra; Coronel-Martínez, Jaime; Leon, David Cantú-de; Romero-Figueroa, María Del Socorro; Caballero-Pantoja, Yolanda Elizabeth; Manzanares-Leal, Gauddy Lizeth; Rodriguez-Morales, Miguel; Sandoval-Trujillo, Horacio; Ramírez-Durán, Ninfa

    2017-06-01

    Under certain circumstances, Actinomyces behaves as an opportunistic microorganism and can cause actinomycosis, a chronic and inflammatory granulomatous infection. The purpose of this project was to detect the presence of Actinomyces in cervical exudates from women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and women with cervical cancer. Cervical samples from 92 women were divided into three groups: CIN, cervical cancer and healthy women. Metagenomic DNA extraction was performed following the Qiagen QIAamp Mini Kit protocol. A specific fragment (675 bp) was amplified by PCR in order to detect the presence of Actinomycetales. Samples in which Actinomycetales was detected were subjected to separate amplification reactions with primer pairs for A. israelii, A. viscosus, A. meyeri and A. odontolyticus. Amplified products were observed by 2 % agarose gel electrophoresis. Actinomyces were found in 10 % of women with CIN, 36.6 % of women with cervical cancer and 9 % of healthy women. The species identified in this study were A. meyeri in 14/92 samples (15.2 %), A. viscosus in 10/92 samples (10.8 %), A. odontolyticus in 4/92 samples (4.3 %) and A. israelii in 6/92 samples (6.5 %). Patients with cervical cancer had a higher prevalence of the presence of Actinomyces compared to the CIN and control groups. This is the first study in which a deliberate search of this genus has been performed in women with cervical pathologies. The use of specific primers for each species facilitated their detection in comparison with traditional isolation methods. More information is necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the complex role that bacterial communities may play in the development of cancer (and vice versa).

  11. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  12. January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health supports global activities to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to address the challenges of cancer and reduce cancer deaths worldwide. Towards these aims, NCI has partnered with Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, a global organization founded on public-private partnerships dedicated to saving women’s lives by advancing prevention, screening, and treatment for breast and cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

  13. VACCINOPROPHYLAXIS OF CERVICAL CANCER: NEW CLINICAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Namazova-Baranova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the main causes of death in the patients with malignant tumors. Over 40% of cases involving this pathology are diagnosed at advanced stages. The etiological agent causing the development of cervical cancer is the persistence of Human papillomavirus (HPV strains with high oncogenic risk. Currently the only available method of preventing HPV-caused diseases is vaccination. The article describes the results of Phase III multi-site doubt blind randomized research into the efficacy of vaccine against HPV (PATRICIA — Papilloma Trial against Cancer in young Adults, involving over 18,000 women aged 15 to 25 years from 14 countries in Europe, Asia, Latin and North Americas.Key words: cervical cancer, human papillomavirus, vaccinal prevention.

  14. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W; Joensen, John E; Køtlum, Jóanis E; Hansen, Sæunn Ó; Sander, Bente B; Mogensen, Ole; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-02-01

    The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands. They included information on cytology and HPV testing whereas information on histology was not registered consistently. Process indicators were calculated, including coverage rate, excess smears, proportion of abnormal cytological samples, and frequency of HPV testing. Data on cervical cancer cases were obtained from the Faroese Ministry of Health Affairs. The analysis of the screening history was undertaken for cases diagnosed in 2000-2010. A total of 52 457 samples were taken in 1996-2012. Coverage varied between 67% and 81% and was 71% in 2012. Excess smears decreased after 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Despite the difficult geographical setting, the organised cervical cancer screening programme in the Faroe Islands has achieved a relatively high coverage rate. Nevertheless, challenges, e.g. consistent histology registration and sending reminders, still exist.

  15. Sentinel node detection in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, R. H.; Pijpers, R.; van Diest, P. J.; Burger, C. W.; Buist, M. R.; Kenemans, P.

    2000-01-01

    For superficial tumors such as melanoma, breast, and vulvar cancer, sentinel node detection prevents unnecessary extensive lymph node dissections. Sentinel node detection has not yet proved feasible in tumors, such as cervical cancer, that drain to deep pelvic lymph nodes. We injected technetium-99m

  16. Somatic LKB1 mutations promote cervical cancer progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wingo, Shana N; Gallardo, Teresa D; Akbay, Esra A; Liang, Mei-Chi; Contreras, Cristina M; Boren, Todd; Shimamura, Takeshi; Miller, David S; Sharpless, Norman E; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Kwiatkowski, David J; Schorge, John O; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Castrillon, Diego H

    2009-01-01

    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the etiologic agent for cervical cancer. Yet, infection with HPV is not sufficient to cause cervical cancer, because most infected women develop transient epithelial dysplasias that spontaneously regress...

  17. How protective is cervical cancer screening against cervical cancer mortality in developing countries? The Colombian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Hoz-Restrepo Fernando

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is one of the top causes of cancer morbidity and mortality in Colombia despite the existence of a national preventive program. Screening coverage with cervical cytology does not explain the lack of success of the program in reducing incidence and mortality rates by cervical cancer. To address this problem an ecological analysis, at department level, was carried out in Colombia to assess the relationship between cervical screening characteristics and cervical cancer mortality rates. Methods Mortality rates by cervical cancer were estimated at the department level for the period 2000-2005. Levels of mortality rates were compared to cervical screening coverage and other characteristics of the program. A Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of different dimensions of program performance on mortality by cervical cancer. Results Screening coverage ranged from 28.7% to 65.6% by department but increases on this variable were not related to decreases in mortality rates. A significant reduction in mortality was found in departments where a higher proportion of women looked for medical advice when abnormal findings were reported in Pap smears. Geographic areas where a higher proportion of women lack health insurance had higher rates of mortality by cervical cancer. Conclusions These results suggest that coverage is not adequate to prevent mortality due to cervical cancer if women with abnormal results are not provided with adequate follow up and treatment. The role of different dimensions of health care such as insurance coverage, quality of care, and barriers for accessing health care needs to be evaluated and addressed in future studies.

  18. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majidi, A.; Ghiasvand, R.; Hadji, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations...... for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran....

  19. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  20. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccinatio...

  1. Diagnosis of cervical cancer with transvaginal color Doppler sonography

    OpenAIRE

    Li-bo DENG; Wei ZHOU; Chang, Shu-Fang; Lin, Ming-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the imaging features of cervical cancer by transvaginal color Doppler sonography(TVCS),and evaluate the diagnostic value of TVCS.Methods A hundred and thirty cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN) grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ and cervical cancer,diagnosed by Thinprep cytologic test(TCT),cervical biopsy and pathological examination,received TVCS examination.The image characters and color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI) were collected and analyzed.Another 41 cases with normal cervice...

  2. Breast and Cervical Cancers Awareness and Screening Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 4/11(36.4%) of those who knew something about cervical cancer mentioned vaginal examination for cervical cancer screening and only one (0.1%) respondent mentioned Pap smear. The poor level of awareness and screening practices for breast and cervical cancers among women in these rural communities ...

  3. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Cervical cancer screening; human papillomavirus, low resource countries; Nigeria; premalignant disease. Introduction. Cervical cancer is the .... It requires transportation from clinic back to the laboratory and multiple patient visits. .... The statistics relating to cervical cancer in Nigeria is worrisome, and if significant ...

  4. THE EFFECT OF EARLY CERVICAL CANCER DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Haller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment effectiveness and clinical outcome of patients with cervical carcinoma FIGO stage IA1 and IA2 are analyzed in three different time period at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Rijeka, Croatia. Method: Retrospective analysis of the hospital chart of all cervical cancer patients between 1991 and 2005 was conducted with five-year follow up. Results: Data on cervical cancer distribution by stage and five-year survival are presented. Separately analyzed age, histology type and treatment modalities in stage FIGO IA1 and IA2 during three consecutive five-year periods are presented. Conclusions: Conservative surgical approach – conization alone in stage IA1 of the squamous cell car- cinoma is reasonable and safe treatment option for reproductive active women. During observed periods conization became the most used surgical technique applied in almost two third of FIGO IA1 cervical cancer patients. Lymph vascular space invasion in stage IA1 lead to adjunct pelvic lymphadenectomy with unclear clinical benefit. In cervical cancer patients stage IA2 simple hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy could be accepted as a standard treatment. In these patients further studies are recommended to evaluate other less radical surgical techniques – simple and radical trachelectomy with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy. Radical hysterectomy in both stages IA1 and IA2, based on personal experience and literature data represents a surgical overtreatment and should be abandoned.

  5. [Preventive vaccines and immunotherapy clinical trials against cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino-Gómez, Víctor Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a public health problem among women worldwide, especially in emerging nations. To improve CC control, new adjuvant therapeutic strategies are required. Advances in immunology, genomics and proteomics have accelerated our understanding of the genetic and cellular basis of many cancer types. CC is a member of virus-related neoplasms and its initiation and promotion is associated with persistent infection of oncogenic human papillomavirus. During viral infection and associated-transforming developing lesions, the HPVs co-express non-structural and structural proteins. These early or late proteins are the antigenic target of the immune response. The intervention to stimulate the humoral or cellular immune anti-HPV response is the objective of the immunoprevention and immunotherapy against CC. Recently in a controlled phase III trial of HPV type 16 vaccine using virus-like particles of L1 capsid of HPV-16, the incidence was reduced of both HPV-16 infection and HPV-16-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Although preliminary results of immunotherapy clinical trials against CC did not modify the clinical status, they occasionally show improvement of lymphocyte response against HPV. A recent immunotherapy trial using dendritic cells pulsed with HPV-18 E7 oncoprotein as adjuvant resulted in temporal remission and improved performance status in a patient with metastatic CC. New and different vaccine preventive trials against HPV are being put into practice and clinically tested. It is hoped that in the future it may be possible to eradicate cervical cancer. The success of immunotherapy anti-HPV clinical trials in CC patients will be determined at a future time. The scientific basis for the development of papillomavirus prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against persistent infection and preinvasive-invasive associated cervical lesions along with the present status of immunopreventive and immunotherapy clinical trials against cervical cancer

  6. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying

  7. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-12

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.  Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  8. HPV and p53 in cervical cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngan, H Y; Stanley, M; Liu, S S; Ma, H K

    1994-01-01

    Objective - To determine the prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 E6 by DNA detection and p53 abnormal protein expression in cervical cancers in Hong Kong. Materials and methods - Seventy-three squamous cell cervical cancer biopsy were analysed. Detection of HPV DNA was carried out by the polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting (PCR/SB) technique using primers to the HPV16 and 18 E6 region and consensus primers to the L1 region. Abnormal expression of the p53 protein was detected by immunohist...

  9. New technology for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiao-Mei; Shen, Yong; He, Yan-Xia; Lei, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Zhan; Li, Xiao-Fu

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. With the introduction of organized cervical cytological screening programs, the incidence of cervical cancer has been dramatically reduced. This study aimed to determine the new technology that can potentially afford unique advantages for cervical cancer screening. Cervical specimens collected in PreservCyt were processed for ThinPrep cytological test, the new technology test and human papillomavirus detection. The concordance between the new technology and ThinPrep cytological test was 96.34%, with 931 cases positive and 148 cases negative with both tests (κ = 0.857). The sensitivity and the specificity of the new technology were 99.04% (931/940) and 82.22% (148/180), respectively. Youden index was 0.81. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 96.68% (931/963) and 94.27% (148/157), respectively. In the 124 positive cases of the new technology, human papillomavirus DNA test was positive in 109 cases (87.9%) and negative in 15 cases (12.1%). Compared to the histopathological diagnosis, the sensitivity and the negative predictive value of the new technology were 98.57% (69/70) and 95.45% (21/22), respectively. The screening design will enable evaluation of several competing screening technologies in reducing the incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer. In particular, if the new technology is used as the screening test, it can be a quick screening test and does not depend on the subjective judgment of the doctors. As such, it could potentially afford unique advantages for screening.

  10. Nanomechanical clues from morphologically normal cervical squamous cells could improve cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Li; Feng, Jiantao; Sun, Quanmei; Liu, Jing; Hua, Wenda; Li, Jing; Ao, Zhuo; You, Ke; Guo, Yanli; Liao, Fulong; Zhang, Youyi; Guo, Hongyan; Han, Jinsong; Xiong, Guangwu; Zhang, Lufang; Han, Dong

    2015-09-01

    Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis.Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03662c

  11. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  12. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  13. Exploration of knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening amongst HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Maree

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although preventable, cervical cancer, an AIDS-related disease, is the second most common cancer amongst South African women and the most common cancer amongst black women. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine what women being treated for HIV and AIDS at a specific healthcare centre in Johannesburg knew about cervical cancer and cervical screening. Method: A survey design was used, with data gathered by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Convenience sampling selected 315 women to participate (n = 315. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and chi-square testing found associations between categorical variables. Results: The majority of respondents (78.7%; n = 248 indicated that they had heard of cervical cancer and 62.9% (n = 198 knew about the Pap smear, with nurses and doctors being the primary source of information. Of the women who knew about the Pap smear, less than one-third had had a smear done, the main reason being fear of the procedure. Conclusion: The study provided evidence that women attending the specific HIV clinic were more knowledgeable about cervical cancer and screening than those of unknown HIV status involved in previous studies. Knowledge was still at a low level, especially when their exceptionally high risk was taken into account. Once again it was found that having knowledge did not necessarily mean having had a Pap smear, which remains a huge challenge in the prevention of cervical cancer.

  14. Cervical cancer and the human immunodeficiency virus: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers in women. It comprises approximately 12% of all cancers and is the commonest cancer in women in developing countries. The most recent compilation of global data indicates that an estimated 490 000 new cases of cervical cancer occur annually worldwide and ...

  15. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  16. Recurrent cervical cancer : detection and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyn, A; Van Eijkeren, M; Kenter, G; Zwinderman, K; Ansink, A

    Background. Only a small proportion of cervical cancer recurrences is detected during routine follow-up. We investigated which percentage of recurrences is detected during follow-up, which diagnostic tools are helpful to detect recurrent disease and which factors are of prognostic significance once

  17. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cer

  18. cervical cancer and the human immunodeficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trol and possibly other sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia.7,8. According to Denny et al.,10 a ... HIV and HPV. Cervical cancer was made an AIDS-de- fining diagnosis by the Centers for Disease Control ..... follow-up visits cause and reducing the inconvenience of work, child-care and transportation issues.

  19. Cervical Cancer: Reality and Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quiñones Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical carcinoma usually reaches its highest frequency between 35-50 years of age. The Cuban prevention program screens the female population aged 25 to 60 years using the Pap smear and reexamines them every three years. Despite this effort, advanced cancer is diagnosed in young women as well as in those 40 to 60 years of age.

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  1. Proteomic analysis of cervical cancer cells treated with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of death among women worldwide. It is characterized by a well-defined premalignant phase that can be suspected on cytological examination of exfoliated cervical cells and confirmed on histological examination of cervical material. However, this is ...

  2. Awareness and risk factors for cervical cancer among Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract malignancy in Nigeria. Previous evidence reported a high awareness but a low practice in cervical screening amongst Nigerian woman. Respondents attributed this to poor physician referral. Objective: To determine the level of cervical cancer awareness amongst out ...

  3. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Fiji 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Rebecca; Fong, James; Taylor, Richard; Gyaneshwar, Rajanishwar; Carter, Karen

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer and most common cause of cancer mortality among women in Fiji. There is little published data on the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Pacific countries. To determine the incidence 2003-2009 of, and mortality 2003-2008 from, cervical cancer by ethnicity and period in Fiji, identify evidence of secular change and relate these data to other Pacific countries, Australia and New Zealand. Counts of incident cervical cancer cases (2003-2009) and unit record mortality data (2003-2008) from the Fiji Ministry of Health were used to calculate age-standardised (to the WHO World Population) cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, and cervical or uterine cancer mortality rates, by ethnicity, with 95% confidence intervals. On the basis of comparison of cervical cancer mortality with cervical or uterine cancer mortality in Fiji with similar populations, misclassification of cervical cancer deaths is unlikely. There is no evidence of secular change in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates for the study period. For women of all ages and ethnicities, the age-standardised incidence rate of cervical cancer (2003-2009) was 27.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.4-29.8) and the age-standardised mortality rate (2003-2008) was 23.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 21.5-26.4). The mortality/incidence ratio was 87%. Fijians had statistically significant higher age-standardised incidence and mortality rates than Indians. Fiji has one of the highest estimated rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the Pacific region. Cervical cancer screening in Fiji needs to be expanded and strengthened. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Flexitouch® Home Maintenance Therapy or Standard Home Maintenance Therapy in Treating Patients With Lower-Extremity Lymphedema Caused by Treatment for Cervical Cancer, Vulvar Cancer, or Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Lymphedema; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  5. Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study to comprehensively assess biomarkers of risk for progressive cervical neoplasia, and thus develop a new set of biomarkers that can distinguish those at highest risk of cervical cancer from those with benign infection

  6. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural. Women in Lagos, Nigeria. 1. 2. 1. 3. Oluwole E.O ., Mohammed A.S ., Akinyinka M.R ., Salako O . ABSTRACT. Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cause of female genital cancer and female cancer deaths in developing countries such as ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening by Female Workers in South East Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract cancer worldwide and one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women in developing countries . It is therefore a major female reproductive health problem. Roughly 80% of newly diagnosed cases of cervical cancer are in developing countries. Rates are highest ...

  8. Cervical cancer: a missed health priority in Tanzania | Saleh | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri. It is the second commonest cancer in women worldwide and is among the largest causes of global cancer mortality. Human papilloma virus (HPV) which is transmitted sexually, particularly subtypes 16 and 18 are responsible for causing majority of cervical cancer ...

  9. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  10. Quantitative optical imaging of early cervical cancer: mechanisms, methods, and clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao T.; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So-Fan; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2009-02-01

    The primary goals of this study are to improve the accuracy of noninvasive diagnosis of early cervical cancer. In this study, a novel 3-D optical imaging system based on active stereo vision and motion tracking is developed to track the motion of patient and to register the time-sequenced images of cervix recorded during the examination of colposcopy. This technology can quantify the acetic acid induced optical signals associated with early cancer development at cervix. The results of a preliminary clinical study of 65 patients demonstrate that the accuracy to differentiate pre-cancerous cervical tissue from normal tissue can be significantly increased.

  11. Obesity-associated endometrial and cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenyi; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Kong-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that obesity (body mass index-BMI>30) and overweight (BMI>25) directly associated with risk of many cancers. The association of obesity with cancer risks may be explained by the alterations in the metabolism of endogenous hormones, production of specific proteins and cytokines, adipose related inflammatory reactions, and genetic factors. This review aims to illustrate the link between obesity and occurrence and prognosis of endometrial and cervical cancers. Convincing scientific evidence shows that nutrition and lifestyle factors initiate the development of obesity with excessive adipose tissues, which trigger production of hormones, cytokines and other factors to promote growth of cancer cells. Obese women with either endometrial or cervical cancer, especially in postmenopausal period, have shown a significantly higher mortality. This is mainly due to that the obese women are more vulnerable in cancer occurrence and they are more likely to miss routine cancer screening, putting them at a greater risk for delayed diagnosis of these cancers and deteriorate prognosis. Thus, healthcare providers should pay particular attention to this more vulnerable group of women.

  12. The male role in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  13. The viral etiology of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F Xavier; Muñoz, Nubia

    2002-11-01

    Epidemiological studies supported by molecular technology have provided sufficient evidence on the causal role of some Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections in the development of cervical cancer. This association has been evaluated under all proposed sets of causality criteria and endorsed by the scientific community and major review institutes. HPV has been proposed as the first-ever identified, necessary cause of a human cancer. In practical terms, the concept of a necessary cause implies that cervical cancer does not and will not develop in the absence of the persistent presence of HPV-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This important advancement has two practical implications in prevention. Firstly, screening programs can be enhanced if HPV testing is judiciously incorporated into solving the fraction of ambiguous cytology readings. In some populations HPV screening as a primary test may prove to be the strategy of choice. Secondly, like in the hepatitis B disease model, intense efforts are currently being put into the development and testing of vaccines that may prevent the relevant HPV infections, and presumably, cervical cancer. At this stage of development, regulatory agencies are requested to evaluate the scientific evidence and weigh its implications in relation to costs, public health investments and policy. This is a subjective evaluation that could be guided by a careful description of the most relevant studies and findings.

  14. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening.......7% were not screened. We found a minimum of one abnormal test in 28 (10.8%) after subtotal hysterectomy and one after total hysterectomy. No cervical cancers were found. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy in a Danish population is suboptimal and some patients...... have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster...

  15. Cervical syphilitic lesions mimicking cervical cancer: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A woman presented to the hospital due to postcoital vaginal bleeding. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by clinicians at a local hospital. However, a biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of the cervical mucosa, and the rapid plasma reagin ratio titer was 1:256. The patient was eventually diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1 g twice a day. The patient was cured with this treatment.

  16. Cervical syphilitic lesions mimicking cervical cancer: a rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Weijiang; Fei, Jing; Zhou, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    A woman presented to the hospital due to postcoital vaginal bleeding. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by clinicians at a local hospital. However, a biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of the cervical mucosa, and the rapid plasma reagin ratio titer was 1:256. The patient was eventually diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1 g twice a day. The patient was cured with this treatment.

  17. Technological advances in radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lorraine; Morgia, Marita; Fyles, Anthony; Milosevic, Michael

    2011-09-01

    To discuss the important technological advances that have taken place in the planning and delivery of both external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, and the implications for improved clinical outcomes. Technological advances in external beam radiation treatment and brachytherapy for patients with cervical cancer allow more precise targeting of tumour and relative sparing of surrounding normal organs and tissues. Early evidence is emerging to indicate that these advances will translate into improvements in tumour control and reduced side effects. However, there are patient, tumour and treatment-related factors that can detract from these benefits. Foremost among these is complex, unpredictable and sometimes dramatic internal tumour and normal organ motion during treatment. The focus of current research and clinical development is on tracking internal anatomic change in individual patients and adapting treatment plans as required to assure that optimal tumour coverage and normal tissue sparing is maintained at all times. The success of this approach will depend on clear definitions of target volumes, high resolution daily soft tissue imaging, and new software tools for rapid contouring, treatment planning and quality assurance. Radiation treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is evolving rapidly, driven by advances in technology, towards more individualized patient care that has the potential to substantially improve clinical outcomes.

  18. Drug Delivery Approaches for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Ordikhani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a highly prevalent cancer that affects women around the world. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have increased their efforts to develop new drug delivery systems in cervical cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we summarized some of the recent research in systematic and localized drug delivery systems and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  19. Audit of Cervical Cancer Screening and Colposcopy Attendance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    factors such as human papillomavirus (HPV), no form of cancer better documents the remarkable benefits of early diagnosis and curative therapy on mortality rate than cervical cancer5. Contrary to women in industrialized countries who have relatively easy access to cervical cancer screening services, women in developing ...

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common genital cancer and one of the leading causes of death among female population. Fortunately, this cancer is preventable by screening for premalignant lesions but this is rarely provided and hardly utilised. We assessed the knowledge, attitude and utilisation of cervical ...

  1. Barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening services among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women of reproductive age group; yet screening for early detection of the disease among them is not a common practice in Nigeria. This study therefore, investigated the barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening service among women of ...

  2. Awareness of cervical cancer and screening in a Nigerian female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer, although largely preventable, remains a leading cause of cancer death among females in the developing world. The study was aimed at providing useful information on awareness of market women, who are from diverse social backgrounds, about cervical cancer and evaluate the extent of ...

  3. Women's perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malawi provides cervical cancer screening services free of charge at some public health facilities. Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and many women continue to be diagnosed with cervical cancer only during the late inoperable stages of the condition. Objectives: The ...

  4. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Preventive Practices: A Challenge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the commonest gynaecological cancer in Nigeria and women of low socio-economic status are at high risk of this condition. A study was conducted on the awareness of cervical cancer, attitude towards the disease and screening practice of women residing in two urban slums of Lagos, Nigeria.

  5. Clinico-pathological characteristics of cervical cancer in Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer related mortality in the developing countries, although preventable. The aim of this study was to use a retrospective descriptive study to determine the prevalence and the clinico-pathological characteristics of cervical cancer among genital tract ma-lignancies. This study reviewed ...

  6. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic profile of cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is a sexually transmitted cancer caused by oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Aim: The study aimed to determine the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic profile of cervical cancer in Butembo. Method: This was a retrospective and descriptive study. Case records of patients managed ...

  7. Screening for Cervical Cancer: Experience from a University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer among women in Nigeria. The incidence is on the increase and poses a public health problem. The etiological agent is the human papilloma virus that is sexual transmitted. The cervical cancer incidence is related to lifestyle, poverty and sexual ...

  8. Epigenetics and cervical cancer: from pathogenesis to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinchuan; Zhang, Hai; Jin, Sufang

    2014-06-01

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found in most of the cervical cancer cases, additional genetic and epigenetic changes are required for disease progression. Previously, it was thought that only genetic mutation plays a key role in cervical cancer development. But recent advances in the biology of cervical cancer revealed that epigenetic alteration is common in cervical carcinogenesis and metastasis. Epigenetic alteration due to aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification has been extensively studied in cervical cancer. Recent research strategies keep insight into noncoding RNAs, especially miRNA and lncRNA. At the same time, interest has been grown to study the utility of these changes as biomarkers to determine disease progression as well as use them as the therapeutic targets. This study has been aimed to review the recent progress of epigenetic study for cervical cancer research including role of these epigenetic changes in disease progression, their prognostic values, and their use in targeted therapy.

  9. DNA probes for papillomavirus strains readied for cervical cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, B.

    1988-11-18

    New Papillomavirus tests are ready to come to the aid of the standard Papanicolauo test in screening for cervical cancer. The new tests, which detect the strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) most commonly associated with human cervical cancer, are designed to be used as an adjunct to rather than as a replacement for the Papanicolaou smears. Their developers say that they can be used to indicated a risk of developing cancer in women whose Papanicolaou smears indicate mild cervical dysplasia, and, eventually, to detect papillomavirus infection in normal Papanicolaou smears. The rationale for HPV testing is derived from a growing body of evidence that HPV is a major factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Three HPV tests were described recently in Chicago at the Third International Conference on Human Papillomavirus and Squamous Cervical Cancer. Each relies on DNA probes to detect the presence of papillomavirus in cervical cells and/or to distinguish the strain of papillomavirus present.

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram . This picture can be printed to be looked at later. Chest x-ray : ... use this content on your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US ... ...

  11. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram . This picture can be printed to be looked at later. Chest x-ray : ... use this content on your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US ... ...

  12. Human Papillomavirus Testing in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wacholder, Sholom; Kinney, Walter; Gage, Julia C.; Castle, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Strong evidence now supports the adoption of cervical cancer prevention strategies that explicitly focus on persistent infection with the causal agent, human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform an evidence-based transition to a new public health approach for cervical cancer screening, we summarize the natural history and cervical carcinogenicity of HPV and discuss the promise and uncertainties of currently available screening methods. New HPV infections acquired at any age are virtually always benign, but persistent infections with one of approximately 12 carcinogenic HPV types explain virtually all cases of cervical cancer. In the absence of an overtly persistent HPV infection, the risk of cervical cancer is extremely low. Thus, HPV test results predict the risk of cervical cancer and its precursors (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3) better and longer than cytological or colposcopic abnormalities, which are signs of HPV infection. The logical and inevitable move to HPV-based cervical cancer prevention strategies will require longer screening intervals that will disrupt current gynecologic and cytology laboratory practices built on frequent screening. A major challenge will be implementing programs that do not overtreat HPV-positive women who do not have obvious long-term persistence of HPV or treatable lesions at the time of initial evaluation. The greatest potential for reduction in cervical cancer rates from HPV screening is in low-resource regions that can implement infrequent rounds of low-cost HPV testing and treatment. PMID:21282563

  13. Management and outcome of cervical versus intrathoracic manifestation of cervical anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Peter S. N.; Haverkamp, Leonie; Carvello, Michele; Ruurda, Jelle P.; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    The aim of this study was to evaluate management strategies and related outcomes for cervical versus intrathoracic manifestation of cervical anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer with gastric conduit reconstruction. Patients with esophageal cancer undergoing transthoracic

  14. Cervical syphilitic lesions mimicking cervical cancer: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Weijiang; Fei, Jing; Zhou, Jianwei

    2015-02-01

    A woman presented to the hospital due to postcoital vaginal bleeding. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by clinicians at a local hospital. However, a biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of the cervical mucosa, and the rapid plasma reagin ratio titer was 1:256. The patient was eventually diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1g twice a day. The patient was cured with this treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  16. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation...... diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan....

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Women's perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-24

    Oct 24, 2014 ... Nevertheless, low perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer amongst ..... In the current study, married women were more likely to use ... between knowledge about HPV and behaviour. ... because they had few sex partners and did not smoke or ... and/or midwives' experiences of providing cervical cancer.

  19. Targeting women with free cervical cancer screening: challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the study was conducted to determine the challenges and suggest solutions to conducting free cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women. Methods: awareness was created among women groups and mass media in Osun State for women to undergo free cervical cancer screening programme.

  20. Risk scoring for selective screening of cervical cancer | Bukar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in developing countries. The lack of routine cytological screening in developing countries is largely responsible for this high mortality. Objectives: To develop a risk score that would easily identify women at greater risk of having cervical intraepithelial ...

  1. Apoptosis induction of epifriedelinol on human cervical cancer cell line

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Present investigation evaluates the antitumor activity of epifriedelinol for the management of cervical cancer by inducing process of apoptosis. Methods: Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line, C33A and HeLa were selected for study and treated with epifriedelinol at a concentration of (50-1000 μg/ml). Cytotoxicity of ...

  2. Effects of recombinant human nerve growth factor on cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role in the life of the sympathetic and sensory nervous systems. However, the roles of NGF to cervical cancer remain deeply unknown. This study investigated the effect of recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF) on cervical cancer. It was found that the proliferation of hela ...

  3. Cervical cancer in southern Malawi: A prospective analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malawi has the highest age standardised rate of cervical cancer in the world. This study describes the presentation, management and short-term outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH), in Southern Malawi. Methods: All patients with a new ...

  4. Towards improving cervical cancer screening in Nigeria: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer screening is the key to reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in developing countries. In the absence of a national screening program, healthcare givers in Nigeria are encouraged to routinely inform and screen eligible women. This review aims at equipping health workers for this task by ...

  5. Alterations In Lipid Profile Of Patients With Advanced Cervical Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations In Lipid Profile Of Patients With Advanced Cervical Cancer. ... C Student's t-test was performed to compare mean values of the parameters. Results A significant decrease ... Also there was direct relationship between reduced lipid levels and cervical cancer progression, this was statistically significant. Conclusion ...

  6. Cervical cancer management in Zaria, Nigeria | Sule | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper\\'s objective was to identify factors influencing cervical cancer management in Zaria with a view to improving the outcome of management. Case notes of patients managed for cervical cancer in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria between January 1 1999 and December 31 2003, were ...

  7. Cervical cancer knowledge and screening practices among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health challenge in developing countries including Nigeria and contributes signi cantly as a major cause of death among women of reproductive age. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and cervical cancer screening practices among women of reproductive ...

  8. Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-14

    Jul 14, 2012 ... [3] Human papilloma virus (HPV), a sexually transmitted virus has been implicated as the causative agent. ... Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer screening among female ..... IIiyasu Z, Abubakar IS, Aliyu MH, Galadanci HS. Cervical cancer risk perception and predictors of ...

  9. The Need for Societal Investment to Improve Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Societal investment and cervical cancer outcomes. African Journal of Reproductive Health December 2017; 21 (4): 17. COMMENTARY. The Need for Societal Investment to Improve Cervical Cancer. Outcomes in Nigeria: A commentary. DOI: 10.29063/ajrh2017/v21i4.2. Jonah Musa. Department of Obstetrics and ...

  10. The Perceptions Of Traditional Healers Of Cervical Cancer Care At ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women report at clinics and hospitals ... Black women consult traditional healers first, before they consult health-care professionals. Although cervical cancer survival rates are said to be improving across South Africa, not ... Keywords: Traditional healers, traditional medicine, western medicine, cervical cancer, perceptions.

  11. Cervical cancer in women diagnosed at the National Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer in the Sudan a national populationbased registry is necessary. The mean age of patients presenting with cervical cancer to NHL is 53.25 years. This is in keeping with the natural history of the human papilloma virus (HPV). The late presentation of patients with ...

  12. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    objective of knowing the knowledge of women about cervical cancer, its screening, role of doctor, source of information, and reasons for not undergoing screening if the women had not undergone testing for cervical cancer. Subjects and Methods: This was a questionnaire based cross‑sectional study conducted among the ...

  13. Audit of Cervical Cancer Screening and Colposcopy Attendance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women in developing countries generally lack access to cervical cancer preventive services. An audit was performed in rural South Africa to test the hypothesis that women do not follow (pre-)cancerous cervical disease treatment sufficiently, to understand the possible reasons for this non-attendance behavior, and to ...

  14. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few studies have explored the role of doctor and source of information for awareness of women about cervical cancer in India. Aim: Hence, this study was conducted with the objective of knowing the knowledge of women about cervical cancer, its screening, role of doctor, source of information, and reasons for not ...

  15. Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Screening For Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This low participation in screening for cervical cancer was attributed to several reasons including ignorance of the existence of such a test, lack of awareness of centers where such services are obtainable, ignorance of the importance of screening and the risk factors to the development of cervical cancer. Conclusion: There ...

  16. Awareness of cervical cancer,papanicolaou's smear and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The widely acknowledged success of the Pap test in reducing incidence and deaths from cervical cancer in industrialised countries is not observed in developing countries. Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge of cervical cancer in a local population of women in Delta State and examine the factors that ...

  17. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...

  18. knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: knowledge of cervical cancer screening services among female nurses in Nnewi is high while uptake rate is abysmally poor. There is need to ... malignancyl" of the female genital tract in the developing countries "5 and second ... to 35 years with access to treatment can lead to drastic reduction in cervical cancer ...

  19. TCGA study identifies genomic features of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified novel genomic and molecular characteristics of cervical cancer that will aid in subclassification of the disease and may help target therapies that are most appropriate for each patient.

  20. Reducing uncertainties about the effects of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Claire; Jakobsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a 1999 National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical alert was issued, chemoradiotherapy has become widely used in treating women with cervical cancer. Two subsequent systematic reviews found that interpretation of the benefits was complicated, and some important clinical questions...

  1. The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen (VACCS) project: Linking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cancer remains high and the majority of women who are diagnosed present with ... Linking cervical cancer screening to HPV vaccination in ... the distribution of information leaflets in English or Tswana. During ...... Men and women/girls.

  2. Perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-04-15

    Apr 15, 2012 ... Key words: Female nurses, cervical cancer, cancer screening, utilization, ..... This notion has to be corrected in intervention programs as it could lead to ... Upgrading the knowledge base of nurses therefore becomes ...

  3. Association between cervical screening and prevention of invasive cervical cancer in Ontario: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicus, Danielle; Sutradhar, Rinku; Lu, Yan; Kupets, Rachel; Paszat, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of cervical screening in the prevention of invasive cervical cancer among age groups, using a population-based case-control study in the province of Ontario, Canada. Exposure was defined as cervical cytology history greater than 3 months before the diagnosis date of cervical cancer (index date). Cases were women who were diagnosed with cervical cancer between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2008. Controls were women without a diagnosis of cervical cancer on, or before, December 31, 2008. Two controls were matched to each case on year of birth and income quintile, as of the index date. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for having been screened among those with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer screening performed between 3 and 36 months before the index date was protective against invasive cervical cancer in women aged 40 through 69 years. In women younger than 40 years, cervical cancer screening performed 3 to 36 months before the index date was not protective. Cervical screening is associated with a reduced risk for invasive cervical cancer among women older than 40 years. Cervical cancer resources should be focused on maximizing the risk reduction.

  4. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, W C; Brinton, L A; García, M; Brenes, M M; Herrero, R; Gaitán, E; Tenorio, F; de Britton, R C; Rawls, W E

    1989-06-01

    To evaluate a possible association between infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, we performed a multicenter case-control study in Latin America of 759 cases of invasive cervical cancer and 1467 randomly selected age-matched controls. Demographic, sexual, behavioral, and other clinical data were obtained by interview, and HPV DNA was assayed in cervical-swab specimens with use of filter in situ hybridization. Cervical infection with HPV 16 or 18 or both was strongly associated with cervical cancer. HPV DNA was detected in 62 percent of the cases but only 32 percent of the controls, and the relative risk of cancer increased from 2.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.8) to 9.1 (6.1 to 13.6) with hybridization reactions of increasing strength. Although the number of sexual partners, age at first intercourse, number of live births, and Pap-smear history were also significant risk factors, the strong associations between infection with HPV 16 or 18 or both and cervical cancer persisted after we adjusted for these variables. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that genital infection with HPV 16 or 18 may have a role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Other well-known risk factors were also identified in the study, but they did not affect the association between HPV and cervical cancer.

  5. esophageal cancer: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Maddah Safaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dysphagia is a common initial presentation in locally advanced esophageal cancer and negatively impacts patient quality of life and treatment compliance. To induce fast relief of dysphagia in patients with potentially operable esophageal cancer high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy was applied prior to definitive radiochemotherapy. Material and methods : In this single arm phase II clinical trial between 2013 to 2014 twenty patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer (17 squamous cell and 3 adenocarcinoma were treated with upfront 10 Gy HDR brachytherapy, followed by 50.4 Gy external beam radiotherapy (EBRT and concurrent chemotherapy with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil. Results : Tumor response, as measured by endoscopy and/or computed tomography scan, revealed complete remission in 16 and partial response in 4 patients (overall response rate 100%. Improvement of dysphagia was induced by brachytherapy within a few days and maintained up to the end of treatment in 80% of patients. No differences in either response rate or dysphagia resolution were found between squamous cell and adenocarcinoma histology. The grade 2 and 3 acute pancytopenia or bicytopenia reported in 4 patients, while sub-acute adverse effects with painful ulceration was seen in five patients, occurring after a median of 2 months. A perforation developed in one patient during the procedure of brachytherapy that resolved successfully with immediate surgery. Conclusions : Brachytherapy before EBRT was a safe and effective procedure to induce rapid and durable relief from dysphagia, especially when combined with EBRT.

  6. Alternative approaches to cervical cancer screening for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas C; Kuhn, Louise

    2012-04-01

    Cervical cancer remains the most common cancer among women living in developing countries, largely because of the failure either to initiate or sustain effective cervical-cancer screening programmes. This potentially preventable and curable cancer continues to cause high mortality among relatively young women residing in low-resource countries. Cytology as a screening test, linked with a robust healthcare infrastructure, has significantly affected cervical cancer prevention in countries that have had sufficient resources to establish and sustain well-conducted programmes. The failure to establish such programmes has stimulated a large body of research into alternative screening tests and approaches to cervical-cancer prevention. Two of the most recent research methods have been visual inspection with acetic acid and molecular testing for high-risk types of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid. Visual inspection with acetic acid has shown a great deal of promise in cross-sectional studies; however, in randomised-controlled trials, it has been shown to be significantly less effective in reducing cervical cancer or its precursors. The development of point-of-care human papillomavirus or other highly sensitive tests for the prevention of cervical cancer is imperative. It has also been clearly shown that linking testing or screening to treatment (so-called 'screen and treat') without the intervention of colposcopy or the need for sophisticated laboratories may potentially prevent cervical cancer in large numbers of women. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  8. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  9. Fertility and Early Pregnancy Outcomes Following Conservative Treatment for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Early Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrgiou, Maria; Mitra, Anita; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos

    2016-11-01

    Does local conservative treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and early invasive cervical cancer adversely affect successful conception and early pregnancy outcomes in the first and second trimester (treatment does not adversely affect fertility or first trimester miscarriage, although it is associated with a significant increase in the risk of second trimester miscarriages.

  10. Temporal Patterns of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Danish Women 55 Years and Older Diagnosed With Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Hee, Lene; Blaakær, Jan

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the screening history in postmenopausal women diagnosed with cervical cancer during 1990-2013 by age and screening period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This hospital-based cohort study included women 55 years and older diagnosed with cervical cancer...... at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, during 1990-2013. Information on their previous history of cervical cancer screening was obtained from the Danish Pathology Databank. RESULTS: Overall, 47.0% (95% CI = 42.6-51.4) had no record of screening before their cervical cancer diagnosis. This proportion...... and in women aged 55 to 64 years. Of cases with a record of screening within 5 years, 84.6% (95% CI = 14.5-21.2) had a normal cytology result, whereas only 8.8% (95% CI = 2.9-14.7) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical cancer in older women may partly be attributed...

  11. Adaptive management of cervical cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanderup, Kari; Georg, Dietmar; Pötter, Richard; Kirisits, Christian; Grau, Cai; Lindegaard, Jacob C

    2010-04-01

    Since the breakthrough 10 years ago with concomitant radio-chemotherapy, substantial progress in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer has been lacking. Radiotherapy continues to be the cornerstone in the treatment of this disease and now shows much potential for progress, as image guidance of both external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy, linked with strong tools for treatment planning and dose delivery, is becoming available. With these new techniques, it again seems possible to improve the therapeutic ratio as we begin to understand how the treatment for each patient can be individualized, not only in terms of volume (3-dimensional), but also during treatment (4-dimensional), as the tumor regresses and the topography of the target and organs at risk change significantly. New promising data with increased loco-regional control and decreased morbidity compared with the past are appearing. At the dawn of this new era, it is the aim of the present article to give an overview of the use of image-guided adaptive radiotherapy in the multimodal management of locally advanced cervical cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CERVICAL ACID PHOSPHATASE: EVALUATION AS AN ADJUVANT TO PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR SCREENING IN CERVICAL CANCER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Carcinoma of cervix accounts for 15% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide and is the second most common cancer in women. In the year 2000 there were over 4,71,000 new cases diagnosed and 2,88,000 deaths from cervical cancer. (1 Approximately 79% of these deaths occurred in developing countries. (2 Cervical cancer is preventable, but most women in poorer countries do not have access to effective screening programs. In India it is estimated that approximately 100,000 women develop cervical cancer each year. (3 Cancer cervix occupies either the top r ank or second among cancers in women in developing countries, whereas, in the developed countries cancer cervix does not find a place even in top five leading cancers in women. This is due to routine screening by cervical smear. Cervical smear cytology scr eening by Papanicolaou (Pap stained smears is the most efficacious and cost - effective method of cancer screening, decreasing the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. (4 However, cervical smear screening has significant rates of false - positive and false - negative results, ranging from 10.3% for false positive cases to 5.6% for false negative cases. (5,6 To improve the detection and screening of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix a number of sophisticated tests are available which are e xpensive and can be done only in a tertiary laboratory. To over - come this problems a cost effective cytochemical stain was introduced to measure the acid phosphatase activity in the cervical epithelium. (7 Since the description of the new Cervical Acid Phosphatase Test (CAP Test for visualization of cervical acid phosphatase activity (CAP inside abnormal cervical cells on smears, it has become possible to explore this enzyme as a biomarker for cervical dys plasia, and as a possible surrogate for PAP smear in detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of Cervical Acid

  13. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  14. Patterns of care for the initial management of cervical cancer in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elit, L; Schultz, S; Prysbysz, R; Barbera, L; Saskin, R; Gunraj, N; Wilton, A S; Urbach, D; Simunovic, M

    2009-01-01

    To facilitate the planning of resources for cancer services in Ontario, Cancer Care Ontario commissioned an evaluation of operative services delivered for cervical cancer. Women with an incident diagnosis of cervical cancer were identified from 1 April, 2003 to 31 March, 2004 using the Ontario Cancer Registry. Record linkages were created to other provincial health databases such as the Ontario Health Insurance Plan. There were 513 incident cases. Disease-specific rates of cancer were higher in rural areas and those from lower income quintiles. Forty-three percent of women had no surgery. Use of surgery did not appear to vary by SEC, urban/rural residence or LHIN. Women of younger age were more like to receive surgery for cervical cancer. Gynecologists conducted 63% of the operations. Gynecologics were most likely to complete a lymphadenectomy (70.3%). All women were assessed by CXR. Only 22% of women had a CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis. Radiation consults were performed in half of the women with cervix cancer but treatment was only delivered to half of those seen. Medical oncologists saw about 10% of women with cervical cancers. There appear to be variations in incidence rates of cervical cancer, with cancers being more frequent in rural areas. In two-thirds of the population, surgery is performed in the region where the patient lives. Subspecialty care from gynecologic oncologists was provided to one-third of women. These preliminary data would be enhanced with further information such as comorbidity, treatment intent (palliative/curative), histology, grade and stage.

  15. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer Vacunas para prevenir el cáncer cervical

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Cosette M.

    1997-01-01

    The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV) in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45) have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guarant...

  16. Intrauterine device use, cervical infection with human papillomavirus, and risk of cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of 26 epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Díaz, Mireia; Vaccarella, Salvatore; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Muñoz, Nubia; Herrero, Rolando; Franceschi, Silvia; Meijer, Chris J L M; Bosch, F Xavier

    2011-10-01

    Intrauterine device (IUD) use has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer, but little is known about its association with cervical cancer risk. We assessed whether IUD use affects cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the risk of developing cervical cancer. We did a pooled analysis of individual data from two large studies by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Institut Català d'Oncologia research programme on HPV and cervical cancer; one study included data from ten case-control studies of cervical cancer done in eight countries, and the other included data from 16 HPV prevalence surveys of women from the general population in 14 countries. 2205 women with cervical cancer and 2214 matched control women without cervical cancer were included from the case-control studies, and 15,272 healthy women from the HPV surveys. Information on IUD use was obtained by personal interview. HPV DNA was tested by PCR-based assays. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariate unconditional logistic regression for the associations between IUD use, cervical HPV DNA, and cervical cancer. After adjusting for relevant covariates, including cervical HPV DNA and number of previous Papanicolaou smears, a strong inverse association was found between ever use of IUDs and cervical cancer (odds ratio 0·55, 95% CI 0·42-0·70; pCientifico e Tecnologico, Brazil; and Department of Reproductive Health & Research, WHO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tim-3 expression in cervical cancer promotes tumor metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    Full Text Available T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3 has been identified as a negative regulator of anti-tumor immunity. Recent studies highlight the important role of Tim-3 in the CD8(+ T cell exhaustion that takes place in both human and animal cancer models. However, the nature of Tim-3 expression in the tumor cell and the mechanism by which it inhibits anti-tumor immunity are unclear. This present study aims to determine Tim-3 is expressed in cervical cancer cells and to evaluate the role of Tim-3 in cervical cancer progression.A total of 85 cervical tissue specimens including 43 human cervical cancer, 22 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and 20 chronic cervicitis were involved. Tim-3 expression in tumor cells was detected and was found to correlate with clinicopathological parameters. Meanwhile, expression of Tim-3 was assessed by RT-PCR, Western Blot and confocal microscopy in cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and SiHa. The migration and invasion potential of Hela cells was evaluated after inhibiting Tim-3 expression by ADV-antisense Tim-3.We found that Tim-3 was expressed at a higher level in the clinical cervical cancer cells compared to the CIN and chronic cervicitis controls. We supported this finding by confirming the presence of Tim-3 mRNA and protein in the cervical cell lines. Tim-3 expression in tumor cells correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Patients with high expression of Tim-3 had a significant metastatic potential, advanced cancer grades and shorter overall survival than those with lower expression. Multivariate analysis showed that Tim-3 expression was an independent factor for predicting the prognosis of cervical cancer. Significantly, down-regulating the expression of Tim-3 protein inhibited migration and invasion of Hela cells. Our study suggests that the expression of Tim-3 in tumor cells may be an independent prognostic factor for patients with cervical cancer. Moreover, Tim-3 expression may promote metastatic

  18. [Extrapelvic sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldamer, L; Marret, H; Acker, O; Barillot, I; Body, G

    2012-05-01

    To determine the frequency of extrapelvic sentinel lymph node in patients with cervical cancer. We performed systematic searches (Medline, Pubmed; up to April 2010) to determine the route of lymphatic spread in cervical cancer and to review results on extrapelvic sentinel lymph nodes. According to our search, 2.51% of detected sentinel lymph nodes in patients with cervical cancer were extrapelvic: 2% in the inguinal chain and 98% in the lower paraaortic area. The unusual localizations of sentinel lymph nodes impose to the gynaecologic surgeons to be hardened in performing lymph node dissection in all the territories potentially affected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Needs and priorities of women with endometrial and cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Mette Moustgaard; Mogensen, Ole; Dehn, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rehabilitation after cancer is important, and efficient rehabilitation requires knowledge of patient's needs. This study aimed to identify short-term rehabilitation needs of women with endometrial and cervical cancer. METHODS: Ninety-six women (82.6%) were included in an exploratory...... with endometrial cancer. Of these, 38 had FIGO-stage 1 disease (73.1%) and 25 were treated with laparoscopic surgery (48.1%). Emotional functioning was significantly worse prior to treatment in both the cancers (p endometrial) and worry constituted an unmet need in 70.7% of cervical...... and 34.7% of endometrial cancer patients. Both the patient groups experienced significant lymphedema post-treatment [endometrial cancer (p = 0.006) and cervical cancer (p = 0.002)]. Further, urological problems were more prevalent post-treatment in endometrial cancer patients (p = 0.018), while sexual...

  20. Uptake of community-based, self-collected HPV testing vs. visual inspection with acetic acid for cervical cancer screening in Kampala, Uganda: preliminary results of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Erin; Pedersen, Heather N; Mitchell, Sheona M; Sekikubo, Musa; Mwesigwa, David; Singer, Joel; Biryabarema, Christine; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Money, Deborah M; Ogilvie, Gina S

    2015-10-01

    To compare two cervical cancer screening methods: community-based self-collection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Pilot randomised controlled trial of 500 women aged 30-65 in the community of Kisenyi, Uganda. Women randomised to self-collection-based HR-HPV testing provided a cervico-vaginal swab for HR-HPV, and results were provided by phone after laboratory testing. Women who tested HPV positive were referred for VIA at the local health unit. Women randomised to VIA underwent screening at the local health unit, where women who tested positive with VIA were provided cryotherapy at time of screening, as per local standard of care. Women were referred for colposcopy when indicated. Outcome measures were uptake of screening, HR-HPV prevalence, VIA result and treatment rates. In the HR-HPV arm, 248 of 250 (p < 0.01) women provided samples, while in the VIA arm, 121 of 250 (48.4%) women attended screening. Among the 73 of 248 HR-HPV-positive women, 45.2% (N = 33) attended VIA screening for follow-up, 21.2% (N = 7) of whom screened positive; five received treatment and two were missing clinical follow-up records. Of the 121 women in the VIA arm who attended screening, 13.2% (N = 16) screened positive; seven received cryotherapy, three refused treatment, five were referred to colposcopy; and one woman had suspected cervical cancer and received treatment after confirmatory testing. This pilot study demonstrated trial feasibility and willingness of the women to participate and be randomised successfully into the two arms. Self-collection-based cervical cancer screening had a higher uptake than VIA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. OPPORTUNISTIC CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Bai Prabhu T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed during pregnancy. In developing countries where organized screening programmes are lacking, antenatal clinics may provide an opportunity for screening. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and management of abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy. Methodology: This was a prospective study conducted at the Meenakshi Medical College and RI, Kancheepuram, India, from July 2013 to June 2014. Convenience sampling technique was used. After adequate counselling, 300 antenatal mothers between 12 and 34 weeks of gestation were screened with conventional Pap smear. Colposcopy directed biopsy was taken where and when necessary. Results: Among the 300 pregnant women, 90 (30% were primigravidae and 210 (70% were multigravidae. 80% were between 21 and 30 years of age. 290 (96.6% women have never had a pap smear in the past. Conventional Pap smear was taken at 21 weeks of gestation in 20% of cases. ASCUS , LSIL and HSIL were reported in one case each. In those with LSIL and HSIL , Colposcopy directed biopsy was reported as CIN 1 and CIN 2 respectively. These two cases were kept under observation during the antenatal period. The CIN II lesion persisted on postpartum follow up and was treated with LLETZ. Conclusion: In countries like India Pap smear screening during pregnancy is worthwhile and the antenatal clinics provide ample opportunities for the screening.

  2. Integrating cervical cancer and genital tract infection screening into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symptoms of genital tract infections were reported by 38% of the participants with features of cervicitis being reported by nearly 24%. Conclusion: Integration of cervical cancer screening and genital tract infection identification and treatment into the existing MCH-FP appears feasible. African Health Sciences 2010; 10(1): 58 ...

  3. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest viral sexually transmitted infection in the world and the leading cause of cervical cancer. Medical students as future healthcare providers will play a role in influencing patients' decision to receive HPV vaccination. This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of cervical ...

  4. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening at the Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those who were aware of cervical cancer were 13.6% as against 6% who were aware of Pap smear. Only 2.4% of the 450 respondents had ever had a cervical cytology performed on them. The most frequent reason given for not using the service was lack of physician referral. Culture was found to negatively impact on the ...

  5. Factors associated with management of cervical cancer patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study aimed at assessing factors associated with management of cervical cancer at KCMC Hospital in northern. Tanzania. A purpose ... or palliative care. This may reflect lack of cervical screening in order to early detect and treat pre-malignant disease stage. .... admission (n=200). Per vaginal (PV) discharge was the most.

  6. Expression of platelet derived growth factor family members and the potential role of imatinib mesylate for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles Elizabeth

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite significant achievements in the treatment of cervical cancer, it is still a deadly disease; hence newer therapeutical modalities are needed. Preliminary investigations suggest that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF might have a role in the development of cervical cancer, therefore it is important to determine whether this growth factor pathway is functional and its targeting with imatinib mesylate leads to growth inhibition of cervical cancer cells. Results PDGF receptors (PDGFR and their ligands are frequently expressed in cervical cancer and the majority exhibited a combination of family members co-expression. A number of intronic and exonic variations but no known mutations in the coding sequence of the PDGFRα gene were found in cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Growth assays demonstrated that PDGFBB induces growth stimulation that can be blocked by imatinib and that this tyrosine kinase inhibitor on its own inhibits cell growth. These effects were associated with the phosphorylation status of the receptor. Conclusion The PDGFR system may have a role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer as their members are frequently expressed in this tumor and cervical cancer lines are growth inhibited by the PDGFR antagonist imatinib.

  7. Survival analysis of cervical cancer using stratified Cox regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, S. W.; Inayati, K. D.; Sari, N. W. Wulan; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the mostly widely cancer cause of the women death in the world including Indonesia. Most cervical cancer patients come to the hospital already in an advanced stadium. As a result, the treatment of cervical cancer becomes more difficult and even can increase the death's risk. One of parameter that can be used to assess successfully of treatment is the probability of survival. This study raises the issue of cervical cancer survival patients at Dr. Soetomo Hospital using stratified Cox regression based on six factors such as age, stadium, treatment initiation, companion disease, complication, and anemia. Stratified Cox model is used because there is one independent variable that does not satisfy the proportional hazards assumption that is stadium. The results of the stratified Cox model show that the complication variable is significant factor which influent survival probability of cervical cancer patient. The obtained hazard ratio is 7.35. It means that cervical cancer patient who has complication is at risk of dying 7.35 times greater than patient who did not has complication. While the adjusted survival curves showed that stadium IV had the lowest probability of survival.

  8. Integrated genomic and molecular characterization of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-16

    Cervical cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Here we report the extensive molecular characterization of 228 primary cervical cancers, one of the largest comprehensive genomic studies of cervical cancer to date. We observed notable APOBEC mutagenesis patterns and identified SHKBP1, ERBB3, CASP8, HLA-A and TGFBR2 as novel significantly mutated genes in cervical cancer. We also discovered amplifications in immune targets CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also known as PD-L2), and the BCAR4 long non-coding RNA, which has been associated with response to lapatinib. Integration of human papilloma virus (HPV) was observed in all HPV18-related samples and 76% of HPV16-related samples, and was associated with structural aberrations and increased target-gene expression. We identified a unique set of endometrial-like cervical cancers, comprised predominantly of HPV-negative tumours with relatively high frequencies of KRAS, ARID1A and PTEN mutations. Integrative clustering of 178 samples identified keratin-low squamous, keratin-high squamous and adenocarcinoma-rich subgroups. These molecular analyses reveal new potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancers.

  9. Fluorescence spectra of blood and urine for cervical cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Vijmasi, Trinka; Govindarajan, Kanaganaj; Rathan Rai, Ram; Atif, Muhammad; Prasad, Saradh; Aldwayyan, Abdullah S.

    2012-09-01

    In the current study, the fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and Stokes shift spectra (SSS) of blood and urine samples of cervical cancer patients were obtained and compared to those of normal controls. Both spectra showed that the relative intensity of biomolecules such as porphyrin, collagen, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin were quite out of proportion in cervical cancer patients. The biochemical mechanism for the elevation of these fluorophores is not yet definitive; nevertheless, these biomolecules could serve as tumor markers for diagnosis, screening, and follow-up of cervical cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on FES and SSS of blood and urine of cervical cancer patients to give a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 78%.

  10. Virus and Cervical Cancer: Role and implication: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Raju

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers in women worldwide especially in developing countries. Various etiological factors are described, of which Human papiloma virus (HPV is proved by various molecular epidemiological studies to play a major role. However many co-factors are required and thought to facilitate the action of HPV in cervical carcinogenesis. Here the role of various viruses in cervical cancer and its implication in screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer is highlighted. In-depth knowledge of role of different viruses helps in better screening methods and probably in target therapy / development of an appropriate vaccine. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(3.000: 220-30

  11. A review of patients with advanced cervical cancer presenting to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , which has the highest rate of this disease in the world. Most cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage . Aim To describe the symptom burden, palliative care interventions, and outcomes of cervical cancer patients who entered care at ...

  12. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  13. Bevacizumab improves survival for patients with advanced cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis

  14. Awareness, perceived risk and practices related to cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness, perceived risk and practices related to cervical cancer and Pap smear screening: A crosssectional study among HIV-positive women attending an urban HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.

  15. A Literature Review of Cervical Cancer Screening in Transgender Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Kayla C

    2018-02-01

    Most female-to-male (FTM) transgender men retain their cervixes and need comprehensive sexual health care, including cervical cancer screening. According to the literature, FTM individuals obtain cervical cancer screening less frequently and are less likely to be up to date on their Pap tests compared with cisgender women. Misinformation related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer risk was noted for health care providers and FTM individuals. Absence of transgender-specific guidelines or trained health care providers presents barriers to cervical cancer screening for FTM individuals, and further research is indicated to develop comprehensive guidelines unique to the needs and experiences of this population. © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  16. The evaluation of older patients with cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Y; Ma JL; Gao F; Song LP

    2013-01-01

    Ying Gao,1 Jin-lu Ma,1,* Fei Gao,2,* Li-ping Song11Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 2Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: The number of elderly patients being diagnosed with cervical cancer is increasing, and the outcome of cervical cancer related to age is controvers...

  17. Quality of life characteristics inpatients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Jensen, Pernille T; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic

    2012-01-01

    Annually about 500,000 women worldwide are diagnosed with cervical cancer. For many patients, young age at the time of diagnosis and a good prognosis regarding the disease imply a long life with the side-effects and sequels of various treatment options. The present study investigated the extent t...... to which different quality of life (QoL) domains in patients during and after treatment for cervical cancer are affected according to menopausal status, treatment status and treatment modality....

  18. Understanding cervical cancer: an exploration of lay perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about cervical cancer among the Acholi in northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in Uganda; yet community understanding of the disease is limited. We explored community perceptions, beliefs and knowledge about the local names, causes, symptoms, course, treatment, and prognosis of cervical cancer in order to inform targeted interventions to promote early help-seeking. Methods Twenty four focus group discussions (FGD) with men and women aged 18 – 59 years and ten key informant interviews with persons aged ≥ 60 years were conducted at two sites in Gulu district between May and June 2012. A semi-structured interview guide informed by Kleinman’s illness explanatory model and literature on community awareness of cervical cancer was used to collect data. Data analysis was supported with use of ATLAS.ti 6.1 in coding, organizing and tracking data segments. We used content analysis technique in data analysis and organised data into a structured format under distinct themes and categories. Results Cervical cancer was known by the local name “two remo”, meaning “an illness that manifests with bleeding.” Respondents believed that early onset of sexual activity, multiple male sexual partners and multi-parity cause cervical cancer. Respondents in half of FGDs also reported that use of condoms and family planning pills and injections cause cervical cancer. Symptoms of cervical cancer reported included vaginal bleeding, watery vaginal discharge and lower abdominal and waist pain. Respondents in most of the FGDs and key informants perceived cervical cancer as a chronic illness and that it can be treated with both modern and traditional medicines. The majority thought that cervical cancer treatment was supportive; the illness is not curable. Conclusions While some lay beliefs about the causes of cervical cancer suggest some understanding of aetiology of the disease, other perceived causes particularly those related to use of family planning and condoms are potentially

  19. Clinico-pathological characteristics of cervical cancer in Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    squamous‐cell cancer of the uterine cervix. Cancer 6(6): 1200-1214. Surveillance Epidemiological and End Results. (2013) SEER stat fact sheets: cervix uteri. Vinh-Hung, V, Bourgain, C, Vlastos, G, Cserni, G,. De Ridder, M, Storme, G, Vlastos, A-T. (2007) Prognostic value of histopathology and trends in cervical cancer: a ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cause of female genital cancer and female cancer deaths in developing countries such as Nigeria. The most recent government estimates put the number of new cases at 25,000 per year. According to the latest global estimates, 493, 000 new cases occur each year and ...

  1. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  2. The challenges of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the changing paradigm in disease trends, Nigeria may be faced with serious challenges in terms of healthcare and disease management. Cervical cancer, which is one of the cancers that is vaccine preventable, remain the most frequently reported and the leading cause of mortality from cancer in Nigeria. More than ...

  3. Women's Attitude Towards Cervical Cancer Screening in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer of the cervix is the leading cancer in women in sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study is to document the views of respondents on how to increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening. This was a cross sectional study of women attending the outpatient clinics of obstetrics and gynaecology in two tertiary ...

  4. Original Research Cervical cancer in southern Malawi: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5-year survival for all women with cervical cancer in the. USA.6. The reasons for poor cancer survival in Africa are widely reported.7–10 There are not effective screening programmes, community and healthcare worker cancer awareness is poor, plus there is shortage of trained professionals, oncology staff, treatment ...

  5. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting women worldwide. It is a preventable disease but still remains a leading cause of cancer deaths in developing countries like Nigeria despite the availability of preventive and curative protocols. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the ...

  6. Objective Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer by Tissue Protein Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2011-07-01

    Protein profiles of homogenized normal cervical tissue samples from hysterectomy subjects and cancerous cervical tissues from biopsy samples collected from patients with different stages of cervical cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Laser Induced Fluorescence (HPLC-LIF). The Protein profiles were subjected to Principle Component Analysis to derive statistically significant parameters. Diagnosis of sample types were carried out by matching three parameters—scores of factors, squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance. ROC and Youden's Index curves for calibration standards were used for objective estimation of the optimum threshold for decision making and performance.

  7. Mild obesity, physical activity, calorie intake, and the risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kwan; So, Kyeong A; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether obesity, physical activity, and calorie intake are associated with the risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. We enrolled 1125 women (age, 18-65 years) into a human papillomavirus cohort study established from 2006 to 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), and to assess whether body mass index (BMI), height, weight, total calorie intake, and physical activity were associated with the risks of CIN and cervical cancer. Cervical cancer risk was positively associated with BMI and inversely associated with physical activity. When compared with women with a normal BMI (18.5-23 kg/m(2)), the multivariate ORs (95% CIs) for those overweight (23-25 kg/m(2)) and mild obesity (≥25 kg/m(2)) were 1.25 (0.79-2.00) and 1.70 (1.10-2.63), respectively. When compared with women with the lowest tertile of physical activity (cervical cancer were 0.95 (0.61-1.48) and 0.61 (0.38-0.98) for women with medium physical activity (38.5-71.9 MET-hours/week) and those with high physical activity (72 MET-hours/week), respectively (p for linear trend  = 0.03). The CIN2/3 risk was inversely associated with physical activity after adjustment for confounders. Compared with women with low physical activity (cervical cancer after adjustment for confounders. Our results indicate that in addition to screening for and treatment of CIN, recommendations on the maintenance of an appropriate BMI with an emphasis on physical activity could be an important preventive strategy against the development of cervical cancer.

  8. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Catalán Miguel A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Methods Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL, 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766. Results Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Conclusion Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression.

  9. Mild Obesity, Physical Activity, Calorie Intake, and the Risks of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Kwan Lee; So, Kyeong A; Piyathilake, Chandrika J.; Mi Kyung Kim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether obesity, physical activity, and calorie intake are associated with the risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. METHODS: We enrolled 1125 women (age, 18-65 years) into a human papillomavirus cohort study established from 2006 to 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), and to assess whether body mass index...

  10. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Beta-carotene levels in exfoliated cervicovaginal epithelial cells in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, P R; Mikhail, M S; Basu, J; Romney, S L

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure beta-carotene levels in exfoliated epithelial cervicovaginal cells collected by a lavage technique in normal women and patients with histopathologically diagnosed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. In a cross-sectional sampling of women (n = 105), cervicovaginal cells and plasma beta-carotene levels were assayed with high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition, beta-carotene levels were measured in exfoliated epithelial samples of cervicovaginal cells obtained from women (n = 24) enrolled in an ongoing oral beta-carotene supplementation clinical trial. Cervicovaginal cells and plasma beta-carotene levels were found to be significantly decreased in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer as compared with controls (p < 0.0001, analysis of variance). Retinol levels in cervicovaginal cells were undetectable. The beta-carotene levels in cervicovaginal cells were markedly increased in the majority of patients (79%) after oral supplementation as compared with baseline levels in women enrolled in the beta-carotene clinical trial. The study demonstrates that changes of in situ cellular beta-carotene concentrations are measurable in samples of exfoliated epithelial cells obtained by a noninvasive saline lavage harvesting technique. The current findings further support our previous hypothesis that beta-carotene deficiency may have an etiologic role in the pathogenesis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and/or cervical cancer.

  12. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  13. Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    mutations, R501X and 2282del4, using blood from the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, Denmark. Controls (n = 8050) were genotyped in previous population-based studies. Information on cervical cancer, mortality and emigration were obtained from national registers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic......BACKGROUND: As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG...... regression with adjustment for age at blood sampling, and weighted by the genotype-specific inverse probability of death between diagnosis and sampling. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox regression with time since diagnosis as underlying time, and with adjustment for age at diagnosis...

  14. Small cell cervical cancer: an unusual finding at cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, Emily

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare cancer, comprising less than 3% of all cervical neoplasms. It uniformly has a poor prognosis, and has a high mortality even with early stage disease. It can metastasise rapidly and metastatic sites include lung, liver, brain, bone, pancreas and lymph nodes. CASE: Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman with no symptoms of cervical pathology who developed post-renal failure following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cause was bilateral ureteric obstruction from metastatic small cell cervical cancer and metastases were subsequently found on her gallbladder specimen. CONCLUSION: This is an unusual presentation of small cell cervical cancer and demonstrates the aggressive nature of this disease.

  15. Independent prognostic role of human papillomavirus genotype in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Dong; Jia, Meiqun; Ma, Hongxia; Zhou, Jing; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Lyu, Zhangyan; Yin, Jian; Cui, Hong; Yin, Yin; Jin, Guangfu; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Zhang, Kai; Li, Ni; Dai, Min

    2017-06-05

    Although the correlation of HPV genotype with cervical precursor lesions and invasive cancer has been confirmed, the role of HPV genotype in cervical cancer prognosis is less conclusive. This study aims to systematically investigate the independent prognostic role of HPV genotype in cervical cancer. A total of 306 eligible patients provided cervical cell specimens for HPV genotyping before therapy and had a median follow-up time of 54 months after diagnosis. Survival times were measured from the date of diagnosis to the date of cervical cancer-related death (overall survival, OS) and from the date of diagnosis to the date of recurrence or metastasis (disease free survival, DFS). Log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were performed to evaluate the association between HPV genotype and survival times. A total of 12 types of high-risk HPV were detected and the leading ten types belong to two species: alpha-9 and alpha-7. HPV16 and 18 were the two most common types, with the prevalence of 60.8% and 8.8%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, HPV16-positive cases were associated with better OS (P = 0.037) and HPV16-related species alpha-9 predicted better OS and DFS (both P genotype poses differential prognoses for cervical cancer patients. The presence of HPV16 and its related species alpha-9 indicates an improved survival.

  16. Production lost due to cervical cancer in Poland in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dubas-Jakóbczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poland has one of the highest cervical cancer mortality rates in Europe. It is related to the problem of late diagnosis and low attendance rate in screening programs. The objective of the study has been to assess the annual production loss due to the cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Poland in 2012. The outcomes have been to provide comprehensive information on cervical cancer’s influence on population’s ability to work and its overall economic burden for the society. The study has also provided the methodological framework for disease-related production losses in Polish settings. Material and Methods: The human capital method was used. The production losses were calculated in both monetary and quantitative terms (working days lost due to 4 following reasons: 1 temporary disability to work, 2 permanent disability, 3 informal care, and 4 mortality. Results: Cervical cancer resulted in approx. 702 964 working days lost in 2012 due to absence at work for both patients and care givers and a total number of 957 678 working days lost due to patients’ mortality. The total value of production lost was assessed at 111.4 million euros. More than 66% of this value was attributed to women’s mortality. Conclusions: The calculation of production lost due to cervical cancer burden provides strong evidence to support adequate health promotion and disease prevention actions. Actions promoting cervical cancer screening should be intensified including workplace health promotion activities. Med Pr 2016;67(3:289–299

  17. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hang; Xiang, Qunying; Hu, Ting; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhilan; Ma, Ding; Feng, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women’s willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. Participants and Methods A cross-sectional survey of women was conducted to determine their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and the barriers to screening. Results Women who were willing to undergo screenings had higher knowledge levels. “Anxious feeling once the disease was diagnosed” (47.6%), “No symptoms/discomfort” (34.1%) and “Do not know the benefits of cervical cancer screening” (13.4%) were the top three reasons for refusing cervical cancer screening. Women who were younger than 45 years old or who had lower incomes, positive family histories of cancer, secondary or higher levels of education, higher levels of knowledge and fewer barriers to screening were more willing to participate in cervical cancer screenings than women without these characteristics. Conclusion Efforts are needed to increase women’s knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the screening methods, and to improve their perceptions of the screening process for early detection to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. PMID:23843976

  18. Knowledge about cervical cancer and barriers of screening program among women in Wufeng County, a high-incidence region of cervical cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yao; Li, Shuang; Yang, Ru; Zhou, Hang; Xiang, Qunying; Hu, Ting; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhilan; Ma, Ding; Feng, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. A cross-sectional survey of women was conducted to determine their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and the barriers to screening. Women who were willing to undergo screenings had higher knowledge levels. "Anxious feeling once the disease was diagnosed" (47.6%), "No symptoms/discomfort" (34.1%) and "Do not know the benefits of cervical cancer screening" (13.4%) were the top three reasons for refusing cervical cancer screening. Women who were younger than 45 years old or who had lower incomes, positive family histories of cancer, secondary or higher levels of education, higher levels of knowledge and fewer barriers to screening were more willing to participate in cervical cancer screenings than women without these characteristics. Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the screening methods, and to improve their perceptions of the screening process for early detection to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  19. Knowledge about cervical cancer and barriers of screening program among women in Wufeng County, a high-incidence region of cervical cancer in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jia

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area.A cross-sectional survey of women was conducted to determine their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and the barriers to screening.Women who were willing to undergo screenings had higher knowledge levels. "Anxious feeling once the disease was diagnosed" (47.6%, "No symptoms/discomfort" (34.1% and "Do not know the benefits of cervical cancer screening" (13.4% were the top three reasons for refusing cervical cancer screening. Women who were younger than 45 years old or who had lower incomes, positive family histories of cancer, secondary or higher levels of education, higher levels of knowledge and fewer barriers to screening were more willing to participate in cervical cancer screenings than women without these characteristics.Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the screening methods, and to improve their perceptions of the screening process for early detection to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  20. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T., E-mail: ryan-flynn@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  1. An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilakapati Murali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment modalities, cervical cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer death among women. Pap smear and colposcopy are the existing screening methods and histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these methods have been shown to be prone to reporting errors, which could be due to their subjective interpretation. Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the locally advanced stages of cervical cancers. The typical treatment regimen spans over 4 months, from the first fraction of radiation to clinical assessment of tumor response to radiotherapy. It is often noticed that due to intrinsic properties of tumors, patients with the same clinical stage and histological type respond differently to radiotherapy. Hence, there exists a need for the development of new methods for early diagnosis as well as for early prediction of tumor radioresponse. Optical spectroscopic methods have been shown to be potential alternatives for use in cancer diagnosis. In this review, we provide a brief background on the anatomy and histology of the uterine cervix and the etiology of cervical cancers; we briefly discuss the optical spectroscopic approach to cervical cancer diagnosis. A very brief discussion on radiation therapy and radiation resistance is also provided. We also share our experiences with the Raman spectroscopic methodologies in cervical cancer diagnosis as well as in the prediction of tumor radioresponse.

  2. dose in cervical cancer intracavitary brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Siavashpour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the optimum organ filling point for organs at risk (OARs dose in cervical cancer high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy. Material and methods : In a retrospective study, 32 locally advanced cervical cancer patients (97 insertions who were treated with 3D conformal external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and concurrent chemotherapy during 2010-2013 were included. Rotterdam HDR tandem-ovoid applicators were used and computed tomography (CT scanning was performed after each insertion. The OARs delineation and GEC-ESTRO-based clinical target volumes (CTVs contouring was followed by 3D forward planning. Then, dose volume histogram (DVH parameters of organs were recorded and patients were classified based on their OARs volumes, as well as their inserted tandem length. Results : The absorbed dose to point A ranged between 6.5-7.5 Gy. D 0.1cm ³ and D 2cm ³ of the bladder significantly increased with the bladder volume enlargement (p value < 0.05. By increasing the bladder volume up to about 140 cm3, the rectum dose was also increased. For the cases with bladder volumes higher than 140 cm3, the rectum dose decreased. For bladder volumes lower than 75 cm3, the sigmoid dose decreased; however, for bladder volumes higher than 75 cm3, the sigmoid dose increased. The D 2cm ³ of the bladder and rectum were higher for longer tandems than for shorter ones, respectively. The divergence of the obtained results for different tandem lengths became wider by the extension of the bladder volume. The rectum and sigmoid volume had a direct impact on increasing their D 0.1cm ³ and D 2cm ³, as well as decreasing their D 10 , D 30 , and D 50 . Conclusions : There is a relationship between the volumes of OARs and their received doses. Selecting a bladder with a volume of about 70 cm3 or less proved to be better with regards to the dose to the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid.

  3. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  4. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer

  5. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer among HIV-Infected Women in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Netsanet Shiferaw; Brooks, Mohamad I; Graciela Salvador-Davila; Shumet Lonsako; Konjit Kassahun; Jodi Ansel; Chidude Osakwe; Teklu Weldegebreal; Ismael Ahmed; Mengistu Asnake; Blumenthal, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among Ethiopian women. Low awareness of cervical cancer, in combination with low health care seeking behavior, is a key challenge for cervical cancer prevention. This study assessed the knowledge of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in Ethiopia. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to September 2012 among HIV-infected women between 21 and 49 years of age. Basic descriptive s...

  6. Vietnamese American women’s beliefs and perceptions on cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and cancer prevention vaccines: A community-based participatory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Kim Yen Nguyen-Truong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains commonly diagnosed in Vietnamese American women. Despite efforts to increase cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women, participation rates are persistently lower than the national goal. The objective of this study is to explore beliefs of Vietnamese American women about cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and cancer prevention vaccines. A qualitative descriptive investigation captured group perceptions about meaning and beliefs of cervical cancer, screening, and cancer prevention vaccines, and participants’ stories using a community-based participatory research approach. Forty Vietnamese American women were recruited from the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area into four focus groups. Using a process of directed content analysis, focus group transcripts were coded for themes. We found that cervical cancer continues to be a difficult topic to discuss, and Vietnamese American women may not bring the topic up themselves to their health care providers. Some women experienced intense emotions of fear or shame of having their cervix examined. Women delayed seeking cervical cancer screening and needed to have early warning signs, which guided them as to when to seek health care. Women focused on cleanliness through vaginal and/or perineal washing as primary prevention for cervical cancer. There were limited awareness and knowledge about cancer prevention vaccines, specifically the human papillomavirus. Some women relied heavily on their informal social networks of family, friends, or community for health knowledge. Fear and misunderstanding dominated the beliefs of Vietnamese American women about cervical cancer screening and prevention. These findings underscored the importance of having culturally-specific findings, which will inform a multicomponent intervention to promote cervical cancer screening and cancer prevention vaccine uptake within this population.

  7. Breast and cervical cancer screening behaviours among colorectal cancer survivors in Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkum, M.; Urquhart, R.; Kephart, G.; Hayden, J.A.; Porter, G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed patterns and factors associated with receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening in a cohort of colorectal cancer survivors. Methods Individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer in Nova Scotia between January 2001 and December 2005 were eligible for inclusion. Receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening was determined using administrative data. General-population age restrictions were used in the analysis (breast: 40–69 years; cervical: 21–75 years). Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess time to first screen. Results Of 318 and 443 colorectal cancer survivors eligible for the breast and cervical cancer screening analysis respectively, 30.1% [95% confidence interval (ci): 21.2% to 39.0%] never received screening mammography, and 47.9% (95% ci: 37.8% to 58.0%) never received cervical cancer screening during the study period. Receipt of screening before the colorectal cancer diagnosis was strongly associated with receipt of screening after diagnosis (hazard ratio for breast cancer screening: 4.71; 95% ci: 3.42 to 6.51; hazard ratio for cervical cancer screening: 6.83; 95% ci: 4.58 to 10.16). Conclusions Many colorectal cancer survivors within general-population screening age recommendations did not receive breast and cervical cancer screening. Future research should focus on survivors who meet age recommendations for population-based cancer screening. PMID:25302037

  8. Cervical cancer screening in Belgium and overscreening of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin

    2016-03-01

    There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults.

  9. [The strategy for establishment of comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, H L; Fang, L W; Wang, L H

    2017-01-06

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women. Screening programs for cervical cancer have been implemented in many developed countries. Comprehensive systems for cervical cancer prevention and control have improved over the past 30 years, which has led to a significant decline in the morbidity and mortality of cervical cancer. Since 2009, the Chinese government has conducted the Cervical Cancer and Breast Cancer Screening Program for Rural Women on a national scale, which has substantially improved cervical cancer prevention and control. However, a comprehensive system for cervical cancer prevention has been not established in China. It is essential to investigate suitable strategies for cervical cancer prevention system in the country by referring to the experiences of developed nations in comparison with the situation in China, with respect to system operations, compatibility with the existing health care system, choice of suitable technologies, and information and evaluation platforms.

  10. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Wu, Xiaohua; Cheng, Xi

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The outcome of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor. We reviewed the relevant literature concerning the treatment and diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. There are two types of metastasis related to different treatments and survival rates: hematogenous metastasis and lymphatic metastasis. Patients with hematogenous metastasis have a higher risk of death than those with lymphatic metastasis. In terms of diagnosis, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-computed tomography are effective tools for the evaluation of distant metastasis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy are well-tolerated and efficient for lymphatic metastasis. As for lung metastasis, chemotherapy and/or surgery are valuable treatments for resistant, recurrent metastatic cervical cancer and chemoradiotherapy may be the optimal choice for stage IVB cervical cancer. Chemotherapy and bone irradiation are promising for bone metastasis. A better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy. Craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an optimal choice combined with radiotherapy for solitary brain metastases. Chemotherapy and palliative brain radiation may be considered for multiple brain metastases and other organ metastases.

  11. Cervical cancer burden and prevention strategies: Asia Oceania perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Suzanne M; Bhatla, Neerja; Ngan, Hextan Y S

    2012-09-01

    The Asia Oceania region contributes to more than 50% of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Yet cervical cancer is one of few cancers that can be prevented through comprehensive screening for precancerous lesions, with their subsequent treatment. Screening with cervical cytology, a very old technology, has reduced cervical cancer mortality and incidence when applied in comprehensive programs with high coverage and high quality assurance. However, of those countries within this region that have set up such programs, many have been opportunistic, had poor coverage, or inadequate treatment facilities for lesions found. Consequently, they have not seen large reductions in cancer incidence or mortality. Some have therefore adopted visual inspection by acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) or human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA assays for screening. With two safe, immunogenic and efficacious prophylactic vaccines licensed, the way forward to reduction of cervical cancer to becoming uncommon is within reach. Where governments have supported high coverage public-health vaccination programs, reductions in disease burden with shortest incubation (genital warts, high-grade abnormalities) are already being reported. One of the biggest impediments is the cost of vaccines that are affordable to resource-poor countries. Other challenges include, infrastructure for delivery of vaccines, plus general acceptance of vaccination by the community. ©2012 AACR

  12. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martínez, A; Molano, F; Lloret, M; Falcón-Vizcaino, O; García-Hernández, J A

    2003-01-01

    To compare the results obtained following treatment, from a group of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (Stage IB or higher) treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy in relation to a group of patients treated exclusively with radiotherapy. All patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy at the Gynaecologic Oncology Unit of the University Hospital Materno Infantil of the Canaries between 1999 and 2000, both inclusive, were included. The first group to be considered was formed by patients who received combined treatment. The second group of patients received radiotherapy exclusively, having been treated in previous years (1997-1998 period). The results were compared in relation to survival in the two following years from treatment (2000-2001) in the group of combined treatment and years 1999-2000 in the group that received only radiotherapy. To compare the survival of both groups the chi-square test and Odds Ratio were utilised. The groups compared are homogeneous when looking at the stage of the disease when diagnosed, the histological type of tumour and its degree of cellular differentiation, the CAT results and tumoral markers. Survival of more than two years was observed in the group treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy in relation to the group treated exclusively with radiotherapy; chi-square 9.92, p < 0.01, OR: 0.1 (0.01-0.6).

  13. Nominated Texture Based Cervical Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Jayasingh Mariarputham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate classification of Pap smear images becomes the challenging task in medical image processing. This can be improved in two ways. One way is by selecting suitable well defined specific features and the other is by selecting the best classifier. This paper presents a nominated texture based cervical cancer (NTCC classification system which classifies the Pap smear images into any one of the seven classes. This can be achieved by extracting well defined texture features and selecting best classifier. Seven sets of texture features (24 features are extracted which include relative size of nucleus and cytoplasm, dynamic range and first four moments of intensities of nucleus and cytoplasm, relative displacement of nucleus within the cytoplasm, gray level cooccurrence matrix, local binary pattern histogram, tamura features, and edge orientation histogram. Few types of support vector machine (SVM and neural network (NN classifiers are used for the classification. The performance of the NTCC algorithm is tested and compared to other algorithms on public image database of Herlev University Hospital, Denmark, with 917 Pap smear images. The output of SVM is found to be best for the most of the classes and better results for the remaining classes.

  14. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN....../ICC in the interpretation of results. RESULTS: We followed 1,143 WLWH and 17,145 controls with no prior history of ICC for 9,509 and 157,362 person-years. Compared to controls, the overall incidence of CIN1 or worse (CIN1+), CIN2+ and CIN3+ was higher in WLWH and predicted by young age and CD4 count women...

  15. [Secondary peritonitis due to rupture of pyometra in cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino Toquero, Moisé; Bañuelos Flores, Joel

    2005-11-01

    Only 8 cases of spontaneous uterine rupture in untreated cervical cancer have been reported in the literature. We present the case of a 52-year-old female, who was admitted to the emergency room due to hypovolemic shock and signs of peritonitis. A 6x4x4 cm cervical tumor was detected at physical exam. At laparotomy 2000 mL of purulent material were found and a 1-cm perforation in the posterior portion of the uterine segment was identified. A subtotal hysterectomy was performed. The patient received antibiotic and support at Intensive Care Unit. Finally, the patient presented ascendant flaccid paralysis and died due to bronchoaspiration. Spontaneous pyometra rupture in untreated cervical cancer is a rare condition and must be considered in postmenopausal women with cervical tumors and peritonitis signs.

  16. Brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Robyn Banerjee,1 Mitchell Kamrava21Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Dramatic advances have been made in brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Radiation treatment planning has evolved from two-dimensional to three-dimensional, incorporating magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography into the treatment paradigm. This allows for better delineation and coverage of the tumor, as well as improved avoidance of surrounding organs. Consequently, advanced brachytherapy can achieve very high rates of local control with a reduction in morbidity, compared with historic approaches. This review provides an overview of state-of-the-art gynecologic brachytherapy, with a focus on recent advances and their implications for women with cervical cancer.Keywords: cervical cancer, brachytherapy, image-guided brachytherapy

  17. Design The Cervical Cancer Detector Use The Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Af'idah, Dwi; Didik Widianto, Eko; Setyawan, Budi

    2013-06-01

    Cancer is one of the contagious diseases that become a public health issue, both in the world and in Indonesia. In the world, 12% of all deaths caused by cancer and is the second killer after cardiovascular disease. Early detection using the IVA is a practical and inexpensive (only requiring acetic acid). However, the accuracy of the method is quite low, as it can not detect the stage of the cancer. While other methods have a better sensitivity than the IVA method, is a method of PAP smear. However, this method is relatively expensive, and requires an experienced pathologist-cytologist. According to the case above, Considered important to make the cancer cervics detector that is used to detect the abnormality and cervical cancer stage and consists of a digital microscope, as well as a computer application based on artificial neural network. The use of cervical cancer detector software and hardware are integrated each other. After the specifications met, the steps to design the cervical cancer detection are: Modifying a conventional microscope by adding a lens, image recording, and the lights, Programming the tools, designing computer applications, Programming features abnormality detection and staging of cancer.

  18. Hypoxia stimulates invasion and migration of human cervical cancer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hao Xu

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... 6Tumor Biological Therapy Institute, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China. *Corresponding author ... Our results showed that in cervical cancer cell lines HeLa/SiHa, Rac1 activation in hypoxia could stimulate invasion and migration ..... determinant of cancer stem cell evolution. BioEssays 38 Suppl 1.

  19. Knowledge, Practices and Education of Clients on Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Most patients with cancer of the cervix present late with poor prognosis. Health workers' knowledge and utilization of the screening services might influence their clients. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, practice and education of clients on cervical cancer and its screening among female ...

  20. Uptake of cervical cancer screening: awareness, willingness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer remains the commonest genital tract cancer and yet it is preventable through cytologic screening with Pap smear. Awareness and willingness among target population is an imperative for uptake of screening services. Aim: To contribute to the existing knowledge base, and in particular, bridge ...

  1. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer and its Screening Amongst Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is an important women's reproductive health problem, especially in developing countries. Efforts towards its prevention worldwide have focused on screening women at risk of disease using Pap smears and treating pre-cancerous lesions. A good knowledge and understanding of the level of ...

  2. Awareness of cervical cancer and its prevention among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer of the cervix is a major public health issue in the developing countries. The burden of the disease is considerable with associated morbidity and mortality among women in their productive years. The lack of awareness and adequate information about cervical cancer and its prevention may be ...

  3. Factors associated with management of cervical cancer patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Cervical cancer is an important public health problem among adult women worldwide. It is the second commonest malignancy in female worldwide and the leading malignancy among women in Tanzania. In most developing countries, cancer of the cervix tends to be diagnosed in its later stages when is less ...

  4. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Risk Factors Among Refugee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer, although largely preventable, remains a leading cause of cancer death in the developing world. The pivotal role that refugees play within any host community concerning the distribution and determinants of morbidity and mortality make it important to ensure that programmes designed to reduce the ...

  5. A review of patients with advanced cervical cancer presenting to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    100,000) of cervical cancer and mortality (50 per 100,000) from the disease.1 In Africa, for a variety of reasons, women with cancer of the cervix are often diagnosed late, requiring a palliative approach from the time of presentation. Opportunities for screening may be missed,2 and delivery of screening services is beset by ...

  6. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lízia Maria Franco dos Reis Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON. METHODS: Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. RESULTS: Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 ± 7.8 and passive (7.2 ± 10.6 smoking versus no smoking (3.7 ± 5.1; with/without alcoholism (7.8 ± 1.4 and 6.9 ± 10.1; with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 ± 10.5 and 1.3 ± 1.7; and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 ± 4.3, 10.6 ± 5.3, 22.7 ± 11.9 and 1.3 ± 1.4 found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  7. Qualitative study of barriers to cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isa Modibbo, Fatima; Dareng, Eileen; Bamisaye, Patience; Jedy-Agba, Elima; Adewole, Ayodele; Oyeneyin, Lawal; Olaniyan, Olayinka; Adebamowo, Clement

    2016-01-01

    To explore the barriers to cervical cancer screening, focusing on religious and cultural factors, in order to inform group-specific interventions that may improve uptake of cervical cancer screening programmes...

  8. Inadequate cervical cancer screening among mid-aged Australian women who have experienced partner violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Schofield, Margot; Hussain, Rafat; Hosking, Stacey

    Objectives. Partner violence is linked to cervical cancer and other gynaecological conditions. However, results of current research into associations between partner violence and cervical cancer screening have been inconclusive. Therefore, the current research investigates the association between

  9. Analysis of clinical characteristics of 950 cases of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-li ZHU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the clinical features of the patients suffering from cervical cancer who visited Daping Hospital affiliated to Third Military Medical University in recent 10 years. Methods The clinical data of the patients who were pathologically diagnosed as invasive cervical cancer in Daping Hospital of TMMU from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into different age groups and analyzed according to age, clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approach. Results Clinical data of 950 patients with invasive cervical cancer were reviewed in this study. The mean age of the patients was 46.9 years. The clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approaches were different in different age groups. Analysis of the age structure of the patients, the onset age of cervical cancer seemed to increase year by year. Conclusion The clinical features of cervical cancer are diversity in different age, and the strategy for controlling its development should be varied according to age. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.09

  10. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Leśniczak; Grzegorz Krasomski; Przemysław Oszukowski; Tomasz Stetkiewicz; Piotr Woźniak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases...

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vitola Gonçalves

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: One third of all cervical carcinomas occur during the reproductive period. Cervical carcinoma is the second greatest cause of death due to cancer during this phase. The estimated frequency of cervical cancer during pregnancy is one case for every 1,000 to 5,000 pregnancies. The aim here was to provide information about the difficulties in diagnosing and managing cervical neoplasia during pregnancy. MATERIALS: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken through the PubMed, Cochrane, Excerpta Medica (Embase, Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO databases, using the following words: pregnancy, cervical cancer, diagnosis and management. RESULTS: There was a consensus in the literature regarding diagnosis of cervical carcinoma and management of preneoplastic lesions during pregnancy. However, for management of invasive carcinoma, there was great divergence regarding the gestational age taken as the limit for observation rather than immediate treatment. CONCLUSION: All patients with cytological abnormalities should undergo colposcopy, which will indicate and guide biopsy. Conization is reserved for patients with suspected invasion. High-grade lesions should be monitored during pregnancy and reevaluated after delivery. In cases of invasive carcinoma detected up to the 12th week of pregnancy, patient treatment is prioritized. Regarding diagnoses made during the second trimester, fetal pulmonary maturity can be awaited, and the use of chemotherapy to stabilize the disease until the time of delivery appears to be viable.

  12. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among Women in Mangalore City

    OpenAIRE

    Harsha Kumar, HN; Tanya, Shubham

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most of the cervical cancer cases are diagnosed late leading to poor outcomes. Very few studies have explored the role of doctor and source of information for awareness of women about cervical cancer in India. Aim: Hence, this study was conducted with the objective of knowing the knowledge of women about cervical cancer, its screening, role of doctor, source of information, and reasons for not undergoing screening if the women had not undergone testing for cervical cancer. Subject...

  13. An exploration of opportunities and challenges facing cervical cancer managers in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kivuti-Bitok, Lucy W; Pokhariyal, Ganesh P; Abdul, Roudsari; McDonnell, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Background Kenya like other developing countries is low in resource setting and is facing a number of challenges in the management of cervical cancer. This study documents opportunities and challenges encountered in managing cervical cancer from the health care workers? perspectives. A qualitative study was conducted among cervical cancer managers who were defined as nurses and doctors involved in operational level management of cervical cancer. The respondents were drawn from four provincial...

  14. Can radical parametrectomy be omitted in occult cervical cancer after extrafascial hysterectomy?

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Huai-wu; Li, Jing; Liu, Yun-yun; Liu, Chang-hao; Xu, Guo-Cai; Xie, Ling-Ling; Wu,Miao-fang; Lin, Zhong-qiu

    2015-01-01

    Background Occult invasive cervical cancer discovered after simple hysterectomy is not common, radical parametrectomy (RP) is a preferred option for young women. However, the morbidity of RP was high. The aim of our study is to assess the incidence of parametrial involvement in patients who underwent radical parametrectomy for occult cervical cancer or radical hysterectomy for early-stage cervical cancer and to suggest an algorithm for the triage of patients with occult cervical cancer to avo...

  15. Plasma concentrations of coenzyme Q10 and tocopherols in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, P R; Mikhail, M S; Shaban, D W; Romney, S L

    2003-08-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) may, at times, unpredictably progress to invasive carcinoma of the cervix. Epidemiological nutritional studies suggest that higher dietary consumption and circulating levels of certain micronutrients may be protective against cervical cancer. However, a preventive role of dietary antioxidants in CIN is not well established. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the comparative plasma concentrations of three potent antioxidants, coenzyme Q(10,) alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol, in women with normal Pap smears and patients with a biopsy-confirmed histopathological lesion diagnosed as CIN or cervical cancer. Plasma concentrations of coenzyme Q(10,) alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography in both normal women without any history of abnormal Pap smears (n=48), and patients with histopathologically confirmed diagnoses of: (a) CIN I, n=98; (b) CIN II, n=49; (c) CIN III, n=10; and (d) cervical cancer, n=25. The mean plasma levels of coenzyme Q(10), alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol were significantly lower (P<0.001,<0.001, and<0.001, respectively by Kruskal-Wallis test) in patients with various grades of CIN and cervical cancer compared with controls. After controlling for age and smoking, an inverse association between histological grades of epithelial lesions and both plasma coenzyme Q(10) and alpha-tocopherol concentrations was observed. The low plasma concentrations of coenzyme Q(10) may be due to deficient dietary intake or a decrease in endogenous coenzyme Q(10) biosynthesis that may reflect increased utilization as a result of free radical reactive oxygen species induced oxidative stress. Further molecular studies on the mechanistic role of antioxidants in women with precancer cervical lesions are needed.

  16. Raman spectroscopy for screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyng, Fiona M; Traynor, Damien; Ramos, Inês R M; Bonnier, Franck; Byrne, Hugh J

    2015-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide and mainly affects younger women. The mortality associated with cervical cancer can be reduced if the disease is detected at the pre-cancer stage. Current best-practice methods include cytopathology, HPV testing, and histopathology, but these methods are limited in terms of subjectivity, cost, and time. There is an unmet clinical need for new methods to aid clinicians in the early detection of cervical pre-cancer. These methods should be objective and rapid and require minimal sample preparation. Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique by which incident radiation is used to induce vibrations in the molecules of a sample and the scattered radiation may be used to characterise the sample in a rapid and non-destructive manner. Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to subtle biochemical changes occurring at the molecular level, enabling spectral variations corresponding to disease onset to be detected. Over the past 15 years, there have been numerous reports revealing the potential of Raman spectroscopy together with multivariate statistical analysis for the detection of a variety of cancers. This paper discusses the recent advances and challenges for cervical-cancer screening and diagnosis and offers some perspectives for the future.

  17. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  18. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  19. Cost-Utility Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Cervical Screening on Cervical Cancer Patient in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Dolk, Franklin Christiaan; Suwantika, Auliya A.; Westra, Tjalke Arend; WIlschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, the clinical and economic burdens of cervical cancer are still substantial issues in Indonesia. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to model the costs, clinical benefits, and cost-utility of both visual inspection with acetic

  20. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early...

  1. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...

  2. Strategies for the prevention and control of cervical cancer in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of “most-at-risk” women for cervical cancer disease who reside in rural communities of low and middle income countries (LMIC) do not have access to cervical cancer prevention programmes. This paper reviews epidemiology, recommendations, implementation strategies for prevention and control of cervical cancer ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

  4. Therapeutic immunization strategies against cervical cancer : induction of cell-mediated immunity in murine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bungener, Laura Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this thesis is the development of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and pre-malignant precursor lesions of cervical cancer (CIN lesions). Cervical cancer is caused by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of high

  5. Does lowering the screening age for cervical cancer in The Netherlands make sense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Maaike A.; de Kok, Inge M.C.M.; Siesling, Sabine; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations for the age to initiate cervical cancer screening should be directed towards maximum detection of early cervical cancer. However, the screening programme should do more good than harm. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether the target age for cervical cancer screening

  6. Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Cervical Cancer in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    Majority of “most-at-risk” women for cervical cancer disease who reside in rural communities of low and middle income countries (LMIC) do not have access to cervical cancer prevention programmes. This paper reviews epidemiology, recommendations, implementation strategies for prevention and control of cervical cancer ...

  7. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of human papillomavirus detection in the prevention of cervical cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of death, and the second most frequent cancer in women worldwide. Many studies have indicated a causal relation between genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and cervical cancer. High-risk HPV genotypes have been detected in almost 100% of all cervical

  8. Impact of Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines on Screening for Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Allison; Sen, Ananda; Ruffin, Mack

    2015-01-01

    The highest prevalence of chlamydia infection in the United States is among people aged 15 to 24 years. We assessed the impact of not doing routine cervical cancer screening on the rates of chlamydia screening in women aged 15 to 21 years. We classified visits to family medicine ambulatory clinics according to their timing relative to the 2009 guideline change that led to more restrictive cervical cancer screening. Women had higher odds of being screened for chlamydia before vs after the guideline change (odds ratio = 13.97; 95% CI, 9.17-21.29; P <.001). Chlamydia and cervical cancer screening need to be uncoupled and new screening opportunities should be identified. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  9. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  10. Finnish women’s knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV and cervical cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Kampman, Iiro Joonas

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the 19th most common cancer amongst women in Finland. In our country there are around 150 new diagnoses yearly and 50 deaths due to cervical cancer (1). The Human Papilloma Virus is the most central and a necessary factor in the development of cervical cancer (2). HPV causes histologic changes in the cervix that are detectable in cervical cancer screening conducted with cytological smears (”Pap-smears”) (2). A key factor in the efficacy of cervical cancer screening, as in a...

  11. HPV in genital cancers (at the exception of cervical cancer) and anal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bruni, Laia; Alemany, Laia

    2014-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been firmly established as a central and necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer and it has been etiologically linked to other anogenital (vulva, vagina, anus and penis) and head and neck cancers, particularly oropharyngeal. Although being rare, the incidence of some of these cancers in some countries has increased in the last decades. HPV-related anogenital tumors share many risk factors with cervical cancer. The HPV aetiological contribution differs in each anatomical location reflecting differences in the natural history and viral tissue tropism. The highest prevalence of HPV DNA in cancers other than cervix has been described for anal, followed by vagina, penile and vulvar cancers. HPV16 has been described as the most common type detected in all cancer sites with different contributions being the highest in anal carcinoma (around 80% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers) and the lowest in vaginal cancers with a contribution similar to that found in cervical cancers (around 60%). Current HPV vaccines have already demonstrated their efficacy in preventing anogenital pre-neoplastic lesions caused by vaccine HPV types. HPV-based prevention tools like HPV vaccination and to a lesser extend screening (e.g. for anal cancer) can be useful measures for reducing the burden of these anogenital cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Production lost due to cervical cancer in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas-Jakóbczyk, Katarzyna; Kocot, Ewa; Seweryn, Michał; Koperny, Magdalena

    Poland has one of the highest cervical cancer mortality rates in Europe. It is related to the problem of late diagnosis and low attendance rate in screening programs. The objective of the study has been to assess the annual production loss due to the cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Poland in 2012. The outcomes have been to provide comprehensive information on cervical cancer's influence on population's ability to work and its overall economic burden for the society. The study has also provided the methodological framework for disease-related production losses in Polish settings. The human capital method was used. The production losses were calculated in both monetary and quantitative terms (working days lost) due to 4 following reasons: 1) temporary disability to work, 2) permanent disability, 3) informal care, and 4) mortality. Cervical cancer resulted in approx. 702 964 working days lost in 2012 due to absence at work for both patients and care givers and a total number of 957 678 working days lost due to patients' mortality. The total value of production lost was assessed at 111.4 million euros. More than 66% of this value was attributed to women's mortality. The calculation of production lost due to cervical cancer burden provides strong evidence to support adequate health promotion and disease prevention actions. Actions promoting cervical cancer screening should be intensified including workplace health promotion activities. Med Pr 2016;67(3):289-299. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Variable TERRA abundance and stability in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Keo, Ponnarath; Bae, Jaeman; Ko, Jung Hwa; Choi, Joong Sub

    2017-06-01

    Telomeres are transcribed into long non-coding RNA, referred to as telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), which plays important roles in maintaining telomere integrity and heterochromatin formation. TERRA has been well characterized in HeLa cells, a type of cervical cancer cell. However, TERRA abundance and stability have not been examined in other cervical cancer cells, at least to the best of our knowledge. Thus, in this study, we measured TERRA levels and stability, as well as telomere length in 6 cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa, SiHa, CaSki, HeLa S3, C-33A and SNU-17. We also examined the association between the TERRA level and its stability and telomere length. We found that the TERRA level was several fold greater in the SiHa, CaSki, HeLa S3, C-33A and SNU-17 cells, than in the HeLa cells. An RNA stability assay of actinomycin D-treated cells revealed that TERRA had a short half-life of ~4 h in HeLa cells, which was consistent with previous studies, but was more stable with a longer half-life (>8 h) in the other 5 cell lines. Telomere length varied from 4 to 9 kb in the cells and did not correlate significantly with the TERRA level. On the whole, our data indicate that TERRA abundance and stability vary between different types of cervical cancer cells. TERRA degrades rapidly in HeLa cells, but is maintained stably in other cervical cancer cells that accumulate higher levels of TERRA. TERRA abundance is associated with the stability of RNA in cervical cancer cells, but is unlikely associated with telomere length.

  14. Development In Drug Targeting And Delivery In Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Urvashi; Goyal, Amit Kumar; Rath, Goutam

    2017-10-09

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Standard treatment options available for cervical cancer including chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy associated with their own side effects and toxicities. Tumor-targeted delivery of anticancer drugs is perhaps one of the most appropriate strategies to achieve optimal outcomes from treatment and improve quality of life. Recently nanocarriers based drug delivery systems owing to their unique properties have been extensively investigated for anticancer drug delivery. In addition to that addressing the anatomical significance of cervical cancer, various local drug delivery strategies for the cancer treatment are introduced like: gels, nanoparticles, polymeric films, rods and wafers, lipid based nanocarrier. Localized drug delivery systems allows passive drug targeting results in high drug concentration at the target site. Further they can be tailor made to achieve both sustained and controlled release behavior, substantially improving therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects. This review summarizes the meaningful advances in drug delivery strategies to treat cervical cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Younger age distribution of cervical cancer incidence among survivors of pediatric and young adult cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Rohit P; Jackson, Bradford E; Tota, Joseph E; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha N; Hudson, Melissa M; Gurney, James G

    2014-08-01

    Pediatric and young adult (PAYA) cancer survivors may have an earlier onset of chronic diseases compared with the general population. We compared the age at cervical cancer diagnosis between PAYA cancer survivors and females in the general US population. We used longitudinal data from 9 population-based registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program collected between 1973 and 2010. PAYA cancer survivors were females diagnosed with any cancer before age 30 years, survived at least 5 years post-diagnosis, and were subsequently diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer (n=46). The general US population comprised females who were diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer as the primary malignancy (n=26,956). We estimated the difference in median age at diagnosis (ß₅₀) and bootstrap 95% confidence limits (CL) of invasive cervical cancer after adjustment for year of diagnosis and race. The median age at diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer was 33 years for female PAYA cancer survivors and 40 years for females in the general US population (ß50=-7.0, 95% CL: -11, -3.2). Similar differences were observed across subgroups of stage and histologic subtype of invasive cervical cancer. Our results suggest that PAYA cancer survivors are diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer at a substantially younger age compared with females without a prior cancer diagnosis in the general US population. This issue warrants further study, and could have implications for determining age at initiation or frequency of cervical cancer screening if younger age at diagnosis is attributable to an underlying biological phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanida Jarruwale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new technique of extensive surgical intervention, namely nerve sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH, was introduced as one of the treatment options for early stage cervical cancer patients because cervical cancer patients suffer from postoperative complications following radical hysterectomy procedure. The step of nerve preservation can reduce postoperative complications, such as bladder or sexual dysfunction problems that occur after a traditional radical hysterectomy procedure. The surgical outcomes seem to be favorable and no serious morbidity was noted. However, further study of the nerve sparing technique is necessary to improve this surgical advantage in the future.

  17. Faith Moves Mountains: an Appalachian cervical cancer prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F

    2009-01-01

    To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community.

  18. Faith Moves Mountains: An Appalachian Cervical Cancer Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. Methods FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. Results We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. Conclusions After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community. PMID:19320612

  19. Mild obesity, physical activity, calorie intake, and the risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kwan Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether obesity, physical activity, and calorie intake are associated with the risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer. METHODS: We enrolled 1125 women (age, 18-65 years into a human papillomavirus cohort study established from 2006 to 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and multivariate odds ratios (ORs and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs, and to assess whether body mass index (BMI, height, weight, total calorie intake, and physical activity were associated with the risks of CIN and cervical cancer. RESULTS: Cervical cancer risk was positively associated with BMI and inversely associated with physical activity. When compared with women with a normal BMI (18.5-23 kg/m(2, the multivariate ORs (95% CIs for those overweight (23-25 kg/m(2 and mild obesity (≥25 kg/m(2 were 1.25 (0.79-2.00 and 1.70 (1.10-2.63, respectively. When compared with women with the lowest tertile of physical activity (<38.5 MET-hours/week, the ORs (95% CIs for cervical cancer were 0.95 (0.61-1.48 and 0.61 (0.38-0.98 for women with medium physical activity (38.5-71.9 MET-hours/week and those with high physical activity (72 MET-hours/week, respectively (p for linear trend  = 0.03. The CIN2/3 risk was inversely associated with physical activity after adjustment for confounders. Compared with women with low physical activity (< 38.5 MET-hours/week, the ORs (95% CIs for CIN2/3 were 0.64 (0.40-1.01 and 0.58 (0.36-0.93 for the medium and high physical activity groups, respectively (p for linear trend  = 0.02. Total calorie intake was not statistically associated with the risks of CIN and cervical cancer after adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that in addition to screening for and treatment of CIN, recommendations on the maintenance of an appropriate BMI with an emphasis on physical activity could be an important preventive strategy

  20. Limitations of colposcopy in early invasive cervical cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubisić, Goran

    2007-04-01

    Colposcopy is a key element in the diagnostic chain required to reduce cervical cancer mortality but it has limitations in the diagnosis of malignant disease. In the Republic of Croatia the Croatian Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology started constructing guidelines for early detection, therapy and follow-up of patients with early invasive cervical cancer in order to achieve the best possible results in diagnosis, therapy and follow-up. From 2001 to 2006 Croatian society for colposcopy and cervical pathology organised six courses "Role of colposcopy in early diagnosis and prevention of premalignant lesions of the uterine cervix" in cooperation with Medical faculty, University of Zagreb and the Croatian medical chamber. Leading presentations were focused on the epidemiology of cervical cancer, cytologic, colposcopic and pathohistologic classification, HPV testing and role of male partner. After the theoretical part, a series of colposcopic pictures were presented as a practical part of the course where attendees participated in colposcopic images description and estimation of what could be the underlying pathological process. Such, courses are needed for continued medical education and quality practice of colposcopy.

  1. NHERF1 Enhances Cisplatin Sensitivity in Human Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Qiong; Shi, Wen; Wang, Qiqi; Yang, Ying; He, Junqi

    2017-01-12

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignancies, and cisplatin-based chemotherapy is routinely utilized in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. However, resistance has been the major limitation. In this study, we found that Na⁺/H⁺ Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1 (NHERF1) was downregulated in cisplatin-resistant cells. Analysis based on a cervical cancer dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) showed association of NHERF1 expression with disease-free survival of patients received cisplatin treatment. NHERF1 overexpression inhibited proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant HeLa cells, whereas NHERF1 knockdown had inverse effects. While parental HeLa cells were more resistant to cisplatin after NHERF1 knockdown, NHERF1 overexpression in CaSki cells promoted cisplatin sensitivity. Overexpression and knockdown studies also showed that NHERF1 significantly inhibited AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways in cisplatin-resistant cells. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that NHERF1 can sensitize cisplatin-refractory cervical cancer cells. This study may help to increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in tumors.

  2. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008–2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden. PMID:25987901

  3. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer among HIV-Infected Women in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet Shiferaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among Ethiopian women. Low awareness of cervical cancer, in combination with low health care seeking behavior, is a key challenge for cervical cancer prevention. This study assessed the knowledge of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in Ethiopia. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from August to September 2012 among HIV-infected women between 21 and 49 years of age. Basic descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS. Results. A total of 432 HIV-infected women participated in this study. About 71% of participants had ever heard of cervical cancer. Among women who had ever heard of cervical cancer, 49% did not know the cause while 74% were able to identify at least one risk factor for cervical cancer. Only 33% of women were able to correctly address when women should seek care and 33% identified at least one treatment option for cervical cancer. Conclusion. This study revealed that knowledge about cervical cancer was generally low, in particular for health care seeking behavior and treatment of cervical cancer. Health awareness programs should be strengthened at both community and health facility levels with emphasis highlighting the causes, risk factors, care seeking behaviors, and treatment options for cervical cancer.

  4. Cervical cancer in north-eastern Libya: 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khaial, F; Bodalal, Z; Elramli, A; Elkhwsky, F; Eltaguri, A; Bendardaf, R

    2014-08-01

    Libya is a country with a low population, listed under the EMRO. Using registers and patient records from a major primary oncology clinic, data was gathered from Libyan cervical cancer patients and various parameters were studied across 9 years. Out of 4,090 female cancer cases during the study period, 1.8% were cervical cancer (n = 74). The average age of presentation was 53 years, with most of the cases (60%, n = 44) being premenopausal. Approximately 65% (n = 48) of cervical cancer patients are diagnosed at later stages (i.e. stages III and IV). The majority of these cases are squamous cell carcinoma (83.8%, n = 62), while 16.2% (n = 12) were found to be adenocarcinoma. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma presented at later stages more often than those with adenocarcinoma. Human papilloma virus was strongly implicated in cervical cancer, with 94% (n = 63) of those who were tested being positive for HPV-16 (82.5%, n = 52) and HPV-18 (12.7%, n = 8). Diagnosis was most frequently made through biopsy (97.3%, n = 72) as opposed to Pap smears (2.7%, n = 2). Most Libyan patients were put through chemotherapy (75%, n = 55) and triple therapy (surgery with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy) was the most common (38%, n = 28) modality of treatment. Comparisons were made between Libya and other nations, either in the developed world or neighbouring countries. The major problem of cervical cancer in Libya is delayed presentation and hence, all the recommendations focus on increased awareness for the populace, implementation of a national cancer control plan and a national screening programme.

  5. Discrimination Between Cervical Cancer Cells and Normal Cervical Cells Based on Longitudinal Elasticity Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueqin; Zhong, Yunxin; Ye, Ting; Wang, Dajing; Mao, Bingwei

    2015-12-01

    The mechanical properties of cells are considered promising biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cancer. Recently, atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation technology has been utilized for the examination of cell cortex mechanics in order to distinguish malignant cells from normal cells. However, few attempts to evaluate the biomechanical properties of cells have focused on the quantification of the non-homogeneous longitudinal elasticity of cellular structures. In the present study, we applied a variation of the method of Carl and Schillers to investigate the differences between longitudinal elasticity of human cervical squamous carcinoma cells (CaSki) and normal cervical epithelial cells (CRL2614) using AFM. The results reveal a three-layer heterogeneous structure in the probing volume of both cell types studied. CaSki cells exhibited a lower whole-cell stiffness and a softer nuclei zone compared to the normal counterpart cells. Moreover, a better differentiated cytoskeleton was found in the inner cytoplasm/nuclei zone of the normal CRL2614 cells, whereas a deeper cytoskeletal distribution was observed in the probing volume of the cancerous counterparts. The sensitive cortical panel of CaSki cells, with a modulus of 0.35~0.47 kPa, was located at 237~225 nm; in normal cells, the elasticity was 1.20~1.32 kPa at 113~128 nm. The present improved method may be validated using the conventional Hertz-Sneddon method, which is widely reported in the literature. In conclusion, our results enable the quantification of the heterogeneous longitudinal elasticity of cancer cells, in particular the correlation with the corresponding depth. Preliminary results indicate that our method may potentially be applied to improve the detection of cancerous cells and provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease.

  6. Alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone levels in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, Prabhudas R; Woodall, Angela L; Anderson, Patrick S; Mikhail, Magdy S

    2004-05-01

    alpha-Tocopherol is a potent antioxidant that protects cell membranes against oxidative damage. Red blood cell alpha-tocopherol levels reflect membrane alpha-tocopherol concentrations, and altered levels may suggest membrane damage. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone, the oxidized product of alpha-tocopherol, in plasma and red blood cells that were obtained from control subjects and patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. In this cross-sectional study, 72 women, (32 African American and 40 Hispanic) were recruited. Among these subjects, 37 women had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; 14 women had cervical cancer, and 21 women were considered control subjects, who had normal Papanicolaou test results. alpha-Tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone levels were determined in red blood cell and plasma by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone were decreased significantly (P=.012 and=.005, respectively, by Kruskal-Wallis test) in study groups compared with the control group; red blood cell levels of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone were not altered significantly. The lower alpha-tocopherol level that was observed in this study is consistent with our previous reports of decreased antioxidant concentrations and increased oxidative stress in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Unaltered red blood cell alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone levels suggest undamaged cell membrane. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential role of oxidative stress in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  7. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  8. [Sexual function and quality of life in locally advanced cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangé, C; Bonal, M; Huyghe, É; Lèguevaque, P; Cances-Lauwers, V; Motton, S

    2013-02-01

    Sexual dysfunction is currently the most common complication of cancer. Most of the time, patients who are concerned by locally advanced cervical cancer are in a period of sexual activity. The primary objective of this study was to assess the quality of life and sexual function of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who were in remission. The secondary objective was to correlate the prognostic factor with sexual dysfunction. This multicentric and prospective study included the patients with locally advanced cervical cancer diagnosis from three centres. Thirty-one patients with diagnosis of locally advanced cervical cancer were enrolled from February 2007 to October 2008. The mean age was 49years old. Inclusion criteria were to have received the standard therapy by chemoradiotherapy and have been in remission for 2years. Both self-administered questionnaires BISF-W and EORTC QLQ-CX24 allowed scoring quality of life and sexual function. The rate of completion was 42%. The results confirmed that sexual function was impaired in accordance with sexual satisfaction. After therapy, the frequency of sexual activity was decreased. The functional quality of life was significantly correlated with sexual function. Marital status was a significant prognostic factor. Age, stage and the type of centre were not. This preliminary study suggests that after 2years of remission of the disease after treatment, patients and their partners need to be helped as regards their sexual function. We propose to perform a prospective study on a larger cohort. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Papilloma Virus 16 and 18 Association in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancers by In Situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty Manisa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To correlate the association of high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV 16, 18 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers by in-situ hybridization (ISH technique. Study Group: Cervical biopsy and hysterectomy specimen of 78 young and adult women, attending Hi-Tech Medical College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar, who were clinically or cytologically suspected of cervical intraepithelial lesion or cervical cancer were taken as source of target viral DNA. Material: Formalin 10% as fixative H & E stain as routine staining agent In-situ hybridization kit for HPV 16 and 18 DNA. Method: After following standard protocol for surgical grossing, HPV 16, 18 In-situ hybridization kit was used on paraffin embedded tissue sections. Results: The percentage of positive cases was highest in cervical cancer patients followed by cervical intraepithelial lesions, high grade, and low grade. Conclusion: This study has been carried out for the first in our state and our results show high degree of positivity of HPV 16/18 in females with cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers attending our tertiary care hospital.

  10. Preliminary stop of the TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (TOPIC) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneman, M M; Kruse, A J; Kooreman, L F S; Zur Hausen, A; Hopman, A H N; Sep, S J S; Van Gorp, T; Slangen, B F M; van Beekhuizen, H J; van de Sande, A J M; Gerestein, C G; Nijman, H W; Kruitwagen, R F P M

    2017-02-07

    The "TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia" (TOPIC) trial was stopped preliminary, due to lagging inclusions. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy and clinical applicability of imiquimod 5% cream in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The lagging inclusions were mainly due to a strong patient preference for either of the two treatment modalities. This prompted us to initiate a new study on the same subject, with a non-randomized, open-label design: the 'TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (TOPIC)-3' study. Original TOPIC-trial: Medical Ethics Committee approval number METC13231; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02329171, 22 December 2014. TOPIC-3 study: Medical Ethics Committee approval number METC162025; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02917746, 16 September 2016.

  11. Autophagy regulates the stemness of cervical cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yi Yang,1,2 Li Yu,1 Jin Li,1 Ya Hong Yuan,1 Xiao Li Wang,1 Shi Rong Yan,1 Dong Sheng Li,1 Yan Ding1 1Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, 2Reproductive Center, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs are a rare population of multipotent cells with the capacity to self-renew. It has been reported that there are CSCs in cervical cancer cells. Pluripotency-associated (PA transcription factors such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and CD44 have been used to isolate CSCs subpopulations. In this study, we showed that autophagy plays an important role in the biological behavior of cervical cancer cells. The expression of the autophagy protein Beclin 1 and LC3B was higher in tumorspheres established from human cervical cancers cell lines (and CaSki than in the parental adherent cells. It was also observed that the basal and starvation-induced autophagy flux was higher in tumorspheres than in the bulk population. Autophagy could regulate the expression level of PA proteins in cervical CSCs. In addition, CRISPR/Cas 9-mediated Beclin 1 knockout enhanced the malignancy of HeLa cells, leading to accumulation of PA proteins and promoted tumorsphere formation. Our findings suggest that autophagy modulates homeostasis of PA proteins, and Beclin 1 is critical for CSC maintenance and tumor development in nude mice. This demonstrates that a prosurvival autophagic pathway is critical for CSC maintenance. Keywords: cervical cancer, autophagy, cancer stem cell, LC3, Oct4

  12. [Prevention of cervical cancer (II): prophylactic HPV vaccination, current knowledge, practical procedures and new issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsonego, Joseph

    2007-04-01

    Despite the considerable success of early screening for prevention of cervical cancer, Pap smears have not fulfilled the hopes that it would lead to a large-scale reduction of this cancer's incidence. Screening appears to be useful for a tiny portion of the world population, although a relatively large portion must put up with its limitations and disadvantages. Human papilloma viruses (HPV) 16 and 18 are responsible for two thirds of all cervical cancers worldwide. The condylomata (condyloma acuminatum), or genital warts, induced by HPV 6 and 11 are frequent among the young and difficult to manage. The extent and burden of HPV infection are considerable, as is the psychological and emotional impact of the diseases associated with it. Because cancer of the cervix is the final consequence of chronic HPV infection, it can be prevented by vaccination. A prophylactic vaccine to protect against the precancerous and cancerous lesions associated with HPV should save lives, reduce expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, and have substantial individual and collective benefits. Clinical trials of anti-HPV vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer and condyloma have shown remarkable results and an efficacy unequaled in the history of vaccination against infectious diseases. Vaccine efficacy has been shown only in young girls never exposed to the virus and only for the lesions associated with the specific viral types in the vaccine. Preliminary data indicate that the vaccination is effective in women who have previously eliminated naturally the virus. It has no therapeutic effects on existing lesions or in healthy virus carriers. Practical questions remain to be resolved. If the vaccination is left to individual initiative and vaccination coverage is insufficient, there will be no perceptible reduction in the frequency of cervical cancer. Vaccination policies will not be identical in poor countries, where the disease represents one of the leading causes of

  13. Prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in mice using estrogen receptor antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Lambert, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of human cervical cancers are associated with the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In mouse models for HPV-associated cancers, estrogen is required for the development of cervical and vaginal cancers. The estrogen receptor α (ERα) also is required in mice for these cancers to arise. These data are consistent with the observation in women that long-term use of oral contraceptives or multiple pregnancies significantly increases the risk for cervical cancer in HPV-positiv...

  14. Lifestyle modification in cervical cancer survivors: an ongoing need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumbrecht, Matthew P; Sun, Charlotte C; Huang, Marilyn S; Zandstra, Fran; Bodurka, Diane C

    2014-03-01

    With the introduction of multimodality therapy for cervical cancer, many women will be long-term survivors in need of comprehensive surveillance care. Our goals were to evaluate patterns of obesity and smoking in a cohort of cervical cancer survivors and to assess the potential influence of these comorbidities on subsequent follow-up. We reviewed the records of patients treated for invasive cervical cancer at our institution from 2000 to 2003 who had no evidence of disease for 3 or more years. Demographic and clinical data were collected, including smoking history and anthropometric measurements. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized according to World Health Organization criteria. Logistic regression and Wilcoxon rank sum analyses were performed. Two hundred ninety-eight women had complete follow-up data at 3 years. The median age at diagnosis was 43.5 years (range, 17.6-87.1 years). At diagnosis, 31.9% had a normal BMI, 28.2% were overweight, and 34.6% were obese compared with 31.7%, 21.1%, and 30.2% at 3 years, respectively. Of the 51 women whose BMI categorization changed, 33 (64.7%) had weight gain, and 18 (35.3%) had weight loss. By paired analyses, increase in BMI was significant over the 3-year interval (P Obesity and smoking are significant comorbidities that may complicate care in cervical cancer survivors. Interventions aimed at modifying these risk factors should be routinely undertaken in this population.

  15. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cervical Cancer Screening and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselwhite, Laura W; Oliveira, Cristina M; Kwaramba, Tendai; de Paula Pantano, Naitielle; Smith, Jennifer S; Fregnani, José Humberto; Reis, Rui M; Mauad, Edmundo; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cervical cancer disproportionately affects women without sufficient access to care, with higher rates among minority groups in higher-income countries and women in low-resource regions of the world. Many elements contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in the cervical cancer continuum - from screening and diagnosis to treatment and outcome. Sociodemographic factors, access to healthcare, income and education level, and disease stage at diagnosis are closely linked to such inequities. Despite the identification of such elements, racial/ethnic disparities persist, and are widening in several minority subgroups, particularly in older women, who are ineligible for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and are underscreened. Recent studies suggest that racial/ethnic differences in HPV infection exist and may also have a role in observed differences in cervical cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of the current literature on racial disparities in cervical cancer screening, incidence, treatment and outcome to inform future strategies to reduce persistent inequities. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Cervical cancer, quality issues in early detection and prognostic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31441911X

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that cervical cancer incidence will reduce in The Netherlands over the next decades, as a result of hrHPV vaccination and hrHPV-based screening. Untill then, quality of care could need some improvements as suggested by the work described in this thesis. Novel tools are being indicated

  17. Cervical cancer control and prevention in Malawi: need for policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents finding on a qualitative study which carried out to determine the suitability of the national sexual and reproductive health and rights [SRHR] in mitigating challenges in cervical cancer control and prevention. Methods: a desk review of the Malawi National Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights ...

  18. Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess the level of awareness of, and perception of risk for, cervical cancer among women attending ... 5Community Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospitals, Osogbo, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Original ... secondary, and tertiary health-care services – located in.

  19. Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-14

    Jul 14, 2012 ... first sexual exposure, and secondarily through screening and treatment of identified precancerous lesions. Aim: To determine the awareness and acceptability of the HPV vaccine and screening for cervical cancer among female health-care workers in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: ...

  20. Integrating cervical cancer screening and preventive therapy into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrating cervical cancer screening and preventive therapy into reproductive health networks: Notes for the field. ... Data were collected through routine management information systems, which include information on client demographics, service use, first time screening status, HIV status, and screening results. Results: ...

  1. Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Kumasi, Ghana using a mixed methods approach. *Williams M1, Kuffour G2, Ekuadzi E3, Yeboah M4, ElDuah M1, Tuffour P2. 1. Department of Health Behavior, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA. 2. Department of Pharmaceutics ...

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening (pap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among practicing female nurses with a view to sensitizing them as a first step towards increasing screening uptake in the community. Method: A self administered questionnaire survey of all the female nurses working in Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

  3. Presentations of endometrial activity after curative radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, JA; Pras, E; Hollema, H; van der Zee, AGJ; Bogchelman, DH; Mourits, MJE

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The treatment of choice for patients with advanced stage cervical cancer is (chemo)radiotherapy. Gynaecologic side effects consist of loss of ovarian function and destruction of the endometrium, resulting in infertility and premature ovarian failure. In premenopausal patients estrogens

  4. Knowledge Of Cervical Cancer And Its Socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims/Objectives: This study aimed at assessing the knowledge of symptoms and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in Olufadi community, Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving women aged 25-64 years. Respondents were selected through systematic sampling ...

  5. Women's perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-24

    Oct 24, 2014 ... Background: Malawi provides cervical cancer screening services free of charge at some public health facilities. Few women ... ingelig te word oor servikale siftingstoetse wanneer hulle enige gesondheidsdienste benut. Page 1 of 8. Scan this QR code with your smart phone or mobile device to read online.

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening (Pap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “ABSTRACT. Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among practicing female nurses with a view to sensitizing them as a first step towards increasing screening uptake in the community. Method: A self administered questionnaire survey of all the female nurses working in Nnamdi ...

  7. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  8. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  9. Determinants of cervical cancer knowledge and the utilisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of death among females in the developing world, with poor prognosis attributed to lack of awareness about the disease and its prevention. Objective: The study was aimed at providing useful information on socio-demographic factors determining the awareness of ...

  10. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  11. The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen (VACCS) project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was provided to 19 primary schools in Western Cape and Gauteng provinces participating in the study. Girls with parental consent and child assent were vaccinated during school hours at their schools. Results. A total of 3 465 girls were invited to receive HPV vaccine, ...

  12. Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer screening among female health-care workers in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. ... Statistical analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer software version 16. A P value ...

  13. [Use of oral contraceptives and increased risk of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Lenselink, C.H.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    A recently published meta-analysis and a large cohort study showed independently that use of oral contraceptives (OC) leads to an increased relative risk (RR) of cervical cancer. This RR increased with the duration of OC use and was 1.90 after 5 years or more (95% CI: 1.69-2.13). The increased RR

  14. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract malignancies in the females and its burden is enormous, to the patient and her community. It is largely preventable or curable when detected at the very early stage through effective screening programme. Very poor clients' attendance has been noticed at the services provided ...

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening in Enugu, Nigeria. | Chukwuali | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Though preventable by early detection and treatment of the pre-invasive stage, carcinoma of the cervix remains the commonest gynaecological malignancy in Nigeria and a leading cause of death among women. The preventive role of cervical cancer screening is directly related to the proportion of the population ...

  16. Awareness and knowledge level of cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the awareness and knowledge level of cervical cancer among reproductive women in the Bolgatanga Municipality of the Upper East Region of Ghana. A structured question-naires was used to gather data from one hundred and fifty (150) women. The participants were re-cruited using the convenient ...

  17. Evolution of the health economics of cervical cancer vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferko, Nicole; Postma, Maarten; Gallivan, Steve; Kruzikas, Denise; Drummond, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of modelling for cervical cancer vaccination. We provide an interpretation and summary of conclusions pertaining to the usefulness of different models, the predicted epidemiological impact of vaccination and the cost-effectiveness of adolescent, catch-up and

  18. Cytokine expression & TGF-beta signaling in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloth, Judith Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Immune surveillance is of utmost importance in preventing cervical carcinogenesis. Cytokines play a central role in directing and fine tuning the immune response. In cancer, cytokines can either be involved in stimulating the anti-tumor immune response or in tumor growth and progression. The studies

  19. Knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer and human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on respondents' biodata, knowledge of STIs, human papilloma virus and cervical cancer, health and communication resources in their communities. This was supplemented by focus group discussions among religious and tribal groups within the urban and rural communities. We found a low level of awareness about HPV ...

  20. Clinico-pathological presentation of primary cervical cancer seen in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The common presenting symptoms were irregular vaginal bleeding, vaginal discharge and postcoital bleeding in that order. Majority of the patients presented in advanced stage (stage IIb – IVb) of the disease. Key words: Cervical cancer, Clinico-pathological presentation. Nig. J. of Surgical Research Vol.4(3-4) 2002: 89-93 ...

  1. Evaluation Of Cervical Cancer Screening Program At A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and practices on risk factors for cervical cancer and Pap smear and to design an intervention to improve Pap smear uptake. Methods: A cross-sectional population based descriptive study was undertaken at a rural community of South Africa targeting women 30 years and over. The assessment was performed by means of a ...

  2. Clinic visits and cervical cancer screening in Accra | Adanu | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A representative sample of women in Accra, Ghana was interviewed and the clinical and demographic factors influencing cervical cancer screening was ... high socioeconomic status and a history over the past month of postmenopausal or intermenstrual bleeding significantly increased the odds of ever having a ...

  3. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'i§?i"ABsTRAcT. Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among practicing female nurses with a view to sensitizing them as a first step towards increasing screening uptake in the community. Method: A self administered questionnaire survey of all the female nurses working in ...

  5. Utilisation and outcomes of cervical cancer prevention services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome measures. The proportion of women undergoing cervical cancer screening after HIV diagnosis at primary health clinics, demographic characteristics of women referred for colposcopy at a tertiary centre, and outcomes of therapy for precancerous lesions of the cervix. Results. The proportion of women undergoing ...

  6. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    likely they are to make a screening visit and to adhere to recommended follow-up for an abnormal result.[11,12]. Early detection is important in the management of cervical cancer, however most of the women in developing nations present with advanced disease when nothing can be done for them.[13] Several reasons for.

  7. Barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening services among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening services among non-medical female personnel in tertiary hospitals in south west Nigeria. ... Utilization rate is low at 15%; indecision, 32 .4% feeling of good health, 28.2% and fear of positive results, 18.1 % are the main reasons for not screening. Low level of education and ...

  8. Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. ... Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 23.0. The level of statistical significance was set at ... Increased media campaign about its risks and preventive measures is urgently needed. Keywords: ...

  9. A surprising diagnosis: metastatic prostate cancer causing cervical lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Meher; Sharma, Anita; Patten, Darren K

    2014-02-11

    Cervical lymphadenopathy as an initial presentation for metastatic prostate cancer has been rarely described. Less than 30 cases have been published in medical literature whereby a lymph node biopsy revealed immunoreactivity for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) diagnosing metastatic prostate cancer. We present a unique scenario whereby an asymptomatic patient with previous high-risk gastric cancer presented to clinic with cervical lymphadenopathy. A hunt for a recurrence ensued to no avail and imaging of the head and neck showed no hint of a primary malignancy in those regions. A lymph node biopsy was undertaken which showed elements suggesting metastatic prostate cancer. The patient developed symptoms of urinary outflow obstruction shortly afterwards. Blood tests revealed a very high PSA and a bone scan showed widespread bony metastasis. He was started on androgen deprivation therapy with an improvement of his PSA and symptoms. A regular clinic follow-up has shown stable disease.

  10. Human papillomavirus in cervical cancer and oropharyngeal cancer: One cause, two diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Tara A; Schiller, John T

    2017-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes greater than 5% of cancers worldwide, including all cervical cancers and an alarmingly increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs). Despite markedly reduced cervical cancer incidence in industrialized nations with organized screening programs, cervical cancer remains the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, as developing countries lack resources for universal, high-quality screening. In the United States, HPV-related OPC is only 1 of 5 cancers with a rising incidence since 1975 and now has taken over the cervix as the most common site of HPV-related cancer. Similar trends follow throughout North America and Europe. The need for early detection and prevention is paramount. Despite the common etiologic role of HPV in the development of cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC, great disparity exists between incidence, screening modalities (or lack thereof), treatment, and prevention in these 2 very distinct cohorts. These differences in cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC and their impact are discussed here. Cancer 2017;123:2219-2229. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Cytokine profile of cervical cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelbag, S; Fleuren, GJ; Baelde, JJ; Schuuring, E; Kenter, GG; Gorter, A

    2001-01-01

    Objective. In patients with cervical carcinoma, the presence of cytokines produced by T(H)2 cells, and the presence of an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate, has been associated with a less effective immune response and tumor progression. In the present study, we have investigated the cytokine

  12. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in human cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Garza Jaime G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that IAPs, in particular XIAP, survivin and c-IAP1, are overexpressed in several malignancies. In the present study we investigate the expression of c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP and survivin and its isoforms in cervical cancer. Methods We used semiquantitative RT-PCR assays to analyze 41 cancer and 6 normal tissues. The study included 8 stage I cases; 16 stage II; 17 stageIII; and a control group of 6 samples of normal cervical squamous epithelial tissue. Results c-IAP2 and XIAP mRNA levels were similar among the samples, cervical tumors had lower c-IAP1 mRNA levels. Unexpectedly, a clear positive association was found between low levels of XIAP and disease relapse. A log-rank test showed a significant inverse association (p = 0.02 between XIAP expression and tumor aggressiveness, as indicated by disease relapse rates. There were no statistically significant differences in the presence or expression levels of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 among any of the clinical variables studied. Survivin and its isoforms were undetectable in normal cervical tissues, in contrast with the clear upregulation observed in cancer samples. We found no association between survivin expression and age, clinical stage, histology or menopausal state. Nevertheless, we found that adenocarcinoma tumors expressed higher levels of survivin 2B and DeltaEx3 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04 respectively, by Kruskal-Wallis. A multivariate Cox's partial likelihood-based analysis showed that only FIGO stage was an independent predictor of outcome. Conclusion There are no differences in the expression of c-IAP2 and XIAP between normal vs. cancer samples, but XIAP expression correlate in cervical cancer with relapse of this disease in the patients. Otherwise, c-IAP1 was downregulated in the cervical cancer samples. The expression of survivin was upregulated in the patients with cervical cancer. We have found that adenocarcinoma presented higher levels of survivin isoforms 2

  13. Quality of life of women undergoing treatment for cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Francieli Ana Dallabrida; Marli Maria Loro; Cleci de Lourdes Schmidt Piovesan Rosanelli; Marina Mazzuco de Souza; Joseila Sonego Gomes; Adriane Cristina Bernat Kolankiewicz

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of women with cervical cancer. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study developed with 43 women undergoing oncological treatment assisted at an Oncology High Complexity Center, in the Southern region of Brazil. The instrument used was the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer – Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30, and the data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The average age was 54.6 years old. Married wo...

  14. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  15. [New guidelines in regard to cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have been successful in reducing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. For more than a decade, the human papillomavirus test has been recommended as part of these programs, however, Pap tests is not currently recommended for women 65 years of age who participated adequately in screening programs, continuing with these screening programs is not needed. Screening programs will be different in special populations at greatest risk where tests are frequently needed or use of alternative methods.

  16. Patients with cervical cancer: why did screening not prevent these cases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, R.P. de; Vergers-Spooren, H.C.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Siebers, A.G.; Salet-van der Pol, M.R.; Vedder, J.E.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bulten, J.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the screening history of women with cervical cancer and review normal cervical smears 5 years preceding the diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Cytological and histological results of 401 women treated for invasive cervical cancer between 1991 and 2008 at the

  17. Comparison of chromosome 3p deletions between cervical precancers synchronous with and without invasive cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Z.; Hu, X.; Afink, G.; Pontén, F.; Wilander, E.; Pontén, J.

    2000-01-01

    Cervical cancers are considered to originate from a series of pre-malignant lesions (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia, CIN). The mechanisms behind these events are unknown. In addition to HPV infection, deletions of chromosome 3p have been found to be a frequent event in cervical cancer and

  18. Evaluation of Cervicography Screening for Cervical Cancer in a High Risk Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-16

    cervicography in cervical screening. lnt J Gynecol Cancer 1993~ 3:395-398. 16. Urdaneta H. Detecci6n de patologia cervical no diagnosticada por citologia ...cervical screening. lnt J Gynecol Cancer 1993; 3:395-398. 24 Urdaneta H. Detecci6n de patologia cen,-ical no diagnosticada por citologia vaginal

  19. Exploring Chinese Women's Perception of Cervical Cancer Risk as It Impacts Screening Behavior: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Can; Chen, Wei-Ti; Zhang, Qiue; Chow, Ka Ming; Wu, Jianzhen; Tao, Lijian; Chan, Carmen W H

    Chinese women rarely undergo regular cervical screening. Women's decisions about cervical screening may be influenced by their perception of the risk of cervical cancer. Therefore, understanding how women perceive the risk of cervical cancer, how personal risk factors are interpreted, and the influence of cultural issues on cervical screening behavior is important. The aim of this study is to understand cervical cancer risk perception and the role of personal risk factors as they influence screening behavior among Chinese women. An exploratory qualitative research design was used. We conducted semistructured, in-depth interviews of 27 women in Changsha, a medium-size city in Hunan province, China. Participants identified that cervical cancer had serious consequences, but they distanced themselves psychologically from the disease because they felt that "cervical cancer is a shameful and deadly disease." Although women identified some of the risk factors for the disease, they had little specific knowledge of human papillomavirus infection, its association with cervical cancer, and the importance of cervical screening. This study contributes new knowledge to the understanding of cervical screening behavior within a specific social and cultural context. Better efforts should be made to educate Chinese women on the risk of cervical cancer and emphasize that effective cancer treatments are available and that there is a good chance of survival. Nurses working with Chinese women should ensure that the information they provide is culturally sensitive, particularly by acknowledging the normative beliefs of this population group.

  20. Concomitant cervical and transperineal parametrial high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost for locally advanced cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Bailleux

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is no consensus for parametrial boost technic while both transvaginal and transperineal approaches are discussed. A prototype was developed consisting of a perineal template, allowing transperineal needle insertion. This study analyzed acute toxicity of concomitant cervical and transperineal parametrial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB boost for locally advanced cervical cancer. Material and methods: From 01.2011 to 12.2014, 33 patients (pts presenting a locally advanced cervical cancer with parametrial invasion were treated. After the first course of external beam radiation therapy with cisplatinum, HDRB was performed combining endocavitary and interstitial technique for cervical and parametrial disease. Post-operative delineation (CTV, bladder, rectum, sigmoid and planification were based on CT-scan/MRI. HDRB was delivered in 3-5 fractions over 2-3 consecutive days. Acute toxicities occurring within 6 months after HDRB were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Median age was 56.4 years (27-79. Clinical stages were: T2b = 23 pts (69.7%, T3a = 1 pt (3%, T3b = 6 pts (18.2%, and T4a = 3 pts (9.1%. Median HDRB prescribed dose was 21 Gy (21-27. Median CTVCT (16 pts and HR-CTV MRI (17 pts were 52.6 cc (28.5-74.3, 31.9 cc (17.1-58, respectively. Median EQD2αβ10 for D90CTV and D90HR-CTV were 82.9 Gy (78.2-96.5, 84.8 Gy (80.6-91.4, respectively. Median EQD2αβ3 (CT/MRI for D2cc bladder, rectum and sigmoid were 75.5 Gy (66.6-90.9, 64.4 Gy (51.9-77.4, and 60.4 Gy (50.9-81.1, respectively. Median follow-up was 14 months (ranged 6-51. Among the 24 pts with MFU = 24 months, 2-year LRFS rate, RRFS, and OS were 86.8%, 88.8%, and 94.1%, respectively. The rates of acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were 36% (G1 dysuria = 8 pts, G2 infection = 2 pt, G3 infection = 2 pts, and 27% (G1 diarrhea = 9 pts, respectively. One patient presented vaginal bleeding at the time of applicator withdrawal (G3-blood transfusion; no bleeding was

  1. Preliminary report: biomechanics of vertebral artery segments C1-C6 during cervical spinal manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Sarah; Symons, Bruce; Leonard, Timothy; Herzog, Walter

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure strains in the human vertebral artery (VA) within the cervical transverse foramina and report the first results on the mechanical loading of segments of the VA during spinal manipulation of the cervical spine. Eight piezoelectric ultrasound crystals of 0.5-mm diameter were sutured into the lumen of the left and right VA of one cadaver. Four hundred-nanosecond ultrasound pulses were sent between the crystals to measure the instantaneous lengths of the VA segments (total segments n = 14) at a frequency of 200 Hz. Vertebral artery engineering strains were then calculated from the instantaneous lengths during cervical spinal range of motion testing, chiropractic cervical spinal manipulation adjustments, and vertebrobasilar insufficiency testing. The results of this study suggest complex and nonintuitive strain patterns of the VA within the cervical transverse foramina. Consistent (for 2 chiropractors) and repeatable (for 3 repeat measurements for each chiropractor) elongation and shortening of adjacent VA segments were observed simultaneously and could not be explained with a simple model of neck movement. We hypothesized that they were caused by variations in the location and stiffness of the VA fascial attachments to the vertebral foramina and by coupled movements of the cervical vertebrae. However, in agreement with previous work on VA strains proximal and distal to the cervical transverse foramina, strains for cervical spinal manipulations were consistently lower than those obtained for cervical rotation. Although general conclusions should not be drawn from these preliminary results, the findings of this study suggest that textbook mechanics of the VA may not hold, that VA strains may not be predictable from neck movements alone, and that fascial connections within the transverse foramina and coupled vertebra movements may play a crucial role in VA mechanics during neck manipulation. Furthermore, the engineering strains

  2. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass

  3. Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; In 't Hout, Bertha A.; Boomgaard, Jantine J.; de Hullu, Joanne A.; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Aalders, Jan G.; Jijman, Hans W.; Willemse, Pax H. B.; Mourits, Marian J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective

  4. Cost analysis of different cervical cancer screening strategies in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christyn M Beal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the costs and number of undetected cases of four cervical cancer screening strategies (CCSS in Mexico. Materials and methods. We estimated the costs and outcomes of the following CCSS: a conventional Papanicolaou smear (Pap alone; b high-risk human papilloma virus testing (HR-HPV as primary screening with Pap as reflex triage; c HR-HPV as primary screening with HPV-16/18 typing, liquid-based cytology (LBC and immunostaining for p16/Ki67 testing as reflex triage, and d co-testing with HR-HPV and LBC with HPV-16/18 typing and immunostaining for p16/Ki67 as reflex triage. The outcome of interest was high-grade cervical lesions or cervical cancer. Results. HR-HPV testing, HPV typing, LBC testing and immunostaining is the best alternative because it is the least expensive option with an acceptable number of missed cases. Conclusions. The opportunity costs of a poor quality CCSS is many false negatives. Combining multiple tests may be a more cost-effective way to screen for cervical cancer in Mexico

  5. ATF1 and RAS in exosomes are potential clinical diagnostic markers for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanhua; Wang, Wei; Yang, Baozhi; Tian, Hongge

    2017-10-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. It is highly lethal yet can be treated when found in early stage. Thus, early detection is of significant important for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Exosomes have been used as biomarkers in clinical diagnosis. It is unknown that whether blood exosomes associated with cervical cancer can be detected and if these exosomes can accurately represent the developmental stage of cervical cancer. Mouse models were made out of a relapsed cervical cancer patient's tumour sample for original and recurrent cervical cancer, and gene analysis in both tumours and exosomes in these mouse models were performed. We found that activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) and RAS genes were significantly up-regulated in tumours of both primary and recurrent cervical cancer mouse model, and they can also be detected in the blood exosomes of the mouse model. Our results indicated that ATF1 and RAS could be potential candidate biomarkers for cervical cancer in early diagnosis. ATF1 and RAS genes were found significantly elevated in tumours of primary and recurrent cervical cancer mouse model, and they were also detected in the blood exosomes. Therefore, ATF1 and RAS could be used as a diagnostic marker for cervical cancer in the future. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Personality Factor, Self Efficacy and Prevention Of Cervical Cancer In Women Of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ni ketut alit armini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer as the most common cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. The worse cervical cancer prevention program might lead to delayed treatment of cancer. Furthermore patient who suffered cervical cancer in women of childbearing age. Method: The study design was descriptive cross sectional approach correlation. The population were women of childbearing age who involved the region of Puskesmas Kenjeran  Surabaya. The number of sample were 64 respondents who taken by using simple random sampling. The independent variables were factor of personal and self efficacy. The dependent variable was the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. The data was analyzed by using statistic tests Spearmans’s rho to know correlation of independent variable with prevention measures of cervical cancer. Result: The result of relationship between the personal factors and cervical cancer prevention showed value p=0.025 (r=0.280. The relationship between self efficacy with prevention of cervical cancer in women of childbearing age showed value p=0.094 (r=0.211. Conclusion: Personal factors associated with prevention of cervical cancer in women of childbearing  age.  Self  efficacy had no relationship with prevention of cervical cancer in women of childbearing age. The further study was recommended to develop health promotion model factors to increase the prevention  of cervical cancer.

  7. Breast and cervical cancers diagnosed and stage at diagnosis among women served through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Royalty, Janet; Henley, Jane; White, Arica; Richardson, Lisa C

    2015-05-01

    To assess cancers diagnosed and the stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis among low-income, under-insured, or uninsured women who received services through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Using the NBCCEDP database, we examined the number and percent of women diagnosed during 2009-2011 with in situ breast cancer, invasive breast cancer, and invasive cervical cancer by demographic and clinical characteristics, including age, race and ethnicity, test indication (screening or diagnostic), symptoms (for breast cancer), and screening history (for cervical cancer). We examined these characteristics by stage at diagnosis, a new variable included in the database obtained by linking with state-based central cancer registries. There were 11,569 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, 1,988 with in situ breast cancer, and 583 with invasive cervical cancer through the NBCCEDP. Women who reported breast symptoms or who had diagnostic mammography were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, and at a later stage, than those who did not have symptoms or who had screening mammography. Women who had been rarely or never screened for cervical cancer were more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer, and at a later stage, than women who received regular screenings. Women served through the NBCCEDP who have not had prior screening or who have symptoms were more often diagnosed with late-stage disease.

  8. Expression of Long Noncoding RNA Urothelial Cancer Associated 1 Promotes Cisplatin Resistance in Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bi; Huang, Zhi; Gao, Rui; Zeng, Zhu; Yang, Weiming; Sun, Yuan; Wei, Wei; Wu, Zhongqing; Yu, Lei; Li, Qinshan; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Fenghu; Liu, Guoli; Liu, Bingjie; Leng, Li; Zhan, Wei; Yu, Yanlong; Yang, Guozhen; Zhou, Shi

    2017-04-01

    Cisplatin resistance is still one of the main reasons for failure of clinical therapy for cervical cancer. But the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in cisplatin resistance of cervical cancer have still remained unclear. Recent studies reported that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are novel nonprotein-coding transcripts, which might play a key role in cancer biogenesis and prognosis. One of the lncRNAs, urothelial cancer associated 1 (UCA1), has been shown to promote different types of cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. This study showed that overexpression of UCA1 confers cisplatin resistance by promoting cancer cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. In addition, knockdown of UCA1 remarkably decreased cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer cells. Moreover, results also indicated that UCA1 was involved in signaling pathways modulating cell apoptosis and proliferation. UCA1 suppressed apoptosis by downregulating caspase 3 and upregulating CDK2, whereas enhanced cell proliferation by increased level of survivin and decreased level of p21. This study reports for the first time that UCA1 might play an important role in the cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer, and also explain partially how UCA1 promotes cisplatin resistance in cancer cells. These results provide evidence to support that UCA1 can be used as a potential target for a novel therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.

  9. Early stage cervical cancer: psychosocial and sexual outcomes of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, A; Cowie, V J; Farquharson, D I; Livingstone, J R; Smart, G E; Elton, R A

    1993-12-01

    Eighty-three women, mean age 45 years, successfully treated by surgery (S) or radiotherapy (RT) for stage 1b cervical cancer were assessed a mean of 97 weeks post treatment. Forty to 50% reported persistent tiredness, lack of energy and weight gain. Sixty per cent had not resumed their full premorbid functional status. Mean scores for anxiety and depression were higher than general population means and this sample scored higher for psychological distress than published data quoted for disease free cancer patients. These women reported many concerns about cervical cancer, most commonly fear of recurrent disease (91%). More than one-third blamed themselves for the disease. There were no significant differences in functional outcome or psychological status between treatment groups or by age or time since treatment. Psychological distress scores were significantly correlated with physical complaints (P attention to their psychological and sexual concerns.

  10. Control of cervical cancer: women's options and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Joanna M; Ngan, Hextan; Garland, Suzanne; Wright, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Cervical cancer takes the lives of more than 250,000 women each year globally, particularly in under-resourced areas of low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Options for cancer control and treatment have reached a point that there are interventions for control that could be adopted for virtually every resource and demographic situation. Women die despite the availability of attractive control options, which means that educating policy makers, women's health professionals, as well as women themselves, must become a major focus for ongoing control of this disease. The human right to life, to prevention of suffering, and to education are all key rights linked to improving the control of cervical cancer and saving the lives of women, particularly in resource-poor parts of the world.

  11. Quality of life of women undergoing treatment for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Ana Dallabrida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of women with cervical cancer. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study developed with 43 women undergoing oncological treatment assisted at an Oncology High Complexity Center, in the Southern region of Brazil. The instrument used was the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer – Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30, and the data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The average age was 54.6 years old. Married women prevailed (53.4%, with incomplete elementary education (72.1% and income from one to two minimum wages (62.8%. Quality of Life was considered very satisfactory. According to the development scales and emotional functioning, the result was from regular to satisfactory. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue, lack of appetite and pain. There is a need of structure of public health policies, for preventing cervical cancer in the most vulnerable population.

  12. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cytosensors over a frequency range offers instantaneous and quantitative means to monitor cellular events and is an upcoming technique in real time to classify cells as normal and abnormal ones. This technology is exploited for label-free detection of diseases by identifying and measuring nonbiological parameters of the cell which may carry the disease signature.

  13. The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SH; Zali, MR; Raoufi, M; Nadji, M; Kowsarian, P; Nowroozi, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: The human papiloma virus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted, and most commonly causes genital warts, has been linked to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma. Of ninety plus types of HPV, HPV-16 is the most prevalent in cervical cancer, followed by HPV-18, and HPV-33. As HPV's implication has not been assessed in the Middle East the main focus of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of HPV -16,18, and 33 in cases of cervical cancer from Iran. Material and Methods: This retrospective study covered 100 patients with uterine cervical carcinomas who were referred to two referral centers for cancer in Tehran-Iran. Pathological blocks were collected for these cases and initial review of the blocks showed poor specimens in 18 cases, which left 82 cases for the study. These samples were histologically examined to verify the presence and the type of carcinoma. The next step was in situ hybridzation for the detection of HPV common DNA. In Situ hybridization was preformed on all samples. Finally, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was preformed for the HPV types 16, 18, and 33. PCR amplification of exon 5 of the p53 gene was used as an internal control for the integrity of DNA. Takara PCR Human papilloma Detection method was used which includes primer for HPV 16, 18, and 33. Three primers were used alone, or in combination, in order to increase the sensitivity of the detection. Results: The majority of tumors were squamous cell carcinomas (87%). The rest were adenosquamous carcinoma and adenocarcinomas. None of the 82 different cervical carcinoma tissue samples were found to be positive by in situ hybridization. In the PCR samples, amplification of DNA was observed for 69 tumor specimens. In the remainning13 cases, the DNA in fixed tissue was degraded, as verified by the absence of an internal control band (p53). Out of the total 69 tumors (85.5%) with adequate DNA contained HPV band on PCR. The majority (73.9%) of HPV

  14. Multi-test cervical cancer diagnosis with missing data estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Huang, Xiaolei; Kim, Edward; Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading most common type of cancer for women worldwide. Existing screening programs for cervical cancer suffer from low sensitivity. Using images of the cervix (cervigrams) as an aid in detecting pre-cancerous changes to the cervix has good potential to improve sensitivity and help reduce the number of cervical cancer cases. In this paper, we present a method that utilizes multi-modality information extracted from multiple tests of a patient's visit to classify the patient visit to be either low-risk or high-risk. Our algorithm integrates image features and text features to make a diagnosis. We also present two strategies to estimate the missing values in text features: Image Classifier Supervised Mean Imputation (ICSMI) and Image Classifier Supervised Linear Interpolation (ICSLI). We evaluate our method on a large medical dataset and compare it with several alternative approaches. The results show that the proposed method with ICSLI strategy achieves the best result of 83.03% specificity and 76.36% sensitivity. When higher specificity is desired, our method can achieve 90% specificity with 62.12% sensitivity.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camisao, Claudia C. [Hospital Sao Lucas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ccamisao@inca.gov.br; Brenna, Sylvia M.F. [Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lombardelli, Karen V.P. [Hospital do Cancer (HCII), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Djahjah, Maria Celia R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Ginecologia

    2007-05-15

    Cervical cancer is the worldwide leading cause of cancer-related death of women, especially in developing countries. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommends staging during surgery, however, surgical-pathologic staging would not be feasible in cases of more advanced cancers. Generally, in these cases, the staging is performed by means of clinical and gynecological examination and basic imaging studies. However, such an approach fails to demonstrate the actual extent of the disease, and does not include significant prognostic factors such as tumor volume, stromal invasion and lymph node involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging has increasingly been utilized in cervical cancer staging, since at early stages of the disease its performance may be compared to intraoperative findings and, at advanced stages, it shows to be superior to the clinical evaluation. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging presents an excellent imaging resolution for the different densities of pelvic structures, does not require ionizing radiation, is comfortable for the patient, improves de staging, allowing the early detection of recurrence and the identification of reliable prognostic factors which contribute to the therapeutic decision making process and results prediction with an excellent cost-effectiveness. The present article is aimed at reviewing the most significant aspects of magnetic resonance imaging in the cervical cancer staging. (author)

  16. Biologia molecular do câncer cervical Molecular biology of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Augusto Rivoire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A carcinogênese é um processo de múltiplas etapas. Alterações no equilíbrio citogenético ocorrem na transformação do epitélio normal a câncer cervical. Numerosos estudos apoiam a hipótese de que a infecção por HPV está associada com o desenvolvimento de alterações malignas e pré-malignas do trato genital inferior. Neste trabalho são apresentadas as bases para a compreensão da oncogênese cervical. O ciclo celular é controlado por proto-oncogenes e genes supressores. Quando ocorrem mutações, proto-oncogenes tornam-se oncogenes, que são carcinogênicos e causam multiplicação celular excessiva. A perda da ação de genes supressores funcionais pode levar a célula ao crescimento inadequado. O ciclo celular também pode ser alterado pela ação de vírus, entre eles o HPV (Human Papiloma Virus, de especial interesse na oncogênese cervical. Os tipos de HPV 16 e 18 são os de maior interesse, freqüentemente associados a câncer cervical e anal. O conhecimento das bases moleculares que estão envolvidas na oncogênese cervical tem sido possível devido a utilização de técnicas avançadas de biologia molecular. A associação destas técnicas aos métodos diagnósticos clássicos, poderão levar a uma melhor avaliação das neoplasias cervicais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento de novas terapias, talvez menos invasivas e mais efetivas.Carcinogenesis involves several steps. Disorders of the cytogenetic balance occur during the evolution from normal epithelium to cervical cancer. Several studies support the hypothesis that the Human Papiloma Virus (HPV infection is associated to development of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical cancer. In this review we show the basis to understand cervical oncogenesis. The cell cycle is controlled by protooncogenes and supressive genes. This orchestrated cell cycle can be affected by virus such as HPV. Of special interest in the cervical carcinogenesis are the HPV subtypes 16 and 18

  17. Cervical cancer screening in Greenland, 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Signe; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In spite of the high incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland, no assessment has been made of the impact of organized cervical screening, introduced in 1998, in relation to occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions. The objectives of the present study were to estimate coverage....... To investigate whether possible variation in the incidence of CIN3 were related to differences in screening coverage, we further estimated relative risks of CIN3 within two years of screening among women who participated in the screening program using log-linear binomial regression. RESULTS: Coverage...... of the screening program was low during 1997-2011 with the highest level of 54% observed in 2011. Peaks in CIN3 incidence of around 300 per 100,000 person-years were observed in 1999 and between 2009 and 2011, while the incidence was lower of approximately 100 per 100,000 person-years between 2000 and 2008. During...

  18. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women in Zaria, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Aliyu Ahmed; Kabiru Sabitu; Suleiman Hadejia Idris; Rukaiya Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common genital cancer and one of the leading causes of death among female population. Fortunately, this cancer is preventable by screening for premalignant lesions but this is rarely provided and hardly utilised. We assessed the knowledge, attitude and utilisation of cervical cancer screening among market women in Sabon Gari, Zaria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cance...

  19. Systems-level effects of ectopic galectin-7 reconstitution in cervical cancer and its microenvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Higareda-Almaraz, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Moreno, Juan S.; Klimentova, Jana; Barbieri, Daniela; Salvador-Gallego, Raquel; Ly, Regina; Valtierra-Gutierrez, Ilse A.; Dinsart, Christiane; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Stulik, Jiri; Rösl, Frank; Rincon-Orozco, Bladimiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Galectin-7 (Gal-7) is negatively regulated in cervical cancer, and appears to be a link between the apoptotic response triggered by cancer and the anti-tumoral activity of the immune system. Our understanding of how cervical cancer cells and their molecular networks adapt in response to the expression of Gal-7 remains limited. Methods Meta-analysis of Gal-7 expression was conducted in three cervical cancer cohort studies and TCGA. In silico prediction and bisulfite sequencing were ...

  20. A study of chronic fatigue in Norwegian cervical cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Rita; Dahl, Alv A; Hess, Siri Lothe; Kiserud, Cecilie E

    2017-09-01

    Chronic fatigue after treatment is a common adverse event in cancer patients, but there are few studies in long-term survivors of cervical cancer. The aim of this investigation was to explore the prevalence of chronic fatigue and its association with various clinical and treatment-related factors in a population-based cohort of Norwegian cervical cancer survivors treated by any modality. All patients, treated for cervical cancer from 2000 through 2007 in the Health Region of South-Eastern Norway, cancer-free, alive and aged ≤75years by the end 2013 (n=822) received a questionnaire covering chronic fatigue and other clinical variables. 461 of 822 survivors (56%) completed the questionnaire and 382 entered the analyses. Chronic fatigue was reported by 23% (95% confidence interval 19%-27%) with a median age of 52years (range 32-75) at survey, 11years (range 7-15) after diagnosis. Among survivors treated by minimal invasive- or radical surgery, 19% had chronic fatigue, while the prevalence was 28% in those treated with radiation and concomitant chemotherapy (chemoradiation). The chronic fatigue group reported significantly more cardiovascular disease, obesity, less physical activity, more treatment-related symptom experience, more menopausal symptoms, higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and poorer quality of life than the non-fatigued group. In multivariate analysis only increased level of depression and poorer global quality of life were significantly associated with chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue was reported by 23% of long-term survivors after cervical cancer at a mean of 11years after treatment. Some of the associated factors are amenable to prevention and/or treatment and should be subjects of attention at follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual Function in Cervical Cancer Survivors after Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

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    Dhiraj Daga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated sexual function in cervical cancer survivors after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods: Study participants comprised survivors of locally advanced cervical cancer (stages IIB-IVA who completed concurrent chemoradiotherapy along with intracavitary brachytherapy at least two years prior at Dr S.N.Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. We used the Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire to assess sexual function. The cut-off score of the Female Sexual Function Index that identified female sexual arousal disorder was 26.55. A score less than 26.55 indicated the presence of female sexual arousal disorder. Results:A total of 48 locally advanced cervical cancer survivors enrolled in the study. Survivors had a mean age of 46.5 years. All received chemoradiotherapy along with intracavitary brachytherapy. The average time for treatment was 53.5 days. Patients had an average score for sexual desire of 2, 2.3 for arousal, 2.3 for sexual satisfaction, and 2.1 for pain during intercourse. The overall average score was 11.84 (range: 3.2-19.5 with a cut-off of 26.55. All survivors suffered from female sexual arousal disorder. Conclusion: Cervical cancer survivors had decreased sexual function which indicated female sexual arousal disorder. Patient education and active treatment of complications related to cancer treatments is a must for improvement of sexual function among survivors. Long-term complications should be considered in terms of treatment planning and follow-up treatment to improve the quality of life of cancer survivors.

  2. Polymorphism of Ag(+)-NORs in cervical smears from women with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Leal-Elizondo, E; Cerda-Flores, R M; Leal-Garza, C H

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate Ag(+)-stained (Ag(+)-NOR) polymorphism in four groups of patients with various grades of cervical lesions and in a control group. Forty-five women were selected, diagnosed and classified on the bases of the Pap smear and colposcopy/biopsy at Hospital de Ginecologia y Obstetricia del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Monterrey, Mexico. Five categories were considered: (1) inflammatory, (2) low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), (3) high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), (4) invasive cervical cancer, and (5) normal. The cervical smears were stained by the Ag(+)-NOR method. One hundred cells per slide were counted and classified according to the polymorphism of Ag(+)-NOR dots: typical (spherical) and atypical (large, kidney shaped and clustered). The four shapes of Ag(+)-NORs were quantified by percentage and transformed using the arcsine root procedure. Statistical analysis showed a significant decrease in spherical shape according to neoplastic development. The three atypical shapes showed a significant increase in patients with HSIL and invasive carcinoma in respect to LSIL. Principal components analysis grouped the data at five locations in the plane formed by the first two principal components according to the diagnosis. These findings suggest the potential diagnostic and prognostic value of the determination of Ag(+)-NOR polymorphism in cervical cytology studies.

  3. Tafazzin (TAZ) promotes the tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells and inhibits apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Zhang, Yuan; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Tafazzin (TAZ) is often aberrantly expressed in some cancers, including rectal cancer and thyroid neoplasms. However, the function of TAZ in cervical cancer cells remains unknown. This study aims to explore the expression and function of TAZ in cervical cancer cells. Here, we determined the expression of TAZ protein in normal cervical tissue (NC, n = 27), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, n = 26) and squamous cervical carcinoma (SCC, n = 41) by immunohistochemistry, the expression of TAZ protein gradually increased from NC to HSIL to SCC. TAZ was overexpressed or down-regulated in cervical cancer cells by stably transfecting a TAZ-expressing plasmid or a shRNA plasmid targeting TAZ. In vitro, the cell growth curves and MTT assays showed that TAZ may promote the growth and viability of cervical cancer cells. In vivo, xenografts experiment showed that TAZ may increase tumor-forming ability. The percentage of apoptosis cells analyzed by FACS and TUNEL assays consistently showed that TAZ inhibits apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, the Cleaved Caspase 9 and Cleaved Caspase 3 were down-regulated by TAZ in cervical cancer cells. Taken together, this study demonstrated that TAZ is overexpressed in cervical cancer and may promote tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells and inhibit apoptosis. PMID:28489874

  4. Stanniocalcin 2 promotes cell proliferation and cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxia; Gao, Ying; Cheng, Hairong; Yang, Guichun [Department of Gynecology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150081 (China); Tan, Wenhua, E-mail: tanwenhua1962@163.com [Department of Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150086 (China)

    2015-10-23

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common carcinomas in the female reproductive system. Treatment of cervical cancer involves surgical removal and chemotherapy. Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy drugs including cisplatin has increasingly become an important problem in the treatment of cervical cancer patients. We found in this study that stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) expression was upregulated in both cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. The levels of STC2 expression in cervical cancer cell lines were positively correlated with the rate of cell proliferation. Furthermore, in cisplatin resistant cervical cancer cells, the levels of STC2 expression were significantly elevated. Modulation of STC2 expression by siRNA or overexpression in cisplatin resistant cells resulted in altered cell survival, apoptosis, and cisplatin resistance. Finally, we found that there was significant difference in the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway between cisplatin sensitive and resistant cervical cancer cells, and that STC2 could regulate the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • STC2 was upregulated in cervical cancer and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation. • Cisplatin resistant cells had elevated STC2 levels and enhanced proliferation. • STC2 regulated cisplatin chemosensitivity in cervical cancer cells. • STC2 regulated the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway.

  5. Analysis of the determinants of low cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Nwobodo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer causes an estimated 266,000 deaths globally, 85% of which occurs in developing countries. It is a preventable disease, if detected and treated early via screen and treat, yet its burden is still huge in Nigeria. In 2012, 21.8% cases and 20.3% deaths due to cervical cancer were recorded in Nigeria. This review, therefore, aims at understanding the determinants of low cervical cancer screening in Nigeria in order to contribute in reducing the burden of the disease. Literature were obtained from Global Health, Popline and PubMed databases; WHO and other relevant websites using Eldis search engine; and from libraries in the University of Leeds and WHO in Geneva. Conceptual framework for analyzing the determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women was formed by inserting service delivery component of the WHO health system framework into a modified Health Belief Model. Wrong perception of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening due to low level of knowledge about the disease and inadequate cervical cancer preventive were identified as the major determinants of low cervical cancer screening uptake in Nigeria. Among women, belief in being at risk and/or severity of cervical cancer was low just as belief on benefits of cervical cancer screening, unlike high belief in barriers to screening. Support from the community and screening skills among health-workers were inadequate. Improving uptake of cervical cancer screening will reduce the burden of the disease. Therefore, researchers and other stakeholders interested in prevention of cervical cancer should carry-out studies to identify interventions that could address the key determinants of low cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women.

  6. Aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical Epidemiological aspects of cervical cancer

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    Antonio Aleixo Neto

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi efetuada revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical, um dos mais freqüentes em mulheres de países em desenvolvimento. No Brasil a incidência varia de 23,7/100.000, em Porto Alegre, a 83,2/100.000, em Recife. Nos Estados Unidos a incidência em 1978 foi de 6,8/100.000 entre as mulheres brancas e de 14,7/100.000 entre as negras. Várias observações sugerem a hipótese de que o câncer cervical esteja relacionado com algum aspecto da atividade sexual, possivelmente algum agente transmitido por via venérea. As evidências têm implicado o papilomavirus humano (HPV como o principal agente etiológico deste câncer. Vários trabalhos foram analisados quanto à validade desta hipótese etiológica, mostrando que há uma relação entre HPV e o câncer cervical. Foram analisados os fatores de risco mais conhecidos, tais como o comportamento sexual, o tabagismo e a contracepção, diante das várias possibilidades etiológicas existentes.A review concerning the epidemiological issues relating to cervical cancer, one of the most frequent in the women of developing countries, was undertaken in - Brazil, the incidence rate varies from 23.7/100,000 in Porto Alegre to 83.2/100,000 in Recife. In the United States, the 1978 incidence rate was 6.8/100,000 in white women and 14.7/100,000 among black women. Several studies have suggested the hypotheses that cervical cancer could be related to some venereal agent. The evidences have shown the human papillomavirus (HPV to be the main etiological agent. Several studies on the validity of such a hypotheses were realyzed and it became clear that there does infact exist a relationship between the HPV and cervical cancer. Finally, the better known risk factors, such as sexual behaviour, smoking and the contraception were studied in the light of the various etiological hypotheses.

  7. Prevalence of cervical neoplastic lesions and Human Papilloma Virus infection in Egypt: National Cervical Cancer Screening Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    el-All, Howayda S Abd; Refaat, Amany; Dandash, Khadiga

    2007-01-01

    .... To define the prevalence and risk factors of pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer (cacx), a community based full-scale cross sectional, household survey including 5453 women aged between 35 and 60 years was conducted...

  8. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  9. Violence against women and cervical cancer screening: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Franciéle Marabotti Costa; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Primo, Cândida Caniçali; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2017-08-01

    To present a systematic review of papers published on the relationship between violence against women and cervical cancer screening. Violence against women is a serious public health problem. This phenomenon can have negative effects on victims' health and affect the frequency at which they receive cervical cancer screening. A systematic literature review. This study was carried out in October 2015 with searches of the Lilacs, PubMed and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: violence, domestic violence, battered women, spouse abuse, Papanicolaou test, vaginal smears, early detection of cancer and cervix uteri. Eight papers published between 2002-2013 were included in this review, most of which were cross-sectional studies. Three studies found no association between victimisation and receiving Pap testing, and five studies reported an association. These contradictory results were due to higher or lower examination frequencies among the women who had experienced violence. The results of this study indicate that the association between violence against women and cervical cancer screening remains inconclusive, and they demonstrate the need for more detailed studies to help clarify this relationship. Professionals who aid women should be knowledgeable regarding the perception and detection of violence so that they can interrupt the cycle of aggression, which has harmful impacts on victims' health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Unique microRNA expression profiles in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocze, Katalin; Gombos, Katalin; Juhasz, Krisztina; Kovacs, Krisztina; Kajtar, Bela; Benczik, Marta; Gocze, Peter; Patczai, Balazs; Arany, Istvan; Ember, Istvan

    2013-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among female patients with cancer in the world. Our aim was to analyze cervical cancer cases, in the Southwestern Transdanubian Region of Hungary, with regard to human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype and histological and clinical grading. After HPV testing and genotyping, the expressions of eight different pre-microRNAs (miR-21, miR-27a, miR-34a, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-196a, miR-203, miR-221) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary human cervical cancer samples were evaluated with the help of the LightCycler 480 PCR System (Roche). Statistically significant overexpression of miR-21 (p=0.004), miR-27a (p=0.018), miR-34a (pHPV status and clinical grading. Significant overexpression of miR-21 (p=0.004), miR-27a (p=0.02), miR-34a (pHPV-positive squamous cell carcinomas in contrast to adenocarcinomas of the same HPV status.

  11. Perspective for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cervical Cancer: An Immunological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Marjorie; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Mirandola, Leonardo; Tonroy, Catherine; Tedjarati, Sean S.; Davis, Nicole; D’Cunha, Nicholas; Tijani, Lukman; Hardwick, Fred; Nguyen, Diane; Kast, W. Martin; Cobos, Everardo

    2014-01-01

    As the second most common cause of cancer-related death in women, human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines have been a major step in decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. An estimated 490,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year. Increasing knowledge of the HPV role in the etiology of cervical cancer has led to the development and introduction of HPV-based vaccines for active immunotherapy of cervical cancer. Immunotherapies directed at preventing HPV-persistent infections. These vaccines are already accessible for prophylaxis and in the near future, they will be available for the treatment of preexisting HPV-related neoplastic lesions. PMID:22251005

  12. The descriptive and epidemiological characteristics of cervical cancer

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    Vukićević D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has long been a serious public health issue, both locally and worldwide. Efforts to control this disease should encompass prevention, as well as early detection and treatment, but also meticulous record-keeping and follow-up monitoring of affected women. In order to efficiently combat the disease, all of the above conditions must be met simultaneously. The goal of this article is to provide a layout of the fundamental descriptive and epidemiological characteristics of both cervical cancer patients and deaths resulting from the disease in Serbia, Europe and worldwide. We will pay special attention to a detailed epidemiological report on Central Serbia from 1999 to 2011. The article utilizes the approach of descriptive epidemiology to compound the knowledge about the disease, its incidence, and outcomes. The presented data was gathered from Globocan, a cancer surveillance database developed by the WHO, as well as the Cancer Registry of Central Serbia (for the aforementioned time period. There were 527624 new cases reported globally in 2012, corresponding to a standardized incidence ratio of 14,0 per 100000 women. Mortality-wise, there were 265653 deaths recorded in 2012, yielding a standardized mortality ratio of 6.8 per 100000 women. In other words, on average, every two minutes a woman dies of cervical cancer, totalling 720 cervical cancer mortalities per day. In Europe, there have been 58348 new cases in 2012 (11.44 per 100000 women, with 24378 deaths (3,75 per 100000 women. In Serbia, 1501 new cases were recorded in 2012 (23,8 per 100000 women, with 609 deaths (7,7 per 100000 women. These data make Serbia rank 62nd (out of 182 countries in terms of incidence, and 84th in terms of mortality of cervical cancer, putting Serbia in the top half of the world on both criteria. According to the data supplied by the Cancer Registry of Central Serbia, the average standardized incidence ratio of 23.9/100000 women and the SMR of 7

  13. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

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    Yessi Jusman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data.

  14. Intelligent screening systems for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusman, Yessi; Ng, Siew Cheok; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data.

  15. Multiple neoplasms among cervical cancer patients in the material of the lower Silesian cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmajłowicz, Barbara; Kornafel, Jan; Błaszczyk, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    According to the definition by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), primary multiple neoplasms are two or more neoplasms of different histopathological build in one organ, or two or more tumors occurring in one patient, regardless of the time of their occurrence (synchronic - up to 6 months, metachronous - after 6 months), coming from an organ or a tissue and not being an infiltration from another neoplasm, a relapse or a metastasis. It was the aim of the study to analyze the frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasms among patients suffering from uterine cervix cancer, with a special interest in coexistent neoplasms, the time of their occurrence and total 5-year survivals. The data from the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry concerning the years 1984-2009 formed the material of the present study. 5.3% of all cervix neoplasms occurred as multiple cancers. Cervix neoplasms were 13.4% of multiple neoplasms. On average, cervical cancer occurred as a subsequent cancer in 6 patients yearly (60.7% of the occurrences of cervical cancer were in the period of 5 years following treatment for the first neoplasm). 5-year survival in patients suffering from primarily multiple cervix neoplasms constituted 57% and was convergent with the results for all patients suffering from cervical cancer. Cervical cancer as the first neoplasm occurred in 287 patients, on average in 11 patients annually. In the period of the first 5 years after the treatment of cervical cancer, there were 42.8% occurrences of other cancers. Cervical neoplasms most frequently coexisted with cancers of the breast, lung and large intestine. The frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasm among cervical cancer patients is increasing. Most frequently they coexist with other tobacco-related neoplasms, those related to HPV infections and with secondary post-radiation neoplasms. These facts should be taken into consideration during post-treatment observation and when directing diagnostic

  16. Second primary head and neck tumor risk in patients with cervical cancer--SEER data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose Ragin, Camille C; Taioli, Emanuela

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes >99% of cervical carcinomas and is associated with approximately 25% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). The role of HPV infection in HNSCC development after a first diagnosis of cervical cancer is unknown. Using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, the authors compared the risk of second primary cancer (SPC) HNSCC in patients with cervical cancer with the general population and with females with other primary cancers. The lifetime risk of SPC HNSCC for patients with cervical cancer was higher than in the general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR]: 1.7). When compared with that in females with other cancers, the risk of anogenital and oropharyngeal SPC was in excess, but not of SPC in the oral cavity. Patients with cervical cancer develop an excess SPC HNSCC in comparison with females with other cancers. A possible role of HPV is suggested. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Proteomic patterns of cervical cancer cell lines, a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higareda-Almaraz, Juan Carlos; Enríquez-Gasca, María del Rocío; Hernández-Ortiz, Magdalena; Resendis-Antonio, Osbaldo; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio

    2011-06-22

    Cervical cancer is a major mortality factor in the female population. This neoplastic is an excellent model for studying the mechanisms involved in cancer maintenance, because the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the etiology factor in most cases. With the purpose of characterizing the effects of malignant transformation in cellular activity, proteomic studies constitute a reliable way to monitor the biological alterations induced by this disease. In this contextual scheme, a systemic description that enables the identification of the common events between cell lines of different origins, is required to distinguish the essence of carcinogenesis. With this study, we sought to achieve a systemic perspective of the common proteomic profile of six cervical cancer cell lines, both positive and negative for HPV, and which differ from the profile corresponding to the non-tumourgenic cell line, HaCaT. Our objectives were to identify common cellular events participating in cancer maintenance, as well as the establishment of a pipeline to work with proteomic-derived results. We analyzed by means of 2D SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry the protein extracts of six cervical cancer cell lines, from which we identified a consensus of 66 proteins. We call this group of proteins, the "central core of cervical cancer". Starting from this core set of proteins, we acquired a PPI network that pointed, through topological analysis, to some proteins that may well be playing a central role in the neoplastic process, such as 14-3-3ζ. In silico overrepresentation analysis of transcription factors pointed to the overexpression of c-Myc, Max and E2F1 as key transcription factors involved in orchestrating the neoplastic phenotype. Our findings show that there is a "central core of cervical cancer" protein expression pattern, and suggest that 14-3-3ζ is key to determine if the cell proliferates or dies. In addition, our bioinformatics analysis suggests that the neoplastic phenotype is

  18. Proteomic patterns of cervical cancer cell lines, a network perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resendis-Antonio Osbaldo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is a major mortality factor in the female population. This neoplastic is an excellent model for studying the mechanisms involved in cancer maintenance, because the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is the etiology factor in most cases. With the purpose of characterizing the effects of malignant transformation in cellular activity, proteomic studies constitute a reliable way to monitor the biological alterations induced by this disease. In this contextual scheme, a systemic description that enables the identification of the common events between cell lines of different origins, is required to distinguish the essence of carcinogenesis. Results With this study, we sought to achieve a systemic perspective of the common proteomic profile of six cervical cancer cell lines, both positive and negative for HPV, and which differ from the profile corresponding to the non-tumourgenic cell line, HaCaT. Our objectives were to identify common cellular events participating in cancer maintenance, as well as the establishment of a pipeline to work with proteomic-derived results. We analyzed by means of 2D SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry the protein extracts of six cervical cancer cell lines, from which we identified a consensus of 66 proteins. We call this group of proteins, the "central core of cervical cancer". Starting from this core set of proteins, we acquired a PPI network that pointed, through topological analysis, to some proteins that may well be playing a central role in the neoplastic process, such as 14-3-3ζ. In silico overrepresentation analysis of transcription factors pointed to the overexpression of c-Myc, Max and E2F1 as key transcription factors involved in orchestrating the neoplastic phenotype. Conclusions Our findings show that there is a "central core of cervical cancer" protein expression pattern, and suggest that 14-3-3ζ is key to determine if the cell proliferates or dies. In addition, our

  19. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer Vacunas para prevenir el cáncer cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSETTE M WHEELER

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.El potencial uso de vacunas de virus del papiloma humano (VPH en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer cervical posiblemente será implementado durante los próximos años. Cerca de los 20 genotipos de VPH de los 75 que se encuentran identificados infectan el tracto genital femenino, pero son cuatro subtipos: 16, 18, 31 y 45 los que se han asociado en cerca de 80% a cáncer cervical. En este ensayo se plantea que para poder diseñar una vacuna profiláctica contra la infección de VPH, efectiva, se debe garantizar una adecuada respuesta inmune a través de cuatro metas: a activación de antígenos presentes en la célula; b superar la respuesta del huésped y la variabilidad genética viral en la respuesta de células T; c generación de altos niveles de células T y B de memoria, y d persistencia de antígenos.

  20. Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in cervical biopsies from women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Law, Irwin; Buadromo, Eka; Stevens, Matthew P; Fong, James; Samuela, Josaia; Patel, Mahomed; Mulholland, E Kim; Russell, Fiona M; Garland, Suzanne M

    2011-09-01

    There is currently limited information about human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in women in the South Pacific region. This study's objective was to determine HPV genotypes present in cervical cancer (CC) and precancers (cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN) 3) in Fiji. Cross-sectional analysis evaluated archival CC and CIN3 biopsy samples from 296 women of Melanesian Fijian ethnicity (n=182, 61.5%) and Indo-Fijian ethnicity (n=114, 38.5%). HPV genotypes were evaluated using the INNO-LiPA assay in archival samples from CC (n=174) and CIN3 (n=122) among women in Fiji over a 5-year period from 2003 to 2007. Overall, 99% of the specimens tested were HPV DNA-positive for high-risk genotypes, with detection rates of 100%, 97.4% and 100% in CIN3, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenosquamous carcinoma biopsies, respectively. Genotypes 16 and 18 were the most common (77%), followed by HPV 31 (4.3%). Genotype HPV 16 was the most common identified (59%) in CIN3 specimens, followed by HPV 31 (9%) and HPV 52 (6.6%). Multiple genotypes were detected in 12.5-33.3% of specimens, depending on the pathology. These results indicated that the two most prevalent CC-associated HPV genotypes in Fiji parallel those described in other regions worldwide, with genotype variations thereafter. These data suggest that the currently available bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines could potentially reduce cervical cancers in Fiji by over 80% and reduce precancers by at least 60%.

  1. Image-Based Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkenrider, Matthew M., E-mail: mharkenrider@lumc.edu; Alite, Fiori; Silva, Scott R.; Small, William

    2015-07-15

    Cervical cancer is a disease that requires considerable multidisciplinary coordination of care and labor in order to maximize tumor control and survival while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As with external beam radiation therapy, the use of advanced imaging and 3-dimensional treatment planning has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The use of image-based brachytherapy, most commonly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires additional attention and effort by the treating physician to prescribe dose to the proper volume and account for adjacent organs at risk. This represents a dramatic change from the classic Manchester approach of orthogonal radiographic images and prescribing dose to point A. We reviewed the history and currently evolving data and recommendations for the clinical use of image-based brachytherapy with an emphasis on MRI-based brachytherapy.

  2. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values......, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009-2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  3. Influencing factors on cervical cancer screening from the Kurdish women's perspective: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, V H; Cheraghi, M A; Behboodi Moqadam, Z

    2015-01-01

    Aim:This study was aimed to explore and describe the Kurdish women's perception of cervical cancer screening. Methods: A qualitative design based on a conventional content analysis approach. Purposive sampling was applied to 19 women chosen, who had a Pap smear or refused to have one. The study was performed in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Semi-structure din-depth individual interviews were carried out to collect data. Results: Four main themes including conflict, belief, and awareness about cervical cancer screening and socio-cultural factors emerged during data analysis Conclusions: Cervical cancer has a high mortality rate in the developing countries. However, only a few Kurdish women participated in the cervical cancer screening in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Understanding the factors associated with the women's perception of cervical cancer could guide future educational planning and clinical interventions improve the cervical cancer screening.

  4. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2015-01-01

    , the incidence rate of cervical cancer and the screening coverage for women aged 23-64 years on 31 December 2010 were calculated with and without adjustments for hysterectomies undertaken for reasons other than cervical cancer. They were calculated as the number of cases divided by 1) the total number of woman......BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of cervical cancer and the coverage in cervical cancer screening are usually reported by including in the denominator all women from the general population. However, after hysterectomy women are not at risk anymore of developing cervical cancer. Therefore, it makes...... sense to determine the indicators also for the true at-risk populations. We described the frequency of total hysterectomy in Denmark and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and the screening coverage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With data from five Danish population-based registries...

  5. Risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving immunosuppressive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, C H; Liu, J; Feldman, S; Solomon, D H; Kim, S C

    2017-06-01

    Objective Prior studies suggest an increased risk of cervical cancer among women with systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the relationship with immunosuppressive drugs is not well studied in US nationwide cohorts. We compared the risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer among women with systemic lupus erythematosus who started immunosuppressive drugs versus hydroxychloroquine. Methods We identified systemic lupus erythematosus patients initiating immunosuppressive drugs or hydroxychloroquine using claims data from two US commercial health plans and Medicaid (2000-2012). We used a validated claims-based algorithm to identify high-grade cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer. To account for potential confounders, including demographic factors, comorbidities, medication use, HPV vaccination status, and health care utilization, immunosuppressive drugs and hydroxychloroquine initiators were 1:1 matched on the propensity score. We used inverse variance-weighted, fixed effect models to pool hazard ratios from the propensity score-matched Medicaid and commercial cohorts. Results We included 2451 matched pairs of immunosuppressive drugs and hydroxychloroquine new users in the commercial cohort and 7690 matched pairs in Medicaid. In the commercial cohort, there were 14 cases of cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer among immunosuppressive drugs users and five cases among hydroxychloroquine users (hazard ratio 2.47, 95% CI 0.89-6.85, hydroxychloroquine = ref). In Medicaid, there were 46 cases among immunosuppressive drugs users and 29 cases in hydroxychloroquine users (hazard ratio 1.24, 95% CI 0.78-1.98, hydroxychloroquine = ref). The pooled hazard ratio of immunosuppressive drugs was 1.40 (95% CI 0.92-2.12). Conclusion Among women with systemic lupus erythematosus, immunosuppressive drugs may be associated with a greater, albeit not statistically significant, risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer compared to patients receiving

  6. Optical diagnosis of cervical cancer by intrinsic mode functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Pratiher, Sawon; Pratiher, Souvik; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we make use of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to discriminate the cervical cancer tissues from normal ones based on elastic scattering spectroscopy. The phase space has been reconstructed through decomposing the optical signal into a finite set of bandlimited signals known as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). It has been shown that the area measure of the analytic IMFs provides a good discrimination performance. Simulation results validate the efficacy of the IMFs followed by SVM based classification.

  7. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  8. Proteomic Profiling of a Selected Diarylpentanoid on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infected Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    JIN HUNG CHEW

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains to be one of the major causes of death among Malaysian women despite the effort that has been in the prevention and treatment of the disease. Current chemotherapeutic treatments often cause toxic side effects. This thesis investigates the use of curcumin derivative (MS13) in the treatment of cervical cancer. It identifies the potential mechanism of action of MS13 to exhibit its anticancer properties in cervical cancer cells.

  9. Cytotoxic effect of TDZ on human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan; Pandurangan, Muthuraman

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigates the anticancer activity of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Anticancer activity of TDZ was evaluated in cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells). Sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay indicates that TDZ was about 100 times more toxic to the cancer cell than normal cells. TUNEL assay showed TDZ induced DNA damage in tumor cells. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in cancer cells was observed following TDZ treatment. The Bax and bcl-2 gene expression ratio are highly responsible for the regulation of MMP balance, and these ratio was significantly altered following TDZ treatment. The p53 and caspase-3 expressions were increased in cancer cells following treatment. Caspase-3 activation is the key factor for apoptosis. Cytotoxicity of TDZ on HeLa cells was 100 times higher than normal kidney cell (MDCK cells). Moreover, the anticancer activity of TDZ was tested by DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, some gene expression and caspase-3 inhibition in silico. TDZ detected has higher ability on early apoptosis of cancer cell through DNA damage. Additionally, cancer cellular MMP was significantly reduced under inoculation of TDZ. In silico assay confirmed that TDZ was able to bind with the active site of the capase-3 protein. Therefore, taking all these data together it is suggested that the TDZ may be a potential agent to act against cervical cancer cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Genetic profiling to predict recurrence of early cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Ji-Young; Choi, Chel Hun; Do, In-Gu; Song, Sang Yong; Sohn, Insuk; Jung, Sin-Ho; Bae, Duk-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2013-12-01

    Recurrence is the major cause of death in early cervical cancer. We compared the prediction powers for disease recurrence between the gene set prognostic model and the clinical prognostic model. A gene set model to predict disease free survival was developed using the cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation (DASL) assay data set from a cohort of early cervical cancer patients who had been treated with radical surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. A clinical prediction model was also developed using the same cohort, and the ability of predicting recurrence from each model was compared. Adequate DASL assay profiles were obtained from 300 patients, and we selected 12 genes for the gene set model. When patients were categorized as having a low or high risk by the prognostic score, the Kaplan-Meier curve showed significantly different recurrence rates between the two groups. The clinical model was developed using FIGO stage and post-surgical pathological findings. In multivariate Cox regression analysis of prognostic models, the gene set prognostic model showed a higher hazard ratio than that of the clinical prognostic model. The genetic quantitative approach may be better in predicting recurrence in early cervical cancer patients. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Consensus for the prevention of cervical cancer in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; Ruiz Moreno, José Antonio; Ponce, Eduardo Lazcano; Vargas Hernández, Victor Manuel; Aguado Pérez, Rogelio A; Alonso de Ruiz, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Cervical cancer remains a serious public health problem in the world; that is why the Mexican Federation of Schools of Obstetrics and Gynecology convened the elaboration of a consensus that is devoted this number of Ginecologia y Obstetricia de Mexico. In recent years has strengthened perceptions (public and private) in the need for preventive strategies in the medium and long terms. The development of effective vaccines against the human papilloma virus and the application of new methods of detection from viral DNA (completely automated for personal application) allow some degree of optimism. It is proposed a consensus with general recommendations in two consecutive stages: (a) primary prevention consisting of education for the prevention of cervical cancer and universal immunization and (b) secondary prevention by early detection of infections or injuries that could favor carcinogenesis. The consensus reviewed characteristics of available vaccines in detail and proposes strategies for implementation in Mexican population. Also, check out main methods of early detection of infection (or predisposing lesions) and suggests public and private strategies for implementation. Consensus places particular emphasis on early immunization for female population and correct use of methods for detection of infections or injuries that might cause cervical cancer.

  12. Positive diagnostic values and histological detection ratios from the Rotterdam cervical cancer screening programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Kreuger; H. Beerman (Henk); H.G. Nijs (Huub); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In organized screening programmes for cervical cancer, pre-cancerous lesions are detected by cervical smears. However, during follow-up after a positive smear these pre-cancerous lesions are not always found. The purpose of the study is to

  13. A Proof of Concept Imaging System for Automated Cervical Cancer Screening in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Garcia, Mabel Karel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women around the world and affects half a million women per year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 275,000 women die every year, and 80% to 85% of these deaths occur in low-resource countries in Africa and South America. In Peru, cervical cancer has the highest incidence and…

  14. Causes of cervical cancer in the Philippines: a case-control study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngelangel, C; Muñoz, N; Bosch, F X; Limson, G M; Festin, M R; Deacon, J; Jacobs, M V; Santamaria, M; Meijer, C J; Walboomers, J M

    1998-01-01

    .... The study included 356 case subjects who had histologically confirmed cervical cancer (323 incident cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 33 incident cases of adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma...

  15. Serum nucleosomes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Predictive and prognostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetina Lucely

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that free DNA circulates in serum plasma of patients with cancer and that at least part is present in the form of oligo- and monucleosomes, a marker of cell death. Preliminary data has shown a good correlation between decrease of nucleosomes with response and prognosis. Here, we performed pre- and post-chemotherapy determinations of serum nucleosomes with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method in a group of patients with cervical cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods From December 2000 to June 2001, 41 patients with cervical cancer staged as FIGO stages IB2-IIIB received three 21-day courses of carboplatin and paclitaxel, both administered at day 1; then, patients underwent radical hysterectomy. Nucleosomes were measured the day before (baseline, at day seven of the first course and day seven of the third course of chemotherapy. Values of nucleosomes were analyzed with regard to pathologic response and to time to progression-free and overall survival. Results All patients completed chemotherapy, were evaluable for pathologic response, and had nucleosome levels determined. At a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 7–26 months, projected progression time and overall survival were 80.3 and 80.4%, respectively. Mean differential values of nucleosomes were lower in the third course as compared with the first course (p >0.001. The decrease in the third course correlated with pathologic response (p = 0.041. Survival analysis showed a statistically significant, better progression-free and survival time in patients who showed lower levels at the third course (p = 0.0243 and p = 0.0260, respectively. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that nucleosome increase in the third course increased risk of death to 6.86 (95% confidence interval [CI 95%], 0.84–56.0. Conclusion Serum nucleosomes may have a predictive role for response and prognostic significance in patients with cervical cancer

  16. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the -Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species 5 (HPV51), 6 (HPV56), 7 (H...

  17. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Leśniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków.

  18. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41...

  19. Combined clinical and genetic testing algorithm for cervical cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yu-Ligh; Zhang, Tao-Lan; Yan, Tian; Yeh, Ching-Tung; Kang, Ya-Nan; Cao, Lanqin; Wu, Nayiyuan; Chang, Chi-Feng; Wang, Huei-Jen; Yen, Carolyn; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic screening in hospitals is widely used to effectively reduce the incidence rate of cervical cancer in China and other developing countries. This study aimed to identify clinical risk factor algorithms that combine gynecologic examination and molecular testing (paired box gene 1 (PAX1) or zinc finger protein 582 (ZNF582) methylation or HPV16/18) results to improve diagnostic accuracy. The delta Cp of methylated PAX1 and ZNF582 was obtained via quantitative methylation-specific PCR in a training set (57 CIN2- and 43 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia ≥grade 3 (CIN3+) women), and the individual and combination gene sensitivities and specificities were determined. The detection accuracy of three algorithms combining gynecologic findings and genetic test results was then compared in a randomized case-control study comprising 449 women referred for colposcopic examination by gynecologists in the outpatient department of Xiangya Hospital between November 2011 and March 2013. Significant association was observed between CIN3+ and methylated PAX1 or ZNF582 in combination with HPV16/18 (OR:15.52, 95 % CI:7.73-31.18). The sensitivities and specificities of methylated PAX1 or ZNF582 combined with HPV16/18 for CIN3+ women were 89.2 and 76.0 %, or 85.4 and 80.1 %, respectively. Of the three algorithms applied to cohort data and validated in the study, two indicated 100 % sensitivity in detecting cervical cancer and a low rate of referrals for colposcopy. These algorithms might contribute to precise and objective cervical cancer diagnostics in the outpatient departments of hospitals in countries with high mortality and low screening rates or areas with uneven resource distribution.

  20. In search of natural remediation for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Madhumita; Mukherjee, Apurba; Sarkar, Ruma; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Biswas, Jaydip

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a serious global health issue. Cancer of the cervix is one of the leading gynecological malignancies worldwide; though it is more prevalent in the developing countries. Fruitful approaches are needed to control cervical cancer. Awareness through proper education, screening and early detection may pave a way to combat the disease process in the first place. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are some of the common modes of treatment for cervical cancer. Conventional medical treatments often are not able to eliminate the offending growth fully and are not free from complications. Side effects very often are disastrous. Therefore, it is high time to focus our attention to bring about a novel way to tackle the problem. Advocating holistic approach using plant derived phytochemicals may address this health problem. These molecules show potent anticancer potential and are free from toxicity. Adjunctive therapies using phytochemicals may prove to be of tremendous importance. Plants are a prime source of effective drugs for the treatment of various forms of cancer. Many of these compounds are well characterized and have led the researchers to develop potential chemotherapeutic agents. Neutraceuticals may not replace the conventional treatment regimen, but they may enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  1. Cost-Utility Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Cervical Screening on Cervical Cancer Patient in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Didik; Dolk, Franklin Christiaan; Suwantika, Auliya A; Westra, Tjalke Arend; WIlschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten Jacobus

    2016-05-01

    Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, the clinical and economic burdens of cervical cancer are still substantial issues in Indonesia. The main purpose of this study was to model the costs, clinical benefits, and cost-utility of both visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening alone and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in addition to VIA screening in Indonesia. We developed a population-based Markov model, consisting of three health states (susceptible, cervical cancer, and death), to assess future costs, health effects, and the cost-utility of cervical cancer prevention strategies in Indonesia. We followed a cohort of 100,000 females 12 to 100 years old and compared VIA screening alone with the addition of HPV vaccination on top of the screening to "no intervention." The implementation of VIA screening alone and in combination with HPV vaccination would reduce the cervical cancer incidence by 7.9% and 58.5%, corresponding to 25 and 98 deaths avoided within the cohort of 100,000, respectively. We also estimated that HPV vaccination combined with VIA screening apparently yielded a lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratio at international dollar 1863/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), compared with VIA screening alone (I$3126/QALY). Both strategies could however be definitely labeled as very cost-effective interventions, based on a threshold suggested by the World Health Organization. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was sensitive to the discount rate, cervical cancer treatment costs, and quality of life as part of the QALY. The addition of HPV vaccination on top of VIA screening could be a cost-effective strategy in Indonesia even if relatively conservative assumptions are applied. This population-based model can be considered as an essential tool to inform decision makers on designing optimal strategies for cervical cancer prevention in Indonesia. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes

  2. Comprehensive Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Its Relevance to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Malawian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Howitt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC continues to be a significant cause of cancer morbidity and is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, cervical cancer is not only the most common female cancer but also the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Malawi, in particular, has the highest burden of cervical cancer. With the increasing use of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination, documenting the prevalent HPV types in those high-risk populations is necessary to both manage expectations of HPV vaccination and guide future vaccine development. Materials and Methods: In this study, we performed HPV typing on 474 cervical SCC samples and analyzed the potential impact of HPV vaccination in this population. Results: Ninety-seven percent of tumors were positive for at least one HPV type, and 54% harbored more than one HPV type. HPV 16 was the most common type (82%, followed by HPV 18 (34%, HPV 35 (24%, and HPV 31 (12%. A vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 would ideally prevent 53% of cervical SCC, and the nonavalent HPV vaccine (covering HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 would prevent 71% of cervical SCC in Malawi (assuming 100% vaccine efficacy. The main reason for a lack of coverage was high prevalence of HPV 35, which was also present as a single infection in a small subset of patients. Conclusion: Although any HPV vaccination in this population would likely prevent a significant proportion of cervical cancer, the nonavalent vaccine would provide better coverage. Furthermore, investigation of the role of HPV 35 in this population, including possible cross-protection with other HPV types, should be pursued.

  3. Comprehensive Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Its Relevance to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Malawian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Brooke E; Herfs, Michael; Tomoka, Tamiwe; Kamiza, Steve; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Delvenne, Philippe; Crum, Christopher P; Milner, Danny

    2017-06-01

    Cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) continues to be a significant cause of cancer morbidity and is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, cervical cancer is not only the most common female cancer but also the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Malawi, in particular, has the highest burden of cervical cancer. With the increasing use of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, documenting the prevalent HPV types in those high-risk populations is necessary to both manage expectations of HPV vaccination and guide future vaccine development. In this study, we performed HPV typing on 474 cervical SCC samples and analyzed the potential impact of HPV vaccination in this population. Ninety-seven percent of tumors were positive for at least one HPV type, and 54% harbored more than one HPV type. HPV 16 was the most common type (82%), followed by HPV 18 (34%), HPV 35 (24%), and HPV 31 (12%). A vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 would ideally prevent 53% of cervical SCC, and the nonavalent HPV vaccine (covering HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) would prevent 71% of cervical SCC in Malawi (assuming 100% vaccine efficacy). The main reason for a lack of coverage was high prevalence of HPV 35, which was also present as a single infection in a small subset of patients. Although any HPV vaccination in this population would likely prevent a significant proportion of cervical cancer, the nonavalent vaccine would provide better coverage. Furthermore, investigation of the role of HPV 35 in this population, including possible cross-protection with other HPV types, should be pursued.

  4. Cervical acid phosphatase detection: A guide to abnormal cells in cytology smear screening for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Prabal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistical evaluation of its utility was examined. Results: Of 81 smears, 16 (19.75% showed the presence of mature squamous cells with acid phosphatase by CAP-PAP technique and were considered positive. Of these 16, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or above were initially diagnosed in five of the corresponding routine Pap smears. After re-evaluation with CAP-PAP, eight of the routine Pap smears were considered to have ASCUS or above. Of these eight, three were reported as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and five as ASCUS on conventional Pap smears. The remaining 8/16 CAP-PAP-positive cases were negative for atypical squamous cells on the corresponding Pap smears. None of the CAP-PAP-negative smears were positive on routine Pap smear screening. Conclusions: This study highlights the efficacy of CAP-PAP in quality assurance of cervical smear screening. It is also an inexpensive method for segregating smears for subsequent re-screening. In the absence of trained cytologists in peripheral laboratories, this technique can be adopted for identifying smears that would require proper evaluation.

  5. Expression and Effects of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoao Pang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of high- mobility group box1 (HMGB1 and T-cell-mediated immunity and prognostic value in cervical cancer. HMGB1, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3, IL-2, and IL-10 protein expression was analyzed in 100 cervical tissue samples including cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and healthy control samples using immunohistochemistry. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag was immunoradiometrically measured in 32 serum samples from 37 cases of squamous cervical cancer. HMGB1 and SCC-Ag were then correlated to clinicopathological characteristics. HMGB1 expression tends to increase as cervical cancer progresses and it was found to be significantly correlated to FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. These findings suggest that HMGB1 may be a useful prognostic indicator of cervical carcinoma. In addition, there were significant positive relationships between HMGB1 and FOXP3 or IL-10 expression (both p < 0.05. In contrast, HMGB1 and IL-2 expression was negatively correlated (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression may activate Tregs or facilitate Th2 polarization to promote immune evasion of cervical cancer. Elevated HMGB1 protein in cervical carcinoma samples was associated with a high recurrence of HPV infection in univariate analysis (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression and levels of SCC-Ag were directly correlated in SCC (p < 0.05. Thus, HMGB1 may be a useful biomarker for patient prognosis and cervical cancer prediction and treatment.

  6. MicroRNA-373 functions as an oncogene and targets YOD1 gene in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Luo-Qiao; Zhang, Yue; Yan, Huan; Liu, Kai-Jiang, E-mail: liukaijiang@126.com; Zhang, Shu, E-mail: drzhangshu@126.com

    2015-04-10

    miR-373 was reported to be elevated in several tumors; however, the role of miR-373 in cervical cancer has not been investigated. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. The expression of miR-373 was investigated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay in 45 cervical specimens and cervical cancer cell lines. The role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells was assessed by cell proliferation, colony formation in vitro as well as tumor growth assays in vivo with the overexpression of miR-373 or gene silencing. The functional target gene of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells was identified using integrated bioinformatics analysis, gene expression arrays, and luciferase assay. We founded that the expression of miR-373 is upregulated in human cervical cancer tissues and cervical carcinoma cell lines when compared to the corresponding noncancerous tissues. Ectopic overexpression of miR-373 in human cervical cancer cells promoted cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, whereas silencing the expression of miR-373 decreased the rate of cell growth. YOD1 was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells. Expression levels of miR-373 were inversely correlated with YOD1 levels in human cervical cancer tissues. RNAi-mediated knockdown of YOD1 phenocopied the proliferation-promoting effect of miR-373. Moreover, overexpression of YOD1 abrogated miR-373-induced proliferation of cervical cancer cells. These results demonstrate that miR-373 increases proliferation by directly targeting YOD1, a new potential therapeutic target in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • The expression of miR-373 is upregulated in human cervical cancer tissues. • miR-373 effects as oncogenic miRNA in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. • miR-373 increases proliferation of cervical cancer cells by directly targeting YOD1.

  7. Health Behaviors and Associated Sociodemographic Factors in Cervical Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-Cancer Controls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, Se Ik; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Myong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    We explored the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors and examined associations between sociodemographic factors and each health behavior...

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF CERVICAL CANCER CELLS IN PAP SMEAR SCREENING TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Athinarayanan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is second topmost cancers among women but also, it was a curable one. Regular smear test can discover the sign of precancerous cell and treated the patient according to the result. However sometimes the detection errors can be occurred by smear thickness, cell overlapping or by un-wanted particles in the smear and cytotechnologists faulty diagnosis. Therefore the reason automatic cancer detection was developed. This was help to increase cancer cell mindfulness, diagnosis accuracy with low cost. This detection process consists of some techniques of the image preprocessing that is segmentation and effective texture feature extraction with SVM classification. Then the Final Classification Results of this proposed technique was compared to the previous classification techniques of KNN and ANN and the result would be very useful to cytotechnologists for their further analysis

  9. Identifying Molecular Culprits of Cervical Cancer Progression | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is found in 99.7% of invasive cervical carcinomas, providing strong evidence that the virus is a causative agent in the development of this disease. However, most women who become infected with HPV do not develop invasive cervical lesions, indicating that additional exogenous or genetic factors may determine whether HPV preclinical lesions will progress to cancer. Identification of these factors would be facilitated by a deeper understanding of the cellular and molecular changes that accompany progression to malignancy. In addition, knowledge of which women are at greatest risk for disease progression would be a significant clinical advancement in the management of patients with premalignant cervical lesions.

  10. [Cervical cancer screening: Is active recruitment worth the effort?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Martínez, Ángeles; Blanco Rodríguez, Lorena; Morales Martínez, Cristina; Tejuca Somoano, Sonia

    2015-12-01

    To determine the percentage of women who have had a Pap smear in the last 5 years, and the place where it was carried out. To detect cytological abnormalities and precursors of cervical cancer in un-screened or inadequately screened women and the prevalence of HPV-positive determinations. Cross sectional study. Natahoyo Health Centre, Gijón (Spain). Women aged 40-50 years living in the area and assigned to the Health Centre. The information was collected from databases, telephone and home surveys. There was active recruitment of unscreened women or inadequately screened in Primary Care as well as offering to perform cytology and HPV determination. Of the 1420 women aged 40 to 50 years, 1236 (87%) had cytology in the last 5 years, and 184 women (13%) had no screening or it was inadequate. Of these 184 women, 108 (58.7%) agreed to have cytology and HPV test performed. No high-grade cervical dysplasia was diagnosed. The prevalence of HPV-positive was 8.3%. In our population there is a high coverage of opportunistic screening for cervical cancer. The active recruitment of women who were not in the screening program was not useful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Epigenetics of cervical cancer. An overview and therapeutic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetina Lucely

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer remains one of the greatest killers of women worldwide. It is difficult to foresee a dramatic increase in cure rate even with the most optimal combination of cytotoxic drugs, surgery, and radiation; therefore, testing of molecular targeted therapies against this malignancy is highly desirable. A number of epigenetic alterations occur during all stages of cervical carcinogenesis in both human papillomavirus and host cellular genomes, which include global DNA hypomethylation, hypermetylation of key tumor suppressor genes, and histone modifications. The reversible nature of epigenetic changes constitutes a target for transcriptional therapies, namely DNA methylation and histone deacetylase inhibitors. To date, studies in patients with cervical cancer have demonstrated the feasibility of reactivating the expression of hypermethylated and silenced tumor suppressor genes as well as the hyperacetylating and inhibitory effect upon histone deacetylase activity in tumor tissues after treatment with demethylating and histone deacetylase inhibitors. In addition, detection of epigenetic changes in cytological smears, serum DNA, and peripheral blood are of potential interest for development of novel biomolecular markers for early detection, prediction of response, and prognosis.

  12. REPRODUCTIVE ASPECTS ASSOCIATED WITH PRECURSOR LESIONS FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ferrari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between reproductive variables and theprecursor lesions for cervical cancer in women attended the clinic of the lower genitaltract pathology and colposcopy (PTGIC, packed in the complex regional healthCaceres city, southwest of Mato Grosso, in the year 2009.Methods:We conducted across sectional study with data collection from medical records of 142 women withabnormal cytology, colposcopy and positive underwent directed biopsy, taking intoaccount the reproductive variables.Results:indicate that the minimum age at menarchewas 9 years and maximum age was 17 years, mean 12.6 years; on the average paritywas 3.4 children, the use of hormonal contraceptive method corresponds to 34 5% and38.1% female sterilization research, 46.5% are or have use of contraception for a periodgreater than five years, with a mean of 4.7 years and 67.2% of women surveyed do notuse condoms. The variables were not significantly associated to cervical cancer.Conclusion:the characteristics of the women studied may serve as a basis for workdirected to this population in order to seek to minimize this problem.Although the dataobtained were satisfactory, it was possible to trace the profile of the reproductiveaspects of women in the Clinic ofPTGIC, there is a lack of association betweenreproductive aspects and findings of the cervical biopsy, it may be associated with somelimiting factors of the study that need to be balanced

  13. Prevalence of pre-cancerous lesions and cervical cancer in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of pre-cancerous lesions and cervical cancer in South Africa - A multicentre study. S Fonn, B Bloch, M Mabina, S Carpenter, H Cronje, C Maise, M Bennun, G du Toit, E de Jonge, I Manana, G Lindeque ...

  14. Early stage cervical cancer : quality of cancer care and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Quirine Dionne

    2007-01-01

    To improve quality of cancer care treatment-related information is needed. This could be acquired by registries. Since January 1984, the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) collects prospectively more than 200 relevant clinical and pathological parameters of women with cervical cancer treated in

  15. Lesion margin analysis for automated classification of cervical cancer lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raad, Viara; Xue, Zhiyun; Lange, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Digital colposcopy is an emerging technology, replacing the traditional colposcope for diagnosis of cervical lesions. Incorporating automated algorithms within a digital colposcopy system can improve the reliability and the diagnostic accuracy of cervical precancer and cancer. An automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system can assess the three important cervical diagnostic cues: the color, the vascular patterns and the lesion margins with quantitative measures, similar to the way colposcopists use the Reid's index in traditional colposcopy. In this work we present a novel way to analyze and classify the global and the local features of one of the three major components in colposcopy diagnosis - the lesion margins. The margins of cervical lesion can be described as 'feathered,' 'geographic,' 'satellite,' 'regular or smooth' and 'margin-in-margin,' or they can be of mixed type. As margin characterization is a complex task, we use irregularity descriptors such as compactness indices and curvature descriptors. To address the complexity of the problem, the dependency of scale and the position of the lesion on the cervical image, our method use novel Fourier energy descriptors. The conceptually complex analysis of describing lesions as 'satellite' lesions or lesions with multiple margins is performed using descriptors, where the distance, the position and the local statistical estimates of image intensity play important role. We trained this new algorithm to classify and diagnose the cervix, evaluating only the lesions. The accuracy of the results is assessed against a 'ground truth' scheme, using colposcopists' annotations and pathology results. We report the resulted accuracy of the classification method assessed against this scheme.

  16. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    -based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...... of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology. Follow-up histology showed no increase of false positive tests, whilst the share of tests which were "unsatisfactory for evaluation" decreased significantly. Overall, the liquid-based technique would seem to have several advantages compared...

  17. Metal artefacts in MRI-guided brachytherapy of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraam S. Soliman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of assessing the metal-induced artefacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-guided brachytherapy is growing along with the increasing interest of integrating MRI into the treatment procedure of cervical cancer. Examples of metal objects in use include intracavitary cervical applicators and interstitial needles. The induced artefacts increase the uncertainties in the clinical workflow and can be a potential obstacle for the accurate delivery of the treatment. Overcoming this problem necessitates a good understanding of its originating sources. Several efforts are recorded in the literature to quantify the extent of such artefacts, in phantoms and in clinical practice. Here, we elaborate on the origin of metal-induced artefacts in the light of brachytherapy applications, while summarizing recent efforts that have been made to assess and overcome the induced distortions.

  18. Improving the efficiency of image guided brachytherapy in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Otter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brachytherapy is an essential component of the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancers. It enables the dose to the tumor to be boosted whilst allowing relative sparing of the normal tissues. Traditionally, cervical brachytherapy was prescribed to point A but since the GEC-ESTRO guidelines were published in 2005, there has been a move towards prescribing the dose to a 3D volume. Image guided brachytherapy has been shown to reduce local recurrence, and improve survival and is optimally predicated on magnetic resonance imaging. Radiological studies, patient workflow, operative parameters, and intensive therapy planning can represent a challenge to clinical resources. This article explores the ways, in which 3D conformal brachytherapy can be implemented and draws findings from recent literature and a well-developed hospital practice in order to suggest ways to improve the efficiency and efficacy of a brachytherapy service. Finally, we discuss relatively underexploited translational research opportunities.

  19. Risk of metachronous ovarian cancer after ovarian conservation in young women with stage I cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koji; Machida, Hiroko; Horowitz, Max P; Shahzad, Mian M K; Guntupalli, Saketh R; Roman, Lynda D; Wright, Jason D

    2017-11-01

    While there is an increasing trend of ovarian conservation at the time of surgical treatment for young women with stage I cervical cancer, the risk for subsequent ovarian cancer after ovarian conservation has not been well studied. We sought to examine the incidence of and risk factors for metachronous ovarian cancer among young women with stage I cervical cancer who had ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program was used to identify women aged ovarian conservation for stage I cervical cancer from 1983 through 2013 (n = 4365). Time-dependent analysis was performed for ovarian cancer risk after cervical cancer diagnosis. Mean age at cervical cancer diagnosis was 37 years, and the majority of patients had stage IA disease (68.2%) and squamous histology (72.9%). Median follow-up time was 10.8 years, and there were 13 women who developed metachronous ovarian cancer. The 10- and 20-year cumulative incidences of metachronous ovarian cancer were 0.2% (95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.4) and 0.5% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.8), respectively. Mean age at the time of diagnosis of metachronous ovarian cancer was 47.5 years, and stage III-IV disease was seen in 55.6%. Age (≥45 vs cancer histology (adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous vs squamous, hazard ratio, 3.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-10.5; P = .028), and adjuvant radiotherapy use (yes vs no, hazard ratio, 3.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-13.4; P = .034) were significantly associated with metachronous ovarian cancer risk. The presence of multiple risk factors was associated with a significantly increased risk of metachronous ovarian cancer compared to the no risk factor group: 1 risk factor (hazard ratio range, 2.96-8.43), 2 risk factors (hazard ratio range, 16.6-31.0), and 3-4 risk factors (hazard ratio range, 62.3-109), respectively. Metachronous ovarian cancer risk after ovarian conservation for women with stage I cervical cancer is ovarian

  20. Appalachian women's perspectives on breast and cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Kruger, Tina M; Bardach, Shoshana; Howell, Britteny M

    2013-01-01

    Although breast and cervical cancer screening rates have been increasing over the three past decades, many Appalachian women in the USA do not receive screening, leading to disproportionate mortality rates. The aims of this study were to: (1) better understand barriers to and facilitators of breast and cervical cancer screening among Appalachian women; and (2) identify strategies to increase cancer screening. Eight focus groups and 19 key informant interviews were conducted with 79 participants. Tape-recorded session were transcribed and content analyzed. Findings consistent with screening determinants research include: inadequate personal and community resources, attitudinal and knowledge barriers, and competing demands. Less commonly described factors include family cancer history, personal health habits, and the multiple influences of healthcare providers. Interpreting findings in terms of consumer information processing theory, healthcare providers and supports play a key role in educating and influencing the screening uptake among Appalachian Kentucky women. These findings have the potential to inform innovative and culturally consonant intervention approaches capable of increasing screening and decreasing mortality rates.

  1. Cervical cancer and the global health agenda: Insights from multiple policy-analysis frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Justin O.; Vulimiri, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths for women globally, with an estimated 88% of deaths occurring in the developing world. Available technologies have dramatically reduced mortality in high-income settings, yet cervical cancer receives considerably little attention on the global health policy landscape. The authors applied four policy-analysis frameworks to literature on global cervical cancer to explore the question of why cervical cancer may not be receiving the international attention it may otherwise warrant. Each framework explores the process of agenda setting and discerns factors that either facilitate or hinder policy change in cases where there is both a clear problem and a potential effective solution. In combination, these frameworks highlight a number of crucial elements that may be needed to raise the profile of cervical cancer on global health agendas, including improving local (national or sub-national) information on the condition; increasing mobilisation of affected civil society groups; framing cervical cancer debates in ways that build upon its classification as a non-communicable disease (NCD) and an issue of women's rights; linking cervical cancer screening to well-funded services such as those for HIV treatment in some countries; and identifying key global policy windows of opportunity to promote the cervical cancer agenda, including emerging NCD global health discussions and post-2015 reviews of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:24236409

  2. Cervical cancer and the global health agenda: Insights from multiple policy-analysis frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Justin O; Vulimiri, Madhulika

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths for women globally, with an estimated 88% of deaths occurring in the developing world. Available technologies have dramatically reduced mortality in high-income settings, yet cervical cancer receives considerably little attention on the global health policy landscape. The authors applied four policy-analysis frameworks to literature on global cervical cancer to explore the question of why cervical cancer may not be receiving the international attention it may otherwise warrant. Each framework explores the process of agenda setting and discerns factors that either facilitate or hinder policy change in cases where there is both a clear problem and a potential effective solution. In combination, these frameworks highlight a number of crucial elements that may be needed to raise the profile of cervical cancer on global health agendas, including improving local (national or sub-national) information on the condition; increasing mobilisation of affected civil society groups; framing cervical cancer debates in ways that build upon its classification as a non-communicable disease (NCD) and an issue of women's rights; linking cervical cancer screening to well-funded services such as those for HIV treatment in some countries; and identifying key global policy windows of opportunity to promote the cervical cancer agenda, including emerging NCD global health discussions and post-2015 reviews of the Millennium Development Goals.

  3. The blame game: cervical cancer, knowledge of its link to human papillomavirus and stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Melissa A; Gerend, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    This two-study paper examined stigma toward women with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection (STI). For Study 1, participants (N = 352) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in which they read a brief description of a patient with either cervical or ovarian cancer in which the cause of the patient's cancer was either specified (cervical: HPV, a STI vs. ovarian: family history) or unspecified. Participants in the cervical cancer/cause-specified condition rated the patient as more dirty, dishonest and unwise, and reported feeling more moral disgust and 'grossed out' than participants in the cervical cancer/cause-unspecified condition. For Study 2, participants (N = 126) were randomly assigned to read a vignette about a patient with cervical cancer in which the cause of cancer was either specified or unspecified. Consistent with Study 1, participants in the cause-specified condition rated the patient as more unwise, and reported feeling more moral disgust and 'grossed out' than participants in the cause-unspecified condition. These effects were mediated by attributions of blame toward the patient. Findings suggest that women with cervical cancer may be stigmatised and blame may play a role in this process.

  4. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination...... on cervical cancer prevention. More than 6,000 women diagnosed with HG-CIN or ICC from 17 European countries were enrolled in two parallel cross-sectional studies (108288/108290). Centralised histopathology review and standardised HPV-DNA typing were applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical...... higher in ICC than in HG-CIN. The difference in age at diagnosis between CIN3 and squamous cervical cancer for HPV18 (9 years) was significantly less compared to HPV31/33/'other' (23/20/17 years), and for HPV45 (1 year) than HPV16/31/33/'other' (15/23/20/17 years). In Europe, HPV16 predominates in both...

  5. Interventions for encouraging sexual behaviours intended to prevent cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key risk factor for cervical cancer. Continuing high rates of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people demonstrate the need for effective behavioural interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for young women to encourage safer sexual behaviours to prevent transmission of STIs (including HPV) and cervical cancer. Search methods Systematic literature searches were performed on the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2009) Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Social Science Citation Index and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) up to the end of 2009. All references were screened for inclusion against selection criteria. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for young women up to the age of 25 years that included, amongst other things, information provision about the transmission and prevention of STIs. Trials had to measure behavioural outcomes (e.g. condom use) and/or biological outcomes (e.g. incidence of STIs, cervical cancer). Data collection and analysis A narrative synthesis was conducted. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to heterogeneity between the interventions and trial populations. Main results A total of 5271 references were screened and of these 23 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in the USA and in health-care clinics (e.g. family planning). The majority of interventions provided information about STIs and taught safer sex skills (e.g. communication), occasionally supplemented with provision of resources (e.g. free sexual health services). They were heterogeneous in duration, contact time, provider, behavioural aims and outcomes. A variety of STIs were addressed including HIV and chlamydia. None of the trials explicitly

  6. Factors associated with delayed diagnosis of cervical cancer in Iran--a survey in Isfahan City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Azadehrah, Mahboobeh

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of routine screening program for cervical cancer in Iran and high rate of diagnosed cancer in its advanced stage, recognition of sociodemographic factors related to delayed diagnosis of cancer in Iran could be helpful in reducing the burden of disease in our community. The aim of this study was to determine the stage of cervical cancer at diagnosis and factors related to delayed diagnosis of cervical cancer in Isfahan, Iran. In this cross sectional study women diagnosed with cervical cancer for the first time by histo-pathological examination were enrolled. According to the clinical and paraclinical findings and staging of the cancer, they were classified into early and delayed diagnosis of cervical cancer. Sociodemographic factors were compared in the two groups. In this study of 55 women mean age was 48.3±12.0. According to our classification 6/55 (10.9%) and 49/55 (89.1%) of them had early and delayed diagnosis of cervical cancer. Delayed diagnosis of the cancer was significantly higher in patients with lower degree of education, lower socioeconomic status, having smoker and addict husband and those who did not have a history of Pap smear test (pdiagnosis of cervical cancer. The affected women should be targeted for implementation of specialized educational programmes for improving knowledge and screening test.

  7. Knowledge and Attitudes About Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    1- Knowledge and attitudes about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda Authors...Oncogenic Human Papilloma virus (HPV) strains 16 and 18. While cervical cancer is widely understood as a fatal disease, knowledge and awareness of...Abstract Cervical cancer is one of the major causes of death among women worldwide. There is an established linkage between cervical cancer and

  8. [Hormonal contraception as a risk factor for developing cervical cancer: biological, epidemiological and immunological evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Romero, Julieta Ivone; Hernández Girón, Carlos; Madrid Marina, Vicente

    2011-09-01

    Cervical cancer has been extensively studied, as well as the various risk factors for that cancer. One such factor is the prolonged use of hormonal contraceptives. To report the biological, immunological and epidemiological findings arising from the use of oral contraceptives and their relation to cervical cancer. Retrospective study based on information published in national and international literature. Controversy persists between the epidemiological data and experimental biological association between hormonal contraceptives and cancer induced by HPV. It is important to consider the biological findings because in Mexico the use of hormonal contraceptives is very broad and the number of cases of cervical cancer and only extensive epidemiological studies will clarify this controversy.

  9. Oncologic safety of cervical nerve preservation in neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Keigo; Asato, Ryo; Tsuji, Jun; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Kada, Shinpei; Tsujimura, Takashi; Kataoka, Michiko

    2017-09-01

    Although the functional merits of preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection for head and neck cancer have been reported, the oncologic safety has not yet been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of cervical nerve preservation. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with head and neck cancer who had been treated by neck dissection between 2009 and 2014 at Kyoto Medical Center. Management of cervical nerves and clinical results were analyzed. A total of 335 sides of neck dissection had been performed in 222 patients. Cervical nerves were preserved in 175 neck sides and resected in 160 sides. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 71%. The 5-year neck control rate was 95% in cervical nerve preserved sides and 89% in cervical nerve resected sides. Preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection is oncologically safe in selected cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Human Papilloma Virus and Cervical Cancer Education Needs among HIV-Positive Haitian Women in Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenya, Sonjia; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Fatil, Marie; Jones, Jamal; Jean, Chrystelle; Huff, India; Kobetz, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Haitian immigrant women, the largest growing Black ethnic group in Miami, experience the highest rates of cervical cancer and account for one of the largest populations diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in South Florida. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted a pilot study to examine human papilloma virus (HPV)/cervical cancer knowledge and identify intervention preferences among HIV positive Haitian women. Community health workers conducted three focus groups with 21 HIV-positive Haitian women. All sessions were conducted in Haitian Kreyol, digitally recorded, and subsequently interpreted and transcribed into English. The first focus group assessed HPV/cervical cancer knowledge, the second session explored HPV/cervical cancer considerations specific to HIV-positive women, and the third focus group discussed HPV/cervical cancer screening and intervention preferences. Data analysis was guided by a grounded theory approach. Our sample had limited HPV/cervical cancer knowledge. Misconceptions about screening, transmission, and treatment were common. Participants felt that stigma by providers impacted negatively the care they received and that stigma by the community diminished social support. Strong support for culturally tailored interventions to improve HPV/cervical cancer knowledge was expressed. Although no participants had participated in research previously, all were willing to participate in future trials. There is critical need for culturally relevant interventions to improve HPV/cervical cancer knowledge among HIV-positive Haitian women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cervical Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J. Korfage (Ida); M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); F. Mols (Floortje); L.V. van de Poll-Franse (Lonneke); R.F.M.P. Kruitwagen (Roy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: In a population-based sample of cervical cancer survivors, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed 2-10 years postdiagnosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: All patients given a diagnosis of cervical cancer in 1995-2003 in the Eindhoven region, The Netherlands, and alive

  12. The diagnostic process of cervical cancer; areas of good practice, and windows of opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, A.; de Wilde, Marlieke; Duk, M.J.; Graziosi, G.C.M.; van Haaften, Maarten; von Mensdorff-Pouilly, S.; van Diest, Paul J.; Zweemer, RP; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Verheijen, RHM

    Objective Despite an extensive screening programme in The Netherlands, some cases of cervical cancer are still diagnosed in late stages of disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate which elements in the diagnostic process of cervical cancer may be improved. Methods This is a

  13. Early diagnosis behavior in Turkish women with and without a family history of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaydin, Cansu; Gencturk, Nuran

    2015-01-01

    This study was planned as comparative and descriptive in order to measure and evaluate the knowledge and attitudes regarding early diagnosis of women with and without a family history of cervical cancer. The study sample consisted of the relatives of female patients (N=253) who were admitted to Istanbul University of Medicine. Women with a family history of cervical cancer formed the case group, while those without family history of cervical cancer constituted the control group. Two distinct data collection tools, a questionnaire and the Miller Behavioral Style Scale (MBSS), were used in order to obtain data for evaluation with SPSS for Windows 20.0 statistics package program. It was found that 61.0% of the case group with family history of cervical cancer and 19.0% of the control group without family history of cervical cancer were using early diagnostic methods. Thus the presence of an individual with cervical cancer in the family affected the attitudes towards early diagnosis. It was further found that the level of knowledge on cervical cancer and PAP smear test was higher in the case group, which was more sensitive with regard to being informed about cervical cancer as compared to general society. However, the average MBSS scores were not significantly different compared to the control group. It was noted that, women participating this study knowledgeable, but this did not necessarily transform into better behavior.

  14. Immunological aspects of conventional and new treatments for cervical cancer, an immunopharmacological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meir, van H.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional therapies as chemotherapy and radiotherapy impact immune populations and immune responses in cervical cancer patients. This led to new perspectives into the important role of the immune system and possibilities to optimally implement immunotherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  15. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  16. The impact of cervical cancer on quality of life--the components and means for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thomas J; Wright, Jason D

    2007-12-01

    To review how cervical cancer patients are affected on a psychological, psychosocial, and sexual level, resulting in an overall decrease in quality of life (QoL). This article reviews influential studies on QoL in women with cervical cancer, as well as the effects on patients' partners. Based on the decreased QoL, we present three suggestions on how clinicians can better patients' QoL after an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) test or diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer. Fear, self-blame, distress, and anxiety about cervical cancer are common in women who receive abnormal Pap test results or positive human papillomavirus DNA tests. Such results impact body image, self-esteem, relationships with partners, and sexual and reproductive issues, while adding to an overall decrease of QoL in women with cervical cancer. In order to minimize the deleterious effects, the impact of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions on QoL should be managed as part of a complete healthcare plan. To improve QoL, cervical cancer patients should seek supportive counseling and education about self-care and adherence to treatment and follow-up plans, continue cervical cancer screening, and receive vaccination against prevalent oncogenic virus types.

  17. Smoking and cervical cancer: pooled analysis of the IARC multi-centric case--control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plummer, M; Herrero, R; Franceschi, S; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Bosch, F.X.; Sanjose, de S; Munoz, N.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking has long been suspected to be a risk factor for cervical cancer. However, not all previous studies have properly controlled for the effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which has now been established as a virtually necessary cause of cervical cancer. To evaluate the

  18. Individualised 3D printed vaginal template for MRI guided brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; Madsen, Mikkel Lænsø; Traberg, Anders; Meisner, Bjarne; Nielsen, Søren Kynde; Tanderup, Kari; Spejlborg, Harald; Fokdal, Lars Ulrik; Nørrevang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Intracavitary-interstitial applicators for MRI guided brachytherapy are becoming increasingly important in locally advanced cervical cancer. The 3D printing technology enables a versatile method for obtaining a high degree of individualisation of the implant. Our clinical workflow is presented and exemplified by a stage IVA cervical cancer with superior dose distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic Model for Survival in Patients With Early Stage Cervical Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, Petra; van der Velden, Jacobus; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Schilthuis, Marten S.; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Burger, Matthé P. M.; Buist, Marrije R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the management of early stage cervical cancer, knowledge about the prognosis is critical. Although many factors have an impact on survival, their relative importance remains controversial. This study aims to develop a prognostic model for survival in early stage cervical cancer

  20. Cervical and Breast Cancer-Screening Knowledge of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Luken, Karen; Rose, Roderick A.; Dababnah, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Women with developmental disabilities are significantly less likely than women without disabilities to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. The reasons for this gap are not understood. The present study examined the extent of women's knowledge about cervical and breast cancer screening, with the intention…

  1. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical screening...

  2. Vaginal dose de-escalation in image guided adaptive brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Sandy; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; de Leeuw, Astrid A C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Vaginal stenosis is a major problem following radiotherapy in cervical cancer. We investigated a new dose planning strategy for vaginal dose de-escalation (VDD). Materials and methods Fifty consecutive locally advanced cervical cancer patients without lower or middle vaginal involvement...

  3. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...

  4. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  5. Development of a next generation Semliki Forest virus-based DNA vaccine against cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Wall, Stephanie; Ljungberg, Karl; Peng IP, Peng; Boerma, Annemarie; Nijman, Hans W.; Liljeström, Peter; Daemen, Toos

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women worldwide. The disease develops as a result of infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) through persistent expression of early proteins E6 and E7 with transforming capacities in cervical epithelial cells. Our group pioneered

  6. Optimization of adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer: Solutions for photon and proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, A.J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In cervical cancer radiation therapy, an adaptive strategy is required to compensate for interfraction anatomical variations in order to achieve adequate dose delivery. In this thesis, we have aimed at optimizing adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer to improve treatment efficiency and

  7. Preventing and Controlling Cervical Cancer in Africa: A Call for Action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    application of complete and effective treatment of the disease. Apart from promotion of health sexual lifestyles, the advent of effective vaccines against. HPV that causes cervical cancer are effective approaches for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Two types of HPV vaccines are now available: quadrivalent vaccine ...

  8. Radical surgery in patients with residual disease after (chemo)radiation for cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Aniek; Arts, Henriette J. G.; Klip, Harry; Nijhuis, Esther R.; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Reyners, Anna K. L.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Thomas, Gillian; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine possible impact of routinely scheduled biopsies and more radical surgery for residual central disease in locally advanced cervical cancer after (chemo) radiation. Methods/Materials: Data were analyzed of a consecutive series of cervical cancer

  9. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  10. Estrogenic Activity of Coumestrol, DDT, and TCDD in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Ndebele

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous estrogens have dramatic and differential effects on classical endocrine organ and proliferation. Xenoestrogens are environmental estrogens that have endocrine impact, acting as both estrogen agonists and antagonists, but whose effects are not well characterized. In this investigation we sought to delineate effects of xenoestrogens. Using human cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells as a model, the effects of representative xenoestrogens (Coumestrol-a phytoestrogen, tetrachlorodioxin (TCDD-a herbicide and DDT-a pesticide on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were examined. These xenoestrogens and estrogen inhibited the proliferation of Hela cells in a dose dependent manner from 20 to 120 nM suggesting, that 17-β-estrtadiol and xenoestrogens induced cytotoxic effects. Coumestrol produced accumulation of HeLa cells in G2/M phase, and subsequently induced apoptosis. Similar effects were observed in estrogen treated cells. These changes were associated with suppressed bcl-2 protein and augmented Cyclins A and D proteins. DDT and TCDD exposure did not induce apoptosis. These preliminary data taken together, suggest that xenoestrogens have direct, compound-specific effects on HeLa cells. This study further enhances our understanding of environmental modulation of cervical cancer.

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was nearly 100 percent effective in preventing precancerous cervical lesions, precancerous vaginal and vulvar lesions, and genital warts caused by infection with the types of human papilloma virus (HPV) targeted by the vaccine. (Ovarian) Combined Treatment: In 2006, NCI announced an advance in the ...

  12. Using Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Strategy: Development of a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Theresa L.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Smith, Judith Lee; Heckert, Andrea; Orians, Carlyn E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria E.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable with treatment of precancerous lesions and treatable at early stages. Hispanics have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of screening. "Ayndando a las Mujeres con Informaccion, Guia, y Amor para su Salud" (AMIGAS) is an intervention to increase cervical cancer screening in U.S. women of Mexican…

  13. 34A, miRNA-944, miRNA-101 and miRNA-218 in cervical cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, 85 % of the cervical cancers occur in developing countries, such as China and India. [2]. Currently, chemotherapy is the commonly used strategy to prevent the relapse and metastasis of cervical cancer besides surgery [3]. However, early diagnosis is the most important strategy for treating cervical cancer [4].

  14. Metabolic risk factors and cervical cancer in the metabolic syndrome and cancer project (Me-Can).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Hanno; Bjørge, Tone; Concin, Hans; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Manjer, Jonas; Hallmans, Göran; Borena, Wegene; Häggström, Christel; Engeland, Anders; Almquist, Martin; Jonsson, Håkan; Selmer, Randi; Stattin, Pär; Tretli, Steinar; Kleiner, Andrea; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the association between metabolic risk factors and cervical cancer carcinogenesis. During mean follow-up of 11 years of the Me-Can cohort (N=288,834) 425 invasive cervical cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by the use of Cox proportional hazards regression models for quintiles and standardized z-scores (with a mean of 0 and a SD of 1) of BMI, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and MetS score. Risk estimates were corrected for random error in the measurements. BMI (per 1SD increment) was associated with 12%, increase of cervical cancer risk, blood pressure with 25% and triglycerides with 39%, respectively. In models including all metabolic factors, the associations for blood pressure and triglycerides persisted. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) score was associated with 26% increased corrected risk of cervical cancer. Triglycerides were stronger associated with squamous cell carcinoma (HR 1.48; 95% CI, 1.20-1.83) than with adenocarcinoma (0.92, 0.54-1.56). Among older women cholesterol (50-70 years 1.34; 1.00-1.81), triglycerides (50-70 years 1.49, 1.03-2.16 and ≥70 years 1.54, 1.09-2.19) and glucose (≥ 70 years 1.87, 1.13-3.11) were associated with increased cervical cancer risk. The presence of obesity, elevated blood pressure and triglycerides were associated with increased risk of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dosimetrically Triggered Adaptive Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Stewart, James [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kelly, Valerie [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xie, Jason [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brock, Kristy K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Moseley, Joanne [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cho, Young-Bin; Fyles, Anthony [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lundin, Anna; Rehbinder, Henrik; Löf, Johan [RaySearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Milosevic, Michael, E-mail: mike.milosevic@rmp.uhn.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: The widespread use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer has been limited by internal target and normal tissue motion. Such motion increases the risk of underdosing the target, especially as planning margins are reduced in an effort to reduce toxicity. This study explored 2 adaptive strategies to mitigate this risk and proposes a new, automated method that minimizes replanning workload. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with cervical cancer participated in a prospective clinical study and underwent pretreatment and weekly magnetic resonance (MR) scans over a 5-week course of daily external beam radiation therapy. Target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were contoured on each of the scans. Deformable image registration was used to model the accumulated dose (the real dose delivered to the target and OARs) for 2 adaptive replanning scenarios that assumed a very small PTV margin of only 3 mm to account for setup and internal interfractional motion: (1) a preprogrammed, anatomy-driven midtreatment replan (A-IMRT); and (2) a dosimetry-triggered replan driven by target dose accumulation over time (D-IMRT). Results: Across all 30 patients, clinically relevant target dose thresholds failed for 8 patients (27%) if 3-mm margins were used without replanning. A-IMRT failed in only 3 patients and also yielded an additional small reduction in OAR doses at the cost of 30 replans. D-IMRT assured adequate target coverage in all patients, with only 23 replans in 16 patients. Conclusions: A novel, dosimetry-triggered adaptive IMRT strategy for patients with cervical cancer can minimize the risk of target underdosing in the setting of very small margins and substantial interfractional motion while minimizing programmatic workload and cost.

  16. Qualitative study of barriers to cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa Modibbo, Fatima; Dareng, Eileen; Bamisaye, Patience; Jedy-Agba, Elima; Adewole, Ayodele; Oyeneyin, Lawal; Olaniyan, Olayinka; Adebamowo, Clement

    2016-01-11

    To explore the barriers to cervical cancer screening, focusing on religious and cultural factors, in order to inform group-specific interventions that may improve uptake of cervical cancer screening programmes. We conducted four focus group discussions among Muslim and Christian women in Nigeria. Discussions were conducted in two hospitals, one in the South West and the other in the North Central region of Nigeria. 27 Christian and 22 Muslim women over the age of 18, with no diagnosis of cancer. Most participants in the focus group discussions had heard about cervical cancer except Muslim women in the South Western region who had never heard about cervical cancer. Participants believed that wizardry, multiple sexual partners and inserting herbs into the vagina cause cervical cancer. Only one participant knew about the human papillomavirus. Among the Christian women, the majority of respondents had heard about cervical cancer screening and believed that it could be used to prevent cervical cancer. Participants mentioned religious and cultural obligations of modesty, gender of healthcare providers, fear of disclosure of results, fear of nosocomial infections, lack of awareness, discrimination at hospitals, and need for spousal approval as barriers to uptake of screening. These barriers varied by religion across the geographical regions. Barriers to cervical cancer screening vary by religious affiliations. Interventions to increase cervical cancer awareness and screening uptake in multicultural and multireligious communities need to take into consideration the varying cultural and religious beliefs in order to design and implement effective cervical cancer screening intervention programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Short-course palliative radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Ju Hye; Ki, Yong Kan; Kim, Won Taek; Park, Dahl; Kim, Dong Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Ji Ho; Jeon, Sang Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of short-course hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) for the palliation of uterine cervical cancer. Seventeen patients with cancer of the uterine cervix, who underwent palliative hypofractionated 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy between January 2002 and June 2012, were retrospectively analyzed. RT was delivered to symptomatic lesions (both the primary mass and/or metastatic regional lymph nodes). The total dose was 20 to 25 Gy (median, 25 Gy) in 5 Gy daily fractions. The median follow-up duration was 12.2 months (range, 4 to 24 months). The median survival time was 7.8 months (range, 4 to 24 months). Vaginal bleeding was the most common presenting symptom followed by pelvic pain (9 patients). The overall response rates were 93.8% and 66.7% for vaginal bleeding control and pelvic pain, respectively. Nine patients did not have any acute side effects and 7 patients showed minor gastrointestinal toxicity. Only 1 patient had grade 3 diarrhea 1 week after completion of treatment, which was successfully treated conservatively. Late complications occurred in 4 patients; however, none of these were of grade 3 or higher severity. Short-course hypofractionated RT was effective and well tolerated as palliative treatment for uterine cervical cancer.

  18. Perception of human papillomavirus infection, cervical cancer and HPV vaccination in North Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showket Hussain

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV -associated cervical cancer is the second-most common cancer in women worldwide but it is the most frequent gynaecological cancer and cancer associated death in India women. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, HPV vaccine, HPV vaccine acceptance among school and undergraduates students and their parent's perception about acceptance of HPV vaccine in Northern part of India (Delhi and NCR regions.A qualitative questionnaire based survey among 2500 urban/rural students aged 12-22 years was conducted.Overall, a low frequency (15% of HPV and cervical cancer awareness was observed in students and their parents. However, the awareness was much higher in females belonging to urban setup compared to boys with a perception that HPV causes cervical cancer in women only. Additionally, only (13% participants who were aware of cervical cancer and HPV were willing to accept HPV vaccination. Apparently, parents of female students were two times more willing to accept HPV vaccination for their ward than male students (p<0.001; OR 95%CI = 2.09 (1.58-2.76.Cervical cancer and HPV awareness among school, undergraduate students and also to their parents was found to be very low in this part of India. The level of awareness and education appears to be insignificant determinants in rural compared to urban setup. Better health education will be needed to maximize public awareness for cervical cancer prevention.

  19. Cervical and Breast Cancer Secreening Programme Results of Etlik KETEM Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskender Kog

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The cervical and breast cancer screening programme to report the results between 2008 and 2010 at KETEM in Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Women’s Health Teaching and Research Hospital. METHOD: Populations of healthy women between 2008 and 2010 with a total of 5253 case were evaluated with community-based and opportunistic screening. The cervical cancer screened with the conventional cervical pap smear technique and breast cancer screened with two dimensional bilateral mammography and breast examination. RESULTS: Cervical cancer screening as a result of 65 (1.5% patients had abnormal cytology and abnormal histopathological findings were found in a total of 24 of them. A gynecological examination and biopsy in one case with cervical cancer were detected. In the 4284 women screened for cervical cancer, ASC-US determined in 48 women (1.1%, AGC in four women (0.09%, LGSIL in five women (0.1%, HGSIL in two women (0.045% and ASC-H in six women (0.14%. Although 234 and 664 women screened for breast cancer in year of 2008 and 2009 respectively, breast cancer didn’t find out. However, 10 women (0.9% with breast cancer determined in 1164 screened women in year of 2010. CONCLUSION: Reduced the incidence of cervical and breast cancer and diagnosed at an early stage of tumor is obtained with screening programs in healthy society. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 145-152

  20. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a sexually transmitted infection, such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. Cervicitis can develop from noninfectious causes, too. Successful ... result from common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and genital herpes. Allergic reactions. An ...

  1. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... virus ( genital herpes ) Human papilloma virus ( genital warts ) Trichomoniasis Other things that can cause cervicitis include: A ... the discharge under a microscope (may show candidiasis , trichomoniasis , or bacterial vaginosis) Pap test Tests for gonorrhea ...

  2. Correlation of DNA Ploidy with Progression of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Mehrotra, S.; Kalra, N.; Singh, U.; Shukla, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of squamous cell carcinomas of cervix are preceded by visible changes in the cervix, most often detected by cervical smear. As cervical cancer is preceded by long precancerous stages, identification of the high-risk population through detection of DNA ploidy may be of importance in effective management of this disease. Here we attempted to correlate aneuploid DNA patterns and their influence on biological behavior of flow-cytometry analysis of DNA ploidy which was carried out in cytologically diagnosed cases of mild (79), moderate (36), and severe (12) dysplasia, as well as “atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS)” (57) along with controls (69), in order to understand its importance in malignant progression of disease. Cytologically diagnosed dysplasias, which were employed for DNA ploidy studies, 39 mild, 28 moderate, and 11 severe dysplasia cases were found to be aneuploid. Out of the 69 control subjects, 6 cases showed aneuploidy pattern and the rest 63 subjects were diploid. An aneuploidy pattern was observed in 8 out of 57 cases of cytologically evaluated ASCUS. The results of the followup studies showed that aberrant DNA content reliably predicts the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in cervical smear. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA ploidy may provide a strategic diagnostic tool for early detection of carcinoma cervix. Therefore, it is a concept of an HPV screening with reflex cytology in combination with DNA flow cytometry to detect progressive lesions with the greatest possible sensitivity and specificity. PMID:20445775

  3. HPV genotype distribution in older Danish women undergoing surgery due to cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Mejlgaard, Else; Gravitt, Patti

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 in cervical cancer may decrease with age. This study aimed to describe the HPV genotype distribution in Danish women aged 55 years or older with cervical cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we identified 153...... cases of cervical cancer diagnosed at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark (1990-2012) and Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark (2007-2012). All women had surgery to treat the disease. HPV genotyping was performed on cervical cancer tissue using the INNO LiPA HPV genotyping extra (Fujirebio......, Belgium) at the Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. The main outcome was to estimate the age-specific prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes included in the bivalent, the quadrivalent, and the nonavalent vaccine. RESULTS: Of 121 cases of cervical cancer included in this study, 113...

  4. Human rights in health equity: cervical cancer and HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Joanna N

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to demonstrate that health equity, as an empirical and normative concept, is reflected in the human rights to health and equality under international law. The obligations on government that flow from health equity as a human right are then examined. These include the obligation to act in pursuit of health equity as a policy objective, and the obligation to enact measures to ensure health equity as a policy outcome. These obligations are considered in relation to a promising remedial measure for social disparities in cervical cancer: HPV vaccines.

  5. Adoptive T-cell Therapy Promising for Metastatic Cervical Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 4,000 women in the U.S. die from cervical cancer each year. Nearly all cases of the disease are caused by infection with human papilloma viruses (HPVs), particularly strains 16 and 18. Cervical cancer can be prevented with vaccination against HPVs before the initiation of sexual activity and can be detected early with regular screening via the Pap test and/or HPV DNA testing. If the disease progresses to a metastatic state, however, it is generally incurable and difficult to treat with chemotherapy.

  6. Cervical cytology in serous and endometrioid endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, T.; Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Zomer, S.F.; Tilburg, J.M. van; Snijders, M.P.; Siebers, A.G.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and

  7. Beliefs about the causes of cervical cancer in Botswana: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, D M

    2009-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality and morbidity for women in Botswana. Yet, little is known about what women believe to be the causes of the disease. This paper presents data on factors women in Botswana believe are responsible for the high incidence of cervical cancer in their country. Data were part of a larger study that explored knowledge and perceptions about cervical cancer and Pap smear screening from the perspectives of the clients and the healthcare providers. The study that generated the data included 30 women of all socio-economic levels, recruited by network sampling. The women's ages ranged from 31 to 54 years. Demographic data were analysed descriptively. Individualized interview data were content-analysed. The identified causes of cervical cancer were classified as cervical irritants and non-irritants. The most commonly cited cervical irritants were vaginally inserted chemical agents and traditional medicine. Participants identified vaginally inserted chemical substances and traditional medicines as possible explanations for the high incidence of cervical cancer in Botswana. They reported that women used these substances for sexual and hygienic purposes. Although these factors are believed to be the causes of cervical cancer and have not yet been medically acknowledged, verbal reports suggest that their use is problematic. There is a need for health education and for further research to affirm women's beliefs about the harmful effects of intravaginal agents.

  8. Impact of 2-, 4- and 9-valent HPV vaccines on morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rebecca; Feldman, Sarah

    2016-06-02

    Cervical cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most cervical cancers are associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), and vaccination with any of 3 available HPV vaccines is anticipated to greatly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. This review provides an overview of the burden of HPV, the efficacy and clinical effectiveness of the bivalent (HPV 16, 18), quadrivalent (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) and 9vHPV (HPV 6, 11, 16, 1831, 33, 45, 52, 58) vaccines in order to assess the anticipated impact on cervical cancer. All three vaccines show high efficacy in prevention of vaccine-specific HPV-type infection and associated high-grade cervical dysplasia in HPV-naïve women. Early clinical effectiveness data for the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine demonstrate reduced rates of HPV 16 and 18 prevalence in vaccinated cohorts; data evaluating cervical dysplasia and cervical procedures as outcomes will shed further light on the clinical effectiveness of both vaccines. The bivalent vaccine has demonstrated cross-protection to non-vaccine HPV types, including the types in the 9vHPV vaccine. No clinical effectiveness data is yet available for the 9vHPV vaccine.  While HPV vaccination has great promise to reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, estimated benefits are largely theoretical at present. Large population-based clinical effectiveness studies will provide long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness, as well as assessment of cervical cancer as an endpoint, particularly as young vaccinated women enter the appropriate age range to initiate screening for cervical cancer. Strengthening screening and treatment programs will likely have the greatest impact in the short-term on cervical cancer morbidity and mortality.

  9. Racial/Ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities of cervical cancer advanced-stage diagnosis in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, F Benjamin; Lin, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Advanced-stage diagnosis is among the primary causes of mortality among cervical cancer patients. With the wide use of Pap smear screening, cervical cancer advanced-stage diagnosis rates have decreased. However, disparities of advanced-stage diagnosis persist among different population groups. A challenging task in cervical cancer disparity reduction is to identify where underserved population groups are. Based on cervical cancer incidence data between 1995 and 2008, this study investigated advanced-stage cervical cancer disparities in Texas from three social domains: Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and geographic location. Effects of individual and contextual factors, including age, tumor grade, race/ethnicity, as well as contextual SES, spatial access to health care, sociocultural factors, percentage of African Americans, and insurance expenditures, on these disparities were examined using multilevel logistic regressions. Significant variations by race/ethnicity and SES were found in cervical cancer advanced-stage diagnosis. We also found a decline in racial/ethnic disparities of advanced cervical cancer diagnosis rate from 1995 to 2008. However, the progress was slower among African Americans than Hispanics. Geographic disparities could be explained by age, race/ethnicity, SES, and the percentage of African Americans in a census tract. Our findings have important implications for developing effective cervical cancer screening and control programs. We identified the location of underserved populations who need the most assistance with cervical cancer screening. Cervical cancer intervention programs should target Hispanics and African Americans, as well as individuals from communities with lower SES in geographic areas where higher advanced-stage diagnosis rates were identified in this study. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Sudanese Women Regarding the Pap Smear Test and Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almobarak, Ahmed O; Elbadawi, Ayman A; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Elhoweris, Mohammed H; Ahmed, Mohammed H

    2016-01-01

    Despite the established role of the Pap smear test (PST) in prevention and early detection of cervical cancer, it is still rarely practiced in Sudan. Many challenges hinder the establishment of an effective cervical cancer screening program, including socio-cultural factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of Sudanese women with regard to the Pap smear test and cervical cancer. A total of 500 married women aged 14 to 58 years were recruited from obstetric clinics, hospitals and universities in Khartoum in 2014. Data were collected using a standardized, pretested questionnaire that inquired socio-demographic characteristics and their KAP about cervical cancer and the PST. More than 52% of participating women were above 30 years of age, and the majority (78.8%) were university degree holders. A total of 486 (97.2 %) of participants were resident in urban areas of Khartoum State. However about 48% of the respondents had never heard about PST, and only 15.8% of the participants had undergone a Pap smear test previously; 46.6% (233/500) knew that the human papilloma virus (HPV) was the causative agent, but only 39.2% (196/500) had heard about HPV vaccination, and only 11.4% (57/500) had received the vaccine. However 68% of the respondents agreed to do Pap smear if properly informed about the test and 75.4% of the respondents agreed to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. Despite a high educational level, less than half of our participants had accurate knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and cervical cancer screening. Health education about cervical cancer, HPV and sexually transmitted infections and the role of PST in cervical cancer prevention are crucial when designing interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening for Sudanese women.

  11. Dual-modality smartphone endoscope for cervical pre-cancer detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiangqian; Yu, Bing

    2017-02-01

    Early detection is the key to the prevention of cervical cancer. There is an urgent need for a portable, affordable, and easy-to-use device for cervical pre-cancer detection, especially in low-resource settings. We have developed a dual-modality fiber-optic endoscope system (SmartME) that integrates high-resolution fluorescence imaging (FLI) and quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) onto a smartphone platform. The SmartME consists of a smartphone, a miniature fiber-optic endoscope, a phone attachment containing imaging optics, and a smartphone application (app). FLI is obtained by painting the tissue with a contrast agent (e.g., proflavine), illuminating the tissue and collecting its fluorescence images through an imaging bundle that is coupled to the phone camera. DRS is achieved by using a white LED, attaching additional source and detection fibers to the imaging bundle, and converting the phone camera into a spectrometer. The app collects images/spectra and transmits them to a remote server for analysis to extract the tissue parameters, including nuclear-to-cytoplasm ratio (calculated from FLI), concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) as well as scattering (measured by DRS). These parameters can be used to detect cervical dysplasia. Our preliminary studies have demonstrated that the SmartME can clearly visualize the nuclei in living cells and in vivo biological samples, with a high spatial resolution of 3.1μm. The device can also measure tissue absorption and scattering properties with comparable accuracy to those of a benchtop DRS system. The SmartME has great potential to provide a compact, affordable, and `smart' solution for early detection of neoplastic changes in cervix.

  12. Trends in the Incidence of Cervical Cancer in Jordan, 2000–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Sharkas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the incidence of cervical cancer in Jordan and assess its trend in over a 14-year period (2000–2013. Methods. This descriptive study was based on secondary analysis of cervical cancer data that are registered in the Jordan Cancer Registry (JCR. Results. A total of 591 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer in Jordan during the period 2000–2013. The age at diagnosis ranged between 15 and 97 years, with a median of 50 years. The average age standardized rate (ASR was 2.0/100,000 women. The incidence of cervical cancer started to decrease after 2006 but it remained relatively constant between 2008 and 2013. Over the 14-year period, ASR for cervical cancer decreased by 28.6% from 2.1 per 100,000 women in 2000 to 1.5 per 100,000 women in 2013. About 46.5% of the cases were of squamous cell carcinoma morphology. Early cancer constituted about 60% of the cases, regional cases constituted 9.6%, and distant metastatic cases constituted 10.7%. Conclusions. The incidence of cervical cancer in Jordan is low compared to regional estimates and remained relatively constant between 2008 and 2013. Implementation of screening measures could lead to better case finding, early diagnosis, and prevention of cervical cancer.

  13. From Cancer Screening to Treatment: Service Delivery and Referral in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W.; Hanson, Vivien; Johnson, Gale D.; Royalty, Janet E.; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income and underserved women through a network of providers and health care organizations. Although the program serves women 40-64 years old for breast cancer screening and 21-64 years old for cervical cancer screening, the priority populations are women 50-64 years old for breast cancer and women who have never or rarely been screened for cervical cancer. From 1991 through 2011, the NBCCEDP provided screening and diagnostic services to more than 4.3 million women, diagnosing 54,276 breast cancers, 2554 cervical cancers, and 123,563 precancerous cervical lesions. A critical component of providing screening services is to ensure that all women with abnormal screening results receive appropriate and timely diagnostic evaluations. Case management is provided to assist women with overcoming barriers that would delay or prevent follow-up care. Women diagnosed with cancer receive treatment through the states' Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Programs (a special waiver for Medicaid) if they are eligible. The NBCCEDP has performance measures that serve as benchmarks to monitor the completeness and timeliness of care. More than 90% of the women receive complete diagnostic care and initiate treatment less than 30 days from the time of their diagnosis. Provision of effective screening and diagnostic services depends on effective program management, networks of providers throughout the community, and the use of evidence-based knowledge, procedures, and technologies. PMID:25099897

  14. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region...... is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines...

  15. Influence of HIV/AIDS on Cervical Cancer: A Retrospective Study From Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambuso, Ramadhani S; Shadrack, Stephen; Lidenge, Salum J; Mwakibete, Ntoli; Medeiros, Rui M

    2017-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in women in Tanzania. Any impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on cervical precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer has a significant implication, as for any public health concern, especially in an area such as the Morogoro region in Tanzania, which has one of the highest rates of cervical cancer in the world. A comparative retrospective study was performed of 536 women screened for cervical cancer by visual inspection methods at the Morogoro Regional Referral Hospital over a period of 3 years; the women were grouped according to their HIV status. The odds ratios (OR) with 95% CIs were estimated using χ2 test and multivariate analysis. The test statistics were evaluated with a significance level of P risk factors for the cervical lesions were HIV-positive status (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 4.2 to 11.2; P AIDS has a highly statistically significant association with (P < .001) and a great influence on the development of cervical precancerous lesions in HIV-positive women; however, its direct involvement in the progression to invasive cervical cancer, especially in this era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, is questionable.

  16. Exploring the barriers to health care and psychosocial challenges in cervical cancer management in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngutu M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mariah Ngutu, Isaac K Nyamongo Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies (IAGAS, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer among women aged between 15 years and 44 years in Kenya, resulting in an estimated 4,802 women being diagnosed with cervical cancer and 2,451 dying from the disease annually. It is often detected at its advanced invasive stages, resulting in a protracted illness upon diagnosis. This qualitative study looked at the illness trajectories of women living with cervical cancer enrolled for follow-up care at Kenyatta National Hospital cancer treatment center and the Nairobi Hospice, both in Nairobi county, Kenya. Using the qualitative phenomenological approach, data were collected through 18 in-depth interviews with women living with cervical cancer between April and July 2011. In-depth interviews with their caregivers, key informant interviews with health care workers, and participant observation field notes were used to provide additional qualitative data. These data were analyzed based on grounded theory’s inductive approach. Two key themes on which the data analysis was then anchored were identified, namely, psychosocial challenges of cervical cancer and structural barriers to quality health care. Findings indicated a prolonged illness trajectory with psychosocial challenges, fueled by structural barriers that women were faced with after a cervical cancer diagnosis. To address issues relevant to the increasing numbers of women with cervical cancer, research studies need to include larger samples of these women. Also important are studies that allow in-depth understanding of the experiences of women living with cervical cancer. Keywords: qualitative, illness trajectories, women, cervical cancer

  17. Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarzija, Ivana [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Beard, Peter, E-mail: peter.beard@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

  18. Incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrossi, Silvina; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Parkin, Donald Maxwell

    2003-01-01

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality estimates for 2000 are presented for the 21 Latin American countries, using estimates from the statistical package GLOBOCAN 2000. Additional data on time-trends are also presented, using the WHO mortality database. By the year 2000, some 76,000 cervical cancer and almost 30,000 deaths were estimated for the whole region, which represent 16% and 13% of the world burden, respectively. Thus, Latin American countries are among those with highest incidence rates in the world, together with countries from Sub-Saharan Africa, South and South East Asia. Variation in incidence among countries is large. Very high rates are found in Haiti (ASR 93.9 per 100,000), Nicaragua (ASR 61.1 per 100,000) and Bolivia (ASR 58.1 per 100,000). It seems unlikely that differences in risks in the region can be explained as the result of screening activities. Several descriptive studies carried out to evaluate the screening programmes in Latin America have pointed out problems related to insufficient coverage and frequency of screening. Other related problems include inadequate collection and reading of cytological samplings as well as incomplete follow-up of women after the test. The main challenge for Latin America countries remains on how to organize effective screening programmes, and for this, a real and urgent commitment from public health services and decision-makers in the region is needed. This paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  19. What promotes cervical cancer screening among Chamorro women in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjasiri, Sora P; Mouttapa, Michele; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Quitugua, Lourdes F

    2012-12-01

    Pacific Islander women represent a significant at-risk population for cervical cancer, yet little is known about the modifiable factors associated with routine Pap testing. Therefore, the aims of this paper are to report and discuss the known and unknown factors associated with cervical cancer screening among Chamorro women in California. This cross-sectional study explored the factors associated with receipt of regular Pap testing among Chamorro women age 18 years and older in California. A self-administered survey was designed and distributed to women in order to understand their knowledge, beliefs and behaviors regarding routine receipt of Pap tests. Only about two-thirds of women had received a Pap test within the past 2 years, which is below the U.S. average of 72 %. Significant predictors included younger age, health insurance coverage, knowledge of screening frequency, and medically correct beliefs regarding risk groups. These factors, however, accounted for less than 16 % of the variance in Pap testing behavior. We discuss the poor predictive value of existing demographic and theoretical variables, and discuss potentially new areas of research that can aid in the development of future intervention studies. Study limitations and implications are also discussed.

  20. Incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrossi Silvina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality estimates for 2000 are presented for the 21 Latin American countries, using estimates from the statistical package GLOBOCAN 2000. Additional data on time-trends are also presented, using the WHO mortality database. By the year 2000, some 76 000 cervical cancer and almost 30 000 deaths were estimated for the whole region, which represent 16% and 13% of the world burden, respectively. Thus, Latin American countries are among those with highest incidence rates in the world, together with countries from Sub-Saharan Africa, South and South East Asia. Variation in incidence among countries is large. Very high rates are found in Haiti (ASR 93.9 per 100 000, Nicaragua (ASR 61.1 per 100 000 and Bolivia (ASR 58.1 per 100 000. It seems unlikely that differences in risks in the region can be explained as the result of screening activities. Several descriptive studies carried out to evaluate the screening programmes in Latin America have pointed out problems related to insufficient coverage and frequency of screening. Other related problems include inadequate collection and reading of cytological samplings as well as incomplete follow-up of women after the test. The main challenge for Latin America countries remains on how to organize effective screening programmes, and for this, a real and urgent commitment from public health services and decision-makers in the region is needed.