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Sample records for cervical cancer mortality

  1. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Fiji 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Rebecca; Fong, James; Taylor, Richard; Gyaneshwar, Rajanishwar; Carter, Karen

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer and most common cause of cancer mortality among women in Fiji. There is little published data on the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Pacific countries. To determine the incidence 2003-2009 of, and mortality 2003-2008 from, cervical cancer by ethnicity and period in Fiji, identify evidence of secular change and relate these data to other Pacific countries, Australia and New Zealand. Counts of incident cervical cancer cases (2003-2009) and unit record mortality data (2003-2008) from the Fiji Ministry of Health were used to calculate age-standardised (to the WHO World Population) cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, and cervical or uterine cancer mortality rates, by ethnicity, with 95% confidence intervals. On the basis of comparison of cervical cancer mortality with cervical or uterine cancer mortality in Fiji with similar populations, misclassification of cervical cancer deaths is unlikely. There is no evidence of secular change in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates for the study period. For women of all ages and ethnicities, the age-standardised incidence rate of cervical cancer (2003-2009) was 27.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.4-29.8) and the age-standardised mortality rate (2003-2008) was 23.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 21.5-26.4). The mortality/incidence ratio was 87%. Fijians had statistically significant higher age-standardised incidence and mortality rates than Indians. Fiji has one of the highest estimated rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the Pacific region. Cervical cancer screening in Fiji needs to be expanded and strengthened. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girianelli, Vania Reis; Gamarra, Carmen Justina; Azevedo e Silva, Gulnar

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010) were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, disaggregated by capital city and municipality. The annual percent change in mortality rates was estimated by segmented linear regression using the joinpoint method. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were conducted between average mortality rate at the end of the three-year period and selected indicators in the state capital and each Brazilian state. RESULTS There was a decline in cervical cancer mortality rates throughout the period studied, except in municipalities outside of the capitals in the North and Northeast. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality in the capitals from the end of the 1990s onwards. Favorable socioeconomic indicators were inversely correlated with cervical cancer mortality. A strong direct correlation was found with favorable indicators and an inverse correlation with fertility rate and breast cancer mortality in inner cities. CONCLUSIONS There is an ongoing dynamic process of increased risk of cervical and breast cancer and attenuation of mortality because of increased, albeit unequal, access to and provision of screening, diagnosis and treatment.  PMID:25119941

  3. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Leśniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków.

  4. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region...... is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines...

  5. Prevalence of cervical cancer and associated mortality in Grenada, 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bahadoor-Yetman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess cervical cancer prevalence and associated mortality in Grenada, West Indies during 2000–2010. Methods Records of visits to hospital and clinical facilities were obtained from the histopathology laboratory of the Grenada General Hospital. Records were de-identified and electronically compiled. Cervical cancer prevalence was assessed via cross-sectional analysis of this secondary data. Of a total 12 012 records, 2 527 were selected for analysis using sampling without replacement. Cases were matched to corresponding patient data from death registries, where possible, and used to calculate associated mortality rates. Results The observed prevalence of cervical cancer was 52.4 per 100 000 women (ages 15 and above. The highest rates of cervical cancer occurred in the 35–44 age group, with the second highest among 45–64-year-olds. A total of 65 deaths were attributable to cervical cancer during 2000–2010, more than 50% of which were among women > 65 years old. The observed mortality rate was 16.7 per 100 000, almost twice the rate estimated by WHO for the region. Conclusions This study demonstrates the need for a comprehensive cervical cancer-screening program in Grenada. Results should contribute to informing future studies on how to appropriately generate and execute public health policy for education, screening, prevention, and control of cervical cancer in Grenada.

  6. Cervical cancer, a disease of poverty: mortality differences between urban and rural areas in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Palacio-Mejía Lina Sofía; Rangel-Gómez Gudelia; Hernández-Avila Mauricio; Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine cervical cancer mortality rates in Mexican urban and rural communities, and their association with poverty-related factors, during 1990-2000. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from national databases to obtain mortality trends and regional variations using a Poisson regression model based on location (urban-rural). RESULTS: During 1990-2000 a total of 48 761 cervical cancer (CC) deaths were reported in Mexico (1990=4 280 deaths/year; 2000=4 620 deaths/year). On aver...

  7. Description of cervical cancer mortality in Belgium using Bayesian age-period-cohort models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To correct cervical cancer mortality rates for death cause certification problems in Belgium and to describe the corrected trends (1954-1997) using Bayesian models. Method Cervical cancer (cervix uteri (CVX), corpus uteri (CRP), not otherwise specified (NOS) uterus cancer and other very rare uterus cancer (OTH) mortality data were extracted from the WHO mortality database together with population data for Belgium and the Netherlands. Different ICD (International Classification of Diseases) were used over time for death cause certification. In the Netherlands, the proportion of not-otherwise specified uterine cancer deaths was small over large periods and therefore internal reallocation could be used to estimate the corrected rates cervical cancer mortality. In Belgium, the proportion of improperly defined uterus deaths was high. Therefore, the age-specific proportions of uterus cancer deaths that are probably of cervical origin for the Netherlands was applied to Belgian uterus cancer deaths to estimate the corrected number of cervix cancer deaths (corCVX). A Bayesian loglinear Poisson-regression model was performed to disentangle the separate effects of age, period and cohort. Results The corrected age standardized mortality rate (ASMR) decreased regularly from 9.2/100 000 in the mid 1950s to 2.5/100,000 in the late 1990s. Inclusion of age, period and cohort into the models were required to obtain an adequate fit. Cervical cancer mortality increases with age, declines over calendar period and varied irregularly by cohort. Conclusion Mortality increased with ageing and declined over time in most age-groups, but varied irregularly by birth cohort. In global, with some discrete exceptions, mortality decreased for successive generations up to the cohorts born in the 1930s. This decline stopped for cohorts born in the 1940s and thereafter. For the youngest cohorts, even a tendency of increasing risk of dying from cervical cancer could be observed, reflecting

  8. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by

  9. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Azuine, Romuladus E; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure. Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks. Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing inequalities in socioeconomic conditions, availability of preventive health

  10. Geographic variations of racial/ethnic disparities in cervical cancer mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Zhan, F Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    To examine how racial/ethnic disparities of cervical cancer mortality vary geographically and to identify factors contributing to the variation. Using the population-weighted risk difference, the authors investigated geographic patterns of racial/ethnic disparities in cervical cancer mortality in Texas based on data from 1995 to 2008 georeferenced at the census tract level. In addition, we considered the impact of seven factors--stage at diagnosis, spatial access to health care, and five factors that were created from available demographic data: socioeconomic status (SES), the sociodemographic factor, the percentage of African Americans, the health insurance factor, and the behavioral factor--on racial/ethnic disparities in the analysis using multivariate logistic regression. SES, the sociodemographic factor, the percentage of African Americans, and racial/ethnic disparities in late-stage diagnosis in a census tract were independent predictors of a census tract's displaying significant racial/ethnic disparities in cervical cancer mortality. Compared with a census tract with the highest SES, a census tract with the lowest SES was more likely to have higher mortality rates in African Americans (odds ratio 4.19, confidence interval 2.18-8.07) or Hispanics (odds ratio 8.15, confidence interval 5.27-12.61) than non-Hispanic whites after adjusting for covariates. Health insurance expenditures also influenced racial/ethnic disparities in mortality, although this effect was attenuated after adjusting for covariates. Neither our calculated behavioral factor nor spatial analysis of access to health care explained racial/ethnic gaps in mortality. Findings from this study could allow cervical cancer intervention programs to more clearly identify areas that would reduce disparities in cervical cancer outcomes.

  11. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  12. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  13. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about cervical and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  14. Estimated effects of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program on breast cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Thomas J; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Miller, Jacqueline W; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Hall, Ingrid J; Segel, Joel; Royalty, Janet; Gardner, James G; Smith, Judith Lee; Li, Chunyu

    2011-04-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast cancer screening to medically underserved, low-income women aged 40-64 years. No study has evaluated NBCCEDP's effect on breast cancer mortality. This study estimates life-years saved by NBCCEDP breast cancer screening compared with screening in the absence of NBCCEDP and with no screening. A breast cancer simulation model based on existing Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network models was constructed. The screening module from these models was modified to reflect screening frequency for NBCCEDP participants. Screening data for uninsured women represented what would have happened without the program. Separate simulations were performed for women who received NBCCEDP (Program) screening, women who potentially received screening without the program (No Program), and women who received no screening (No Screening). The impact of NBCCEDP was estimated as the difference in life-years between the Program and No Program, and the Program and No Screening scenarios. The analysis was performed in 2008-2009. Among 1.8 million women who were screened between 1991 and 2006, the Program saved 100,800 life-years compared with No Program and 369,000 life-years compared with No Screening. Per woman screened, the Program saved 0.056 life-years (95% CI=0.031, 0.081) compared with No Program and 0.206 life-years (95% CI=0.177, 0.234) compared with No Screening. Per woman with invasive breast cancer and screen-detected invasive cancer, the Program saved 0.41 and 0.71 life-years, respectively, compared with No Program. These estimates suggest that NBCCEDP breast cancer screening has reduced mortality among medically uninsured and underinsured low-income women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause Vaginal discharge that does not stop, and may be pale, ... Instructions Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - ... Images Cervical cancer Cervical neoplasia ...

  16. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    CANCER SCREENING. February 2004 Vol.22 No.2 CME 63. Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- oping countries. It is the commonest malignancy among black women in South. Africa. The quoted incidence of cervical cancer is approximately 30/100 000 women.1 Mortality is ...

  17. Mortality Among Women With Cervical Cancer During or Shortly After a Pregnancy in Denmark 1968 to 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer diagnosed in relation to a pregnancy is rare; however, the current trend to have children later in life increases the risk of pregnancy and cervical cancer coinciding. We investigated the mortality of women diagnosed with cervical cancer during or in relation...... to a pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry, we identified women diagnosed with a primary cervical cancer at ages 15 to 44 years during 1968 to 2006 born after April 1, 1935. The women were linked to several Danish national registries to obtain information on births...... and abortions. In addition, linkage was made to the Cause of Death Register. Overall and cause-specific hazards ratios (HRs) were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustment for age, calendar year, and extent of disease. RESULTS: A total of 6135 cervical cancers were identified. Among these...

  18. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 800-762-2264 Foundation for Women's Cancer Phone Number: 800-444-4441 Previous Page Next Page Cervical cancer fact sheet (PDF, 162 KB) Female reproductive system Related information Human papillomavirus (HPV) and genital ...

  19. Effect of organized screening on incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, E; Madsen, Mette; Engholm, G

    1989-01-01

    Pap smears were used only on a limited scale in Denmark until the late 1960s. Since then smears have been taken both in organized screening programs and outside the programs by general practitioners, private gynecologists, and hospital wards. The present smear-taking activity is equivalent...... multiplicative Poisson models on county-based incidence and mortality data for women aged 30-59 years in 1963-1982 showed a statistically significant effect of organized screening in reducing both the incidence (RR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.73), and the mortality (RR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59-0.78) of cervical cancer...... to an average of one smear every second year per woman. As the responsibility for health care rests with the counties in Denmark, differences are found between the counties both concerning organization of screening programs, and concerning the overall level of the smear-taking activity. An analysis using...

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Screening for cervical cancer using the Pap test has decreased the number of new cases of ... their chance of dying from cervical cancer . A Pap test is commonly used to screen for cervical cancer. ...

  1. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical cytology (also called the Pap test or Pap smear) and, for some women, testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) . How does cervical cancer occur? Cancer occurs when cervical cells become abnormal ...

  2. [Evaluation of mortality after the analysis of the screening history in women diagnosed with infiltrating cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Marta; Astudillo, Aurora; Clavero, Omar; Velasco, Julio; Ibáñez, Raquel; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    To assess the impact of screening history on the incidence of cervical cancer from 2000 to 2010 in Asturias. Retrospective study. All public hospitals in Asturias. From 374 women diagnosed with cervical cancer were retrieved. Clinical information, FIGO stage and all previous cytological data were extracted from clinical and histopathological records. Proportional differences were assessed using chi-square tests. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Women between 25 and 70years had no records of a previous cytology within 5.5years of cancer diagnosis in 65.6%. This proportion was related with older age, presence of symptoms and an advance tumor stage at diagnosis. Women over 70years old had no records of a previous cytology in 83.3%. An organized cervical cancer screening program and optimal quality of the system, monitored through audits, could help to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Asturias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential impact of antiretroviral therapy and screening on cervical cancer mortality in HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa: a simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Atashili

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite having high cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, screening for cervical precancerous lesions remains infrequent in sub-Saharan Africa. The need to screen HIV-positive women because of the higher prevalence and faster progression of cervical precancerous lesions may be heightened by the increased access to highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Policymakers need quantitative data on the effect of HAART and screening to better allocate limited resources. Our aim was to quantify the potential effect of these interventions on cervical cancer mortality.We constructed a Markov state-transition model of a cohort of HIV-positive women in Cameroon. Published data on the prevalence, progression and regression of lesions as well as mortality rates from HIV, cervical cancer and other causes were incorporated into the model. We examined the potential impact, on cumulative cervical cancer mortality, of four possible scenarios: no HAART and no screening (NHNS, HAART and no screening (HNS, HAART and screening once on HAART initiation (HSHI, and HAART and screening once at age 35 (HS35. Our model projected that, compared to NHNS, lifetime cumulative cervical cancer mortality approximately doubled with HNS. It will require 262 women being screened at HAART initiation to prevent one cervical cancer death amongst women on HAART. The magnitudes of these effects were most sensitive to the rate of progression of precancerous lesions.Screening, even when done once, has the potential of reducing cervical cancer mortality among HIV-positive women in Africa. The most feasible and cost-effective screening strategy needs to be determined in each setting.

  4. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

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    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

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    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  8. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

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    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

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    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1425x1326 View Download Large: 2850x2651 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing ...

  11. Overview and Prevention of Cervical Cancer | Ogu | Nigerian Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer though a preventable disease, still has an estimated mortality of 80% from invasive cervical cancer in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of cervical cancer and the various modalities available for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. Methodology: ...

  12. [Social inequalities in cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, 1999-2003 and 2004-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Laura; Guevel, Carlos Gust

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of cervical cancer mortality in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires during the period 1999-2003 and its relationship to the socioeconomic conditions of the population, as well as to compare the distribution during this period with that of the triennium 2004-2006. This ecological study used electoral districts as the unit of analysis. The selected socioeconomic indicators were educational deficit, lack of health insurance and the Material Deprivation of Households Index (Índice de Privación Material de Hogares), taken from the National Population and Housing Census (Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas) of 2001. The stratification of the city into areas according to these conditions and the analysis of standardized mortality ratios showed an increased risk of dying from cervical cancer associated with worse socioeconomic conditions. The stratification and death risks demonstrated a clear spatial pattern, with the south of the city presenting the highest death risks, and the northern and central areas presenting the lowest risks.

  13. Socioeconomic, Rural-Urban, and Racial Inequalities in US Cancer Mortality: Part I—All Cancers and Lung Cancer and Part II—Colorectal, Prostate, Breast, and Cervical Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K.; Williams, Shanita D.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Mulhollen, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial inequalities in US mortality from all cancers, lung, colorectal, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers. A deprivation index and rural-urban continuum were linked to the 2003–2007 county-level mortality data. Mortality rates and risk ratios were calculated for each socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial group. Weighted linear regression yielded relative impacts of deprivation and rural-urban residence. Those in more deprived groups and rural areas had higher cancer mortality than more affluent and urban residents, with excess risk being marked for lung, colorectal, prostate, and cervical cancers. Deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to cancer mortality, with deprivation showing stronger impacts. Socioeconomic inequalities existed for both whites and blacks, with blacks experiencing higher mortality from each cancer than whites within each deprivation group. Socioeconomic gradients in mortality were steeper in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. Mortality disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking and other cancer-risk factors, screening, and treatment. PMID:22496688

  14. Socioeconomic, Rural-Urban, and Racial Inequalities in US Cancer Mortality: Part I-All Cancers and Lung Cancer and Part II-Colorectal, Prostate, Breast, and Cervical Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K. G.; Williams, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial inequalities in US mortality from all cancers, lung, colorectal, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers. A deprivation index and rural-urban continuum were linked to the 2003-2007 county-level mortality data. Mortality rates and risk ratios were calculated for each socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial group. Weighted linear regression yielded relative impacts of deprivation and rural-urban residence. Those in more deprived groups and rural areas had higher cancer mortality than more affluent and urban residents, with excess risk being marked for lung, colorectal, prostate, and cervical cancers. Deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to cancer mortality, with deprivation showing stronger impacts. Socioeconomic inequalities existed for both whites and blacks, with blacks experiencing higher mortality from each cancer than whites within each deprivation group. Socioeconomic gradients in mortality were steeper in nonmetropolitanlitan areas. Mortality disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking and other cancer-risk factors, screening, and treatment

  15. Socioeconomic, Rural-Urban, and Racial Inequalities in US Cancer Mortality: Part I—All Cancers and Lung Cancer and Part II—Colorectal, Prostate, Breast, and Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial inequalities in US mortality from all cancers, lung, colorectal, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers. A deprivation index and rural-urban continuum were linked to the 2003–2007 county-level mortality data. Mortality rates and risk ratios were calculated for each socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial group. Weighted linear regression yielded relative impacts of deprivation and rural-urban residence. Those in more deprived groups and rural areas had higher cancer mortality than more affluent and urban residents, with excess risk being marked for lung, colorectal, prostate, and cervical cancers. Deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to cancer mortality, with deprivation showing stronger impacts. Socioeconomic inequalities existed for both whites and blacks, with blacks experiencing higher mortality from each cancer than whites within each deprivation group. Socioeconomic gradients in mortality were steeper in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. Mortality disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking and other cancer-risk factors, screening, and treatment.

  16. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  17. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Screening for cervical cancer using the Pap test has decreased the number of new cases of ... their chance of dying from cervical cancer . A Pap test is commonly used to screen for cervical cancer. ...

  18. Cervical cancer: current knowledge, perception and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst the gynaecological cancers worldwide, especially in developing countries. Cervical cancer continues to persist in Nigeria like other developing countries despite the existence of ...

  19. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term pregnancies have an increased risk of cervical cancer. Using oral contraceptives for a long time Among women who are ... a 10 year period, the risk of cervical cancer returns to that of women who never used oral contraceptives. Smoking cigarettes Among women who are infected with ...

  20. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer has reduced substantially following the introduction of effective cervical screening programmes. This is in contrast to what is obtained in Africa including Nigeria where cervical ...

  1. Incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Latin America Incidencia y mortalidad de cáncer cervical en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Arrossi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality estimates for 2000 are presented for the 21 Latin American countries, using estimates from the statistical package GLOBOCAN 2000. Additional data on time-trends are also presented, using the WHO mortality database. By the year 2000, some 76 000 cervical cancer and almost 30 000 deaths were estimated for the whole region, which represent 16% and 13% of the world burden, respectively. Thus, Latin American countries are among those with highest incidence rates in the world, together with countries from Sub-Saharan Africa, South and South East Asia. Variation in incidence among countries is large. Very high rates are found in Haiti (ASR 93.9 per 100 000, Nicaragua (ASR 61.1 per 100 000 and Bolivia (ASR 58.1 per 100 000. It seems unlikely that differences in risks in the region can be explained as the result of screening activities. Several descriptive studies carried out to evaluate the screening programmes in Latin America have pointed out problems related to insufficient coverage and frequency of screening. Other related problems include inadequate collection and reading of cytological samplings as well as incomplete follow-up of women after the test. The main challenge for Latin America countries remains on how to organize effective screening programmes, and for this, a real and urgent commitment from public health services and decision-makers in the region is needed.Se presentan estimaciones de la incidencia y de la mortalidad por cáncer cervical para los 21 países latinoamericanos en el año 2000. Se utilizaron el paquete estadístico GLOBOCAN 2000 y las bases de datos de mortalidad de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. En el año 2000, al menos 76 000 casos incidentes de cáncer cervical y 30 000 muertes se estimaron para la Región en general, lo cual representa 16 y 13% del total del mundo, respectivamente. Por lo tanto, los países de América Latina se encuentran en un área geográfica con

  2. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- oping countries. It is the commonest malignancy ... Based on data from Cali, Colombia, the impact of starting cervical screening at different ages shows that starting .... vated blue-white light is attached to the inner aspect of the upper speculum.

  3. Tendencias e indicadores sociales de la mortalidad por cáncer de mama y cuello uterino: Antioquia, Colombia, 2000-2007 Trends and social indicators of both mortality breast cancer and cervical cancer in Antioquia, Colombia, 2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Baena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar tasas estandarizadas por edad (TEE de mortalidad por cáncer de mama y cérvix 2000-2007 y explorar indicadores sociales que expliquen la variabilidad de las tasas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Las TEE de mortalidad se estimaron por el método directo y mediante regresión lineal se relacionaron con indicadores sociales por subregión. RESULTADOS: La TEE de cáncer de mama en Antioquia fue 11.3 por 100 000 mujeres-año y para cáncer cervical 9.1. En Medellín, la TEE de cáncer de mama fue 12.5, 1.8 veces la tasa de cáncer cervical. Se observó una disminución del cáncer cervical en Medellín (valor-p=0.03 entre 2000 y 2007, pero no en el resto de Antioquia. La mortalidad de cáncer cervical se relacionó con el porcentaje de miseria (valor-p=0.0003. CONCLUSIONES: La mortalidad por estas neoplasias ha permanecido constante en Antioquia, con una amplia variación de la mortalidad por cáncer cervical por subregión asociada con niveles de pobreza.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality age-standardized rates (ASR for breast and cervical cancer from 2000-2007 and explore social indicators that explain the variability of rates in Antioquia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ASR was estimated by the direct method and linear regression was used to relate social indicators with rates by subregion. RESULTS: Breast and cervical cancer mortality ASRs in Antioquia were 11.3 and 9.1 per 100 000 woman-years respectively. In Medellin, the breast cancer mortality ASR was 12.5, 1.8 times the rate of cervical cancer. A decrease of cervical cancer ASR between 2000 and 2007 was observed in Medellin (p-value=0.03 but not in the rest of Antioquia. Cervical cancer mortality ASR was related to the percentage of poverty (p-value=0.0003. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality due to these neoplasms has remained constant in Antioquia. The wide variation in mortality from cervical cancer between regions seems to be associated with poverty.

  4. the need to implement population based cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In developed countries, the incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer has been declining due to accessible organized cervical cancer screening using conventional cytology (Pap smear) and treatment of precancers. Available published data shows that cervical cancer mortality has decreased by 70 % over the past five.

  5. Cervical cancer control and prevention in Malawi: need for policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Malawi has the highest incidents of cervical cancer followed by Mozambique and Comoros thus according to the 2014 Africa cervical cancer multi indicator incidence and mortality score card. Despite having an established cervical cancer prevention program, there is low screening coverage. Studies have been ...

  6. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  8. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical cancer: • Cytology: This test, also called a Pap test or Pap smear, looks for abnormal changes in ... women ages 21 to 65, screening with a Pap test every 3 years has the highest benefits with ...

  9. Preventing cervical cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer remains the most common cancer diagnosed in women in southern Africa, with an estimated lifetime risk of 1 in. 26.1. Unfortunately most of these cancers are also diagnosed at a late stage, with subsequent poor prognosis for long-term survival. This very high incidence is particularly sad in an era where.

  10. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the incidence, mortality, time trends and prognostic factors for cervical cancer in Cali, Colombia, and to review the molecular epidemiological evidence showing that HPV is the major and necessary cause of cervical cancer and the implications of this discovery for primary and secondary prevention. Materials and methods. Incidence rates of cervical cancer during a 45-year period (1962-2007 were estimated based on the population-based cancer registry of Cali and the mortality statistics from the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali. Prognostic factors were estimated based on relative survival. Review of the molecular epidemiological evidence linking HPV to cervical cancer was focused on the studies carried out in Cali and in other countries. Results. Incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC declined from 120.4 per 100 000 in 1962-1966 to 25.7 in 2003-2007 while those of adenocarcinoma increased from 4.2 to 5.8. Mortality rates for cervical cancer declined from 18.5 in 1984-1988 to 7.0 per 100 000 in 2009-2011. Survival was lower in women over 65 years of age and in clinical stages 3-4. Review of the molecular epidemiological evidence showed that certain types of HPV are the central and necessary cause of cervical cancer. Conclusions. A decline in the incidence and mortality of SCC and an increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma during a 45-year period was documented in Cali, Colombia

  11. Mortality of non-participants in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2014-01-01

    a HR of 2.09 (95% CI: 2.05-2.14) compared to regular participants. The HR for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers other than cervical cancer was 3.80 (95% CI: 2.67-5.41). Younger women, whose coverage rates were higher, had higher all-cause mortality HRs. Women screened more frequently than......-cause mortality than participants, and a particularly increased risk of HPV-related causes of death. These results indicate that improper control for the selective uptake of cervical screening may result in overestimating its effectiveness....

  12. Cervical cancer: what's new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Sadalla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in Brazil. Among women, it is the second most frequent, second only to breast cancer. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the country, with estimated 15,590 new cases (2014 and 5,430 deaths (2013. In order to update information to improve outcomes, reduce morbidity and optimize the treatment of this cancer, this article will address the advancement of knowledge on cervical cancer. The topics covered include the role of surgery in different stages, treatment of locally advanced carcinomas, fertility preservation, the role of the sentinel lymph node technique, indications and techniques of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and some special situations.

  13. Cervical cancer: a missed health priority in Tanzania | Saleh | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri. It is the second commonest cancer in women worldwide and is among the largest causes of global cancer mortality. Human papilloma virus (HPV) which is transmitted sexually, particularly subtypes 16 and 18 are responsible for causing majority of cervical cancer ...

  14. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  15. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  16. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  17. Clinico-pathological characteristics of cervical cancer in Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer related mortality in the developing countries, although preventable. The aim of this study was to use a retrospective descriptive study to determine the prevalence and the clinico-pathological characteristics of cervical cancer among genital tract ma-lignancies. This study reviewed ...

  18. Radiation Therapy Plus Cisplatin and Gemcitabine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  19. Cancer mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its predecessor, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), have conducted mortality surveillance on a fixed sample, the Life Span Study (LSS), of 82,000 atomic bomb survivors and 27,000 nonexposed residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki since 1950. The results of the most recent analysis of the LSS are summarized

  20. Towards improving cervical cancer screening in Nigeria: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer screening is the key to reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in developing countries. In the absence of a national screening program, healthcare givers in Nigeria are encouraged to routinely inform and screen eligible women. This review aims at equipping health workers for this task by ...

  1. Practical aspects of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillaart, Sabrina Ada Hendrika Maria van den

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes studies on practical aspects of cervical cancer, concering surgical considerations, and aspects of tumour behaviour and tumour spread. The thesis comprises studies on: the comparison of nerve-sparing and non-nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer; a new surgical

  2. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-16

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  4. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

  6. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  7. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  8. Cervical Dysplasia: Is It Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical dysplasia: Is it cancer? I had a Pap test recently, and my doctor said the results showed ... the appearance of the abnormal cells. On the Pap test report, this will be reported as a low- ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Screening - English PDF It's a Simple Test - Cervical Cancer Screening - español (Spanish) PDF American Cancer Society Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Female Exam and Pap Smear - українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Urdu ( ...

  10. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Factors Associated with the Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Portland, Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Ncube, Butho; Bey, Amita; Knight, Jeremy; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and is the leading cause of deaths in developing countries. Despite the strong evidence that cervical cancer screening results in decreased mortality from this disease, the uptake for cervical screening among Jamaican women remains low. Aims : This study was carried out to identify factors associated with Jamaican women′s decisions to screen for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptiv...

  12. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  13. Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG...... mutations, R501X and 2282del4, using blood from the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, Denmark. Controls (n = 8050) were genotyped in previous population-based studies. Information on cervical cancer, mortality and emigration were obtained from national registers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic...... and stratification by cancer stage. RESULTS: The primary results showed that FLG mutations were not associated with the risk of cervical cancer (6.3% of cases and 7.7% of controls were carriers; OR adjusted 0.81, 95% CI 0.57-1.14; OR adjusted+ weighted 0.96, 95% CI 0.58-1.57). Among cases, FLG mutations increased...

  14. Knowledge about cervical cancer and barriers of screening program among women in Wufeng County, a high-incidence region of cervical cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yao; Li, Shuang; Yang, Ru; Zhou, Hang; Xiang, Qunying; Hu, Ting; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhilan; Ma, Ding; Feng, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. A cross-sectional survey of women was conducted to determine their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and the barriers to screening. Women who were willing to undergo screenings had higher knowledge levels. "Anxious feeling once the disease was diagnosed" (47.6%), "No symptoms/discomfort" (34.1%) and "Do not know the benefits of cervical cancer screening" (13.4%) were the top three reasons for refusing cervical cancer screening. Women who were younger than 45 years old or who had lower incomes, positive family histories of cancer, secondary or higher levels of education, higher levels of knowledge and fewer barriers to screening were more willing to participate in cervical cancer screenings than women without these characteristics. Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the screening methods, and to improve their perceptions of the screening process for early detection to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  15. Knowledge about cervical cancer and barriers of screening program among women in Wufeng County, a high-incidence region of cervical cancer in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jia

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area.A cross-sectional survey of women was conducted to determine their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and the barriers to screening.Women who were willing to undergo screenings had higher knowledge levels. "Anxious feeling once the disease was diagnosed" (47.6%, "No symptoms/discomfort" (34.1% and "Do not know the benefits of cervical cancer screening" (13.4% were the top three reasons for refusing cervical cancer screening. Women who were younger than 45 years old or who had lower incomes, positive family histories of cancer, secondary or higher levels of education, higher levels of knowledge and fewer barriers to screening were more willing to participate in cervical cancer screenings than women without these characteristics.Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the screening methods, and to improve their perceptions of the screening process for early detection to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  16. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  17. The challenges of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the changing paradigm in disease trends, Nigeria may be faced with serious challenges in terms of healthcare and disease management. Cervical cancer, which is one of the cancers that is vaccine preventable, remain the most frequently reported and the leading cause of mortality from cancer in Nigeria. More than ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cervical Cancer is Preventable Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... 000 More than 4,000 women die of cervical cancer each year. 93% As many as 93% of ...

  20. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  1. Cervical cancer: A global health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, William; Bacon, Monica A; Bajaj, Amishi; Chuang, Linus T; Fisher, Brandon J; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Jhingran, Anuja; Kitchener, Henry C; Mileshkin, Linda R; Viswanathan, Akila N; Gaffney, David K

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy diagnosed in women worldwide. Nearly all cases of cervical cancer result from infection with the human papillomavirus, and the prevention of cervical cancer includes screening and vaccination. Primary treatment options for patients with cervical cancer may include surgery or a concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen consisting of cisplatin-based chemotherapy with external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Cervical cancer causes more than one quarter of a million deaths per year as a result of grossly deficient treatments in many developing countries. This warrants a concerted global effort to counter the shocking loss of life and suffering that largely goes unreported. This article provides a review of the biology, prevention, and treatment of cervical cancer, and discusses the global cervical cancer crisis and efforts to improve the prevention and treatment of the disease in underdeveloped countries. Cancer 2017;123:2404-12. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Cervical Cancer Vaccination | Ajiboye | Tropical Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This article provides an overview of cervical cancer vaccine including safety, efficacy and cost in the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Discussion: The quadrivalent human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. These HPV types are responsible for 70% of cervical cancers ...

  3. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Epoetin Alfa in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer and Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Anemia; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Drug Toxicity; Radiation Toxicity; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening with AMIGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairson, David R.; Chang, Yu-Chia; Byrd, Theresa L.; Smith, Judith Lee; Fernandez, Maria E.; Wilson, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hispanic women have a higher incidence of cervical cancer than all other races and ethnicities. In Hispanic subgroups, Mexican American women were among the least likely to have received cervical cancer screening. In a recent RCT, Ayudando a las Mujeres con Información, Guia, y Amor para su Salud (AMIGAS) was shown to increase cervical cancer screening rates among women of Mexican descent at 6 months in all intervention arms compared to the control arm. Limited information exists about the economics of interventions to increase cervical cancer screening rates among women of Mexican descent. Purpose This study aims to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the alternative AMIGAS intervention methods for increasing cervical cancer screening among low-income women of Mexican descent in three U.S. communities. Methods Cost data were collected from 2008 to 2011 alongside the AMIGAS study of 613 women. Receipt of Pap test within 6 months of intervention was the primary outcome measure in the cost-effectiveness analysis, conducted during 2012–2013. Results The cost per additional woman screened comparing the video-only intervention to usual care was $980. The cost increased to $1,309 with participant time cost included. With an additional cost per participant of $3.90 compared to flipchart only, the full AMIGAS program (video plus flipchart) yielded 6.8% additional women screened. Conclusions Results on the average and incremental cost-effectiveness of the AMIGAS program elements may assist health policymakers and program managers to select and appropriately budget for interventions shown to increase cervical cancer screening among low-income women of Mexican descent. PMID:24842738

  5. Radiobiological characteristics of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagabu, Teruo; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nanayama, Kunihiko

    1976-01-01

    In order to observe the radiobiological characteristics of cervical cancer, the author carried out irradiation of 60 Co in 16 cases of cervical cancer. The primary lesion of each case was exposed to radiation of 100 R once a day, 40 times in sequence, totaling 4,000 R. To evaluate this results, the vaginal smears were obtained everyday and examined for changes in cancerous cells caused by the irradiation. The results of our study showed that cervical cancer could be classified into three groups according to the radiosensitivity of its cancerous cells. In the group of low-radiosensitivity (11 cases of 16), the cancerous cells decreased gradually, and enlargement of the nuclei of the cancerous cells was observed from 2,000 R of irradiation, but the majority of the cancerous cells were those of nucleus after the irradiation of 4,000 R. In all of the 5 uterus removed, residual cancer lesion was noted. The radiocuability was unfavourable. In the group of high-radiosensitivity (4 cases of 16), the cancerous cells decreased remarkablly. Enlargement of nucleus was noted from 1,000 R of the irradiation, the cancerous cells of small-sized nucleus appeared with the irradiation of 3,000 R but the cancerous cells almost disappeared with the irradiation of 4,000 R. The radiocuability was favourable. In the group of combination of high-radiosensitivity and low-radiosensitivity portions (one case of 16), the cancerous cells decreased remarkablly until the exposure to the radiation of 2,000 R but thereafter did slowly. In a removed uterus, the cancer lesion was noted, but the prognosis was favourable. The foregoing results suggest that changes in the nuclear diameter of the cancerous cells in vaginal smears during irradiation can tell the radiosensitivity of the cancerous cells. (Kanao, N.)

  6. Lynch Syndrome and Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, Yoland C; Dowty, James G; Win, Aung Ko; Thompson, Tina; Walsh, Michael D; Cummings, Margaret C; Gallinger, Steven; Lindor, Noralane M; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hopper, John L; Newcomb, Polly A; Haile, Robert W; Church, James; Tucker, Katherine M; Buchanan, Daniel D; Young, Joanne P; Winship, Ingrid M; Jenkins, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Carriers of germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes are at increased risk of several cancers including colorectal and gynecologic cancers (Lynch syndrome). There is no substantial evidence that these mutations are associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer. A total of 369 families with at least one carrier of a mutation in a MMR gene (133 MLH1, 174 MSH2, 35 MSH6, and 27 PMS2) were ascertained via population cancer registries or via family cancer clinics in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and USA. Personal and family histories of cancer were obtained from participant interviews. Modified segregation analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio (incidence rates for carriers relative to those for the general population), and age-specific cumulative risks of cervical cancer for carriers. A total of 65 cases of cervical cancer were reported (including 10 verified by pathology reports). The estimated incidence was 5.6–fold (95% CI: 2.3–13.8; p=0.001) higher for carriers than for the general population with a corresponding cumulative risk to 80 years of 4.5% (95% CI: 1.9–10.7%) compared with 0.8% for the general population. The mean age at diagnosis was 43.1 years (95% CI: 40.0–46.2), 3.9 years younger than the reported USA population mean of 47.0 years (p=0.02). Women with MMR gene mutations were found to have an increased risk of cervical cancer. Due to limited pathology verification we cannot be certain that a proportion of these cases were not lower uterine segment endometrial cancers involving the endocervix, a recognized cancer of Lynch syndrome. PMID:26077226

  7. Thiazolidinediones abrogate cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuertz, Beverly R., E-mail: knier003@umn.edu; Darrah, Lindsay, E-mail: ldarrah@obgynmn.com; Wudel, Justin, E-mail: drwudel@drwudel.com; Ondrey, Frank G., E-mail: ondre002@umn.edu

    2017-04-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) is activated by thiazolidinedione drugs (TZDs) and can promote anti-cancer properties. We used three TZDs (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone) to target cervical cancer cell lines and a nude mouse animal model. Each agent increased activation of PPAR γ, as judged by a luciferase reporter gene assay in three HPV-associated cell lines (CaSki, SiHa, and HeLa cells) while decreasing cellular proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. They also promoted Oil Red O accumulation in treated cell lines and upregulated the lipid differentiation marker adipsin. Interestingly, xenograft HeLa tumors in nude mice treated with 100 mg/kg/day pioglitazone exhibited decreased growth compared to control mice or mice treated with standard cervical chemotherapy. In conclusion, TZDs slow tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo with decreases in cell proliferation and increases in PPAR γ and adipsin. These agents may be interesting treatments or treatment adjuncts for HPV-associated cancers or perhaps even precancerous conditions. - Highlights: • Thiazolidinediones decreases cervical cancer proliferation. • Pioglitazone increases cervical cancer differentiation. • Pioglitazone decreases tumor growth in mice. • Pioglitazone may be a useful treatment adjunct.

  8. Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

  9. Awareness of cervical cancer and its prevention among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer of the cervix is a major public health issue in the developing countries. The burden of the disease is considerable with associated morbidity and mortality among women in their productive years. The lack of awareness and adequate information about cervical cancer and its prevention may be ...

  10. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  11. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  12. Cervical cancer: evaluation of our results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cola, A.; Suárez, L.; Castillo, C.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer in women occupies 3rd place in incidence and 5th as a cause of cancer death in our country. The evolution is mainly determined by the stage, nodal status and histological type. The treatment of these tumors is surgical, radiant and / or systemic, depending on your choice mainly Stadium. Objective: To analyze the characteristics, evolution, treatment and survival of patients carriers of cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: The medical records were retrospectively analyzed for patients with cervical cancer treated at the Department of Oncology the Clinical Hospital in the period 1994-2004. Curves were constructed survival (sv) of total and free enfemedad sv sv by stage and after relapse by the method of Kaplan-Meier. Results: n = 75 patients, median age 45 years (24-90 years). Histological type: Epidermoid carcinomas 93% 5% 2% adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous. stadium (E) Initial: 31% IE, 38% EII, EIII 25%, 6% EIVA. Treatment was according to the stadium, considering that until 1999 was not standard concurrent chemoradiation. The median sv considering all stages was 124 months. The sv to 5 years for EI was 90% (median 188 sv months), for the ISI 65% (95 months) and the median sv CIRTs was 24 months. Followed for 13 months, 12 patients relapsed and the median after sv relapse was 8 months (95% CI 4-13 months) Conclusions: Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Our results are consistent with those reported in the literature, however far from the optimal, so it is necessary to continue clinical trials in this regard

  13. refinement of an educational toolkit to Promote Cervical Cancer Screening among hispanic immigrant Women in rural Southern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Johnson, Lisa C.; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Hinojosa, Andrea; Mason, Mondi; Meade, Cathy D.; Luque, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cervical cancer incidence and mortality continue to affect Hispanic women in the U.S. disproportionately. Our project sought to refine a cervical cancer intervention designed for use by community health workers, or promotoras, in rural southern Georgia. We collaborated with Hispanic promotoras to refine a Spanish language educational flipchart featuring cervical cancer topic areas for use in screening promotion. PMID:23698684

  14. Raman spectroscopy in cervical cancers: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rubina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide. Developing countries contribute more than 80% towards global burden. Over the last 2 decades, Raman spectroscopy (RS has been actively pursued for cervical cancer detection. In view of latest development in Raman spectroscopic applications in cervical cancers, especially in vivo studies, an update of the same is presented in this article. This articles opens with a brief note on Anatomy of cervix followed by Etiology, and conventional Screening and Diagnosis of Cervical cancers. In subsequent sections, brief description of Theory and Instrumentation of RS is followed by a review of recent developments in cervical cancer detection; with emphasis on cell lines, exfoliated cells, ex vivo and in vivo, and therapeutic response monitoring applications in cervical cancer.

  15. Cervical cancer, a disease of poverty: mortality differences between urban and rural areas in Mexico Cáncer cervical, una enfermedad de la pobreza: diferencias en la mortalidad por áreas urbanas y rurales en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sofía Palacio-Mejía

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine cervical cancer mortality rates in Mexican urban and rural communities, and their association with poverty-related factors, during 1990-2000. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from national databases to obtain mortality trends and regional variations using a Poisson regression model based on location (urban-rural. RESULTS: During 1990-2000 a total of 48 761 cervical cancer (CC deaths were reported in Mexico (1990=4 280 deaths/year; 2000=4 620 deaths/year. On average, 12 women died every 24 hours, with 0.76% yearly annual growth in CC deaths. Women living in rural areas had 3.07 higher CC mortality risks compared to women with urban residence. Comparison of state CC mortality rates (reference=Mexico City found higher risk in states with lower socio-economic development (Chiapas, relative risk [RR]=10.99; Nayarit, RR=10.5. Predominantly rural states had higher CC mortality rates compared to Mexico City (lowest rural population. CONCLUSIONS: CC mortality is associated with poverty-related factors, including lack of formal education, unemployment, low socio-economic level, rural residence and insufficient access to healthcare. This indicates the need for eradication of regional differences in cancer detection.OBJETIVO: Analizar las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer cervicouterino en las poblaciones urbanas y rurales de las regiones y entidades federativas de México, y su relación con factores relacionados con la pobreza, durante el periodo de 1990 a 2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron las bases de datos de población del Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática, las estimaciones de población del Consejo Nacional de Población para el periodo de 1990 a 2000 y las Estadísticas Vitales de Mortalidad registradas por la Secretaría de Salud y el Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática. Estos datos fueron analizados para obtener tendencias de mortalidad, y se obtuvieron

  16. Recent trends in cancer mortality in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garau, M.; Alonso, R.; Musetti, C.; Barrios, E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze trends in cancer mortality in Uruguay in the period 1989-2008. Methodology: The National Cancer Registry (NCR) collects information from cancer mortality from the death certificates: 147 631 deaths were identified in the period from cancer, which was recorded topography, sex and age. They were calculated for each year mortality rates adjusted for age (TMAE) using as standard the world population. Trends were assessed using the method and calculated the joinpoint Estimated Annual Percent Change (ESPP). Results: The TMAE presents downward trend in both sexes (ESPP = significant -0.60 in men and -0.49 In women). In the period studied, mortality presented decreasing trend when it comes to cancer breast cancer in women (ESPP -0.79, significant), and increased for prostate cancer (ESPP = 0.70) and kidney (ESPP = 1.82 and 1.71 in men and women respectively). As regards the digestive system decreased mortality observed for esophageal cancer (ESPP in = -1.93 men and women = -1.78) and stomach (ESPP = -2.22 men and women -2.24 ). Mortality for cancer of colorectum is stable in men (ESPP = 0.35 No significant (NS)) and shows a decline slight but steady in women (ESPP -0.5). As for cancers that show strong association with smoking, decreased mortality observed lung and laryngeal cancer in men (ESPP = -1.11 and -2.05 respectively), confirming the trend found between 1990 and 2001; in women there is increased mortality from lung cancer (ESPP = 2.76) that is not accompanied by increased mortality from laryngeal cancer (-0.1 ESPP = NS). Mortality from cancers oral cavity and pharynx is stable, but in women a significant increase (ESPP = 1.84) is observed when the oral cavity is analyzed in isolation (lip, tongue, gums, palate). As cervical cancer, mortality trends in 20 years is to increase (ESPP = 1.14), however, if consider only the past decade, mortality appears stabilized (ESPP = 0.57 NS). Conclusions: The overall trend of cancer mortality (all sites

  17. Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative incidences of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer were studied in black and white patients at the academic hospitals of the University of the Orange Free State. A statistically highly significant difference was found between black and white patients, with a higher incidence of ...

  18. Elevated Expression of Ox2R in Cervical Cancers and Placentas of Uyghur Women in Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Taximaimaiti, Reyisha; Abuliken, Xiekelai; Maihemuti, Muzhapaer; Abudujilile, Dilinuer; Abudulimu, Haimiti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cervical cancer is one of the major causes of mortality of Uyghur women in Xinjiang, China. Although increased expression of orexin receptor (OxR), known to be strongly expressed in human placenta, has a proven relation to some cancers, there have been few studies of cervical cancer. Thus, we explored this question by evaluating the expression of orexin receptor as a biomarker for screening early stage of cervical cancer in Uyghur women with highest occurrence rate of cervical canc...

  19. Small cell cervical cancer: an unusual finding at cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, Emily

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare cancer, comprising less than 3% of all cervical neoplasms. It uniformly has a poor prognosis, and has a high mortality even with early stage disease. It can metastasise rapidly and metastatic sites include lung, liver, brain, bone, pancreas and lymph nodes. CASE: Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman with no symptoms of cervical pathology who developed post-renal failure following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cause was bilateral ureteric obstruction from metastatic small cell cervical cancer and metastases were subsequently found on her gallbladder specimen. CONCLUSION: This is an unusual presentation of small cell cervical cancer and demonstrates the aggressive nature of this disease.

  20. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  1. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majidi, A.; Ghiasvand, R.; Hadji, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations...

  2. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could be expla......In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...

  3. THE CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING - UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cervical cancer (CC for many decades continues to be the center of attention leading foreign and domestic oncologists. Malignant cervical tumors occupy the leading position among malignant neoplasms of reproductive system in women, second only to breast cancer, despite having far more effective screening compared with this disease. On predictive expert estimates (taking into account population growth and the expected increase in life expectancy by 2020 in developing countries, the rising incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer is 40%, while in developed countries - 11%. If we do not perform timely interventions for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer, after 2050 cervical cancer every year in the world will become sick 1 million women. In the last decade inRussiathere has been a gradual increase in the incidence of cervical cancer: average annual growth rate of 2.21%, General 25,18%. Cervical cancer is one of nosological forms that meet all the requirements of population-based screening. The current Russian normative documents do not give clear answers to questions concerning the age of onset of cervical cancer screening and the time interval between tests, no clear program organized cytological screening of cervical cancer.

  4. Stages of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nearby lymph nodes are also removed. Artificial openings ( stoma ) are made for urine and stool to flow ... information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening for the Reluctant - HPV Testing of Air-Dried Vaginal Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Tommy R.; Yau, Rae Wai-nang; Chan, Olivia Wai-hing; Yu, Vivian; Lo, Joyce Wing-sze; Chow, Tat-chong; Chan, Billy Wai-hon; Lee, Kam-cheong

    2006-01-01

    Despite the availability of the PAP test, cervical cancer continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Many women default cervical cytology for a variety of reasons. This demands the development of alternative screening strategies, such as HPV testing on self-procured cervical-vaginal specimens in order to capture this group of women. We investigated the self-procured air-dried vaginal discharge for HPV testing. We recruited 82 patients with HPV-associated cervical lesions and 36 ...

  6. Prospects for primary prevention of cervical cancer in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franceschi Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The HPV types that cause cervical cancer are sexually transmitted, but there is little evidence that infection can be avoided by behavioural changes, such as condom use. In contrast, prophylactic vaccines against HPV infection are likely to have high efficacy. In principle, the effectiveness of HPV vaccination as a strategy for cervical cancer control can be measured either by monitoring secular trends in cervical cancer incidence or by conducting randomized trials. The former approach is unlikely to provide convincing evidence of effectiveness, since cervical cancer rates are subject to strong secular trends that are independent of intervention measures. A few phase III trials of HPV prophylactic vaccines are now being started. Such trials are very expensive studies involving frequent and complicated investigations. It is important, however, to start as soon as possible simpler trials designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of HPV vaccine in field conditions, i.e. in developing or intermediate countries which suffer the major burden of mortality from cervical cancer. Such trials may capture a difference in the most severe, and rarest, preinvasive cervical lesions (i.e., the real target of any HPV vaccine over a prolonged follow-up (20 years at least. The design of such studies is briefly considered for two areas: Southern India and South Korea.

  7. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause cancer. Most women don’t need a Pap test every year! Have your first Pap test when you’re 21. If your test results ... you can wait 3 years for your next Pap test. HPV tests aren’t recommended for screening women ...

  8. Insurance status and cancer treatment mediate the association between race/ethnicity and cervical cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C; Tang, Tianyu; Cronin, Angel M; Katz, Ingrid T; Howitt, Brooke E; Horowitz, Neil S; Lee, Larissa J; Wright, Alexi A

    2018-01-01

    Cervical cancer outcomes remain poor among disadvantaged populations, including ethnic minorities, low-income, and underinsured women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms that underlie the observed association between race/ethnicity and cervical cancer survival. We identified 13,698 women, ages 21 to 64 years, diagnosed with stages I-III primary cervical cancer between 2007-2013 in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models evaluated associations between race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Other) and cervical cancer-specific mortality. We conducted mediation analysis to calculate the mediation proportion and its 95% confidence interval. Non-Hispanic black women had an increased risk of cervical cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.39), and Hispanic women a decreased risk of dying from their disease (HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.93), compared with non-Hispanic white. The estimated proportion of excess cervical cancer mortality for non-Hispanic black women relative to non-Hispanic white women that was mediated by insurance was 18.6% and by treatment was 47.2%. Furthermore, non-Hispanic black women were more likely to receive radiation and less likely to receive surgery for early-stage disease. In this population-based study we found that some of the excess cervical cancer-specific mortality for non-Hispanic black women is mediated by factors such as insurance status and treatment. These findings suggest that enhancing existing insurance coverage and ensuring equal and adequate treatment in all women may be a key strategy for improving cervical cancer outcomes.

  9. Cervical cancer screening in the United States and the Netherlands: A tale of two countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); M.L. Brown (Martin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContext: This article compares cervical cancer screening intensity and cervical cancer mortality trends in the United States and the Netherlands to illustrate the potential of cross-national comparative studies. We discuss the lessons that can be learned from the comparison as well as

  10. Cervical cancer control, priorities and new directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsonego, J; Bosch, F.X.; Coursaget, P.; Cox, JT; Franco, E; Frazer, I; Sankaranarayanan, R; Schiller, J; Singer, A; Wright, TCJr; Kinney, W; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Linder, J

    2004-01-01

    99% of cervical cancer is initiated by HPV infection. The estimated lifetime risk of cervical cancer is nevertheless relatively low (less than 1 in 20 for most community based studies). Although sensitivity and specificity of the available diagnostic techniques are suboptimal, screening for

  11. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...

  12. Mortalidade por câncer de mama e câncer de colo do útero em município de porte médio da Região Sudeste do Brasil, 1980-2006 Breast cancer and cervical cancer mortality trends in a medium-sized city in Southern Brazil, 1980-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Duarte Rodrigues

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisar a tendência da mortalidade por câncer de mama e câncer de colo do útero em mulheres residentes no Município de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de 1980 a 2006. Os dados sobre os óbitos foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade; as taxas de mortalidade específicas foram calculadas por idade e padronizadas pela população mundial. Para análise de tendência, foram aplicados modelos de regressão polinomial. O câncer de mama foi a principal causa de óbito entre as neoplasias na população de mulheres residentes no município, enquanto o câncer de colo do útero oscilou entre a segunda e a quarta causa no período do estudo. A análise de tendência mostrou queda da mortalidade por câncer de colo do útero (p = 0,001 e tendência de crescimento na mortalidade por câncer de mama (p = 0,035 ao longo dos anos da série. A mortalidade por câncer de mama e colo do útero no Município de Juiz de Fora sugere um processo de transição epidemiológica em andamento, com tendência crescente na mortalidade por câncer de mama e persistência de taxas elevadas por câncer de colo do útero.The aim of this study was to analyze mortality trends from breast cancer and uterine cervical cancer in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The mortality time series from the Mortality Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health was used. Age-related specific mortality rates were calculated and standardized against the world population. Polynomial regression models were applied. Breast cancer was the main cause of cancer-related death for women in Juiz de Fora. Trend analysis using the polynomial regression model showed a decrease in mortality due to uterine cervical cancer (p = 0.001 and an increase in mortality due to breast cancer (p = 0.035 over the course of the time series. The trends in mortality due to breast cancer and cervical cancer in Juiz de Fora suggest an ongoing epidemiological

  13. Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarthigeyan, K

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine's efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context.

  14. Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cancer in black and white patients. J. T. NEL, L. DE LANGE, P. J. MEIRING ... cervical cancer. This serious yet preventable disease is still very prevalent in South Africa, especially among black women. S AIr Med J 1994; 84: 18-19. Aanalysis of rime trends in .... therapy in users of oral contraceptives. Am J Clill Nucr 1982; 35:.

  15. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. [New guidelines in regard to cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have been successful in reducing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. For more than a decade, the human papillomavirus test has been recommended as part of these programs, however, Pap tests is not currently recommended for women 65 years of age who participated adequately in screening programs, continuing with these screening programs is not needed. Screening programs will be different in special populations at greatest risk where tests are frequently needed or use of alternative methods.

  17. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    . Nevertheless, little has been reported about long-term cancer trends in Greenland. Our aim was to describe and interpret the incidence of cervical cancer from 1950 to 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for articles reporting the incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland. We...... with the introduction of screening. The data strongly suggested that the increased burden of cervical cancer in Greenlandic women was real and followed earlier changes in sexual behaviour; these changes were likely a consequence of the tremendous societal changes....

  18. Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsainvil, Merlyn A

    The incidence of cervical cancer has declined dramatically due to Papanicolaou smear testing. However, some minority populations continue to suffer with high incidences and/or death rates of cervical cancer, due to lack of screening. This article updates on cervical cancer screening and prevention and discusses cultural impacts on screening. Knowledge deficits disproportionately affect ethnic minority groups and contribute to cancer incidence, whereas lack of healthcare coverage and low socioeconomic status contribute to screening disparities. Although minority women have cultural beliefs and practices that influence screening, recommendation and/or education from a provider often lead to screening.

  19. [Cigarette smoking among women attending cervical cancer screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Małgorzata; Sadłecki, Paweł; Marszałek, Andrzej; Grabiec, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is recognized as tobacco-related malignancy. HPV vaccination and introducing screening protocols were found as the best way to decrease cervical cancer related mortality. Besides the cytological screening programs of the uterine cervix smear, nowadays co-factors of carcinogenesis are taken into consideration, also. The aim of our study was to analyse data included in questionnaire of 310 women who underwent cytological examination wi thin cervical cancer screening program in our Department in 2011. There were no differences found between studied groups on rate of oral contraceptive or hormonal therapy use, as well as age and tobacco smoking. However, taking into account education and smoking, there was a significant correlation observed. Patients with higher education level smoked less often. The special attention should be paid to promote smoking cessation in the group of women who finished education on elementary level.

  20. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  1. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A markedly increased risk of cervical cancer is known in women immunosuppressed due to AIDS or therapy following organ transplantation. The aim of this review is to determine the association between other conditions affecting the immune system and the risk of cervical cancer. Patients with end......-stage renal disease seem to be at an increased risk of cervical cancer. A higher risk of cervical precancerous lesions was found in patients with some autoimmune diseases; particularly if treated with immunosuppressants. Among behavioral factors weakening the immune system, smoking appeared to strongly...... increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...

  2. Intraoperative irradiation in advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, G.; Goldson, A.L.; Ashayeri, E.; Petrilli, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional treatment of cervical cancer, such as radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy or pelvic exenteration, is limited to the pelvis. Standard radio-therapeutic treatment is a combination of external-beam radiotherapy to the pelvis and intracavitary applications. However, there is a group of patients for whom external radiotherapy alone has limitations. This group consists primarily of patients with large pelvic lymph nodes containing metastatic cancer, metastatically involved paraaortic lymph nodes outside the usual pelvic radiation field, or large central tumors with parametrial involvement. In patients with cancer of the cervix, the incidence of metastasis to paraaortic lymph nodes is high. Attempts to treat paraaortic nodes with external radiotherapy have resulted in high complication rates because the treatment field includes the highly sensitive gastrointestinal tract. External radiation therapy after retroperitoneal exploration of lymph nodes does not seem to improve survival. In an attempt to circumvent the morbidity and mortality associated with conventional external-beam irradiation, the authors initiated a pilot study of intraoperative electron-beam irradiation of the paraaortic nodes and of the large metastatic lymph nodes in the pelvis. The intraoperative boost was followed by conventional fractionated external-beam irradiation. The theoretical advantages of this procedure include a higher radiation tumor dose without a concomitant increase in treatment morbidity and mortality

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  4. Cervical cancer screening: Barriers to access and potential solutions for Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Christie Divine Akwaowo; Tazio Vanni

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, giant strides have been made in reducing mortality due to cervical cancer. The success recorded has been largely attributed to effective screening programmes. In contrast, the burden and mortality due to this disease is rising in developing countries. Access to screening services remains a major challenge for the majority of the population at risk. This paper reviews the current demand-side barriers to cervical cancer screening inNigeriaand identifies potential solutio...

  5. Increasing Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening in Jamaica: Effectiveness of a Theory-Based Educational Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado Interis, Evelyn; Anakwenze, Chidinma P.; Aung, Maug; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines in cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates remain high in Jamaica due to low levels of screening. Effective interventions are needed to decrease barriers to preventive behaviors and increase adoption of behaviors and services to improve prospects of survival. We enrolled 225 women attending health facilities in an intervention consisting of a pre-test, educational presentation and post-test. The questionnaires assessed a...

  6. Vaccines for Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahomed, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of two prophylactic Human Papilloma Virus HPV vaccines and ethical issues related to HPV vaccination are reviewed in this paper. These vaccines have the potential of substantially reducing HPV-related morbidity and mortality, and in particular cervical cancer. The vaccines cannot treat women with current HPV infection or HPV related disease. They should be administered before the commencement of sexual activity. The ideal age group is adolescent girls between the ages 9-13. Both vaccines are highly efficacious and immunogenic and induce high levels of serum antibodies after three doses for all vaccine-related HPV types. School-based vaccination is considered as a costeffective method for its delivery. Adequate education of both clinicians and patients is an essential to ensure effective implementation when considering a national vaccination program. (author)

  7. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among female students and staff in a tertiary institution in the Niger Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Owoeye I.O.G; Ibrahim .I.A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer has reduced substantially following the introduction of effective cervical screening programmes. This is in contrast to what is obtained in Africa including Nigeria where cervical screening is rudimentary or non- existent. Aim: This study seeks to assess the knowledge, level of perception and the attitude of female staff and students of Niger Delta...

  8. Factors Associated with the Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Portland, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Butho; Bey, Amita; Knight, Jeremy; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and is the leading cause of deaths in developing countries. Despite the strong evidence that cervical cancer screening results in decreased mortality from this disease, the uptake for cervical screening among Jamaican women remains low. Aims: This study was carried out to identify factors associated with Jamaican women's decisions to screen for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of 403 women aged 19 years and older from Portland, Jamaica. An interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed the women's cervical cancer screening history, as well as their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding the disease and screening. Results: Of the 403 women interviewed, 66% had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear and only 16% had a Pap test within the past year. Significant predicators of uptake of screening were being married, age, parity, discussing cancer with health provider, perception of consequences of not having a Pap smear, and knowing a person with cervical cancer. Women who did not know where to go for a Pap smear were 85% less likely to have been screened (prevalence odds ratio (POR): 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 0.52). Conclusions: This study showed suboptimal uptake of cervical cancer screening among Jamaican women. Multipronged approaches are needed to address barriers to screening, as well as identify and support conditions that encourage women's use of reproductive health services, thereby reducing incidence and mortality rates from cervical cancer. PMID:25839002

  9. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  10. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  11. Radiosensitizers in cervical cancer. Cisplatin and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetina Lucely

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health burden worldwide. Globally, the majority of cancers are locally advanced at diagnosis; hence, radiation remains the most frequently used therapeutical modality. Currently, the value of adding cisplatin or cisplatin-based chemotherapy to radiation for treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is strongly supported by randomized studies and meta-analyses. Nevertheless, despite these significant achievements, therapeutic results are far from optimal; thus, novel therapies need to be assayed. A strategy currently being investigated is the use of newer radiosensitizers alone or in combination with platinum compounds. In the present work, we present preclinical information on known and newer cytotoxic agents as radiosensitizers on cervical cancer models, as well as the clinical information emanating from early phase trials that incorporate them to the cervical cancer management. In addition, we present the perspectives on the combined approach of radiation therapy and molecular target-based drugs with proven radiosensitizing capacity.

  12. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo, Alicea M.; Panozzo, Catherine A.; DiAngi, Yumi Taylor; Smith, Jennifer S.; Steenhoff, Andrew P.; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Brewer, Noel T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of death in many developing countries due to limited screening by Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. We sought to better understand women’s beliefs about cervical cancer and screening in Botswana, a middle income African country with high rates of cervical cancer. Methods We interviewed 289 women attending general medicine or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics, where Pap testing was available, in Gaborone, Botswana in January 2009. Results About three-quarters (72%) of respondents reported having ever had a Pap smear. HIV-positive women were more likely to have had a Pap smear than HIV-negative women (80% vs. 64%, OR=1.97, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.55). Screening was also more common among women who were older, had higher incomes, or had heard of cervical cancer. Almost all participants reported a desire to have a Pap smear. Reasons included to determine cervical health (56%), to improve overall health (33%), and to obtain early treatment (34%). About half (54%) of respondents said they did not know what causes cervical cancer, and almost none attributed the disease to HPV infection. Conclusion Study findings can inform interventions that seek to increase cervical cancer awareness and uptake of screening as it becomes more widely available. PMID:22367370

  13. The Korean guideline for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Yoon Jae; Suh, Mina; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lim, Myong Cheol; Choi, Jaekyung; Ki, Moran; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jae-Weon; Kim, Jea-Hoon; Park, Eal Whan; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Lim, Sung-Chul; Cho, Chi-Heum; Hong, Sung Ran; Dang, Ji Yeon; Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Yeol; Lee, Won-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The incidence rate of cervical cancer in Korea is still higher than in other developed countries, notwithstanding the national mass-screening program. Furthermore, a new method has been introduced in cervical cancer screening. Therefore, the committee for cervical cancer screening in Korea updated the recommendation statement established in 2002. The new version of the guideline was developed by the committee using evidence-based methods. The committee reviewed the evidence for the benefits and harms of the Papanicolaou test, liquid-based cytology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and reached conclusions after deliberation. The committee recommends screening for cervical cancer with cytology (Papanicolaou test or liquid-based cytology) every three years in women older than 20 years of age (recommendation A). The cervical cytology combined with HPV test is optionally recommended after taking into consideration individual risk or preference (recommendation C). The current evidence for primary HPV screening is insufficient to assess the benefits and harms of cervical cancer screening (recommendation I). Cervical cancer screening can be terminated at the age of 74 years if more than three consecutive negative cytology reports have been confirmed within 10 years (recommendation D). PMID:26197860

  14. Cervical cancer and pregnancy: treatment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, I.; Toth, R.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy and cervical carcinoma occurring concomitantly causes therapeutic and ethical dilemmas. The management for this situation will depend on the gestational age at the time of diagnosis, disease staging, size of the lesion and the patient’s wish to maintain pregnancy and fertility. Review of the literature suggest that pregnancy does not seem to influence the prognosis of cervical cancer. (author)

  15. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  16. Stomach Cancer Following Hodgkin Lymphoma, Testicular Cancer and Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Curtis, Rochelle E; Hauptmann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To further understand the risk of stomach cancer after fractionated high-dose radiotherapy, we pooled individual-level data from three recent stomach cancer case-control studies. These studies were nested in cohorts of five-year survivors of first primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), testicular cancer...... (TC) or cervical cancer (CX) from seven countries. Detailed data were abstracted from patient records and radiation doses were reconstructed to the site of the stomach cancer for cases and to the corresponding sites for matched controls. Among 327 cases and 678 controls, mean doses to the stomach were...... 15.3 Gy, 24.7 Gy and 1.9 Gy, respectively, for Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer and cervical cancer survivors, with an overall mean dose of 10.3 Gy. Risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach cancer site (P

  17. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  18. Diferencias regionales en la mortalidad por cáncer de mama y cérvix en México entre 1979 y 2006 Regional differences in breast and cervical cancer mortality in Mexico between 1979-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sofía Palacio-Mejía

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Explorar las diferencias regionales en la mortalidad por cáncer de mama (CaMa y cervical (CaCu en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se calcularon tendencias de mortalidad por CaMa y CaCu mediante modelos probabilísticos ajustados por estado, grado de marginación y lugar de residencia (urbano/rural. RESULTADOS: La tendencia de mortalidad por CaMa ha sido ascendente, de una tasa estandarizada de 5.6 muertes por cada 100 000 mujeres en 1979 a 10.1 en 2006. La mortalidad por CaCu alcanzó un pico en 1989 y a partir de esa fecha se redujo a 9.9 en 2006. Las tasas más altas de mortalidad por CaMa se encuentran en la capital (13.2 y la región norte (11.8, mientras en el sur se registra la mortalidad por CaCu más alta (11.9. DISCUSIÓN: El número de muertes por CaMa aumenta de forma gradual a lo largo del tiempo a nivel nacional y persisten elevadas tasas de mortalidad por CaCu en áreas marginadas.OBJECTIVE: Explore the regional differences in breast (BC and cervical cancer (CC mortality in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We estimated mortality trends for BC and CC using probabilistic models adjusted by state marginalization level and urban and rural residence. RESULTS: BC mortality shows a rising trend, from a rate of 5.6 deaths per 100000 women in 1979 to 10.1 in 2006. The CC mortality rate reached a peak in 1989 and after this decreased significantly to 9.9 in 2006. The highest BC mortality rates are found in Mexico City (13.2 and the northern part of the country (11.8. As for CC, the highest mortality rates are found in the south (11.9 per 100000 women the. DISCUSSION: The number of BC cases are increased gradually at the national level during the last three decades and high rates of CC mortality persist in marginalized areas.

  19. Trends in cervical cancer in the Netherlands until 2007: has the bottom been reached?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kok, Inge M.C.M.; van der Aa, Maaike A.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Siesling, Sabine; Karim-Kos, Henrike E.; van Kemenade, Folkert J.; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.

    2011-01-01

    We explored trends in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer by age, stage and morphology, and linked the observed trends to screening activities. Data was retrieved from the Netherlands Cancer Registry during 1989–2007 (incidence) and Statistics Netherlands during 1970–2007 (mortality). Trends

  20. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Ou...... the difficult geographical setting, the organised cervical cancer screening programme in the Faroe Islands has achieved a relatively high coverage rate. Nevertheless, challenges, e.g. consistent histology registration and sending reminders, still exist.......BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...

  1. Eradication of cervical cancer in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Xavier Bosch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains within the three most common cancer in women worldwide and is still the commonest female cancer in 41 of 184 countries. Within Latin America, cervical ranks as the most common cancer among women in Bolivia and Peru and the second most frequent in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, The Guyanas, Surinam and Venezuela. Due to its relatively early age at onset, it ranks among the three most frequent cancers in women aged below 45 years in 82% of all countries in the world irrespective of their screening practices.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i2.7777

  2. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in women, the cause ...

  3. Do general practices adhere to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    BACKGROUND: Well-organized cervical screening has been shown to be effective in the reduction of both morbidity and mortality from cancer of the uterine cervix. In The Netherlands, the GP plays an important role in the cervical screening. The question is whether the general practices are able to

  4. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, Joeli A.; Hughes, Sarah H.; Stone, Pamela; Caffrey, Angela S.; Muderspach, Laila I.; Roman, Lynda D.; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Kast, W. Martin

    2007-01-01

    Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining th...

  5. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  6. Critical review of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery for locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Nicoletta; Peiretti, Michele

    2010-10-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of female cancer mortality worldwide. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy represents the standard of care for patients with stage IB2-IIIB cervical cancer. However, the lack of radiotherapy departments, especially in developing countries, the presumed high incidence of long-term complications, and the poor control of metastatic disease have brought about the development of different therapeutic approaches such as neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery. We reviewed the literature concerning the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer.

  7. Cervical cancer control in HIV-infected women: Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel G. Ghebre

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial recognition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in 1981, an increased burden of cervical cancer was identified among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive women. Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART decreased risks of opportunistic infections and improved overall survival. HIV-infected women are living longer. Introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine, cervical cancer screening and early diagnosis provide opportunities to reduce cervical cancer associated mortality. In line with 2030 Sustainable Development Goals to reduce mortality from non-communicable diseases, increased efforts need to focus on high burden countries within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Despite limitations of resources in SSA, opportunities exist to improve cancer control. This article reviews advancements in cervical cancer control in HIV-positive women.

  8. Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Human Papilloma Virus-Related Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Human Papillomavirus Infection; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  9. Health seeking behavior of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is increasingly recognized as one of the public health problems among women in developing countries. Most women with cervical cancer are seen in the health care system late with advanced stage of cancer. This study aims to explore the care seeking behavior of women with cervical cancer.

  10. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  11. Improving Cervical Cancer Prevention by HPV Self-sampling, Colposcopy and Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Baars (Romy)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The worldwide incidence rate of cervical cancer is around 500 000 per year with a mortality rate of around 270 000 women per year. With these figures, it represents the third most common cancer among women worldwide, after breast and colorectal cancer. However, the

  12. Bevacizumab, Radiation Therapy, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  13. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarduy Napoles, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  14. January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health supports global activities to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to address the challenges of cancer and reduce cancer deaths worldwide. Towards these aims, NCI has partnered with Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, a global organization founded on public-private partnerships dedicated to saving women’s lives by advancing prevention, screening, and treatment for breast and cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

  15. TRAILs towards improved cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, John

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a life threatening disease occurring world-wide, but affecting especially women in developing countries. Standard treatment for cevical cancer varies per FIGO stage and patient related factors. In general patients with non bulky (<4 cm) FIGO stage IB and IIA are treated with a

  16. Cervical cancer management in Zaria, Nigeria SUMMARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    24 patients who needed blood transfusion were adequately transfused and only 21.74% of all patients had complete treatment). ... cancer management in this centre with a view to finding ways to improve its management. Methods. All case notes for patients managed for cervical cancer in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching ...

  17. Knowledge and practices of cervical cancer screening among married women in a semi-urban population of Ludhiana, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niji Rachel Varughese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women in India. Hence, the objectives of this study were to find out the perception of women towards cervical cancer and assess their health-seeking behavior for screening. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November to December 2009 among married women above 15 years of age by systematic random sampling of households in Field Ganj, Ludhiana, India. Information was gathered by a questionnaire assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding cervical cancer. Results: Of the 304 women interviewed, 28.9% (88 had heard of cervical cancer and 12.2% (37 knew it could be preventable. Only 4.3% (13 of the women had heard about Pap smear. Interpretation and Conclusions: Inadequate knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear is the greatest obstacle to effective screening. Identifying individual and community-level barriers is important in increasing cervical cancer screening.

  18. Urothelial cancers following radiation therapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Seiji; Hasumi, Masaru; Sato, Jin; Mayuzumi, Takuji; Kumasaka, Fuminari; Shimizu, Toshihiro.

    1996-01-01

    Some reports have indicated that bladder cancer is induced by radiation therapy for cervical cancer. We encountered 6 cases of urothelial cancer (5 cases of bladder cancer and 1 case of ureter cancer) following radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Age at the time of diagnosis of cervical cancer ranged from 38 to 66 years, and the average was 51.2±11.0 (S.D.) years old. Age at the time of diagnosis of urothelial cancer ranged from 53 to 83 years, and the average was 67.5±10.3 years old. The interval between the diagnosis of cervical cancer and urothelial cancer ranged from 3 to 25 years, averaging 16.3 years. It is impossible to evaluate the risk of development of urothelial cancer after radiation therapy based on our data. However, it is important to make an effort to diagnose urothelial cancer at an early stage by educating patients (e.g., advising regular urine tests) after the follow-up period to cervical cancer. (author)

  19. Virus and Cervical Cancer: Role and implication: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyani Raju

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers in women worldwide especially in developing countries. Various etiological factors are described, of which Human papiloma virus (HPV) is proved by various molecular epidemiological studies to play a major role. However many co-factors are required and thought to facilitate the action of HPV in cervical carcinogenesis. Here the role of various viruses in cervical cancer and its implication in screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer is highlighte...

  20. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  1. Cervical cancer screening among certified nurses in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is to a large extent preventable by effective screening. The effectiveness of such screening depends on the knowledge and attitude of the women. Objectives: To ascertain the knowledge of the certified nurses in a teaching hospital in Nigeria to cervical cancer, their attitude to cervical cancer screening and ...

  2. Breast and Cervical Cancers Awareness and Screening Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 4/11(36.4%) of those who knew something about cervical cancer mentioned vaginal examination for cervical cancer screening and only one (0.1%) respondent mentioned Pap smear. The poor level of awareness and screening practices for breast and cervical cancers among women in these rural communities ...

  3. THE EFFECT OF EARLY CERVICAL CANCER DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Haller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment effectiveness and clinical outcome of patients with cervical carcinoma FIGO stage IA1 and IA2 are analyzed in three different time period at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Rijeka, Croatia. Method: Retrospective analysis of the hospital chart of all cervical cancer patients between 1991 and 2005 was conducted with five-year follow up. Results: Data on cervical cancer distribution by stage and five-year survival are presented. Separately analyzed age, histology type and treatment modalities in stage FIGO IA1 and IA2 during three consecutive five-year periods are presented. Conclusions: Conservative surgical approach – conization alone in stage IA1 of the squamous cell car- cinoma is reasonable and safe treatment option for reproductive active women. During observed periods conization became the most used surgical technique applied in almost two third of FIGO IA1 cervical cancer patients. Lymph vascular space invasion in stage IA1 lead to adjunct pelvic lymphadenectomy with unclear clinical benefit. In cervical cancer patients stage IA2 simple hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy could be accepted as a standard treatment. In these patients further studies are recommended to evaluate other less radical surgical techniques – simple and radical trachelectomy with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy. Radical hysterectomy in both stages IA1 and IA2, based on personal experience and literature data represents a surgical overtreatment and should be abandoned.

  4. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-12

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.  Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  5. Why southeastern Nigerian women who are aware of cervical cancer screening do not go for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, Chibuike Ogwuegbu; Aniebue, Uzochukwu

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate reasons behind nonuptake of cervical cancer screening by women who are aware of cervical cancer screening in southeast Nigeria. Women attending gynecologic clinics of 3 health institutions in Enugu, Nigeria, were interviewed by means of a questionnaire to determine those who were aware of cervical cancer screening. The biodemographic characteristics and level of knowledge of cervical cancer screening of women who underwent a previous screen were compared with those of women who did not undergo a previous screen. Reasons for nonuptake of cervical cancer screening as well as potential reasons for undertaking cervical cancer screening were also extracted. A total of 3712 women were interviewed. Of these respondents, 2048 (55.2%) were aware of cervical cancer screening.Only 19.0% of those who were aware of cervical cancer screening underwent a previous screen. Level of knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, university education, and age had a significant impact on the uptake of cervical cancer screening. Poor health-seeking behavior and fear of violation of privacy are the major reasons for nonuptake of cervical cancer screening. Potential reasons for uptake of cervical cancer screening include development of symptoms, adequate educative information, and physician's recommendation. Women in southern Nigeria do not go for cervical cancer screening because of poor understanding of cervical cancer prevention, feeling of violation of the privacy of their genitals, and poor health-seeking behavior. There is a need to modify current policy approaches to cervical cancer prevention in Nigeria. Policies that will address the privacy violation fears and poor health-seeking behavior of the Nigerian woman as well improve the level of educative information on cervical cancer prevention need to be evolved.

  6. Understanding differences in cervical cancer incidence in Western Europe: comparing Portugal and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Diana; Mesher, David; Pista, Angela; Baguelin, Marc; Jit, Mark

    2018-04-01

    Cervical cancer incidence has decreased over time in England particularly after the introduction of organized screening. In Portugal, where opportunistic screening has been widely available with only slightly lower coverage than that of the organized programme in England, rates of cervical cancer have been higher than in England. We compared the burden of cervical cancer, risk factors and preventive interventions over time in both countries, to identify elements hindering the further decline in incidence and mortality in Portugal. We used joinpoint regression to identify significant changes in rate time-trends. We also analyzed individual-level Portuguese data on sexual behaviour and human papillomavirus prevalence, and recent aggregate data on organized and opportunistic screening coverage. We compared published estimates of survival, risk factors and historical screening coverage for both countries. Despite stable incidence, cervical cancer mortality has declined in both countries in the last decade. The burden has been 4 cases and 1 death per 100 000 women annually higher in Portugal than in England. Differences in human papillomavirus prevalence and risk factors for infection and disease progression do not explain the difference found in cervical cancer incidence. Significant mortality declines in both countries followed the introduction of different screening policies, although England showed a greater decline than Portugal over nearly 2 decades after centralizing organized screening. The higher rates of cervical cancer in Portugal compared to England can be explained by differences in screening quality and coverage.

  7. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basics: Cervical Screening Tests What happens during a Pap test? A Pap test takes about 2 to 5 minutes. It may ... uterus, ovaries, and other organs. Learn more about Pap tests. What happens if I’m also having an ...

  8. Effects of irradiation for cervical cancer on subsequent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, L.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous research suggests that cervical cancer patients have a lower risk of breast cancer than women in the general population. Possible explanations include opposing risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, the effect of irradiation used to treat cervical cancer, or both. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between irradiation for cervical cancer and the subsequent development of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between radiation to the ovarian area and the risk of breast cancer in this study. However, the results were consistent with a 19% reduction in risk for women irradiated for cervical cancer when compared to nonirradiated women. In a dose-response analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend of decreased risk of breast cancer with increased radiation up to 1800 rad. There was no consistent pattern for higher doses. The trend, although nonsignificant, differed by age. Women <60 years of age at irradiation were generally at a lower risk of breast cancer than nonirradiated women. Women over 59 years were at an increased risk. There are some potentially important findings from this study which might influence medical care. These should be examined in the larger International Radiation Study

  9. Therapeutic vaccination for HPV induced cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Joeli A; Hughes, Sarah H; Stone, Pamela; Caffrey, Angela S; Muderspach, Laila I; Roman, Lynda D; Weber, Jeffrey S; Kast, W Martin

    2007-01-01

    Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  10. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying

  11. Country-level correlates of cervical cancer mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean Determinantes a nivel país de la mortalidad por cáncer cervicouterino en Latinoamérica y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pereira-Scalabrino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify country-level correlates of geographical variations in cervical cancer (CC mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CC mortality rates for LAC countries (n=26 were examined in relation to country-specific socio-economic indicators (n=58 and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV prevalence using linear regression models. RESULTS: High mortality at ages OBJETIVO: Identificar variables a nivel de país que expliquen las variaciones geográficas en la mortalidad por cáncer cervicouterino (CaCu en América Latina y el Caribe (AL. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se examinaron las tasas de mortalidad por CaCu de cada país (n=26 mediante modelos de regresión lineal en relación con indicadores socioeconómicos (n=58 y prevalencia del virus del papiloma humano (VPH. RESULTADOS: Alta mortalidad en menores de cinco años, bajo gasto total en salud per-cápita y baja proporción de población con acceso a saneamiento básico son los mejores predictores de mortalidad por CaCu (R² =77%. En los países (n=10 con estimaciones de prevalencia de VPH, estos indicadores socioeconómicos y la prevalencia de VPH de alto riesgo explicaron el 98% de la variabilidad de CaCu en AL. CONCLUSIÓN: Las mejoras en el nivel socioeconómico en AL están asociadas con reducciones en la mortalidad por CaCu, a pesar de la ausencia de programas organizados de tamizaje e inmunización contra VPH.

  12. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  13. The impact of anti HPV vaccination on cervical cancer incidence and HPV induced cervical lesions: consequences for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, J A; Caffrey, A S; Muderspach, L I; Roman, L D; Kast, W M

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Screening for cervical cancer is accomplished utilizing a Pap smear and pelvic exam. While this technology is widely available and has reduced cervical cancer incidence in industrialized nations, it is not readily available in third world countries in which cervical cancer incidence and mortality is high. Development of cervical cancer is associated with infection with high risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) creating a unique opportunity to prevent or treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination strategies. Several strategies have been examined in clinical trials for both the prevention of HPV infection and the treatment of pre-existing HPV-related disease. Clinical trials utilizing prophylactic vaccines containing virus-like particles (VLPs) indicate good vaccine efficacy and it is predicted that a prophylactic vaccine may be available within the next five years. But, preclinical research in this area continues in order to deal with issues such as cost of vaccination in underserved third world populations. A majority of clinical trials using therapeutic agents which aim to prevent the progression of pre-existing HPV associated lesions or cancers have shown limited efficacy in eradicating established tumors in humans possibly due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Future trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents will examine patients with early stage cancers or pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field continue and include the further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. Given that cervical cancers are caused by the human papillomavirus, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions and prophylactic vaccination to

  14. Cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: a preventable noncommunicable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboumba Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney; Prazuck, Thierry; Lethu, Thérèse; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Meye, Jean-François; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    Infections caused by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are responsible for 7.7% of cancers in developing countries, mainly cervical cancer. This disease is steadily increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, with more than 75,000 new cases and 50,000 deaths yearly, further increased by HIV infection. Areas covered: The current status of cervical cancer associated with HPV in sub-Saharan Africa has been systematically revised. The main issues discussed here are related to the public health burden of cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and predictions for the coming decades, including molecular epidemiology and determinants of HPV infection in Africa, and promising prevention measures currently being evaluated in Africa. Expert commentary: By the year 2030, cervical cancer will kill more than 443,000 women yearly worldwide, most of them in sub-Saharan Africa. The increase in the incidence of cervical cancer in Africa could counteract the progress made by African women in reducing maternal mortality and longevity. Nevertheless, cervical cancer is a potentially preventable noncommunicable disease, and intervention strategies to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health concern should be urgently implemented.

  15. Cervical cancer screening: women's knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the region of Monastir (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mhamdi, S; Bouanene, I; Mhirsi, A; Bouden, W; Soussi Soltani, M

    2012-12-01

    In Tunisia, cervical cancer is considered the second leading cancer in women and causes high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate women's knowledge, attitudes, and practices of cervical cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia). We conducted a cross-sectional study exploring the cervical cancer screening knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women in the region of Monastir. The study was conducted in health centers in this region from 1st March to 30th June 2009. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire containing 15 items on demographic status, knowledge of risk factors and screening methods, and attitudes toward the relevance and effectiveness of cervical cancer screening. A total of 900 women agreed to take part in the study. Their mean age was 41.6±12.4 years and 64% did not exceed the primary level of education. According to the constructed scores, 22.8% of the participants had good knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and 38.2% had good knowledge of screening methods. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that women aged 45 and older, married, with good knowledge of risk factors and screening methods were more likely to undergo cervical cancer screening (P-valueeducational programs to enhance women's adherence to cervical cancer screening programs in Tunisia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Chromosomal instability in carcinogenesis of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Santos-Munive, Victoria; Alonso-Avelino, Juan Angel

    2013-01-01

    In order to spot common chromosomal imbalances in early and late lesions of cervical cancer that might be used as progression biomarkers, we made a search of literature in PubMed from 1996 to 2011. The medical subject headings employed were chromosomal alterations, loss of heterozygosis, cervical cancer, cervical tumorigenesis, chromosomal aberrations, cervical intraepithelial neoplasm and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The common chromosomal imbalances were gains in 8q24 (77.7 %), 20q13 (66.9 %), 3q26 (47.1 %), Xp22 (43.8 %), and 5p15 (60 %), principally. On the other hand, integration of the high-risk human papillomavirus genome into the host chromosome has been associated with the development of neoplasia, but the chromosomal imbalances seem to precede and promote such integration. Chromosomal imbalances in 8q24, 20q13, 3q21-26 and 5p15-Xp22, determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization assay or comparative genomic hybridization assay for early detection of the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus, are promising markers of cervical cancer progression.

  17. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American women this year, more than twice the number of women who will be diagnosed with cervical (lower part of the uterus) and ovarian (female reproductive glands) cancers combined. However, in terms of 2007 ...

  19. Nanomechanical clues from morphologically normal cervical squamous cells could improve cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Li; Feng, Jiantao; Sun, Quanmei; Liu, Jing; Hua, Wenda; Li, Jing; Ao, Zhuo; You, Ke; Guo, Yanli; Liao, Fulong; Zhang, Youyi; Guo, Hongyan; Han, Jinsong; Xiong, Guangwu; Zhang, Lufang; Han, Dong

    2015-09-01

    Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis.Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03662c

  20. Cervical cancer and the human immunodeficiency virus: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally cervical cancer is one of the commonest cancers in women. It comprises approximately 12% of all cancers and is the commonest cancer in women in developing countries. The most recent compilation of global data indicates that an estimated 490 000 new cases of cervical cancer occur annually worldwide and ...

  1. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening in busan, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Duk Hee; Jung, Kap Yeol; Son, Jieun; Jang, Tae Won; Kim, Yoon Kyu; Shin, Hai Rim

    2004-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer among women in Busan. The Pap smear test could have a significant effect on detecting cervical cancer, and enhancing their rate of use is an important strategy for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with the past use of the Pap smear test in Korean women. A population-based survey was carried out in Busan between November 1999 and March 2000. 1, 673 participants were randomly selected from 2, 684 women in Busan, using a 2-stage cluster sampling method, and interviewed in their homes. Their socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, drinking, familial cancer history, Pap smear screening history, reproductive and menstrual factors, sexual habits and use of contraceptive methods data were collected by a trained interviewer using a questionnaire. The use of the screening test was defined by a self-report from the participants on how many times they had had a Pap smear test in their lifetime, and when they had received their latest examination. Of the 1, 673 respondents (62.3% response rate), 57.6% had had a Pap smear test during her life (mean number, 2.3). Among the health examination participants (1, 064), 961 (90.3%) reported having sexual experience and 70.9% of these had had a Pap smear test. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, statistically significant relationships were observed for age groups and the Pap smear test rate (odds ratio, OR for 35-44 years=2.45; OR for 45-54 years=3.41; OR for 55 years=2.60; reference, under 34 years). The married or cohabiting women were more likely to have used the Pap smear test than those separated or widowed (OR=1.73). Among the reproductive behavioral measures, the number of births (OR for 3 births=4.22; OR for 2 births=3.95; OR for 1 births=3.38; reference, 0 births) and husband's extra-marital affairs (OR=1.50) were associated with the rates of use of Pap smear tests. It appears that the most

  2. Cervical cancer stem cells and correlation with radiation response in locally advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Supriya; Goda, Jayant Sastri; Deodhar, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    While tumour-initiating cells (TIC) have been reported across solid tumours, there is dearth of data regarding TICs and radiation response in cervical cancer. From October, 2013- July, 2015 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were included. Pretreatment biopsy was obtained. IHC was performed for SOX-2,OCT-4, Nanog (ESC), CD44 and Podoplanin (TIC). Semiquantitative scoring was used for IHC. All patients received uniform concurrent chemoradiation and brachytherapy. On follow up, local control and distant relapse was recorded

  3. Cervical cancer screening: knowledge, health perception and attendance rate among Hong Kong Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron SK Leung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sharron SK Leung1, Ivy Leung21School of Nursing, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong; 2Quality Healthcare Medical Services, Hong KongPurpose: Cervical cancer screening has been consistently shown to be effective in reducing the incidence rate and mortality from cervical cancer. However, cervical screening attendance rates are still far from satisfactory in many countries. Strategies, health promotion and education programs need to be developed with clear evidence of the causes and factors relating to the low attendance rate. The study aims to assess the prediction of cervical screening attendance rate by Chinese women’s knowledge about cervical cancer and cervical screening as well as their perception of health.Patients and methods: A survey with self-reported questionnaires was conducted on 385 Chinese women recruited from a community clinic in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese women, Hong Kong residents, aged 18–65 years, able to read Chinese or English, and were not pregnant.Results: Women aged 37 years or less, with at least tertiary education, who perceived having control over their own health and had better knowledge on risk factors, were more likely to attend cervical cancer screening. Many participants had adequate general knowledge but were unable to identify correct answers on the risk factors.Conclusion: Health promotion efforts need to focus on increasing women’s knowledge on risk factors and enhancing their perceived health control by providing more information on the link between screening and early detection with lower incidence rates and mortality from cervical cancer.Keywords: cervical screening attendance, cervical cancer, health perception and knowledge, perceived health control, Chinese

  4. Gene expression in early stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, Petra; Buist, Marrije R.; Moerland, Perry D.; van Thernaat, Emiel Ver Loren; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Baas, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Pelvic lymph node metastases are the main prognostic factor for survival in early stage cervical cancer, yet accurate detection methods before surgery are lacking. In this study, we examined whether gene expression profiling can predict the presence of lymph node metastasis in early stage

  5. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cer

  6. Cervical Cancer: Reality and Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quiñones Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical carcinoma usually reaches its highest frequency between 35-50 years of age. The Cuban prevention program screens the female population aged 25 to 60 years using the Pap smear and reexamines them every three years. Despite this effort, advanced cancer is diagnosed in young women as well as in those 40 to 60 years of age.

  7. New Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Human Papillomavirus (HPV): The name for a group of related viruses, some of which cause genital warts and some of which are linked to cervical changes and cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and ...

  8. Awareness and risk factors for cervical cancer among Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract malignancy in Nigeria. Previous evidence reported a high awareness but a low practice in cervical screening amongst Nigerian woman. Respondents attributed this to poor physician referral. Objective: To determine the level of cervical cancer awareness amongst out ...

  9. Proteomic analysis of cervical cancer cells treated with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of death among women worldwide. It is characterized by a well-defined premalignant phase that can be suspected on cytological examination of exfoliated cervical cells and confirmed on histological examination of cervical material. However, this is ...

  10. The therapy of the cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bártová, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of farmakology and toxikology Author: Lenka Bártová Director of my diploma work: PharmDr. Ludmila Melicharová Title of diploma work: The therapy of the cervical cancer This diploma work describes the possibilities of prevention and medical treatment of the cancer of the uterine uvula. The theoretical part contains the fundamental information about this disease, prevention and medical procedures. The inseparable part...

  11. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  12. CDC Activities for Improving Implementation of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination, Cervical Cancer Screening, and Surveillance Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkomago, Virginia; Duran, Denise; Loharikar, Anagha; Hyde, Terri B; Markowitz, Lauri E; Unger, Elizabeth R; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-12-01

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are high, particularly in developing countries. Most cervical cancers can be prevented by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, screening, and timely treatment. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides global technical assistance for implementation and evaluation of HPV vaccination pilot projects and programs and laboratory-related HPV activities to assess HPV vaccines. CDC collaborates with global partners to develop global cervical cancer screening recommendations and manuals, implement screening, create standardized evaluation tools, and provide expertise to monitor outcomes. CDC also trains epidemiologists in cancer prevention through its Field Epidemiology Training Program and is working to improve cancer surveillance by supporting efforts of the World Health Organization in developing cancer registry hubs and assisting countries in estimating costs for developing population-based cancer registries. These activities contribute to the Global Health Security Agenda action packages to improve immunization, surveillance, and the public health workforce globally.

  13. YouTube as a Source of Information on Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Janak; Sharma, Priyadarshani; Arjyal, Lubina; Uprety, Dipesh

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Accurate information about cervical cancer to general public can lower the burden of the disease including its mortality. We aimed to look at the quality of information available in YouTube for cervical cancer. We searched YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) for videos using the keyword Cervical cancer on November 12, 2015. Videos were then analyzed for their source and content of information. We studied 172 videos using the keyword Cervical cancer on November 12, 2015. We found that there were videos describing the personal stories, risk factors, and the importance of screening. However, videos discussing all the aspects of cancers were lacking. Likewise, videos from the reputed organization were also lacking. Although there were numerous videos available in cervical cancer, videos from reputed organizations including Center for Disease Control and Prevention, American Cancer Society, and World Health Organization were lacking. We strongly believe that quality videos from such organizations via YouTube can help lower the burden of disease.

  14. The high burden of cervical cancer in Fiji, 2004-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Irwin; Fong, James J; Buadromo, Eka M; Samuela, Josaia; Patel, Mahomed S; Garland, Suzanne M; Mulholland, E Kim; Russell, Fiona M

    2013-05-01

    There are few population-based data on the disease burden of cervical cancer from developing countries, especially South Pacific islands. This study aimed to determine the incidence and mortality associated with cervical cancer and the coverage of Papanicolaou (Pap) cervical cytology in 20- to 69-year-old women in Fiji from 2004 to 2007. National data on the incident cases of histologically confirmed cervical cancer and the associated deaths, and on Pap smear results were collected from all pathology laboratories, and cancer and death registries in Fiji from 2004 to 2007. There were 413 incident cases of cervical cancer and 215 related deaths during the study timeframe. The annualised incidence and mortality rates in 20- to 69-year-old Melanesian Fijian women, at 49.7 per 100?000 (95% confidence interval (CI): 43.7-56.4) and 32.3 per 100?000 (95% CI: 26.9-38.4) respectively, were significantly higher than among 20- to 69-year-old Indo-Fijian women at 35.2 per 100?000 (PFiji is high, whereas Pap smear coverage is very low. Greater investment in alternative screening strategies and preventive measures should be integrated into a comprehensive, strategic cervical cancer control program in Fiji.

  15. The Icelandic and Nordic cervical screening programs: trends in incidence and mortality rates through 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, K

    1999-07-01

    The objective of cervical cancer screening is to lower the incidence and mortality rates of the disease. This study evaluates the effectiveness of cervical screening and the UICC and EC screening recommendations based on the Nordic screening experience. The study analyzes the features of the Icelandic and the Nordic screening programs and the observed trends in the incidence and mortality rates in these countries through 1995. Organized screening started in all the Nordic countries soon after 1960 and had nation-wide coverage in all these countries, except in Denmark (45% coverage in 1991), by around 1973 but in Norway screening was only spontaneous up to late in 1994. Up to 1985 the target age group and screening interval were most intensive in Iceland, followed by Finland, Sweden and Denmark. All countries except Finland lowered the lower age limit and intensified the screening intervals after 1985. Through the period 1986-1995 the reduction in both the mortality and the incidence rates was greatest in Iceland (mortality: 76% and incidence: 67%) and Finland (73% and 75%, respectively), intermediate in Sweden (60% and 55%, respectively) and Denmark (55% and 54%, respectively), and lowest in Norway (43% and 34%, respectively). The age-specific incidence in the 20-29 age group has been increasing since 1971 in all the Nordic countries, except in Finland, where the yearly registered age-specific incidence has been increasing in the targeted 30-54 age group since 1991. In Iceland screening has greatly affected the rate of all stages of squamous cell carcinoma, but not the rate of adeno- and adenosquamous carcinomas. In fact the rate of adenocarcinoma has been increasing. Organized screening is more effective than spontaneous screening in reducing the risk of cervical cancer. Although differences in environmental, biological and ethnic factors may call for different screening strategies, screening should preferably start soon after age 20 with a screening interval of 2

  16. Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study to comprehensively assess biomarkers of risk for progressive cervical neoplasia, and thus develop a new set of biomarkers that can distinguish those at highest risk of cervical cancer from those with benign infection

  17. Knowledge, perceptions and practice of cervical cancer prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer and a leading cause of cancer death in women in Nigeria. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, perception, and practice of cervical cancer prevention among female public secondary school teachers in Mushin, Lagos. Methods: This was a ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Screening by Female Workers in South East Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract cancer worldwide and one of the leading causes of death from cancer among women in developing countries . It is therefore a major female reproductive health problem. Roughly 80% of newly diagnosed cases of cervical cancer are in developing countries. Rates are highest ...

  19. Abnormal pap smear and cervical cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kathleen Y

    2012-09-01

    Pregnancy represents a unique opportunity to screen reproductive age women for cervical cancer and abnormal cervical cytology is relatively common in this population. In the absence of large, prospective clinical trials investigating the optimal management strategies for cervical dysplasia in pregnant women, consensus guidelines established by the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology is available with considerations to this special patient population. Modalities for evaluation and management algorithms are reviewed and summarized from largely case series of pregnant women with cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer.

  20. Optical coherence tomography in diagnosing cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetzova, Irina A.; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kachalina, Tatiana S.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Myakov, Alexey V.; Iksanov, Rashid R.; Feldchtein, Felix I.

    2000-05-01

    Cervical cancer remains one of the most significant problem in oncogynecology. It tends towards treatment approaches that provide termination of pathological processes along with preservation of the patient's life quality. There is a need in earlier and more accurate diagnosis of pathological states, objective assessment of physiological processes, and adequate monitoring of the course of treatment. In our previous publications we have reported unique capabilities of the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to image in vivo the mucosa structure of the cervix and to monitor various physiological and pathological alterations. In this report, we present results of OCT application to diagnose different stages of cervical cancer and to control its treatment at early stages. We have performed OCT-colposcopy in 11 female patients with cervical cancer to derive OCT criteria of this disease, to provide exact demarcation of a pathological area, and to determine a real size of a tumor. We have found that, in general, borders of a tumor, defined visually and detected with OCT by violation of the basement membrane in exocervix, do not coincide. The mismatch depends on a stage of cancer and can be as much as several millimeters. This information is especially important for evaluation of linear dimension of tumors with 3 - 5 mm invasion and also for differential diagnosis between the T1 and T2 stages with cancer extension onto vagina.

  1. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  2. Cervical cancer in Mexico and importance of sex education for early prevention in young people and rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl S. Moran García

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a serious health problem due to high mortality rates that are associated with it. The high incidence rates can be explained by women and their families’ ignorance about this disease. In fact, cervical cancer can be diagnosed early and, if detected on time, the likelihood of cure is high. Latin America is considered at high risk for cervical cancer. More specifically, cervical cancer in Mexico ranks second in incidence after breast cancer, in spite of having a screening program for over 20 years, which has only been able to prevent 13% of potentially preventable cases. The purpose of this analysis is to once again address the importance cervical cancer, to offer a general overview of the nature of this disease, but most of all, to underscore the relevance of education as a means of detection and prevention.

  3. Quality of life measurement in women with cervical cancer: implications for Chinese cervical cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Shirley SY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with cervical cancer now have relatively good 5-year survival rates. Better survival rates have driven the paradigm in cancer care from a medical illness model to a wellness model, which is concerned with the quality of women's lives as well as the length of survival. Thus, the assessment of quality of life among cervical cancer survivors is increasingly paramount for healthcare professionals. The purposes of this review were to describe existing validated quality of life instruments used in cervical cancer survivors, and to reveal the implications of quality of life measurement for Chinese cervical cancer survivors. Methods A literature search of five electronic databases was conducted using the terms cervical/cervix cancer, quality of life, survivors, survivorship, measurement, and instruments. Articles published in either English or Chinese from January 2000 to June 2009 were searched. Only those adopting an established quality of life instrument for use in cervical cancer survivors were included. Results A total of 11 validated multidimensional quality of life instruments were identified from 41 articles. These instruments could be classified into four categories: generic, cancer-specific, cancer site-specific and cancer survivor-specific instruments. With internal consistency varying from 0.68-0.99, the test-retest reliability ranged from 0.60-0.95 based on the test of the Pearson coefficient. One or more types of validity supported the construct validity. Although all these instruments met the minimum requirements of reliability and validity, the original versions of these instruments were mainly in English. Conclusion Selection of an instrument should consider the purpose of investigation, take its psychometric properties into account, and consider the instrument's origin and comprehensiveness. As quality of life can be affected by culture, studies assessing the quality of life of cervical cancer survivors in

  4. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Ethiopian health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kress CM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catherine M Kress,1 Lisa Sharling,2 Ashli A Owen-Smith,3 Dawit Desalegn,4 Henry M Blumberg,2 Jennifer Goedken1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 3Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Addis Ababa University School of Medicine, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Though cervical cancer incidence has dramatically decreased in resource rich regions due to the implementation of universal screening programs, it remains one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide and has one of the highest mortality rates. The vast majority of cervical cancer-related deaths are among women that have never been screened. Prior to implementation of a screening program in Addis Ababa University-affiliated hospitals in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, risk factors, and screening, as well as attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer screening among women’s health care providers.Methods: Between February and March 2012 an anonymous, self-administered survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cervical cancer and its prevention was distributed to 334 health care providers at three government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and three Family Guidance Association clinics in Awassa, Adama, and Bahir Dar. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square test was used to test differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practices across provider type.Results: Overall knowledge surrounding cervical cancer was high, although awareness of etiology and risk factors was low among nurses and midwives. Providers had no experience performing cervical cancer screening on a routine basis with <40% having performed any type of cervical cancer screening. Reported barriers to performing screening were lack of

  5. The investment case for cervical cancer elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, Vivien Davis; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2017-07-01

    We already know what causes cervical cancer, how to prevent it, and how to treat it, even in resource-constrained settings. Inequitable access to human papillomavirus vaccine for girls and screening and precancer treatment for women in low- and middle-income countries is unacceptable on ethical, social, and financial grounds. The burden of cervical cancer falls on the poor and extends beyond the narrow bounds of the family, affecting national economic development and community life, as family resources are drained and poverty tightens its grip. Proven solutions are available and the priorities for the next few years are clear, as shown by the papers in this Supplement. Sustained political commitment and strategic investments in cervical cancer prevention can not only save millions of lives over the next 10 years, but can also pave the way for the broader fight against all cancers. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  6. The male role in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  7. Risk Factors in a Sample of Patients with Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina IRIMIE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimated burden of neoplasia of uterine cervix in the 27 EU member states sums up to 34300 cases and 16200 death, with higher incidence and mortality in eastern countries. A number of risk factors increase the likelihood of developing cervical cancer. Even if the risk factors significantly increase the chances of developing cervical cancer, a large number of women with risk factors do not develop the disease, and when a woman develops cancer or precancerous lesions in the cervix may be difficult to establish the causal relationship with certain risk factors. The present study aimed to appreciate the presence and magnitude of risk factors for patients diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer and to outline best strategies to reduce the incidence of this neoplasia, and improve prognosis. Risk factors have been investigated in 42 patients diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer using HPV genotyped determination and a questionnaire for the evaluation of cervical cancer risk factors. In our sample of patients a high risk profile is shaping for low socio-economical level, modulated by the impact of HPV infection with high risk stains of virus, overweight-obesity, smoking and inadequate cervical cancer screening. In this frame a special alarm signal is represented by the very high percentage of patients with overweight and obesity. From the public health perspective, we consider that efforts should be focused on preventing weight gain, regular screening and health education field.

  8. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cervical cancer screening among Southeast Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ivy K; Dinh, Khanh T

    2011-02-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer is high among Southeast Asian American women, but their participation in preventive cervical cancer screening is alarmingly low. This paper reviews the literature on factors associated with participation in cervical cancer screening among women of Vietnamese, Cambodian and Hmong descent in the United States. These factors include acculturation, age, marital status, knowledge about cervical cancer, apprehension about cervical cancer screening, financial concerns, access to health care, and physician characteristics and recommendation. Suggestions for future research include the need to investigate the role of physicians treating Southeast Asian American women, the need for more extensive up-to-date studies on the current generation of young Southeast Asian American women, and the use of more advanced assessments of acculturation. Overall, much more work is needed in order to deepen our understanding of the various ways to improve the rate of cervical cancer screening among Southeast Asian American women.

  10. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster......INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening.......7% were not screened. We found a minimum of one abnormal test in 28 (10.8%) after subtotal hysterectomy and one after total hysterectomy. No cervical cancers were found. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy in a Danish population is suboptimal and some patients...

  11. Tendência da mortalidade por câncer do útero no Município de São Paulo entre 1980 e 1999 Mortality trends from uterine cervical cancer in the city of São Paulo from 1980 to 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Marcondes Fonseca

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O câncer do colo do útero apresenta grande incidência em algumas cidades brasileiras e considerável mortalidade em países em desenvolvimento, não obstante a disponibilidade já antiga de teste de rastreamento. O presente estudo visou avaliar a tendência da mortalidade por câncer de colo do útero, de corpo do útero e por câncer do útero não especificado, no Município de São Paulo, entre 1980 e 1999, por meio do exame das taxas brutas, idade-específica e ajustadas por idade. Os resultados mostraram discreta redução da mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero, queda da mortalidade por câncer de útero não especificado e aumento da mortalidade por câncer do corpo do útero. Conclui-se que a queda da mortalidade por câncer do útero não especificado sinaliza uma melhora na precisão do diagnóstico clínico e na qualidade do preenchimento do atestado de óbito, e indica aumento de cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou.Uterine cervical cancer shows a higher incidence in some Brazilian cities. It is a common cause of death in women from developing countries, despite the longstanding availability of an effective screening test, the Pap smear. This study aimed to evaluate the temporal trends of crude, age-adjusted, and age-specific mortality rates from cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, and cancer of the uterus not otherwise specified (NOS in the city of São Paulo from 1980 to 1999. Results showed a slight reduction in cervical cancer rates, a decrease in NOS uterine cancer rates, and an increase in endometrial cancer mortality rates. The fall in mortality from NOS uterine cancer indicates an improvement in diagnostic accuracy and quality of information on death certificates and may point to an increase in coverage of cervical cancer screening using the Pap smear.

  12. Combined clinical and genetic testing algorithm for cervical cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yu-Ligh; Zhang, Tao-Lan; Yan, Tian; Yeh, Ching-Tung; Kang, Ya-Nan; Cao, Lanqin; Wu, Nayiyuan; Chang, Chi-Feng; Wang, Huei-Jen; Yen, Carolyn; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic screening in hospitals is widely used to effectively reduce the incidence rate of cervical cancer in China and other developing countries. This study aimed to identify clinical risk factor algorithms that combine gynecologic examination and molecular testing (paired box gene 1 (PAX1) or zinc finger protein 582 (ZNF582) methylation or HPV16/18) results to improve diagnostic accuracy. The delta Cp of methylated PAX1 and ZNF582 was obtained via quantitative methylation-specific PCR in a training set (57 CIN2- and 43 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia ≥grade 3 (CIN3+) women), and the individual and combination gene sensitivities and specificities were determined. The detection accuracy of three algorithms combining gynecologic findings and genetic test results was then compared in a randomized case-control study comprising 449 women referred for colposcopic examination by gynecologists in the outpatient department of Xiangya Hospital between November 2011 and March 2013. Significant association was observed between CIN3+ and methylated PAX1 or ZNF582 in combination with HPV16/18 (OR:15.52, 95 % CI:7.73-31.18). The sensitivities and specificities of methylated PAX1 or ZNF582 combined with HPV16/18 for CIN3+ women were 89.2 and 76.0 %, or 85.4 and 80.1 %, respectively. Of the three algorithms applied to cohort data and validated in the study, two indicated 100 % sensitivity in detecting cervical cancer and a low rate of referrals for colposcopy. These algorithms might contribute to precise and objective cervical cancer diagnostics in the outpatient departments of hospitals in countries with high mortality and low screening rates or areas with uneven resource distribution.

  13. Second cancer after radiotherapy of the uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Tadashi; Soejima, Toshinori; Hirota, Saeko; Obayashi, Kayoko; Ishida, Teruko; Takada, Yoshiki; Yoshida, Shoji; Kimura, Shuji

    1993-01-01

    To study the relative risk of second cancer after radiotherapy, we reviewed 2465 cases of uterine cervical cancer who were treated in our institute from 1962 to 1986 and were followed up for more than 5 years. Among them, 1502 cases were treated by radiotherapy with or without surgery (radiotherapy group), and the remainder were treated by surgery only (surgery only group). We defined second cancer as malignancy that occurred in another organ after an interval of 5 years or more from the end of treatment of the first cancer. The relative risk of second cancer was computed by the person-year method advocated by Schoenberg. Second cancer was observed among 8 cases of the surgery group, whereas 43 cases were observed among the radiotherapy group. The cases were: rectal cancer, 6 cases; bladder cancer, 4 cases. The observed and expected ratio (O/E ratio) was 4.02 in rectal cancer and 7.98 in bladder cancer. This incidence of the both cancers was significantly high in the radiotherapy group. Three of the 6 cases with rectal cancer underwent operation in our institute. The incubation periods between the first and second cancers were from 9 to 21 years. Each case exhibited symptoms of chronic radiation proctitis after radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. It is thought necessary to follow up such cases carefully to detect radiation induced cancer. (author)

  14. COEXISTANCE OF CERVICAL CANCER AND MISSED ABORTION

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    А. L. Chernyshova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy associated with pregnancy. The clinical case presented in this paper is of interest for several reasons. First, human chorionic trophoblast was shown to be a target for HPV, resulting in termination of pregnancy, as evidenced by the analysis of HPV of the abortion material (high HPV 16 viral load. In addition, iliac lymph node metastasis occurred in minimal tumor invasion, significantly affecting the rate of survival.

  15. Expected effect of vaccination using bivalent vaccine on incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in terms of health care system in Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielik, J.; Marusakova, E.; Masak, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Human papillomavirus is a dominant cause of cervical dysplasia with possible transition to cervical cancer. The main purpose of the study was to make a qualified forecast of the potential of vaccination using a bivalent vaccine on the incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer as well as disease-related mortality in the Slovak Republic. Methods: The method of evaluation was the use of the Markov model that is strictly based on either epidemiological data from official institutions such as the National Oncology Register of the Slovak Republic, Statistic Office of the Slovak Republic, or the data from health insurance companies and the opinion of the experts´ panel of the Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Results: Results obtained by modelling suggest that the introduction of HPV vaccination into the national immunization programme would result in a reduction of at least 84 deaths of women during the monitored period. Every cervical cancer death averted means 31 life years saved on average. Depending on the vaccination coverage in the cohort, HPV vaccination would cause a reduction of registered cervical dysplasia by 26,900 to 131,808 cases, a reduction of registered carcinoma in situ by 1,371 to 6,714 cases, and a decrease of registered invasive cervical carcinoma by 1,645 to 8,058 cases. Conclusion: The results of the analysis confirmed that HPV vaccination in 12-year old girls has the potential to significantly reduce both the incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer and mortality due to cervical cancer, whereby this form of primary intervention is also cost-effective. Vaccination also enhances the effect of standard secondary prevention realized by age dependant screening. (author)

  16. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Preventive Practices: A Challenge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the commonest gynaecological cancer in Nigeria and women of low socio-economic status are at high risk of this condition. A study was conducted on the awareness of cervical cancer, attitude towards the disease and screening practice of women residing in two urban slums of Lagos, Nigeria.

  17. Barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening services among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women of reproductive age group; yet screening for early detection of the disease among them is not a common practice in Nigeria. This study therefore, investigated the barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening service among women of ...

  18. The Need for Societal Investment to Improve Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although cervical cancer is a preventable cancer with a well-known natural history, it remains a huge burden in developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where organized cervical cancer screening services are lacking. Developed countries that have invested on providing organized screening programs have made ...

  19. Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer, though preventable, remains the leading cause of cancer death among women in developing countries after breast. Lack of awareness and access to preventive methods remains a key factor contributing to high levels of cervical cancer in these populations. Objectives: The study aimed to ...

  20. Drug Delivery Approaches for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Ordikhani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a highly prevalent cancer that affects women around the world. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have increased their efforts to develop new drug delivery systems in cervical cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we summarized some of the recent research in systematic and localized drug delivery systems and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  1. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Stages IB2-IIB or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-10

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Node; Positive Pelvic Lymph Node; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage II Cervical Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  2. Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Herold, Christina I; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Dizon, Don S; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Del Carmen, Marcela; Randall, Tom C; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline M; Goss, Paul E

    2016-02-15

    Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  3. Cervical syphilitic lesions mimicking cervical cancer: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A woman presented to the hospital due to postcoital vaginal bleeding. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by clinicians at a local hospital. However, a biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of the cervical mucosa, and the rapid plasma reagin ratio titer was 1:256. The patient was eventually diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1 g twice a day. The patient was cured with this treatment.

  4. Exploration of knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening amongst HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Maree

    2014-10-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine what women being treated for HIV and AIDS at a specific healthcare centre in Johannesburg knew about cervical cancer and cervical screening. Method: A survey design was used, with data gathered by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Convenience sampling selected 315 women to participate (n = 315. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and chi-square testing found associations between categorical variables. Results: The majority of respondents (78.7%; n = 248 indicated that they had heard of cervical cancer and 62.9% (n = 198 knew about the Pap smear, with nurses and doctors being the primary source of information. Of the women who knew about the Pap smear, less than one-third had had a smear done, the main reason being fear of the procedure. Conclusion: The study provided evidence that women attending the specific HIV clinic were more knowledgeable about cervical cancer and screening than those of unknown HIV status involved in previous studies. Knowledge was still at a low level, especially when their exceptionally high risk was taken into account. Once again it was found that having knowledge did not necessarily mean having had a Pap smear, which remains a huge challenge in the prevention of cervical cancer.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Shen, Zhaojun; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%–20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to treat the disease effectively. However, resistance to cisplatin may develop, thus substantially compromising the efficacy of cisplatin to treat advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this article, we systematically review the recent literature and summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer. PMID:27354763

  6. Report of incidence and mortality in China cancer registries, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zhao, Ping; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Lingyou; He, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected cancer registration data in 2009 from local cancer registries in 2012, and analyzed to describe cancer incidence and mortality in China. Methods On basis of the criteria of data quality from NCCR, data submitted from 104 registries were checked and evaluated. There were 72 registries’ data qualified and accepted for cancer registry annual report in 2012. Descriptive analysis included incidence and mortality stratified by area (urban/rural), sex, age group and cancer site. The top 10 common cancers in different groups, proportion and cumulative rates were also calculated. Chinese population census in 1982 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results All 72 cancer registries covered a total of 85,470,522 population (57,489,009 in urban and 27,981,513 in rural areas). The total new cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310, respectively. The morphology verified cases accounted for 67.23%, and 3.14% of incident cases only had information from death certifications. The crude incidence rate in Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000 (males 317.97/100,000, females 253.09/100,000), age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 22.08%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 303.39/100,000 and 150.31/100,000 in urban areas whereas in rural areas, they were 249.98/100,000 and 139.68/100,000, respectively. The cancer mortality in Chinese cancer registration areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.94%. The cancer mortality

  7. Human papillomavirus infection, cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Honduras: a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrera, A.B.; Velema, J.P.; Figueroa, M.; Bulnes, R.; Toro, L.A.; Claros, J.M.; Barahona, O. de; Melchers, W.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence has confirmed human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as the central etiological agents in human cervical carcinogenesis. In Honduras, cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women, with a high annual incidence. We conducted a population-based, case-control study

  8. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Funen/rest of Denmark. As multidisciplinary teams were introduced gradually in the rest of Denmark from 1994, the screening effect was slightly underestimated. RESULTS: Over 14 years, women targeted by screening in Funen experienced a 22% (95% confidence interval 11%-32%) reduction in breast cancer......OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...

  9. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A. M.; Warner, Wayne A.; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y.; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Methods Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Results Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Conclusions Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation. PMID:28917021

  10. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A M; Warner, Wayne A; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2017-11-01

    To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation.

  11. [Report of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Li, H; Sun, K X; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Gu, X Y; He, J

    2018-01-23

    the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.00%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC in urban areas were 174.34/100, 000 and 103.49/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 160.07/100, 000 and 111.57/100, 000, respectively. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer, esophageal cancer, thyroid cancer, cervical cancer, encephala and pancreas cancer, were the most common cancers in China, accounting for about 77.00% of the new cancer cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, encephala, leukemia and lymphoma were the leading causes of death and accounted for about 83.36% of cancer deaths. Conclusions: The progression of cancer registry in China develops rapidly in these years, with the coverage of registrations is expanded and the data quality was improved steadily year by year. As the basis of cancer prevention and control program, cancer registry plays an important role in making the medium and long term of anti-cancer strategies in China. As China is still facing the serious cancer burden and the cancer patterns varies differently according to the locations and genders, effective measures and strategies of cancer prevention and control should be implemented based on the practical situation.

  12. Integrative review of cervical cancer screening in Western Asian and Middle Eastern Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Suhailah; Skirton, Heather; Clark, Maria T; Donaldson, Craig

    2017-12-01

    Population-based screening programs have resulted in minimizing mortality and morbidity from cervical cancer. The aim of this integrative review was to explore the factors influencing access of women from Western Asian and Middle Eastern Arab countries to cervical cancer screening. A systematic search for studies conducted in Arab countries in those regions, and published in English between January 2002 and January 2017, was undertaken. Thirteen papers were selected and subjected to quality appraisal. A three step analysis was used, which involved a summary of the evidence, analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data, and integration of the results in narrative form. Few population-based cervical cancer screening programs had been implemented in the relevant countries, with low knowledge of, and perceptions about, cervical screening among Arab women, the majority of whom are Muslim. Factors affecting the uptake of cervical cancer screening practices were the absence of organized, systematic programs, low screening knowledge among women, healthcare professionals' attitudes toward screening, pain and embarrassment, stigma, and sociocultural beliefs. Policy changes are urgently needed to promote population-based screening programs. Future research should address the promotion of culturally-sensitive strategies to enable better access of Arab Muslim women to cervical cancer screening. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Human Papillomavirus Testing in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wacholder, Sholom; Kinney, Walter; Gage, Julia C.; Castle, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Strong evidence now supports the adoption of cervical cancer prevention strategies that explicitly focus on persistent infection with the causal agent, human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform an evidence-based transition to a new public health approach for cervical cancer screening, we summarize the natural history and cervical carcinogenicity of HPV and discuss the promise and uncertainties of currently available screening methods. New HPV infections acquired at any age are virtually always benign, but persistent infections with one of approximately 12 carcinogenic HPV types explain virtually all cases of cervical cancer. In the absence of an overtly persistent HPV infection, the risk of cervical cancer is extremely low. Thus, HPV test results predict the risk of cervical cancer and its precursors (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3) better and longer than cytological or colposcopic abnormalities, which are signs of HPV infection. The logical and inevitable move to HPV-based cervical cancer prevention strategies will require longer screening intervals that will disrupt current gynecologic and cytology laboratory practices built on frequent screening. A major challenge will be implementing programs that do not overtreat HPV-positive women who do not have obvious long-term persistence of HPV or treatable lesions at the time of initial evaluation. The greatest potential for reduction in cervical cancer rates from HPV screening is in low-resource regions that can implement infrequent rounds of low-cost HPV testing and treatment. PMID:21282563

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... removed. These procedures are done using a low transverse incision or a vertical incision. Radical hysterectomy : Surgery ... tubes. Pelvic exenteration : Surgery to remove the lower colon , ... Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or ...

  15. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... removed. These procedures are done using a low transverse incision or a vertical incision. Radical hysterectomy : Surgery ... tubes. Pelvic exenteration : Surgery to remove the lower colon , ... Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or ...

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation...... diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan....

  18. Alterations In Lipid Profile Of Patients With Advanced Cervical Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The changes in lipid profile have long been associated with cancer because lipids play key role in maintenance of cell integrity. Aims. The study evaluated alterations in plasma lipid profile in patients with advanced squamous cervical cancer. Materials And Method This hospital-based study included 30 cervical ...

  19. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage…

  20. The Perceptions Of Traditional Healers Of Cervical Cancer Care At ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to explore and describe the perceptions of traditional healers of cervical cancer care. The incidence of cervical cancer, especially among black South African females, is among the highest in the world. Women report at clinics and hospitals on a daily basis with advanced stages (stages III and IV) ...

  1. Effect of training on knowledge about cervical cancer and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of training on knowledge about cervical cancer and Human Papiloma Virus vaccine among health care personnel in Benin City. ... This study assessed the effect of training on health care workers' knowledge of HPV, its relationship with cervical cancer and the role of HPV vaccine in prevention. Methods: This ...

  2. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...

  3. Cervical cancer prevention practices amongst flower farm workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The screening rate amongst the workers was very low. The findings of this survey warrant a very strong recommendation for the setting-up of workplace policies and mechanisms for cervical cancer education, screening and prevention interventions. Keywords: Cervical cancer, Awareness, Prevention, Workplace ...

  4. Targeting women with free cervical cancer screening: challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the study was conducted to determine the challenges and suggest solutions to conducting free cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women. Methods: awareness was created among women groups and mass media in Osun State for women to undergo free cervical cancer screening programme.

  5. An overview of innovative techniques to improve cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Reesink-Peters, Nathalie; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; van Zanden, Jelmer; Volders, Haukeline; Hollema, Harry; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; Schuuring, Ed; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Although current cytomorphology-based cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, Pap-smears are associated with high false positive and false negative rates. This has spurred the search for new technologies to improve current screening. New methodologies are automation

  6. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer Risk Factors Among Refugee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Less than 20% knew that cervical cancer could be detected early and 6.8% had had Pap smears done. Knowledge of risk factors, signs and symptoms was low, although there was a statistically significant relationship between the educational level of the women and risk factors for cervical cancer. The paper discusses the ...

  7. Women's perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-24

    Oct 24, 2014 ... and their intentions to be screened? Which modifying factors influence women's decisions to use cervical cancer screening services in Malawi? The objective of the study was to describe the association between perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer in women aged 42 and older and their intentions to ...

  8. The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen project 2 (VACCS 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a high prevalence in South Africa (SA), where screening is opportunistic. Primary prevention is now possible through HPV vaccination. In VACCS 1 the feasibility of linking cervical cancer with HPV vaccination was demonstrated. Objectives: To investigate the ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening: A Survey of Current Practice Amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the attitude toward and practice of cervical cancer screening amongst Nigerian gynaecologists, on whom the burden of treating cervical cancer rests. Study Design, Setting and Subjects: A self-administered, questionnaire survey of 113 Nigerian gynaecologists who attended the Annual General Meeting ...

  10. Cervical cancer management in Zaria, Nigeria | Sule | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper\\'s objective was to identify factors influencing cervical cancer management in Zaria with a view to improving the outcome of management. Case notes of patients managed for cervical cancer in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria between January 1 1999 and December 31 2003, were ...

  11. Cervical cancer knowledge and screening practices among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health challenge in developing countries including Nigeria and contributes signi cantly as a major cause of death among women of reproductive age. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and cervical cancer screening practices among women of reproductive ...

  12. Immunology and Immunotherapy of high grade cervical lesions and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos van Steenwijk, Peggy Jacqueline de

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The immune system plays an important role in the protection against HPV and failure of the immune system can lead to the development of cervical cancer. Immunotherapy aims at the restoration of an effective anti-tumour immunity. This

  13. Apoptosis induction of epifriedelinol on human cervical cancer cell line

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Present investigation evaluates the antitumor activity of epifriedelinol for the management of cervical cancer by inducing process of apoptosis. Methods: Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line, C33A and HeLa were selected for study and treated with epifriedelinol at a concentration of (50-1000 μg/ml). Cytotoxicity of ...

  14. Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Screening For Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This low participation in screening for cervical cancer was attributed to several reasons including ignorance of the existence of such a test, lack of awareness of centers where such services are obtainable, ignorance of the importance of screening and the risk factors to the development of cervical cancer. Conclusion: There ...

  15. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most respondents were aware of cervical cancer (95.4%), HPV (85.4%) and HPV vaccination (69.3%) and the most common source of information was school teaching. Good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccination was demonstrated by 51.8%, 67.1% and 21.1% respectively; only 39.6% fully accepted HPV ...

  16. TCGA study identifies genomic features of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified novel genomic and molecular characteristics of cervical cancer that will aid in subclassification of the disease and may help target therapies that are most appropriate for each patient.

  17. Complications and Mortality Following One to Two-Level Anterior Cervical Fusion for Cervical Spondylosis in Patients Above 80 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanesarajah, Varun; Jain, Amit; Shimer, Adam L; Singla, Anuj; Shen, Francis; Hassanzadeh, Hamid

    2017-05-01

    A retrospective database review. The aim of this study was to determine the complication and mortality rates in patients 80 years of age and older who were treated with anterior cervical fusion surgery and to compare these rates against those of other elderly patients. Cervical spondylosis is frequently observed in the elderly and is the most common cause of myelopathy in older adults. With increasing life expectancies, a greater proportion of patients are being treated with spine surgery at a later age. Limited information is available regarding outcomes following anterior cervical fusion surgery in patients 80 years of age or older. Medicare data from the PearlDiver Database (2005-2012) were queried for patients who underwent primary one to two-level anterior cervical spine fusion surgeries for cervical spondylosis. After excluding patients with prior spine metastasis, bone cancer, spine trauma, or spine infection, this cohort was divided into two study groups: patients 65 to 79 (51,808) and ≥80 years old (5515) were selected. A cohort of matched control patients was selected from the 65 to 79-year-old and 90-day complication rates and 90-day and 1-year mortality rates were compared between cohorts. The proportion of patients experiencing at least one major medical complication was relatively increased by 53.4% in patients aged ≥80 years [odds ratio (OR) 1.63]. Patients 80 years of age or older were more likely to experience dysphagia (OR 2.16), reintubation (OR 2.34), and aspiration pneumonitis (OR 3.17). Both 90-day (OR: 4.34) and 1-year (OR 3.68) mortality were significantly higher in the ≥80 year cohort. Patients 80 years of age or older are more likely to experience a major medical complication or mortality following anterior cervical fusion for cervical spondylosis than patients 65 to 79 years old. Dysphagia, aspiration pneumonitis, and reintubation rates are also significantly higher in patients 80 years of age or older. Although complication rates

  18. Association between cervical screening and prevention of invasive cervical cancer in Ontario: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicus, Danielle; Sutradhar, Rinku; Lu, Yan; Kupets, Rachel; Paszat, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of cervical screening in the prevention of invasive cervical cancer among age groups, using a population-based case-control study in the province of Ontario, Canada. Exposure was defined as cervical cytology history greater than 3 months before the diagnosis date of cervical cancer (index date). Cases were women who were diagnosed with cervical cancer between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2008. Controls were women without a diagnosis of cervical cancer on, or before, December 31, 2008. Two controls were matched to each case on year of birth and income quintile, as of the index date. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for having been screened among those with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer screening performed between 3 and 36 months before the index date was protective against invasive cervical cancer in women aged 40 through 69 years. In women younger than 40 years, cervical cancer screening performed 3 to 36 months before the index date was not protective. Cervical screening is associated with a reduced risk for invasive cervical cancer among women older than 40 years. Cervical cancer resources should be focused on maximizing the risk reduction.

  19. Analysis of HLA-DQB1 allele polymorphisms in Uyghur women with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L; Husaiyin, S; Wang, L; Wusainahong, K D; Fu, X; Niyazi, M

    2015-12-17

    In Uyghur women, mortality rates from cervical cancer are amongst the highest in the nation, and genetic susceptibility probably plays a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. We investigated the correlation between polymorphisms of the HLA-DQB1 allele and cervical cancer in Xinjiang Uyghur women. Cervix tissue samples from 80 cases of cervical cancer and 80 cases of cervicitis were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) for HLA-DQB1. Two hundred and ninety-six alleles were identified among the 160 cases. One hundred and thirty-six alleles were heterozygous and 24 were homozygous. Using frequency calculations and statistical analysis, we found that HLA-DQB1*0325 (OR: 10.60, 1.341-83.81) and HLA-DQB1*0332 (OR: 12.59, 2.909-54.526) were more frequently identified in the cervical cancer group compared with the cervicitis group (P HLA-DQB1*0317 (OR: 0.49, 0.304-0.798) and HLA-DQB1*040302 (OR: 0.40, 0.243-0.658) were present less frequently in the cervical cancer group (P HLA-DQB1 genotype in Uyghur was different from that reported previously in other areas. HLA-DQB1*0325 and HLA-DQB1*0332 probably act as cervical cancer susceptibility genes in Uyghur women from Xinjiang. In contrast, HLA-DQB1*0317 and HLA-DQB1*040302 may be protective genes.

  20. Ethnic disparities in cervical cancer survival among Medicare eligible women in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Eggleston, Katherine S; Du, Xianglin L; Ramondetta, Lois

    2009-01-01

    To determine predictors of cervical cancer survival by socioeconomic status (SES), urbanization, race/ethnicity, comorbid conditions, and treatment among elderly Medicare-eligible women whose conditions were diagnosed with cervical cancer in a multiethnic population. : A total of 538 women with cervical cancer aged 65 years or older were identified from 1999 to 2001 from the Texas Cancer Registry and were linked with the state Medicare data and Texas Vital Records to determine survival times. All women had similar access to care through Medicare fee-for-services insurance. A composite measure of SES was created using census tract-level data as was urbanization. Treatment and comorbid conditions were available from the Medicare data. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used for all-cause and cervical cancer-specific survival analysis. : Increased age (P health care coverage, Hispanic women had consistently lower all-cause and cervical cancer-specific mortality rates than other older women whose conditions were diagnosed with this disease in Texas. The presence of comorbid conditions and treatment were important predictors of survival, yet these factors do not explain the survival advantage for Hispanic women.

  1. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. CONCLUSION: Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation...

  2. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  3. Second cancers following radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinerman, R.A.; Curtis, R.E.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Flannery, J.T.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Incidence of second primary cancers was evaluated in 7,127 women with invasive cancer of the cervix uteri, diagnosed between 1935 and 1978, and followed up to 38 years (average, 8.9 yr) in Connecticut. Among 5,997 women treated with radiation, 449 developed second primary cancers compared with 313 expected (relative risk . 1.4) on the basis of rates from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. Excess incidence was noticeable 15 years or more after radiotherapy and attributed mostly to cancers of sites in or near the radiation field, especially the bladder, kidneys, rectum, corpus uteri, and ovaries. No excess was found for these sites among the 1,130 nonirradiated women. The ratio of observed to expected cancers for these sites did not vary appreciably by age at irradiation. The data suggested that high-dose pelvic irradiation was associated with increase in cancers of the bladder, kidneys, rectum, ovaries, corpus uteri, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma but, apparently, not leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, breast cancer, or colon cancer

  4. Anti-inflammatory drugs and uterine cervical cancer cells: Antineoplastic effect of meclofenamic acid

    OpenAIRE

    SORIANO-HERNANDEZ, ALEJANDRO D.; MADRIGAL-PÉREZ, DANIELA; GALVAN-SALAZAR, HECTOR R.; MARTINEZ-FIERRO, MARGARITA L.; VALDEZ-VELAZQUEZ, LAURA L.; ESPINOZA-GÓMEZ, FRANCISCO; VAZQUEZ-VUELVAS, OSCAR F.; OLMEDO-BUENROSTRO, BERTHA A.; GUZMAN-ESQUIVEL, JOSE; RODRIGUEZ-SANCHEZ, IRAM P.; LARA-ESQUEDA, AGUSTIN; MONTES-GALINDO, DANIEL A.; DELGADO-ENCISO, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer (UCC) is one of the main causes of cancer-associated mortality in women. Inflammation has been identified as an important component of this neoplasia; in this context, anti-inflammatory drugs represent possible prophylactic and/or therapeutic alternatives that require further investigation. Anti-inflammatory drugs are common and each one may exhibit a different antineoplastic effect. As a result, the present study investigated different anti-inflammatory models of UCC ...

  5. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  6. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  7. Survival of a cohort of women with cervical cancer diagnosed in a Brazilian cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Calazan do Carmo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess overall survival of women with cervical cancer and describe prognostic factors associated. METHODS: A total of 3,341 cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed at the Brazilian Cancer Institute, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, between 1999 and 2004 were selected. Clinical and pathological characteristics and follow-up data were collected. There were performed a survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves and a multivariate analysis through Cox model. RESULTS: Of all cases analyzed, 68.3% had locally advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. The 5-year overall survival was 48%. After multivariate analysis, tumor staging at diagnosis was the single variable significantly associated with prognosis (p<0.001. There was seen a dose-response relationship between mortality and clinical staging, ranging from 27.8 to 749.6 per 1,000 cases-year in women stage I and IV, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that early detection through prevention programs is crucial to increase cervical cancer survival.

  8. Renal Metastasis from Primary Cervical Cancer: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Kim, See Hyung; Kwon, Sun Young

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis of malignant tumors to the kidney is clinically rare and often discovered by autopsy. Primary lymphoma and lung cancer are known that can metastasize to the kidney. Other malignant tumor metastasis to the kidney is very unusual. Primary cervical cancer metastasis to adjacent pelvic organs and lymph nodes are well known followed by abdominal solid organs such as the liver and adrenal glands. However, reported primary cervical cancer metastasis to the kidney is extremely rare and mostly appeared as bilateral multiple renal masses. We report here on a rare case of unilateral single renal metastasis from primary cervical cancer after concur- rent chemoradiotherapy.

  9. Trends in Cancer Mortality Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmant, Nathalie Vieira; de Souza Reis, Rejane; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; Pinto Oliveira, Julio; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2017-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer comprise an intermediate age group between pediatric and adult oncology, and have a spectrum of different types of cancers. Survival among this group has not improved as much as in younger children with cancer. The aim of this study was evaluate the trends in cancer mortality of AYA aged 15-29 years in Brazil. Data were extracted from the Atlas of Cancer Mortality databases from 1979 to 2013. Age-specific mortality rates were calculated based on the deaths from each type of cancer and the period via a direct method using the proposed world population age groups. To identify significant changes in the trends, we performed joinpoint regression analysis. The mortality rates per million were 54 deaths in those aged 15-19 years, 61 deaths in those aged 20-24 years, and 88 deaths in those aged 25-29 years. Leukemias, lymphomas, and central nervous system (CNS) tumors occurred at high rates in all age groups. Rates of cervical cancer were highest in those aged 25-29 years. There were significant increases in mortality trends in the North and Northeast regions for all tumor groups, especially CNS tumors. A small decrease in the mortality rate from lymphomas was observed in the South and Southeast regions. Mortality in Brazilian AYA was slightly higher than in other studies conducted throughout the world. When separated by tumor type, Brazil presents a specific pattern, with high mortality from cervical cancer.

  10. Preprocessing for Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Abhishek; Kar, Avijit; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about hal...

  11. Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  12. Commentary on HPV screening for cervical cancer in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Sujit D

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 Sankaranarayanan et al published their findings from a large cluster-randomized, controlled trial of a single round of HPV testing, cytology testing or visual inspection with acetic acid--with appropriate treatment for those confirmed positive--as interventions to decrease mortality from cervical cancer. The control arm did not receive any screening or treatment. Several issues are brought up through the approval and conduct of this trial, which was carried out among high-risk women in rural Maharashtra, India. Specifically, this trial offers an opportunity to further discussion around clinical equipoise, identification of primary endpoints, observation of null effects, and the informed consent process, within the context of a low-income setting. Such discourse may shed light on the necessity and manner of examining a biomedical intervention in low-income settings, when the intervention is already considered efficacious in high-income settings.

  13. Key informants' perspectives prior to beginning a cervical cancer study in Ohio Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Single, Nancy; Paskett, Electra D

    2007-01-01

    Higher-than-average cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates occur in Ohio Appalachia. Little is known, however, about societal norms and social determinants that affect these rates. To examine county-level sociocultural environments to plan a cervical cancer prevention program, the authors interviewed key informants from 17 of 29 Ohio Appalachia counties. Findings include the perceived offensiveness of the term Appalachia, the importance of long-standing family ties, urban and rural areas within counties, use and acceptability of tobacco, the view that cancer is a death sentence, and the stigmatization of people with cancer. Barriers to screening included cost, lack of insurance, transportation problems, fear, embarrassment, and privacy issues. These findings highlight the important role of geography, social environment, and culture on health behaviors and health outcomes. The interviews provided information about the unique characteristics of this population that are important when developing effective strategies to address cancer-related health behaviors in this medically underserved population.

  14. The development of genes associated with radiosensitivity of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyan; Chen Zhihua; He Guifang

    2007-01-01

    It has a good application prospect to predict effects of radiotherapy by examining radiosensitivity of patients with cervical cancers before their radiotherapy. Prediction of tumor cell radiosensitivity according to their level of gene expression and gene therapy to reverse radio-resistance prior to radiation on cervical cancers are heated researches on tumor therapy. The expression of some proliferation-related genes, apoptosis-related genes and hypoxia-related genes can inerease the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer. Microarray technology may have more direct applications to the study of biological pathway contributing to radiation resistance and may lead to development of alternative treatment modalities. (authors)

  15. Needs and priorities of women with endometrial and cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Mette Moustgaard; Mogensen, Ole; Dehn, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rehabilitation after cancer is important, and efficient rehabilitation requires knowledge of patient's needs. This study aimed to identify short-term rehabilitation needs of women with endometrial and cervical cancer. METHODS: Ninety-six women (82.6%) were included in an exploratory...... with endometrial cancer. Of these, 38 had FIGO-stage 1 disease (73.1%) and 25 were treated with laparoscopic surgery (48.1%). Emotional functioning was significantly worse prior to treatment in both the cancers (p endometrial) and worry constituted an unmet need in 70.7% of cervical...... and 34.7% of endometrial cancer patients. Both the patient groups experienced significant lymphedema post-treatment [endometrial cancer (p = 0.006) and cervical cancer (p = 0.002)]. Further, urological problems were more prevalent post-treatment in endometrial cancer patients (p = 0.018), while sexual...

  16. Diffusion-weighted MRI in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeigh, Patrick Z.; Haider, Masoom A.; Syed, Aejaz M.; Milosevic, Michael; Fyles, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the potential value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement with MRI in the assessment of cervix cancer. Diffusion-weighted MRI was performed in 47 patients with cervical carcinoma undergoing chemoradiation therapy and 26 normal controls on a 1.5-T system with a b-value of 600 s/mm 2 . FIGO stage, tumor volume, nodal status, interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and oxygen measurements were recorded. Response was defined as no visible tumor 3-6 months following completion of therapy. The average median ADC (mADC) of cervical carcinomas (1.09±0.20 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) was significantly lower than normal cervix (2.09±0.46 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P -3 mm 2 /s) compared to T2b (1.21 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) and T3/T4 (1.10 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P<0.001). In patients with squamous carcinomas the 90th percentile of ADC values was lower in responders than non-responders (P<0.05). Median ADC in cervix carcinoma is significantly lower compared to normal cervix. ADC may have predictive value in squamous tumors, but further long-term study will determine the ultimate clinical utility. (orig.)

  17. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While developed countries have recorded significant reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer owing to organized screening programs, treatment of premalignant cervical lesions, and follow-up of treated cases, developing countries including Nigeria are yet to optimally utilize screening services due to lack of organized ...

  18. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While developed countries have recorded significant reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer owing to organizedscreening programs, treatment of premalignant cervical lesions, and follow‑up of treated cases, developing countries including Nigeria are yet to optimally utilize screening services due to lack of organized ...

  19. CLINIC VISITS AND CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING IN ACCRA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-01

    Pap) smear and visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA).3,4. Cervical cancer screening procedures are able to detect pre-malignant lesions of the cervix which can be treated and so pre- vent progress to cervical ...

  20. Screening for Cervical Cancer: Experience from a University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (12/121) of them were high grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions while invasive carcinoma was seen in 3.3% (4/121) of the smears. Conclusion: Presence of abnormal cervical smear in 20% of the study subjects underscores the need for routine screening for cervical cancer. While organized national screening policy is ...

  1. Cervical Cancer in Women with Unhealthy Cervix in a Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences ・ July - December 2013 ・ Vol 2 ・ Issue 2. 97. Cervical ... Background:Cervical cancer, the most common malignancy among Indian women, is the second most common and fifth most ... biomedical spectrum, but also has a wide cultural and socio-economic background.

  2. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic profile of cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study revealed a dramatic figure of cervical cancer in Butembo city. Effort should be made by the government and other health agencies to organize mass campaign to practice cervical screening as well as education on the various risk factors. Access to the vaccines (anti-HPV 16-18) and the precocious ...

  3. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest viral sexually transmitted infection in the world and the leading cause of cervical cancer. Medical students as future healthcare providers will play a role in influencing patients' decision to receive HPV vaccination. This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of cervical ...

  4. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening at the Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those who were aware of cervical cancer were 13.6% as against 6% who were aware of Pap smear. Only 2.4% of the 450 respondents had ever had a cervical cytology performed on them. The most frequent reason given for not using the service was lack of physician referral. Culture was found to negatively impact on the ...

  5. Project ECHO: A Telementoring Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment in Low-Resource Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Lopez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are significantly higher in low- and middle-income countries compared with the United States and other developed countries. This disparity is caused by decreased access to screening, often coupled with low numbers of trained providers offering cancer prevention and treatment services. However, similar disparities are also found in underserved areas of the United States, such as the Texas-Mexico border, where cervical cancer mortality rates are 30% higher than in the rest of Texas. To address these issues, we have adopted the Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes program, a low-cost telementoring model previously proven to be successful in increasing local capacity, improving patient management skills, and ultimately improving patient outcomes in rural and underserved areas. We use the Project ECHO model to educate local providers in the management of cervical dysplasia in a low-resource region of Texas and have adapted it to inform strategies for the management of advanced cervical and breast cancer in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. This innovative approach, using ECHO, is part of a larger strategy to enhance clinical skills and develop collaborative projects between academic centers and partners in low-resource regions.

  6. Knowledge and attitude of Uyghur women in Xinjiang province of China related to the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudukadeer, Abida; Azam, Sumeyya; Mutailipu, Ayi Zuoremu; Qun, Liu; Guilin, Guo; Mijiti, Sayipujiamali

    2015-03-14

    Cervical cancer is one of the commonest causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The prevalence rate of cervical cancer in Uyghur women in Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China has been remarkably higher than the ethnic groups living in the same region. This study aimed to assess the knowledge level and attitude of cervical cancer and its issues among the Uyghur women in Xinjiang province of China. A cross-sectional interview-based survey of 5,000 Uyghur women was developed from 2013 to 2014 in Xinjiang autonomous region, to assess their knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and its issues. The collection of data was based on the questionnaire items. According to the questionnaire items, we collected a data for 5,000 participants. A very small proportion of participants had heard of the cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccine, that is, 27.0%, 13.0% and, 6.0%, respectively. According to the demographic characteristics, women aged 31 to 40 years were more aware of the knowledge of cervical cancer (32.9%), HPV (17.8%), and HPV vaccine (9.1%), and women with undergraduate or higher educational level had more knowledge of cervical cancer (30.0%), HPV (21.0%), and HPV vaccine (9.7%). From our study, we concluded that Uyghur women need more information about cervical cancer and its risk factors. Lack of the related knowledge about cervical cancer may be one of the important factors for high incidence rate of cervical cancer in Uyghur population. In order to reduce the incidence rate and mortality of cervical cancer in Uyghur women and to make extensive health education to raise awareness of cervical cancer and HPV is strongly needed than prophylactic vaccination.

  7. Awareness and knowledge regarding of cervical cancer, Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus infection in Gabonese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoumou, Samira Zoa; Mabika, Barthelemy Mabika; Mbiguino, Angelique Ndjoyi; Mouallif, Mustapha; Khattabi, Abdelkim; Ennaji, My Mustapha

    2015-04-19

    Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality in women in Gabon. The age-standardized incidence of cervical cancer is 19.9 per 100 000 women and the mortality rate is 8.4 per 100 000. Various international studies have identified the lack of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer as barriers to use preventive methods. This article assesses the awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear testing and its use and HPV among women living in Libreville, Gabon. This study was conducted in October 2014 in Libreville. A total of 452 women aged 16 years and above were recruited from different town locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the effect of demographic characteristics on the level of knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear testing and HPV. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were used to identify the strength of association. Associations were considered statistically significant at p cervical cancer and only 27.9% (126/452) had heard of Pap smear test. Of these 126 women, only 65.1% (82/126) had done cervical cancer screening and 68.3% (56/82) on the suggestion of a doctor. The most common reason for not undergoing Pap smear testing was neglect (50%, 22/44) followed by lack of financial resources (13.6%, 6/44), fear of discovering a serious disease (13.6%, 6/44) and deeming it unimportant (13.6%, 6/44). Only 8% (40/452) of the participants had heard about HPV and their knowledge of HPV was fair. There is a very poor level of knowledge about cervical cancer among Gabonese women. This study demonstrates a very low level of knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear testing and HPV in a sample of Gabonese women. There is a critical need for Gabonese women to be informed about cervical cancer and the Pap smear test to improve the use of this preventive method. The implication of health staff and Gabonese media should be included as a centerpiece in the effort to inform the population in

  8. Cancer mortality in Ireland, 1976-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, C.; Herity, B.; Moriarty, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    This volume brings together in easily accessible form up-to-date mortality statistics for cancer for the Republic of Ireland. Because of small numbers in many of the malignant neoplasms studied rates and standardised mortality ratios have been calculated for the 11 year period 1976-86. Basic data only is presented, based on cancer type, location, sex and age group

  9. Studying the Physical Function and Quality of Life Before and After Surgery in Patients With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-14

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lymphedema; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IA1 Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IA2 Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IB1 Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  10. Significance of CD133 positive cells in four novel HPV-16 positive cervical cancer-derived cell lines and biopsies of invasive cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Shifa; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Sood, Swati; Sharma, Sanjeev; Bagga, Rashmi; Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli; Rayat, Charan Singh; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir; Srinivasan, Radhika

    2018-04-02

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer-related mortality in women in the developing world. Cancer Stem cells (CSC) have been implicated in treatment resistance and metastases development; hence understanding their significance is important. Primary culture from tissue biopsies of invasive cervical cancer and serial passaging was performed for establishing cell lines. Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) assay was performed for comparison of cell lines with their parental tissue. Tumorsphere and Aldefluor assays enabled isolation of cancer stem cells (CSC); immunofluorescence and flow cytometry were performed for their surface phenotypic expression in cell lines and in 28 tissue samples. Quantitative real-time PCR for stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, MTT cytotoxicity assay, cell cycle analysis and cell kinetic studies were performed. Four low-passage novel cell lines designated RSBS-9, - 14 and - 23 from squamous cell carcinoma and RSBS-43 from adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix were established. All were HPV16+. VNTR assay confirmed their uniqueness and derivation from respective parental tissue. CSC isolated from these cell lines showed CD133 + phenotype. In tissue samples of untreated invasive cervical cancer, CD133 + CSCs ranged from 1.3-23% of the total population which increased 2.8-fold in radiation-resistant cases. Comparison of CD133 + with CD133 - bulk population cells revealed increased tumorsphere formation and upregulation of stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers with no significant difference in cisplatin sensitivity. Low-passage cell lines developed would serve as models for studying tumor biology. Cancer Stem Cells in cervical cancer display CD133 + phenotype and are increased in relapsed cases and hence should be targeted for achieving remission.

  11. Pelvic inflammatory disease is a risk factor for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapinyecz, J; Smid, I; Horváth, A; Jeney, Cs; Kardos, L; Kovács, P

    2003-01-01

    The acquisition of human papillomavirus (HPV), the most important etiological agent of cervical cancer, does not cause clinical complaints. Although HPV spreads together with agents causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with complaints forcing the patient to seek medical advice, PID has not yet been evaluated as a predictor of cervical cancer. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between PID and HPV in order to evaluate the possible risk factor role of PID for cervical cancer. Two groups of patients were studied: (i) 2,215 women with PID; (ii) 4,217 women participating in a cervical cancer screening programme who were found to have cytological atypia, mucopurulent cervicitis or other colposcopically detected disorders but were free of symptoms of PID. The presence of HPV and other STD agents in cervical smears was detected with polymerase-chain reaction. HPV prevalence was 33.74% in patients with PID and 26.40% in the group of women without PID (p cervical cancer.

  12. Provider Perspectives on Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening Among Refugee Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ornelas, India J; Do, H Hoai; Magarati, Maya; Jackson, J Carey; Taylor, Victoria M

    2017-06-01

    Many refugees in the United States emigrated from countries where the incidence of cervical cancer is high. Refugee women are unlikely to have been screened for cervical cancer prior to resettlement in the U.S. National organizations recommend cervical cancer screening for refugee women soon after resettlement. We sought to identify health and social service providers' perspectives on promoting cervical cancer screening in order to inform the development of effective programs to increase screening among recently resettled refugees. This study consisted of 21 in-depth key informant interviews with staff from voluntary refugee resettlement agencies, community based organizations, and healthcare clinics serving refugees in King County, Washington. Interview transcripts were analyzed to identify themes. We identified the following themes: (1) refugee women are unfamiliar with preventive care and cancer screening; (2) providers have concerns about the timing of cervical cancer education and screening; (3) linguistic and cultural barriers impact screening uptake; (4) provider factors and clinic systems facilitate promotion of screening; and (5) strategies for educating refugee women about screening. Our findings suggest that refugee women are in need of health education on cervical cancer screening during early resettlement. Frequent messaging about screening could help ensure that women receive screening within the early resettlement period. Health education videos may be effective for providing simple, low literacy messages in women's native languages. Appointments with female clinicians and interpreters, as well as clinic systems that remind clinicians to offer screening at each appointment could increase screening among refugee women.

  13. Salvage Surgery for Cervical Cancer Recurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rema, P; Mathew, Arun Peter; Suchetha, S; Ahmed, Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Cervical cancer usually presents in advanced stages and is treated with chemoradiation. About 15-20 % patients present with local recurrence after chemoradiation. Radical surgical resection is the only treatment modality offering long term survival benefit in recurrent cervical cancer. The most common surgical option for these patients is pelvic exenteration. Radical hysterectomy may be done for patients with a small centrally located recurrence in the cervix with no infiltration of adjacent structures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morbidity and survival outcome following radical hysterectomy and pelvic exenteration for recurrent cancer cervix. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of our patients who underwent surgery for cancer cervix recurrence from January 2010 to December 2014. The postoperative morbidity was considered early if it happened in the initial 30 days of surgery and late if it occurred after 30 days. All patients were followed up till February 2015. Survival analysis was done using Kaplan- Meir method. Between January 2010 and December 2014, 20 patients with recurrent cervical cancer underwent radical surgical resection. The median age of the study group was 43 years (range 28-63 years). Seventeen patients had squamous cell carcinoma and 3 had adenocarcinoma. 13 underwent pelvic exenteration and 7 patients underwent radical type 2 hysterectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphnode dissection. In the exenteration group, 8 patients had anterior exenteration, 4 had total exenteration and one had posterior exenteration. Urinary diversion was done by ileal conduit in 8 patients, double barrel colostomy in two and wet colostomy in two patients. There were no immediate postoperative deaths. Operating time, blood transfusions needed and hospital stay was more in the exenteration group compared to radical hysterectomy patients. After pelvic exenteration post-operative complications were seen in 76.9 % of which the most common was of

  14. Developing the Evidence Base to Inform Best Practice: A Scoping Study of Breast and Cervical Cancer Reviews in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M Demment

    Full Text Available Breast and cervical cancers have emerged as major global health challenges and disproportionately lead to excess morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs when compared to high-income countries. The objective of this paper was to highlight key findings, recommendations, and gaps in research and practice identified through a scoping study of recent reviews in breast and cervical cancer in LMICs.We conducted a scoping study based on the six-stage framework of Arskey and O'Malley. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, and CINAHL with the following inclusion criteria: 1 published between 2005-February 2015, 2 focused on breast or cervical cancer 3 focused on LMIC, 4 review article, and 5 published in English.Through our systematic search, 63 out of the 94 identified cervical cancer reviews met our selection criteria and 36 of the 54 in breast cancer. Cervical cancer reviews were more likely to focus upon prevention and screening, while breast cancer reviews were more likely to focus upon treatment and survivorship. Few of the breast cancer reviews referenced research and data from LMICs themselves; cervical cancer reviews were more likely to do so. Most reviews did not include elements of the PRISMA checklist.Overall, a limited evidence base supports breast and cervical cancer control in LMICs. Further breast and cervical cancer prevention and control studies are necessary in LMICs.

  15. Effect of Training on Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    , Ezeanochie M2, Nwaneri ... to HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccines at a workshop organized to create awareness on the subject matter. Results: Of the 53 ..... reported resistance to giving the vaccines to adolescent girls and the reasons ...

  16. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees (Ethiopians, Nigerians, and Somalis) in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  17. Awareness, perceived risk and practices related to cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness, perceived risk and practices related to cervical cancer and Pap smear screening: A crosssectional study among HIV-positive women attending an urban HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.

  18. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    =current) and cited as : Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and Acceptance of Vaccination among Medical Students in Southwest Nigeria. Funmilayo F. Adejuyigbe , Balogun R. Balogun , Adekemi. O. Sekoni and ...

  19. Fluorescence spectra of blood and urine for cervical cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Vijmasi, Trinka; Govindarajan, Kanaganaj; Rathan Rai, Ram; Atif, Muhammad; Prasad, Saradh; Aldwayyan, Abdullah S.

    2012-09-01

    In the current study, the fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and Stokes shift spectra (SSS) of blood and urine samples of cervical cancer patients were obtained and compared to those of normal controls. Both spectra showed that the relative intensity of biomolecules such as porphyrin, collagen, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin were quite out of proportion in cervical cancer patients. The biochemical mechanism for the elevation of these fluorophores is not yet definitive; nevertheless, these biomolecules could serve as tumor markers for diagnosis, screening, and follow-up of cervical cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on FES and SSS of blood and urine of cervical cancer patients to give a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 78%.

  20. Bevacizumab improves survival for patients with advanced cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis

  1. A Literature Review of Cervical Cancer Screening in Transgender Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Kayla C

    2018-02-01

    Most female-to-male (FTM) transgender men retain their cervixes and need comprehensive sexual health care, including cervical cancer screening. According to the literature, FTM individuals obtain cervical cancer screening less frequently and are less likely to be up to date on their Pap tests compared with cisgender women. Misinformation related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer risk was noted for health care providers and FTM individuals. Absence of transgender-specific guidelines or trained health care providers presents barriers to cervical cancer screening for FTM individuals, and further research is indicated to develop comprehensive guidelines unique to the needs and experiences of this population. © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  2. The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen (VACCS) project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HPV) vaccination, as well as the information provided, methods of obtaining consent and assent, and completion rates achieved. Methods. Information on cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was provided to 19 primary schools in Western Cape ...

  3. Barriers and Motivators Related to Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bokaee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: modern knowledge could protect against cancer for individuals in community with early stage and premalignat state. Screening of cancer is best instrument for early detection of malignancy. Between women’s cancers breast and cervical cancer have more incidence and mortality than other cancers . But could be prevented by simple and cheep screening programs. Despite specific statistics in Iran evidence shows that women’s participation in screening program is poor , so cancers are diagnosed in advanced stage. The purpose of this study was to identify major barriers and motivators for breast and cervical screening . Methods: This survey was a descriptive study in which 400 women participated in health and treatment centers in Yazd. Sampling method was done in two simple and random stages. Data was collected by inventory and questionnaire . Then data were analyzed by SPSS soft ware . Results: Findings showed that 80% of them never refereed to a health provider for clinical breast exam (C B E and only 3% of them did regularly C B E . 46% of them had never done pap smear and only 14.5 % of them did regularly pap smear. The findings showed that major motivators were as follow: advice of health’s personnel , using of contraceptive methods , and awareness of media. Also the major barriers were as follow : Not having knowledge of these exams , not having knowledge of the existence of these centers of education and practice , not having precious health problems , fear of examination , Embarrassment of examination and health providers not to teach them . to consider the most important barriers were propounded which showed that health education role to eliminate barriers for referring women for screening . Discussion: Based on the results of this sample , screening was the least expected . considering barriers and motivators observed it was revealed that health education was required for prevention of common women’s cancers. Also

  4. Quality of life characteristics inpatients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Jensen, Pernille T; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic

    2012-01-01

    Annually about 500,000 women worldwide are diagnosed with cervical cancer. For many patients, young age at the time of diagnosis and a good prognosis regarding the disease imply a long life with the side-effects and sequels of various treatment options. The present study investigated the extent...... to which different quality of life (QoL) domains in patients during and after treatment for cervical cancer are affected according to menopausal status, treatment status and treatment modality....

  5. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  6. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  7. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical......, which contains nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology result to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were...... in both groups were adherent to the national ICC screening programme and had a normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN and ICC were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH developed more cervical disease than controls. Yet, in WLWH and controls adherent to the national ICC screening programme...

  8. Barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening services among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women and contributes significantly to cancer related deaths among women worldwide. Women knowledge and practice of screening for pre malignant lesions vary significantly. Studies on this subject had focused mostly on either medically informed ...

  9. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting women worldwide. It is a preventable disease but still remains a leading cause of cancer deaths in developing countries like Nigeria despite the availability of preventive and curative protocols. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cause of female genital cancer and female cancer deaths in developing countries such as Nigeria. The most recent government estimates put the number of new cases at 25,000 per year. According to the latest global estimates, 493, 000 new cases occur each year and ...

  11. Women's Attitude Towards Cervical Cancer Screening in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer of the cervix is the leading cancer in women in sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study is to document the views of respondents on how to increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening. This was a cross sectional study of women attending the outpatient clinics of obstetrics and gynaecology in two tertiary ...

  12. Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    acetic acid wash are widely available throughout Ghana, yet less that 3% of Ghanaian women get a cervical cancer screening at regular ... Results: The results of the quantitative analysis indicated that cancer patients where not more likely to have greater knowledge of cancer ... School of Public Health, Ryals Public Health.

  13. Cervical cancer control for Hispanic women in Texas: strategies from research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria E; Savas, Lara S; Lipizzi, Erica; Smith, Jennifer S; Vernon, Sally W

    2014-03-01

    Hispanic women in Texas have among the highest rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the country. Increasing regular Papanicolaou test screening and HPV vaccination are crucial to reduce the burden of cervical cancer among Hispanics. This paper presents lessons learned from community-based cervical cancer control programs for Hispanics and highlights effective intervention programs, methods and strategies. We reviewed and summarized cervical cancer control efforts targeting Hispanic women, focusing on interventions developed by researchers at the University of Texas, School of Public Health. We identified commonalities across programs, highlighted effective methods, and summarized lessons learned to help guide future intervention efforts. Community-academic partnerships were fundamental in all steps of program development and implementation. Programs reviewed addressed psychosocial, cultural, and access barriers to cervical cancer control among low-income Hispanic women. Intervention approaches included lay health worker (LHW) and navigation models and used print media, interactive tailored media, photonovellas, client reminders, one-on-one and group education sessions. Small media materials combined with LHW and navigation approaches were effective in delivering Pap test screening and HPV vaccination messages and in linking women to services. Common theoretical methods included in these approaches were modeling, verbal persuasion, and facilitating access. Adaptation of programs to an urban environment revealed that intensive navigation was needed to link women with multiple access barriers to health services. Collectively, this review reveals 1) the importance of using a systematic approach for planning and adapting cervical cancer control programs; 2) advantages of collaborative academic-community partnerships to develop feasible interventions with broad reach; 3) the use of small media and LHW approaches and the need for tailored phone navigation

  14. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997–2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. - Highlights: • We studied excess mortality due to ovarian cancer near Spanish industries. • Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. • We found excess ovarian cancer mortality near all industrial groups as a whole. • Risk also was found in towns near industries releasing carcinogens and metals. • Risk was associated with plants releasing polycyclic aromatic chemicals and POPs. - Our results support that residing in the vicinity of pollutant industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality

  15. The cervical cancer prevention programme in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ileana Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Cervical and uterine cancer continues to be an important issue for women around the world, although neoplasia has the greatest demonstrated potential for prevention. Costa Rica has achieved important advances in the reduction of the incidence and mortality of these cancers since the last century. This is the result of a series of policies, programmes, and plans, not only at the level of the health care system, but also in other areas. Increased access for women to care in health centres, fundamentally at the primary level, has been vital, as has ensuring the quality of cytology readings and access to diagnosis and treatment for precursor lesions for in situ and invasive cancers. Despite all of these achievements, there are still challenges to be overcome, which are widespread in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is important to learn from the experiences of other countries in order to improve women’s health not only as a health objective, but also as an ethical imperative to promote the exercise of women’s rights to life and health. PMID:26557876

  16. Cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: an emerging and preventable disease associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboumba Bouassa, R S; Prazuck, T; Lethu, T; Meye, J F; Bélec, L

    2017-02-01

    Highly oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are responsible for 7.7 % of cancers in developing countries, mainly cervical cancer. The incidence of this emerging cancer is steadily increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, with more than 75,000 new cases and close to 50,000 deaths a year, a toll further increased by HIV infection. According to the World Health Organization, cervical cancer will kill more than 443,000 women per year worldwide by 2030, nearly 90 % of them in sub-Saharan Africa. This increase in cervical cancer incidence in Africa is now counteracting the progress made by African women in reducing maternal mortality and increasing longevity. Nevertheless, cervical cancer is a potentially preventable noncommunicable disease that can be averted or halted by primary (vaccination), secondary (early diagnosis of situations at risk), and tertiary (early diagnosis of proven cases of cervical neoplasia) prevention. The close links between HIV and HPV justify linking cervical cancer prevention, screening, and management programs with AIDS programs as part of the "90-90-90" initiative of the UNAIDS, both nationally and regionally. Innovative strategies based on effective, rapid, inexpensive, and mobile screening tools, including at best molecular biology as well as vaccination and awareness programs, should be rapidly implemented and evaluated in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. The ideal cervical cancer screening recommendation for Belgium, an industrialized country in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalma, W A A

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer should be a historical disease, why are we not succeeding! The prophylactic vaccination will reduce cervical cancer by almost 80% in Belgium. Cervical cancer screening should therefore remain in order to prevent the remaining 20%. The current used Pap cytology test misses 50% of all clinically significant precancers and cancers at the time of testing. The test should remain but the analysis should be altered. The screening should be modified based on our knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) as causal factor. Instead of looking for a cell abnormality, one should look for the presence of HPV. Then depending on the test, only two to ten percent of all relevant lesions are missed. The introduction of the vaccination should lead to the re-introduction of the screening based on HPV. This will not only lead to a considerable reduction in morbidity and mortality, allow longer screening intervals, but it will also be more cost-effective. More for less should be the driving force in cervical cancer screening if we want to be successful.

  18. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  19. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Catalán, Miguel A; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Cristóbal-Mondragón, Gema R; Adame-Gómez, Jesús; Valle-Flores, Heidi N del; Coppe, José Fco; Sierra-López, Laura; Romero-Hernández, Mirna A; Carmen Alarcón-Romero, Luz del; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL), 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression

  20. Validation of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer cervical cancer module for Chinese patients with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua CH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cai-Hong Hua, Hui-Min Guo, Xin-Lei Guan, Fan-Jing Kong, Rui-Jie Hou, Xue-Ying Zhang, Shao-Ru Li Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Weihui City, Henan Province, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The aim of our study was to assess, for the first time, the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC Quality Of Life questionnaire (QLQ cervical cancer module (CX24 in Chinese cervical cancer patients. Patients and methods: One hundred fifteen outpatients with cervical cancer in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University from May 2013 to July 2013 were included in this study. All participants self-administered the EORTC QLQ-CX24 and the core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30, and the Karnofsky Performance Scale was performed to evaluate scores. Data were analyzed with Cronbach’s α coefficient, Pearson correlation test, multitrait scaling analysis, and Mann–Whitney U test. Results: Scale reliability was confirmed by Cronbach’s α coefficients for internal consistency, which ranged from 0.71 to 0.82. Convergent and discriminant validity were confirmed by multitrait scaling analysis, which revealed three (3.4% scaling errors for symptom experience scales and zero (0% for body image as well as sexual/vaginal functioning scales. Higher missing value rate occurred in sexuality-related items. The clinical validity of the Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-CX24 was demonstrated by the ability to discriminate among patients in different International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages. Conclusion: The EORTC QLQ-CX24 was proved to be a reliable and valid instrument with which to measure the quality of life in cervical cancer patients in the People’s Republic of China. Keywords: cervical cancer, quality of life, EORTC QLQ-CX24, People’s Republic of China

  1. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  2. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong-mei; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; He, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age, sex and geographic area in 2007. Methods In 2010, 48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China. Of them, 38 registries’ data met the national criteria. Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites, age, gender, and area. Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population. Results The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000, respectively. The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases. The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, leukemia, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths. Conclusion Cancer remains a major disease threatening people’s health in China. Prevention and control should be enhanced, especially for the main cancers. PMID:23359628

  3. Second primary cancers in survivors of cervical cancer in the Netherlands: Implications for prevention and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Melina; Liu, Lifang; Kenter, Gemma G.; Creutzberg, Carien L.; Coebergh, Jan Willem; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: We investigated the effects of socio-demographic, treatment- and tumor-specific determinants on the risk of developing a second malignancy among patients treated for cervical cancer. Material and methods: We included patients with a first cervical cancer (N = 12,048) from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR), 1989–2008. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and absolute excess risks (AER) per 10,000 person-years were calculated to estimate the burden of second cancers in cervical cancer survivors. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed to identify predictors for second cancers among cervical cancer survivors. Results: During the study period, 676 (5.6%) patients were diagnosed with a second cancer. Smoking-related cancers contributed the most to the overall burden of second cancers (AER = 21) and risks remained elevated after 10 years of follow-up (SIR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.2), yet it decreased markedly in the younger birth cohorts. Cervical cancer survivors who underwent radiotherapy were at higher risk for a second tumor when compared to those without radiotherapy, especially at smoking-related sites (IRR = 1.6 (1.2–2.3)). Conclusion: Patients with cervical cancer had a significantly increased risk for a second cancer compared to the general population, especially for smoking- and irradiation-related tumors. Long-term follow-up suggested the importance of smoking cessation and the benefits of counseling cervical cancer patients accordingly, particularly those who received radiotherapy

  4. Barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening among Pakistani and Somali immigrant women in Oslo: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Qureshi, Samera A; Kour, Prabhjot; Kumar, Bernadette; Diaz, Esperanza

    2017-01-01

    Norway has a low incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer, which is mainly due to the high participation rate of women in cervical cancer screening. However, the attendance of cervical cancer screening was reported to be low among immigrant women. For this reason, we conducted a qualitative study to obtain better insight into perceived barriers and challenges to cervical cancer screening among Somali and Pakistani women in the Oslo region. A convenient sample of 35 (18 Pakistani, 17 Somali) women were recruited for the study in collaboration with Somali and Pakistani community partners. Focus group discussions were used to explore barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening, whereas the Ecological Model was used as the framework for the study. The study found three levels of barriers to cervical cancer screening. The individual level included a lack of understanding of the benefits of the screening. The sociocultural level included the stigma attached to the disease and the belief that women who are unmarried are sexually inactive. The system-related level included a lack of trust toward the health care system. Based on the study results, and using a common denominator approach for the immigrant groups included, the study recommends three communication strategies with the potential to improve women's participation in cervical cancer screening: 1) in-person communication and information material at health centers; 2) verbal communication with women through seminars and workshops to educate them about their risk of cancer and the importance of screening and 3) the initiation of better recall through SMS and letters written in native languages. Finally, an intervention study that compares the aforementioned strategies and proves their effectiveness in increasing immigrant women's participation in cervical cancer screening is recommended.

  5. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T., E-mail: ryan-flynn@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  6. Somatic LKB1 mutations promote cervical cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana N Wingo

    Full Text Available Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is the etiologic agent for cervical cancer. Yet, infection with HPV is not sufficient to cause cervical cancer, because most infected women develop transient epithelial dysplasias that spontaneously regress. Progression to invasive cancer has been attributed to diverse host factors such as immune or hormonal status, as no recurrent genetic alterations have been identified in cervical cancers. Thus, the pressing question as to the biological basis of cervical cancer progression has remained unresolved, hampering the development of novel therapies and prognostic tests. Here we show that at least 20% of cervical cancers harbor somatically-acquired mutations in the LKB1 tumor suppressor. Approximately one-half of tumors with mutations harbored single nucleotide substitutions or microdeletions identifiable by exon sequencing, while the other half harbored larger monoallelic or biallelic deletions detectable by multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA. Biallelic mutations were identified in most cervical cancer cell lines; HeLa, the first human cell line, harbors a homozygous 25 kb deletion that occurred in vivo. LKB1 inactivation in primary tumors was associated with accelerated disease progression. Median survival was only 13 months for patients with LKB1-deficient tumors, but >100 months for patients with LKB1-wild type tumors (P = 0.015, log rank test; hazard ratio = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.083 to 0.77. LKB1 is thus a major cervical tumor suppressor, demonstrating that acquired genetic alterations drive progression of HPV-induced dysplasias to invasive, lethal cancers. Furthermore, LKB1 status can be exploited clinically to predict disease recurrence.

  7. dose in cervical cancer intracavitary brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Siavashpour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the optimum organ filling point for organs at risk (OARs dose in cervical cancer high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy. Material and methods : In a retrospective study, 32 locally advanced cervical cancer patients (97 insertions who were treated with 3D conformal external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and concurrent chemotherapy during 2010-2013 were included. Rotterdam HDR tandem-ovoid applicators were used and computed tomography (CT scanning was performed after each insertion. The OARs delineation and GEC-ESTRO-based clinical target volumes (CTVs contouring was followed by 3D forward planning. Then, dose volume histogram (DVH parameters of organs were recorded and patients were classified based on their OARs volumes, as well as their inserted tandem length. Results : The absorbed dose to point A ranged between 6.5-7.5 Gy. D 0.1cm ³ and D 2cm ³ of the bladder significantly increased with the bladder volume enlargement (p value < 0.05. By increasing the bladder volume up to about 140 cm3, the rectum dose was also increased. For the cases with bladder volumes higher than 140 cm3, the rectum dose decreased. For bladder volumes lower than 75 cm3, the sigmoid dose decreased; however, for bladder volumes higher than 75 cm3, the sigmoid dose increased. The D 2cm ³ of the bladder and rectum were higher for longer tandems than for shorter ones, respectively. The divergence of the obtained results for different tandem lengths became wider by the extension of the bladder volume. The rectum and sigmoid volume had a direct impact on increasing their D 0.1cm ³ and D 2cm ³, as well as decreasing their D 10 , D 30 , and D 50 . Conclusions : There is a relationship between the volumes of OARs and their received doses. Selecting a bladder with a volume of about 70 cm3 or less proved to be better with regards to the dose to the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid.

  8. Epidemiologic panorama of stomach cancer mortality in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Guzmán, V; Hernández-Girón, C; Barquera, S; Rodríguez-Salgado, N; López-Carrillo, L

    2001-01-01

    Annually, there are more than 6 million deaths from a type of malignant neoplasia worldwide. In developing countries, the highest rates of incidence of malignant neoplasias are uterine cervical cancer, stomach, lung, esophagus, pharynx, and liver cancers. Recent estimates on the incidence of cancer worldwide show that, in 1990, stomach cancer (SC) was the second most frequent type of cancer (900,000 new cases annually). Rates of incidence have decreased consistently in nearly all areas of the world. In Mexico, however, rates of incidence and mortality have increased gradually between 1980 and 1997; in 1995, 4,685 people died of SC in Mexico. This report presents a descriptive analysis of SC mortality in Mexico. A mortality database edited from the electronic files of the National Institute of Informatics, Statistics and Geography (INEGI) in Mexico was used; population denominators were edited by the Mexican National Population Council (Conapo). Adjusted mortality rates, taking as standard of reference the population of Mexico City by sex, year, and 10-year age groups were calculated as well as the sex ratio for the 1980-1997 period. To evaluate the magnitude of risks by state, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated; prematurity was evaluated through the potential lost-life years index (PLLYI). The analysis was carried out using the Excel and Stata 5.0 software programs. During the years from 1980 to 1997, in Mexico the total number of deaths from SC was 76,315. The male:female ratio was 1.2:1.0. SMR by state showed that the states of Yucatán, Sonora, Zacatecas, Michoacán, and Chiapas had higher mortality rates. The PLLYI was higher for males in the states of Chiapas, Sonora, Chihuahua, Zacatecas, and Southern Baja California, and higher for females in Chiapas, Oaxaca, Yucatán, Puebla, and Campeche. World statistics on mortality caused by SC suggest a decreasing trend. Findings for this study show an increase in the adjusted mortality rates by SC

  9. Knowledge about cervical cancer screening and its practice among female health care workers in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulla D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dubale Dulla,1 Deresse Daka,2 Negash Wakgari1 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, 2Department of Medical Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among the women in the world. Early screening for cervical cancer is a key intervention in reduction of maternal deaths. Health care workers have a significant contribution to improve cervical cancer screening practice among women. Hence, this study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female health care workers in southern Ethiopia.Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted during March and April, 2015. All hospitals in Hawassa city administration and Sidama zone were purposively selected. A simple random sampling technique was used to draw the health centers. After proportional allocations to their respective health facilities, a total of 367 female health workers were selected by simple random sampling technique. A structured and pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were entered to SPSS version 20.0 for further analysis. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables.Results: Out of the total respondents, 319 (86.9% had a good level of knowledge on cervical cancer. Similarly, a majority of them, 329 (89.6%, 321 (87.5%, and 295 (80.4%, knew about the risk factors, symptoms, and outcomes of cervical cancer, respectively. More than two thirds of the respondents, 283 (77.1%, knew that there is a procedure used to detect premalignant cervical lesions and 138 (37.6% of them mentioned visual inspection with acetic acid as a screening method. In this study, only 42 (11.4% of the respondents were screened for cervical cancer (confidence interval [CI]: 8.7, 13.9. Being a physician (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.12, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.79 and working in a cervical cancer

  10. Barriers of Female Breast, Colorectal, and Cervical Cancer Screening Among American Indians—Where to Intervene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Gong, Xi; Mousseau, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Female breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer are three common cancers among people in the United States. Both their incidence and mortality rates can be dramatically reduced if effective prevention and intervention programs are developed and implemented, because these cancers are preventable through regular screenings. American Indians in the United States especially in the Northern Plains have a disproportionally high burden of these cancers. As a hard-to-reach population group, less attention has been paid to American Indians regarding cancer screening compared with other population groups. This study examined barriers experienced by American Indians residing in South Dakota regarding three cancer sites: female breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer through a community-based survey. A total of 199 participants were recruited and factors significantly associated with cancer screening included knowledge about cancer screening, geographic access to PCPs, encouragement by doctors, as well as socioeconomic barriers. Meanwhile, integrating geographic access, socioeconomic deprivation, and geographic distribution of American Indians, the study identified geographic areas of low access to cancer screening where hard-to-reach populations resided. Results from the study will provide crucial information for the development of targeted intervention programs to increase the acceptability and uptake of cancer screening among American Indians. PMID:29546202

  11. Barriers of Female Breast, Colorectal, and Cervical Cancer Screening Among American Indians—Where to Intervene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Female breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer are three common cancers among people in the United States. Both their incidence and mortality rates can be dramatically reduced if effective prevention and intervention programs are developed and implemented, because these cancers are preventable through regular screenings. American Indians in the United States especially in the Northern Plains have a disproportionally high burden of these cancers. As a hard-to-reach population group, less attention has been paid to American Indians regarding cancer screening compared with other population groups. This study examined barriers experienced by American Indians residing in South Dakota regarding three cancer sites: female breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer through a community-based survey. A total of 199 participants were recruited and factors significantly associated with cancer screening included knowledge about cancer screening, geographic access to PCPs, encouragement by doctors, as well as socioeconomic barriers. Meanwhile, integrating geographic access, socioeconomic deprivation, and geographic distribution of American Indians, the study identified geographic areas of low access to cancer screening where hard-to-reach populations resided. Results from the study will provide crucial information for the development of targeted intervention programs to increase the acceptability and uptake of cancer screening among American Indians.

  12. Large scale study of HPV genotypes in cervical cancer and different cytological cervical specimens in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansaenroj, Jira; Junyangdikul, Pairoj; Chinchai, Teeraporn; Swangvaree, Sukumarn; Karalak, Anant; Gemma, Nobuhiro; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-04-01

    Identification of high-risk HPV genotypes in patients is essential for vaccination and prevention programs while the geographic distribution of cervical cancer varies widely. HPV 16 is the major cause of cervical cancer followed by HPV 18, HPV 31, HPV 52, or HPV 58 depending on geographic area. In this study, the distribution of HPV genotypes in cervical specimens from women living in Thailand was analyzed by HPV testing with electrochemical DNA chip and PCR direct sequencing. The 716 specimens were grouped according to their cytological grades; 100 normal, 100 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 100 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 416 specimens of cervical cancer. The results showed that HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV 52, and HPV 58 are the most common HPV genotypes in Thailand, respectively. With respect to age, women below the age of 26 years were almost negative for high-risk HPV DNA exclusively. Conversely, high prevalence of high-risk HPV DNA and abnormal cytology were usually found in women between 26 and 45 years while cervical cancer was detected mainly in women above the age of 45 years. To increase protection efficiency, a vaccine including HPV 52 and HPV 58 should be offered to Asian women, and primary HPV screening should start at 26-30 years of age. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  14. A cohort analysis of cervical cancer in Israeli Jewish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heering, S L; Beller, U; Baras, M; Ben-Shlomo, I; Steinitz, R; Harlap, S

    1990-12-01

    The incidence of squamous cell cervical cancer was studied in Jewish Israeli women between 1961 and 1981. The 1052 cases and the 27,832,272 women-years of observation were divided according to continent-of-origin, year-of-birth, and immigration-wave cohorts. Age-adjusted odds ratios were calculated for each cohort and compared. The incidence of cervical cancer was shown to have changed according to cohort year of birth, most significantly in women born in Europe and America. The highest risk in this group was seen in women born in 1891-1895 and 1941-1945 and the lowest in women born between 1926 and 1935. A high risk was also observed in all cohorts of North African women. There was a sharp rise in risk for women of all origins born after 1940. Immigration to Israel at a younger age was correlated with reduced risk for cervical cancer. It has been shown that epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are followed in time by epidemics of cervical cancer. Since there was an epidemic of STDs in Israel between 1967 and 1970, our results also suggest that there is a rise in the risk for cervical cancer in women who were sexually active during the epidemic of STDs. Because of the low rates for cervical cancer traditionally observed in Israeli women, routine screening was not done in Israel in the past. Should the relative risk for cervical cancer in women exposed during the 1967-1970 epidemic continue to be high, screening may prove worthwhile.

  15. Cervical cancer incidence in Denmark over six decades (1943-2002)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kruger Kjaer, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    was largest in the period 1988-2002 as compared to 1968-1987, coinciding with an increase in the number of Danish women covered by the organized screening program. Women 20-29 years old showed a relatively stable squamous cell carcinoma incidence but an increasing adenocarcinoma incidence throughout the study......INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to describe developments in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer in Denmark, focusing on histological types, over a period of 60 years. We also describe developments in the incidence of carcinoma in situ and mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study...... is based on the Danish Cancer Registry database of 39,623 reported cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed among Danish women in the period 1943-2002. The most important variables and measures are age-specific and age-standardized incidence and estimated annual percent changes in incidence. RESULTS...

  16. Outcomes of cervical cancer among HIV-infected and uninfected women treated at the Brazilian National Institute of Cancer (2001–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana P.; Coghill, Anna E.; Chaves, Claudia B.; Bergmann, Anke; Thuler, Luiz C.; Soares, Esmeralda A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Engels, Eric A.; Soares, Marcelo A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We assessed mortality, treatment response, and relapse among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women with cervical cancer in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Design Cohort study of 87 HIV-infected and 336 HIV-uninfected women with cervical cancer. Methods Patients at the Brazilian National Institute of Cancer (2001–2013) were matched on age, calendar year of diagnosis, clinical stage, and tumor histology. Staging and treatment with surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy followed international guidelines. We used a Markov model to assess responses to initial therapy, and Cox models for mortality and relapse after complete response. Results Among 234 deaths, most were from cancer (82% in HIV-infected vs. 93% in HIV-uninfected women); only 9% of HIV-infected women died from AIDS. HIV was not associated with mortality during initial follow-up but was associated more than 1–2 years after diagnosis (overall mortality: stage-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.02, 95%CI 1.27–3.22; cancer-specific mortality: 4.35, 1.86–10.2). Among 222 patients treated with radiotherapy, HIV-infected had similar response rates to initial cancer therapy as HIV-uninfected women (HR 0.98, 95%CI 0.58–1.66). However, among women who were treated and had a complete response, HIV was associated with elevated risk of subsequent relapse (HR 3.60, 95%CI 1.86–6.98, adjusted for clinical stage). Conclusion Among women with cervical cancer, HIV infection was not associated with initial treatment response or early mortality, but relapse after attaining a complete response and late mortality were increased in those with HIV. These results point to a role for an intact immune system in control of residual tumor burden among treated cervical cancer patients. PMID:28060014

  17. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The outcome of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor. We reviewed the relevant literature concerning the treatment and diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. There are two types of metastasis related to different treatments and survival rates: hematogenous metastasis and lymphatic metastasis. Patients with hematogenous metastasis have a higher risk of death than those with lymphatic metastasis. In terms of diagnosis, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-computed tomography are effective tools for the evaluation of distant metastasis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy are well-tolerated and efficient for lymphatic metastasis. As for lung metastasis, chemotherapy and/or surgery are valuable treatments for resistant, recurrent metastatic cervical cancer and chemoradiotherapy may be the optimal choice for stage IVB cervical cancer. Chemotherapy and bone irradiation are promising for bone metastasis. A better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy. Craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an optimal choice combined with radiotherapy for solitary brain metastases. Chemotherapy and palliative brain radiation may be considered for multiple brain metastases and other organ metastases. PMID:27171673

  18. [Dilemmas in the surgical treatment of cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdević, Srdan

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer of the female genital tract. There are 2200 newly registered cases of cervical cancer each year in Serbia, out of which 650 women die. The incidence of invasive, advanced cervical cancer has been on decrease, whereas the incidence of "in situ" stage carcinoma increases by 2% per year with tendency of increase in the younger age groups. The first radical abdominal hysterectomy was performed by Ernst Wertheim from Wienna in 1898, whereas Schauta performed the first vaginal hysterectomy in 1902. It was in 1995 when Daniel Dargent introduced radical vaginal trachelectomy combined with laparoscopic lymphadenectomy in order to preserve fertility in cases of initial-invasive stages of cervical cancer (FIGO I A2, I B1). Before choosing the surgical procedure, it is necessary to make a correct preoperative estimation of the stage of disease according to FIGO classification. Apart from gynecologic and rectovaginal examinations, in some cases it is necessary to perform additional examinations such as: cystoscopy, rectoscopy, CT or MRI examination of the pelvis, IVU, chest X-ray etc. The decision can be made only by an experienced gynecologist-surgeon who is able to solve all complications of treatment by himself. There are different surgical procedures for cervical cancer: abdominal, vaginal and combined. Introduction of laparoscopic lymphadenectomy combined with vaginal radical operations, to decrease surgical trauma and preserve fertility, has been of great significance.

  19. Nominated Texture Based Cervical Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Jayasingh Mariarputham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate classification of Pap smear images becomes the challenging task in medical image processing. This can be improved in two ways. One way is by selecting suitable well defined specific features and the other is by selecting the best classifier. This paper presents a nominated texture based cervical cancer (NTCC classification system which classifies the Pap smear images into any one of the seven classes. This can be achieved by extracting well defined texture features and selecting best classifier. Seven sets of texture features (24 features are extracted which include relative size of nucleus and cytoplasm, dynamic range and first four moments of intensities of nucleus and cytoplasm, relative displacement of nucleus within the cytoplasm, gray level cooccurrence matrix, local binary pattern histogram, tamura features, and edge orientation histogram. Few types of support vector machine (SVM and neural network (NN classifiers are used for the classification. The performance of the NTCC algorithm is tested and compared to other algorithms on public image database of Herlev University Hospital, Denmark, with 917 Pap smear images. The output of SVM is found to be best for the most of the classes and better results for the remaining classes.

  20. Improving cervical cancer screening attendance in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Anni; Anttila, Ahti; Luostarinen, Tapio; Malila, Nea; Nieminen, Pekka

    2015-03-15

    High attendance is essential to cervical cancer screening results. Attendance in the Finnish program is currently at 70%, but extensive opportunistic screening occurs beside the organized. A shift from opportunistic to organized screening is imperative to optimize the costs and impact of screening and minimize potential harms. We evaluated the effect of reminder letters (1st reminder) and self-sampling test (2nd reminder) on program attendance. The study population consisted of 31,053 screening invitees in 31 Finnish municipalities. 8,284 non-attendees after one invitation received a reminder letter and 4,536 further non-attendees were offered a self-sampling option. Socioeconomic factors related to participation were clarified by combining screening data to data from Statistics Finland. Reminder letters increased participation from 72.6% (95% CI 72.1, 73.1) to 79.2% (95% CI 78.8, 79.7) and self-sampling further to 82.2% (95% CI 81.8, 82.7). Reminder letters with scheduled appointments resulted in higher increase than open invitations (10 vs. 6%). Screening of original non-attendees increased the yield of CIN3+ lesions by 24%. Non-attendance was associated with young age, immigrant background, lower education level and having never been married. We showed that a total attendance of well over 80% can be achieved within an organized program when the invitational protocol is carefully arranged. © 2014 UICC.

  1. Results of radiation therapy on cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Norio; Nagai, Teruo; Yamakawa, Michitaka; Tsuchiya, Miwako; Takahashi, Mitsuhiro; Niibe, Hideo

    1989-01-01

    Between 1969 and 1985, a total of 298 patients with cervical cancer were treated by radiation therapy at the Department of Radiology, Gunma University Hospital. Another 111 patients were treated with irradiation as a follow up to surgery; 69 for prophylactic reasons and 42 to treat residual tumors. Patients treated with irradiation alone were given a combination of external irradiation to the pelvis and low dose rate intracavitary irradiation. Patients treated post-operatively were given intracavitary electron beam irradiation of the resected end of the vagina, and external irradiation of the entire pelvis. The following results were obtained: In patients treated by radiation therapy alone, the relative 5-year survival rates according to clinical stage were: 108% for patients with stage I cancer, 90% for stage II, 62% for stage III, and 31% for stage IV. Stage IV patients with no evidence of hematogenous metastasis could be candidates for radical therapy. Local recurrence was observed in 13% of stage II and III patients, attributed to inadequate intracavitary treatment and the histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Severe complications occurred in only 12 (4%) of the 298 patients treated with irradiation alone. The relative 5-year survival rates for patients treated with post-operative irradiation were 91% for patients treated prophylactically and 49% for patients treated for residual tumor. Patients treated with post-operative irradiation for residual tumor at the resected end of the vagina showed a high cumulative survival rate of 77%. Since urinary sequelae developed in only 4 patients, it would seem that electron beam irradiation of the resected end of the vagina is a safe and effective method of therapy. (author)

  2. [Secondary peritonitis due to rupture of pyometra in cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino Toquero, Moisé; Bañuelos Flores, Joel

    2005-11-01

    Only 8 cases of spontaneous uterine rupture in untreated cervical cancer have been reported in the literature. We present the case of a 52-year-old female, who was admitted to the emergency room due to hypovolemic shock and signs of peritonitis. A 6x4x4 cm cervical tumor was detected at physical exam. At laparotomy 2000 mL of purulent material were found and a 1-cm perforation in the posterior portion of the uterine segment was identified. A subtotal hysterectomy was performed. The patient received antibiotic and support at Intensive Care Unit. Finally, the patient presented ascendant flaccid paralysis and died due to bronchoaspiration. Spontaneous pyometra rupture in untreated cervical cancer is a rare condition and must be considered in postmenopausal women with cervical tumors and peritonitis signs.

  3. Brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Robyn Banerjee,1 Mitchell Kamrava21Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Dramatic advances have been made in brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Radiation treatment planning has evolved from two-dimensional to three-dimensional, incorporating magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography into the treatment paradigm. This allows for better delineation and coverage of the tumor, as well as improved avoidance of surrounding organs. Consequently, advanced brachytherapy can achieve very high rates of local control with a reduction in morbidity, compared with historic approaches. This review provides an overview of state-of-the-art gynecologic brachytherapy, with a focus on recent advances and their implications for women with cervical cancer.Keywords: cervical cancer, brachytherapy, image-guided brachytherapy

  4. On adequate treatment for stage 1 cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkviani, L.I.; Kharaishvili, Ts.N.

    1985-01-01

    Expansive extirpation of the uterus was performed in 726 cases of stage TIbNXMO cervical cancer. 19.3% of 600 cases of pTIb cancer showed metastatic involvement of lymph nodes. Metastases into regional lymph nodes were found to be resistant to preoperative large-fraction irradiation. The long-term results of treatment of 484 patients with pTIbNOMO cervical cancer receiving 3 different treatment modalities (operation alone, surgery+preoperative irradiation and surgery+postoperative distant irradiation) did not show any significant difference. Complications and relapse were rarer in patients who received surgery only. Therefore, expansive extirpation of the uterus unaccompanied by distant radiotherapy should be a Method of choice in treatment of stage I cervical cancer (pTIbNOMO)

  5. Uptake of cervical cancer screening: awareness, willingness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer remains the commonest genital tract cancer and yet it is preventable through cytologic screening with Pap smear. Awareness and willingness among target population is an imperative for uptake of screening services. Aim: To contribute to the existing knowledge base, and in particular, bridge ...

  6. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer and its Screening Amongst Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is an important women's reproductive health problem, especially in developing countries. Efforts towards its prevention worldwide have focused on screening women at risk of disease using Pap smears and treating pre-cancerous lesions. A good knowledge and understanding of the level of ...

  7. Design The Cervical Cancer Detector Use The Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intan Af'idah, Dwi; Didik Widianto, Eko; Setyawan, Budi

    2013-06-01

    Cancer is one of the contagious diseases that become a public health issue, both in the world and in Indonesia. In the world, 12% of all deaths caused by cancer and is the second killer after cardiovascular disease. Early detection using the IVA is a practical and inexpensive (only requiring acetic acid). However, the accuracy of the method is quite low, as it can not detect the stage of the cancer. While other methods have a better sensitivity than the IVA method, is a method of PAP smear. However, this method is relatively expensive, and requires an experienced pathologist-cytologist. According to the case above, Considered important to make the cancer cervics detector that is used to detect the abnormality and cervical cancer stage and consists of a digital microscope, as well as a computer application based on artificial neural network. The use of cervical cancer detector software and hardware are integrated each other. After the specifications met, the steps to design the cervical cancer detection are: Modifying a conventional microscope by adding a lens, image recording, and the lights, Programming the tools, designing computer applications, Programming features abnormality detection and staging of cancer.

  8. Proteomic analysis of cervical cancer cells treated with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    medical care, especially in the field of clinical oncology. As SAHA has shown good results in human cancer therapy, we used HeLa cells as a model to identify whether SAHA would be effective in cervical cancer. We took the proteomics approach, particularly 2-DE and MS, to identify the altered proteins in HeLa cells before ...

  9. Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    among women in Kumasi, Ghana using a mixed methods approach. *Williams M1 .... market, pharmacies, trotro (public transportation) stops, and from the ..... Malaysia. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2009;10(5):747–. 752. 27. Lin S-J. Factors influencing the uptake of screening services for breast and cervical cancer in Taiwan.

  10. Preferences for cervical cancer screening: The role of implicit associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, I.J.; Kwaadsteniet, E.W. de; Voorst, A. van; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Vries, M. de; Pieterse, A.H.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Implicit associations influence behaviour, but their impact on cancer screening intentions is unknown. Methods: We assessed implicit associations with cervical cancer screening using an evaluative priming task. Participants were shown primes ('Pap test', neutral or non-word) followed by

  11. Factors associated with management of cervical cancer patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Cervical cancer is an important public health problem among adult women worldwide. It is the second commonest malignancy in female worldwide and the leading malignancy among women in Tanzania. In most developing countries, cancer of the cervix tends to be diagnosed in its later stages when is less ...

  12. Knowledge, Practices and Education of Clients on Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Most patients with cancer of the cervix present late with poor prognosis. Health workers' knowledge and utilization of the screening services might influence their clients. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, practice and education of clients on cervical cancer and its screening among female ...

  13. Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    about their sociodemographic characteristics, marital and reproductive history, and awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer. Data were .... Data were entered into a computer and analyzed using. Statistical Package for the Social ..... Information Centre). Human Papilloma Virus and Related Cancers in. Nigeria.

  14. Cervical cancer screening in Greenland, 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Signe; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In spite of the high incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland, no assessment has been made of the impact of organized cervical screening, introduced in 1998, in relation to occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions. The objectives of the present study were to estimate coverage...... of the screening program was low during 1997-2011 with the highest level of 54% observed in 2011. Peaks in CIN3 incidence of around 300 per 100,000 person-years were observed in 1999 and between 2009 and 2011, while the incidence was lower of approximately 100 per 100,000 person-years between 2000 and 2008. During...

  15. Inadequate cervical cancer screening among mid-aged Australian women who have experienced partner violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Schofield, Margot; Hussain, Rafat; Hosking, Stacey

    Objectives. Partner violence is linked to cervical cancer and other gynaecological conditions. However, results of current research into associations between partner violence and cervical cancer screening have been inconclusive. Therefore, the current research investigates the association between

  16. A Population-based Study of Invasive Cervical Cancer Patients in Beijing: 1993-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the incidence of cervical cancer has been rising, particularly in young adults, as the second most common gynecological cancer in China. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence change and the epidemiological characteristics of cervical cancer in Beijing over the past 16 years. Methods: All the cases of the study were limited to Beijing residents diagnosed with cervical cancer and registered in Beijing from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2008. A total of 4100 patients with cervical cancer were obtained from the Statistics Database of Beijing Cancer Registry (BJCaR. According to the registered data, we retrospectively reviewed all original cases which we can acquired in reported hospital. Cervical situ cancer, cervical metastatic cancer, non-Beijing residents and repeatedly registered cases were excluded. Totally, 3641 registered cases were verified correctly. Meanwhile, we also collected the following data: Age, occupation, detected methods, histological type, and staging. The trends of incidence and mortality were analyzed by Joinpoint Regression Program 4.1.1.1 produced by National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA. The annual percent change (APC was calculated using the Joinpoint regression model. Results: The crude rates of incidence and mortality were 10.4 and 1.0 per 100,000 women, respectively during 1993 to 2008. The average WHO age-standardized incidence rates were 11.5 per 100,000 women. There was a decrease in incidence annually by 8.0% (P = 0.3 during 1993-1996 and a rapid increase annually by 18.9% after 1999 (P < 0.01. The median age was 67 years in 1993, but the median age decreased to 45 years in 2008. The peak of the age-specific incidence curve was at 40 years in the most recent period (2005-2008, which was 25-30 years earlier than that in previous periods (1993-1996. In the 2224 cases, the numbers of patients with stage I, II, III and IV were 910 (40.9%, 601 (27%, 542 (24.4%, 171 (7

  17. Analysis of clinical characteristics of 950 cases of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-li ZHU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the clinical features of the patients suffering from cervical cancer who visited Daping Hospital affiliated to Third Military Medical University in recent 10 years. Methods The clinical data of the patients who were pathologically diagnosed as invasive cervical cancer in Daping Hospital of TMMU from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into different age groups and analyzed according to age, clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approach. Results Clinical data of 950 patients with invasive cervical cancer were reviewed in this study. The mean age of the patients was 46.9 years. The clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approaches were different in different age groups. Analysis of the age structure of the patients, the onset age of cervical cancer seemed to increase year by year. Conclusion The clinical features of cervical cancer are diversity in different age, and the strategy for controlling its development should be varied according to age. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.09

  18. A joint model of persistent human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer risk: Implications for cervical cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Katki, Hormuzd A.; Cheung, Li C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2015-01-01

    New cervical cancer screening guidelines in the US and many European countries recommend that women get tested for human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform decisions about screening intervals, we calculate the increase in precancer/cancer risk per year of continued HPV infection. However, both time to onset of precancer/cancer and time to HPV clearance are interval-censored, and onset of precancer/cancer strongly informatively censors HPV clearance. We analyze this bivariate informatively interv...

  19. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lízia Maria Franco dos Reis Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON. METHODS: Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. RESULTS: Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 ± 7.8 and passive (7.2 ± 10.6 smoking versus no smoking (3.7 ± 5.1; with/without alcoholism (7.8 ± 1.4 and 6.9 ± 10.1; with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 ± 10.5 and 1.3 ± 1.7; and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 ± 4.3, 10.6 ± 5.3, 22.7 ± 11.9 and 1.3 ± 1.4 found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  20. Cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Xia, Changfa; Zuo, Tingting; Yang, Zhixun; Zou, Xiaonong; He, Jie

    2017-08-10

    National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCRC) updated nationwide statistics of cancer incidence and mortality in China using population-based cancer registration data in 2013 from all available cancer registries. In 2016, 255 registries' data were qualified and included in this analysis. We estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in China in 2013 using age-specific rates and corresponding national population stratified by area, sex, age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…85+) and cancer type. The world Segi's population was applied for age-standardized rates. All rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. A total of 3,682,000 new cancer cases and 2,229,300 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2013. Cancers of lung, female breast, stomach, liver, colon-rectum and esophagus were the most common cancers, accounting for about half of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer were the five leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 60% of all cancer deaths. The cancer patterns showed differences not only between male and female, but also among different geographic regions in China. For overall cancers, the age-standardized incidence rates were stable during the past decades in male, but significantly increased by 2.2% per year in female. Cancer poses a major threat to public health and the cancer burden keep raising in China. The annual updated cancer statistics can provide scientific basis for cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  2. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  3. HPV in genital cancers (at the exception of cervical cancer) and anal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bruni, Laia; Alemany, Laia

    2014-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been firmly established as a central and necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer and it has been etiologically linked to other anogenital (vulva, vagina, anus and penis) and head and neck cancers, particularly oropharyngeal. Although being rare, the incidence of some of these cancers in some countries has increased in the last decades. HPV-related anogenital tumors share many risk factors with cervical cancer. The HPV aetiological contribution differs in each anatomical location reflecting differences in the natural history and viral tissue tropism. The highest prevalence of HPV DNA in cancers other than cervix has been described for anal, followed by vagina, penile and vulvar cancers. HPV16 has been described as the most common type detected in all cancer sites with different contributions being the highest in anal carcinoma (around 80% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers) and the lowest in vaginal cancers with a contribution similar to that found in cervical cancers (around 60%). Current HPV vaccines have already demonstrated their efficacy in preventing anogenital pre-neoplastic lesions caused by vaccine HPV types. HPV-based prevention tools like HPV vaccination and to a lesser extend screening (e.g. for anal cancer) can be useful measures for reducing the burden of these anogenital cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the knowledge regarding prevention of cervical cancer among women from a Health Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernandes Gonçalves Dias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cervical cancer is a disease with high degree of morbidity and mortality, but has early detection by performing screening test which allows healing. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge regarding prevention of Cervical Cancer among women in a Basic Health Unit in Minas Gerais. Methods: This is a study descriptive with approach qualitative with 44 women. Was used as the data collection instrument of a semistructured script consisting of subjective questions. Data were collected between March April 2014. Results: The women had age of 40-57 years old, 33 (75% were married, 43(97,73% had children, 20 (45,45% had incomplete primary education, 36 (81,82% were responsible for all financial income of the family and lived with up to the minimum wage. As for the Pap smear, considered important, however showed little clarity as to the meaning of prevention. Performed the test as means of prevention and early diagnosis of Cervical Cancer. Among women who did not perform the preventive the cause was discouragement. Conclusion: We conclude that although the Pap smear be offered for free, there is still women who do not have adequate knowledge about the same and not makes periodically, fitting to health services intensify health education programs to seeking to raise awareness about the importance of regular practice of the Pap smear. Keywords: Cervix Uteri. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms. Health centers.

  5. [Evaluation on the visual inspection with Lugol's iodine in cervical cancer screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ni; Ma, Cong-ping; Sun, Li-xin; Zhang, Yong-zhen; Shao, Shu-li; Xing, Ju-xia; Bao, Yan-ping; Huang, Rui-de; He, Li-ji; Qiao, You-lin

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI) in cervical cancer screening program and to provide evidence for designing a cervical cancer screening algorithm in high risk areas of existing low-resource settings to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Women in Yangcheng county, Shanxi province were screened with VILI, colposcopy, liquid-based cytology test and human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA test. The efficacy of different screening tests was compared by Youden's index based on the pathology as the gold standard. In the population being screened, the mean age was 40.80 +/- 10.75 years old. Based on pathological findings, 4.35% (32/735) of the subjects had >or= CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) II. The sensitivity and specificity for the VILI test (>or= positive) were 53.13 and 82.19, while 56.25 and 79.09 were for colposcopy (>or= low grade dysplasia) respectively. Comparing by the Youden's indexs, there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between VILI and colposcopy. However, statistical significant difference (P 0.05) found between the experienced doctors and the newly-trained doctors working in the field station. With low sensitivity when using microscope but low cost of equipments, VILI can be one of the primary screening tests in China's rural area with low-resource settings if the screening frequency is to be increased.

  6. Reduced expression of members of the mhc-i antigen processing machinery in ethnic Uighur women with cervical cancer in the Xinjiang region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimiti, A; Hailiman, Y; Gulina, A; Du, J; Hao, Z; Rong, X L; Zainuer, A; Qin, W; Lalai, S

    2014-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality in Uighur women compared with Han women in the Xinjiang region of China. Although a reduction in the class i major histocompatibility complex (mhc-i) antigen processing machinery (apm) is associated with the development of cervical cancer, the mhc-i apm has not been studied in this particular group of women, who have the highest incidence rate of cervical cancer in China. We used immunohistochemical staining and polymerase chain reaction amplification of viral dna from infection with the human papilloma virus (hpv) to study the expression of members of the mhc-i apm in cervical cancer sections collected from Uighur and Han women and in cervicitis samples from age-matched counterparts. Expression of the molecules of interest was compared between two ethnic groups, and expression of transporter associated with antigen processing 1 and 2, heat shock protein 90, and calnexin were found to be reduced even more significantly in Han women with cervical cancer than in Uighur women with same disease. However, compared with Han women, Uighur women had a higher rate of infection with hpv 16. The mhc-i apm were reduced in cervical cancer, with heterogeneity in the two ethnic groups. The reduction was more pronounced in Han women, who less frequently had hpv 16 infection, suggesting possible differences in the roles of members of the mhc-i apm and in the mechanisms of cervical cancer development in these two ethnic groups despite residence in the same region of China.

  7. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic exenteration in recurrent cervical cancer Robotics improved the surgical experience for 2 women with recurrent cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mitzie-Ann; Adams, Sarah; Eun, Daniel; Lee, David; Randall, Thomas C

    2010-06-01

    Pelvic exenteration can be used to cure women with a central pelvic recurrence or persistence of gynecologic malignancy after initial definitive therapy. Refinements in patient selection, operative techniques, and surgical instrumentation have significantly improved outcomes over the past 60 years, but the procedure is still associated with significant mortality, morbidity, and recovery time. New technologies have made it possible to approach radical gynecologic surgeries in a minimally invasive fashion. We present 2 patients successfully treated with robotic-assisted anterior pelvic exenteration for treatment of persistent or recurrent cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategies for the prevention and control of cervical cancer in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of “most-at-risk” women for cervical cancer disease who reside in rural communities of low and middle income countries (LMIC) do not have access to cervical cancer prevention programmes. This paper reviews epidemiology, recommendations, implementation strategies for prevention and control of cervical cancer ...

  9. Does lowering the screening age for cervical cancer in The Netherlands make sense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Maaike A.; de Kok, Inge M.C.M.; Siesling, Sabine; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations for the age to initiate cervical cancer screening should be directed towards maximum detection of early cervical cancer. However, the screening programme should do more good than harm. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether the target age for cervical cancer screening

  10. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical screening...

  11. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...

  12. Therapeutic immunization strategies against cervical cancer : induction of cell-mediated immunity in murine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bungener, Laura Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this thesis is the development of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and pre-malignant precursor lesions of cervical cancer (CIN lesions). Cervical cancer is caused by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of high

  13. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of human papillomavirus detection in the prevention of cervical cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of death, and the second most frequent cancer in women worldwide. Many studies have indicated a causal relation between genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and cervical cancer. High-risk HPV genotypes have been detected in almost 100% of all cervical

  14. Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Cervical Cancer in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    Majority of “most-at-risk” women for cervical cancer disease who reside in rural communities of low and middle income countries (LMIC) do not have access to cervical cancer prevention programmes. This paper reviews epidemiology, recommendations, implementation strategies for prevention and control of cervical cancer ...

  15. Salud es Vida: a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Rural Latina Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, John S; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Alfonso, Moya L; Suazo, Norma; Rebing, Laura; Ferris, Daron G

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of Salud es Vida-a promotora-led, Spanish language educational group session on cervical cancer screening (Pap tests)-self-efficacy (belief in ability to schedule and complete a Pap test), and knowledge among immigrant Hispanic/Latina women from farmworker backgrounds. These women are disproportionately burdened with cervical cancer, with mortality rates significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. The two-arm, quasi-experimental study was conducted in four rural counties of Southeast Georgia in 2014-2015. Hispanic/Latina immigrant women aged 21-65 years and overdue for a Pap test were included as intervention (N = 38) and control (N = 52) group participants. The intervention was developed in partnership with a group of promotoras to create the toolkit of materials which includes a curriculum guide, a brochure, a flipchart, a short animated video, and in-class activities. Twelve (32 %) intervention group participants received the Pap test compared to 10 (19 %) control group participants (p = 0.178). The intervention group scored significantly higher on both cervical cancer knowledge recall and retention than the control group (p < 0.001). While there was no statistically significant difference in cervical cancer screening self-efficacy scores between the group participants, both groups scored higher at follow-up, adjusting for the baseline scores. The group intervention approach was associated with increased cervical cancer knowledge but not uptake of Pap test. More intensive interventions using patient navigation approaches or promotoras who actively follow participants or conducting one-on-one rather than group sessions may be needed to achieve improved screening outcomes with this population.

  16. HPV-related cervical disease and oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozza, Virginia; Pieralli, Annalisa; Corioni, Serena; Longinotti, Manuela; Bianchi, Claudia; Moncini, Daniela; Fallani, Maria Grazia

    2014-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially HPV 16, is associated with the development of both cervical and oral cancer. We show the case of a woman affected by HPV-related cervical disease and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). A 41-year-old woman arrived at our Colposcopy Center following an abnormal Pap smear result (ASC-H) and a diagnosis of moderate cervical dysplasia obtained by a cervical biopsy. She underwent a colposcopy that showed a cervical abnormal transformation zone grade 2. A laser conization was performed in November 2010. Histology reported a moderate/severe dysplasia. The cone resection margins were free. Follow-up colposcopy and cytology were negative. The HPV testing showed an infection by HPV 16. In October 2012, the patient presented to the Head-Neck ER after episodes of hemoptysis; a lesion was found in the left tonsillar lodge. A biopsy was performed with a result of squamous cell carcinoma with low-grade differentiation. The HPV testing detected a high-risk HPV and the immunohistochemical analysis was positive for p16. She was treated by chemotherapy and brachytherapy. She was followed at the head-neck center with monthly visits with oral visual inspection that showed complete absence of mucosal abnormalities. HPV-related OPSCC and cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions have significant similarities in terms of pathogenesis. They are both caused largely by HPV 16, as in the present case. In conclusion, because of this association found in literature and in our case, we think that women with HPV cervical lesions should have regular surveillance for oropharyngeal cancer, whereas women with OPSCC should be encouraged to have diligent cervical screening.

  17. Prediction of rehabilitation needs after treatment of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Tina Broby; Sørensen, Bente; Dieperink, Karin B

    2017-01-01

    showed impaired quality of life, e.g., a lower body image and self-efficacy score, correlated with increasing BMI. Women who had surgery had greater risk of lymphedema, and women who received chemotherapy during treatment had a lower quality of life. All but one received radiotherapy. CONCLUSION......PURPOSE: Women treated for cervical cancer with radiotherapy and chemotherapy have reported serious bowel, vaginal, and sexual late effects. The purpose of this study was to describe late adverse effects, health-related quality of life, and self-efficacy in a representative Danish cervical cancer...... population in order to describe rehabilitation needs. METHODS: Women, mean age 55 years, treated for cervical cancer from January 2010 to July 2013, who were alive and without known relapse/metastases were included in this cross-sectional study. EORTC QLQ C30 and CX24 and self-efficacy questionnaires were...

  18. Cervical cancer screening continues to limit provision of contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Saint, Mona; Gildengorin, Ginny; Weitz, Tracy A; Stewart, Felicia H; Sawaya, George F

    2005-09-01

    Balancing needs for contraception and cervical cancer screening is challenging for clinicians. We assessed US obstetrician/gynecologists' practices regarding requirement of Pap testing before prescribing oral contraceptive or emergency contraceptive pills. Questionnaires structured as clinical vignettes describing women desiring contraception with different risks of cervical dysplasia were mailed to a national sample of 355 obstetrician/gynecologists. A minority (3%) of the 185 obstetrician/gynecologists who responded would refill 12 months of oral contraceptives without requiring Pap testing. However, most would provide a limited supply of oral contraceptives until Pap testing could be performed. A substantial proportion (11-16%) would refuse to prescribe emergency contraception to women who they felt required Pap testing. Younger physicians, those practicing in academic settings and those who follow American Cancer Society guidelines were more willing to prescribe contraceptives without Pap testing. Cervical cancer screening continues to limit prescription of routine and emergency contraception by many US obstetrician/gynecologists.

  19. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... cancer screening policies and inadequacies in the key organisational elements of the programme such as registration and monitoring required for quality-assurance and fail-safe mechanisms. Based on data from available screening registers, coverage of the screening test taken within the population...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision...

  20. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Junichi; Hashimoto, Ichiro; Seki, Noriko; Hongo, Atsushi; Mizutani, Yasushi; Miyagi, Yasunari; Yoshinouchi, Mitsuo; Kudo, Takafumi

    2001-01-01

    Recently, attempts have made to use radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy in various solid tumors including cervical cancer. Twenty-four patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were treated with concurrent Carboplatin (16-24 mg/m 2 /day) or Nedaplatin (20 mg/m 2 /week) and conventional radiotherapy. Of 13 evaluable patients, there were nine complete responders and four partial responders. There was no renal damage or grade 4 hematological toxicity. Gastrointestinal adverse reactions were mild. One patient had grade 3 dermatologic toxicity after delayed radiation therapy. This pilot study suggests that daily Carboplatin or weekly Nedaplatin administered with standard radiation therapy is safe, well-tolerated, and thus may be useful as a radiation sensitizer in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. (author)

  1. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Hylke W; van der Zee, Ate G J; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects ∼500,000 women worldwide, and ∼275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%. One of the factors thought to contribute to treatment failure is the ability of tumor cells to repair chemoradiotherapy-induced DNA damage. Therefore, sensitization of tumor cells for chemoradiotherapy via inhibition of the DNA damage response (DDR) as a novel strategy to improve therapy effect, is currently studied pre-clinically as well as in the clinic. Almost invariably, cervical carcinogenesis involves infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), which inactivates part of the DNA damage response. This HPV-mediated partial inactivation of the DDR presents therapeutic targeting of the residual DDR as an interesting approach to achieve chemoradio-sensitization for cervical cancer. How the DDR can be most efficiently targeted, however, remains unclear. The fact that cisplatin and radiotherapy activate multiple signaling axes within the DDR further complicates a rational choice of therapeutic targets within the DDR. In this review, we provide an overview of the current preclinical and clinical knowledge about targeting the DDR in cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  3. WEE1 Inhibitor AZD1775, External Beam Radiation Therapy, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-19

    Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage I Vaginal Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Cervical Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Vaginal Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Vaginal Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7

  4. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdoli

    Full Text Available In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women, and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend <0.001. We also compared cancer mortality rates among foreign-born (13.9% and Sweden-born (86.1% individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07, but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  5. Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Mortality, Incidence, and Survival in the United States, 1950–2014: Over Six Decades of Changing Patterns and Widening Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in US mortality, incidence, and survival rates from all-cancers combined and major cancers from 1950 to 2014. Census-based deprivation indices were linked to national mortality and cancer data for area-based socioeconomic patterns in mortality, incidence, and survival. The National Longitudinal Mortality Study was used to analyze individual-level socioeconomic and racial/ethnic patterns in mortality. Rates, risk-ratios, least squares, log-linear, and Cox regression were used to examine trends and differentials. Socioeconomic patterns in all-cancer, lung, and colorectal cancer mortality changed dramatically over time. Individuals in more deprived areas or lower education and income groups had higher mortality and incidence rates than their more affluent counterparts, with excess risk being particularly marked for lung, colorectal, cervical, stomach, and liver cancer. Education and income inequalities in mortality from all-cancers, lung, prostate, and cervical cancer increased during 1979–2011. Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality widened as mortality in lower socioeconomic groups/areas declined more slowly. Mortality was higher among Blacks and lower among Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics than Whites. Cancer patient survival was significantly lower in more deprived neighborhoods and among most ethnic-minority groups. Cancer mortality and incidence disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diet, alcohol use, screening, and treatment.

  6. Management of recurrent cervical cancer: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, M; Zapardiel, I; Zanagnolo, V; Landoni, F; Morrow, C P; Maggioni, A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this narrative review is to update the current knowledge on the treatment of recurrent cervical cancer based on a literature review. A web based search in Medline and CancerLit databases has been carried out on recurrent cervical cancer management and treatment. All relevant information has been collected and analyzed, prioritizing randomized clinical trials. Cervical cancer still represents a significant problem for public health with an annual incidence of about half a million new cases worldwide. Percentages of pelvic recurrences fluctuate from 10% to 74% depending on different risk factors. Accordingly to the literature, it is suggested that chemoradiation treatment (containing cisplatin and/or taxanes) could represent the treatment of choice for locoregional recurrences of cervical cancer after radical surgery. Pelvic exenteration is usually indicated for selected cases of central recurrence of cervical cancer after primary or adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy with bladder and/or rectum infiltration neither extended to the pelvic side walls nor showing any signs of extrapelvic spread of disease. Laterally extended endopelvic resection (LEER) for the treatment of those patients with a locally advanced disease or with a recurrence affecting the pelvic wall has been described. The treatment of recurrences of cervical carcinoma consists of surgery, and of radiation and chemotherapy, or the combination of different modalities taking into consideration the type of primary therapy, the site of recurrence, the disease-free interval, the patient symptoms, performance status, and the degree to which any given treatment might be beneficial. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening for cervical cancer in imprisoned women in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Albert Schiaveto; de Souza, Taiana Gabriela Barbosa; Tsuha, Daniel Henrique; Barbieri, Ana Rita

    2017-01-01

    Context and objective Incarcerated women are more vulnerable to developing cervical cancer than women in general; therefore, screening and intervention programs must be included in their healthcare provision. We therefore aimed to investigate the state of cervical cancer screening for imprisoned women in Mato Grosso do Sul, and to analyze the interventions geared toward the control of cervical cancer. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional study with analysis of primary and secondary data. Interviews were held with 510 women in seven prisons in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The data for 352 medical records were analyzed statistically with the significance level set at 5%. Associations were assessed by the chi-squared test, adjusted by the Bonferroni correction. Results Most female prisoners had limited education, used tobacco, and had key risk factors for the development of cervical cancer. Half of the women interviewed (n = 255) stated that they had received a Papanicolaou (Pap) test in prison, but 134 (52.5%) of these did not know the result. Of those who had not received a Pap test, 149 (58.4%) stated that this was because of a lack of opportunity. There was no information regarding the provision of Pap tests or subsequent treatment in the medical records of 211 (59.9%) women. No protocols were in place for the provision of Pap tests in prison. There were statistical differences between prisons in terms of test frequency, the information provided to women, and how information was recorded in medical records. Conclusion The screening of cervical cancer in prisons is neither systematic nor regular, and the results are not communicated to women in a significant number of cases. It is necessary to organize health services within the prison environment, ensuring that tests are done and that there is investigation for human papillomavirus. This could increase the diagnosis of cervical cancer at less advanced stages of the disease. PMID:29252994

  8. Variable TERRA abundance and stability in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Keo, Ponnarath; Bae, Jaeman; Ko, Jung Hwa; Choi, Joong Sub

    2017-06-01

    Telomeres are transcribed into long non-coding RNA, referred to as telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), which plays important roles in maintaining telomere integrity and heterochromatin formation. TERRA has been well characterized in HeLa cells, a type of cervical cancer cell. However, TERRA abundance and stability have not been examined in other cervical cancer cells, at least to the best of our knowledge. Thus, in this study, we measured TERRA levels and stability, as well as telomere length in 6 cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa, SiHa, CaSki, HeLa S3, C-33A and SNU-17. We also examined the association between the TERRA level and its stability and telomere length. We found that the TERRA level was several fold greater in the SiHa, CaSki, HeLa S3, C-33A and SNU-17 cells, than in the HeLa cells. An RNA stability assay of actinomycin D-treated cells revealed that TERRA had a short half-life of ~4 h in HeLa cells, which was consistent with previous studies, but was more stable with a longer half-life (>8 h) in the other 5 cell lines. Telomere length varied from 4 to 9 kb in the cells and did not correlate significantly with the TERRA level. On the whole, our data indicate that TERRA abundance and stability vary between different types of cervical cancer cells. TERRA degrades rapidly in HeLa cells, but is maintained stably in other cervical cancer cells that accumulate higher levels of TERRA. TERRA abundance is associated with the stability of RNA in cervical cancer cells, but is unlikely associated with telomere length.

  9. Perceptions of HPV and cervical cancer among Haitian immigrant women: implications for vaccine acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobetz, E; Menard, J; Hazan, G; Koru-Sengul, T; Joseph, T; Nissan, J; Barton, B; Blanco, J; Kornfeld, J

    2011-12-01

    Women in Haiti and throughout the Haitian Diaspora shoulder a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The widespread Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination holds promise for helping to attenuate this disparity. However, previous research has not fully examined Haitian women's perceptions of, and barriers to, HPV vaccination, which is essential for informing future intervention. The current paper aims to fill this gap. As part of ongoing Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) efforts, we conducted a series of focus groups with Haitian immigrant women in Little Haiti, the predominantly Haitian neighborhood in Miami, Florida, U.S. Focus group questions assessed women's knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer and HPV, their opinions of vaccines in general, their knowledge and perceptions of the HPV vaccine specifically and health communications preferences for cervical cancer prevention. Among the participants who had heard of HPV, many held misconceptions about virus transmission and did not understand the role of HPV in the development of cervical cancer. Virtually all participants expressed support for vaccines in general as beneficial for health. Some women had heard of the HPV vaccine, primarily as the result of a contemporary popular media campaign promoting the Gardasil® vaccine. Physician recommendation was commonly mentioned as a reason for vaccination, in addition to having more than one sex partner. Women felt the HPV vaccine was less appropriate for adolescent girls who are presumed as not sexually active. Women indicated a strong preference to obtain health information through trusted sources, such as Haitian physicians, Haitian Community Health Workers, and especially Kreyol-language audiovisual media. Study findings indicate a need for culturally and linguistically appropriate educational initiatives to promote awareness of HPV and its role in cervical cancer, the importance of vaccination against the virus

  10. Association between B7-H1 and cervical cancer: B7-H1 impairs the immune response in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianying; Dai, Jianrong; Hou, Shunyu

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the preliminary mechanism of action of B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) and investigate the association between B7-H1 and cervical cancer. The expression of B7 family proteins was measured in cervical cancer cells. Cervical cancer cells were co-cultured with T lymphocytes. An ELISA assay was subsequently conducted to analyze cytokine concentrations in the supernatants of the cultured T cells in cervical cancer cells and B7-H1 downregulated cells. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in mice injected with cervical cancer cells or B7-H1 downregulated cells were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. It was determined that cervical cancer cells express high levels of B7-H1, whereas the normal cervical epithelium does not express B7-H1. When co-cultured with T lymphocytes, cervical cancer cells were involved in the inhibition of lymphocyte activation. When B7-H1 was downregulated using a lentivirus, the proliferation ability did not change compared with cervical cancer cells, whereas the soluble factors secreted by T cells differed between cervical cancer cells and B7-H1 downregulated cells. In an animal model, injected B7-H1 downregulated cervical cancer cells elicited a more intense immune response, whereas cervical cancer cells had the wild immune response. Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrate that B7-H1 mediates the low immunogenicity of cervical cancer and is not attacked by the immune system.

  11. Brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robyn; Kamrava, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic advances have been made in brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Radiation treatment planning has evolved from two-dimensional to three-dimensional, incorporating magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography into the treatment paradigm. This allows for better delineation and coverage of the tumor, as well as improved avoidance of surrounding organs. Consequently, advanced brachytherapy can achieve very high rates of local control with a reduction in morbidity, compared with historic approaches. This review provides an overview of state-of-the-art gynecologic brachytherapy, with a focus on recent advances and their implications for women with cervical cancer.

  12. Nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanida Jarruwale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new technique of extensive surgical intervention, namely nerve sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH, was introduced as one of the treatment options for early stage cervical cancer patients because cervical cancer patients suffer from postoperative complications following radical hysterectomy procedure. The step of nerve preservation can reduce postoperative complications, such as bladder or sexual dysfunction problems that occur after a traditional radical hysterectomy procedure. The surgical outcomes seem to be favorable and no serious morbidity was noted. However, further study of the nerve sparing technique is necessary to improve this surgical advantage in the future.

  13. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits

  14. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor and UTM Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  15. Sex, drugs, and politics: the HPV vaccine for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Monica J; Carpenter, Laura M

    2008-09-01

    HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. While most strains are relatively harmless, some increase a woman's risk of developing cervical cancer. This article explores the intimate, contested relationships among etiologies of cervical cancer, development and use of the new HPV vaccine, and contested notions of sexuality. We particularly focus on shifts in US health care and sexual politics, where the vaccine has animated longstanding concerns about vaccination (e.g. parental rights, cost, specialisation) and young women's bodies and behaviour. We conclude that vaccines are a distinctive kind of pharmaceutical, invoking notions of contagion and containment, and that politics shape every aspect of the pharmaceutical life course.

  16. Disease-related needs of black patients with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Treadwell

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of cervical cancer amongst South African black women is complicated by late presentation for treatment as well as by misconceptions and ignorance which adversely affect the quality of their lives. The aim of the research was to determine the disease-related needs of patients suffering from cervical cancer which would serve as a basis for planning on providing for these needs. Needs for the following were identified: • Education on early detection in the community. • Education on nutrition and hygiene. • Information on and assistance in obtaining financial relief by means of subsidised transport and disability pensions.

  17. WHY SHOULD WE PERFORM EXTENDED SURGERIES FOR CERVICAL CANCER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ungar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A surgical technique for the complete removal of the connective tissue content of the pelvis was introduced in 1993 to improve oncological outcome of the surgical treatment of operable cervical cancer by reducing the risk of recurrence from the pelvis. Our results suggest that complete excision of the connective tissue content of the pelvis provides equal or better survival chances without any adjuvant treatment for almost 90 % of operable stage IB cervical cancer patients than less radical surgery with or without adjuvant treatment.

  18. Cervical cancer screening in Turkey: a community-based experience after 60 years of pap smear usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhindi, Hakan; Nazlican, Ersin; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in females in the World with around 500,000 new cases occurring annually, but the first in the developing countries with a high mortality if not diagnosed early. Papanicolau (Pap) smear is a cheap, easy-to-apply and widely accepted test which has been long used to detect cervical cancer at very early stages. However, despite being available for nearly 60 years, the test can hardly be considered to have become successfully applied in many communities. We aimed in this study to present the results of a screening survey for cervical cancer which targeted a women population aged between 35 and 40 living in a semi-rural area in the province of Hatay, located in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey, with specific aims of increasing early diagnosis, education and raising population awareness about cancers. This community-based descriptive study covered 512 women between 35 and 40 years of age living at Armutlu with a mean age of 37.6±1.7. Gynecologic examinations revealed cervical erosion in 8 (1.6%), vaginitis in 193 (37.7%) and normal findings in 311 (60.7%); pathological evaluation reports of the smears were negative in 290 (56.6%), inflammation in 218 (42.6%) and ASC-US in 4 (0.8%), according to the 2001 Bethesda classification. It can be concluded that Pap smear test - proven to be a very valuable test at the clinical level- should also be widely used at the community level to detect cervical cancer at very early stages to reduce both the mortality and morbidity among healthy people. The need for continuous community-based cervical cancer screening programs is strongly suggested.

  19. Evaluation Of Cervical Punch Biopsy In The Diagnosis Of Cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer of the cervix uteri is the second leading cause of death in reproductive age women in developing countries. Its early detection and management can reduce the attendant mortality. Aim: To determine the adequacy of cervical punch biopsy technique in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Methods: A ...

  20. [La protein expression in cervical cancer tissues and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunlun; Wu, Yi; Li, Mu; Li, Lan; Gao, Yane; Gao, Qing

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the expression of La protein in cervical cancer tissues and explore its role in the occurrence and progression of cervical cancer. The expression of La protein in cervical cancer and normal cervical tissues was detected by immunohistochemical staining. RNA interference technology was used to silence La protein expression in HeLa cells and the changes in cell proliferation, tumor sphere formation and cell cycles were investigated. The expression of La protein was significantly higher in cervical cancer tissues than in normal cervical tissues (61% vs 9%, PLa protein expression in HeLa cells caused significantly reduced the cell proliferation and lowered the tumor sphere formation rate from the control level of (17.1=1.92)% to (6.3=0.45)% (PLa can promote the development of cervical cancer and may play a critical role in the carcinogenesis and progression of cervical cancer.

  1. Illness Perception, Knowledge and Self-Care about Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Kern de Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a central role in early detection of cervical cancer. Common Sense Model proposes that the nature and organization of illness representations can guide actions related to health and how self-care is exercised. The aim of this study was to describe and compare illness perception, knowledge and self-care in women with and without cancer precursor lesions. Participants were 92 women (aged 18-59 from primary care unity divided into two groups: women with and without premalignant lesion. Measures for illness perception, knowledge and self-care were used. There was no statistically significant difference (t test e chi-square test between groups in the variables analyzed. Despite the risk for cervical cancer, women with precursor lesions do not adjust their illness perceptions, knowledge and self-care to the situation. These data show the need to warn women against the cervical cancer risks, because their distorted perceptions and lack of knowledge about the disease may hamper the screening and control of cervical cancer.

  2. NHERF1 Enhances Cisplatin Sensitivity in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Qiong; Shi, Wen; Wang, Qiqi; Yang, Ying; He, Junqi

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignancies, and cisplatin-based chemotherapy is routinely utilized in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. However, resistance has been the major limitation. In this study, we found that Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1 (NHERF1) was downregulated in cisplatin-resistant cells. Analysis based on a cervical cancer dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) showed association of NHERF1 expression with disease-free survival of patients received cisplatin treatment. NHERF1 overexpression inhibited proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant HeLa cells, whereas NHERF1 knockdown had inverse effects. While parental HeLa cells were more resistant to cisplatin after NHERF1 knockdown, NHERF1 overexpression in CaSki cells promoted cisplatin sensitivity. Overexpression and knockdown studies also showed that NHERF1 significantly inhibited AKT and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways in cisplatin-resistant cells. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that NHERF1 can sensitize cisplatin-refractory cervical cancer cells. This study may help to increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in tumors. PMID:28085111

  3. Radiotherapy-induced vaginal fibrosis in cervical cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofsjö, Alexandra; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Blomgren, Bo; Jahren, Helen; Steineck, Gunnar; Bergmark, Karin

    2017-05-01

    Cervical cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy report vaginal inelasticity and decreased lubrication that may affect their sexual health, but it is unknown which normal tissue reactions mediate these symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology of the connective tissue of the vaginal wall in cervical cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy. We recruited 34 cervical cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy and 37 age-matched controls. Via clinical examination the degree of vaginal atrophy and pelvic fibrosis were estimated. We collected vaginal biopsies, which underwent morphometric analysis focused on elastin and collagen. Additionally, radiation dose at biopsy site were calculated and correlated to the clinical and morphological findings. The survivors had marked morphological vaginal changes, most prominent in the survivors that had received the highest radiation dose at the biopsy site. Mucosal atrophy was observed in 91% and pelvic fibrosis in 97%. A shorter vagina was measured; 7.0 cm versus 10.3 cm in controls (p cancer survivors that had received external radiation. We found drastic differences in the vaginal wall between the irradiated cervical cancer survivors and the controls, indicating that radiotherapy-induced vaginal symptoms are mediated by connective tissue fibrosis and elastosis. Our results also support that patients treated with external radiation have the highest risk of developing vaginal fibrosis with impairment of their sexual health.

  4. NHERF1 Enhances Cisplatin Sensitivity in Human Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Qiong; Shi, Wen; Wang, Qiqi; Yang, Ying; He, Junqi

    2017-01-12

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignancies, and cisplatin-based chemotherapy is routinely utilized in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. However, resistance has been the major limitation. In this study, we found that Na⁺/H⁺ Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1 (NHERF1) was downregulated in cisplatin-resistant cells. Analysis based on a cervical cancer dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) showed association of NHERF1 expression with disease-free survival of patients received cisplatin treatment. NHERF1 overexpression inhibited proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant HeLa cells, whereas NHERF1 knockdown had inverse effects. While parental HeLa cells were more resistant to cisplatin after NHERF1 knockdown, NHERF1 overexpression in CaSki cells promoted cisplatin sensitivity. Overexpression and knockdown studies also showed that NHERF1 significantly inhibited AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways in cisplatin-resistant cells. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that NHERF1 can sensitize cisplatin-refractory cervical cancer cells. This study may help to increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in tumors.

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening in the United States and the Netherlands: A Tale of Two Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbema, Dik; de Kok, Inge MCM; Brown, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    Context This article compares cervical cancer screening intensity and cervical cancer mortality trends in the United States and the Netherlands to illustrate the potential of cross-national comparative studies. We discuss the lessons that can be learned from the comparison as well as the challenges in each country to effective and efficient screening. Methods We used nationally representative data sources in the United States and the Netherlands to estimate the number of Pap smears and the cervical cancer mortality rate since 1950. The following questions are addressed: How do differences in intensity of Pap smear use between the countries translate into differences in mortality trends? Can population coverage rates (the proportion of eligible women who had a Pap smear within a specified period) explain the mortality trends better than the total intensity of Pap smear use? Findings Even though three to four times more Pap smears per woman were conducted in the United States than in the Netherlands over a period of three decades, the two countries’ mortality trends were quite similar. The five-year coverage rates for women aged thirty to sixty-four were quite comparable at 80 to 90 percent. Because screening in the Netherlands was limited to ages thirty to sixty, screening rates for women under thirty and over sixty were much higher in the United States. These differences had consequences for age-specific mortality trends. The relatively good coverage rate in the Netherlands can be traced back to a nationwide invitation system based on municipal population registries. While both countries followed a “policy cycle” involving evidence review, surveillance of screening practices and outcomes, clinical guidelines, and reimbursement policies, the components of this cycle were more systematically linked and implemented nationwide in the Netherlands than in the United States. To a large extent, this was facilitated by a public health model of screening in the

  6. Women’s perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer screening services in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Hami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi provides cervical cancer screening services free of charge at some public health facilities. Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and many women continue to be diagnosed with cervical cancer only during the late inoperable stages of the condition. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to discover whether the perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, amongst Malawian women aged 42 and older, influenced their intentions to utilise the available free cervical cancer screening services. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted. Structured interviews were conducted with 381 women who visited 3 health centres in the Blantyre District of Malawi. Results: A statistically-significant association existed between women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer and their knowledge about cervical cancer (X² = 8.9; df = 1; p = 0.003 and with having heard about HPV infection (X² = 4.2; df = 1; p = 0.041 at the 5% significance level. Cervical cancer screening services are provided free of charge in government health institutions in Malawi. Nevertheless, low perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer amongst women, aged 42 and older, might contribute to limited utilisation of cervical screening services, explaining why 80% of cervical cancer patients in Malawi were diagnosed during the late inoperable stages. Conclusion: Malawian women lacked awareness regarding their susceptibility to cervical cancer and required information about the available cervical cancer screening services. Malawi’s women, aged 42 and older, must be informed about the advantages of cervical cancer screening and about the importance of effective treatment if an early diagnosis has been made. Women aged 42 and older rarely attend antenatal, post-natal, well baby or family-planning clinics, where health education about cervical cancer screening is often provided. Consequently, these women

  7. Management of Cervical Cancer: Strategies for Limited-Resource Centres - A Guide for Radiation Oncologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among women globally, even though it is the cancer with the greatest demonstrated potential for secondary prevention. In some regions of the world the incidence is alarmingly high, such as in sub-Saharan Africa, some countries in Latin America, India and South-East Asia. This disease is highly preventable and curable at a relatively low risk and low cost when screening of asymptomatic women is available, together with appropriate diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. In developing clinical guidelines, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has selected forms of cancer or clinical situations that are very common in low and middle income Member States and for which radiation oncologists consistently express a need for guidance. Clinical guidelines for the management of cervical cancer do exist in the published literature. However, these guidelines have usually been developed in and for affluent environments where all modern diagnosis and treatment modalities are available for the practitioner. In limited resource environments, the radiation oncologist is faced with the question, what would be the minimally acceptable line of action with the limited resources available? Clinical guidelines focusing on low and middle income countries provide a practical tool to these practitioners. This publication is aimed at the radiation oncologist working in centres with limited resources and treating a large number of patients with cervical cancer on a daily basis. The approach and techniques are intended to be simple, feasible and resource sparing to the extent that this is possible when dealing with a complex treatment modality. The Division of Human Health is placing special emphasis on the subject of cervical cancer, which is addressed not only in this guide but also in regional training courses and coordinated research projects on the subject

  8. Awareness of cervical cancer and willingness to participate in screening program: Public health policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Somdatta; Upadhyay, Madhu; Chhabra, Pragti

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women in India. There is a high mortality as patients usually present at an advanced stage because of lack of awareness and nonexistent screening programs. This study was planned to find out awareness about cervical cancer among women and their willingness to utilize screening services in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, India. A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in a resettlement colony of North-West Delhi. Semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect information regarding different aspects of cervical cancer. Analysis was done using SPSS package (SPSS version 16 (UCMS and GTBH, Delhi, India)). A total of 373 women were included in the study. Mean age of study participants was 39.14 years. Two-third of the study population were illiterate. Half of the study population was aware of cervical cancer, and only one-fourth of population were willing to participate in a screening test. Willingness was higher among educated, ever user of family planning method and having knowledge about at least one risk factor, signs or symptoms, or possibility of early diagnosis of cancer cervix. The country's national program advocates for opportunistic and targeted screening of women. An understanding of the factors that influences womens' willingness to participate in screening program is essential for the success of such programs. Hence, this study emphasizes the need for dissemination of knowledge about various aspects of cancer cervix which is critical for uptake of any screening program in a developing country.

  9. Barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening for women with physical disability: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, Lucie; Cotton, Antoinette; Algoso, Maricris; Peters, Kath

    2016-01-01

    This review critically examined the barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening services for women with physical disability and discussed ways forward to change practice. When compared to the rest of the community, women with disability were less likely to use preventive health screening services for multiple reasons. Moreover, women with disability live longer than in previous years, and as age is linked to an increased risk of developing cancer, it is imperative that the barriers to screening for these women become a focus of discussion. We designed an integrative literature review to investigate this. Multiple databases were systematically searched for literature published between 2001 and 2013. Search terms used were a combination (AND/OR) of key terms. After excluding duplicates and articles not meeting the eligibility criteria, twenty-five articles were systematically and critically reviewed. Sociodemographic factors were associated with less access to preventive health screening for women with disability. The literature reviewed indicated that this was complicated further by three prominent barriers: health insurance, health care workers, and physical barriers. Sociodemographic, health insurance, health workers, and physical barriers impair access for disabled women to breast and cervical cancer screening, which are vital measures in the timely detection of breast and cervical cancers and preventable morbidity and mortality. Measures are needed to address these limiting factors for women with disability so that they can be active participants in health care, rather than being marginalized because of their disability.

  10. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  11. Cancer mortality of Swiss men by occupation, 1979-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, C E; Beer-Porizek, V

    1992-01-01

    Results of a study of male cancer mortality are presented by occupation. The data base consisted of the 1979-1982 mortality register and 1980 census data from Switzerland. In a novel approach, a linked subset of death certificates and census records was used to correct the numerator-denominator bias of standardized mortality ratios and their confidence intervals. Agricultural occupations exhibited low cancer mortality (exception: stomach cancer). Electricians suffered excess mortality from cancer of several sites. Foundry and chemical workers had elevated mortality risks for digestive tract cancers. Other metal workers suffered from high mortality from cancers of the respiratory organs. Construction workers were subject to high mortality from cancers of the upper digestive tract and lungs. Innkeepers, cooks, and owners or managers of guest houses had high rates of cancers of the digestive system. Occupations using combustion-powered equipment suffered from excess lung cancer mortality. In general the results of the study agree with those of several other studies.

  12. Human Papilloma Virus 16 and 18 Association in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancers by In Situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty Manisa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To correlate the association of high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV 16, 18 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers by in-situ hybridization (ISH technique. Study Group: Cervical biopsy and hysterectomy specimen of 78 young and adult women, attending Hi-Tech Medical College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar, who were clinically or cytologically suspected of cervical intraepithelial lesion or cervical cancer were taken as source of target viral DNA. Material: Formalin 10% as fixative H & E stain as routine staining agent In-situ hybridization kit for HPV 16 and 18 DNA. Method: After following standard protocol for surgical grossing, HPV 16, 18 In-situ hybridization kit was used on paraffin embedded tissue sections. Results: The percentage of positive cases was highest in cervical cancer patients followed by cervical intraepithelial lesions, high grade, and low grade. Conclusion: This study has been carried out for the first in our state and our results show high degree of positivity of HPV 16/18 in females with cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers attending our tertiary care hospital.

  13. Human papillomavirus in cervical cancer and oropharyngeal cancer: One cause, two diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Tara A; Schiller, John T

    2017-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes greater than 5% of cancers worldwide, including all cervical cancers and an alarmingly increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs). Despite markedly reduced cervical cancer incidence in industrialized nations with organized screening programs, cervical cancer remains the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, as developing countries lack resources for universal, high-quality screening. In the United States, HPV-related OPC is only 1 of 5 cancers with a rising incidence since 1975 and now has taken over the cervix as the most common site of HPV-related cancer. Similar trends follow throughout North America and Europe. The need for early detection and prevention is paramount. Despite the common etiologic role of HPV in the development of cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC, great disparity exists between incidence, screening modalities (or lack thereof), treatment, and prevention in these 2 very distinct cohorts. These differences in cervical cancer and HPV-associated OPC and their impact are discussed here. Cancer 2017;123:2219-2229. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Autophagy regulates the stemness of cervical cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yi Yang,1,2 Li Yu,1 Jin Li,1 Ya Hong Yuan,1 Xiao Li Wang,1 Shi Rong Yan,1 Dong Sheng Li,1 Yan Ding1 1Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, 2Reproductive Center, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs are a rare population of multipotent cells with the capacity to self-renew. It has been reported that there are CSCs in cervical cancer cells. Pluripotency-associated (PA transcription factors such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and CD44 have been used to isolate CSCs subpopulations. In this study, we showed that autophagy plays an important role in the biological behavior of cervical cancer cells. The expression of the autophagy protein Beclin 1 and LC3B was higher in tumorspheres established from human cervical cancers cell lines (and CaSki than in the parental adherent cells. It was also observed that the basal and starvation-induced autophagy flux was higher in tumorspheres than in the bulk population. Autophagy could regulate the expression level of PA proteins in cervical CSCs. In addition, CRISPR/Cas 9-mediated Beclin 1 knockout enhanced the malignancy of HeLa cells, leading to accumulation of PA proteins and promoted tumorsphere formation. Our findings suggest that autophagy modulates homeostasis of PA proteins, and Beclin 1 is critical for CSC maintenance and tumor development in nude mice. This demonstrates that a prosurvival autophagic pathway is critical for CSC maintenance. Keywords: cervical cancer, autophagy, cancer stem cell, LC3, Oct4

  15. Population risk factors for late-stage presentation of cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tessa S; Moodley, Jennifer; Walter, Fiona M

    2018-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) with many women only seeking professional help when they are experiencing symptoms, implying late-stage malignancy and higher mortality rates. This ecological study assesses population-level exposures of SSA women to the numerous risk factors for HPV infection and cervical cancer, against late-stage presentation of cervical cancer. A literature review revealed the relevant risk factors in SSA. Open-access databases were mined for variables closely representing each risk factor. A proxy for late-stage presentation was used (ratio of incidence-to-mortality, IMR), and gathered from IARC's GLOBOCAN 2012 database. Variables showing significant correlation to the IMR were used in stepwise multiple regression to quantify their effect on the IMR. Countries with high cervical cancer mortality rates relative to their incidence have an IMR nearer one, suggesting a larger proportion of late-stage presentation. Western Africa had the lowest median IMR (1.463), followed by Eastern Africa (IMR = 1.595) and Central Africa (IMR = 1.675), whereas Southern Africa had the highest median IMR (1.761). Variables selected for the final model explain 65.2% of changes seen in the IMR. Significant predictors of IMR were GDP (coefficient = 2.189 × 10 -6 , p = 0.064), HIV infection (-1.936 × 10 -3 , p = 0.095), not using a condom (-1.347 × 10 -3 , p = 0.013), high parity (-1.744 × 10 -2 , p = 0.008), and no formal education (-1.311 × 10 -3 , p < 0.001). Using an IMR enables identification of factors predicting late-stage cervical cancer in SSA including: GDP, HIV infection, not using a condom, high parity and no formal education. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Utilisation and outcomes of cervical cancer prevention services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proportion of women undergoing cervical cancer screening after HIV diagnosis at primary health clinics, demographic characteristics of women referred for colposcopy at a tertiary centre, and outcomes of therapy for precancerous lesions of the cervix. Results. The proportion of women undergoing at least one Pap ...

  17. Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-14

    Jul 14, 2012 ... first sexual exposure, and secondarily through screening and treatment of identified precancerous lesions. Aim: To determine the awareness and acceptability of the HPV vaccine and screening for cervical cancer among female health-care workers in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: ...

  18. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  19. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  20. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  1. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoyama-Shirakawa, Yuko; Abe, Madoka; Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. (author)

  2. Hypoxia stimulates invasion and migration of human cervical cancer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hao Xu

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... cervical cancer cell lines invasion and migration are not yet clearly understood. Furthermore, and perhaps more importantly, tumour cells must survive in environmental conditions not present in normal tissue (Brown 1999). One of the most formidable barriers to their survival is hypoxia (Yoon et al. 2005).

  3. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract malignancies in the females and its burden is enormous, to the patient and her community. It is largely preventable or curable when detected at the very early stage through effective screening programme. Very poor clients' attendance has been noticed at the services provided ...

  4. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    Univariate and bivariate analyses were done with Statistical Package for Social. Sciences ... cervical cancer, 66.7% got the information from the media. Only a .... Overall, the impact on women, their families, and the communities in developing countries is devastating. If early detection of precursor lesions by screening and.

  5. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Majority of women had poor knowledge. Mass media could be used to educate the women. There is a need to conduct community based study to know the practices of doctors and assess if they are educating and offering suggestions for screening. Keywords: Cervical cancer, Knowledge, Screening.

  6. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 6 out of 83 women had undergone screening. Though women had come into contact with doctors earlier, they were neither educated about cervical cancer nor were they told about the screening. Whatever little knowledge the women had was obtained from mass media. Conclusions: Majority of women had poor ...

  7. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic profile of cervical cancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-08-21

    existent in some provinces. However, Lubumbashi onset of cervical cancer of the uterus was observed earlier for respondents (30-45 years at 52.5%) and this seems to be linked to several risk factors including poor socio-economic ...

  8. Acceptability of human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the awareness and acceptability of the HPV vaccine and screening for cervical cancer among female health-care workers in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of 177 female health-care workers selected systematically from the ...

  9. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    association between awareness and practice of cervical cancer screening amongst respondents. Overall, a greater proportion of the .... Ethical Committee of the Niger Delta. University. Inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study ..... physician/health (35.5%) accounting for the highest source of information amongst students.

  10. a survey on drug related problems in cervical cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Cisplatin/5FU/paclitaxel. 6. 9.23. 6. Seizure. Cisplatin. 2. 3.08. 7. Loss of hair. Cisplatin/5FU/Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. 8. Nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin. 3. 4.62. 9. Hypotension. Paclitaxel. 3. 4.62. TOTAL. 65. 100. Table 3: Relationship between cervical cancer patients' factors and DRPs. Patients Factor. Drug Related Problems (DRPs).

  11. Clinic visits and cervical cancer screening in Accra | Adanu | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A representative sample of women in Accra, Ghana was interviewed and the clinical and demographic factors influencing cervical cancer screening was ... high socioeconomic status and a history over the past month of postmenopausal or intermenstrual bleeding significantly increased the odds of ever having a ...

  12. Determinants of cervical cancer knowledge and the utilisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identified determinants of awareness of cervical cancer and pap smear were age, marital status and level of education while utilisation of the screening test depended on the first two factors. Conclusion: There is need for more intensive awareness campaign among market women and the general population, especially ...

  13. Awareness and knowledge level of cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the awareness and knowledge level of cervical cancer among reproductive women in the Bolgatanga Municipality of the Upper East Region of Ghana. A structured question-naires was used to gather data from one hundred and fifty (150) women. The participants were re-cruited using the convenient ...

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening in Enugu, Nigeria. | Chukwuali | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Though preventable by early detection and treatment of the pre-invasive stage, carcinoma of the cervix remains the commonest gynaecological malignancy in Nigeria and a leading cause of death among women. The preventive role of cervical cancer screening is directly related to the proportion of the population ...

  15. [Use of oral contraceptives and increased risk of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Lenselink, C.H.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    A recently published meta-analysis and a large cohort study showed independently that use of oral contraceptives (OC) leads to an increased relative risk (RR) of cervical cancer. This RR increased with the duration of OC use and was 1.90 after 5 years or more (95% CI: 1.69-2.13). The increased RR

  16. Evaluation Of Cervical Cancer Screening Program At A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But the condition is preventable through regular screening of women those are 'at risk\\' for abnormal changes in the cervix and treating them who have positive results. Although screening facilities are ... Keywords: Cervical cancer, Pap smear test, knowledge, practice, programme coverage. East African Journal of Public ...

  17. The Need for Societal Investment to Improve Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    in reducing premature deaths of women at the prime of their productive lives. From a societal perspective ... compared to about 6,000 in 19802. Also, approximately 6,000 deaths were attributed to cervical cancer in 2010 compared to about 3,000 deaths in 19802. ... bear the cost for such lifesaving preventive and therapeutic ...

  18. Effects of recombinant human nerve growth factor on cervical cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... systems. However, the roles of NGF to cervical cancer remain deeply unknown. This study investigated the effect of recombinant human nerve growth factor ... In addition, the immune abilities of thymus and spleen were improved by rhNGF. Finally ... polypeptide neurotrophin, plays a crucial role in the life of.

  19. Knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer and human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and attitudes towards cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: A Nigerian pilot study. O Nnodu, L Erinosho, M Jamda, O Olaniyi, R Adelaiye, L Lawson, F Odedina, F Shuaibu, T Odumuh, N Isu, H Imam, O Owolabi, N Yaqub, A Zamani ...

  20. Presentations of endometrial activity after curative radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, JA; Pras, E; Hollema, H; van der Zee, AGJ; Bogchelman, DH; Mourits, MJE

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The treatment of choice for patients with advanced stage cervical cancer is (chemo)radiotherapy. Gynaecologic side effects consist of loss of ovarian function and destruction of the endometrium, resulting in infertility and premature ovarian failure. In premenopausal patients estrogens

  1. Cancer risk and mortality after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Wehberg, Sonja; Bistrup, Claus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney recipients receive immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection, and long-term outcomes such as post-transplant cancer and mortality may vary according to the different protocols of immunosuppression. METHODS: A national register-based historical cohort study was conducted......, the Danish National Cancer Registry and the Danish National Patient Register were used. A historical cohort of 1450 kidney recipients transplanted in 1995-2005 was followed up with respect to post-transplant cancer and death until 31 December 2011. RESULTS: Compared with Center 1 the adjusted post...... to examine whether post-transplant cancer and all-cause mortality differed between Danish renal transplantation centres using standard immunosuppressive protocols including steroids (Centres 2, 3, 4) or a steroid-free protocol (Centre 1). The Danish Nephrology Registry, the Danish Civil Registration System...

  2. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  3. Cancer Mortality by Country of Birth, Sex, and Socioeconomic Position in Sweden, 1961–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth. PMID:24682217

  4. A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer vaccination in preadolescent Canadian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merid Maraki

    2009-10-01

    sensitive to duration of vaccine protection, discount rate, and the correlation between probability of screening and probability of vaccination. Conclusion In the context of current screening patterns, vaccination of 12-year old Canadian females with an ASO4-ajuvanted cervical cancer vaccine is estimated to significantly reduce cervical cancer and mortality, and is a cost-effective option. However, the economic attractiveness of vaccination is impacted by the vaccine's duration of protection and the discount rate used in the analysis.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Different Cervical Screening Strategies in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Middle-Income Country with a Low Incidence Rate of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahvijou, Azin; Daroudi, Rajabali; Tahmasebi, Mamak; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Akbari Sari, Ali; Barati Marenani, Ahmad; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Objective Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Cervical screening programs have reduced the incidence and mortality rates of ICC. We studied the cost-effectiveness of different cervical screening strategies in the Islamic Republic of Iran, a Muslim country with a low incidence rate of ICC. Methods We constructed an 11-state Markov model, in which the parameters included regression and progression probabilities, test characteristics, costs, and utilities; these were extracted from primary data and the literature. Our strategies included Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing plus Pap smear triaging with different starting ages and screening intervals. Model outcomes included lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the stability of the results. Results We found that the prevented mortalities for the 11 strategies compared with no screening varied from 26% to 64%. The most cost-effective strategy was HPV screening, starting at age 35 years and repeated every 10 years. The ICER of this strategy was $8,875 per QALY compared with no screening. We found that screening at 5-year intervals was also cost-effective based on GDP per capita in Iran. Conclusion We recommend organized cervical screening with HPV DNA testing for women in Iran, beginning at age 35 and repeated every 10 or 5 years. The results of this study could be generalized to other countries with low incidence rates of cervical cancer. PMID:27276093

  6. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyimo Frida S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Results Less than one quarter (22.6% of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03 and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10 were significantly associated with screening uptake. Conclusions Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of

  7. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in human cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, Magali; Cantú, David; Herrera, Norma; Lopez, Carlos M; De la Garza, Jaime G; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that IAPs, in particular XIAP, survivin and c-IAP1, are overexpressed in several malignancies. In the present study we investigate the expression of c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP and survivin and its isoforms in cervical cancer. We used semiquantitative RT-PCR assays to analyze 41 cancer and 6 normal tissues. The study included 8 stage I cases; 16 stage II; 17 stageIII; and a control group of 6 samples of normal cervical squamous epithelial tissue. c-IAP2 and XIAP mRNA levels were similar among the samples, cervical tumors had lower c-IAP1 mRNA levels. Unexpectedly, a clear positive association was found between low levels of XIAP and disease relapse. A log-rank test showed a significant inverse association (p = 0.02) between XIAP expression and tumor aggressiveness, as indicated by disease relapse rates. There were no statistically significant differences in the presence or expression levels of c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 among any of the clinical variables studied. Survivin and its isoforms were undetectable in normal cervical tissues, in contrast with the clear upregulation observed in cancer samples. We found no association between survivin expression and age, clinical stage, histology or menopausal state. Nevertheless, we found that adenocarcinoma tumors expressed higher levels of survivin 2B and DeltaEx3 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04 respectively, by Kruskal-Wallis). A multivariate Cox's partial likelihood-based analysis showed that only FIGO stage was an independent predictor of outcome. There are no differences in the expression of c-IAP2 and XIAP between normal vs. cancer samples, but XIAP expression correlate in cervical cancer with relapse of this disease in the patients. Otherwise, c-IAP1 was downregulated in the cervical cancer samples. The expression of survivin was upregulated in the patients with cervical cancer. We have found that adenocarcinoma presented higher levels of survivin isoforms 2B and DeltaEx3

  8. Determinants of a GP visit and cervical cancer screening examination in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Michael Labeit

    Full Text Available In the UK, women are requested to attend a cervical cancer test every 3 years as part of the NHS Cervical Screening Programme. This analysis compares the determinants of a cervical cancer screening examination with the determinants of a GP visit in the same year and investigates if cervical cancer screening participation is more likely for women who visit their GP.A recursive probit model was used to analyse the determinants of GP visits and cervical cancer screening examinations. GP visits were considered to be endogenous in the cervical cancer screening examination. The analysed sample consisted of 52,551 observations from 8,386 women of the British Household Panel Survey.The analysis showed that a higher education level and a worsening self-perceived health status increased the probability of a GP visit, whereas smoking decreased the probability of a GP visit. GP visits enhanced the uptake of a cervical cancer screening examination in the same period. The only variables which had the same positive effect on both dependent variables were higher education and living with a partner. The probability of a cervical cancer screening examination increased also with previous cervical cancer screening examinations and being in the recommended age groups. All other variables had different results for the uptake of a GP visit or a cervical cancer screening examination.Most of the determinants of visiting a GP and cervical cancer screening examination differ from each other and a GP visit enhances the uptake of a smear test.

  9. Evaluation of Cervicography Screening for Cervical Cancer in a High Risk Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-16

    cervicography in cervical screening. lnt J Gynecol Cancer 1993~ 3:395-398. 16. Urdaneta H. Detecci6n de patologia cervical no diagnosticada por citologia...cervical screening. lnt J Gynecol Cancer 1993; 3:395-398. 24 Urdaneta H. Detecci6n de patologia cen,-ical no diagnosticada por citologia vaginal

  10. Current research into novel therapeutic vaccines against cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Marcelo Nazário; De Lima, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Paolini, Francesca; Melo, Alanne Rayssa da Silva; Campos, Ana Paula Ferreira; Venuti, Aldo; De Freitas, Antonio Carlos

    2018-03-13

    Cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are well-known outcomes of a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Viral oncogenes expressions like E6, E7, and, recently recognized E5, lead to HPV-related malignant progression. Although HPV prevention by powerful vaccines against most frequent and oncogenic genotypes is feasible, current treatment against cervical neoplasia is distant from an ideal one. In addition, late diagnosis is commonly associated with a poor prognosis. On top of that, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery are less effective in high-grade lesions. Areas covered: Due to their peculiarities, HPV oncogenes represent an excellent target for cancer immunotherapy. Safety, efficacy, and potential immunogenicity are features achieved by DNA vaccines targeting HPV. The literature search has indicated that genetic immunotherapy is becoming a pharmacological tool and therapeutic option against cervical disease, as more and more DNA vaccines are reaching clinical trial phases. Expert commentary: Among some of the promising results, a phase II randomized trial showed a clinical activity of a nucleic acid-based vaccine in HPV16 or HPV18 positive CIN patients. The concept of a synergic combination of anti-HPV DNA vaccines with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, sophisticated delivery methods, immunomodulators or immune adjuvants opens a new and interesting perspective in cervical malignancy treatment.

  11. Cervical and breast cancer screening participation for women with chronic conditions in France: results from a national health survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, Panayotis; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Menvielle, Gwenn

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidity at the time of diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for survival among women suffering from cervical or breast cancer. Although cancer screening practices have proven their efficacy for mortality reduction, little is known about adherence to screening recommendations for women suffering from chronic conditions. We investigated the association between eleven chronic conditions and adherence to cervical and breast cancer screening recommendations in France. Using data from a cross-sectional national health survey conducted in 2008, we analyzed screening participation taking into account self-reported: inflammatory systemic disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, depression, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, osteoarthritis and thyroid disorders. We first computed age-standardized screening rates among women who reported each condition. We then estimated the effect of having reported each condition on adherence to screening recommendations in logistic regression models, with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic position, health behaviours, healthcare access and healthcare use. Finally, we investigated the association between chronic conditions and opportunistic versus organized breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression. The analyses were conducted among 4226 women for cervical cancer screening and 2056 women for breast cancer screening. Most conditions studied were not associated with screening participation. Adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations was higher for cancer survivors (OR = 1.73 [0.98–3.05]) and lower for obese women (OR = 0.73 [0.57–0.93]), when accounting for our complete range of screening determinants. Women reporting chronic respiratory disease or diabetes participated less in cervical cancer screening, except when adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations was lower for

  12. Human papillomavirus genotypes associated with mucopurulent cervicitis and cervical cancer in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xing-Hang; Liu, Shu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the infection status and predominant genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among Chinese patients with mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC) or cervical cancer (CC) in Hangzhou. Initially, 217 cases of healthy cervix controls (n=50), acute MPC (n=89), and CC (n=78) were included; samples were collected between January 1, 2010, and January 30, 2013. Cervical specimens were screened for HPV using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay and DNA sequencing. Overall prevalence of HPV infection was 16.7% in the control group, 51.9% in the MPC group, and 84.4% in the CC group. The predominant genotype detected in all 3 groups was the oncogenic variant HPV 16 (55.8%, 17.3%, and 6.3% in the CC, MPC and control specimens, respectively), HPV58 was the second most predominant HPV type in CC (9.1%), MPC (8.6%), and control group (4.2%). Most or all of the genotypes were oncogenic in the three groups. Infection with HPV was found to be prevalent among Chinese women with MPC or CC and oncogenic variants were in the majority. Therefore, peoples who suffered MPC with HPV DNA positive should be regularly followed-up, for prevention and early treatment of cervical cancer.

  13. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  14. Disease-Specific Mortality of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Patients in Korea: A Multicenter Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji Jeon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLittle is known regarding disease-specific mortality of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC patients and its risk factors in Korea.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed a large multi-center cohort of thyroid cancer from six Korean hospitals and included 8,058 DTC patients who underwent initial surgery between 1996 and 2005.ResultsMean age of patients at diagnosis was 46.2±12.3 years; 87% were females. Most patients had papillary thyroid cancer (PTC; 97% and underwent total thyroidectomy (85%. Mean size of the primary tumor was 1.6±1.0 cm. Approximately 40% of patients had cervical lymph node (LN metastases and 1.3% had synchronous distant metastases. During 11.3 years of follow-up, 150 disease-specific mortalities (1.9% occurred; the 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS rate was 98%. According to the year of diagnosis, the number of disease-specific mortality was not different. However, the rate of disease-specific mortality decreased during the study period (from 7.7% to 0.7%. Older age (≥45 years at diagnosis, male, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC versus PTC, larger tumor size (>2 cm, presence of extrathyroidal extension (ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis and tumor node metastasis (TNM stage were independent risk factors of disease-specific mortality of DTC patients.ConclusionThe rate of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients was 1.9%; the 10-year DSS rate was 98% during 1996 to 2005. Older age at diagnosis, male, FTC, larger tumor size, presence of ETE, lateral cervical LN metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stages were significant risk factors of disease-specific mortality of Korean DTC patients.

  15. Cytokine profile of cervical cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelbag, S.; Fleuren, G. J.; Baelde, J. J.; Schuuring, E.; Kenter, G. G.; Gorter, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In patients with cervical carcinoma, the presence of cytokines produced by T(H)2 cells, and the presence of an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate, has been associated with a less effective immune response and tumor progression. In the present study, we have investigated the cytokine

  16. Cytokine profile of cervical cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelbag, S; Fleuren, GJ; Baelde, JJ; Schuuring, E; Kenter, GG; Gorter, A

    2001-01-01

    Objective. In patients with cervical carcinoma, the presence of cytokines produced by T(H)2 cells, and the presence of an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate, has been associated with a less effective immune response and tumor progression. In the present study, we have investigated the cytokine

  17. Breast and cervical cancer screening disparities associated with disability severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Andresen, Elena M; Iezzoni, Lisa I

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has noted disparities between women with and without disabilities in receipt of timely screening for breast and cervical cancer. Some studies suggest greater disparities for women with more severe disabilities, but the research to date has yielded inconsistent findings. Our purpose was to further examine differences in receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening in relation to severity of disability. We analyzed Medical Expenditure Panel Survey annual data files from 2002 to 2008. Logistic regression analyses examined whether Pap smears and mammograms had been received within the recommended timeframe according to U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Guidelines. We compared four groups of women aged 18 to 64 years, categorized by presence and complexity of disability: 1) No limitations, 2) basic action difficulties only, 3) complex activity limitations only, and 4) both basic and complex activity limitations. Women both with and without disabilities fell short of Healthy People 2020 goals for breast and cervical cancer screening. Overall, women with disabilities were less likely to be up to date with both mammograms and Pap tests. The magnitude of disparities was greater for women with complex limitations. Disparities in Pap testing, but not mammography, remained significant when controlling for demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic factors. Women with more complex or severe disability were less likely to be up to date with breast and cervical cancer screenings. Targeted efforts are needed to reduce barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening for women with significant disabilities, especially those who also experience other socioecological disadvantages. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening among Pakistani and Somali immigrant women in Oslo: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele AA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdi A Gele,1,2 Samera A Qureshi,1 Prabhjot Kour,1 Bernadette Kumar,1 Esperanza Diaz1,3 1Norwegian Center for Minority Health Research, 2Department of Health, Institute of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo and Akershus University College, Oslo; 3Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Abstract: Norway has a low incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer, which is mainly due to the high participation rate of women in cervical cancer screening. However, the attendance of cervical cancer screening was reported to be low among immigrant women. For this reason, we conducted a qualitative study to obtain better insight into perceived barriers and challenges to cervical cancer screening among Somali and Pakistani women in the Oslo region. A convenient sample of 35 (18 Pakistani, 17 Somali women were recruited for the study in collaboration with Somali and Pakistani community partners. Focus group discussions were used to explore barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer screening, whereas the Ecological Model was used as the framework for the study. The study found three levels of barriers to cervical cancer screening. The individual level included a lack of understanding of the benefits of the screening. The sociocultural level included the stigma attached to the disease and the belief that women who are unmarried are sexually inactive. The system-related level included a lack of trust toward the health care system. Based on the study results, and using a common denominator approach for the immigrant groups included, the study recommends three communication strategies with the potential to improve women’s participation in cervical cancer screening: 1 in-person communication and information material at health centers; 2 verbal communication with women through seminars and workshops to educate them about their risk of cancer and the importance of screening and 3 the initiation of better recall

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening Service Uptake and Associated Factors among Age Eligible Women in Mekelle Zone, Northern Ethiopia, 2015: A Community Based Study Using Health Belief Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinsermu Bayu

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, with about 500,000 new patients diagnosed and over 250,000 deaths every year. Cervical cancer screening offers protective benefits and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and cervical cancer mortality. But there is very low participation rate in screening for cervical cancer among low and middle-income countries.This study aimed to determine cervical cancer screening service uptake and its associated factor among age eligible women in Mekelle zone, northern Ethiopia, 2015.A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mekelle zone among age eligible women from February to June 2015. Systematic sampling technique was used to select 1286 women in to the study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Data was entered and cleaned using EPINFO and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software package. Bivariate and Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess association between dependent and independent variables with 95% CI and p-value less than 0.05 was set for association.The study revealed that among 1186 age eligible women, only 235(19.8% have been screened for cervical cancer. Age (AOR = 1.799, 95%CI = 1.182-2.739, history of multiple sexual partners (AOR = 1.635, 95%CI = 1.094-2.443, history of sexually transmitted disease (AOR = 1.635,95%CI = 1.094-2.443, HIV sero status (AOR = 5.614, 95%CI = 2.595-12.144, perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer (AOR = 2.225, 95%CI = 1.308-3.783, perceived barriers to premalignant cervical lesions screening (AOR = 2.256, 95%CI = 1.447-3.517 and knowledge on cervical cancer and screening (AOR = 2.355, 95%CI = 1.155-4.802 were significant predictors of cervical cancer screening service uptake.Magnitude of cervical cancer screening service uptake among age eligible women is still unacceptably low. Age of the women, history of multiple sexual partners

  20. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark...

  1. Cancer mortality and saccharin consumption in diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, B; Lea, A J; Adelstein, A M; Donovan, J W; White, G C; Ruttle, S

    1976-09-01

    The mortality experience of 5971 members of the British Diabetic Association (BDA) was followed-up for between five and eight years to mid-1973. Overall, 1207 deaths occurred compared with 778 expected from the mortality of the population of England and Wales in 1972. This excess of deaths was due almost entirely to diabetes mellitus and ischaemic heart disease. Deaths from cancer (128) were significantly fewer than expected (168), mainly because of a deficit in the number of deaths from cancers related to smoking (cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, respiratory system, and bladder). There was also a lower than expected mortality from chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Data on saccharin consumption by BDA members showed that more than half of them used saccharin tablets daily, with an overall daily intake of three to six tablets, depending on age and sex. Information on a small sample of survivors from the mortality study suggested that about 23% of them would have taken saccharin daily for 10 years or more and 10% for 25 years or more by the end of the follow-up. It was concluded that these relatively high levels of saccharin intake had not increased the risk of cancer in general among BDA members.

  2. Advancing cervical cancer prevention initiatives in resource-constrained settings: insights from the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulindi H Mwanahamuntu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Groesbeck Parham and colleagues describe their Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia, which has provided services to over 58,000 women over the past five years, and share lessons learned from the program's implementation and integration with existing HIV/AIDS programs.

  3. Long-term risk of cervical cancer following conization of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3-A Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Freja Laerke; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2018-01-01

    risk of subsequent cervical cancer. We included 59,464 women with CIN3 on the cone and 1,918,508 women with a normal cytology test. Overall, women diagnosed with CIN3 had a higher risk of subsequent cervical cancer compared to women with normal cytology (HR = 2.06; 95%CI: 1.81-2.35). Analyses according......Using nationwide Danish registries we examined the long-term risk of cervical cancer in women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) (including adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)) on the cone compared to women with a normal cytology test. Initially, we identified women born 1918......-1990, who were recorded as living in Denmark between January 1, 1978 and December 31, 2012. From the Pathology Data Bank information on CIN3 on the cone, margins status, histological type of CIN3 and cervical cytology results was extracted. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the relative...

  4. Concomitant cervical and transperineal parametrial high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost for locally advanced cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Bailleux

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is no consensus for parametrial boost technic while both transvaginal and transperineal approaches are discussed. A prototype was developed consisting of a perineal template, allowing transperineal needle insertion. This study analyzed acute toxicity of concomitant cervical and transperineal parametrial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB boost for locally advanced cervical cancer. Material and methods: From 01.2011 to 12.2014, 33 patients (pts presenting a locally advanced cervical cancer with parametrial invasion were treated. After the first course of external beam radiation therapy with cisplatinum, HDRB was performed combining endocavitary and interstitial technique for cervical and parametrial disease. Post-operative delineation (CTV, bladder, rectum, sigmoid and planification were based on CT-scan/MRI. HDRB was delivered in 3-5 fractions over 2-3 consecutive days. Acute toxicities occurring within 6 months after HDRB were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Median age was 56.4 years (27-79. Clinical stages were: T2b = 23 pts (69.7%, T3a = 1 pt (3%, T3b = 6 pts (18.2%, and T4a = 3 pts (9.1%. Median HDRB prescribed dose was 21 Gy (21-27. Median CTVCT (16 pts and HR-CTV MRI (17 pts were 52.6 cc (28.5-74.3, 31.9 cc (17.1-58, respectively. Median EQD2αβ10 for D90CTV and D90HR-CTV were 82.9 Gy (78.2-96.5, 84.8 Gy (80.6-91.4, respectively. Median EQD2αβ3 (CT/MRI for D2cc bladder, rectum and sigmoid were 75.5 Gy (66.6-90.9, 64.4 Gy (51.9-77.4, and 60.4 Gy (50.9-81.1, respectively. Median follow-up was 14 months (ranged 6-51. Among the 24 pts with MFU = 24 months, 2-year LRFS rate, RRFS, and OS were 86.8%, 88.8%, and 94.1%, respectively. The rates of acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were 36% (G1 dysuria = 8 pts, G2 infection = 2 pt, G3 infection = 2 pts, and 27% (G1 diarrhea = 9 pts, respectively. One patient presented vaginal bleeding at the time of applicator withdrawal (G3-blood transfusion; no bleeding was

  5. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass

  6. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok Nam

    2012-01-01

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass from

  7. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: comparison of screening policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van den Akker-van Marle (Elske); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); R. Boer (Rob); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Recommended screening policies for cervical cancer differ widely among countries with respect to targeted age range, screening interval, and total number of scheduled screening examinations (i.e., Pap smears). We compared the efficiency of cervical

  8. Analysis of the entire HLA region in susceptibility for cervical cancer : a comprehensive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoodsma, M; Nolte, IM; Schipper, M; Oosterom, E; van der Steege, G; de Vries, EGE; te Meerman, GJ; van der Zee, AGJ

    Background : Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer and its precursor lesion, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Variability in host immunogenetic background is important in determining the overall cellular immune response to HPV infections. Objective :

  9. Expression of Long Noncoding RNA Urothelial Cancer Associated 1 Promotes Cisplatin Resistance in Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bi; Huang, Zhi; Gao, Rui; Zeng, Zhu; Yang, Weiming; Sun, Yuan; Wei, Wei; Wu, Zhongqing; Yu, Lei; Li, Qinshan; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Fenghu; Liu, Guoli; Liu, Bingjie; Leng, Li; Zhan, Wei; Yu, Yanlong; Yang, Guozhen; Zhou, Shi

    2017-04-01

    Cisplatin resistance is still one of the main reasons for failure of clinical therapy for cervical cancer. But the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in cisplatin resistance of cervical cancer have still remained unclear. Recent studies reported that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are novel nonprotein-coding transcripts, which might play a key role in cancer biogenesis and prognosis. One of the lncRNAs, urothelial cancer associated 1 (UCA1), has been shown to promote different types of cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. This study showed that overexpression of UCA1 confers cisplatin resistance by promoting cancer cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. In addition, knockdown of UCA1 remarkably decreased cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer cells. Moreover, results also indicated that UCA1 was involved in signaling pathways modulating cell apoptosis and proliferation. UCA1 suppressed apoptosis by downregulating caspase 3 and upregulating CDK2, whereas enhanced cell proliferation by increased level of survivin and decreased level of p21. This study reports for the first time that UCA1 might play an important role in the cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer, and also explain partially how UCA1 promotes cisplatin resistance in cancer cells. These results provide evidence to support that UCA1 can be used as a potential target for a novel therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.

  10. Has Medical Innovation Reduced Cancer Mortality?

    OpenAIRE

    Frank R. Lichtenberg

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the effects of four types of medical innovation and cancer incidence on US cancer mortality rates during the period 2000–2009, by estimating difference-in-differences models using longitudinal (annual) data on ∼60 cancer sites (breast, colon, etc.). The outcome measure used is not subject to lead-time bias. I control for mean age at diagnosis, the stage distribution of patients at time of diagnosis, and the sex and race of diagnosed patients. Under the assumption that there were no ...

  11. Breast and cervical cancers diagnosed and stage at diagnosis among women served through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Royalty, Janet; Henley, Jane; White, Arica; Richardson, Lisa C

    2015-05-01

    To assess cancers diagnosed and the stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis among low-income, under-insured, or uninsured women who received services through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Using the NBCCEDP database, we examined the number and percent of women diagnosed during 2009-2011 with in situ breast cancer, invasive breast cancer, and invasive cervical cancer by demographic and clinical characteristics, including age, race and ethnicity, test indication (screening or diagnostic), symptoms (for breast cancer), and screening history (for cervical cancer). We examined these characteristics by stage at diagnosis, a new variable included in the database obtained by linking with state-based central cancer registries. There were 11,569 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, 1,988 with in situ breast cancer, and 583 with invasive cervical cancer through the NBCCEDP. Women who reported breast symptoms or who had diagnostic mammography were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, and at a later stage, than those who did not have symptoms or who had screening mammography. Women who had been rarely or never screened for cervical cancer were more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer, and at a later stage, than women who received regular screenings. Women served through the NBCCEDP who have not had prior screening or who have symptoms were more often diagnosed with late-stage disease.

  12. An exploration of Papanicolaou smear history and behavior of patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Hsin; Chao, Angel; Liao, Mei-Nan; Lin, Jr-Rung; Huang, Huei-Jean; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Wei-ju; Kuo, Hsiao-Ying; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2010-01-01

    Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is an effective preventive measure in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The national health insurance made free annual cervical screening available to all Taiwanese women 30 years or older. The objective of this study was to increase knowledge about Pap smear screening history, attitudes, and behavior in Taiwanese women with newly diagnosed cervical cancer. One hundred forty-one women with newly diagnosed cervical cancer were prospectively enrolled between January 2007 and June 2008. Data were collected via a questionnaire survey, which included (1) demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, (2) reasons for receiving or not receiving a Pap smear test, and (3) knowledge of and sources of information on Pap smears. Of the 141 patients, 62 (44.0%) had never had a Pap smear before diagnosis, 10 (7.1%) did not know about the Pap smear, and only 30 (21%) reported having had more than 3 Pap smears in their lifetime. Stepwise logistic regression identified perceived potential pain, fear of embarrassment, and the number of sexual partners of the male consort as independently associated with the number of previous Pap smears (0 vs > or =1). Our results highlight the need for a better understanding of women's knowledge and experiences with Pap smear screening and developing more comfortable methods of cervical cancer screening. Education strategies should be focused on improving access to never-users. The need for a better understanding of women's experiences with Pap smear screening is highlighted.

  13. Integrating cervical cancer screening and preventive treatment with family planning and HIV-related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Heather L; Meglioli, Alejandra; Chowdhury, Raveena; Nuccio, Olivia

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa-in large part because of inadequate coverage of screening and preventive treatment services. A number of programs have begun integrating cervical cancer prevention services into existing family planning or HIV/AIDS service delivery platforms, to rapidly expand "screen and treat" programs and mitigate cervical cancer burden. Drawing upon a review of literature and our experiences, we consider benefits and challenges associated with such programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. We then outline steps that can optimize uptake and sustainability of integrated sexual and reproductive health services. These include increasing coordination among implementing organizations for efficient use of resources; task shifting for services that can be provided by nonphysicians; mobilizing communities via trusted frontline health workers; strengthening management information systems to allow for monitoring of multiple services; and prioritizing an operational research agenda to provide further evidence on the cost-effectiveness and benefits of integrated service delivery. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  14. Correção da magnitude da mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero no Brasil, 1996-2005 Corrección de la magnitud de la mortalidad por cáncer de colón uterino en Brasil, 1996-2005 Correction for reported cervical cancer mortality data in Brazil, 1996-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Justina Gamarra

    2010-08-01

    sobre los 9.607.177 óbitos fueron obtenidos del Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad de Brasil, para el período de 1996 a 2005. Para la corrección del sub-registro, fueron utilizados los factores de expansión generados por el Proyecto Carga Global de Enfermedad en Brasil-1998. Para la corrección de las categorías de diagnósticos desconocidos, incompletos o mal definidos de óbitos, fue aplicada la metodología de redistribución proporcional. Los datos ausentes de edad fueron corregidos por imputación. Las correcciones fueron aplicadas por Unidad Federativa y los resultados son presentados para Brasil, región y áreas geográficas (capital, demás municipios de las regiones metropolitanas e interior por medio del porcentaje de variabilidad de la magnitud de las tasas, antes y después de la corrección de los óbitos. El comportamiento de las correcciones fue analizado por modelo de regresión linear multivariada con términos de interacción entre región del país y área geográfica. RESULTADOS: Las tasas corregidas de mortalidad por cáncer de colon uterino en Brasil mostraron un aumento de 103,4%, variando de 35% para las capitales de la región Sur a 339% para el interior de la región Noreste. La redistribución de los óbitos por cáncer uterino sin especificación de localización anatómica promovió los mayores aumentos en la magnitud de las tasas. Los porcentajes de corrección, según año de ocurrencia de óbito, mostraron tendencia estacionaria en Brasil. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados permiten concluir que la metodología propuesta fue adecuada para corregir la magnitud de las tasas de mortalidad por cáncer de colon uterino en Brasil, muestreando que la mortalidad por ese cáncer es aún mayor a lo observado en los informes oficiales.OBJECTIVE: To develop a methodology for correction of reported cervical cancer deaths in Brazil. METHODS: Data on 9,607,177 cancer deaths were obtained from the Brazilian National Mortality Database for the

  15. Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; In 't Hout, Bertha A.; Boomgaard, Jantine J.; de Hullu, Joanne A.; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Aalders, Jan G.; Jijman, Hans W.; Willemse, Pax H. B.; Mourits, Marian J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective

  16. Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, E.R.; Zee, A.G. van der; Hout, B.A. van; Boomgaard, J.J.; Hullu, J.A. de; Pras, E.; Hollema, H.; Aalders, J.G.; Nijman, H.W.; Willemse, P.H.B.; Mourits, M.J.E.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In a retrospective

  17. Treatment results of neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Toshifumi; Iwae, Shigemichi; Tanaka, Hironori; Yonezawa, Kouichiro; Inoue, Kenzo

    2007-01-01

    Treatment results of neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for hypopharyngeal cancer were analyzed retrospectively by comparing neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves and that with the resection of cervical nerves. Pharyngolaryngectomy or pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy with bilateral neck dissection was performed in 76 hypopharyngeal cancer cases between January 1992 and November 2001. Neck dissection with the resection of cervical nerves was performed on 42 sides of the neck in 21 cases (the cervical nerve-resected group). In 55 cases we attempted to employ neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves, but in 9 cases the cervical nerves were resected because of their nodal adhesion or involvement Neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves was performed on 92 sides of the neck in 46 cases (the cervical nerve-preserved group). There were significant differences between background factors of two groups about age, sex, induction chemotherapy, preservation of accessory nerve, and pN classification. The 5-year cumulative control rates of cervical lymph nodes were 81.3% for the cervical nerve-resected group and 79.7% for the cervical nerve-preserved group. There was no significant difference between the two groups. It was suggested that neck dissection with the preservation of cervical nerves for cases whose cervical nerves were able to be preserved from metastatic lymph nodes under induction chemotherapy and post-operative irradiation was as effective to control cervical lymph nodes as neck dissection with the resection of cervical nerves. (author)

  18. Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors among Women in Rural Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study.

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    Rawlance Ndejjo

    Full Text Available In developing countries, inadequate access to effective screening for cervical cancer often contributes to the high morbidity and mortality caused by the disease. The largest burden of this falls mostly on underserved populations in rural areas, where health care access is characterized by transport challenges, ill equipped health facilities, and lack of information access. This study assessed uptake of cervical cancer screening and associated factors among women in rural Uganda.This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in Bugiri and Mayuge districts in eastern Uganda and utilised quantitative data collection methods. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire on cervical cancer screening among females aged between 25 and 49 years who had spent six or more months in the area. Data were entered in Epidata 3.02 and analysed in STATA 12.0 statistical software. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed.Of the 900 women, only 43 (4.8% had ever been screened for cervical cancer. Among respondents who were screened, 21 (48.8% did so because they had been requested by a health worker, 17 (39.5% had certain signs and symptoms they associated with cervical cancer while 16 (37.2% did it voluntarily to know their status. Barriers to cervical cancer screening were negative individual perceptions 553 (64.5% and health facility related challenges 142 (16.6%. Other respondents said they were not aware of the screening service 416 (48.5%. The independent predictors of cervical cancer screening were: being recommended by a health worker [AOR = 87.85, p<0.001], knowing where screening services were offered [AOR = 6.24, p = 0.004], and knowing someone who had ever been screened [AOR = 9.48, p = 0.001].The prevalence of cervical cancer screening is very low in rural Uganda. Interventions to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening should be implemented so as to improve access to the service in rural areas.

  19. Artemisinin derivative artesunate induces radiosensitivity in cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Judong; Zhu, Wei; Tang, Yiting; Cao, Han; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Ji, Rong; Zhou, Xifa; Lu, Zhongkai; Yang, Hongying; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women worldwide and radiotherapy remains its predominant therapeutic treatment. Artesunate (ART), a derivative of artemisinin, has shown radiosensitization effect in previous studies. However, such effects of ART have not yet been revealed for cervical cancer cells. Methods The effect of ART on radiosensitivity of human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa was assessed using the clonogenic assay. Cell cycle progression a...

  20. What School Nurses Need to Know about Cervical Cancer, HPV, and the New Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Jeanie

    2007-01-01

    At least 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year in the United States, accounting for at least 4,000 deaths. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women. The human papilloma virus (HPV) has been linked to at least 70% of all cervical cancer. HPV can be divided into 2 categories: (a) low risk,…

  1. Control of cervical cancer: women's options and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Joanna M; Ngan, Hextan; Garland, Suzanne; Wright, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Cervical cancer takes the lives of more than 250,000 women each year globally, particularly in under-resourced areas of low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Options for cancer control and treatment have reached a point that there are interventions for control that could be adopted for virtually every resource and demographic situation. Women die despite the availability of attractive control options, which means that educating policy makers, women's health professionals, as well as women themselves, must become a major focus for ongoing control of this disease. The human right to life, to prevention of suffering, and to education are all key rights linked to improving the control of cervical cancer and saving the lives of women, particularly in resource-poor parts of the world.

  2. Quality of life of women undergoing treatment for cervical cancer

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    Francieli Ana Dallabrida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of women with cervical cancer. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study developed with 43 women undergoing oncological treatment assisted at an Oncology High Complexity Center, in the Southern region of Brazil. The instrument used was the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer – Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30, and the data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The average age was 54.6 years old. Married women prevailed (53.4%, with incomplete elementary education (72.1% and income from one to two minimum wages (62.8%. Quality of Life was considered very satisfactory. According to the development scales and emotional functioning, the result was from regular to satisfactory. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue, lack of appetite and pain. There is a need of structure of public health policies, for preventing cervical cancer in the most vulnerable population.

  3. Cancer mortality trends in Brazilian state capitals and other municipalities between 1980 and 2006.

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    Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Gamarra, Carmen Justina; Girianelli, Vania Reis; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the corrected trend of overall cancer mortality and leading sites in the state capitals and other municipalities of Brazil between 1980 and 2006. Data on deaths (n = 2,585,012) caused by cancer between 1980 and 2006 were obtained from Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (Mortality Information System), and demographic data were provided by Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). The rates of overall cancer mortality and major types were corrected by proportionally redistributing 50% of ill-defined causes of death and standardizing them by age according to the standard world population. Trend curves for Brazil and its major regions were calculated for state capitals and other municipalities according to sex, and were evaluated by means of simple linear regression. Among men, ascending mortality rates were observed for lung, prostate and colorectal cancer; declining rates for stomach cancer; and stable rates for esophagus cancer. Among women, mortality from breast, lung and colorectal cancer increased, and the rates for cervical and stomach cancer declined. Mortality evolution varied across the regions of Brazil, with distinct patterns between state capitals and other municipalities. The correction of mortality rates based on redistribution of ill-defined causes of death increased the magnitude of the overall cancer mortality in Brazil by approximately 10% in 1980 and 5% in 2006. In the inland municipalities no decrease or stability was identified, differently from what was observed in the state capitals. Limited scope of prevention actions and lower access to services of cancer diagnosis and treatment for the population living away from large urban centers may partly explain these differences.

  4. The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SH; Zali, MR; Raoufi, M; Nadji, M; Kowsarian, P; Nowroozi, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: The human papiloma virus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted, and most commonly causes genital warts, has been linked to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma. Of ninety plus types of HPV, HPV-16 is the most prevalent in cervical cancer, followed by HPV-18, and HPV-33. As HPV's implication has not been assessed in the Middle East the main focus of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of HPV -16,18, and 33 in cases of cervical cancer from Iran. Material and Methods: This retrospective study covered 100 patients with uterine cervical carcinomas who were referred to two referral centers for cancer in Tehran-Iran. Pathological blocks were collected for these cases and initial review of the blocks showed poor specimens in 18 cases, which left 82 cases for the study. These samples were histologically examined to verify the presence and the type of carcinoma. The next step was in situ hybridzation for the detection of HPV common DNA. In Situ hybridization was preformed on all samples. Finally, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was preformed for the HPV types 16, 18, and 33. PCR amplification of exon 5 of the p53 gene was used as an internal control for the integrity of DNA. Takara PCR Human papilloma Detection method was used which includes primer for HPV 16, 18, and 33. Three primers were used alone, or in combination, in order to increase the sensitivity of the detection. Results: The majority of tumors were squamous cell carcinomas (87%). The rest were adenosquamous carcinoma and adenocarcinomas. None of the 82 different cervical carcinoma tissue samples were found to be positive by in situ hybridization. In the PCR samples, amplification of DNA was observed for 69 tumor specimens. In the remainning13 cases, the DNA in fixed tissue was degraded, as verified by the absence of an internal control band (p53). Out of the total 69 tumors (85.5%) with adequate DNA contained HPV band on PCR. The majority (73.9%) of HPV

  5. Stanniocalcin 2 promotes cell proliferation and cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuxia; Gao, Ying; Cheng, Hairong; Yang, Guichun [Department of Gynecology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150081 (China); Tan, Wenhua, E-mail: tanwenhua1962@163.com [Department of Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150086 (China)

    2015-10-23

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common carcinomas in the female reproductive system. Treatment of cervical cancer involves surgical removal and chemotherapy. Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy drugs including cisplatin has increasingly become an important problem in the treatment of cervical cancer patients. We found in this study that stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) expression was upregulated in both cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. The levels of STC2 expression in cervical cancer cell lines were positively correlated with the rate of cell proliferation. Furthermore, in cisplatin resistant cervical cancer cells, the levels of STC2 expression were significantly elevated. Modulation of STC2 expression by siRNA or overexpression in cisplatin resistant cells resulted in altered cell survival, apoptosis, and cisplatin resistance. Finally, we found that there was significant difference in the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway between cisplatin sensitive and resistant cervical cancer cells, and that STC2 could regulate the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • STC2 was upregulated in cervical cancer and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation. • Cisplatin resistant cells had elevated STC2 levels and enhanced proliferation. • STC2 regulated cisplatin chemosensitivity in cervical cancer cells. • STC2 regulated the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway.

  6. Stanniocalcin 2 promotes cell proliferation and cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuxia; Gao, Ying; Cheng, Hairong; Yang, Guichun; Tan, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common carcinomas in the female reproductive system. Treatment of cervical cancer involves surgical removal and chemotherapy. Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy drugs including cisplatin has increasingly become an important problem in the treatment of cervical cancer patients. We found in this study that stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) expression was upregulated in both cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. The levels of STC2 expression in cervical cancer cell lines were positively correlated with the rate of cell proliferation. Furthermore, in cisplatin resistant cervical cancer cells, the levels of STC2 expression were significantly elevated. Modulation of STC2 expression by siRNA or overexpression in cisplatin resistant cells resulted in altered cell survival, apoptosis, and cisplatin resistance. Finally, we found that there was significant difference in the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway between cisplatin sensitive and resistant cervical cancer cells, and that STC2 could regulate the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • STC2 was upregulated in cervical cancer and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation. • Cisplatin resistant cells had elevated STC2 levels and enhanced proliferation. • STC2 regulated cisplatin chemosensitivity in cervical cancer cells. • STC2 regulated the activity of the MAPK signaling pathway.

  7. The effects of age on treatment and outcomes in women with stages IB1-IIB cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Dario R; Cronin, Beth; Robison, Katina; Lopes, Vrishali; Rizack, Tina; Dizon, Don S

    2013-10-01

    Age may affect the treatment choice and subsequent outcome in elderly patients with cervical cancer. Given the potential for cure with either surgery or chemoradiation in early stage disease, we aimed to determine whether a patient's age influenced treatment received and the ensuing outcome. We identified 303 patients with stages IB1-IIB cervical carcinoma treated at our institution between 2000 and 2010, who were divided into two groups based on age at time of diagnosis: stage at presentation, and grade. Women ≥ 65 years of age were less likely to receive primary surgical management (p=0.03). Age did not influence disease-specific or all-cause mortality. However, women over 65 years who underwent primary surgery were at significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to younger women (HR 6.53, 95% CI: 2.57-16.6). Age appears to influence treatment received by patients with stages IB1-IIB cervical cancer. Although there was no difference in cancer-specific mortality stratified by type of treatment received, surgery was associated with a 6.5-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality among women 65 years or over. © 2013.

  8. Sexual Function in Cervical Cancer Survivors after Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

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    Dhiraj Daga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated sexual function in cervical cancer survivors after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods: Study participants comprised survivors of locally advanced cervical cancer (stages IIB-IVA who completed concurrent chemoradiotherapy along with intracavitary brachytherapy at least two years prior at Dr S.N.Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. We used the Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire to assess sexual function. The cut-off score of the Female Sexual Function Index that identified female sexual arousal disorder was 26.55. A score less than 26.55 indicated the presence of female sexual arousal disorder. Results:A total of 48 locally advanced cervical cancer survivors enrolled in the study. Survivors had a mean age of 46.5 years. All received chemoradiotherapy along with intracavitary brachytherapy. The average time for treatment was 53.5 days. Patients had an average score for sexual desire of 2, 2.3 for arousal, 2.3 for sexual satisfaction, and 2.1 for pain during intercourse. The overall average score was 11.84 (range: 3.2-19.5 with a cut-off of 26.55. All survivors suffered from female sexual arousal disorder. Conclusion: Cervical cancer survivors had decreased sexual function which indicated female sexual arousal disorder. Patient education and active treatment of complications related to cancer treatments is a must for improvement of sexual function among survivors. Long-term complications should be considered in terms of treatment planning and follow-up treatment to improve the quality of life of cancer survivors.

  9. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert

    2008-01-01

    The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands...... developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per...

  10. Do women in rural areas of Serbia rarely apply preventive measures against cervical cancer?

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    Antić Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The incidence of cervical cancer in Central Serbia has the higher rate as compared with that in other European countries. Considering mortality rate for cervical cancer, the standardized rate in Serbia is 10.1 per 10,000 females, which is the second highest one after that in Romania with 13.0. The aim of this study was to examine application of preventive measures for cervical cancer in women both from rural and urban areas in Serbia and if they are associated with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviour. Methods. We analyzed secondary data of the 2006 National Health Survey of the population of Serbia focused on characteristics of adult females aged 25 to 65 years (5.314 in total taking into consideration that programme of the organized screening will include female population aged over 25 years. Results. Respondents from rural areas have gynecological examination less than once a year in comparison with those from urban areas (OR = 0.60, 95% Cl 0.54-0.68. Less women from rural areas did Pap test during the last 12 months in comparison with respondents from urban areas (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.48- 0.64. Respondents from urban areas less often do the Pap test on doctor's advice in comparison with those from rural one (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.42-0.62. Conclusion. This study shows that women in rural areas rarely implement preventive gynecological measures againt cervical cancer in comparison with those in urban areas. Implementation of preventive measures among rural women is conditioned by lower levels of education and lower socioeconomic status. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025

  11. Biologia molecular do câncer cervical Molecular biology of cervical cancer

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    Waldemar Augusto Rivoire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A carcinogênese é um processo de múltiplas etapas. Alterações no equilíbrio citogenético ocorrem na transformação do epitélio normal a câncer cervical. Numerosos estudos apoiam a hipótese de que a infecção por HPV está associada com o desenvolvimento de alterações malignas e pré-malignas do trato genital inferior. Neste trabalho são apresentadas as bases para a compreensão da oncogênese cervical. O ciclo celular é controlado por proto-oncogenes e genes supressores. Quando ocorrem mutações, proto-oncogenes tornam-se oncogenes, que são carcinogênicos e causam multiplicação celular excessiva. A perda da ação de genes supressores funcionais pode levar a célula ao crescimento inadequado. O ciclo celular também pode ser alterado pela ação de vírus, entre eles o HPV (Human Papiloma Virus, de especial interesse na oncogênese cervical. Os tipos de HPV 16 e 18 são os de maior interesse, freqüentemente associados a câncer cervical e anal. O conhecimento das bases moleculares que estão envolvidas na oncogênese cervical tem sido possível devido a utilização de técnicas avançadas de biologia molecular. A associação destas técnicas aos métodos diagnósticos clássicos, poderão levar a uma melhor avaliação das neoplasias cervicais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento de novas terapias, talvez menos invasivas e mais efetivas.Carcinogenesis involves several steps. Disorders of the cytogenetic balance occur during the evolution from normal epithelium to cervical cancer. Several studies support the hypothesis that the Human Papiloma Virus (HPV infection is associated to development of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical cancer. In this review we show the basis to understand cervical oncogenesis. The cell cycle is controlled by protooncogenes and supressive genes. This orchestrated cell cycle can be affected by virus such as HPV. Of special interest in the cervical carcinogenesis are the HPV subtypes 16 and 18

  12. The underlying cause of cervical cancer in oral contraceptive users may be related to cervical mucus changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Suleyman; Kart, Cavit; Guvendag Guven, Emine Seda; Gunalp, G Serdar

    2007-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) remain among the most effective reversible methods of birth control available today, providing almost 100% effectiveness with an impressively high margin of safety and other important health benefits. However, concerns have been raised about the role that the hormones in OCs might play in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Evidence shows that long-term use of OCs (five or more years) may be associated with an increased risk of cancer of the cervix. The mechanism of increased risk of cervical cancer in OCs users has long been debated, and remains uncertain. Our hypothesis is that scanty, thick, and highly viscous cervical mucus obtained in OCs users intimately involved in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Possibly, this architecture of cervical mucus may modulate and prolong the effect of carcinogenic agents, which have been carried by coitus and stored in posterior vaginal fornix, on squamocolumnar junction of cervix by not permitting them to be removed because of its highly viscous pattern. The role of cervical mucus changes by means of specific mucin protein changes on the pathophysiology of cervical cancer in OCs users should be investigated.

  13. Impact of opportunistic testing in a systematic cervical cancer screening program: a nationwide registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, Mette; Larsen, Mette Bach; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Svanholm, Hans; Andersen, Berit

    2015-07-21

    Systematic screening for precancerous cervical lesions has resulted in decreased incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. However, even in systematic screening programs, many women are still tested opportunistically. This study aimed to determine the spread of opportunistic testing in a systematic cervical cancer screening program, the impact of opportunistic testing in terms of detecting cytological abnormalities and examine the associations between sociodemography and opportunistic testing. A nationwide registry study was undertaken including women aged 23-49 years (n = 807,624) with a cervical cytology between 2010 and 2013. The women were categorised into: 1) screening after invitation; 2) routine opportunistic testing, if they were either tested more than 9 months after the latest invitation or between 2.5 years and 3 years after the latest cervical cytology and 3) sporadic opportunistic testing, if they were tested less than 2.5 years after the latest cervical cytology. Cytological diagnoses of women in each of the categories were identified and prevalence proportion differences (PPD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to explore group differences. Associations between sociodemography and undergoing opportunistic testing were established by multinomial logistic regression. In total, 28.8% of the cervical cytologies were due to either routine (20.7%) or sporadic (8.1%) opportunistic testing. Among women undergoing routine opportunistic testing, a larger proportion had high-grade squamous intraepithelial abnormalities than invited women (PPD: 0.6%, 95 % CI: 0.03-1.17%). A similar proportion of cytological abnormalities among women undergoing sporadic opportunistic testing and invited women was found. In multivariate analyses, younger age, being single or a social welfare recipient and residence region (North Denmark) were especially associated with opportunistic testing (routine or sporadic). One fourth of cervical cytologies in this study were

  14. Low dose irradiation reduces cancer mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation stimulate development, growth, memory, sensual acuity, fecundity, and immunity (Luckey, T.D., ''Radiation Hormesis'', CRC Press, 1991). Increased immune competence reduces cancer mortality rates and provides increased average lifespan in animals. Decreased cancer mortality rates in atom bomb victims who received low dose irradiation makes it desirable to examine populations exposed to low dose irradiation. Studies with over 300,000 workers and 7 million person-years provide a valid comparison of radiation exposed and control unclear workers (Luckey, T.D., Nurture with Ionizing Radiation, Nutrition and Cancer, 34:1-11, 1999). Careful selection of controls eliminated any ''healthy worker effect''. The person-year corrected average indicated the cancer mortality rate of exposed workers was only 51% that of control workers. Lung cancer mortality rates showed a highly significant negative correlation with radon concentrations in 272,000 U.S. homes (Cohen, B.L., Health Physics 68:157-174, 1995). In contrast, radon concentrations showed no effect on lung cancer rates in miners from different countries (Lubin, J.H. Am. J. Epidemiology 140:323-332, 1994). This provides evidence that excessive lung cancer in miners is caused by particulates (the major factor) or toxic gases. The relative risk for cancer mortality was 3.7% in 10,000 Taiwanese exposed to low level of radiation from 60 Co in their steel supported homes (Luan, Y.C. et al., Am. Nuclear Soc. Trans. Boston, 1999). This remarkable finding needs further study. A major mechanism for reduced cancer mortality rates is increased immune competence; this includes both cell and humoral components. Low dose irradiation increases circulating lymphocytes. Macrophage and ''natural killer'' cells can destroy altered (cancer) cells before the mass becomes too large. Low dose irradiation also kills suppressor T-cells; this allows helper T-cells to activate killer cells and antibody producing cells

  15. Early detection of cervical cancer with visual inspection methods: a summary of completed and on-going studies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Nene, B M; Dinshaw, K; Rajkumar, R; Shastri, S; Wesley, R; Basu, P; Sharma, R; Thara, S; Budukh, A; Parkin, D M

    2003-01-01

    India is a high-risk country for cervical cancer which accounts a quarter (126,000 new cases, 71,000 deaths around 2,000) of the world burden. The age-standardized incidence rates range from 16-55 per 100,000 women in different regions with particularly high rates in rural areas. Control of cervical cancer by early detection and treatment is a priority of the National Cancer Control Programme of India. There are no organized cytology screening programmes in the country. The technical and financial constraints to organize cytology screening have encouraged the evaluation of visual inspection approaches as potential alternatives to cervical cytology in India. Four types of visual detection approaches for cervical neoplasia are investigated in India: a) naked eye inspection without acetic acid application, widely known as 'downstaging'; b) naked eye inspection after application of 3-5% acetic acid (VIA); c) VIA using magnification devices (VIAM); d) visual inspection after the application of Lugol's iodine (VILI). Downstaging has been shown to be poorly sensitive and specific to detect cervical neoplasia and is no longer considered as a suitable screening test for cervical cancer. VIA, VIAM and VILI are currently being investigated in multicentre cross-sectional studies (without verification bias), in which cytology and HPV testing are also simultaneously evaluated, and the results of these investigations will be available in 2003. These studies will provide valuable information on the average, comparative test performances in detecting high-grade cervical cancer precursors and cancer. Results from pooled analysis of data from two completed studies indicated an approximate sensitivity of 93.4% and specificity of 85.1% for VIA to detect CIN 2 or worse lesions; the corresponding figures for cytology were 72.1% and 91.6%. The efficacy of VIA in reducing incidence of an mortality from cervical cancer and its cost-effectiveness is currently being investigated in two

  16. Early detection of cervical cancer with visual inspection methods: a summary of completed and on-going studies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaranarayanan R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available India is a high-risk country for cervical cancer which accounts a quarter (126 000 new cases, 71 000 deaths around 2 000 of the world burden. The age-standardized incidence rates range from 16-55 per 100 000 women in different regions with particularly high rates in rural areas. Control of cervical cancer by early detection and treatment is a priority of the National Cancer Control Programme of India. There are no organized cytology screening programmes in the country. The technical and financial constraints to organize cytology screening have encouraged the evaluation of visual inspection approaches as potential alternatives to cervical cytology in India. Four types of visual detection approaches for cervical neoplasia are investigated in India: a naked eye inspection without acetic acid application, widely known as 'downstaging'; b naked eye inspection after application of 3-5% acetic acid (VIA; c VIA using magnification devices (VIAM; d visual inspection after the application of Lugol's iodine (VILI. Downstaging has been shown to be poorly sensitive and specific to detect cervical neoplasia and is no longer considered as a suitable screening test for cervical cancer. VIA, VIAM and VILI are currently being investigated in multicentre cross-sectional studies (without verification bias, in which cytology and HPV testing are also simultaneously evaluated, and the results of these investigations will be available in 2003. These studies will provide valuable information on the average, comparative test performances in detecting high-grade cervical cancer precursors and cancer. Results from pooled analysis of data from two completed studies indicated an approximate sensitivity of 93.4% and specificity of 85.1% for VIA to detect CIN 2 or worse lesions; the corresponding figures for cytology were 72.1% and 91.6%. The efficacy of VIA in reducing incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer and its cost-effectiveness is currently being investigated

  17. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  18. Aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical Epidemiological aspects of cervical cancer

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    Antonio Aleixo Neto

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi efetuada revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical, um dos mais freqüentes em mulheres de países em desenvolvimento. No Brasil a incidência varia de 23,7/100.000, em Porto Alegre, a 83,2/100.000, em Recife. Nos Estados Unidos a incidência em 1978 foi de 6,8/100.000 entre as mulheres brancas e de 14,7/100.000 entre as negras. Várias observações sugerem a hipótese de que o câncer cervical esteja relacionado com algum aspecto da atividade sexual, possivelmente algum agente transmitido por via venérea. As evidências têm implicado o papilomavirus humano (HPV como o principal agente etiológico deste câncer. Vários trabalhos foram analisados quanto à validade desta hipótese etiológica, mostrando que há uma relação entre HPV e o câncer cervical. Foram analisados os fatores de risco mais conhecidos, tais como o comportamento sexual, o tabagismo e a contracepção, diante das várias possibilidades etiológicas existentes.A review concerning the epidemiological issues relating to cervical cancer, one of the most frequent in the women of developing countries, was undertaken in - Brazil, the incidence rate varies from 23.7/100,000 in Porto Alegre to 83.2/100,000 in Recife. In the United States, the 1978 incidence rate was 6.8/100,000 in white women and 14.7/100,000 among black women. Several studies have suggested the hypotheses that cervical cancer could be related to some venereal agent. The evidences have shown the human papillomavirus (HPV to be the main etiological agent. Several studies on the validity of such a hypotheses were realyzed and it became clear that there does infact exist a relationship between the HPV and cervical cancer. Finally, the better known risk factors, such as sexual behaviour, smoking and the contraception were studied in the light of the various etiological hypotheses.

  19. Multiple neoplasms among cervical cancer patients in the material of the lower Silesian cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmajłowicz, Barbara; Kornafel, Jan; Błaszczyk, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    According to the definition by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), primary multiple neoplasms are two or more neoplasms of different histopathological build in one organ, or two or more tumors occurring in one patient, regardless of the time of their occurrence (synchronic - up to 6 months, metachronous - after 6 months), coming from an organ or a tissue and not being an infiltration from another neoplasm, a relapse or a metastasis. It was the aim of the study to analyze the frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasms among patients suffering from uterine cervix cancer, with a special interest in coexistent neoplasms, the time of their occurrence and total 5-year survivals. The data from the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry concerning the years 1984-2009 formed the material of the present study. 5.3% of all cervix neoplasms occurred as multiple cancers. Cervix neoplasms were 13.4% of multiple neoplasms. On average, cervical cancer occurred as a subsequent cancer in 6 patients yearly (60.7% of the occurrences of cervical cancer were in the period of 5 years following treatment for the first neoplasm). 5-year survival in patients suffering from primarily multiple cervix neoplasms constituted 57% and was convergent with the results for all patients suffering from cervical cancer. Cervical cancer as the first neoplasm occurred in 287 patients, on average in 11 patients annually. In the period of the first 5 years after the treatment of cervical cancer, there were 42.8% occurrences of other cancers. Cervical neoplasms most frequently coexisted with cancers of the breast, lung and large intestine. The frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasm among cervical cancer patients is increasing. Most frequently they coexist with other tobacco-related neoplasms, those related to HPV infections and with secondary post-radiation neoplasms. These facts should be taken into consideration during post-treatment observation and when directing diagnostic

  20. Violence against women and cervical cancer screening: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Franciéle Marabotti Costa; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Primo, Cândida Caniçali; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2017-08-01

    To present a systematic review of papers published on the relationship between violence against women and cervical cancer screening. Violence against women is a serious public health problem. This phenomenon can have negative effects on victims' health and affect the frequency at which they receive cervical cancer screening. A systematic literature review. This study was carried out in October 2015 with searches of the Lilacs, PubMed and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: violence, domestic violence, battered women, spouse abuse, Papanicolaou test, vaginal smears, early detection of cancer and cervix uteri. Eight papers published between 2002-2013 were included in this review, most of which were cross-sectional studies. Three studies found no association between victimisation and receiving Pap testing, and five studies reported an association. These contradictory results were due to higher or lower examination frequencies among the women who had experienced violence. The results of this study indicate that the association between violence against women and cervical cancer screening remains inconclusive, and they demonstrate the need for more detailed studies to help clarify this relationship. Professionals who aid women should be knowledgeable regarding the perception and detection of violence so that they can interrupt the cycle of aggression, which has harmful impacts on victims' health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.