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Sample records for cervical cancer metastasis

  1. Targeting SPARC by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis

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    Chen Jie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a calcium-binding matricellular glycoprotein, is implicated in the progressions of some cancers. However, no information has been available to date regarding the function of SPARC in cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis. Methods In this study, we isolated and established high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones from human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa by the limited dilution method. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were performed to investigate SPARC mRNA and protein expressions in high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones. Then lentivirus vector with SPARC shRNA was constructed and infected the highly invasive subclones. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were also performed to investigate the changes of SPARC expression after viral infection. In functional assays, effects of SPARC knockdown on the biological behaviors of cervical cancer cells were investigated. The mechanisms of SPARC in cervical cancer proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were also researched. Results SPARC was over-expressed in the highly invasive subclones compared with the low invasive subclones. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppressed cervical cancer cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/G0 phase through the p53/p21 pathway, also caused cell apoptosis accompanied by the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and inhibited cell invasion and metastasis accompanied by down-regulated MMP2 and MMP9 expressions and up-regulated E-cadherin expression. Conclusion SPARC is related to the invasive phenotype of cervical cancer cells. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis and inhibits cell invasion and metastasis. SPARC as a promoter improves cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis.

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent oral cancer and metastasis of cervical lymph node

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    Kimura, Y. [Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Division of Medicine for Function and Morphology of Sensory Organs, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi Takatsuki City, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: ora018@poh.osaka-med.ac.jp; Ariyoshi, Y.; Shimahara, M. [Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Division of Medicine for Function and Morphology of Sensory Organs, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi Takatsuki City, Osaka (Japan); Miyatake, S.; Kawabata, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Surgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi Takatsuki City, Osaka (Japan); Ono, K.; Suzuki, M. [Particle Radiation Oncology Research Center, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka (Japan); Maruhashi, A. [Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Life Sciences, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    We treated 6 patients with recurrent oral cancer and metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes after conventional treatments in 5 and non-conventional in 1 using BNCT, and herein report our results. The clinical response in our patients ranged from CR to PD. In 5 cases, spontaneous pain decreased immediately after BNCT. Three of the 6 are alive at the time of writing and we found that BNCT contributed to QOL improvement in all.

  3. NR2F6 Expression Correlates with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

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    Chunhao Niu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an abnormal expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 6 (NR2F6 in human cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, its clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been established. We explored NR2F6 expression and its clinicopathological significance in early-stage cervical cancer. Methods: NR2F6 expression in cervical cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissues was determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunochemistry (IHC. NR2F6 expression in 189 human early-stage cervical cancer tissue samples was evaluated using IHC. The relevance between NR2F6 expression and early-stage cervical cancer prognosis and clinicopathological features was determined. Results: There was marked NR2F6 mRNA and protein overexpression in the cervical cancer cells and clinical tissues compared with an immortalized squamous cell line and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues, respectively. In the 189 cervical cancer samples, NR2F6 expression was positively related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage (p = 0.006, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (p = 0.006, vital status (p < 0.001, tumor recurrence (p = 0.001, chemotherapy (p = 0.039, and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001. Overall and disease-free survival was shorter in patients with early-stage cervical cancer and higher NR2F6 levels than in patients with lower levels of NR2F6. Univariate and multivariate analysis determined that NR2F6 was an independent prognostic factor of survival in early-stage cervical cancer. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings suggest that high NR2F6 expression predicts pelvic lymph node metastasis, tumor recurrence and poor prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer. NR2F6 might be a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target of cervical cancer.

  4. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 10 suppresses cervical cancer metastasis through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 expression.

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    Song, Chenlin; Zhu, Songcheng; Wu, Chuanyue; Kang, Jiuhong

    2013-09-27

    Aberrant expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is associated with carcinogenesis. Some HDAC inhibitors are widely considered as promising anticancer therapeutics. A major obstacle for development of HDAC inhibitors as highly safe and effective anticancer therapeutics is that our current knowledge on the contributions of different HDACs in various cancer types remains scant. Here we report that the expression level of HDAC10 was significantly lower in patients exhibiting lymph node metastasis compared with that in patients lacking lymph node metastasis in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Forced expression of HDAC10 in cervical cancer cells significantly inhibited cell motility and invasiveness in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, HDAC10 suppresses expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 genes, which are known to be critical for cancer cell invasion and metastasis. At the molecular level, HDAC10 binds to MMP2 and -9 promoter regions, reduces the histone acetylation level, and inhibits the binding of RNA polymerase II to these regions. Furthermore, an HDAC10 mutant lacking histone deacetylase activity failed to mimic the functions of full-length protein. These results identify a critical role of HDAC10 in suppression of cervical cancer metastasis, underscoring the importance of developing isoform-specific HDAC inhibitors for treatment of certain cancer types such as cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Characterization of metastasis formation and virotherapy in the human C33A cervical cancer model.

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    Ulrike Donat

    Full Text Available More than 90% of cancer mortalities are due to cancer that has metastasized. Therefore, it is crucial to intensify research on metastasis formation and therapy. Here, we describe for the first time the metastasizing ability of the human cervical cancer cell line C33A in athymic nude mice after subcutaneous implantation of tumor cells. In this model, we demonstrated a steady progression of lumbar and renal lymph node metastases during tumor development. Besides predominantly occurring lymphatic metastases, we visualized the formation of hematogenous metastases utilizing red fluorescent protein (RFP expressing C33A-RFP cells. RFP positive cancer cells were found migrating in blood vessels and forming micrometastases in lungs of tumor-bearing mice. Next, we set out to analyze the influence of oncolytic virotherapy in the C33A-RFP model and demonstrated an efficient virus-mediated reduction of tumor size and metastatic burden. These results suggest the C33A-RFP cervical cancer model as a new platform to analyze cancer metastases as well as to test novel treatment options to combat metastases.

  6. Effects of Curcumin on Invasion and Metastasis in the Human Cervical Cancer Cells Caski

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang XU; Xiao-ling MU; Jing ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of curcumin on invasion and metastasis in the human cervical cancer cells Caski.Methods: Caski cells were treated with 10, 25, 50μmol/L curcumin for 24, 48, 72 h. Proliferation of Caski cells was measured with MTT assay. When treated with 50μmol/L curcumin for 72 h, the expressions of MMP-2, MT1-MMP and NF-κB of cells were detected by Western-blot, and invasion and metastasis of Caski cells were evaluated with transwell chamber.Results: After being treated with 10μmol/L, 25μmol/L, 50μmol/L curcumin for 24, 48 and 72 h, the proliferation of Caski cells was inhibited in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The expression of MMP-2, MT1-MMP and NF-κB were decreased when being treated with 50μmol/L curcumin for 72 h. After treatment with 50μmol/L curcumin, in invasion assay, the number of cells in curcumin treated group to migrate to filter coated with Matrigel was reduced compared with control group(P<0.05). Meanwhile, in migration assay, the number of cells in curcumin treated group to migrate to filter was also decreased compared with control group (P<0.05).Conclusion: Curcumin could affect the invasion and metastasis of the human cervical cancer cells Caski. Inhibiting the expression of MMP-2, MT1-MMP and NF-κB was probably one of its molecular mechanisms.

  7. Correlation between tumor size and surveillance of lymph node metastasis for IB and IIA cervical cancer by magnetic resonance images

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    Kim, See Hyung, E-mail: kseehdr@dsmc.or.kr [Keimyung University, Dongsan Hospital, Department of Radiology Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital, 216 Dalsungro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee Jung, E-mail: hjlee@dsmc.or.kr [Keimyung University, Dongsan Hospital, Department of Radiology Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital, 216 Dalsungro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Whan, E-mail: yhkim68@dsmc.or.kr [Keimyung University, Dongsan Hospital, Department of Radiology Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital, 216 Dalsungro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of preoperative MRI based measurement of tumor size with regard to lymph node (LN) metastasis in early uterine cervical cancer. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of patients with FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer who underwent lymphadenectomy was performed. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI in detecting LN metastasis and rate of LN recurrence in terms of tumor size ({<=}4 cm versus >4 cm) were analyzed. ROC curve analysis was used to determine LN size for differentiating LN metastasis in terms of tumor size. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 200 patients, 45 (22.3%) had LN metastasis. There was no statistical difference between patients-based and region-specific analysis. The patients with tumor size with >4 cm revealed higher diagnostic accuracy of MRI in detecting LN metastasis (85.4% versus 50.6%, P = 0.023) and rate of LN recurrence (20.0% versus 6.4%, P = 0.031) in than those with size with {<=}4 cm, the differences were statistically significant. Discriminant analysis of LN size for the differentiation of metastasis from non-metastasis resulted in cut-off values (11.8 mm; size with >4 cm versus 8.3 mm; size with {<=}4 cm) and diagnostic accuracy (84.0% of size with >4 cm versus 72.0% of size with {<=}4 cm). Conclusion: MRI has limited sensitivity, but high specificity in predicting surveillance of LN metastasis in the preoperative early cervical cancer, especially useful tool for patients with tumor size with >4 cm.

  8. Tumor size interpretation for predicting cervical lymph node metastasis using a differentiated thyroid cancer risk model

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    Shi, Rong-liang; Qu, Ning; Yang, Shu-wen; Ma, Ben; Lu, Zhong-wu; Wen, Duo; Sun, Guo-hua; Wang, Yu; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is common in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), but management of clinically negative DTC is controversial. This study evaluated primary tumor size as a predictor of LNM. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for DTC patients who were treated with surgery between 2002 and 2012 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, to determine the association of tumor size at 10 mm increments with LNM. A predictive model was then developed to estimate the risk of LNM in DTC, using tumor size and other clinicopathological characteristics identified from the multivariate analysis. We identified 80,565 eligible patients with DTC in the SEER database. Final histology confirmed 9,896 (12.3%) cases affected with N1a disease and 8,194 (10.2%) cases with N1b disease. After the patients were classified into subgroups by tumor size, we found that the percentages of male sex, white race, follicular histology, gross extrathyroidal extension, lateral lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis gradually increased with size. In multivariate analysis, tumor size was a significant independent prognostic factor for LNM; in particular, the odds ratio for lateral lymph node metastasis continued to increase by size relative to a 1–10 mm baseline. The coefficient for tumor size in the LNM predictive model waŝ0.20, indicating extra change in log(odds ratio) for LNM as 0.2 per unit increment in size relative to baseline. In conclusion, larger tumors are likely to have aggressive features and metastasize to a cervical compartment. Multistratification by size could provide more precise estimates of the likelihood of LNM before surgery. PMID:27574443

  9. An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells.

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    Zhao, Xin; Pang, Liang; Qian, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yong; Wu, Mingyi; Ouyang, Zilan; Gao, Zhi; Qiu, Lihua

    2013-04-01

    The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as a cancer model for buccal mucosa cancer. Sixty male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups, a normal group (n=10) and a cancer-induced group (n=50). Each mouse in the cancer group was inoculated with 0.05 ml U14 cancer cell suspension (1×10(7)/ml) on the buccal mucosa. Histological staining and gene expression assays revealed that neck lymph node metastasis animal models were established. After 20 days, the cheek tumor formation rate of the ICR mice reached 100%. Furthermore, the neck lymph node metastasis rate was 53%. We identified that U14 cells produce strong metastasis in ICR mice. Metastasis of the tumor to the lymph node began with carcinoma metastasis encroaching on the marginal sinus. Then it infiltrated to the cortex and medulla and the infiltration continued until the normal lymph node structure was completely damaged. This animal model may be employed in medical research on buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that U14 cell-induced mouse buccal mucosa cancer may be a potential cancer model for human buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Berberine reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inhibits metastasis and tumor-induced angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells.

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    Chu, Shu-Chen; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Hsu, Li-Sung; Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Su, Mei-Yu; Chen, Pei-Ni

    2014-12-01

    Metastasis is the most common cause of cancer-related death in patients, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for cancer metastasis, which is a multistep complicated process that includes local invasion, intravasation, extravasation, and proliferation at distant sites. When cancer cells metastasize, angiogenesis is also required for metastatic dissemination, given that an increase in vascular density will allow easier access of tumor cells to circulation, and represents a rational target for therapeutic intervention. Berberine has several anti-inflammation and anticancer biologic effects. In this study, we provided molecular evidence that is associated with the antimetastatic effect of berberine by showing a nearly complete inhibition on invasion (P metalloproteinase-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Berberine reversed transforming growth factor-β1-induced EMT and caused upregulation of epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and inhibited mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin and snail-1. Selective snail-1 inhibition by snail-1-specific small interfering RNA also showed increased E-cadherin expression in SiHa cells. Berberine also reduced tumor-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, an in vivo BALB/c nude mice xenograft model and tail vein injection model showed that berberine treatment reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis by oral gavage, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggested that berberine could reduce metastasis and angiogenesis of cervical cancer cells, thereby constituting an adjuvant treatment of metastasis control.

  11. Cervical Cancer

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    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  12. E6/E7-P53-POU2F1-CTHRC1 axis promotes cervical cancer metastasis and activates Wnt/PCP pathway

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    Zhang, Rong; Lu, Huan; Lyu, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Xiao-mei; Zhu, Lin-yan; Yang, Guang-dong; Jiang, Peng-cheng; Re, Yuan; Song, Wei-wei; Wang, Jin-hao; Zhang, Can-can; Gu, Fei; Luo, Tian-jiao; Wu, Zhi-yong; Xu, Cong-jian

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an infectious cancer and the most common gynecologic cancer worldwide. E6/E7, the early genes of the high-risk mucosal human papillomavirus type, play key roles in the carcinogenic process of cervical cancer. However, little was known about its roles in modulating tumor microenvironment, particular extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we found that E6/E7 could regulate multiple ECM proteins, especially collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1). CTHRC1 is highly expressed in cervical cancer tissue and serum and closely correlated with clinicopathological parameters. CTHRC1 promotes cervical cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. E6/E7 regulates the expression of CTHRC1 in cervical cancer by E6/E7-p53-POU2F1 (POU class 2 homeobox 1) axis. Futhermore, CTHRC1 activates Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. Take together, E6/E7-p53-POU2F1-CTHRC1 axis promotes cervical cancer cell invasion and metastasis and may act as a potential therapeutic target for interventions against cervical cancer invasion and metastasis. PMID:28303973

  13. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  14. Clinical significance of overexpression of metastasis-associated gene MTA1 in cervical cancer and bioinformatic analysis of genes coordinately expressed with MTA1

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    Shu-ying FAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the clinical significance of MTA1 overexpression in cervical cancer and bioinformatically screen the potential treatment targets from the gene network correlated with MTA1 overexpression. Methods  SPSS software package was used to analyze the correlation of MTA1 with clinical metastasis and pathological grade of cervical cancer based on TCGA-CESC data set. The edgeR software was used to screen the gene set whose expression was correlated with MTA1 in cervical cancer at a global transcriptional level. DAVID platform was adopted to identify the enriched biological functions of the gene set significantly correlated with MTA1 expression. The transcriptional regulation network of the gene set was constructed with STRING online platform and Cytospace softwares to identify the key regulators. Results  TCGA-CESC database assay showed a significant positive correlation of MTA1 expression with clinical metastasis of cervical cancer (P<0.01. There was a gene set in which gene expression was closely correlated with MTA1 level. Functional enrichment of the gene set indicated that cancer pathways, stem cell pathways, cell migration, cell differentiation, etc. were closely linked to MTA1-correlated malignant behaviors of cancers. Bioinformatical screening showed that Agt, Acta1, Fpr2, Pmch and RGS18, which are correlated with MTA1 expression in cervical cancer, were the key regulators in differentially expressed gene sets. And these genes were located to the GPCR pathway. Conclusions  MTA1 overexpression is significantly correlated with clinical metastasis of cervical cancer and paralleled with the activation of gene regulation involved in stem cell pathway, cytokine receptor signaling, cell migration and differentiation pathways. These genes are correlated with MTA1 expression and potential treatment targets in cervical cancer and should be further experimentally evaluated in the future. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.05.03

  15. Diagnostic value of lymph node metastasis by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in cervical cancer

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    Xiang-Qin He

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The ADC values in CC tissues with LN metastasis were significantly lower than those without LN metastasis, suggesting that DWI appears to improve diagnostic performance and can be a useful adjunct imaging for identifying LN metastasis in CC patients.

  16. B3GNT3 Expression Is a Novel Marker Correlated with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Clinical Outcome in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer.

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    Weijing Zhang

    Full Text Available The β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-3 gene (B3GNT3 encodes a member of the B3GNT family that functions as the backbone structure of dimeric sialyl-Lewis A and is involved in L-selectin ligand biosynthesis, lymphocyte homing and lymphocyte trafficking. B3GNT3 has been implicated as an important element in the development of certain cancers. However, the characteristics of B3GNT3 in the development and progression of cancer remain largely unknown. Thus, our study aimed to investigate the expression pattern and the prognostic value of B3GNT3 in patients with early-stage cervical cancer.The mRNA and protein levels of B3GNT3 expression were examined in eight cervical cancer cell lines and ten paired cervical cancer tumors, using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was used to analyze B3GNT3 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 196 early-stage cervical cancer patients. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the association between B3GNT3 expression scores and clinical parameters, as well as patient survival.B3GNT3 expression was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines and lesions compared with normal cells and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues. In the 196 cases of tested early-stage cervical cancer samples, the B3GNT3 protein level was positively correlated with high risk TYPES of human papillomavirus (HPV infection (P = 0.026, FIGO stage (P < 0.001, tumor size (P = 0.025, tumor recurrence (P = 0.004, vital status (P < 0.001, concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (P = 0.016, lymphovascular space involvement (P = 0.003 and most importantly, lymph node metastasis (P = 0.003. Patients with high B3GNT3 expression had a shorter overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS compared with those with low expression of this protein. Multivariate analysis suggested that B3GNT3 expression is an independent prognostic indicator for cervical cancer patients.Our study

  17. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

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    2016-11-14

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

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    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  19. Atypical presentation of a cervical breast-cancer metastasis mimicking a dumbbell-shaped neurinoma

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    Christoph Kolja Boese

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The present case report and the reviewed literature point towards a growing clinical relevance of symptomatic LM in cancer patients and their possible atypical presentations and locations.

  20. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

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    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  1. Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis

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    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0412 TITLE: "Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis " PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yong Teng CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: REPORT...ng Prost a t e Cancer Metastasi s Sb. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH- 14- 1- 0 41 2 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER YongTeng Se...r egulator in contr olling metastasis of p r ost a t e cancer and i nhi b i t i ng i t prevent s met ast asis . There are no drugs available to tar

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening

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    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

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    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  4. First description of cervical intradural thymoma metastasis.

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    Marotta, Nicola; Mancarella, Cristina; Colistra, Davide; Landi, Alessandro; Dugoni, Demo Eugenio; Delfini, Roberto

    2015-11-16

    Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are rare epithelial tumors, which originate from the thymus gland. According to the World Health Organization there are "organotypic" (types A, AB, B1, B2, and B3) and "non-organotypic" (thymic carcinomas) thymomas. Type B3 thymomas are aggressive tumors, which can metastasize. Due to the rarity of these lesions, only 7 cases of extradural metastasis are described in the literature. We report the first and unique case of a man with cervical intradural B3 thymoma metastasis. A 46-year-old man underwent thymoma surgical removal. The year after the procedure he was treated for a parietal pleura metastasis. In 2006 he underwent cervical-dorsal extradural metastasis removal and C5-Th1 stabilization. Seven years after he came to our observation complaining left cervicobrachialgia and a reduction of strength of the left arm. He underwent a cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a new lesion at the C5-C7 level. The patient underwent a surgery for the intradural B3 thymoma metastasis. Neurological symptoms improved although the removal was subtotal. He went through postoperative radiation therapy with further mass reduction. Spinal metastases are extremely rare. To date, only 7 cases of spinal extradural metastasis have been described in the literature. This is the first case of spinal intradural metastasis. Early individuation of these tumors and surgical treatment improve neurological outcome in patients with spinal cord compression. A multimodal treatment including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and postoperative radiation therapy seems to improve survival in patients with metastatic thymoma.

  5. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...

  6. Cervical Cancer Screening

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    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  7. S100A8/A9 induces apoptosis and inhibits metastasis of CasKi human cervical cancer cells.

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    Qin, Fengjin; Song, Yao; Li, Zijian; Zhao, Ling; Zhang, Youyi; Geng, Li

    2010-09-01

    S100 proteins, a family of Ca(2+)-binding proteins, have been linked to several human diseases in recent years. Deregulated expression of S100 proteins, including S100A9 and its partner S100A8, was reported to be associated with neoplastic disorders. In our previous study using serial analysis of gene expression, we identified decreased expressions of S100A9 and S100A8 in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma. To investigate the functions of S100A8 and S100A9 in cervical cancer, we purified recombinant S100A8 and S100A9 proteins and treated CaSki human cervical cancer cells with these proteins. We found that S100A8/A9 induced apoptosis and inhibited migration of CaSki cells; S100A8/A9 also reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in CaSki cells. In summary, this study suggests that S100A8 and S100A9 have inhibitory effects on the proliferation of CaSki carcinoma cells by inducing cell apoptosis and on the invasiveness of CaSki cells.

  8. [Biology of cancer metastasis].

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    Robert, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Metastatic dissemination represents the true cause of the malignant character of cancers. Its targeting is much more difficult than that of cell proliferation, because metastasis, like angiogenesis, involves a number of complex interactions between tumour and stroma; the contribution of adhesion and motility pathways is added to that of proliferation and survival pathways. Long distance extension, discontinuous in respect to the primitive tumour, is a major feature of cancer and the main cause of patients' death. Cancer cells use two main dissemination pathways: the lymphatic pathway, leading to the invasion of the lymph nodes draining the organs where the tumour evolves; and the blood pathway, leading to the invasion of distant organs such as liver, brain, bone or lung. Metastasis is inscribed within the properties of the primitive tumour, as shown by the comparative molecular analysis of the primitive tumour and its own metastases: their similarity is always more important than what could be expected from the general activation of "metastasis genes" or the inhibition of "metastasis suppressor genes". Among the signalling pathways involved in metastasis, one can mention the integrin pathway, the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathway, the chemokine pathway, the dependence receptor pathway and many others. These pathways allow the possibility of therapeutic targeting, thanks to therapeutic antibodies or small molecules inhibiting the kinases involved in these signalling pathways, but not a single properly anti-metastatic drug has yet been proposed: the complexity and the diversity of the processes allowing metastasis emergence, as well as the fact that the activation mechanisms are more often epigenetic than genetic and are generally physiological processes misled by the malignant cell, render especially difficult the therapeutic approach of metastasis.

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

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    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  10. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

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    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  11. The epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in relation to pelvic lymph node metastasis and survival in early-stage cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsink, J.J.; Noordhuis, M.G.; Ten Hoor, K.A.; Kok, M.; Hollema, H.; de Bock, G.H.; Nijman, H.W.; Schuuring, E.; Wisman, G.B.; van der Zee, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to correlate the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) components with clinical behavior of early-stage cervical cancer Tissue samples of 336 consecutive Federation of International Gynecologists and Obstetricians stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients a

  12. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal, and vulvar cancers. It is recommended for preteens (both boys and girls) aged 11 to 12 ... index. • D on’t smoke. • Use condoms during sex. * • Limit your number of sexual partners. * HPV infection ...

  13. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other things may increase the risk of developing cancer following a high-risk HPV infection. These other things include: Smoking Having HIV or reduced immunity Taking birth control pills for a long time ( ...

  14. Clinical analysis of cervical cancer with skin metastasis in 5 patients%宫颈癌皮肤转移5例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    那仁花; 张云霞; 古丽娜·库尔班

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨宫颈癌皮肤转移患者的临床特点、诊治过程及预后。方法我院自2006年6月至2011年6月共收治宫颈癌患者574例,其中5例确诊为宫颈癌皮肤转移。收集该5例患者的临床、病理及随访资料,并分析其临床特点、诊治过程及预后。结果宫颈癌皮肤转移的发生率为087%(5/574),均为宫颈癌ⅡA~ⅢB 期患者。其中,4例在确诊宫颈癌并完成治疗后的随访过程中发现皮肤转移;1例为初治患者,入院后1个月发现逐渐增大的皮肤结节,手术切除后确诊为皮肤转移。 4例患者合并肺部、骨骼等其他部位的转移。 4例患者行手术完整切除皮肤病灶,术后1例因合并有多发骨转移且骨痛明显接受核素治疗,1例行全身化疗,2例仅接受对症支持治疗。 1例患者因头皮转移病灶向内侵犯颅骨,无法行手术切除,行穿刺检查诊断转移后接受调强适形放疗。随访中3例患者死亡,另 2例诊断宫颈癌皮肤转移分别为3个月、5个月,仍存活。结论宫颈癌皮肤转移发生率低,通常合并有其他脏器的转移,治疗较困难,预后较差。%Objective To explore the clinical features, treatment and prognosis of cervical cancer patients with skin metasta⁃sis. Methods From June 2006 to June 2011, 574 cervical cancer patients were treated in our hospital, in which 5 cases was diag⁃nosed as cervical cancer with skin metastasis. The clinical, pathological and follow⁃up data of 5 patients were collected and their clini⁃cal features, treatment and prognosis were analyzed. Results The incidence rate of cervical cancer with skin metastasis was 0 87%(5/ 574), with stage ⅡA to ⅢB. Among them, 4 cases were diagnosed during the follow⁃up of cervical cancer. One patient was diag⁃nosed after resection in her first hospitalization. There were 4 patients with pulmonary, skeletal and other sites of metastasis. Four patients skin

  15. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Wu, Xiaohua; Cheng, Xi

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The outcome of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor. We reviewed the relevant literature concerning the treatment and diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. There are two types of metastasis related to different treatments and survival rates: hematogenous metastasis and lymphatic metastasis. Patients with hematogenous metastasis have a higher risk of death than those with lymphatic metastasis. In terms of diagnosis, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-computed tomography are effective tools for the evaluation of distant metastasis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy are well-tolerated and efficient for lymphatic metastasis. As for lung metastasis, chemotherapy and/or surgery are valuable treatments for resistant, recurrent metastatic cervical cancer and chemoradiotherapy may be the optimal choice for stage IVB cervical cancer. Chemotherapy and bone irradiation are promising for bone metastasis. A better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy. Craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an optimal choice combined with radiotherapy for solitary brain metastases. Chemotherapy and palliative brain radiation may be considered for multiple brain metastases and other organ metastases.

  16. The diagnostic utility of ultrasonography, CT and PET/CT for the preoperative evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis inpapillary thyroid cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Young Sang; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography (US), CT and positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) in the preoperative evaluation of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. The study population consisted of 300 patients with pathologically diagnosed papillary thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy and neck dissection. Preoperative US, CT, and PET/CT findings were compared with pathologic outcomes after thyroidectomy and neck dissection. Sensitivity in detecting central lymph node metastasis (US 29.9%, CT 27.9%, PET/CT 18.8%) was lower than that for lateral lymph node metastasis (US 56.3%, CT 66.2%, PET/CT 43.7%). Specificity in detecting central lymph node metastasis (US 80.6%, CT 77.7%, PET/CT 83.0%) was lower than that for lateral lymph node metastasis (US 96.8%, CT 80.6%, PET/CT 95.2%). The combination of US and CT had higher specificity (77.3%) and higher sensitivity (33.1%) than US alone. PET/CT has no significant additional benefit over the combination of US and CT. In preoperative evaluations of neck lymph node metastasis, US and CT and PET/CT are more useful in lateral lymph node areas than in central lymph node areas. The combination of US and CT has higher sensitivity than US alone.

  17. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  18. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  19. Prognostic factors in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, P.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the standard of care for women with early stage cervical cancer; radiotherapy is the cornerstone in patients with advanced stages of disease. Recent changes in the treatment of cervical cancer involve less radical surgery in early stage cervical cancer, concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy

  20. Significance of prophylactic para-aortic lymph node irradiation in the postoperatic treatment of the cervical cancer. Relationship between prognosis and lymph node metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Machiko; Arita, Shigehiro; Ishida, Osamu; Murano, Yoshihiko; Sumita, Mitsugu; Okumura, Masahiko; Nanbu, Hidekazu [Kinki Univ., Osaka-Sayama, Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Between 1976 and 1989, 163 patients were treated by postoperative radiotherapy for cervical cancer stage Ib and IIb. Before irradiation for the whole pelvis, a total dose of 50 Gy was given in 5 weeks. Cumulative 5-year survival rates according to the number of pelvic lymph node metastasis were 100% for Ib L{sub 1} (one node involvement) in 10 patients, 60% for Ib L{sub 2} {up_arrow} (two or more involved) in 10, 73% for IIb L{sub 1} in 23, 78% for IIb L{sub 2} in 9, 47% for IIb L{sub 3} {up_arrow} in 18. The first recurrent sites of stage Ib were distant organ via lymphatic routes in 3 patients and hematogenous routes in 2. IIb were via lymphatic routes in 10 patients, hematogenous routes in 10, and regional recurrence in 6. After introduced para-aortic node irradiation, the pelvic plus para-aortic irradiation delivered 45 Gy in 5 weeks for two or more lymph nodes involvement. The cumulative 5-year survival rates were 100% for Ib L{sub 1} in 10 patients, 100% for Ib L{sub 2} in 7, 65% for Ib L{sub 3} {up_arrow} in 9, 82% for IIb L{sub 1} in 17, 68% for IIb L{sub 2} in 27, and 48% for IIb L{sub 3} {up_arrow} in 23. The first recurrent sites for Ib with introduction of para-aortic node irradiation were distant organs via lymphatic routes in 1 patient and hematogenous routes in 2, and the sites for IIb were via lymphatic routes in 10, hematogenous 7, peritonitis carcinomatous 1, and in the pelvic field of 6. Late effects developed in 3 (19%) of Ib and 19 (29%) of IIb. Side effects increased with prophylactic para-aortic node irradiation. No significant difference was observed in survival rates between pelvic and pelvic plus para-aortic node irradiation group. (S.Y.).

  1. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with HPV, those who have used oral contraceptives ("the Pill") for 5 to 9 years have a risk of cervical cancer that is 3 times greater than that of women who have never used oral contraceptives. The risk is 4 times greater after 10 ...

  2. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  3. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  4. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  5. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  6. [Preventing cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Noël, J-C

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer has hopefully been dropping down in our industrialized countries since the introduction of both primary and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, it is still lethal in one out of two affected women though the introduction of cytological screening has dramatically reduced the mortality. Progressive diffusion of anti-HPV vaccination, the broadening of the viral types concerned, its association with existing screening measures and finally the introduction of viral detection as a screening tool must optimize the results already obtained.

  7. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine Drugs Approved to Treat Cervical Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Blenoxane (Bleomycin) Bleomycin Hycamtin (Topotecan ...

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV vaccine can reduce risk of cervical cancer. HPV causes most cervical cancers. Only 1 in 3 girls and 1 in ... Signs – Cervical Cancer [PSA - 0:60 seconds] Cervical Cancer Preteen and Teen Vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Associated Cancers What Should I Know About ...

  9. 18F-FDG SPECT-CT在宫颈癌监测中的价值%The value of 18F-FDG SPECT-CT in detecting recurrence or metastasis of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘道佳; 唐明灯; 林端瑜; 倪雷春

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)SPECT-CT in detecting recurrence and(or) metastasis of cervical cancer. Methods Retrospective analysis of 62 patients who underwent 18F-FDG SPECT-CT to evaluate recurrence and/or metastasis of cervical cancer at Fujian Tumor Hospital. The diagnostic results were confirmed by second surgery, biopsy or clinical follow-up, and also compared with the coincidence images obtained by CT scan and the serum squamous cell carcinoma related antigen (SCCA) levels. Results It is confirmed that 36 of 62 patients had recurrence and (or) metastasis of cervical cancer by biopsy or clinical follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, positivity predicitive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of 18F-FDG SPECT-CT were 94.4%, 92.3, 94.4%,92.3% and 93.5%. Those of CT scan were 69.4%, 80.8%, 83.3%, 65.6% and 74.2%. Those of SCCA measurement were 66.7%, 46.2%, 63.2%, 50.0% and 58.1%. Conclusions 18F-FDG SPECT-CT has greater clinical value to monitor recurrence and(or) metastasis of cervical cancer.%目的 评价18F-FDG SPECT-CT在监测宫颈癌复发和(或)转移中的价值.方法 回顾性分析为评估宫颈癌是否复发和(或)转移而行18F-FDG SPECT-CT的62例患者的临床资料,以二次手术或局部活检病理或临床随访为最终结果,并与同期CT和鳞状细胞癌抗原(SCCA)检查结果对比.结果 经病理或临床随访证实,62例患者中有36例复发和(或)转移.18F-FDG SPECT-CT对宫颈癌复发和(或)转移监测的灵敏度、特异度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值及准确率分别为94.4%、92.3%、94.4%、92.3%、93.5%;CT分别为69.4%、80.8%、83.3%、65.6%、74.2%;SCCA检查分别为66.7%、46.2%、63.2%、50.0%、58.1%.结论 18F-FDG SPECT-CT监测宫颈癌复发和(或)转移有较大临床价值.

  10. Model establishment of cervical cancer lymphatic metastasis and clinical significance of Prox-1%宫颈癌淋巴道转移模型的建立及Prox-1临床意义初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰双; 胡丽娜

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立小鼠宫颈癌淋巴道转移模型,初步探讨Prox-1的临床意义.方法 将宫颈癌U27瘤株的单细胞悬液注入小鼠左爪垫,观察成瘤率、肿瘤生长及淋巴结转移情况.应用HE染色及CK免疫组化检测各级淋巴结中有无肿瘤转移;应用荧光定量PCR和Western blot检测肿瘤组织中VEGFR-3和Pmx-1在mRNA及蛋白水平的表达情况.结果 爪垫种植后成瘤率100%;淋巴结转移程度与接种时间显著相关;荧光定量PCR和Western blot结果显示,肿瘤组织中Prox-1 mRNA和蛋白在远处淋巴结转移组[(0.000 173±0.000 085),(0.108 7±0.049 9)]明显高于前哨淋巴结转移组[(0.000 058±0.000 022),(0.012 0±0.005 7)]及无淋巴结转移组[(0.000027±0.000 010),(0.003 8±0.001 4)],3组两两比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 小鼠爪垫皮下注射可成功建立宫颈癌淋巴道转移模型;Prox-1是预测肿瘤淋巴结转移及抗肿瘤淋巴转移的敏感指标.%Objective To establish the uterine cervical cancer model of lymphatic metastasis using Kun-ruing (Kin) mice and to explore the clinical significance of Prox-1. Methods The lymphatic metastasis model was estabhshed by injection of cervical cancer cells into the left natl pads of female Km mice. The tumor forma-tion rate, tumor growth and lymph node metastasis status were observed. At 5, 10, 15, and 20 d after inocula-tion, mice in one group were sacrificed for the specimens, including lymph nodes and tumors. Then HE dyeing and immunohistochemistry staining of cytokeratin were used for the detection of the occurrence of lymphatic me-tastasis or not, and fluorescent quantitation polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and Western-blot were used for the detection of the expressions of VEGFR-3 and Prox-1. Results The tumor formation rate was 100%. The lymph node metastasis was closely correlated with the inoculation time. FQ-PCR and Western blot demon-strated that Prox-1 mRNA and protein expressions in distant lymphatic

  11. Cancer stem cells and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Katia; Fodde, Riccardo

    2012-06-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subpopulation of tumour cells endowed with self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capacity but also with an innate resistance to cytotoxic agents, a feature likely to pose major clinical challenges towards the complete eradication of minimal residual disease in cancer patients. Operationally, CSCs are defined by their tumour-propagating ability when serially transplanted into immune-compromised mice and by their capacity to fully recapitulate the original heterogeneity of cell types observed in the primary lesions they are derived from. CSCs were first identified in haematopoietic malignancies and later in a broad spectrum of solid tumours including those of the breast, colon and brain. Notably, several CSC characteristics are relevant to metastasis, such as motility, invasiveness and, as mentioned above, resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Here, we have reviewed the current literature on the relation between CSCs and metastasis formation. Preliminary studies on cancer cell lines and patient-derived material suggest a rate-limiting role for stem-like cells in the processes of tumour cell dissemination and metastasis formation. However, additional studies are needed to deliver formal proof of their identity as the cell of origin of recurrences at distant organ sites. Nevertheless, several studies have already provided pre-clinical evidence of the efficacy of novel therapies directed against disseminated CSCs.

  12. Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  13. Breast Cancer Metastasis to Pituitary Infandibulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Poursadegh Fard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis from breast cancer to other parts of the body is very common, but the spread of the tumor to pituitary gland, especially to infandibulum, is a rare presentation. At the time of pituitary metastasis, a majority of the patients have clinical and radiological evidence of the disease. It seems that the posterior area of the gland is the most common site of metastasis, probably due to highly rich blood supply through the hypophyseal artery. The present report introduces a case of a 55-years-old woman presented with diabetes insipidus resulting from metastasis of the tumor to pituitary infandibulum, which is a rare site for metastasis, without significant complaint resulting from metastasis to other part of the body, or other primary diseases. Further evaluation revealed that in spite of previous reports, which metastasis usually happens in end stage of cancer, the patients had primary breast cancer. In subsequent evaluations of the case, hypofunction of adenohypophysis was also detected

  14. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  15. Aberrant Expression of Notch1 in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sun; Qimin Zhan; Wenhua Zhang; Yongmei Song; Tong Tong

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the putative role of the Notch1 receptor in cervical cancer carcinogenesis and progression.METHODS The expression of the Notch1 protein was analyzed by a Western-blotting approach in 40 cervical cancer and 30 normal cervical tissues.Some tissues were examined using RT-PCR To determine Mrna levels.Celluar localization of the Notch1 protein in the paraffin-embedded cervical tissues was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS The Notch1 protein was detected in all 30 normal cervical tissues.In contrast.only 6 samples of 40 cervical cancer tissues showed Notch1 expression.The level of the Notch1 protein expression was significantly lower in cervical cancer tissues than that in normal tissue samples.In agreement with these observations.levels of Notch1 Mrna were found to be substantially down-regulated in cervical cancer tissues.In the immunohistochemistry staining assay,the Notch1 protein was shown to localize predominantly in the cytoplasm and nucleoli of the normal cervical squamous epithelium of the cervix,but no staining was observed in the cervical cancer cells.Notch1 expression was observed to correlate with the clinical disease stage.but there were no correlations with age,tumor size,grade or lymph node metastasis (P>0.05).The levels of Notchl protein expression were significantly higher in early stages(I~lla,66.7%) compared to those in the advanced stages (Iib~IV,12.6%)(P=0.001).CONCLUSION Notch1 may play a role as a tumor suppressor in cervical tumorigenesis.Determination of Notch1 expression may be helpful for preoperative diagnosis and accuracy of staging.But its clinical use for cervical cancer requires further investigation.

  16. Prostate cancer and metastasis initiating stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathleen Kelly; Juan Juan Yin

    2008-01-01

    Androgen refractory prostate cancer metastasis is a major clinical challenge.Mechanism-based approaches to treating prostate cancer metastasis require an understanding of the developmental origin of the metastasis-initiating cell.Properties of prostate cancer metastases such as plasticity with respect to differentiated phenotype and androgen independence are consistent with the transformation of a prostate epithelial progenitor or stem cell leading to metastasis.This review focuses upon current evidence and concepts addressing the identification and properties of normal prostate stem or progenitor cells and their transformed counterparts.

  17. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...

  18. Isolated mandibular condylar metastases: An uncommon manifestation of recurrent cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya D Puranik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastases from recurrent cervical cancer is a rare scenario, with commonly involved sites being lumbar spine and pelvic bones report an extremely rare manifestation of cervical cancer recurrence presenting as a painful jaw swelling due to metastasis to the mandibular condyle.

  19. Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0408 TITLE: Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jacqueline D. Jones...0408 Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...efferocytosis. The translation of this functional role during pathophysiological states such as tumor metastasis to the skeleton is unknown. The purpose of this

  20. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  1. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  2. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  3. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  4. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Pulse electric fields effect on invasion and metastasis of Hela cells in human cervical cancer%脉冲电场对人宫颈癌Hela细胞侵袭转移能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琴; 熊正爱; 周玮; 李成祥; 姚陈果

    2011-01-01

    背景:脉冲电场对肿瘤细胞侵袭转移能力是否具有抑制作用尚不十分清楚.目的:探讨不同强度脉冲电场对人宫颈癌Hela细胞侵袭转移能力的影响及可能的机制.方法:以场强分别为0,500,1 000和1 500 V/cm的脉冲电场作用人宫颈癌Hela细胞后,采用平板克隆形成实验,观察脉冲电场对细胞克隆能力的影响;采用Transwell小室进行人工重组基底膜侵袭和转移实验,观察脉冲电场对细胞侵袭和转移能力的影响;采用RT-PCR法检测宫颈癌Hela细胞中基质金属蛋白酶2和RhoC基因mRNA的表达情况.结果与结论:脉冲电场作用后,宫颈癌Hela细胞的克隆能力受到抑制;细胞侵袭和转移能力明显降低;基质金属蛋白酶2和RhoC基因mRNA的表达均明显减弱,且有电场强度依赖性.结果表明,脉冲电场能抑制人宫颈癌Hela细胞的侵袭转移能力,其机制可能与降低RhoC和基质金属蛋白酶2的表达有关.%BACKGROUND: The inhibitory effect of pulse electric fields on invesion and metastasi s ability of tumor cells is unclear.OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of different intensity pulse electric fields on the human cervical carcinoma Hela cell invasion and metastasis and its possible mechanism.METHODS: The electric fields with intensity of 0, 500, 1 000 and 1 500 V/cm were performed on the human cervical carcinoma Hela cell. The clone capacity was measured with flat clone formation experiment; the invasion and immigration capacity was evaluated with transwell cave method;the expression level of mRNA of MMP-2 and RhoC was detected by RT-PCR method.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After being treated with pulsed electric fields, the clone capacity of Hela cells was inhibited. The invasion and immigration capacity of Hela cells were also inhibited. The expression level of mRNA of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and RhoC were decreased. The pulse electric fields could affect the invasion and metastasis capacity of the human

  6. Biology of cancer invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareel, M M; Crombez, R

    1992-01-01

    Current concepts of invasion eventually leading to metastasis are discussed and exemplified by cancers of the head and neck mucosa. Invasion occurs at a number of steps, each step making an ecosystem comprising not only the neoplastic cells but also their normal counterparts, a variety of host cells and the extracellular matrix. The ecosystem concept may explain aspects of metastasis such as site-dependence and organ-specificity of cancer metastasis as well as invasiveness of normal leucocytes. Genes implicated in invasion and metastasis are actively searched for. Recently, the epithelial cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin has been identified as an i- (invasion suppressor) gene product, i.e. a molecule the expression of which counterbalances i+ (invasion promotor) gene activity. Downregulation of E-cadherin in human head and neck cancers may account for their invasive and metastatic behaviour.

  7. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  8. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  9. DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODE IN EARLY CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 李斌; 章文华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection in early cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 27 patients with operable invasive early cervical cancer and clinically proved negative pelvic lymph nodes were included in this study. The 99Tcm-dextran of 74 MBq (2 mCi) was injected around the cervix at 2( and 10(. Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection were used to find the SLN. Results: The SLN was identified in 27 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the SLN detection to predict the metastasis of the pelvic lymph node were 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: Identification of the SLN using radionuclide is feasible and possible in women with early cervical cancer.

  10. Thyroglobulin measurement in the fine-needle aspiration washout for diagnosing cervical lymph node metastasis in the patients with differentiated papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Moon [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Min Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-11-15

    We wanted to evaluate the utility of thyroglobulin measurement in the washout of the needle (FNA-Tg) used for fine needle biopsy for detecting lymph node metastasis in patients with differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (DPTC). We performed ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and FNA-Tg for 50 ultrasonographically suspicious lymph nodes in 45 DPTC patients. Eighteen patients underwent thyroidectomy before FNA and the remaining 27 patients underwent fine-needle aspiration prior to surgery. The final diagnoses were determined based on the results of histological examination of the excised specimens (n = 21) or on the follow-up examination that was done least 12 months after surgery. Lymph node metastases were confirmed in 19 patients. FNAC detected 14 metastatic lymph nodes in 14 patients, and FNA-Tg detected 18 metastatic lymph nodes in 18 patients. While none of 3 cystic lymph nodes metastasis was detected via FNAC, they all revealed positive results via FNA-Tg. One patient with a negative result on both methods had one metastatic lymph node among 9 excised lymph nodes, and this one node had not been sampled via FNAC or Tg. The sensitivities and specificities of FNAC and FNA-Tg were 73.6% (14/19) and 100% (27/27), and 94.7% (18/19) and 96.2% (26/27), respectively. FNA-Tg is a useful technique for the early detection of lymph node metastasis, and especially for detecting cystic lymph node metastasis in patients with DPTC.

  11. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  12. Invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleg, Shereen; Büchler, Peter; Ludwig, Roman; Büchler, Markus W; Friess, Helmut

    2003-01-22

    Pancreatic cancer remains a challenging disease with an overall cumulative 5-year survival rate below 1%. The process of cancer initiation, progression and metastasis is still not understood well. Invasion and tumor metastasis are closely related and both occur within a tumour-host microecology, where stroma and tumour cells exchange enzymes and cytokines that modify the local extracellular matrix, stimulate cell migration, and promote cell proliferation and tumor cell survival. During the last decade considerable progress has been made in understanding genetic alterations of genes involved in local and systemic tumor growth. The most important changes occur in genes which regulate cell cycle progression, extracellular matrix homeostasis and cell migration. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that epigenetic factors including angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis may participate in the formation of tumor metastasis. In this review we highlight the most important genetic alterations involved in tumor invasion and metastasis and further outline the role of tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in systemic tumor dissemination.

  13. ZBRK1 acts as a metastatic suppressor by directly regulating MMP9 in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Fang; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Li, Chien-Feng; Liao, Ching-Chun; Cheng, Chun-Pei; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Shen, Meng-Ru; Tseng, Joseph T; Chang, Wen-Chang; Lee, Wen-Hwa; Wang, Ju-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The BRCA1-interacted transcriptional repressor ZBRK1 has been associated with antiangiogenesis, but direct evidence of a tumor suppressor role has been lacking. In this study, we provide evidence of such a role in cervical carcinoma. ZBRK1 levels in cervical tumor cells were significantly lower than in normal cervical epithelial cells. In HeLa cervical cancer cells, enforced expression inhibited malignant growth, invasion, and metastasis in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays. Expression of the metalloproteinase MMP9, which is known to be an important driver of invasion and metastasis, was found to be inversely correlated with ZBRK1 in tumor tissues and a target for repression in tumor cells. Our findings suggest that ZBRK1 acts to inhibit metastasis of cervical carcinoma, perhaps by modulating MMP9 expression.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of metastasis in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel W.Clarke; Claire A.Hart; Mick D.Brown

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) preferentially metastasizes to the bone marrow stroma of the axial skeleton.This activity is the principal cause of PCa morbidity and mortality.The exact mechanism of PCa metastasis is currently unknown,although considerable progress has been made in determining the key players in this process.In this review,we present the current understanding of the molecular processes driving PCa metastasis to the bone.

  15. Treatment protocols for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujkov Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer death among women. About 95% (90% in developed countries of invasive carcinomas are of sqamous types, and 5% (10% in developed countries are adenocarcinomas. FIGO classification of cervical carcinomas, based on clinical staging and prognostic factor dictate therapeutic procedures and help in designing treatment protocols. Therapeutic modalities Surgical therapy includes conization, radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and palliative operation urinary diversion and colostomy. Radiotherapy, brachytherapy and teletherapy are most recently combined with chemotherapy as concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion and conclusion No change in therapeutic modalities will ever decrease mortality rate of cervical carcinoma as much as education, prevention and early screening. The 5-year survival for locally advanced disease has not improved during the last 40 years as a result of failure to deliver therapy to the paraaortic region. Paraaortic lymph nodes should be evaluated before therapy planning by different imaging procedures, or more exactly by surgical staging: laparoscopy or laparotomy. Radical operations of cervical carcinoma should be performed by experienced surgeons, educated for this type of operation, with sufficient number of cases.

  16. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  17. PET/CT诊断宫颈癌盆腔淋巴结转移的系统评价%Accuracy of diagnosing para-aortic and pelvic lymph node metastasis in cervical cancer with PET/CT:a meta analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟亚楠; 郭顺林; 周怀琪; 王平; 王海军

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review studies focused on diagnosing pelvic and para-aortic lymph node metastasis in cervical cancer with PET/CT, analyse sources of bias and variability and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy with meta analysis. Methods: Searched current literature in database without limiting time and language, evaluated the quality of included studies according to QUADAS(Quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies), MetaDisc version 1.40 software was used to pool sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (-LR) and diagnostic OR, analysed source of heterogeneity with Q-test and draw SROC curves. Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, eight literatures written in English and one in Chinese. 346 cases of cervical cancer (3979 lymph node metastasis) were included, we pooled data with random effects model on lymph nodes level: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, accuracy and AUC value were 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51 ~0.65], 0.98 (95%CI 0.98~0.99), 0.686(0.464~0.852), 0.936(0.833~0.995), 2.15(7.20~64.24), 0.43(0.32~0.58), 0.900(0.75~0.993), 0.7724, respectively; pooled analysis with random effects model based on patient level: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value,negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, accuracy and AUC value were 0.54 (95%CI 0.45~ 0.63), 0.86(95%CI 0.98~0.99), 0.725(0.471~0.923), 0.765(0.615~0.886), 4.58(1.86~11.31), 0.52(0.34~0.80), 0.756(0.620~0.0.897) and 0.8699, respectively. Conclusion: PET/CT has moderate diagnostic value for evaluating pelvic and aortic lymph node metastasis in cervical cancer, which can provide reliable guidance in clincal practice.%目的:系统评价当前研究PET/CT诊断宫颈癌盆腔及主动脉旁淋巴结转移文献的质量并合并分析其准确性.方法:收

  18. 基于随机森林算法的宫颈癌淋巴结转移相关基因的生物信息学筛选%Random Forests algoritm-based bioinformatic screening of functional genes involved in lymph metastasis of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范淑英; 李春晓; 王婷; 周春霞; 钱海利; 王海娟; 詹启敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To screen the genes most relevant to lymph node metastasis of cervical cancer and identify the genes at the key knots of the regulatory network to provide the potential targets for cervical cancer intervention.Methods The transcriptional profiling database of TCGA was used, and random forests algorithm was adopted to rank the genes related to lymph node metastasis extracted from GeneCards database.STRING and Cytospace tolls were used to build the interactive regulatory network and identify the most weighted genes localized in the central of the network.DAVID platform was used to perform a functional annotation for the whole geneset.Results We ranked 2784 genes in respect to their potential contributions to lymph node metastasis of cervical cancer and identified the genes at the key knob.The genes related to cancer metastasis were enriched to cytokines pathway, MAPK pathway, wnt pathway, intercellular interaction, adhesive conjunction, cellular skeleton regulation, etc.Some of the identified key genes, like EGFR, NOTCH1, RHOA, etc. have been verified to be closely related cervical cancer metastasis in the basic and clinical research. Conclusion Random forests algorithm is useful, taking advantages of TCGA database, in enriching the genes playing significant role in cervical cancer metastasis.A majority of the genes in the analyzed geneset were indicated to be significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis.%目的:分析与淋巴结转移最相关的基因集和基因集中的关键节点性基因,为宫颈癌淋巴结转移预测潜在干预靶点。方法利用TCGA宫颈癌患者转录组数据集,使用随机森林算法对淋巴结转移最相关基因进行分析和排名,使用STRING和Cytospace对这些相关基因进行互作网络分析,筛选对其他基因具有最广泛相互作用的基因节点,使用DAVID对这些基因在整体上进行功能识别。结果获得淋巴结转移相关基因重要性排序(2784个),并

  19. Significance of Ebp1 and p53 protein expression in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Li, X D; Chen, H Y; Cui, J S; Xu, D Y

    2015-10-02

    In this study, the ErbB3-binding protein (Ebp1) and p53 protein expression in cervical cancer tissues, and its significance in the prognosis of the disease was investigated. Ebp1 and p53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemical analysis in cervical cancer tissues (N = 60) and normal tissues adjacent to the cancer tissues (N = 60). The rates of positive Ebp1 and p53 protein expression were 35.0 and 60.0%, respectively. Ebp1 and p53 were overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues, compared to normal tissues (P p53 protein expression was not correlated with age, tumor size, or family tumor history (P > 0.05). However, high levels of expression of Ebp1 and p53 were positively correlated with the TNM stage and lymphatic metastasis in cervical cancer patients (P p53 expression levels in cervical cancer patients could support the effective prediction of metastatic potential and patient prognosis.

  20. Glycoprotein and Glycan in Tissue and Blood Samples of Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  1. Prostate Cancer Presenting with Parietal Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Abdoul Karim; Abubakar, Babagana Mustapha; Kabore, Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Bone metastases from prostate cancer are very common. They are usually located on the axial skeleton. However, cranial bone metastases especially to the parietal bone are rare. We report a case of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with left parietal bone metastasis in a patient with no urological symptoms or signs. We should consider prostate cancer in any man above 60 years presenting unusual bone lesions.

  2. Revisiting the Seed-and-soil Theory of Cancer Metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaonan QIAN

    2009-01-01

    @@ In 1889, Paget proposed a "Seed-and-Soil" theory for cancer metastasis.According to this theory, cancer metastasis is not random, and one remote organ is more prone to be the seat of secondary tumor growth than another.

  3. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  4. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle Westergren;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...... study investigates the positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PET-CT in stage I disease and the clinical impact of the scan results in all disease stages....

  5. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present s...... study investigates the positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PET-CT in stage I disease and the clinical impact of the scan results in all disease stages....

  6. Therapy for bone metastasis from different cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Zhang; Peng Tan; Baoguo Mi; Chao Song; Yi Deng; Hanfeng Guan

    2016-01-01

    The bone is the most common target organ of cancer metastasis. Bone metastasis leads to considerable morbidity due to skeletal-related events (SREs). These include bone pain, hypercalcemia, pathologic frac-tures, and compression of the spinal cord. Cancers such as those of the lung, breast, prostate, and kidney are more likely to cause SREs than other cancer types. Additionaly, some blood cancers, including multiple myeloma and lymphoma, frequently cause SREs. In this article, we review the conventional therapies for metastatic bone disease, including drug therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Among osteoclast-targeting agents, bisphosphonates and nuclear factor kappa-B ligand inhibitors are the most widely used agents to prevent cancer-related bone loss. Unsealed radioisotopes are also considered promising in cancer therapy. Currently, iodine-131, strontium-89, and radium-223 are available for the treatment of bone metastasis. However, the treatments for blood cancers with SREs are diferent from those of other cancers. In those cases, new classes of agents including proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, monoclonal anti-bodies, and histone deacetylase inhibitors have shown remarkable eficacy. We also discuss the potential development of new therapies for these diseases.

  7. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy.

  8. Esophageal Cancer with Bone Marrow Hyperplasia Mimicking Bone Metastasis: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Yasuda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old man visited the clinic with numbness in the right hand. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple low-intensity lesions in the cervical vertebrae and sacrum, which was suspicious of cervical bone metastasis. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed areas of increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the thoracic esophagus, sternum and sacrum. A flat, elevated esophageal cancer was identified by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and the macroscopic appearance indicated early-stage disease. From the cervical, thoracic and abdominal computed tomography images, there were no metastatic lesions except for the bone lesions. To confirm whether the bone lesions were metastatic, we performed bone biopsy. The histopathological diagnosis was bone marrow hyperplasia. It was crucial for treatment planning to establish whether the lesions were distant metastases. Here, we report a case of esophageal cancer with bone marrow hyperplasia mimicking bone metastasis.

  9. [Balloon occlusion test of the internal carotid artery for evaluating resectability of blood vessel infiltrating cervical metastasis of advanced head and neck cancers--Heidelberg experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, A; von Kummer, R; Adams, H P; Kneip, M; Galito, P; Maier, H

    1993-11-01

    During the last two years 17 patients of the ENT-Department of the University of Heidelberg suffering from squamous-cell carcinomas of the head and neck underwent a balloon occlusion test of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The investigation was performed because of tumorous infiltration of the large cervical vessels. The balloon occlusion of the ICA was accomplished at the Department of Neuroradiology of the University of Heidelberg. While stopping bloodflow in the ICA of one side for 15-20 min, clinical, electrophysiological and Doppler sonographic monitoring was performed, to detect severe cerebral complications. The specific electrophysiological monitoring contained the detection of MSSEP's (median nerve stimulated somatosensorial evoked potentials) and TCMEP's (transcortical motor evoked potentials) during test occlusion. Balloon occlusion was not possible in three patients because of severe arteriosclerosis. Test occlusion had to be discontinued in three patients because of clinical complications (temporary amaurosis, orthostatic complications). Finally, seven patients showed contraindications during test occlusion for permanent occlusion of the ICA. Four patients had a permanent occlusion of the ICA after tumour resection. In two patients the ICA was removed without problems in test occlusion. The third patient underwent a permanent carotid occlusion because of bleeding complications (in spite of poor clinical tolerance of the test occlusion). In the fourth patient, only intraoperative neuromonitoring with MSSEP's was conducted before permanent carotid occlusion. All four patients did not show any neurological deficits after resection of the ICA. Neurophysiological monitoring played an important role in predicting cerebral complications after permanent occlusion of the ICA.

  10. [Adenocarcinoma of lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sung Ae; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2014-09-25

    Although hematogenous metastasis of cancer to the gastrointestinal track is rare, it sometime has been reported in patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, it is extremely rare for lung cancer to metastasize to the stomach, not to mention solitary gastric metastasis. Herein, the authors report a case of a 69-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with lung cancer with synchronous primary gastric cancer which proved to be lung cancer with solitary gastric metastasis after the operation.

  11. Cellular Plasticity in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dima Y. Jadaan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Experimental data suggest that tumour cells can reversibly transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states (EMT and MET, a phenomenon known as cellular plasticity. The aim of this review was to appraise the clinical evidence for the role of cellular plasticity in prostate cancer (PC bone metastasis. Methods. An electronic search was performed using PubMed for studies that have examined the differential expression of epithelial, mesenchymal, and stem cell markers in human PC bone metastasis tissues. Results. The review included nineteen studies. More than 60% of the studies used ≤20 bone metastasis samples, and there were several sources of heterogeneity between studies. Overall, most stem cell markers analysed, except for CXCR4, were positively expressed in bone metastasis tissues, while the expression of EMT and MET markers was heterogeneous between and within samples. Several EMT and stemness markers that are involved in osteomimicry, such as Notch, Met receptor, and Wnt/β pathway, were highly expressed in bone metastases. Conclusions. Clinical findings support the role of cellular plasticity in PC bone metastasis and suggest that epithelial and mesenchymal states cannot be taken in isolation when targeting PC bone metastasis. The paper also highlights several challenges in the clinical detection of cellular plasticity.

  12. Expression and Effects of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoao Pang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of high- mobility group box1 (HMGB1 and T-cell-mediated immunity and prognostic value in cervical cancer. HMGB1, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3, IL-2, and IL-10 protein expression was analyzed in 100 cervical tissue samples including cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and healthy control samples using immunohistochemistry. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag was immunoradiometrically measured in 32 serum samples from 37 cases of squamous cervical cancer. HMGB1 and SCC-Ag were then correlated to clinicopathological characteristics. HMGB1 expression tends to increase as cervical cancer progresses and it was found to be significantly correlated to FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. These findings suggest that HMGB1 may be a useful prognostic indicator of cervical carcinoma. In addition, there were significant positive relationships between HMGB1 and FOXP3 or IL-10 expression (both p < 0.05. In contrast, HMGB1 and IL-2 expression was negatively correlated (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression may activate Tregs or facilitate Th2 polarization to promote immune evasion of cervical cancer. Elevated HMGB1 protein in cervical carcinoma samples was associated with a high recurrence of HPV infection in univariate analysis (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression and levels of SCC-Ag were directly correlated in SCC (p < 0.05. Thus, HMGB1 may be a useful biomarker for patient prognosis and cervical cancer prediction and treatment.

  13. Pathobiology of cancer metastasis: a short account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feller Liviu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer-initiating cells display aberrant functional and phenotypic characteristics of normal stem cells from which they evolved by accumulation of multiple cytogenetic and/or epigenetic alterations. Signal transduction pathways which are essential for normal stem cell function are abnormally expressed by cancer cells, with a cancer cell phenotype playing an essential role in cancerization and metastasis. Local tumour progression, metastasis and metastatic tumour growth are mediated by direct cell-to-cell and paracrine reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and various stromal cells including fibroblasts, macrophages, bone marrow derived stem cells and progenitor cells. These interactions mediate breakdown of basement membrane barriers and angiogenesis both locally at the invasive front of the primary tumour and at the distant metastatic site; attract primary tumour cells to the candidate metastatic site; and promote proliferation, survival and growth of primary tumour cells and of metastatic cells at their distant site. It is the purpose of this article to highlight the analogies between some of the genetic programs of normal stem cells, and of cancer cells participating in the process of metastasis.

  14. Redox regulation of cancer metastasis: molecular signaling and therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyong; Zou, Linzhi; Huang, Canhua; Lei, Yunlong

    2014-08-01

    Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related mortality. Accumulated evidence has shown that high-metastasis potential cancer cells have more reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation compared with low-metastasis potential cancer cells. ROS can function as second messengers to regulate multiple cancer metastasis-related signaling pathways via reversible oxidative posttranslational modifications of cysteine in key redox-sensitive proteins, which leads to the structural and functional change of these proteins. Because ROS can promote cancer metastasis, therapeutic strategies aiming at inducing/reducing cellular ROS level or targeting redox sensors involved in metastasis hold great potential in developing new efficient approaches for anticancer therapy. In this review, we summarize recent findings on regulation of tumor metastasis by key redox sensors and describe the potential of targeting redox signaling pathways for cancer therapy.

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapy: There was a major advance in the treatment of cervical cancer when five NCI-sponsored clinical trials showed that ... to adding chemotherapy to radiation therapy in the treatment of invasive cervical cancer. (Cervical) HPV vaccine: Another major advance in the ...

  16. Reduced expression of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 contributes to apoptosis and angiogenesis in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2 is an extracellular matrix associated broad-spectrum Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor. Recently, down regulation of TFPI-2 was suggested to be involved in tumor invasion and metastasis in some cancers. Methods This study involved 12 normal cervical squamous epithelia, 48 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and 68 cervical cancer. The expression of TFPI-2, Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were investigated by immunohistochemistry staining. The apoptolic index(AI was determined with an in situ end-labeling assay(TUNEL. And the marker of CD34 staining was used as an indicator of microvessel density (MVD. Results TFPI-2 expression has a decreasing trend with the progression of cervical cancer and was significantly correlated with FIGO stage, lymph node metastasis and HPV infection. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between the grading of TFPI-2 expression and AI(P = 0.004. In contrast, the expression of TFPI-2 and VEGF or MVD was negatively correlated (both p Conclusions The results suggested that the expression of TFPI-2 had a decreasing trend with tumor progression of cervical cancer. There was a close association between the expression of TFPI-2 and tumor cell apoptosis and angiogenesis in patients with cervical cancer. TFPI-2 may play an inhibitive role during the development of cervical cancer.

  17. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...... human papillomavirus infections would help individualize screening guidelines and target immune-associated factors in the cervical cancer etiology....

  18. Cervical cancer control, priorities and new directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsonego, J; Bosch, F.X.; Coursaget, P.; Cox, JT; Franco, E; Frazer, I; Sankaranarayanan, R; Schiller, J; Singer, A; Wright, TCJr; Kinney, W; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Linder, J

    2004-01-01

    99% of cervical cancer is initiated by HPV infection. The estimated lifetime risk of cervical cancer is nevertheless relatively low (less than 1 in 20 for most community based studies). Although sensitivity and specificity of the available diagnostic techniques are suboptimal, screening for persiste

  19. Spinal Intramedullary Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Basaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Breast cancer accounts for approximately one-third of all cancers in females. Approximately 8.5 % of all central nervous system metastases are located in the spinal cord. These patients have rapidly progressing neurological deficits and require immediate examination. The aim of surgery is decompression of neural tissue and histological evaluation of the tumor. In this paper, we present a case of breast cancer metastasis in thoracic spinal intramedullary area which had been partially excised and then given adjuvant radiotherapy. Case. A 43-year-old female patient with breast cancer for 8 years was admitted to our hospital with complaints of weakness in both legs. Eight years ago, she received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On her neurological examination, she had paraparesis (left lower extremity: 2/5, right lower extremity: 3/5 and urinary incontinence. Spinal MRI revealed a gadolinium enhancing intramedullary lesion. Pathologic examination of the lesion was consistent with breast carcinoma metastasis. The patient has been taken into radiotherapy. Conclusion. Spinal intramedullary metastasis of breast cancer is an extremely rare situation, but it has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Microsurgical resection is necessary for preservation or amelioration of neurological state and also for increased life expectancy and quality.

  20. Expression of Pin1 and Ki67 in Cervical Cancer and Their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression levels of Pin1 mRNA and protein in cervical cancer and its association with Ki67 and their clinical significance, amplification of Pin1 gene was examined by RT-PCR, and the expression of both Pin1 and Ki67 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in cervical cancer tissues. It was shown that the expression levels of Pin1 were higher in cervical cancer than in normal cervical tissues (P<0.05). The expression of Pin1 protein was increased progressively along with the disease process from normal cervix to CIN and to cervical cancer (P<0. 05). No significant difference in the Pin1 expression was found between disease stages (FIGO),pathological grades or pelvic lymph node metastasis status (P>0.05). The expression of Pin1 was significantly higher in adenocarcinoma than insquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix (P<0.05).In cervical cancer, the overexpression of Pin1 was positively correlated with that of Ki67 (P<0.05). These results suggested that the overexpression of Pin1 was closely related with cancer cell proliferation or progression of cervical cancer and contributed to oncogenesis. Pin1 may serve as a potential marker for cervical cancer diagnosis.

  1. MicroRNA regulation network in colorectal cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao-Jiao; Zhou; Shu; Zheng; Li-Feng; Sun; Lei; Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Metastasis is a major cause of colorectal cancer-related death. Mechanisms of metastasis remain largely obscure. MicroRNA is one of the most important epigenetic regulators by targeting mRNAs posttranscriptionally. Accumulated evidence has supported its significant role in the metastasis of colorectal cancer, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis. Dissecting microRNAome potentially identifies specific microRNAs as biomarkers of colorectal cancer metastasis. Better understanding of the complex network of microRNAs in colorectal cancer metastasis provide new insights in the biological process of metastasis and in the potential targets for colorectal cancer therapies and for diagnosis of recurrent and metastatic colorectal cancer.

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Metastasis Suppression in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    and breast carcinoma metastasis, Wake Forest University Cancer Center, July 28 Molecular mechanisms controlling melanoma and breast carcinoma...Bowman Show, August 17 Molecular regulation of melanoma and breast carcinoma metastasis, Wake Forest University Cancer Center, July 28 Molecular...Institute, April 20, Pathology ofNeoplasia Cumberland Unit, American Cancer Society, April 19; Breast Cancer Research Ministerio de Sanidad y

  3. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  4. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Material and methods. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Conclusion. Despite...

  5. The clinical significance of serum SCC-Ag combined with CD105 in patients with cervical cancer during the early stage diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Chan Ma; Hong Bi; Sen-Yang Cao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To invest the clinical significance of serum SCC-Ag combined with CD105 in early diagnosis of cervical cancer to provide new ideas for early diagnosis and clinical treatment of cervical cancer.Methods: A total of 74 cases cervical cancer patients were selected as cervical cancer group, and 52 cases uterine fibroids patients were selected as normal cervical group, serum samples were collected in the early morning fasting condition, SCC-Ag and CD105 were checked by ELISA method, SCC-Ag and CD105 of two groups were analyzed by t-test, and to compare SCC-Ag and CD105 in different TMN staging, lymph gland metastasis and non-lymph gland metastasis in patients with cervical cancer, the correlation analysis was used by Pearson correlation analysis method.Results: These results came from ELISA method, comparing with normal cervical group, the SCC-Ag and CD105 of cervical cancer group increased, the difference was statistically significant. Comparing withⅠperiod of TMN staging, SCC-Ag and CD105 ofⅡ period increased,Ⅲ,Ⅳ period increased, the difference was statistically significant. Comparing withⅡ period, SCC-Ag and CD105 ofⅢ,Ⅳ period increased, the difference was statistically significant. Comparing with non-lymph gland metastasis, SCC-Ag and CD105 of lymph gland metastasis increased in cervical cancer with surgical treatment, the difference was statistically significant. According to Pearson correlation analysis, SCC-Ag and CD105 were positively correlated.Conclusion: SCC-Ag and CD105 in patients with cervical cancer increase highly, it has important clinical value that of serum SCC-Ag combined with CD105 in the early diagnosis of cervical cancer, especially it has clinical guiding significance to staging and lymph gland metastasis of cervical cancer, and it is worthy of clinical reference.

  6. Network Topologies Decoding Cervical Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Jalan

    Full Text Available According to the GLOBOCAN statistics, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. It is found to be gradually increasing in the younger population, specifically in the developing countries. We analyzed the protein-protein interaction networks of the uterine cervix cells for the normal and disease states. It was found that the disease network was less random than the normal one, providing an insight into the change in complexity of the underlying network in disease state. The study also portrayed that, the disease state has faster signal processing as the diameter of the underlying network was very close to its corresponding random control. This may be a reason for the normal cells to change into malignant state. Further, the analysis revealed VEGFA and IL-6 proteins as the distinctly high degree nodes in the disease network, which are known to manifest a major contribution in promoting cervical cancer. Our analysis, being time proficient and cost effective, provides a direction for developing novel drugs, therapeutic targets and biomarkers by identifying specific interaction patterns, that have structural importance.

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  8. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C;

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  9. Triapine With Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With IB2-IVA Cervical or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Vulvar Adenocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  10. Gastric metastasis of bilateral breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaïd, Asma; Mghirbi, Fahmi; Béhi, Khalil; Doghri, Raoudha; Benna, Farouk

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The most frequent metastatic sites are lung, bone, liver and brain. On the other hand, gastric metastases are rare. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) occurs rarely. Lobular carcinoma is the histological type most often associated with bilateral breast carcinomas and gastric metastases. We made a retrospective study including four patients followed in the Salah Azaiez Institute, for a bilateral breast cancer with gastric metastases. We analyzed the epidemiological, anatomoclinical and therapeutic particularities of this rare entity. Symptoms were unspecific. The diagnosis of gastric metastasis of the SBBC was confirmed by a histopathological examination of an endoscopic biopsy. The median age was 46.2 years (range, 36–51 years) and the median time until the gastric involvement was 19 months (range, 0–41 months). None of patients had a surgical treatment for the gastric location. All Patients received at least one line of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival following the detection of gastric involvement was 22 months (range, 1–56 months). Gastric metastases from breast cancer are rare and frequently associated with other distant metastasis. Symptoms are unspecific and endoscopy may not be contributive. Therefore, gastric involvement is underestimated. Lobular infiltrating carcinoma (LIC) is the most histological type incriminated in its occurrence. The supply of immunohistochemistry is crucial to distinguish between primary or metastatic gastric cancer. PMID:28280631

  11. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  12. Laryngeal metastasis from lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Umasankar Kalai; Karan Madan; Deepali Jain; Anant Mohan; Randeep Guleria

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the larynx are rare. The most common tumors metastasizing to the larynx are melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Bronchogenic carcinoma metastasizing to the larynx has been rarely described. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old, chronic smoker, who incidentally had a laryngeal growth detected during flexible bronchoscopy examination for evaluation of suspected lung cancer. Histopathological examination of the laryngeal nodule and the biopsy obtained from the main bro...

  13. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  14. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  15. Decreased cervical cancer cell adhesion on nanotubular titanium for the treatment of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Crear J; Kummer KM; Webster TJ

    2013-01-01

    Jara Crear, Kim M Kummer, Thomas J Webster School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Cervical cancer can be treated by surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. Titanium biomaterials have been suggested as a tool to help in the local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiation to cervical cancer sites. However, current titanium medical devices used for treating cervical cancer do not by themselves possess any anticancer properties; such devices...

  16. An evidence-based knowledgebase of metastasis suppressors to identify key pathways relevant to cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Li, Zhe; Qu, Hong

    2015-10-21

    Metastasis suppressor genes (MS genes) are genes that play important roles in inhibiting the process of cancer metastasis without preventing growth of the primary tumor. Identification of these genes and understanding their functions are critical for investigation of cancer metastasis. Recent studies on cancer metastasis have identified many new susceptibility MS genes. However, the comprehensive illustration of diverse cellular processes regulated by metastasis suppressors during the metastasis cascade is lacking. Thus, the relationship between MS genes and cancer risk is still unclear. To unveil the cellular complexity of MS genes, we have constructed MSGene (http://MSGene.bioinfo-minzhao.org/), the first literature-based gene resource for exploring human MS genes. In total, we manually curated 194 experimentally verified MS genes and mapped to 1448 homologous genes from 17 model species. Follow-up functional analyses associated 194 human MS genes with epithelium/tissue morphogenesis and epithelia cell proliferation. In addition, pathway analysis highlights the prominent role of MS genes in activation of platelets and coagulation system in tumor metastatic cascade. Moreover, global mutation pattern of MS genes across multiple cancers may reveal common cancer metastasis mechanisms. All these results illustrate the importance of MSGene to our understanding on cell development and cancer metastasis.

  17. Computational systems biology in cancer brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huiming; Tan, Hua; Zhao, Weiling; Jin, Guangxu; Sharma, Sambad; Xing, Fei; Watabe, Kounosuke; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases occur in 20-40% of patients with advanced malignancies. A better understanding of the mechanism of this disease will help us to identify novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss the systems biology approaches used in this area, including bioinformatics and mathematical modeling. Bioinformatics has been used for identifying the molecular mechanisms driving brain metastasis and mathematical modeling methods for analyzing dynamics of a system and predicting optimal therapeutic strategies. We will illustrate the strategies, procedures, and computational techniques used for studying systems biology in cancer brain metastases. We will give examples on how to use a systems biology approach to analyze a complex disease. Some of the approaches used to identify relevant networks, pathways, and possibly biomarkers in metastasis will be reviewed into details. Finally, certain challenges and possible future directions in this area will also be discussed.

  18. Progression and metastasis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Helmut H

    2016-03-01

    Metastasis in lung cancer is a multifaceted process. In this review, we will dissect the process in several isolated steps such as angiogenesis, hypoxia, circulation, and establishment of a metastatic focus. In reality, several of these processes overlap and occur even simultaneously, but such a presentation would be unreadable. Metastasis requires cell migration toward higher oxygen tension, which is based on changing the structure of the cell (epithelial-mesenchymal transition), orientation within the stroma and stroma interaction, and communication with the immune system to avoid attack. Once in the blood stream, cells have to survive trapping by the coagulation system, to survive shear stress in small blood vessels, and to find the right location for extravasation. Once outside in the metastatic locus, tumor cells have to learn the communication with the "foreign" stroma cells to establish vascular supply and again express molecules, which induce immune tolerance.

  19. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  20. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz, Nubia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs.Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infec¬tions in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in sponta¬neous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  1. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  2. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the se­cond cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV expo­sures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  3. Cervical cancer: screening and therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Thara, Somanathan; Esmy, Pulikottil Okkuru; Basu, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown to have a wide range of sensitivity in most routine settings including in developing countries. Although liquid-based cytology improves sample adequacy, claims on improved sensitivity remain controversial. Human papillomavirus testing is more sensitive than cytology, but whether this gain represents protection against future cervical cancer is not clear. Recently, in a randomized trial, the use of visual inspection with 4% acetic acid was shown to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Cryotherapy and large loop excision of the transformation zone are effective and safe treatment methods for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The clinical stage of cancer is the single most important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal treatment between surgery and radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. At the public health level, health care infrastructure, affordability and capacity for initiating and sustaining vaccination and screening programmes are critical factors in cervical cancer control. On the other hand, an informed practitioner can utilize the multiple opportunities in routine primary care interactions for prevention, screening, early detection and prompt referral for treatment.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is a prognostic marker for patients with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Beilei; Yao, Yuanqing; Yin, Guowu

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer remains one of the most common malignancies in women. Previous study proved MMP-9 might be prognostic marker for multiple human malignancies. The present study was to investigate the protein expression of MMP-9 in cervical cancer and its association with clinicopathological characteristics as well as prognosis of patients. Cervical cancer specimens from 225 cases who had not received chemotherapy or radiotherapy prior to surgery were collected. Immunochemistry assays were utilized to investigate MMP-9 protein expression. Results showed that MMP-9 expression was increased in cervical cancer and associated with stromal invasion, FIGO stage, lymph node metastasis, and vascular invasion. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with cervical cancer of positive MMP-9 staining tend to have worse overall survival. In multivariate analysis stratified for known prognostic variables, MMP-9 was proved to be an independent prognostic factor. The present study confirmed that MMP-9 expression in cervical cancer was an independent prognostic factor of patients, which might be a potential diagnostic and even therapeutic target of cervical cancer.

  5. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Stages IB2-IIB or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Node; Positive Pelvic Lymph Node; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  6. Ureteral metastasis from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Hiroshi; Kosaka, Takeo; Yoshimine, Shunsuke; Oya, Mototsugu

    2014-08-28

    A 59-year-old man had an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration (439 ng/mL) in December 2008. We diagnosed prostatic adenocarcinoma by prostate needle biopsy. CT and MRI showed a prostatic tumour with bone and lymph node metastases. Combined androgen blockade therapy reduced the PSA level temporarily. After the PSA level gradually started to increase again and reached 27.27 ng/mL in October 2010, the patient was diagnosed with castration-resistant prostate cancer and treated with docetaxel chemotherapy. Radiological examination detected left hydronephrosis and a tumour in the left lower ureter in March 2011. Retrograde pyelography and urine cytology of class 3 from the left ureter indicated that the ureteral mass was a urothelial carcinoma. A left nephroureterectomy was performed. After the operation, the pathological examination showed a metastatic prostate carcinoma, accompanied by a decrease in the serum PSA level from 59.56 to 45.33 ng/mL.

  7. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  8. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective. Nev...... with the introduction of screening. The data strongly suggested that the increased burden of cervical cancer in Greenlandic women was real and followed earlier changes in sexual behaviour; these changes were likely a consequence of the tremendous societal changes....

  9. Cervical cancer: A comprehensive approach towards extermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Smitha V; Thulasidasan, Arun Kumar T; Sreekanth, Chanickal N; Anto, Ruby John

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogen, globally. Oncogenic types of HPV are the causative agents of many neoplastic diseases, including cervical cancer, which ranks as the most common cancer affecting females in developing countries. HPV infection of the cervical epithelium and the subsequent integration of viral DNA into the host genome are the major risk factors for cervical cancer. The scientific discovery of HPV as the causal agent of cervical cancer has led to the development of HPV-based diagnostic tools. Prophylactic vaccines, based on the oncogenic HPV type virus-like particles have been introduced in several developed countries as a preliminary preventive approach. Nevertheless, it remains a continuous threat to women in developing countries, where the prophylactic vaccines are unaffordable and organized screening programmes are lacking. This warrants implementation of prevention strategies that will reduce cervical cancer-related mortality. In this review, we have discussed molecular pathogenesis of HPV infection and the risk factors associated with it. The diagnosis, treatment and prevention strategies of HPV-related cervical cancer have also been discussed.

  10. Solitary Spinal Epidural Metastasis from Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisei Sako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary epidural space metastasis of a malignant tumor is rare. We encountered a 79-year-old male patient with solitary metastatic epidural tumor who developed paraplegia and dysuria. The patient had undergone total gastrectomy for gastric cancer followed by chemotherapy 8 months priorly. The whole body was examined for suspected metastatic spinal tumor, but no metastases of the spine or important organs were observed, and a solitary mass was present in the thoracic spinal epidural space. The mass was excised for diagnosis and treatment and was histopathologically diagnosed as metastasis from gastric cancer. No solitary metastatic epidural tumor from gastric cancer has been reported in English. Among the Japanese, 3 cases have been reported, in which the outcome was poor in all cases and no definite diagnosis could be made before surgery in any case. Our patient developed concomitant pneumonia after surgery and died shortly after the surgery. When a patient has a past medical history of malignant tumor, the possibility of a solitary metastatic tumor in the epidural space should be considered.

  11. The role of GAGE cancer/testis antigen in metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Terp, Mikkel Green; Hansen, Malene Bredahl;

    2016-01-01

    with migratory and invasive properties and were found to be upregulated in cancer cells with metastasizing potential in a gastric cancer model. METHODS: We have addressed the direct role of GAGE proteins in supporting metastasis using an isogenic metastasis model of human cancer, consisting of 4 isogenic cell......) and moderately metastatic clones (LM3), stable downregulation of GAGE expression did not affect the ability of CL16 cells to establish primary tumors and form metastasis in the lungs of immunodeficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that GAGE proteins per se do not support metastasis and that further...

  12. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Emma J; Einstein, Mark H; Franceschi, Silvia; Kitchener, Henry C

    2013-09-07

    Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (especially type 16) can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature epithelial cells. Human papillomavirus disrupts normal cell-cycle control, promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18, and human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 6, and 11 virus-like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. Human papillomavirus testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low-grade cytology and as a test of cure after treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by human papillomavirus testing could enable screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved.

  13. Targeting Phosphatidylserine for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0316 TITLE: Targeting Phosphatidylserine for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis PRINCIPAL...Cancer Brain Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0316 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Rolf A. Brekken...DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Brain metastasis occurs in

  14. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  15. Expression of the CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 axes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Huang; Jia Zhang; Zhu-Mei Cui; Jing Zhao; Ye Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 is highly expressed in gynecologic tumors and is widely known to play a biologically relevant role in tumor growth and spread.Recent evidence suggests that CXCL16,a novel chemokine,is overexpressed in inflammation-associated tumors and mediates pro-tumorigenic effects of inflammation in prostate cancer.We therefore analyzed the expression of CXCL12 and CXCL16 and their respective receptors CXCR4 and CXCR6 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer and further assessed their association with clinicopathologic features and outcomes.Tissue chip technology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of CXCL12,CXCR4,CXCL16,and CXCR6 in healthy cervical tissue (21 cases),CIN (65 cases),and cervical carcinoma (60 cases).The association of protein expression with clinicopathologic features and overall survival was analyzed.These four proteins were clearly detected in membrane and cytoplasm of neoplastic epithelial cells,and their distribution and intensity of expression increased as neoplastic lesions progressed through CIN1,CIN2,and CIN3 to invasive cancer.Furthermore,the expression of CXCR4 was associated significantly with the histologic grade of cervical carcinoma,whereas the expression of CXCR6 was associated significantly with lymph node metastasis.In Kaplan-Meier analysis,patients with high CXCR6 expression had significantly shorter overall survival than did those with low CXCR6 expression.The elevated co-expression levels of CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 in CIN and cervical carcinoma suggest a durative process in cervical carcinoma development.Moreover,CXCR6 may be useful as a biomarker and a valuable prognostic factor for cervical cancer.

  16. Calvarial Mass Confused With Trichilemmal Cyst: Hepatocellular Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Gökhan; Sade, Recep

    2017-03-01

    The hepatocellular cancer calvarial metastasis is a rare condition that commonly presents cranial swelling. Therefore, calvarial swelling may confuse with frequent lesions of the scalp. The authors' patient was operated as trichilemmal cyst. But, intracranial extension was seen in operation. Calvarial metastasis of hepatocellular cancer was observed by examination of the patient.

  17. Molecular Mechanism Underlying Lymphatic Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most challenging human malignancies, pancreatic cancer is characterized by its insidious symptoms, low rate of surgical resection, high risk of local invasion, metastasis and recurrence, and overall dismal prognosis. Lymphatic metastasis, above all, is recognized as an early adverse event in progression of pancreatic cancer and has been described to be an independent poor prognostic factor. It should be noted that the occurrence of lymphatic metastasis is not a casual or stochastic but an ineluctable and designed event. Increasing evidences suggest that metastasis-initiating cells (MICs and the microenvironments may act as a double-reed style in this crime. However, the exact mechanisms on how they function synergistically for this dismal clinical course remain largely elusive. Therefore, a better understanding of its molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in pancreatic lymphatic metastasis is urgently required. In this review, we will summarize the latest advances on lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

  18. [Prognostic value of cell heterogeneity in cervical cancer determined by digital image analyzer of DNA content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pete, I; Gaudi, I; Szerdahelyi, A; Tóth, E; Pulay, T; Szentirmay, Z

    2000-10-01

    Frequency and prognostic value of cell heterogeneity in FIGO 1a-2a cervical cancer was examined, in 66 of patients underwent Wertheim type hysterectomy between 1989 and 1995 in National Institute of Cancer, Budapest, Hungary. A newly developed DNA image analyses (DNACE) was used in paraffin embedded tissues after enzymatic hydrolyses for evaluation of the DNA content in cervical cancer. In 30.3% of examined tissues (20/66) two subgroups was found. There was significant differences in the DNA indexes (DI) between the subgroups (p = 0.0001). In the remaining 69.7% of the cases only one subgroup was present. The frequency of two subgroups was higher between aneuploid (78.4%), or hyperploid (81.5%) type cervical cancer, however there was no significant difference between the two groups. On the other hand there was significant difference in the presence of two subgroups between the well and less differentiated cervical cancer. The frequency was higher between the less differentiated groups (p = 0.02). Looking at the prognostic value of subgroups, there was no significant correlation between the heterogeneity of cervical cancer and FIGO stage, or lymph node metastasis (p = 0.6855), or vascular/lymphatic space infiltration (p = 0.2558), or invasiveness of cancer (0.0823). There was neither significant value found between the outcome of disease and the number of subgroups present (p = 0.8738). It is though that the present of cellular heterogeneity in cervical cancer is connected with the differentiation of the cancer cells, and can be a good prognostic value in the anticipation of the aggressiveness of cervical cancer. Looking at the present result, there was no significant connection between the heterogeneity of cervical cancer and the outcome of the disease, so further examination should be done.

  19. January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health supports global activities to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to address the challenges of cancer and reduce cancer deaths worldwide. Towards these aims, NCI has partnered with Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, a global organization founded on public-private partnerships dedicated to saving women’s lives by advancing prevention, screening, and treatment for breast and cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

  20. Relationship between S-100 positive dendritic cell and lymphocyte infiltration in thyroid papillary carcinoma and cervical metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer%甲状腺乳头状癌组织中S-100阳性树突状细胞及淋巴细胞浸润与颈部淋巴结转移关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛少雄; 木拉提·沙特巴尔德; 袁明; 牛建华

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨甲状腺乳头状癌组织中S-100阳性树突状细胞及淋巴细胞浸润与颈部淋巴结转移的关系.方法 50例甲状腺乳头状癌行颈部淋巴结清扫术患者,采用免疫组织化学方法检测甲状腺癌组织中S-100阳性树突状细胞及淋巴细胞浸润情况,分为S-100阳性树突状细胞及淋巴细胞阳性浸润者(A组)与单独S-100阳性树突状细胞或淋巴细胞浸润者(B组),均行术后颈部淋巴结组织病理检查,比较2组颈部淋巴结转移率.结果 A组颈部淋巴结转移率(27.78%)低于B组(78.12%),2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 甲状腺乳头癌组织中S-100阳性树突状细胞及淋巴细胞浸润情况与颈部淋巴结转移密切相关.%Objective To study the relationship between S-100 positive dendritic cell and lymphocytes infiltration in thyroid papillary carcinoma and cervical metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. Methods S-100 positive dendritic cell and lymphocytes infiltration in thyroid papillary carcinoma in fifty patients with neck lymph node dissection were detected with immunohistochemical technique. According to results, the patients were divided into group A with both dendritic cell and lymphocyte infiltration and group B with dendritic cell or lymphocyte infiltration. After lymph node dissection, the two groups were detected pathologically and the rate of metastasis of two groups was compared statistically. Results The metastatic rate of cervical lymphocyte was lower in group A (27. 78%) than that in group B (78. 12%), which showed a significant difference between two groups(P<0. 05). Conclusion S-100 positive dendritic cell and lymphocyte infiltration in thyroid papillary carcinoma are closely correlated with cervical metastasis.

  1. U.S. Deaths from Cervical Cancer May Be Underestimated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163192.html U.S. Deaths From Cervical Cancer May Be Underestimated Rates ... women were factored out, Rositch's team found that U.S. cervical cancer deaths are 77 percent higher among ...

  2. TRAILs towards improved cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, John

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a life threatening disease occurring world-wide, but affecting especially women in developing countries. Standard treatment for cevical cancer varies per FIGO stage and patient related factors. In general patients with non bulky (<4 cm) FIGO stage IB and IIA are treated with a rad

  3. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna;

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  4. A case report of thyroid gland metastasis associated with lung metastasis from colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Nozawa, Keijiro; Aoyagi, Yoshiko; Ishihara, Soichiro; Matsuda, Keiji; Fukushima, Junichi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid gland metastasis of malignant tumors is observed in 1.9% to 9.5% of histologically examined autopsy cases. Thyroid metastasis from colon cancer is extremely rare and the prognosis is poor. Here we report a case of lung metastasis and thyroid gland metastasis following sigmoid colon cancer surgery. In 2000, a 58-year-old woman underwent a sigmoid colectomy for sigmoid colon cancer. In 2005, a metastatic lung tumor was detected by chest CT. The patient underwent a partial thoracoscopic resection of the left lung in April 2005. On a CT scan taken 3 years and 4 months after the lung resection, a tumor mass was observed in the left lung and a low-absorption region with an unclear border was seen in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. Thyroid aspiration cytology showed adenocarcinoma, and a diagnosis of thyroid gland metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer was made. In April 2008 a subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. Following surgery, the patient underwent chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 and bevacizumab. Nevertheless a number of lung metastases and expressions of lung metastasis were subsequently observed. Histopathological examination revealed a number of metastases of differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma in the thyroid gland from colon cancer.

  5. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    2004-01-01

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying ep

  6. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-12

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.  Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  7. pH-Responsive Wormlike Micelles with Sequential Metastasis Targeting Inhibit Lung Metastasis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyu; Yu, Haijun; Bao, Xiaoyue; Cao, Haiqiang; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping

    2016-02-18

    Cancer metastasis is the main cause for the high mortality in breast cancer patients. Herein, we first report succinobucol-loaded pH-responsive wormlike micelles (PWMs) with sequential targeting capability to inhibit lung metastasis of breast cancer. PWMs can in a first step be delivered specifically to the sites of metastases in the lungs and then enable the intracellular pH-stimulus responsive drug release in cancer cells to improve the anti-metastatic effect. PWMs are identified as nanofibrillar assemblies with a diameter of 19.9 ± 1.9 nm and a length within the 50-200 nm range, and exhibited pH-sensitive drug release behavior in response to acidic intracellular environments. Moreover, PWMs can obviously inhibit the migration and invasion abilities of metastatic 4T1 breast cancer cells, and reduce the expression of the metastasis-associated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) at 400 ng mL(-1) of succinobucol. In particular, PWMs can induce a higher specific accumulation in lung and be specifically delivered to the sites of metastases in lung, thereby leading to an 86.6% inhibition on lung metastasis of breast cancer. Therefore, the use of sequentially targeting PWMs can become an encouraging strategy for specific targeting and effective treatment of cancer metastasis.

  8. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  9. Potential Anti-metastasis Natural Compounds for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanvorachote, Pithi; Chamni, Supakarn; Ninsontia, Chuanpit; Phiboonchaiyanan, Preeyaporn Plaimee

    2016-11-01

    As lung cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide and high mortalities are the result of metastasis, novel information surpassing the treatment strategies and therapeutic agents focusing on cancer dissemination are of interest. Lung cancer metastasis involves increased motility, survival in circulation and ability to form new tumors. Metastatic cells increase their aggressive features by utilizing several mechanisms to overcome hindrances of metastasis, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased in cellular survival and migratory signals. Sufficient amounts of natural product-derived compounds have been shown to have promising anti-metastasis activities by suppressing key molecular features upholding such cell aggressiveness. The knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms rendering cell dissemination together with the anti-metastasis information of natural product-derived compounds may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  10. Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results.

  11. Cellular and molecular processes in ovarian cancer metastasis. A Review in the Theme: Cell and Molecular Processes in Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Tsz-Lun; Leung, Cecilia S; Yip, Kay-Pong; Au Yeung, Chi Lam; Wong, Stephen T C; Mok, Samuel C

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. It is usually diagnosed at a late stage, with a 5-yr survival rate of metastasis. Although metastasis plays a crucial role in promoting ovarian tumor progression and decreasing patient survival rates, the underlying mechanisms of ovarian cancer spread have yet to be thoroughly explored. For many years, researchers have believed that ovarian cancer metastasizes via a passive mechanism by which ovarian cancer cells are shed from the primary tumor and carried by the physiological movement of peritoneal fluid to the peritoneum and omentum. However, the recent discovery of hematogenous metastasis of ovarian cancer to the omentum via circulating tumor cells instigated rethinking of the mode of ovarian cancer metastasis and the importance of the "seed-and-soil" hypothesis for ovarian cancer metastasis. In this review we discuss the possible mechanisms by which ovarian cancer cells metastasize from the primary tumor to the omentum, the cross-talk signaling events between ovarian cancer cells and various stromal cells that play crucial roles in ovarian cancer metastasis, and the possible clinical implications of these findings in the management of this deadly, highly metastatic disease.

  12. N-WASP promotes invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells through regulating p38 MAPKs signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinxuan; Yang, Hui; Huang, Xin; Leng, Xiaohua; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Yunfeng; Xu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) is an important member of the WASP family involved in the actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Recent evidence suggests that N-WASP may play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the contribution of N-WASP to cervical cancer is still unknown. The present study focused on elucidating the role of N-WASP in the malignant behavior of cervical cancer cells. We found that N-WASP overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues compared with paired paracancerous tissues and normal tissues, and similar results were observed in several cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of N-WASP facilitated migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, while downregulation of N-WASP resulted in decreased cell migration and invasion. In addition, the data showed that N-WASP might promote invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells via regulating the activity of p38 MAPKs pathway. Altogether, the study suggested that N-WASP might serve as an oncogene in cervical cancer, and provided novel insights into the mechanism that how N-WASP promoted invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells.

  13. Gastric Metastasis of Breast Cancer: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Fernandes, Gustavo; Batista Bugiato Faria, Luiza D.; de Assis Pereira, Isadora; Neves, Natália C. Moreira; Vieira, Yasmine Oliveira; Leal, Alessandro I. Cavalcanti

    2016-01-01

    Gastric metastasis is rare but it can be the initial symptom of cancer. The second leading cause of this type of metastasis is breast cancer. A lack of clinical signs and nonspecific side effects of the treatment of primary tumors can lead to the misdiagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and immunohistochemistry should be used for diagnosis. Treatment is palliative; it includes chemo, endocrine, and radiation therapies. Four patients with breast cancer and gastric metastasis were identified. All the patients tested positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and received chemotherapy and hormone therapy. One patient underwent surgery and two received radiation therapy. Patients with breast cancer and gastrointestinal symptoms should be investigated for gastric metastasis, given its morbidity and negative impact on quality of life.

  14. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Aljoša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cyclooxygenase (COX or prostaglandin H2 synthase is the first enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. The aim of the study was to determine the expression level of COX-2 in patients with cervical cancer and compare it with that in the control group with no cervical pathology. Methods. The study included 76 patients divided into two groups: the control group - 30 patients without histopathological changes and the group A - 46 patients with cervical cancer, FIGO stage IB-IIA. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in these two groups of patients. Results. In the control group, the expression of COX-2 was not confirmed compared to the group A of 26 (56.52% patients. The expression of COX-2 showed a statistically significant difference in the presence of lymphocytic stromal infiltration (p = 0.0053. The expression of COX-2 was more pronounced in the stromal tissue without lymphocytic infiltration (80% vs 20%. Conclusion. A higher expression of COX-2 in cervical carcinoma without stromal lymphocytic infiltration suggests a possible paradoxical effect of COX-2 in immunosuppression. Frequent COX- 2 expression in the subgroup with poor prognostic histological parameters in the group A indicates the importance of COX-2 expression in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer.

  15. Preoperative Arterial Interventional Chemotherapy on Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LING HU-Hua; TANG Liang-dan; ZHANG Xing-hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the therapeutic effect of preoperative interventional chemotherapy on cervical cancer.Methods:Preoperative interventional chemotherapy by femoral intubation was performed in 25 patients with bulky cervical cancer.The patients received bleomycin 45 mg and cisplatin or oxaliplatin 80 mg/m2.Results:25 cases(including 8 cases with stage Ⅰ and 17 cases with stage Ⅱ)received one or two courses of preoperative interventional chemotherapy.The size of the focal lesions was decreased greatly and radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy were performed successfully in all the patients.All of the specimens were sent for pathological examination.Lymphocyte infiltration was found more obvious in the cancer tissues as compared with their counterpart before treatment.As a result,relevant vaginal bleeding was stopped completely shortly after the treatment.Conclusion:Arterial interventional chemotherapy was proved to reduce the local size of cervical cancer and thus control the hemorrhage efficiently.The patients with cervical cancer can receive radical hysterectomy therapy after the interventional chemotherapy.

  16. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  17. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  18. Cervical cancer in India--strategy for control.

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar A

    1992-01-01

    The available information on the incidence of cancers by site in India have indicated that of incidence of cancer of uterine cervix among women is by far the highest compared to other sites in women. The epidemiology of cervical cancer has been studied extensively in India and in other countries. The majority of factors related to cervical cancer are associated with sexual behaviour. The available evidence for control of cervical cancer is through secondary prevention, namely--early detection...

  19. Andrographolide inhibits cervical cancer cell metastasis via NF-κB pathways%穿心莲内酯通过NF-κB途径抑制人宫颈癌细胞转移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭莉; 钟凤辉; 邓元; 何璐

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the inhibitory effect of andrographolide (AD) on the migration and invasion of human cervical cancer cells,and investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of AD.Methods Human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa cells were cultured in vitro.After induced by 100 nmol/L of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate(PMA) for 24 h,different concentration of AD was co-incubated for another 24 h.Cell viability was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazoliym (MTT) assay.Chamber invasion assay was used to observe the migration and invasion,respectively.Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit were detected by Western blot.Results The concentration (0 ~ 10 μmol/L) of AD exhibited a non-cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells.10 μmol/L of AD decreased PMA-induced migration by 49% and invasion by 52%.Western blot showed that AD suppressed PMA-induced MMP-9 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner.Treatment of AD could decrease the translation of p65 in HeLa cells.Conclusions AD inhibits MMP-9 expression mediated by NF-κB,which lead to the suppression of migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells.%目的 观察穿心莲内酯(Andrographolide,AD)对宫颈癌细胞迁移和侵袭的抑制情况,并探讨其分子机制.方法 体外培养宫颈癌细胞系HeLa细胞,经100 nmol/L佛波酯(phorbol-12myristate-13acetate,PMA)诱导24h后,加入不同浓度(0,1,5,10 μmol/L)的AD继续孵育24 h.噻唑蓝比色(MTT)法检测HeLa细胞的生长抑制情况;小室侵袭实验分析AD对PMA诱导HeLa细胞的迁移与侵袭情况.Western blot检测基质金属蛋白酶-9(matrix metalloproteinase-9,MMP-9)的表达以及核因子κB (Nuclear Factor kappa B,NF-κB) p65亚基的转位.结果 0~10 μmol/L AD对HeLa细胞的生长增殖无明显毒性作用.10 μmol/L AD也能使HeLa细胞迁移和侵袭率分别降低49%和52%.Westem blot结果显示AD能以剂量依

  20. A niche role for cancer exosomes in metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2015-06-01

    Cancer cells are known to secrete exosomes with pro-metastatic effects. Pancreatic-cancer-derived exosomes are now shown to promote liver metastasis by eliciting pre-metastatic niche formation through a multi-step process. This involves uptake of exosome-derived factors by liver Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cell activation to generate a fibrotic microenvironment with immune cell infiltrates that favours metastasis.

  1. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cer

  2. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... mystery. Most important, however, is to have a vaccine which potentially can ... focusing their research on helping to produce second-generation HPV vaccines ...

  3. Recurrent cervical cancer : detection and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyn, A; Van Eijkeren, M; Kenter, G; Zwinderman, K; Ansink, A

    2002-01-01

    Background. Only a small proportion of cervical cancer recurrences is detected during routine follow-up. We investigated which percentage of recurrences is detected during follow-up, which diagnostic tools are helpful to detect recurrent disease and which factors are of prognostic significance once

  4. Cervical Cancer: Reality and Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quiñones Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical carcinoma usually reaches its highest frequency between 35-50 years of age. The Cuban prevention program screens the female population aged 25 to 60 years using the Pap smear and reexamines them every three years. Despite this effort, advanced cancer is diagnosed in young women as well as in those 40 to 60 years of age.

  5. Remodeling of the methylation landscape in breast cancer metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Reyngold

    Full Text Available The development of breast cancer metastasis is accompanied by dynamic transcriptome changes and dramatic alterations in nuclear and chromatin structure. The basis of these changes is incompletely understood. The DNA methylome of primary breast cancers contribute to transcriptomic heterogeneity and different metastatic behavior. Therefore we sought to characterize methylome remodeling during regional metastasis. We profiled the DNA methylome and transcriptome of 44 matched primary breast tumors and regional metastases. Striking subtype-specific patterns of metastasis-associated methylome remodeling were observed, which reflected the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancers. These divergent changes occurred primarily in CpG island (CGI-poor areas. Regions of methylome reorganization shared by the subtypes were also observed, and we were able to identify a metastasis-specific methylation signature that was present across the breast cancer subclasses. These alterations also occurred outside of CGIs and promoters, including sequences flanking CGIs and intergenic sequences. Integrated analysis of methylation and gene expression identified genes whose expression correlated with metastasis-specific methylation. Together, these findings significantly enhance our understanding of the epigenetic reorganization that occurs during regional breast cancer metastasis across the major breast cancer subtypes and reveal the nature of methylome remodeling during this process.

  6. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  7. Active Roles of Tumor Stroma in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa I. Khamis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the major cause of death for breast cancer patients. Tumors are heterogenous cellular entities composed of cancer cells and cells of the microenvironment in which they reside. A reciprocal dynamic interaction occurs between the tumor cells and their surrounding stroma under physiological and pathological conditions. This tumor-host communication interface mediates the escape of tumor cells at the primary site, survival of circulating cancer cells in the vasculature, and growth of metastatic cancer at secondary site. Each step of the metastatic process is accompanied by recruitment of stromal cells from the microenvironment and production of unique array of growth factors and chemokines. Stromal microenvironment may play active roles in breast cancer metastasis. Elucidating the types of cells recruited and signal pathways involved in the crosstalk between tumor cells and stromal cells will help identify novel strategies for cotargeting cancer cells and tumor stromal cells to suppress metastasis and improve patient outcome.

  8. Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study to comprehensively assess biomarkers of risk for progressive cervical neoplasia, and thus develop a new set of biomarkers that can distinguish those at highest risk of cervical cancer from those with benign infection

  9. Post site metastasis of breast cancer after video-assisted thoracic surgery for pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mee Hyun; Hwang, Ji Young; Hyun, Su Jeong; Lee, Yul; Woo, Ji Young; Yang, Ik; Hong, Hye Sook; Kim, Han Myun [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We reported a case of port site metastasis in a 57-year-old patient who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) resection of pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer. Port site metastasis after VATS is very rare in patients with breast cancer. However, when suspicious lesions are detected near the port site in patients who have undergone VATS for pulmonary metastasis, port site metastasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  10. Targeting type Iγ phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase inhibits breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Wang, X; Xiong, X; Liu, Q; Huang, Y; Xu, Q; Hu, J; Ge, G; Ling, K

    2015-08-27

    Most deaths from breast cancer are caused by metastasis, a complex behavior of cancer cells involving migration, invasion, survival and microenvironment manipulation. Type Iγ phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPKIγ) regulates focal adhesion assembly and its phosphorylation at Y639 is critical for cell migration induced by EGF. However, the role of this lipid kinase in tumor metastasis remains unclear. Here we report that PIPKIγ is vital for breast cancer metastasis. Y639 of PIPKIγ can be phosphorylated by stimulation of EGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), two promoting factors for breast cancer progression. Histological analysis revealed elevated Y639 phosphorylation of PIPKIγ in invasive ductal carcinoma lesions and suggested a positive correlation with tumor grade. Orthotopically transplanted PIPKIγ-depleted breast cancer cells showed substantially reduced growth and metastasis, as well as suppressed expression of multiple genes related to cell migration and microenvironment manipulation. Re-expression of wild-type PIPKIγ in PIPKIγ-depleted cells restored tumor growth and metastasis, reinforcing the importance of PIPKIγ in breast cancer progression. Y639-to-F or a kinase-dead mutant of PIPKIγ could not recover the diminished metastasis in PIPKIγ-depleted cancer cells, suggesting that Y639 phosphorylation and lipid kinase activity are both required for development of metastasis. Further analysis with in vitro assays indicated that depleting PIPKIγ inhibited cell proliferation, MMP9 secretion and cell migration and invasion, lending molecular mechanisms for the eliminated cancer progression. These results suggest that PIPKIγ, downstream of EGF and/or HGF receptor, participates in breast cancer progression from multiple aspects and deserves further studies to explore its potential as a therapeutic target.

  11. Anticancer activity of liposomal cisplatin in preclinical models of cervical and ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Casagrande, Naike

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy improves survival in cervical and ovarian cancer; however, treatment is associated with tumor resistance and significant toxicity. Lipoplatin (Regulon Inc., Mountain View, California) is a liposomal encapsulated form of cisplatin, developed in an effort to reduce cisplatin‟s systemic toxicity, while simultaneously improving the targeting of drugs to primary tumor and metastasis. Lipoplatin has been successfully administered in several randomized Phase II and II...

  12. Cervical cancer prevention: new tools and old barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kobetz, Erin; Partridge, Edward E; Brandt, Heather M; Bell, Maria C; Dignan, Mark; Ma, Grace X; Daye, Jane L; Castle, Philip E

    2010-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female tumor worldwide, and its incidence is disproportionately high (>80%) in the developing world. In the United States, in which Papanicolaou (Pap) tests have reduced the annual incidence to approximately 11,000 cervical cancers, >60% of cases are reported to occur in medically underserved populations as part of a complex of diseases linked to poverty, race/ethnicity, and/or health disparities. Because carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause virtually all cervical cancer, 2 new approaches for cervical cancer prevention have emerged: 1) HPV vaccination to prevent infections in younger women (aged or =30 years). Together, HPV vaccination and testing, if used in an age-appropriate manner, have the potential to transform cervical cancer prevention, particularly among underserved populations. Nevertheless, significant barriers of access, acceptability, and adoption to any cervical cancer prevention strategy remain. Without understanding and addressing these obstacles, these promising new tools for cervical cancer prevention may be futile. In the current study, the delivery of cervical cancer prevention strategies to these US populations that experience a high cervical cancer burden (African-American women in South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi; Haitian immigrant women in Miami; Hispanic women in the US-Mexico Border; Sioux/Native American women in the Northern Plains; white women in the Appalachia; and Vietnamese-American women in Pennsylvania and New Jersey) is reviewed. The goal was to inform future research and outreach efforts to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in underserved populations.

  13. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer progression and metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yifan Wang; Binhua P. Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women,and approximately 90% of breast cancer deaths are caused by local invasion and distant metastasis of tumor cells.Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a vital process for large-scale cell movement during morphogenesis at the time of embryonic development.Tumor cells usurp this developmental program to execute the multi-step process of tumorigenesis and metastasis.Several transcription factors and signals are involved in these events.In this review,we summarize recent advances in breast cancer researches that have provided new insights in the molecular mechanisms underlying EMT regulation during breast cancer progression and metastasis.We especially focus on the molecular pathways that control EMT.

  14. Dissecting Tumor-Stromal Interactions in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastasis is a frequent occurrence in breast cancer, affecting more than 70% of late stage cancer patients with severe complications such as fracture, bone pain, and hypercalcemia. The pathogenesis of osteolytic bone metastasis depends on cross-communications between tumor cells and various stromal cells residing in the bone microenvironment. Several growth factor signaling pathways, secreted micro RNAs (miRNAs and exosomes are functional mediators of tumor-stromal interactions in bone metastasis. We developed a functional genomic approach to systemically identified molecular pathways utilized by breast cancer cells to engage the bone stroma in order to generate osteolytic bone metastasis. We showed that elevated expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1 in disseminated breast tumor cells mediates the recruitment of pre-osteoclasts and promotes their differentiation to mature osteoclasts during the bone metastasis formation. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β is released from bone matrix upon bone destruction, and signals to breast cancer to further enhance their malignancy in developing bone metastasis. We furthered identified Jagged1 as a TGF-β target genes in tumor cells that engaged bone stromal cells through the activation of Notch signaling to provide a positive feedback to promote tumor growth and to activate osteoclast differentiation. Substantially change in miRNA expression was observed in osteoclasts during their differentiation and maturation, which can be exploited as circulating biomarkers of emerging bone metastasis and therapeutic targets for the treatment of bone metastasis. Further research in this direction may lead to improved diagnosis and treatment strategies for bone metastasis.

  15. Glycan changes: cancer metastasis and anti-cancer vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min Li; Lujun Song; Xinyu Qin

    2010-12-01

    Complex carbohydrates, which are major components of the cell membrane, perform important functions in cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions, as well as in signal transduction. They comprise three kinds of biomolecules: glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycosphingolipids. Recent studies have also shown that glycan changes in malignant cells take a variety of forms and mediate key pathophysiological events during the various stages of tumour progression. Glycosylation changes are universal hallmarks of malignant transformation and tumour progression in human cancer, which take place on the whole cells or some specific molecules. Accordingly, those changes make them prominent candidates for cancer biomarkers in the meantime. This review mainly focuses on the correlation between glycosylation and the metastasis potential of tumour cells from comprehensive aspects to further address the vital roles of glycans in oncogenesising. Moreover, utilizing these glycosylation changes to ward off tumour metastasis by means of anti-adhesion approach or devising anti-cancer vaccine is one of promising targets of future study.

  16. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  17. MicroRNA-421 inhibits breast cancer metastasis by targeting metastasis associated 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yongqin; Jiao, Genlong; Wang, Cunchuan; Yang, Jingge; Yang, Wah

    2016-10-01

    Dysregulation of microRNAs is involved in the initiation and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer, as strong evidence of miRNAs acting as oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes has been found. This study was performed to investigate the biological functions of microRNA-421 (miR-421) in breast cancer and the underlying mechanisms. The expression level of miR-421 was detected in 50 pairs of surgical specimens and human breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that miR-421 is downregulated in breast cancer tissues and metastatic cell lines. In addition, the decrease in miR-421 levels was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, recurrence/metastasis, or pTNM stage. Functions of miR-421 in cell migration and invasion were assessed through its silencing and overexpression. The results showed that miR-421 knockdown promotes invasion and metastasis in MCF-7 cells and its overexpression suppresses invasion and metastasis in MDA-MB-231 cells. The specific target genes of miR-421 were predicted by TargetScan algorithm and determined by dual luciferase reporter assay, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, and western blot analysis. miR-421 could suppress luciferase activity of the reporter containing 3'-untranslated region of metastasis associated 1 (MTA1), a potent oncogene. miR-421 overexpression or knockdown had no effect on the mRNA expression of MTA1, but it could modulate MTA1 protein level. Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown receded the effect of miR-421 inhibitor on invasion and metastasis of MCF-7 cells, and its overexpression receded the effect of miR-421 on invasion and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that miR-421 suppresses breast cancer metastasis by directly inhibiting MTA1 expression. The present study provides a new insight into the tumour suppressor roles of miR-421 and suggests that miR-421/MTA1 pathway is a putative therapeutic target in breast cancer.

  18. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on locally advanced cervical cancer by internal iliac arterial infusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; Aiping; Ding; Zhaoxia; Xu; Bing; Zhao; Shuping; Dai; Shuzhen

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of preoperative chemotherapy on locally advanced cervical cancer by internal iliac arterial infusion.Methods:Sixty two patients with bulky or locally advanced cervical cancer from 1999 to 2004 were underwent internal iliac arterial infusion chemotherapy by using Seldinger technique.Combined regimens were applied including cisplatin as the major drug.Two weeks later,all patients received radical hysterectomy.Results:The local tumor regression rate was 93.55%.Postoperative pathologic examination showed that no cervical tumor residue in stumps were found in 61 of 62 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy.Large quantity of necrotic tissue appeared on primary tumor.In 16 patients with positive lymph nodes,15 demonstrated necrotic lymph nodes.Conclusion:Internal iliac arterial infusion chemotherapy could effectively reduce tumor volume,increase surgical success rate and decrease lymph nodes and subclinical metastasis rates.

  19. Breast and cervical cancer risk in India: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Asthana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast and cervical cancers are two major cancers among Indian women. Analysis of trends would help in planning and organization of programs for control of these cancers. Objective: The objective of the following study is to compute risk of breast and cervical cancers using updated data from different cancer registries of India and study of its trends. Materials and Methods: Data on incidence rates of breast and cervical cancers were obtained from six major cancer registries of India for the years 1982-2008 and from the recently initiated cancer registries, North Eastern Registries of India with a total of 21 registries. Annual percent change in incidence and risk in terms of one in number of women likely to develop cancer was estimated for both the cancers in various registries. Results: The annual percentage change in incidence ranged from 0.46 to 2.56 and −1.14 to −3.4 for breast and cervical cancers respectively. Trends were significant for both cancers in the registries of Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai and Delhi except Barshi and Bhopal. North East region showed decrease in risk for breast and cervical cancers whereas increasing trend was observed in Imphal (West and for cervical cancer in Silchar. Conclusion: North Eastern region recorded decline in the incidence of breast cancer which is contrary to the observation in other registries, which showed increase in breast cancer and decline in cervical cancer incidences.

  20. Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on ovarian cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tian-min; CUI Man-hua; XIN Ying; GU Li-ping; JIANG Xin; SU Man-man; WANG Ding-ding; WANG Wen-jia

    2008-01-01

    Background Ginsenosides are main components extracted from ginseng, and ginsenoside Rg3 is one of the most important parts. Ginsenoside Rg3 has been found to inhibit several kinds of tumor growth and metastasis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on human ovarian cancer metastasis and the possible mechanism.Methods The experimental lung metastasis models of ovarian cancer SKOV-3 and the assay of tumor-induced angiogenesis were used to observe the inhibitory effects of Rg3 on tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. The effect of Rg3 on invasive ability of SKOV-3 cells in vitro was detected by Boyden chamber, and immunofluorescence staining was used to recognize the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in SKOV-3 cells.Results In the experimental lung metastasis models of ovarian cancer, the number of tumor colonies in the lung and vessels oriented toward the tumor mass in each ginsenoside Rg3 group, was lower than that of control group. The invasive ability and MMP-9 expression of SKOV-3 cells decreased significantly after treatment with ginsenoside Rg3.Conclusions Ginsenoside Rg3 can significantly inhibit the metastasis of ovarian cancer. The inhibitory effect is partially due to inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis and decrease of invasive ability and MMP-9 expression of SKOV-3 cells.

  1. Metastasis regulation by PPARD expression in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiangsheng; Xu, Weiguo; Xu, Min; Tian, Rui; Moussalli, Micheline J.; Mao, Fei; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jing; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Eng, Cathy; Maru, Dipen M.; Rashid, Asif; Broaddus, Russell; Wei, Daoyan; Hung, Mien-Chie; Sood, Anil K.

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor–δ (PPARD) is upregulated in many major human cancers, but the role that its expression in cancer cells has in metastasis remains poorly understood. Here, we show that specific PPARD downregulation or genetic deletion of PPARD in cancer cells significantly repressed metastasis in various cancer models in vivo. Mechanistically, PPARD promoted angiogenesis via interleukin 8 in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of transcriptome profiling of HCT116 colon cancer cells with or without genetic deletion of PPARD and gene expression patterns in The Cancer Genome Atlas colorectal adenocarcinoma database identified novel pro-metastatic genes (GJA1, VIM, SPARC, STC1, SNCG) as PPARD targets. PPARD expression in cancer cells drastically affected epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion, further underscoring its necessity for metastasis. Clinically, high PPARD expression in various major human cancers (e.g., colorectal, lung, breast) was associated with significantly reduced metastasis-free survival. Our results demonstrate that PPARD, a druggable protein, is an important molecular target in metastatic cancer. PMID:28097239

  2. Detection of STAT2 in early stage of cervical premalignancy and in cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zeng; Li-Hua Gao; Li-Jun Cao; De-Yun Feng; Ya Cao; Qi-Zhi Luo; Ping Yu; Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To measure the expression pattern ofSTAT2 in cervical cancer initiation and progression in tissue sections from patients with cervicitis, dysplasia, and cervical cancer. Methods:Antibody against humanSTAT2 was confirmed by plasmids transient transfection andWestern blot.Immunohistochemistry was used to detectSTAT2 expression in the cervical biopsies by using the confirmed antibody againstSTAT2 as the primary antibody.Results:It was found that the overall rate of positiveSTAT2 expression in the cervicitis, dysplasia and cervical cancer groups were38.5%,69.4% and76.9%, respectively.TheSTAT2 levels are significantly increased in premalignant dysplasia and cervical cancer, as compared to cervicitis(P<0.05). Noticeably,STAT2 signals were mainly found in the cytoplasm, implying thatSTAT2 was not biologically active.Conclusions:These findings reveal an association between cervical cancer progression and augmentedSTAT2 expression.In conclusion,STAT2 increase appears to be an early detectable cellular event in cervical cancer development.

  3. Lung Cancer Presenting as a Soft-Tissue Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Baldeo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft-tissue metastasis refers to the growth of cancer cells, originating from internal cancer, in soft tissues. In most cases, soft-tissue metastases develop after initial diagnosis of the primary internal malignancy and late in the course of the disease. In very rare cases, they may occur at the same time or before the primary cancer has been detected. In our cases, the soft-tissue metastases and the primary lung cancer were diagnosed at the same time.

  4. Fyn: A Key Regulator of Metastasis in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    reviewed manuscript entitled “SRC family kinase FYN promotes the neuroendocrine phenotype and visceral metastasis in advanced prostate cancer ”. This...Genitourinary Malignancies. Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy- Society of Immunologic Therapy for Cancer . June 19, 2015 26. Circulating tumor cell...Medical Center (2011-2014) • Cancer Quality Committee Member- Cedars Sinai Medical Center (2011-2014) • Protocol Review and Monitoring Committee

  5. The male role in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  6. Breast Metastasis from Esophagogastric Junction Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Jena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to breast from nonmammary malignancy is only about 1.3–2.7%. A few cases of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus and adenocarcinoma of stomach metastasizing to breast have been reported, but this is probably the first report of breast metastasis from esophagogastric junction (EGJ cancer in the English literature. Herein we report a case of a 32-year-old patient diagnosed as adenocarcinoma of gastroesophageal junction, presenting with left breast metastasis two years after treatment. Given unusual site of metastasis in a follow-up case of EGJ cancer, not only it is challenging to differentiate it from primary carcinoma of breast but also it is important from treatment point of view. In our case, clinical data, radiology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC led us to reach the diagnosis.

  7. GP140/CDCPI in the Development of Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    RM: The pluripotency of hair follicle stem cells. Cell Cycle 2006, 5:232–233 54. Hirst CE, Ng ES, Azzola L, Voss AK, Thomas T, Stanley EG, Elefanty...analyze the role of gp140/CDCP1 in prostate cancer metastasis and to determine whether targeting gp140/CDCP1 could serve as a treatment against...KS, Xin H: Targeting CUB domain-containing protein 1 with a monoclonal antibody inhibits metastasis in a prostate cancer model. Cancer Res 2008, 68

  8. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical...

  9. Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace X. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.

  10. AACR centennial series: the biology of cancer metastasis: historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmadge, James E; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2010-07-15

    Metastasis resistant to therapy is the major cause of death from cancer. Despite almost 200 years of study, the process of tumor metastasis remains controversial. Stephen Paget initially identified the role of host-tumor interactions on the basis of a review of autopsy records. His "seed and soil" hypothesis was substantiated a century later with experimental studies, and numerous reports have confirmed these seminal observations. An improved understanding of the metastatic process and the attributes of the cells selected by this process is critical for the treatment of patients with systemic disease. In many patients, metastasis has occurred by the time of diagnosis, so metastasis prevention may not be relevant. Treating systemic disease and identifying patients with early disease should be our goal. Revitalized research in the past three decades has focused on new discoveries in the biology of metastasis. Even though our understanding of molecular events that regulate metastasis has improved, the contributions and timing of molecular lesion(s) involved in metastasis pathogenesis remain unclear. Review of the history of pioneering observations and discussion of current controversies should increase understanding of the complex and multifactorial interactions between the host and selected tumor cells that contribute to fatal metastasis and should lead to the design of successful therapy.

  11. Isolated renal metastasis from squamous cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer is rather uncommon. The mechanism underlying the occurrence of metastasis in this site is still not well understood. We report a case of a 53-year-old Chinese woman who had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. After a ten months post-surgery interval of disease free survival, computed tomography (CT scan found that left renal parenchymal was occupied by a mass, confirmed by kidney biopsy to be a metastasis from squamous cell lung carcinoma. Based on this case, we are warned to be cautious in diagnosis and treatment when renal lesion are detected.

  12. Survival in patients with breast cancer with bone metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cetin, Karynsa; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Sværke, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since population-based data on prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with breast cancer with bone metastasis (BM) are currently limited, we conducted this nationwide retrospective cohort study to examine the prognostic role of disease stage at breast cancer diagnosis...

  13. Lymphatics and cancer : VEGF-C and nitric oxide in lymphatic function, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagendoorn, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    The lymphatics are a primary route for cancer metastasis and lymph node metastasis is an important clinical prognostic factor. The process of lymphatic metastasis is, however, not well understood. This thesis examines the function of lymphatic vessels in relation to cancer progression and metastasis

  14. Epigenetic Silencing of CXCR4 Promotes Loss of Cell Adhesion in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Singh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the network of chemokine signaling pathways, recent reports have described the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis and its role in cancer progression and metastasis. Interestingly, we found downregulation of CXCR4 at both transcript and protein level in cervical cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We also found CXCR4 promoter hypermethylation in cervical cancer cell lines and primary biopsy samples. DNA hypomethylating drug 5-AZA-2′-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A treatments in cell lines reactivate both CXCR4 transcription and protein expression. Cell adhesion assay demonstrated that autocrine SDF-1α promotes the loss of cell adhesion while paracrine SDF-1α predominantly protects the normal cervical cells from loss of cell adhesion. Cervical cancer cell line C-33A having increased expression of CXCR4 after TSA treatment showed increased cell adhesion by paracrine source of SDF-1α in comparison to untreated C-33A. These findings demonstrate the first evidence that epigenetic silencing of CXCR4 makes the cells inefficient to respond to the paracrine source of SDF-1α leading to loss of cell adhesion, one of the key events in metastases and progression of the disease. Our results provide novel insight of SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in tumor microenvironment which may be promising to further delineate molecular mechanism of cervical carcinogenesis.

  15. Cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Melissa S; Baker, Ellen S; Maza, Mauricio; Fontes-Cintra, Georgia; Lopez, Aldo; Carvajal, Juan M; Nozar, Fernanda; Fiol, Veronica; Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2017-02-07

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a known etiology (human papillomavirus), effective preventive vaccines, excellent screening methods, and a treatable pre-invasive phase. Surgery is the primary treatment for pre-invasive and early-stage disease and can safely be performed in many low-resource settings. However, cervical cancer rates remain high in many areas of Latin America. This article presents a number of evidence-based strategies being implemented to improve cervical cancer outcomes in Latin America.

  16. Is Selenium a Potential Treatment for Cancer Metastasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient that functions as a redox gatekeeper through its incorporation into proteins to alleviate oxidative stress in cells. Although the epidemiological data are somewhat controversial, the results of many studies suggest that inorganic and organic forms of Se negatively affect cancer progression, and that several selenoproteins, such as GPXs, also play important roles in tumor development. Recently, a few scientists have examined the relationship between Se and metastasis, a late event in cancer progression, and have evaluated the potential of Se as an anti-angiogenesis or anti-metastasis agent. In this review, we present the current knowledge about Se compounds and selenoproteins, and their effects on the development of metastasis, with an emphasis on cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. In the cancers of breast, prostate, colorectal, fibrosarcoma, melanoma, liver, lung, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and brain glioma, there is either clinical evidence linking selenoproteins, such as thioredoxin reductase-1 to lymph node metastasis; in vitro studies indicating that Se compounds and selenoproteins inhibited cell motility, migration, and invasion, and reduced angiogenic factors in some of these cancer cells; or animal studies showing that Se supplementation resulted in reduced microvessel density and metastasis. Together, these data support the notion that Se may be an anti-metastastatic element in addition to being a cancer preventative agent.

  17. Is selenium a potential treatment for cancer metastasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chi; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Mastro, Andrea M

    2013-04-08

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that functions as a redox gatekeeper through its incorporation into proteins to alleviate oxidative stress in cells. Although the epidemiological data are somewhat controversial, the results of many studies suggest that inorganic and organic forms of Se negatively affect cancer progression, and that several selenoproteins, such as GPXs, also play important roles in tumor development. Recently, a few scientists have examined the relationship between Se and metastasis, a late event in cancer progression, and have evaluated the potential of Se as an anti-angiogenesis or anti-metastasis agent. In this review, we present the current knowledge about Se compounds and selenoproteins, and their effects on the development of metastasis, with an emphasis on cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. In the cancers of breast, prostate, colorectal, fibrosarcoma, melanoma, liver, lung, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and brain glioma, there is either clinical evidence linking selenoproteins, such as thioredoxin reductase-1 to lymph node metastasis; in vitro studies indicating that Se compounds and selenoproteins inhibited cell motility, migration, and invasion, and reduced angiogenic factors in some of these cancer cells; or animal studies showing that Se supplementation resulted in reduced microvessel density and metastasis. Together, these data support the notion that Se may be an anti-metastastatic element in addition to being a cancer preventative agent.

  18. Drug Delivery Approaches for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Ordikhani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a highly prevalent cancer that affects women around the world. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have increased their efforts to develop new drug delivery systems in cervical cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we summarized some of the recent research in systematic and localized drug delivery systems and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  19. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage IB2, II, or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  20. Expression of Survivin, CyclinD1, p21WAF1, Caspase-3 in Cervical Cancer and Its Relation with Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shi; ZHANG Baohua; WANG Zehua

    2005-01-01

    The implications of Survivin, CyclinD1, p21WAF1, Caspase-3 in the development, progression and prognosis in cervical cancer were investigated. By using immunohistochemical SP method, the expression of Survivin, CyclinD1, p21WAF1 , Caspase-3 was detected in 41 cases of cervical cancer, 17 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 10 cases of normal tissues, and their relation with pathological grade, clinical stage, metastasis and survival time was analyzed.The results showed that the positive expression rate of Survivin, CyclinD1 in cervical cancer was significantly higher than in CIN group and normal control group (P<0.05). The median survival time in the patients with cervical cancer positive for Survivin and CyclinD1 was significantly shorter than in those with negative expression (P<0.05). The expression of both Survivin and CyclinD1 was not related with tumor grade, clinical stage and metastasis (P>0. 05). The positive expression rate of p21WAF1 , Caspase-3 in cervical ca rcer was significantly lower than in CIN group and normal control group (P<0.05), and had a close relation with tumor grade (P<0.05). The expression of Survivin in cervical cancer in cervical cancer was negatively associated with that of Caspase-3 (P<0.01), but positively with that of CyclinD1 (P<0.01). Cox Multivariate analysis revealed that Survivin was the independent prognostic indicator influencing the survival time of the patients with cervical cancer (P<0.05). It was suggested that the high expression of Survivin or CyclinD1, and low expression of p21WAF1 or Caspase-3 was closely correlated with the development of cervical cancer. Survivin and CyclinD1 could be used as a useful indicator to predict the prognosis of cervical cancer.

  1. Paeoniflorin inhibits macrophage-mediated lung cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Chen, Gang-Ling; Li, Ya-Juan; Chen, Yang; Lin, Fang-Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Alternatively activated macrophages are more frequently involved in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression. A previous study showed that paeoniflorin, the major active constituent of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, can inhibit tumor growth and lung metastases of Lewis lung tumor-bearing mice. This study tried to investigate whether paeoniflorin inhibited lung cancer metastasis by inhibiting the alternative activation of macrophages (M2 macrophage). Using a viability assay, the cytotoxicity of paeoniflorin on Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages were investigated. In vitro scratch wound and in vivo lung metastasis experiments were used to test the ability to inhibit the migration of paeoniflorin and the function of M2 macrophages. Flow cytometry was performed to test the cell cycle of Lewis lung cancer cells, and to test the M2 macrophages in peritoneal macrophages and subcutaneous transplantable tumor. It was found that paeoniflorin showed no inhibitory effect on the growth of Lewis lung cancer cells and peritoneal macrophages of mouse in vitro. Paeoniflorin could attenuate the migration of LLC stimulated by alternatively activated macrophages (stimulated for 24 h and 48 h, paeoniflorin 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 μmol·L(-1), P lung cancer cells (paeoniflorin 100 μmol·L(-1), P lung metastasis of Lewis lung cancer cells xenograft and decrease the numbers of M2 macrophages in subcutaneous xenograft tumour in vivo (paeoniflorin 20, 40 mg·kg(-1), P lung metastasis of Lewis lung cancer cells xenograft partly through inhibiting the alternative activation of macrophages.

  2. Review of Animal Models of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Simmons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer bone metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and are considered incurable. Insight into the formation and growth of prostate cancer bone metastasis is required for development of new imaging and therapeutic strategies to combat this devastating disease. Animal models are indispensable in investigating cancer pathogenesis and evaluating therapeutics. Multiple animal models of prostate cancer bone metastasis have been developed, but few effectively model prostatic neoplasms and osteoblastic bone metastases as they occur in men. This review discusses the animal models that have been developed to investigate prostate cancer bone metastasis, with a focus on canine models and also includes human xenograft and rodent models. Adult dogs spontaneously develop benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer with osteoblastic bone metastases. Large animal models, such as dogs, are needed to develop new molecular imaging tools and effective focal intraprostatic therapy. None of the available models fully reflect the metastatic disease seen in men, although the various models have provided important insight into the metastatic process. As additional models are developed and knowledge from the different models is combined, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer bone metastasis can be deciphered and targeted for development of novel therapies and molecular diagnostic imaging.

  3. Human papillomavirus DNA in plasma of patients with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voravud Narin

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV is a crucial etiological factor for cervical cancer (CC development. From a diagnostic view-point, the consistent presence of HPV in CC allows the viral DNA to be used as a genetic marker. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence, physical status and clinical significant of HPV DNA in circulation of CC patients. Results Whereas 6 out of 50 (12% HPV positive CC patients revealed plasma HPV DNA, it was detected in none of 20 normal controls or 13 HPV negative CC cases. The plasma DNA exhibited an HPV type identical to the HPV in the primary tumors and the DNA from both sources was integrated into host genome. Interestingly, several findings suggested an association between plasma HPV DNA and metastasis. First, three of the HPV DNA positive cases were CC patients with clinical stage IVB or recurrence with distance metastases (P = 0.001, RR = 15.67. Second, the amount of plasma HPV DNA from metastatic patients to be three times more than three other patients without metastases. Finally, the later cases had tendency to develop recurrence distant metastases within one year after complete treatment when compared with other HPV associated CC patients with the same stage but without the present of plasma HPV DNA. Conclusions The plasma HPV DNA originated from the CC, was associated with metastasis and could be used as a marker representing the circulating free CC DNA.

  4. DNA probes for papillomavirus strains readied for cervical cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, B.

    1988-11-18

    New Papillomavirus tests are ready to come to the aid of the standard Papanicolauo test in screening for cervical cancer. The new tests, which detect the strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) most commonly associated with human cervical cancer, are designed to be used as an adjunct to rather than as a replacement for the Papanicolaou smears. Their developers say that they can be used to indicated a risk of developing cancer in women whose Papanicolaou smears indicate mild cervical dysplasia, and, eventually, to detect papillomavirus infection in normal Papanicolaou smears. The rationale for HPV testing is derived from a growing body of evidence that HPV is a major factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Three HPV tests were described recently in Chicago at the Third International Conference on Human Papillomavirus and Squamous Cervical Cancer. Each relies on DNA probes to detect the presence of papillomavirus in cervical cells and/or to distinguish the strain of papillomavirus present.

  5. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  6. Role of STAT3 in Cancer Metastasis and Translational Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zahid Kamran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, originally discovered as a transducer of signal from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. It is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation at position 705 leading to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and activation of gene transcription. Under normal physiological conditions, STAT3 activation is tightly regulated. However, compelling evidence suggests that STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. It regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis that are critical for cancer metastasis. In this paper, we first describe the mechanism of STAT3 regulation followed by how STAT3 is involved in cancer metastasis, then we summarize the various small molecule inhibitors that inhibit STAT3 signaling.

  7. Role of STAT3 in Cancer Metastasis and Translational Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prachi; Gude, Rajiv P.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, originally discovered as a transducer of signal from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. It is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation at position 705 leading to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and activation of gene transcription. Under normal physiological conditions, STAT3 activation is tightly regulated. However, compelling evidence suggests that STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. It regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis that are critical for cancer metastasis. In this paper, we first describe the mechanism of STAT3 regulation followed by how STAT3 is involved in cancer metastasis, then we summarize the various small molecule inhibitors that inhibit STAT3 signaling. PMID:24199193

  8. Gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinomamimicking primary gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ji Kim; Ji Hyung Hong; Eun Su Park; Jae Ho Byun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric metastases from lung adenocarcinoma arerare. Because gastric metastasis grossly resemblesadvanced gastric cancer, it is difficult to diagnose gastricmetastasis especially when the histology of the primarylung cancer is adenocarcinoma. We describe a case ofgastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinomamimicking Borrmann type Ⅳ primary gastric cancer.A 68-year-old man with known lung adenocarcinomawith multiple bone metastases had been experiencingprogressive epigastric pain and dyspepsia over one year.Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed linitis plasticalikelesions in the fundus of the stomach. Pathologicexamination revealed a moderately differentiatedadenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration. Positiveimmunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcriptionfactor-1 (TTF-1) and napsin A (Nap-A) confirmed thatthe metastasis was pulmonary in origin. The patienthad been treated with palliative chemotherapy for thelung cancer and had lived for over fifteen months afterthe diagnosis of gastric metastasis. Clinicians should beaware of the possibility of gastric metastasis in patientswith primary lung adenocarcinoma, and additionalimmunohistochemical staining for Nap-A as well as TTF-1may help in differentiating its origin.

  9. A study on uncertainty by passage of time of stereotactic body radiation therapy for spine metastasis cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Wan; Kim, Joo Ho; Ahn, Seung Kwon; Lee, Sang Kyoo; Cho, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the proper treatment time of stereotactic body radiation therapy for spine metastasis cancer by using the image guidance system of CyberKnife(Accuracy Incorporated, USA) which is able to correct movements of patients during the treatment. Fifty seven spine metastasis cancer patients who have stereotactic body radiation therapy of CyberKnife participate, 8 of them with cervical spine cancer, 26 of them with thoracic spine cancer, and 23 of them with lumbar spine cancer. X-ray images acquired during the treatment were classified by treatment site. From the starting point of treatment, motion tendency of patients is analyzed in each section which is divided into every 5 minutes. In case of cervical spine, there is sudden increase of variation in 15 minutes after the treatment starts in rotational direction. In case of thoracic spine, there is no significantly variable section. However, variation increases gradually with the passage of time so that it is assumed that noticeable value comes up in approximately 40 minutes. In case of lumbar spine, sharp increase of variation is seen in 20 minutes in translational and rotational direction. Without having corrections during the treatment, proper treatment time is considered as less than 15 minutes for cervical spine, 40 minutes for thoracic spine, and 20 minutes for lumbar spine. If treatment time is longer than these duration, additional patient alignments are required or PTV margin should be enlarged.

  10. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Jia; Shuang Li; Ru Yang; Hang Zhou; Qunying Xiang; Ting Hu; Qinghua Zhang; Zhilan Chen; Ding Ma; Ling Feng

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. PARTICIPANTS ...

  11. Ultrasonography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for cervical lymph node metastasis from thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim was to explore the efficacy and safety of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA for cervical lymph node metastases from thyroid carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Eight patients with previous total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy were enrolled in this study. A total of 20 cervical lymph node metastases were confirmed by percutaneous biopsy. Participants underwent ultrasonography-guided RFA treatment for all confirmed metastatic lymph nodes. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS and sonoelastography were performed to rapidly evaluate treatment responses before and shortly after RFA. Routine follow-up consisted of conventional US, CEUS, sonoelastography, thyroglobulin level, and necessary fine needle aspiration cytology. Results: All eight patients were successfully treated without obvious complications. Post-RFA CEUS showed that total metastatic lymph nodes were ablated. The sonoelastographic score of ablated area elevated significantly shortly after RFA (P < 0.001. With a mean follow-up of 9.4 ± 5.1 months, there were no evidences of recurrence at ablated sites; however, two new cervical recurrent lymph nodes occurred in one case, which was successfully ablated as well. The mass volume shrinkages of the ablated nodes were observed in all cases. We found that 5 treated lymph nodes disappeared, 4 were reduced more than 80%, 9 were reduced between 50% and 80%, and 2 were reduced less than 50%. At the last follow-up evaluation, the serum thyroglobulin levels had decreased in 6 of 8 patients. Conclusion: Ultrasonography-guided percutaneous RFA for cervical lymph node metastasis of thyroid malignancy is a feasible, effective, and safe therapy. This procedure shows a nonsurgical therapeutic option for metastatic lymph nodes in patients with difficult reoperations or inoperations, it may reduce or delay a large number of highly invasive repeated neck dissections.

  12. Cervical Cancer Cell Line Secretome Highlights the Roles of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Induced Protein ig-h3, Peroxiredoxin-2, and NRF2 on Cervical Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoidakis, Jerome; Makridakis, Manousos; Lygirou, Vasiliki; Mermelekas, George; Vougas, Konstantinos; Drakakis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells acquire unique secretome compositions that contribute to tumor development and metastasis. The aim of our study was to elucidate the biological processes involved in cervical cancer, by performing a proteomic analysis of the secretome from the following informative cervical cell lines: SiHa (HPV16+), HeLa (HPV18+), C33A (HPV−), and HCK1T (normal). Proteins were analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis coupled to MALDI-TOF-MS. Enrichment of secreted proteins with characteristic profiles for each cell line was followed by the identification of differentially expressed proteins. Particularly, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein ig-h3 (Beta ig-h3) and peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2) overexpression in the secretome of cancer cell lines was detected and confirmed by Western blot. Bioinformatics analysis identified the transcription factor NRF2 as a regulator of differentially expressed proteins in the cervical cancer secretome. NRF2 levels were measured by both Western blot and Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) in the total cell extract of the four cell lines. NRF2 was upregulated in SiHa and C33A compared to HCK1T. In conclusion, the secreted proteins identified in cervical cancer cell lines indicate that aberrant NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response (OSR) is a prominent feature of cervical carcinogenesis.

  13. Mechanisms of CTC Biomarkers in Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    represents the most devastating and feared consequence of breast cancer . BCBM is usually fatal and is increasing in frequency with occult brain...metastatic breast cancer (stage IV) patients with or without clinically diagnosed BCBM employing multiparametric flow cytometry (FACS; ARIA IIID system)(10...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0214 TITLE: Mechanisms of CTC Biomarkers in Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dario

  14. Cutaneous metastasis of colon cancer: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Nicholas; Powers, Jeremy; Richmond, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases arising from an internal malignancy are a rare phenomenon, occurring in 0.001% of all skin biopsies performed. Of these, 6.5% originate from the a primary colon cancer. Colon cancer, when metastatic to the skin, typically appears as a painless flesh-colored nodule or as a mass with occasional ulceration. We report a case of a large cutaneous metastasis to the suprascapular region as the initial presenting symptom of an underlying colon cancer.

  15. Tumor Phagocytes Promote Breast Cancer Invasion and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    passive physiological event to clear unwanted cells, we hypothesize that clearance of apoptotic tumor cells by tumor phagocytes produce soluble...FACS assay. Introduction: The purpose of cancer chemotherapy and immunotherapy is to kill cancer cells, mostly by apoptosis. Phagocytes, which...microenvironment for metastasis. A major barrier to effective anti-cancer immunotherapy is the ability of the host to mount a durable anti-tumor response [4

  16. Targeting Master Regulators of the Breast Cancer Metastasis Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    rigorous state -of-the- art bioinformatic analysis, and functional models using isogenic human breast cancer cells with varying metastatic potential, we will...A, Ergun B, Erbersdobler A, Jung K, Stephan C. RECK overexpression decreases invasive potential in prostate cancer cells. Prostate 2012; 72: 948–954...Breast Cancer Metastasis Transcriptome PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Timothy A. Chan MD, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Sloan-Kettering Institute

  17. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination...... guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. CONCLUSION: Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation...

  18. A MicroRNA Expression Signature for Cervical Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoxia; Schwarz, Julie K.; Lewis, James S.; Huettner, Phyllis C.; Rader, Janet S.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Wang, Xiaowei

    2010-01-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide, resulting in about 300,000 deaths each year. The clinical outcomes of cervical cancer vary significantly and are difficult to predict. Thus, a method to reliably predict disease outcome would be important for individualized therapy by identifying patients with high-risk of treatment failures prior to therapy. In this study, we have identified a microRNA-based signature for the prediction of cervical cancer survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly identified family of small non-coding RNAs that are extensively involved in human cancers. Using our recently established PCR-based miRNA assays, we have analyzed 102 cervical cancers and identified two miRNAs (miR-200a and miR-9) that are likely to predict patient survival. A logistic regression model was developed based on these two miRNAs and the prognostic value of the model was subsequently validated with 42 independent cervical cancers. Furthermore, functional studies were performed to characterize the effect of miRNAs in cervical cancer cells. Our results suggest that both miR-200a and miR-9 could play important regulatory roles in cervical cancer control. In particular, miR-200a is likely to affect the metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells by simultaneously suppressing the expression of multiple genes that are important to cell motility. PMID:20124485

  19. Choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyoshi Tei

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: This is the first report of choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer. We consider it important to enforce systemic chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy for choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer.

  20. Testicular Metastasis of Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumu Kusaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of secondary neoplasms of the testis during autopsies is approximately 2.5%. Although most secondary testicular metastases are due to prostate cancer, only a few patients with prostate cancer have clinically manifested testicular metastasis. We report the case of a prostate cancer patient with testicular metastasis who was diagnosed after the presence of a palpable mass in the right testis. A 56-year-old Japanese male presented to our hospital with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level of 137 ng/ml. He was diagnosed with stage IV (T3N1M1b prostate cancer and received androgen deprivation therapy, followed by various hormonal manipulations. His serum PSA level was undetectable for 1 year. No distant metastases were detected during imaging examinations. He received radiation therapy; however, his serum PSA level increased gradually. Four months later, he presented with right testicular swelling. Computed tomography revealed a heterogenous mass in the right testis and a right high inguinal orchiectomy was performed. Histopathological analysis showed that the right testis was infiltrated with metastatic adenocarcinoma with a Gleason score of 8. This is a rare case of right testicular metastasis in a patient with prostate cancer. Testicular metastasis of prostate cancer can be aggressive and metastasize.

  1. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  2. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion.

  3. [A patient with thyroid cancer evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors during treatment for breast cancer recurrence in hepatic and cervical lymph nodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiko; Enomoto, Takumo; Oshida, Sayuri; Habiro, Takeyoshi; Hatate, Kazuhiko; Sengoku, Norihiko; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2013-11-01

    We describe a case of a 69-year-old woman who underwent left breast-preserving surgery and axillary dissection for left-sided breast cancer at 60 years of age. The histopathological diagnosis was papillotubular carcinoma, luminal A (pathological T1N0M0).In the eighth year after surgery, computed tomography (CT) revealed recurrence in the liver and cervical lymph node metastasis. The patient did not respond to 3 months of treatment with letrozole (progressive disease [PD]). Six courses of chemotherapy with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (EC) were administered. Subsequently, the attending physician was replaced while the patient was receiving paclitaxel( PTX).After 4 courses of treatment with PTX, the liver metastasis disappeared (complete response [CR]).However, the cervical lymph nodes did not shrink (PD).The cytological diagnosis was papillary thyroid cancer with associated cervical lymph node metastasis. Total thyroidectomy and D3b cervical lymph node dissection were performed. The pathological diagnosis was pEx0T1bN1Mx, pStage IVA disease. Replacement of the attending physician is a critical turning point for patients. During chemotherapy or hormone therapy for breast cancer, each organ should be evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST).In the case of our patient, thyroid cancer was diagnosed according to RECIST. Cancer specialists should bear in mind that the treatment policy may change dramatically depending on the results of RECIST assessment.

  4. The Role of Natural Polyphenols in the Prevention and Treatment of Cervical Cancer-An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, Marius Alexandru; Dimienescu, Oana Gabriela; Arvatescu, Cristian Andrei; Mironescu, Aurel; Dracea, Laura; Ples, Liana

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer represents the second leading cause of death for women worldwide. The importance of the diet and its impact on specific types of neoplasia has been highlighted, focusing again interest in the analysis of dietary phytochemicals. Polyphenols have shown a wide range of cellular effects: they may prevent carcinogens from reaching the targeted sites, support detoxification of reactive molecules, improve the elimination of transformed cells, increase the immune surveillance and the most important factor is that they can influence tumor suppressors and inhibit cellular proliferation, interfering in this way with the steps of carcinogenesis. From the studies reviewed in this paper, it is clear that certain dietary polyphenols hold great potential in the prevention and therapy of cervical cancer, because they interfere in carcinogenesis (in the initiation, development and progression) by modulating the critical processes of cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Specifically, polyphenols inhibit the proliferation of HPV cells, through induction of apoptosis, growth arrest, inhibition of DNA synthesis and modulation of signal transduction pathways. The effects of combinations of polyphenols with chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in the treatment of cervical cancer showed results in the resistance of cervical tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy, one of the main problems in the treatment of cervical neoplasia that can lead to failure of the treatment because of the decreased efficiency of the therapy.

  5. Inguinal lymph node metastasis of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloane McGraw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of adenocarcinoma of colon with unusual metastasis to inguinal lymph nodes. Our patient is a young male with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy, bone pains, and jaundice who presented as carcinoma of unknown primary. He was diagnosed as widely metastatic adenocarcinoma of colon for which he received chemotherapy and has had a good response to the treatment.

  6. Lysyl Oxidase, a Targetable Secreted Molecule Involved in Cancer Metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Gartland, Alison; Erler, Janine T

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metastatic cancer remains the single biggest cause of mortality and morbidity across most solid tumors. In breast cancer, 100% of deaths are attributed to metastasis. At present, there are no "cures" for secondary metastatic cancer of any form and there is an urgent unmet clinical need...... to improve the tools available in our arsenal against this disease, both in terms of treatment, but also prevention. Recently, we showed that hypoxic induction of the extracellular matrix modifying enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) correlates with metastatic dissemination to the bone in estrogen receptor negative...... breast cancer and is essential for the formation of premetastatic osteolytic lesions. We showed that in models of breast cancer metastasis, targeting LOX, or its downstream effects, significantly inhibited premetastatic niche formation and the resulting metastatic burden, offering preclinical validation...

  7. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  8. THE TREATMENT AND EVOLUTION OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the evolution of cervical cancer after applying a conventional treatment. Materials and methods. The study was performed on a number of 1249 patients who were suspected of having cervical neoplasia, and who were monitored between 2006-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved the effectiveness of the conservative treatment for the patients who were diagnosed using cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and histopathology, with or without HPV viral infection. Conclusions. The patients with an early diagnose have a 15% higher surviving probability. The patients who responded to the conservative preoperative treatment well are more likely to survive than the patients who did not respond favourably to the conservative preoperative treatment.

  9. The Number of Positive Pelvic Lymph Nodes and Multiple Groups of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis Influence Prognosis in Stage IA-IIB Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 75-80% of all cervical cancers. Analyses of the effects of the number of positive lymph nodes (LNs, unilateral versus bilateral pelvic LNM and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma are still lacking. The study aimed to analyze the effects of the number of positive pelvic LNs and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 296 patients diagnosed with Stage IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma who received extensive/sub-extensive hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy/pelvic LN sampling at Peking University People′s Hospital from November 2004 to July 2013. Ten clinicopathological variables were evaluated as risk factors for pelvic LNM: Age at diagnosis, gravidity, clinical stage, histological grade, tumor diameter, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI, depth of cervical stromal invasion, uterine invasion, parametrial invasion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: The incidence of pelvic LNM was 20.27% (60/296 cases. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00 was significantly correlated with recurrence. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00, the number of positive pelvic LNs (P = 0.04 and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM (P = 0.03 had a significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI (P = 0.00, depth of cervical stromal invasion (P = 0.00 and parametrial invasion (P = 0.03 were independently associated with pelvic LNM. Conclusions: Patients with pelvic LNM had a higher recurrence rate and poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, more than 2 positive pelvic LNs and multiple groups of pelvic LNM appeared to identify patients with worse survival outcomes in node-positive IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma. LVSI

  10. The cancer diaspora: Metastasis beyond the seed and soil hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienta, Kenneth J; Robertson, Bruce A; Coffey, Donald S; Taichman, Russell S

    2013-11-01

    Do cancer cells escape the confinement of their original habitat in the primary tumor or are they forced out by ecologic changes in their home niche? Describing metastasis in terms of a simple one-way migration of cells from the primary to the target organs is an insufficient concept to cover the nuances of cancer spread. A diaspora is the scattering of people away from an established homeland. To date, "diaspora" has been a uniquely human term used by social scientists; however, the application of the diaspora concept to metastasis may yield new biologic insights as well as therapeutic paradigms. The diaspora paradigm takes into account, and models, several variables including: the quality of the primary tumor microenvironment, the fitness of individual cancer cell migrants as well as migrant populations, the rate of bidirectional migration of cancer and host cells between cancer sites, and the quality of the target microenvironments to establish metastatic sites. Ecologic scientific principles can be applied to the cancer diaspora to develop new therapeutic strategies. For example, ecologic traps - habitats that lead to the extinction of a species - can be developed to attract cancer cells to a place where they can be better exposed to treatments or to cells of the immune system for improved antigen presentation. Merging the social science concept of diaspora with ecologic and population sciences concepts can inform the cancer field to understand the biology of tumorigenesis and metastasis and inspire new ideas for therapy.

  11. Angiotensin II facilitates breast cancer cell migration and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Rodrigues-Ferreira

    Full Text Available Breast cancer metastasis is a leading cause of death by malignancy in women worldwide. Efforts are being made to further characterize the rate-limiting steps of cancer metastasis, i.e. extravasation of circulating tumor cells and colonization of secondary organs. In this study, we investigated whether angiotensin II, a major vasoactive peptide both produced locally and released in the bloodstream, may trigger activating signals that contribute to cancer cell extravasation and metastasis. We used an experimental in vivo model of cancer metastasis in which bioluminescent breast tumor cells (D3H2LN were injected intra-cardiacally into nude mice in order to recapitulate the late and essential steps of metastatic dissemination. Real-time intravital imaging studies revealed that angiotensin II accelerates the formation of metastatic foci at secondary sites. Pre-treatment of cancer cells with the peptide increases the number of mice with metastases, as well as the number and size of metastases per mouse. In vitro, angiotensin II contributes to each sequential step of cancer metastasis by promoting cancer cell adhesion to endothelial cells, trans-endothelial migration and tumor cell migration across extracellular matrix. At the molecular level, a total of 102 genes differentially expressed following angiotensin II pre-treatment were identified by comparative DNA microarray. Angiotensin II regulates two groups of connected genes related to its precursor angiotensinogen. Among those, up-regulated MMP2/MMP9 and ICAM1 stand at the crossroad of a network of genes involved in cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Our data suggest that targeting angiotensin II production or action may represent a valuable therapeutic option to prevent metastatic progression of invasive breast tumors.

  12. Limitations of Colposcopy in Early Invasive Cervical Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Grubišić, Goran

    2007-01-01

    Colposcopy is a key element in the diagnostic chain required to reduce cervical cancer mortality but it has limitations in the diagnosis of malignant disease. In the Republic of Croatia the Croatian Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology started constructing guidelines for early detection, therapy and follow-up of patients with early invasive cervical cancer in order to achieve the best possible results in diagnosis, therapy and follow-up. From 2001 to 2006 Croatian society ...

  13. Understanding cervical cancer in the context of developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. Among the women, gynecological cancers are most common. Cervical cancer is a main gynecological cancer of the women. The global burden of cervical cancer is disproportionately high among the developing countries where 85 per cent of the estimated 493, 000 new cases and 273, 000 deaths occur worldwide. There are several dimensions of the problem. Cervical cancer is a problem where people are poor, where the socio-economic status of the women is low and sometimes specific ethnicity also posses additional risk to the women to develop cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus infection is a main risk factor for the cervical cancer however there are some other factors which increase the risk. Among them some are number of sexual partners, age of first sexual intercourse, infection of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormonal contraceptives, parity, age, smoking, food and diet. Apart from these factors, some other issues, such as policy on cancer, capacity of health system, socio-economic and cultural factors and awareness among the women are also associated with the cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality across the developing countries. There some interventions which give promising results in terms of reducing cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality. Among them visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid followed by treatment is one such effective method.

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Antioxidant supplementation during oncology treatment has no effect on cervical cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Álvarez-Altamirano

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: Antioxidant therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in cervical cancer patients is controversial. While some evidence suggests that the use of antioxidants diminishes side effects from anticancer therapy, there is also data to suggest that antioxidants increase the risk of recurrence by affecting oncology treatments. Methods: We conducted a controlled clinical trial in cervical cancer patients supplemented with an antioxidant mixture or a placebo during four years after their antineoplastic treatment was completed and the effect on recurrence. We also conducted data on used hemoglobin and albumin levels. Differences between groups were analyzed using chi-square test. Survival was calculated by the Multivariate COX regression with omnibus test and the enter method. Results: 103 treated patients were in clinical stages IIB and IIIB of cervical cancer, 48% (n = 49 of the patients were treated with antioxidant supplementation and 52% (n =54 of the patients were in the placebo group. Of the original 103 patients, were able to follow up on 88 patients for an additional four years.23.9% (n = 21 of the patients presented cancer recurrence and 76.1% (n = 67 did not, 21.6% (n = 19 patients showed metastasis. 8% (n = 7 patients were in the antioxidant group and 15.9% (n = 14 were in the placebo group (p > 0.05. Regarding implications of cancer survivors, antioxidant supplementation apparently seems not to have interference with recurrence in cervical cancer patients but there is not enough evidence to prove it. A different dosage may have the expected effect; however, further studies with another dosage and criteria are necessary. Conclusions: Supplementation with antioxidants during treatment of cervical cancer has no effect on cancer recurrence after 4 years of follow-up.

  16. Bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in bone metastasis of osteotropic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Thomas E; Miller, Andrew H; Godwin, Andrew K; Wang, Jinxi

    2014-02-01

    The mechanisms underlying malignant cell metastasis to secondary sites such as bone are complex and no doubt multifactorial. Members of the small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) family, particularly bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), exhibit multiple activities known to promote malignant cell proliferation, detachment, invasion, and metastasis of several osteotropic cancers. The expression level of BSP and OPN is elevated in a variety of human cancers, particularly those that metastasize preferentially to the skeleton. Recent studies suggest that the "osteomimicry" of malignant cells is not only conferred by transmembrane receptors bound by BSP and OPN, but includes the "switch" in gene expression repertoire typically expressed in cells of skeletal lineage. Understanding the role of BSP and OPN in tumor progression, altered pathophysiology of bone microenvironment, and tumor metastasis to bone will likely result in development of better diagnostic approaches and therapeutic regimens for osteotropic malignant diseases.

  17. European cervical cancer screening:experiences and results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Europe has devoted great efforts to cervical cancer screening over 30 years.The mortality was generally declining although incidence rates of cervical cancer among young women have been increasing in many countries of Europe.The efficiency of screening,however,needs to be addressed by planners for an improved cost-effectiveness in the future.

  18. Paclitaxel and carboplatin concurrent with radiotherapy for primary cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, FYFL; Bos, AME; Gietema, JA; Pras, E; Van Der Zee, AGJ; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB

    2004-01-01

    Background: Concurrent radiochemotherapy is currently considered the new standard treatment in locally advanced cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: Eight women with cervical cancer stage IB2-IVA were treated with standard radiation therapy in combination with standard carboplatin (AUC=2, once wee

  19. An overview of innovative techniques to improve cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Reesink-Peters, Nathalie; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; van Zanden, Jelmer; Volders, Haukeline; Hollema, Harry; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; Schuuring, Ed; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Although current cytomorphology-based cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, Pap-smears are associated with high false positive and false negative rates. This has spurred the search for new technologies to improve current screening. New methodologies are automation o

  20. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Hylke W.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Vries, de Elisabeth G. E.; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects similar to 500,000 women worldwide, and similar to 275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%.

  1. Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine? Less testing could reduce risk of false positives ... said. Women vaccinated with earlier versions of the HPV vaccine -- which protect against the two worst cancer-causing ...

  2. Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163464.html Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA Agency recommends ... cancer, which is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). An FDA-approved vaccine called Gardasil 9 protects ...

  3. Reducing uncertainties about the effects of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Claire; Jakobsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a 1999 National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical alert was issued, chemoradiotherapy has become widely used in treating women with cervical cancer. Two subsequent systematic reviews found that interpretation of the benefits was complicated, and some important clinical questions...

  4. Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG...... mutations, R501X and 2282del4, using blood from the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, Denmark. Controls (n = 8050) were genotyped in previous population-based studies. Information on cervical cancer, mortality and emigration were obtained from national registers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic...... and stratification by cancer stage. RESULTS: The primary results showed that FLG mutations were not associated with the risk of cervical cancer (6.3% of cases and 7.7% of controls were carriers; OR adjusted 0.81, 95% CI 0.57-1.14; OR adjusted+ weighted 0.96, 95% CI 0.58-1.57). Among cases, FLG mutations increased...

  5. Advances in understanding the molecular mechanism of pancreatic cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Xing Du; Zi-Wen Liu; Lei You; Wen-Ming Wu; Yu-Pei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is usually diagnosed at the late-stage and therefore, has widespread metastasis and a very high mortality rate. The mechanisms underlying PC metastasis are not well understood. Recent advances in genomic sequencing have identiifed groups of gene mutations that affect PC metastasis, but studies elucidating their roles are lacking. The present review was to investigate the molecu-lar mechanisms of PC metastasis. DATA SOURCES: Relevant articles on PC metastasis were searched in MEDLINE via PubMed prior to April 2015. The search was limited in English publications. RESULTS: PC metastatic cascades are multi-factorial events including both intrinsic and extrinsic elements. This review highlights the most important genetic alterations and other mechanisms that account for PC invasion and metastasis, with particular regard to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, inlfammation, stress response, and circulating tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses of relevant gene functions and signaling pathways are needed to establish the gene regula-tory network and to deifne the pivotal modulators. Another promising area of study is the genotyping and phenotyping of circulating tumor cells, which could lead to a new era of per-sonalized therapy by identifying speciifc markers and targets.

  6. STRIPAK components determine mode of cancer cell migration and metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Chris D; Hooper, Steven; Tozluoglu, Melda;

    2015-01-01

    and MST4 kinases, which promote the co-localization of the contractile actomyosin machinery with the Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin family proteins by phosphorylating the inhibitors of PPP1CB, PPP1R14A-D. Using computational modelling, in vitro cell migration assays and in vivo breast cancer metastasis assays we...

  7. Disrupting Ovarian Cancer Metastatic Colonization: Insights from Metastasis Suppressor Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheena Khan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer affects approximately 25,000 women in the United States each year and remains one of the most lethal female malignancies. A standard approach to therapy is surgical cytoreduction, after which the remaining microscopic residual disease is treated with chemotherapy. The vast majority of patients have disease recurrence, underscoring the crucial need for approaches to control the regrowth, or colonization, of tissues after local treatment. Improved therapies require mechanistic information about the process of metastatic colonization, the final step in metastasis, in which cancer cells undergo progressive growth at secondary sites. Studies of metastasis suppressors are providing insights into events controlling metastatic colonization. This paper reviews our laboratory's approach to the identification, characterization, and functional testing of the JNKK1/MKK4 metastasis suppressor in ovarian cancer metastatic colonization. Specifically, we demonstrate that interaction of ovarian caner cells with the omental microenvironment activates JNKK1/MKK4 resulting in decreased proliferation without affecting apoptosis. The potential role of the omental microenvironment, specifically milky spot structures, is also described. It is our goal to provide this work as a usable paradigm that will enable others to study metastasis suppressors in clinical and experimental ovarian cancer metastases.

  8. Impact of Noncoding Satellite Repeats on Pancreatic Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    microenvironment. noncoding RNA | genome evolution | cancer immunology The recent development of total RNA sequencing has alloweda better appreciation of the...Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0237 TITLE: IImpact of Noncoding Satellite Repeats on Pancreatic Cancer Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David T...0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing

  9. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  10. Advancing cervical cancer prevention in India: implementation science priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact.

  11. A Panel of Cancer Testis Antigens and Clinical Risk Factors to Predict Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramyar Molania

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third common carcinoma with a high rate of mortality worldwide and several studies have investigated some molecular and clinicopathological markers for diagnosis and prognosis of its malignant phenotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer testis antigen (CTA genes as well as some clinical risk markers to predict liver metastasis of colorectal cancer patients. The expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer/testis antigen (CTA genes was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay in 90 colorectal tumor samples including both negative and positive liver metastasis tumors. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the association of three studied genes and clinical risk factors with CRC liver metastasis. The frequency of PAGE4 and SCP-1 genes expression was significantly higher in the primary tumours with liver metastasis when statistically compared with primary tumors with no liver metastasis (P<0.05. Among all clinical risk factors studied, the lymph node metastasis and the depth of invasion were statistically correlated with liver metastasis of CRC patients. In addition, using multiple logistic regression, we constructed a model based on PAGE4 and lymph node metastasis to predict liver metastasis of CRC.

  12. An alternative model of cancer cell growth and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Jayant S

    2007-04-01

    I propose an alternative model of cancer in which metastasis need not all arise out of spread from the "original" tumour. The model assumes that cancer cells arise from stem cells that best grow in the organ of their differentiation. When the internal milieu allows it they also grow at other sites as well, thus complementing the conventional (spreading) metastatic process. Several phenomena in the natural history of cancer, especially breast cancer, that challenge the conventional model, fit well after inclusion of the new model. These are (a) a very modest benefit of screening (b) frequent sparing of lungs from haematogenous metastasis (c) presence of occult cancers in autopsy studies (d) only a modest effect of local treatment (e) relative ineffectiveness of high-dose chemotherapy (f) constant time between surgery and peak of hazard of relapse irrespective of stage of the tumour. All these phenomena are much easier to explain when one rejects the dogma that all metastasis arise only from the primary tumour. This paper is aimed only to suggest an alternative perspective of natural history of solid tumours--to stimulate research on the complex internal milieu that allows cancer cells to develop in new light.

  13. Mechanisms of cancer metastasis to the bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Juan YIN; Claire B. POLLOCK; Kathleen KELLY

    2005-01-01

    Some of the most common human cancers, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer, metastasize with avidity to bone. What is the basis for their preferential growth within the bone microenvironment? Bidirectional interactions between tumor cells and cells that make up bone result in a selective advantage for tumor growth and can lead to bone destruction or new bone matrix deposition. This review discusses our current understanding of the molecular components and mechanisms that are responsible for those interactions.

  14. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  15. Laparoscopic resection of colon cancer and synchronous liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Timothy M; Tebb, Zachary D; Sato, Erika; Miedema, Brent W; Awad, Ziad T

    2006-02-01

    The recommended surgical approach to synchronous colorectal metastasis has not been clarified. Simultaneous open liver and colon resection for synchronous colorectal carcinoma has been shown beneficial when compared to staged resections. A review of the literature has shown the benefits of both laparoscopic colon resection for colorectal cancer and laparoscopic left lateral segmentectomy in liver disease. We present the case of a 60-year-old male with sigmoid colon carcinoma and a synchronous solitary liver metastasis localized to the left lateral segment. Using laparoscopic techniques, we were able to achieve simultaneous resection of the sigmoid colon and left lateral liver segment.

  16. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  17. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  18. LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY ON CHROMOSOME 17p13.3 IN OVARIAN CANCER AND CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guoling; Yang Huijian; Xu Kaili; Zhou Jin; Qin Ruidi; Lu Minghua

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To identify the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 17p13.3 in ovarian cancer and cervical cancer. Methods: The frequency of LOH on chromosome 17p13.3 in DNA samples from 24 ovarian cancers, 9 cervical cancers, and 13 non-malignant gynecological diseases were determined respectively, using Southern blot method with probe PYNZ.22. Results:LOH on 17p13.3 was found in 12 of 24 (50.0%) ovarian cancers (including a borderline mucinous cystadenoma), 4of 9 (44.4%) cervical carcinomas, and 1 of 13 (7.7%) nonmalignant gynecological diseases, which was cervical intraepithelial neoplasm HI (CIN Ⅲ) (P<0.01).Conclusion: These results show that LOH on 17p13.3 is associated with ovarian cancer and cervical cancer,suggesting that detection of LOH on 17p13.3 may be helpful to understand the molecular pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and cervical cancer.

  19. Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  20. CERVICAL ACID PHOSPHATASE: EVALUATION AS AN ADJUVANT TO PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR SCREENING IN CERVICAL CANCER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Carcinoma of cervix accounts for 15% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide and is the second most common cancer in women. In the year 2000 there were over 4,71,000 new cases diagnosed and 2,88,000 deaths from cervical cancer. (1 Approximately 79% of these deaths occurred in developing countries. (2 Cervical cancer is preventable, but most women in poorer countries do not have access to effective screening programs. In India it is estimated that approximately 100,000 women develop cervical cancer each year. (3 Cancer cervix occupies either the top r ank or second among cancers in women in developing countries, whereas, in the developed countries cancer cervix does not find a place even in top five leading cancers in women. This is due to routine screening by cervical smear. Cervical smear cytology scr eening by Papanicolaou (Pap stained smears is the most efficacious and cost - effective method of cancer screening, decreasing the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. (4 However, cervical smear screening has significant rates of false - positive and false - negative results, ranging from 10.3% for false positive cases to 5.6% for false negative cases. (5,6 To improve the detection and screening of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix a number of sophisticated tests are available which are e xpensive and can be done only in a tertiary laboratory. To over - come this problems a cost effective cytochemical stain was introduced to measure the acid phosphatase activity in the cervical epithelium. (7 Since the description of the new Cervical Acid Phosphatase Test (CAP Test for visualization of cervical acid phosphatase activity (CAP inside abnormal cervical cells on smears, it has become possible to explore this enzyme as a biomarker for cervical dys plasia, and as a possible surrogate for PAP smear in detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of Cervical Acid

  1. Atrial natriuretic peptide prevents cancer metastasis through vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojiri, Takashi; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Tokudome, Takeshi; Miura, Koichi; Ishikane, Shin; Otani, Kentaro; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Shintani, Yasushi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Kimura, Toru; Sawabata, Noriyoshi; Minami, Masato; Nakagiri, Tomoyuki; Funaki, Soichiro; Takeuchi, Yukiyasu; Maeda, Hajime; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Arai, Yuji; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Hori, Megumi; Ohno, Yuko; Miyazato, Mikiya; Mochizuki, Naoki; Okumura, Meinoshin; Kangawa, Kenji

    2015-03-31

    Most patients suffering from cancer die of metastatic disease. Surgical removal of solid tumors is performed as an initial attempt to cure patients; however, surgery is often accompanied with trauma, which can promote early recurrence by provoking detachment of tumor cells into the blood stream or inducing systemic inflammation or both. We have previously reported that administration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) during the perioperative period reduces inflammatory response and has a prophylactic effect on postoperative cardiopulmonary complications in lung cancer surgery. Here we demonstrate that cancer recurrence after curative surgery was significantly lower in ANP-treated patients than in control patients (surgery alone). ANP is known to bind specifically to NPR1 [also called guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor]. In mouse models, we found that metastasis of GC-A-nonexpressing tumor cells (i.e., B16 mouse melanoma cells) to the lung was increased in vascular endothelium-specific GC-A knockout mice and decreased in vascular endothelium-specific GC-A transgenic mice compared with control mice. We examined the effect of ANP on tumor metastasis in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide, which mimics systemic inflammation induced by surgical stress. ANP inhibited the adhesion of cancer cells to pulmonary arterial and micro-vascular endothelial cells by suppressing the E-selectin expression that is promoted by inflammation. These results suggest that ANP prevents cancer metastasis by inhibiting the adhesion of tumor cells to inflamed endothelial cells.

  2. Transforming growth factor-β1 in carcinogenesis, progression, and therapy in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Luo, Hui; Shen, Zhaojun; Hu, Xiaoli; Sun, Luzhe; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-06-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional cytokine that plays important roles in cervical tumor formation, invasion, progression, and metastasis. TGF-β1 functions as a tumor inhibitor in precancerous lesions and early stage cancers of cervix whereas as a tumor promoter in later stage. This switch from a tumor inhibitor to a tumor promoter might be due to various alterations in TGF-β signaling pathway, such as mutations or loss of expression of TGF-β receptors and SMAD proteins. Additionally, the oncoproteins of human papillomaviruses have been shown to stimulate TGF-β1 expression, which in turn suppresses host immune surveillance. Thus, in addition to driving tumor cell migration and metastasis, TGF-β1 is believed to play a key role in promoting human papillomavirus infection by weakening host immune defense. In this article, we will discuss the role of TGF-β1 in the expression, carcinogenesis, progression, and therapy in cervical cancers. A better understanding of this cytokine in cervical carcinogenesis is essential for critical evaluation of this cytokine as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target.

  3. Angiogenesis and antiangiogenic agents in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomao F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Federica Tomao,1 Anselmo Papa,2 Luigi Rossi,2 Eleonora Zaccarelli,2 Davide Caruso,2 Federica Zoratto,2 Pierluigi Benedetti Panici,1 Silverio Tomao2 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sapienza University of Rome, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, 2Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Oncology Unit, ICOT, Latina, Italy Abstract: Standard treatment of cervical cancer (CC consists of surgery in the early stages and of chemoradiation in locally advanced disease. Metastatic CC has a poor prognosis and is usually treated with palliative platinum-based chemotherapy. Current chemotherapeutic regimens are associated with significant adverse effects and only limited activity, making identification of active and tolerable novel targeted agents a high priority. Angiogenesis is a complex process that plays a crucial role in the development of many types of cancer. The dominant role of angiogenesis in CC seems to be directly related to human papillomavirus-related inhibition of p53 and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Both of these mechanisms are able to increase expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Activation of VEGF promotes endothelial cell proliferation and migration, favoring formation of new blood vessels and increasing permeability of existing blood vessels. Since bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody binding to all isoforms of VEGF, has been demonstrated to significantly improve survival in gynecologic cancer, some recent clinical research has explored the possibility of using novel therapies directed toward inhibition of angiogenesis in CC too. Here we review the main results from studies concerning the use of antiangiogenic drugs that are being investigated for the treatment of CC. Keywords: cervical cancer, angiogenesis, human papillomavirus, bevacizumab, target therapies

  4. Expression and clinical significance of dendritic cell and transforming growth factor-beta 1 in cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Shan; Rong; Fengnian

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To explore the density and mature status of Dendritic cell(DC) in cervical cancer and correlation with the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1).Methods:Streptavidin-peroxidase(SP) immunohistochemistry methods were used to detect S-100 DC and the expression of TGF-β1 in 20 normal cervical tissues and 53 cervical cancer tissues without any sort of chemotherapy or radiation therapy prior to resection.Medical records were reviewed,clinicopathological variables were retrieved and used for analysis.Results:Two types of DC were observed under the microscope.The expression of DC in cervical cancer was significantly higher than that in normal tissues(23.34 cells/mm2 vs 29.91 cells/mm2,P<0.05),and significantly higher in early stage than that in advanced stage(P<0.05).The expression of TGF-β1 was significantly higher in cervical cancer than that in normal tissues (P<0.025).However,there was no correaction between TGF-β1 and lymph nodes metastasis.The index of DC in cervical cancer was negatively correlated to the expression of TGF-β1 in tumor cells (r=-0.8875,P=0.0001).Conclusion:Maturation of DC in cervical cancer is inhibited.The decreased number of DC and the higher expression of TGF-β1 are due to the failure of the immunity,these may play an important role in the development of the cervical cancer.

  5. Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

  6. Screening for cervical cancer: when theory meets reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygård Mari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer. However, there are many factors that determine the success of any cervical cancer prevention effort: the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in general population, the existence of an organized screening program and the corresponding coverage, the existence and quality of the field and laboratory facilities for screening and diagnostic follow-up, and the facilities available for treating diagnosed lesions. Monitoring the patient path or "chain of action" for each patient with an abnormal screening result is of crucial importance. Cost-effectiveness models are widely used by decision-makers to determine which cervical cancer screening program would maximize health benefits within a given, usually limited, set of resources. Regardless of their level of sophistication, however, these models cannot replace empirical evaluations of the effectiveness of screening programs. Cervical cancer prevention activities need to be monitored and evaluated in each country where they are introduced to see that they meet performance standards. Policy-makers responsible for allocating resources for cervical cancer prevention have a duty to allocate resources not only for cervical cancer screening, but also for screening program surveillance.

  7. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer Vacunas para prevenir el cáncer cervical

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Cosette M.

    1997-01-01

    The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV) in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45) have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guarant...

  8. Youtube as a source of information on cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Accurate information about cervical cancer to general public can lower the burden of the disease including its mortality. Aims: We aimed to look at the quality of information available in YouTube for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: We searched YouTube (http://www.youtube.com for videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. Videos were then analyzed for their source and content of information. Results: We studied 172 videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. We found that there were videos describing the personal stories, risk factors, and the importance of screening. However, videos discussing all the aspects of cancers were lacking. Likewise, videos from the reputed organization were also lacking. Conclusion: Although there were numerous videos available in cervical cancer, videos from reputed organizations including Center for Disease Control and Prevention, American Cancer Society, and World Health Organization were lacking. We strongly believe that quality videos from such organizations via YouTube can help lower the burden of disease.

  9. Integrated genomic and epigenomic analysis of breast cancer brain metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodour Salhia

    Full Text Available The brain is a common site of metastatic disease in patients with breast cancer, which has few therapeutic options and dismal outcomes. The purpose of our study was to identify common and rare events that underlie breast cancer brain metastasis. We performed deep genomic profiling, which integrated gene copy number, gene expression and DNA methylation datasets on a collection of breast brain metastases. We identified frequent large chromosomal gains in 1q, 5p, 8q, 11q, and 20q and frequent broad-level deletions involving 8p, 17p, 21p and Xq. Frequently amplified and overexpressed genes included ATAD2, BRAF, DERL1, DNMTRB and NEK2A. The ATM, CRYAB and HSPB2 genes were commonly deleted and underexpressed. Knowledge mining revealed enrichment in cell cycle and G2/M transition pathways, which contained AURKA, AURKB and FOXM1. Using the PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic classifier, Luminal B, Her2+/ER negative, and basal-like tumors were identified as the most commonly represented breast cancer subtypes in our brain metastasis cohort. While overall methylation levels were increased in breast cancer brain metastasis, basal-like brain metastases were associated with significantly lower levels of methylation. Integrating DNA methylation data with gene expression revealed defects in cell migration and adhesion due to hypermethylation and downregulation of PENK, EDN3, and ITGAM. Hypomethylation and upregulation of KRT8 likely affects adhesion and permeability. Genomic and epigenomic profiling of breast brain metastasis has provided insight into the somatic events underlying this disease, which have potential in forming the basis of future therapeutic strategies.

  10. Integrated genomic and epigenomic analysis of breast cancer brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhia, Bodour; Kiefer, Jeff; Ross, Julianna T D; Metapally, Raghu; Martinez, Rae Anne; Johnson, Kyle N; DiPerna, Danielle M; Paquette, Kimberly M; Jung, Sungwon; Nasser, Sara; Wallstrom, Garrick; Tembe, Waibhav; Baker, Angela; Carpten, John; Resau, Jim; Ryken, Timothy; Sibenaller, Zita; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Berens, Michael E; Tran, Nhan L

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a common site of metastatic disease in patients with breast cancer, which has few therapeutic options and dismal outcomes. The purpose of our study was to identify common and rare events that underlie breast cancer brain metastasis. We performed deep genomic profiling, which integrated gene copy number, gene expression and DNA methylation datasets on a collection of breast brain metastases. We identified frequent large chromosomal gains in 1q, 5p, 8q, 11q, and 20q and frequent broad-level deletions involving 8p, 17p, 21p and Xq. Frequently amplified and overexpressed genes included ATAD2, BRAF, DERL1, DNMTRB and NEK2A. The ATM, CRYAB and HSPB2 genes were commonly deleted and underexpressed. Knowledge mining revealed enrichment in cell cycle and G2/M transition pathways, which contained AURKA, AURKB and FOXM1. Using the PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic classifier, Luminal B, Her2+/ER negative, and basal-like tumors were identified as the most commonly represented breast cancer subtypes in our brain metastasis cohort. While overall methylation levels were increased in breast cancer brain metastasis, basal-like brain metastases were associated with significantly lower levels of methylation. Integrating DNA methylation data with gene expression revealed defects in cell migration and adhesion due to hypermethylation and downregulation of PENK, EDN3, and ITGAM. Hypomethylation and upregulation of KRT8 likely affects adhesion and permeability. Genomic and epigenomic profiling of breast brain metastasis has provided insight into the somatic events underlying this disease, which have potential in forming the basis of future therapeutic strategies.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase 13‐containing exosomes promote nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is an endemic type of head and neck cancer with a high rate of cervical lymph node metastasis. Metastasis is the major cause of death in NPC patients. Increasing evidence indicates that exosomes play a pivotal role in promoting cancer metastasis by enhancing angiogenesis and ECM degradation. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 is an important kind of matrix proteinase that is often overexpressed in various tumors and increases the risk of metastasis. However, little is kno...

  12. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untrea......Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... of analysis: naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation. Results These revealed that women were unprepared for screening results showing cervical cell changes, since they had no symptoms. When diagnosed, participants believed that they had early-stage cancer, leading to feelings...

  13. GENERAL AWARNANCE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS VACCINE AGAINST CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFILA NAVEED

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a survey program on the awarnance of HPV vaccine of cervical cancer in common people. Methods: For this survey we perform 2 steps. First we made a questionnaires in which we ask to female of different belongs to different education field either they are married or not. Secondly we gone in the different hospitals of Karachi and observe treatment, diagnosis, vaccination availability and frequency of cervical cancer. Results:From questionnaire we observed that only 1 % female are aware about cervical cancer and its vaccine i.e. HPV, even female belongs medical field are not aware about it. Form hospital survey we observed that frequency of cervical cancer is very less but in Shaukat Khanum hospital 90 cases reported out of 1803 cancer. The given treatment is radiology, chemotherapy and surgery.

  14. Metastasis of the gallbladder from the breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleres, Francesco; Rossitto, Maurizio; Foti, Agata; Macrì, Antonio; Cucinotta, Eugenio

    2014-12-29

    Le lesioni metastatiche della colecisti costituiscono una condizione clinica non frequente. Nella maggior parte dei casi si tratta di metastasi da melanoma, da tumore renale e da tumori della cervice. Lesioni metastatiche colecistiche da tumore primitivo della mammella sono descritte raramente in letteratura. In questa nota viene presentato il caso di una donna di 83 anni, sottoposta ad intervento chirurgico di colecistectomia videolaparoscopica (VL) per colelitiasi, con riscontro all’esame istologico del pezzo operatorio di una lesione di tipo metastatico Il carcinoma della mammella ed in particolare la varietà istologica duttale infiltrante si associa con elevata frequenza a metastasi loco-regionali e a distanza, quest’ultime a carico di ossa, fegato, polmone e SNC. Lesioni metastatiche a carico del tratto gastrointestinale, del peritoneo, del retroperitoneo e della pelvi possono essere causate soprattutto dal carcinoma lobulare invasivo, variante istologica meno frequente rispetto al tumore duttale rappresentando circa il 10% di tutti i carcinomi mammari. In questa nota è stata condotta una analisi dei dati della Letteratura sulle lesioni secondarie della colecisti da carcinoma della mammella che ha permesso di confermare la rarità di tale patologia descritta solamente in 18 pazienti: 12 di origine lobulare infiltrante, 1 di origine duttale e 2 misto duttale e lobulare infiltrante. La prognosi del carcinoma mammario metastatico è considerato incerto e spesso infausto. Clinicamente è difficile sospettare una localizzazione metastatica da carcinoma mammario primario nella colecisti, ma riteniamo che sia necessario conoscere bene questa possibilità di metastasi e da tenere a mente durante il follow-up di pazienti con cancro al seno. Sebbene la colecistectomia sia considerata come trattamento palliativo nelle pazienti con metastasi alla colecisti da carcinoma mammario, è consigliabile nei casi sintomatici.

  15. Therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer patients with brain metastasis Therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer patients with brain metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Li; Yuchen Bao Co-first author; Bin Chen; Songwen Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastasis is a major cause of poor prognosis and high mortality for non-smal celllung cancer patients. The prognosis of non-smal-celllung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastasis is generaly poor and more efective treatment is required to improve their prognosis. Whole-brain radiotherapy, surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, chemotherapy and targeted therapy are the main treatment for brain metastasis. This review focuses on the five therapeutic strategy and in particular, on targeted therapy.

  16. Thyroid Gland Metastasis from Cancer of the Uterine Cervix: An Extremely Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Suleyman Utku; Besli, Dilara; Sak, Serpil Dizbay; Genc, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid gland is a relatively uncommon site for a metastatic disease, although it is richly supplied with blood. The metastases may originate from various primary sites, mainly kidney, lung, head and neck, and breast. Thyroid metastasis from cervical carcinomas is extremely rare; and only a few cases have been previously reported in the literature. In patient with thyroid nodules and an oncological history, the possibility of thyroid metastasis should be seriously considered. Despite the rarity of the metastasis of cervical carcinoma to the thyroid, it is difficult to say appropriate treatment approach for these lesions. When managing such patients, decision-making should balance the possibility of gaining long-term survival against estimation of the aggressiveness of the disease and its possible complications. Here, a case of thyroid metastasis from a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix presenting with cervical mass and difficulty in swallowing and its treatment is reported.

  17. Lysyl Oxidase, a Targetable Secreted Molecule Involved in Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Thomas R; Gartland, Alison; Erler, Janine T

    2016-01-15

    Secondary metastatic cancer remains the single biggest cause of mortality and morbidity across most solid tumors. In breast cancer, 100% of deaths are attributed to metastasis. At present, there are no "cures" for secondary metastatic cancer of any form and there is an urgent unmet clinical need to improve the tools available in our arsenal against this disease, both in terms of treatment, but also prevention. Recently, we showed that hypoxic induction of the extracellular matrix modifying enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) correlates with metastatic dissemination to the bone in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer and is essential for the formation of premetastatic osteolytic lesions. We showed that in models of breast cancer metastasis, targeting LOX, or its downstream effects, significantly inhibited premetastatic niche formation and the resulting metastatic burden, offering preclinical validation of this enzyme as a therapeutic target for metastatic breast cancer. Our work is the latest in an emerging body of work supporting the targeting of LOX and calls for greater efforts in developing therapeutics against this extracellular secreted factor in the prevention of cancer progression across multiple solid tumor types.

  18. The role of lysyl oxidase in SRC-dependent proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Ann-Marie; Cox, Thomas Robert; Bird, Demelza;

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates lysyl oxidase (LOX), an extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme, in promoting metastasis of solid tumors. We investigated whether LOX plays an important role in the metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC).......Emerging evidence implicates lysyl oxidase (LOX), an extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme, in promoting metastasis of solid tumors. We investigated whether LOX plays an important role in the metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC)....

  19. Metastin has potential as a suitable biomarker and novel effective therapy for cancer metastasis (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    SHOJI, SUNAO; TANG, XIAN YANG; SATO, HARUHIRO; Usui, Yukio; UCHIDA, TOYOAKI; Terachi, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is a leading cause of death in cancer patients and is a multistep process involving complex interactions between tumor and host cells. To metastasize, tumor cells must invade or migrate from the primary tumor and be transported to close or distant secondary sites. A tumor cell should successfully accomplish each step of the pathway or metastasis may not develop. KiSS-1 is a human metastasis suppressor gene that inhibits metastasis of human melanomas and breast carcinomas wit...

  20. 雷帕霉素对宫颈癌HeLa细胞侵袭转移的影响及机制研究%Study on Effects and Mechanism of Rapamycin on Invasion and Metastasis of Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾利刚; 田菲; 张媛

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究雷帕霉素对宫颈癌HeLa细胞侵袭转移的影响及其机制。方法:将HeLa细胞分为对照组和雷帕霉素低、中、高剂量(10、30、100 nmol/L)组,药物作用48 h后,MTT法检测细胞活力,计算抑制率;Transwell法检测细胞迁移和侵袭能力;Western blot法检测细胞中蛋白激酶B(Akt)、雷帕霉素靶蛋白(mTOR)磷酸化水平,以及基质金属蛋白酶2(MMP-2)、MMP-9、波形蛋白(Vimentin)、钙黏蛋白(E-cadherin)表达水平。结果:与对照组比较,雷帕霉素各剂量组细胞的抑制率增加(P<0.01),迁移细胞数目和侵袭细胞数目减少(P<0.01),MMP-2、MMP-9、Vimentin表达水平降低(P<0.01或P<0.05),E-cadherin表达水平增强(P<0.01或P<0.05),Akt及mTOR磷酸化水平降低(P<0.01)。结论:雷帕霉素可通过Akt/mTOR信号通路抑制HeLa细胞的侵袭转移。%OBJECTIVE:To study the effects and mechanism of rapamycin on invasion and metastasis of cervical cancer HeLa cell. METHODS:HeLa cells were divided into control group and rapamycin low-dose,medium-dose and high-dose groups (10, 30,100 nmol/L). After treated for 48 h,cell viability was measured by MTT assay,and inhibitory rate was calculated;migration and invasion of cell was tested by Transwell assay. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2(MMP-2),MMP-9,Vimentin and E-cadherin,and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt),mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were detected by Western blot. RESULTS:Compared with control group,the inhibition rate of cell viability was increased in rapamycin groups(P<0.01);the number of invasion and metastasis cells decreased(P<0.01);the expression of MMP-2,MMP-9 and Vimentin were decreased (P<0.01 or P<0.05);the expression of E-cadherin was enhanced(P<0.01 or P<0.05);the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR were reduced (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Rapamycin could inhibit invasion and metastasis of HeLa cell via

  1. Prognostic analysis of uterine cervical cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy: importance of positive or close parametrial resection margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yi Jun; Lee, Kyung Ja; Park, Kyung Ran [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-06-15

    To analyze prognostic factors for locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS) in cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in a single institute. Clinicopathologic data of 135 patients with clinical stage IA2 to IIA2 cervical cancer treated with PORT from 2001 to 2012 were reviewed, retrospectively. Postoperative parametrial resection margin (PRM) and vaginal resection margin (VRM) were investigated separately. The median treatment dosage of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to the whole pelvis was 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fraction. High-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy after EBRT was given to patients with positive or close VRMs. Concurrent platinum-based chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was administered to 73 patients with positive resection margin, lymph node (LN) metastasis, or direct extension of parametrium. Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for analyzing LRR, DM, and OS; Cox regression was applied to analyze prognostic factors. The 5-year disease-free survival was 79% and 5-year OS was 91%. In univariate analysis, positive or close PRM, LN metastasis, direct extension of parametrium, lymphovascular invasion, histology of adenocarcinoma, and chemotherapy were related with more DM and poor OS. In multivariate analysis, PRM and LN metastasis remained independent prognostic factors for OS. PORT after radical hysterectomy in uterine cervical cancer showed excellent OS in this study. Positive or close PRM after radical hysterectomy in uterine cervical cancer correlates with poor prognosis even with CCRT. Therefore, additional treatments to improve local control such as radiation boosting need to be considered.

  2. [Human papillomavirus detection in cervical cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picconi, María Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC), which is strongly associated to high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection, continues being a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had no major impact on reducing CC incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. New screening tools to detect precancerous lesions became available, which provide great opportunities for CC prevention, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. Currently, hr-HPV testing represents an invaluable component of clinical guidelines for screening, management and treatment of CC and their precursor lesions. Many testing strategies have been developed that can detect a broad spectrum of hr-HPV types in a single assay; however, only a small subset of them has documented clinical performance for any of the standard HPV testing indications. HPV tests that have not been validated and lack proof of reliability, reproducibility and accuracy should not be used in clinical management. Once incorporated into the lab, it is essential to submit the whole procedure of HPV testing to continuous and rigorous quality assurance to avoid sub-optimal, potentially harmful practices. Recent progress and current status of these methods are discussed in this article.

  3. Isolated Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis from Serous Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Goyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old female with past medical history of stage IIIc serous ovarian cancer after cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy came to clinic for regular follow-up visit. Physical examination was completely normal except for an isolated left axillary lymph node enlargement. Patient's abdominal sonogram and CT scan of abdomen and pelvis did not show any other new metastasis. Surgical excisional biopsy of the lymph node was performed and pathology revealed features of metastatic serous ovarian carcinoma.

  4. Isolated metachronous splenic metastasis from synchronous colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aker Fugen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated splenic metastases from colorectal cancer are very rare and there are only 13 cases reported in the English literature so far. Most cases are asymptomatic and the diagnosis is usually made by imaging studies during the evaluation of rising CEA level postoperatively. Case presentation A 76-year-old man underwent an extended left hemicolectomy for synchronous colon cancers located at the left flexure and the sigmoid colon. The tumors were staged as IIIC (T3N2M0 clinically and the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. During the first year follow-up period, the patient remained asymptomatic with normal levels of laboratory tests including CEA measurement. However, a gradually rising CEA level after the 14th postoperative month necessitated further imaging studies including computed tomography of the abdomen which revealed a mass in the spleen that was subsequently confirmed by 18FDG- PET scanning to be an isolated metastasis. The patient underwent splenectomy 17 months after his previous cancer surgery. Histological diagnosis confirmed a metastatic adenocarcinoma with no capsule invasion. After an uneventful postoperative period, the patient has been symptom-free during the one-year of follow-up with normal blood CEA levels, although he did not accept to receive any further adjuvant therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this 14th case of isolated splenic metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is also the first reported case of splenic metastasis demonstrated preoperatively by 18FDG PET-CT fusion scanning which revealed its solitary nature as well. Conclusion Isolated splenic metastasis is a rare finding in the follow-up of colorectal cancer patients and long-term survival can be achieved with splenectomy.

  5. The Snail-Induced Sulfonation Pathway in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0494   TITLE: The Snail -Induced Sulfonation... Snail -Induced Sulfonation Pathway in Breast Cancer Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0494 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr...provided funding for a 3-year project that has resulted in fundamental new insights into how the transcription factor Snail can control gene

  6. Cervical cancer screening in Greenland, 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Signe; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Kjær, Susanne K;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In spite of the high incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland, no assessment has been made of the impact of organized cervical screening, introduced in 1998, in relation to occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions. The objectives of the present study were to estimate coverage...... of the screening program and to examine possible changes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) incidence in Greenland during 1997-2011 according to calendar period and age. METHODS: Using nationwide registries, we calculated age-standardized incidence rates for all women born and living in Greenland...

  7. Current status and progress in gastric cancer with liver metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing; CHEN Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current status and progress in studies on gastric cancer with liver metastasis (GCLM), involving the routes, subtypes, and prognosis of GCLM; the genes and molecules associated with metastasis;the feasibility and value of each imaging modality; and current treatment options.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English from 2005 to August 2010. The search terms were "gastric cancer" and "liver metastasis".Study selection Articles regarding the characteristics, diagnostic modalities, and vadous therapeutic options of GCLM were selected.Results The prognosis of GCLM is influenced by the clinicopathological characteristics of primary tumors, as well as the presence of liver metastases. Improved understanding of related genes and molecules will lead to the development of methods of early detection and targeted therapies. For the diagnosis of GCLM, each imaging modality has its relative benefits. There remains no consensus regarding therapeutic options.Conclusions Early detection and characterization of liver metastases is crucial for the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Multidisciplinary team discussions are required to design optimal treatment strategies, which should be based on the clinicopathological characteristics of each patient.

  8. Exosomes in tumor microenvironment influence cancer progression and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, Christoph; Kalluri, Raghu

    2013-04-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin with a size of 50-100 nm. They can contain microRNAs, mRNAs, DNA fragments, and proteins, which are shuttled from a donor cell to recipient cells. Many different cell types including immune cells, mesenchymal cells, and cancer cells release exosomes. There is emerging evidence that cancer-derived exosomes contribute to the recruitment and reprogramming of constituents associated with tumor environment. Here, we discuss different mechanisms associated with biogenesis, payload, and transport of exosomes. We highlight the functional relevance of exosomes in cancer, as related to tumor microenvironment, tumor immunology, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Exosomes may exert an immunosuppressive function as well as trigger an anti-tumor response by presenting tumor antigens to dendritic cells. Exosomes may serve as cancer biomarkers and aid in the treatment of cancer.

  9. Emerging roles of exosomes in cancer invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung, Young Hwa; Nguyen, Thalia; Cao, Hans; Lee, Janet; Chung, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that nano-sized vesicles called "exosomes" mediate the interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment and play a critical role in the development of cancers. Exosomes contain cargo consisting of proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs that can be delivered to different types of cells in nascent as well as distant locations. Cancer cell-derived exosomes (CCEs) have been identified in body fluids such as urine, plasma, and saliva from patients with cancer. Although their content depends on tumor type and stage, CCEs merit consideration as prognostic and diagnostic markers, as vehicles for drug delivery, and as potential therapeutic targets because they could transport various oncogenic elements. In this review, we summarize recent advances regarding the role of CCEs in cancer invasion and metastasis, as well as its potential clinical applications.

  10. Survival analysis of cervical cancer using stratified Cox regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, S. W.; Inayati, K. D.; Sari, N. W. Wulan; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the mostly widely cancer cause of the women death in the world including Indonesia. Most cervical cancer patients come to the hospital already in an advanced stadium. As a result, the treatment of cervical cancer becomes more difficult and even can increase the death's risk. One of parameter that can be used to assess successfully of treatment is the probability of survival. This study raises the issue of cervical cancer survival patients at Dr. Soetomo Hospital using stratified Cox regression based on six factors such as age, stadium, treatment initiation, companion disease, complication, and anemia. Stratified Cox model is used because there is one independent variable that does not satisfy the proportional hazards assumption that is stadium. The results of the stratified Cox model show that the complication variable is significant factor which influent survival probability of cervical cancer patient. The obtained hazard ratio is 7.35. It means that cervical cancer patient who has complication is at risk of dying 7.35 times greater than patient who did not has complication. While the adjusted survival curves showed that stadium IV had the lowest probability of survival.

  11. Suppressed miR-424 expression via upregulation of target gene Chk1 contributes to the progression of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Li, Y; Wang, F; Wang, X; Cheng, B; Ye, F; Xie, X; Zhou, C; Lu, W

    2013-02-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as important gene regulators in human genomes and their aberrant expression links to many malignancies. We previously identified a different characteristic miRNA expression profile in cervical cancer from that in cervical normal tissues, including the downregulated miR-424. However, the role and mechanism of miR-424 in cervical cancer still remain unknown. Here, we focused on identifying the tumor-suppressive function and clinical significance of miR-424 and exploring the mechanistic relevance by characterizing its target. We showed a significantly decreased expression of miR-424 in 147 cervical cancer tissues versus 74 cervical normal tissues by performing quantitative RT-PCR. In 147 cervical cancer tissue samples, low-level expression of miR-424 was positively correlated with poor tumor differentiation, advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and other poor prognostic clinicopathological parameters. Further in vitro observations showed that enforced expression of miR-424 inhibited cell growth by both enhancing apoptosis and blocking G1/S transition, and suppressed cell migration and invasion in two human cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and CaSki, implying that miR-424 functions as a tumor suppressor in the progression of cervical cancer. Interestingly, overexpression of miR-424 inhibited the expression of protein checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and phosphorylated Chk1 (p-Chk1) at residues Ser345 and decreased the activity of luciferase-reporter containing the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Chk1 with predicted miR-424-binding site. Moreover, miR-424 expression levels were inversely correlated with Chk1 and p-Chk1 protein levels in both cervical cancer and normal tissues. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Chk1 decreased matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression and phenocopied the tumor suppressive effects of miR-424 in cell models. Taken together, our results identify a crucial tumor suppressive role of miR-424 in the progression of

  12. Needs and priorities of women with endometrial and cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Mette Moustgaard; Mogensen, Ole; Dehn, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    and 34.7% of endometrial cancer patients. Both the patient groups experienced significant lymphedema post-treatment [endometrial cancer (p = 0.006) and cervical cancer (p = 0.002)]. Further, urological problems were more prevalent post-treatment in endometrial cancer patients (p = 0.018), while sexual...... with endometrial and cervical cancer experience emotional problems prior to therapy and lymphedema, and urological and sexual problems following treatment. An awareness of these problems may facilitate early identification of women with unmet needs and enable individualized follow-up adjusted for such patient...

  13. Bevacizumab improves survival for patients with advanced cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis

  14. Delivering cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J; Barone, M; Mahé, C; Lewis, R; Luciani, S

    2005-05-01

    The goals of any cervical cancer prevention program should be threefold: to achieve high coverage of the population at risk, to screen women with an accurate test as part of high-quality services, and to ensure that women with positive test results are properly managed. This article focuses on the experiences of the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) in delivery of screening and treatment services as part of cervical cancer prevention projects in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Research and experience show that cervical cancer can be prevented when strategies and services are well planned and well managed and when attention is paid to program monitoring and evaluation. Coordination of program components, reduction of the number of visits, improvement of service quality, and flexibility in how services are delivered are all essential features of an effective service.

  15. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  16. Exosomes in development, metastasis and drug resistance of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan-dan; Wu, Ying; Shen, Hong-yu; Lv, Meng-meng; Chen, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Zhong, Shan-liang; Tang, Jin-hai; Zhao, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Transport through the cell membrane can be divided into active, passive and vesicular types (exosomes). Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by a variety of cells. Emerging evidence shows that exosomes play a critical role in cancers. Exosomes mediate communication between stroma and cancer cells through the transfer of nucleic acid and proteins. It is demonstrated that the contents and the quantity of exosomes will change after occurrence of cancers. Over the last decade, growing attention has been paid to the role of exosomes in the development of breast cancer, the most life-threatening cancer in women. Breast cancer could induce salivary glands to secret specific exosomes, which could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Exosome-delivered nucleic acid and proteins partly facilitate the tumorigenesis, metastasis and resistance of breast cancer. Exosomes could also transmit anti-cancer drugs outside breast cancer cells, therefore leading to drug resistance. However, exosomes are effective tools for transportation of anti-cancer drugs with lower immunogenicity and toxicity. This is a promising way to establish a drug delivery system.

  17. An isolated vaginal metastasis from rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Sadatomo

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: We should keep the vagina within the field of view of pelvic MRI, which is one of the preoperative diagnostic tools for colorectal cancer. If female patients show gynecological symptoms, gynecological examination should be recommended. Isolated vaginal metastases are an indication for surgical resection, and adjuvant chemotherapy is also recommended.

  18. Cancer as a Proinflammatory Environment: Metastasis and Cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Inácio Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the syndrome of cancer cachexia and that of metastasis are related with a poor prognostic for cancer patients. They are considered multifactorial processes associated with a proinflammatory environment, to which tumour microenvironment and other tissues from the tumour bearing individuals contribute. The aim of the present review is to address the role of ghrelin, myostatin, leptin, HIF, IL-6, TNF-α, and ANGPTL-4 in the regulation of energy balance, tumour development, and tumoural cell invasion. Hypoxia induced factor plays a prominent role in tumour macro- and microenvironment, by modulating the release of proinflammatory cytokines.

  19. Microvascular Channel Device to Study Aggressiveness in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    applied a dynamic flow-based E-selectin+SDF-1 coated micro -channel model to isolate and characterize a subpopulation of adhering prostate cancer cells...treatment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS prostate cancer, metastasis, selectin, circulating, Micro -vascular 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...utilized RNA interference to knock down ESL-1 expression in PC-3 and DU145 cells. Two shESL-1 (shESL-1#4 and shESL-1#5) and one scramble (scESL-1

  20. Quality of life characteristics inpatients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Jensen, Pernille T; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic

    2012-01-01

    Annually about 500,000 women worldwide are diagnosed with cervical cancer. For many patients, young age at the time of diagnosis and a good prognosis regarding the disease imply a long life with the side-effects and sequels of various treatment options. The present study investigated the extent...... to which different quality of life (QoL) domains in patients during and after treatment for cervical cancer are affected according to menopausal status, treatment status and treatment modality....

  1. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W.; Dillner, J.; Tornberg, S.; Sparen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  2. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster......INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening...... and pathology results from the national Danish registry (Patobank) were obtained on women from a randomised clinical trial and an observational study of subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy from the time of surgery until 2014. RESULTS: We included 501 women (259 subtotal hysterectomies and 242 total...

  3. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  4. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  5. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  6. Brain metastasis reirradiation in patients with advanced breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhou; Sun, Bing; Shen, Ge; Cha, Lei; Meng, Xiangying; Wang, Junliang; Zhou, Zhenshan; Wu, Shikai

    2017-01-01

    The outcome of recurrent brain metastasis is dismal. This study aims to assess the clinical outcomes and toxicity of reirradiation as a salvage treatment for progressive brain metastasis in patients with advanced breast cancer. Between July 2005 and September 2014, the medical records of 56 patients with brain metastasis from breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Of these patients, 39 received whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) followed by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) reirradiation (Group 1), and 17 received SRS followed by WBRT reirradiation (Group 2). Overall survival (OS) and brain progression-free survival rates/times were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Prognostic factors were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Change in neurologic function was also assessed. The median OS was 10.8 months (range, 1.3–56.8 months). In Group 1, the median PFS time (PFS-1) was 6.5 months and the OS time was 11.4 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that longer OS was significantly associated with a high Karnofsky performance score (KPS) (P = 0.004), controlled extracranial metastasis (P = 0.001) and a good response to reirradiation (P = 0.034). In Group 2, the median PFS time (PFS-2) after reirradiation was 8.5 months and the OS time was 10.8 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that longer OS was significantly associated with a high KPS (P = 0.018). The majority of the patients had improved or stable neurological function. Reirradiation is an effective and a safe treatment for patients with brain metastases from breast cancer. It might delay the progression of intracranial disease and improve neurological function. A suitable patient selection for reirradiation was suggested. PMID:27707842

  7. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  8. A lectin-based diagnostic system using circulating antibodies to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yingji; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Ju, Woong; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we developed serological strategies using immunoglobulin fractions obtained by protein A chromatography to screen for cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN I). The reactivities of the immunoglobulins purified from sera of women with normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer were compared in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and enzyme-linked lectin assays (ELLAs). To capture the immunoglobulins, ELISAs and ELLAs were performed in protein A immobilized microplates. The reactivity of immunoglobulin in ELISA was in the increasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer, while that in ELLAs for detecting fucosylation was in the decreasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer. It was confirmed that women with CIN I were distinguishable from women with normal cytology or women with cervical cancer in the ELISA or the ELLA for detecting fucosylation with considerable sensitivity and specificity. Women with cervical cancer were also distinguishable from women with normal cytology with high sensitivity (ELISA: 97%, ELLA: 87%) and specificity (ELISA: 69%, ELLA: 72%). Moreover, the logistic regression model of the ELISA and the ELLA discriminated cervical cancer from normal cytology with 93% sensitivity and 93% specificity. These results indicate that the ELISAs and the ELLAs have great potential as strategies for primary screening of cervical cancer and CIN. It is expected that the ELISA and the ELLA can provide new insights to understand systemic changes of serum immunoglobulins during cervical cancer progression.

  9. Objective Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer by Tissue Protein Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2011-07-01

    Protein profiles of homogenized normal cervical tissue samples from hysterectomy subjects and cancerous cervical tissues from biopsy samples collected from patients with different stages of cervical cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Laser Induced Fluorescence (HPLC-LIF). The Protein profiles were subjected to Principle Component Analysis to derive statistically significant parameters. Diagnosis of sample types were carried out by matching three parameters—scores of factors, squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance. ROC and Youden's Index curves for calibration standards were used for objective estimation of the optimum threshold for decision making and performance.

  10. Constitutive STAT5 Activation Correlates With Better Survival in Cervical Cancer Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Helen H.W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chou, Cheng-Yang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wu, Yuan-Hua; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Chiung-Hui [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Guo, How-Ran [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Wen-Ying, E-mail: 7707@so-net.net.tw [Department of Pathology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China) and Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Wu-Chou, E-mail: sunnysu@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Constitutively activated signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) factors, in particular STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5, have been detected in a wide variety of human primary tumors and have been demonstrated to directly contribute to oncogenesis. However, the expression pattern of these STATs in cervical carcinoma is still unknown, as is whether or not they have prognostic significance. This study investigated the expression patterns of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 in cervical cancer and their associations with clinical outcomes in patients treated with radical radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 165 consecutive patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stages IB to IVA cervical cancer underwent radical radiation therapy, including external beam and/or high-dose-rate brachytherapy between 1989 and 2002. Immunohistochemical studies of their formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify and to evaluate the effects of these factors affecting patient survival. Results: Constitutive activations of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 were observed in 11%, 22%, and 61% of the participants, respectively. While STAT5 activation was associated with significantly better metastasis-free survival (p < 0.01) and overall survival (p = 0.04), STAT1 and STAT3 activation were not. Multivariate analyses showed that STAT5 activation, bulky tumor ({>=}4 cm), advanced stage (FIGO Stages III and IV), and brachytherapy (yes vs. no) were independent prognostic factors for cause-specific overall survival. None of the STATs was associated with local relapse. STAT5 activation (odds ratio = 0.29, 95% confidence interval = 0.13-0.63) and advanced stage (odds ratio = 2.54; 95% confidence interval = 1.03-6.26) were independent predictors of distant metastasis. Conclusions: This is the first report to provide the overall expression patterns and prognostic significance of

  11. Treatment and prognosis of cervical cancer associated with pregnancy: analysis of 20 cases from a Chinese tumor institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Gao, Yong-liang; Yang, Yue

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic approaches and prognosis for cervical cancer associated with pregnancy. Clinical information, therapeutic strategies, and follow-up results of 20 patients with cervical cancer associated with pregnancy from Jan. 2000 to June 2009 in the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages were: in situ (n=1), stage IA1 (n=1), stage IB1 (n=5), stage IB2 (n=1), stage IIA (n=8), stage IIB (n=3), and stage IIIB (n=1). Eight patients were in the first trimester of pregnancy, four in the second, two in the third, and six at postpartum when diagnosed. The therapeutic strategies were either single or combined modalities, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Fourteen patients survived, five patients died (four of remote metastasis and one of uremia), and one patient was lost to follow-up. One newborn from a patient at stage IIA carcinoma in the third trimester with postponed therapy six weeks after diagnosis survived. Retarded fetal growth was observed in one patient receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy and cesarean section. Out of the six postpartum patients, three underwent cesarean section and survived, whereas only one out of the three who underwent vaginal delivery survived. The remaining two died of remote metastasis. Therefore, personalized treatment is necessary for cervical cancer associated with pregnancy. Cervical cancer patients in the third trimester of pregnancy can continue the pregnancy for a short period of time. There may be potential risk for the fetus by chemotherapy during pregnancy. Cesarean section is the preferred mode of delivery for pregnant cervical cancer patients.

  12. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  13. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks.

  14. Metastasis from breast cancer presenting as an epulis in the upper gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral metastasis of breast cancer is less common than metastasis to other sites like the lung and liver. Breast cancer can metastasize to the oral cavity, with presentation like a benign oral lesion. We present an interesting case of breast cancer involving the gingiva with sparing of the underlying bone.

  15. Selectins mediate small cell lung cancer systemic metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Heidemann

    Full Text Available Metastasis formation is the major reason for the extremely poor prognosis in small cell lung cancer (SCLC patients. The molecular interaction partners regulating metastasis formation in SCLC are largely unidentified, however, from other tumor entities it is known that tumor cells use the adhesion molecules of the leukocyte adhesion cascade to attach to the endothelium at the site of the future metastasis. Using the human OH-1 SCLC line as a model, we found that these cells expressed E- and P-selectin binding sites, which could be in part attributed to the selectin binding carbohydrate motif sialyl Lewis A. In addition, protein backbones known to carry these glycotopes in other cell lines including PSGL-1, CD44 and CEA could be detected in in vitro and in vivo grown OH1 SCLC cells. By intravital microscopy of murine mesenterial vasculature we could capture SCLC cells while rolling along vessel walls demonstrating that SCLC cells mimic leukocyte rolling behavior in terms of selectin and selectin ligand interaction in vivo indicating that this mechanism might indeed be important for SCLC cells to seed distant metastases. Accordingly, formation of spontaneous distant metastases was reduced by 50% when OH-1 cells were xenografted into E-/P-selectin-deficient mice compared with wild type mice (p = 0.0181. However, as metastasis formation was not completely abrogated in selectin deficient mice, we concluded that this adhesion cascade is redundant and that other molecules of this cascade mediate metastasis formation as well. Using several of these adhesion molecules as interaction partners presumably make SCLC cells so highly metastatic.

  16. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  17. Trefoil factor-3 expression in human colon cancer liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyatsky, Mark; Lin, Jing; Yio, Xianyang; Chen, Anli; Zhang, Jie-yu; Zheng, Yan; Twyman, Christina; Bao, Xiuliang; Schwartz, Myron; Thung, Swan; Lawrence Werther, J; Itzkowitz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Deaths from colorectal cancer are often due to liver metastasis. Trefoil factor-3 (TFF3) is expressed by normal intestinal epithelial cells and its expression is maintained throughout the colon adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Our previous work demonstrated a correlation between TFF3 expression and metastatic potential in an animal model of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether TFF3 is expressed in human colon cancer liver metastasis (CCLM) and whether inhibiting TFF3 expression in colon cancer cells would alter their invasive potential in vitro. Human CCLMs were analyzed at the mRNA and protein level for TFF3 expression. Two highly metastatic rat colon cancer cell lines that either natively express TFF3 (LN cells) or were transfected with TFF3 (LPCRI-2 cells), were treated with two rat TFF3 siRNA constructs (si78 and si365), and analyzed in an in vitro invasion assay. At the mRNA and protein level, TFF3 was expressed in 17/17 (100%) CCLMs and 10/11 (91%) primary colon cancers, but not in normal liver tissue. By real time PCR, TFF3 expression was markedly inhibited by both siRNA constructs in LN and LPCRI-2 cells. The si365 and si78 constructs inhibited invasion by 44% and 53%, respectively, in LN cells, and by 74% and 50%, respectively, in LPCRI-2 cells. These results provide further evidence that TFF3 contributes to the malignant behavior of colon cancer cells. These observations may have relevance for designing new diagnostic and treatment approaches to colorectal cancer.

  18. Patterns of metastasis in colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, Matias; Hemminki, Akseli; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2016-07-15

    Investigating epidemiology of metastatic colon and rectal cancer is challenging, because cancer registries seldom record metastatic sites. We used a population based approach to assess metastatic spread in colon and rectal cancers. 49,096 patients with colorectal cancer were identified from the nationwide Swedish Cancer Registry. Metastatic sites were identified from the National Patient Register and Cause of Death Register. Rectal cancer more frequently metastasized into thoracic organs (OR = 2.4) and the nervous system (1.5) and less frequently within the peritoneum (0.3). Mucinous and signet ring adenocarcinomas more frequently metastasized within the peritoneum compared with generic adenocarcinoma (3.8 [colon]/3.2 [rectum]), and less frequently into the liver (0.5/0.6). Lung metastases occurred frequently together with nervous system metastases, whereas peritoneal metastases were often listed with ovarian and pleural metastases. Thoracic metastases are almost as common as liver metastases in rectal cancer patients with a low stage at diagnosis. In colorectal cancer patients with solitary metastases the survival differed between 5 and 19 months depending on T or N stage. Metastatic patterns differ notably between colon and rectal cancers. This knowledge should help clinicians to identify patients in need for extra surveillance and gives insight to further studies on the mechanisms of metastasis.

  19. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values....../119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  20. Small cell cervical cancer: an unusual finding at cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, Emily

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare cancer, comprising less than 3% of all cervical neoplasms. It uniformly has a poor prognosis, and has a high mortality even with early stage disease. It can metastasise rapidly and metastatic sites include lung, liver, brain, bone, pancreas and lymph nodes. CASE: Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman with no symptoms of cervical pathology who developed post-renal failure following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cause was bilateral ureteric obstruction from metastatic small cell cervical cancer and metastases were subsequently found on her gallbladder specimen. CONCLUSION: This is an unusual presentation of small cell cervical cancer and demonstrates the aggressive nature of this disease.

  1. New insights of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yadi Wu; Binhua P.Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step during embryonic morphogenesis,heart development,chronic degenerative fibrosis,and cancer metastasis.Several distinct traits have been conveyed by EMT,including cell motility,invasiveness,resistance to apoptosis,and some properties of stem cells.Many signal pathways have contributed to the induction of EMT,such as transforming growth factor-β,Wnt,Hedgehog,Notch,and nuclear factor-κB.Over the last few years,increasing evidence has shown that EMT plays an essential role in tumor progression and metastasis.Understanding the molecular mechanism of EMT has a great effect in unraveling the metastatic cascade and may lead to novel interventions for metastatic disease.

  2. Inhibitory effect of lanthanum chloride on migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hongwei; LIU Sisun; MIAO Lifang; YU Lingfang; WANG Yang; GUO Fei

    2013-01-01

    Tumor metastasis remains the main reason for treatment failure and death of patients with cervical cancer.The present study was designed to explore the effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on the invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms.The migration and invasion of tumor cells was evaluated by a modified Transwell/Boyden chamber assays.It is well known that MMPs (Matrix metalloprotcinascs) and NF-κB (Nuclear factor-κB) pathway play important roles in migration and invasion of tumor cells,and also the expression of MMPs were regulated by NF-κB signaling.The expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Western blot and the NF-κB-DNA-binding activity assay were used to analyze the NF-κB activity.The results indicated that LaCl3 was capable of inhibiting the cell invasion and migration of human cervical cancer Hela cells by decreasing the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 via blocking NF-κB pathway.

  3. Prospects for primary prevention of cervical cancer in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franceschi Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The HPV types that cause cervical cancer are sexually transmitted, but there is little evidence that infection can be avoided by behavioural changes, such as condom use. In contrast, prophylactic vaccines against HPV infection are likely to have high efficacy. In principle, the effectiveness of HPV vaccination as a strategy for cervical cancer control can be measured either by monitoring secular trends in cervical cancer incidence or by conducting randomized trials. The former approach is unlikely to provide convincing evidence of effectiveness, since cervical cancer rates are subject to strong secular trends that are independent of intervention measures. A few phase III trials of HPV prophylactic vaccines are now being started. Such trials are very expensive studies involving frequent and complicated investigations. It is important, however, to start as soon as possible simpler trials designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of HPV vaccine in field conditions, i.e. in developing or intermediate countries which suffer the major burden of mortality from cervical cancer. Such trials may capture a difference in the most severe, and rarest, preinvasive cervical lesions (i.e., the real target of any HPV vaccine over a prolonged follow-up (20 years at least. The design of such studies is briefly considered for two areas: Southern India and South Korea.

  4. Nanotechnology-based intelligent drug design for cancer metastasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Haijun; Gu, Songen; Zhao, Rongli; Shao, Jingwei; Jia, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Traditional chemotherapy used today at clinics is mainly inherited from the thinking and designs made four decades ago when the Cancer War was declared. The potency of those chemotherapy drugs on in-vitro cancer cells is clearly demonstrated at even nanomolar levels. However, due to their non-specific effects in the body on normal tissues, these drugs cause toxicity, deteriorate patient's life quality, weaken the host immunosurveillance system, and result in an irreversible damage to human's own recovery power. Owing to their unique physical and biological properties, nanotechnology-based chemotherapies seem to have an ability to specifically and safely reach tumor foci with enhanced efficacy and low toxicity. Herein, we comprehensively examine the current nanotechnology-based pharmaceutical platforms and strategies for intelligent design of new nanomedicines based on targeted drug delivery system (TDDS) for cancer metastasis treatment, analyze the pros and cons of nanomedicines versus traditional chemotherapy, and evaluate the importance that nanomaterials can bring in to significantly improve cancer metastasis treatment.

  5. Immune escape mechanisms in colorectal cancer pathogenesis and liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancione, Massimo; Giordano, Guido; Remo, Andrea; Febbraro, Antonio; Sabatino, Lina; Manfrin, Erminia; Ceccarelli, Michele; Colantuoni, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, growing evidence indicates that the tumor microenvironment (TME) contributes with genomic/epigenomic aberrations of malignant cells to enhance cancer cells survival, invasion, and dissemination. Many factors, produced or de novo synthesized by immune, stromal, or malignant cells, acting in a paracrine and autocrine fashion, remodel TME and the adaptive immune response culminating in metastasis. Taking into account the recent accomplishments in the field of immune oncology and using metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) as a model, we propose that the evasion of the immune surveillance and metastatic spread can be achieved through a number of mechanisms that include (a) intrinsic plasticity and adaptability of immune and malignant cells to paracrine and autocrine stimuli or genotoxic stresses; (b) alteration of positional schemes of myeloid-lineage cells, produced by factors controlling the balance between tumour-suppressing and tumour-promoting activities; (c) acquisition by cancer cells of aberrant immune-phenotypic traits (NT5E/CD73, CD68, and CD163) that enhance the interactions among TME components through the production of immune-suppressive mediators. These properties may represent the driving force of metastatic progression and thus clinically exploitable for cancer prevention and therapy. In this review we summarize results and suggest new hypotheses that favour the growing impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumour progression, metastasis, and therapy resistance.

  6. Cutaneous Metastasis of Large Cell Lung Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižsmail Gedik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has the highest incidence among all cancer types in the world. Skin is an uncommon organ that lung cancers metastasize and the incidence of cutaneous metastasis has been reported between 1-12%. In this report, we would like to present the case of a 67 year old male patient who admitted to our hospital with the complaint of multiple swollen masses on the different parts of his skin and has a homogenous mass with the width of 3 cm on chest x ray. The nodule at the intersection of the right 6th intercostal space and the mid-axillary line and with the dimensions of 1.5x1 cm was excised under local anesthesia and the specimen was sent to the pathology laboratory for histopathological examination. The diagnosis of %u201Clarge cell neuroendocrine carcinoma%u201D was made histopathologically. The patient was diagnosed as the distant metastasis of the large cell lung cancer, considered inoperable and referred to oncology clinics.

  7. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer reduces surgical risks and lymph-vascular space involvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Wang; Guang Wang; Li-Hui Wei; Ling-Hui Huang; Jian-Liu Wang; Shi-Jun Wang; Xiao-Ping Li

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT),which can reduce the size and therefore increase the resectability of tumors,has recently evolved as a treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer.NACT has been reported to decrease the risk of pathologic factors related to prognosis of cervical cancer.To further assess the effects of NACT on surgery and the pathologic characteristics of cervicat cancer,we reviewed 110 cases of locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy with or without NACT at the People's Hospital of Peking University between January 2006 and December 2010.Of 110 patients,68 underwent platinum-based NACT prior to surgery (NACT group) and 42 underwent pdmary surgery treatment (PST group).Our results showed 48 of 68 (70.6%) patients achieved a complete response or partial response to NACT.Estimated blood loss,operation time,and number of removed lymph nodes during surgery,as well as complication rates during and after surgery were not significantly different between the NACT group and the PST group.The rates of deep stromal invasion,positive parametria,positive surgical vaginal margins,and lymph node metastasis were not significantly different between the two groups.However,the rate of lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI) was significantly lower in the NACT group than in the PST group (P = 0.021).In addition,the response rate of NACT was significantly higher in the patients with chemotherapeutic drugs administrated via artery than via vein.Our results suggest that NACT is a safe and effective treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer and significantly decreases the rate of LVSI.

  8. [Encounter of cancer cells with bone. Therapy for bone metastasis from lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Hideshi

    2011-03-01

    Bone metastasis from lung cancer requires a thorough examination of bones, including axial bones (e.g., spine, pelvis, and proximal femur) . Most patients have multiple bone metastases by the time they are initially diagnosed. In such patients, radiation therapy is often the first choice of treatment. Surgical treatment is indicated for pathological fracture and impending fracture associated with cortical bone invasion in long bone metastasis. Spinal metastasis requires accurate imaging to evaluate the extent of bone metastasis ; surgical treatment is indicated when the spinal cord is compressed. Given reports that bisphosphonates decrease the incidence of pathological fractures, prescribing bisphosphonates at an early stage is likely to be an effective therapeutic strategy for bone metastasis.

  9. Up-regulation of KIF14 is a predictor of poor survival and a novel prognostic biomarker of chemoresistance to paclitaxel treatment in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjing; Shi, Yanhua; Li, Jing; Cui, Wei; Yang, Baozhi

    2016-01-01

    Kinesin family member 14 (KIF14) is a member of kinesin family proteins which have been found to be dysregulated in various cancer types. However, the expression of KIF14 and its potential prognostic significance have not been investigated in cervical cancer. Real-time PCR was performed to assess the expression levels of KIF14 in 47 pairs of cervical cancer tissues and their matched normal tissues from patients who had not been exposed to chemotherapy as well as tissue samples from 57 cervical cancer patients who are sensitive to paclitaxel treatment and 53 patients who are resistant. The association between KIF14 expression levels in tissue and clinicopathological features or chemosensitivity was examined. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model were applied to assess the correlation between KIF14 expression levels and overall survival (OS) of cervical cancer patients. KIF14 expression levels were significantly increased in cervical cancer tissues compared with matched non-cancerous tissues and it was higher in tissues of patients who are chemoresistant compared with those who are chemosensitive. KIF14 expression was positively associated with high tumour stage (P=0.0044), lymph node metastasis (P=0.0034) and chemoresistance (Ptreatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that KIF14 was an independent prognostic factor for OS. Our study suggests that KIF14 may serve as a predictor of poor survival and a novel prognostic biomarker of chemoresistance to paclitaxel treatment in cervical cancer.

  10. Bioinformatics analysis of breast cancer bone metastasis related gene-CXCR4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-Wei Zhang; Xian-Fu Sun; Ya-Ning He; Jun-Tao Li; Xu-Hui Guo; Hui Liu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze breast cancer bone metastasis related gene-CXCR4. Methods: This research screened breast cancer bone metastasis related genes by high-flux gene chip. Results:It was found that the expressions of 396 genes were different including 165 up-regulations and 231 down-regulations. The expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 was obviously up-regulated in the tissue with breast cancer bone metastasis. Compared with the tissue without bone metastasis, there was significant difference, which indicated that CXCR4 played a vital role in breast cancer bone metastasis. Conclusions: The bioinformatics analysis of CXCR4 can provide a certain basis for the occurrence and diagnosis of breast cancer bone metastasis, target gene therapy and evaluation of prognosis.

  11. Somatic LKB1 mutations promote cervical cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana N Wingo

    Full Text Available Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is the etiologic agent for cervical cancer. Yet, infection with HPV is not sufficient to cause cervical cancer, because most infected women develop transient epithelial dysplasias that spontaneously regress. Progression to invasive cancer has been attributed to diverse host factors such as immune or hormonal status, as no recurrent genetic alterations have been identified in cervical cancers. Thus, the pressing question as to the biological basis of cervical cancer progression has remained unresolved, hampering the development of novel therapies and prognostic tests. Here we show that at least 20% of cervical cancers harbor somatically-acquired mutations in the LKB1 tumor suppressor. Approximately one-half of tumors with mutations harbored single nucleotide substitutions or microdeletions identifiable by exon sequencing, while the other half harbored larger monoallelic or biallelic deletions detectable by multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA. Biallelic mutations were identified in most cervical cancer cell lines; HeLa, the first human cell line, harbors a homozygous 25 kb deletion that occurred in vivo. LKB1 inactivation in primary tumors was associated with accelerated disease progression. Median survival was only 13 months for patients with LKB1-deficient tumors, but >100 months for patients with LKB1-wild type tumors (P = 0.015, log rank test; hazard ratio = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.083 to 0.77. LKB1 is thus a major cervical tumor suppressor, demonstrating that acquired genetic alterations drive progression of HPV-induced dysplasias to invasive, lethal cancers. Furthermore, LKB1 status can be exploited clinically to predict disease recurrence.

  12. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  13. An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilakapati Murali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment modalities, cervical cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer death among women. Pap smear and colposcopy are the existing screening methods and histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these methods have been shown to be prone to reporting errors, which could be due to their subjective interpretation. Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the locally advanced stages of cervical cancers. The typical treatment regimen spans over 4 months, from the first fraction of radiation to clinical assessment of tumor response to radiotherapy. It is often noticed that due to intrinsic properties of tumors, patients with the same clinical stage and histological type respond differently to radiotherapy. Hence, there exists a need for the development of new methods for early diagnosis as well as for early prediction of tumor radioresponse. Optical spectroscopic methods have been shown to be potential alternatives for use in cancer diagnosis. In this review, we provide a brief background on the anatomy and histology of the uterine cervix and the etiology of cervical cancers; we briefly discuss the optical spectroscopic approach to cervical cancer diagnosis. A very brief discussion on radiation therapy and radiation resistance is also provided. We also share our experiences with the Raman spectroscopic methodologies in cervical cancer diagnosis as well as in the prediction of tumor radioresponse.

  14. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Reis Girianelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010 were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, disaggregated by capital city and municipality. The annual percent change in mortality rates was estimated by segmented linear regression using the joinpoint method. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were conducted between average mortality rate at the end of the three-year period and selected indicators in the state capital and each Brazilian state. RESULTS There was a decline in cervical cancer mortality rates throughout the period studied, except in municipalities outside of the capitals in the North and Northeast. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality in the capitals from the end of the 1990s onwards. Favorable socioeconomic indicators were inversely correlated with cervical cancer mortality. A strong direct correlation was found with favorable indicators and an inverse correlation with fertility rate and breast cancer mortality in inner cities. CONCLUSIONS There is an ongoing dynamic process of increased risk of cervical and breast cancer and attenuation of mortality because of increased, albeit unequal, access to and provision of screening, diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Thomas C.; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Sahar...

  16. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  17. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T., E-mail: ryan-flynn@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  18. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination...

  19. Metformin: An Emerging New Therapeutic Option for Targeting Cancer Stem Cells and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Rattan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is an intricate process by which a small number of cancer cells from the primary tumor site undergo numerous alterations, which enables them to form secondary tumors at another and often multiple sites in the host. Transition of a cancer cell from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype is thought to be the first step in the progression of metastasis. Recently, the recognition of cancer stem cells has added to the perplexity in understanding metastasis, as studies suggest cancer stem cells to be the originators of metastasis. All current and investigative drugs have been unable to prevent or reverse metastasis, as a result of which most metastatic cancers are incurable. A potential drug that can be considered is metformin, an oral hypoglycemic drug. In this review we discuss the potential of metformin in targeting both epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells in combating cancer metastases.

  20. Characterizing the inorganic/organic interface in cancer bone metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei

    Bone metastasis frequently occurs in patients with advanced breast cancer and remains a major source of mortality. At the molecular level, bone is a nanocomposite composed of inorganic bone mineral deposited within an organic extracellular matrix (ECM). Although the exact mechanisms of bone metastasis remain unclear, the nanoscale materials properties of bone mineral have been implicated in this process. Bone apatite is closely related to synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) in terms of structural and mechanical properties. Additionally, although the primary protein content of bone is collagen I, the glycoprotein fibronectin (Fn) is essential in maintaining the overall integrity of the bone matrix. Importantly, in vivo, neither breast cancer cells nor normal bone cells interact directly with the bone mineral but rather with the protein film adsorbed onto the mineral surface. Therefore, we hypothesized that breast cancer cell functions were regulated by differential fibronectin adsorption onto hydroxyapatite, which led to pathological remodeling of the bone matrix and sustained bone metastasis. Three model systems containing HAP and Fn were developed for this thesis. In model system I, a library of synthetic HAP nanoparticles were utilized to investigate the effect of mineral size, shape, and crystallinity on Fn conformation, using Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy. In model system II, Fn-functionalized large geologic HAP crystals were used instead of HAP nanoparticles to avoid cellular uptake when investigating subsequent cell functions. Overall our FRET analysis (models I and II) revealed that Fn conformation depended on size, surface chemistry, and roughness of underlying HAP. When breast cancer cells were seeded on the Fn-coated HAP crystal facets (model II), our data indicated high secretion levels of proangiogenic and proinflammatory factors associated with the presence of unfolded Fn conformations, likely caused by differential

  1. RKIP inhibition in cervical cancer is associated with higher tumor aggressive behavior and resistance to cisplatin therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martinho

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide, being high-risk group the HPV infected, the leading etiological factor. The raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP has been associated with tumor progression and metastasis in several human neoplasms, however its role on cervical cancer is unclear. In the present study, 259 uterine cervix tissues, including cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial lesions and carcinomas, were analyzed for RKIP expression by immunohistochemistry. We found that RKIP expression was significantly decreased during malignant progression, being highly expressed in non-neoplastic tissues (54% of the samples; 73/135, and expressed at low levels in the cervix invasive carcinomas (∼15% (19/124. Following in vitro downregulation of RKIP, we observed a viability and proliferative advantage of RKIP-inhibited cells over time, which was associated with an altered cell cycle distribution and higher colony number in a colony formation assay. An in vitro wound healing assay showed that RKIP abrogation is associated with increased migratory capability. RKIP downregulation was also associated with an increased vascularization of the tumors in vivo using a CAM assay. Furthermore, RKIP inhibition induced cervical cancer cells apoptotic resistance to cisplatin treatment. In conclusion, we described that RKIP protein is significantly depleted during the malignant progression of cervical tumors. Despite the lack of association with patient clinical outcome, we demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, that loss of RKIP expression can be one of the factors that are behind the aggressiveness, malignant progression and chemotherapy resistance of cervical cancer.

  2. MIM, a Potential Metastasis Suppressor Gene in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Goo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a modified version of the mRNA differential display technique, five human bladder cancer cell lines from low grade to metastatic were analyzed to identify differences in gene expression. A 316-bp cDNA (C11300 was isolated that was not expressed in the metastatic cell line TccSuP. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene was identical to KIAA 0429, has a 5.3-kb transcript that mapped to 8824.1. The protein is predicted to be 356 amino acids in size and has an actin-binding WH2 domain. Northern blot revealed expression in multiple normal tissues, but none in a metastatic breast cancer cell line (SKBR3 or in metastatic prostatic cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3. We have named this gene Missing in Metastasis (MIM and our data suggest that it may be involved in cytoskeletal organization.

  3. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgioti, Charis; Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela

    2016-04-28

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age. Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and, therefore, accurate staging is crucial for optimal management. Cervical cancer is clinically staged, according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines, but, currently, there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size, parametrial invasion, endocervical extension, pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status. Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up, evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation. The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI; CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease. PET-CT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes. The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  4. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charis Bourgioti; Konstantinos Chatoupis; Lia Angela Moulopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age.Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and,therefore,accurate staging is crucial for optimal management.Cervical cancer is clinically staged,according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines,but,currently,there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography(CT),magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),positron emission tomography-CT(PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size,parametrial invasion,endocervical extension,pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status.Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up,evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation.The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI;CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease.PETCT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes.The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  5. Establishment of Animal Model for Bone Metastasis of Walker 256 Breast Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG; Fang-fang; SHEN; Hong-tao; HE; Ming; DONG; Ke-jun; WU; Shao-yong; DOU; Liang; SHI; Yan-jun; ZHANG; Shuang; WANG; Xiao-ming; ZHAO; Qin-zhang; YANG; Xu-ran; XU; Yong-ning; LAN; Xiao-xi; CAI; Li; JIANG; Shan

    2013-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a common complication of cancer.It often occurs in lung,breast and prostate cancer,and may cause osteolytic lesions,or cause few osteoblastic lesions.It has already advanced cancer When cancer metastasis to bone,which usually cannot be cured.It is one of the important factors leading to the death of cancer patients.Studying animal model of bone

  6. Zoledronic acid induces apoptosis and autophagy in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Te; Chou, Shou-Chu; Lin, Ying-Chin

    2014-12-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancers in association with high mortality and morbidity. The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on viability and induction of apoptosis and autophagy as well as inflammatory effects in three human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, SiHa, and CaSki). Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay. Induction of apoptosis was determined by quantitation of expression level of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bax messenger RNA (mRNA) and identification of the proteolytic cleavage of poly (ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3. Autophagic effects were examined by quantitation of mRNA expression of autophagy protein 5 (ATG5) and beclin1 and identifying accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II. Inflammatory effect was determined by measuring expression and production of IL-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). The results showed ZA significantly inhibited cell viability of cervical cancer cells. ZA-induced cell death displayed features characteristic to both apoptosis and autophagy and was associated with different changes in the levels of Bcl-2 and Bax in the various cervical cancer lines. Expression of metastatic cytokines, IL-6 and Cox-2, was upregulated in the presence of ZA at low concentration. Our data revealed that ZA inhibits cervical cancer cells through the synergistic effect of apoptosis induction and autophagy activation.

  7. A twist tale of cancer metastasis and tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jen-Chieh; Chen, Hsiao-Fan; Wu, Kou-Juey

    2015-11-01

    Twist1 is an evolutionally conserved transcription factor. Originally identified in Drosophila as a key regulator for mesoderm development, it was later implicated in many human diseases, including Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and cancer. Twist1's involvement in cancer has been well recognized. Driven by hypoxia-induced factor-1 (HIF-1), Twist1 has been considered as a proto-oncogene and its overexpression has been observed in a wide variety of human cancers. High expression level of Twist1 is closely related to tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. In cancer cells, Twist1 has been shown to function as a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical process for metastasis initiation. Twist1 has also been implicated in maintaining cancer stemness for self-renewal and chemoresistance. This review first summarizes the roles of Twist1 in embryo development and Saethre-Chotzen syndrome followed by a discussion of Twist1's critical functions in cancer. In particular, the review focuses on the recent discovery of Twist1's capability to promote endothelial transdifferentiation of cancer cells beyond EMT.

  8. Ovarian Metastasis from Lung Cancer: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Cengiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case of ovarian metastasis from lung carcinoma along with its diagnostic challenges, clinical management, and review of the literature. A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain and vomiting. A laparoscopic appendectomy was performed due to acute appendicitis, and a unilateral oophorectomy (left side via laparoscopy was performed due to the detection of an ovarian mass. Immunohistochemical staining of the ovarian mass revealed that it was reactive to cytokeratin-7 (CK-7 but negative for CK-20. The immunohistochemical and pathological features of the tumor indicated an ovarian metastasis of non-small-cell lung cancer. The patient underwent chemotherapy and was followed up by the oncology department. Her postoperative regular followup of 6 months showed that her condition was stable with no recurrence. The management of female patients with acute abdominal pain and pelvic masses should consist of a multidisciplinary approach to include the diagnosis of any distant organ metastasis.

  9. Results of Radiation Therapy in Stage III Uterine Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chang Woo; Shin, Byung Chul; Yum, Ha Yong; Jeung, Tae Sig; Yoo, Myung Jin [Kosin University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    Purpose : The aim of this study is to analyze the survival rate, treatment failure and complication of radiation therapy alone in stage III uterine cervical cancer. Materials and Methods : From January 1980 through December 1985, 227 patients with stage II uterine cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy at Kosin Medical Center were retrospectively studied. Among 227 patients, 72 patients(31.7%) were stage IIIa, and 155 patients(68.3%) were stage IIIb according to FIGO classification. Age distribution was 32-71 years(median: 62 years). Sixty nine patients(95.8%) in stage IIIa and 150 patients(96.8%) in stage IIIb were squamous cell carcinoma. Pelvic lymph node metastasis at initial diagnosis was 8 patients (11.1%) in stage IIIa and 29 patients(18.7%) in stage IIIb. Among 72 patients with stage IIIa, 36 patients(50%) were treated with external radiation therapy alone by conventional technique (180-200 cGy/fr). And 36 patients(50%) were treated with external radiation therapy with intracavitary radiotherapy(ICR) with Cs137 sources, and among 155 patients with stage IIIb, 80 patients(51.6%) were treated with external radiation therapy alone and 75 patients(48.4%) were treated with external radiation therapy with ICR. Total radiation doses of stage IIIa and IIIb were 65-105 Gy(median : 78.5 Gy) and 65-125.5 Gy (median :83.5 Gy). Survival rate was calculated by life-table method. Results : Complete response rates were 58.3% (42 patients) in state IIIa and 56.1%(87 patients) in stage Iiib. Overall 5 year survival rates were 57% in stage IIIa and 40% in stage IIIb. Five year survival rates by radiation technique in stage IIIa and IIIb were 64%, 40% in group treated in combination of external radiation and ICR, and 50%, 40% in the group of external radiation therapy alone(P=NS). Five year survival rates by response of radiation therapy in stage IIIa and IIIb were 90%, 66% in responder group, and 10%, 7% in non-responder group (P<0.01). There were statistically no

  10. [Isolated bilateral adrenal metastasis from renal cancer. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, R; Joual, A; Naciri, K; Guessous, H; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    The authors report an uncommon case of bilateral synchronous adrenal gland metastases from left renal cell carcinoma. The diagnosis was established by abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography. The surgical approach initially consisted of left radical nephrectomy and ipsilateral adrenalectomy. Histologically, the tumor of the left adrenal gland was identical to the left renal cell carcinoma. Subsequent contralateral adrenalectomy showed an adrenal metastasis identical to the left renal cell carcinoma. Patient follow-up was good with no recurrence of the disease after one year. This is an uncommon case for renal cancer. The treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  11. Histone Demethylase RBP2 Is Critical for Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a major clinical challenge for cancer treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant epigenetic modifications contribute significantly to tumor formation and progression. However, the drivers and roles of such epigenetic changes in tumor metastasis are still poorly understood. Using bioinformatic analysis of human breast cancer gene-expression data sets, we identified histone demethylase RBP2 as a putative mediator of metastatic progression. By using both human breast cancer cells and genetically engineered mice, we demonstrated that RBP2 is critical for breast cancer metastasis to the lung in multiple in vivo models. Mechanistically, RBP2 promotes metastasis as a pleiotropic positive regulator of many metastasis genes, including TNC. In addition, RBP2 loss suppresses tumor formation in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. These results suggest that therapeutic targeting of RBP2 is a potential strategy for inhibition of tumor progression and metastasis.

  12. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine: Future of Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatul Fardows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a deadly cancer that clutches lives of the women in most of the cases due to lack of consciousness about the disease in the developing countries. It remains a threat which is second only to breast cancer in overall disease burden for women throughout the world. Cervical cancer is almost a preventable disease by prophylactic vaccine and routine screening. Both Cervarix and Gardasil vaccines have been effective in preventing persistent infection with targeted HPV types and in preventing cervical intraepithelial lesions. It is safe and nearly 100% effective if given before onset of sexual activity. This review article is aimed to explore different aspects of this vaccine as well as to develop awareness among health professionals of different disciplines.

  13. Inadequate cervical cancer screening among mid-aged Australian women who have experienced partner violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Schofield, Margot; Hussain, Rafat; Hosking, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Partner violence is linked to cervical cancer and other gynaecological conditions. However, results of current research into associations between partner violence and cervical cancer screening have been inconclusive. Therefore, the current research investigates the association between pa

  14. Improvements in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme since 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bos (Anita)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, and therefore an important public health problem (1 ). In developing countries, the age standardised incidence rate varies between 16 - 40 per 100,000 women in 1988- 1992 (2). In the same period, in d

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Induced DDR2 Mediates Stromal-Breast Cancer Interactions and Metastasis Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Maria E.; Martin, Emily E.; Talha Anwar; Caroline Arellano-Garcia; Natasha Medhora; Arjun Lama; Yu-Chih Chen; Kevin S. Tanager; Euisik Yoon; Kidwell, Kelley M.; Chunxi Ge; Franceschi, Renny T.; Celina G. Kleer

    2017-01-01

    Increased collagen deposition by breast cancer (BC)-associated mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSC) promotes metastasis, but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we report that the collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is essential for stromal-BC communication. In human BC metastasis, DDR2 is concordantly upregulated in metastatic cancer and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. In MSCs isolated from human BC metastasis, DDR2 maintains a fibroblastic phenotype with co...

  16. Cervical Microbiome and Cytokine Profile at Various Stages of Cervical Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahena-Román, Margarita; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús; Cortina-Ceballos, Bernardo; López-Estrada, Guillermina; Delgado-Romero, Karina; Burguete-García, Ana I.; Cantú, David; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by high-risk human papillomavirus persistence due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines. Vaginal microbiota determines the presence of certain cytokines locally. We assessed the association between cervical microbiota diversity and the histopathological diagnosis of each stage of CC, and we evaluated mRNA cervical expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α and IFN-γ across the histopathological diagnosis and specific bacterial clusters. We determined the cervical microbiota by high throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons and classified it in community state types (CST). Mean difference analyses between alpha-diversity and histopathological diagnosis were carried out, as well as a β-diversity analysis within the histological diagnosis. Cervical cytokine mRNA expression was analyzed across the CSTs and the histopathological diagnoses. We found a significant difference in microbiota's diversity in NCL-HPV negative women vs those with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and CC(p = 0.006, p = 0.036).When β-diversity was evaluated, the CC samples showed the highest variation within groups (p<0.0006) and the largest distance compared to NCL-HPV negative ones (p<0.00001). The predominant bacteria in women with normal cytology were L. crispatus and L. iners, whereas for SIL, it was Sneathia spp. and for CC, Fusobacterium spp. We found higher median cervical levels of IL-4 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the CST dominated by Fusobacterium spp. These results suggest that the cervical microbiota may be implicated in cervical cancer pathology. Further cohort studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:27115350

  17. Preventing cervical cancer : overviews of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and 2 US immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kris; Curtis, C Robinette; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Stokley, Shannon; Walker, Chastity; Roland, Katherine; Benard, Vicki; Saraiya, Mona

    2008-11-15

    Three federal programs with the potential to reduce cervical cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, especially among underserved populations, are administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program, and the Section 317 immunization grant program. The NBCCEDP provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to uninsured and underinsured women. The VFC program and the Section 317 immunization grant program provide vaccines, including human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, to targeted populations at no cost for these vaccines. This article describes the programs, their histories, populations served, services offered, and roles in preventing cervical cancer through HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Potential long-term reduction in healthcare costs resulting from HPV vaccination is also discussed. As an example of an initiative to vaccinate uninsured women aged 19-26 years through a cancer services program, a state-based effort that was recently launched in New York, is highlighted.

  18. Cross-talk between Human Papillomavirus Oncoproteins and Hedgehog Signaling Synergistically Promotes Stemness in Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnoi, Kanchan; Mahata, Sutapa; Tyagi, Abhishek; Pandey, Arvind; Verma, Gaurav; Jadli, Mohit; Singh, Tejveer; Singh, Sukh Mahendra; Bharti, Alok C

    2016-09-28

    Viral oncoproteins E6/E7 play key oncogenic role in human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical carcinogenesis in conjunction with aberrant activation of cellular signaling events. GLI-signaling has been implicated in metastasis and tumor recurrence of cervical cancer. However, the interaction of GLI-signaling with HPV oncogenes is unknown. We examined this relationship in established HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines using specific GLI inhibitor, cyclopamine and HPVE6/E7 siRNAs. Cervical cancer cell lines showed variable expression of GLI-signaling components. HPV16-positive SiHa cells, overexpressed GLI1, Smo and Patch. Inhibition by cyclopamine resulted in dose-dependent reduction of Smo and GLI1 and loss of cell viability with a higher magnitude in HPV-positive cells. Cyclopamine selectively downregulated HPVE6 expression and resulted in p53 accumulation, whereas HPVE7 and pRb level remained unaffected. siRNA-mediated silencing of HPV16E6 demonstrated reduced GLI1 transcripts in SiHa cells. Cervical cancer stem-like cells isolated by side population analysis, displayed retention of E6 and GLI1 expression. Fraction of SP cells was reduced in cyclopamine-treated cultures. When combined with E6-silencing cyclopamine resulted in loss of SP cell's sphere-forming ability. Co-inhibition of GLI1 and E6 in cervical cancer cells showed additive anti-cancer effects. Overall, our data show existence of a cooperative interaction between GLI signaling and HPVE6.

  19. Cross-talk between Human Papillomavirus Oncoproteins and Hedgehog Signaling Synergistically Promotes Stemness in Cervical Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnoi, Kanchan; Mahata, Sutapa; Tyagi, Abhishek; Pandey, Arvind; Verma, Gaurav; Jadli, Mohit; Singh, Tejveer; Singh, Sukh Mahendra; Bharti, Alok C.

    2016-01-01

    Viral oncoproteins E6/E7 play key oncogenic role in human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical carcinogenesis in conjunction with aberrant activation of cellular signaling events. GLI-signaling has been implicated in metastasis and tumor recurrence of cervical cancer. However, the interaction of GLI-signaling with HPV oncogenes is unknown. We examined this relationship in established HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines using specific GLI inhibitor, cyclopamine and HPVE6/E7 siRNAs. Cervical cancer cell lines showed variable expression of GLI-signaling components. HPV16-positive SiHa cells, overexpressed GLI1, Smo and Patch. Inhibition by cyclopamine resulted in dose-dependent reduction of Smo and GLI1 and loss of cell viability with a higher magnitude in HPV-positive cells. Cyclopamine selectively downregulated HPVE6 expression and resulted in p53 accumulation, whereas HPVE7 and pRb level remained unaffected. siRNA-mediated silencing of HPV16E6 demonstrated reduced GLI1 transcripts in SiHa cells. Cervical cancer stem-like cells isolated by side population analysis, displayed retention of E6 and GLI1 expression. Fraction of SP cells was reduced in cyclopamine-treated cultures. When combined with E6-silencing cyclopamine resulted in loss of SP cell’s sphere-forming ability. Co-inhibition of GLI1 and E6 in cervical cancer cells showed additive anti-cancer effects. Overall, our data show existence of a cooperative interaction between GLI signaling and HPVE6. PMID:27678330

  20. HPV-based cervical cancer screening- facts, fiction, and misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Arbyn, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Several randomized trials have demonstrated that HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than cytology-based screening. A pooled analysis of long-term follow-up data from these trials has shown reduced cervical cancer mortality in women screened with HPV compared to cytology. As a consequence, many health systems are currently transitioning to HPV-based screening programs. However, there are several controversies that influence whether and how HPV-based cervical cancer screening is implemented in different settings. Here, we discuss the most important controversies surrounding cervical cancer screening using primary HPV testing in light of published data from clinical trials and large observational studies. Overall, there is strong and uniform evidence for the efficacy of HPV-based screening, and little evidence for the usefulness of adding cytology to primary screening. However, there is currently limited data on optimal triage strategies for HPV-positive women, a critical component of an HPV-based screening program. There will likely be multiple choices for integrated screening programs and implementation may differ depending on risk perception, healthcare funds, assay costs, and available infrastructure, among other factors, in different settings. A particular challenge is the integration of screening and vaccination programs, since increasingly vaccinated populations will have a continuous decrease of cervical cancer risk.

  1. Analysis of clinical characteristics of 950 cases of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-li ZHU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the clinical features of the patients suffering from cervical cancer who visited Daping Hospital affiliated to Third Military Medical University in recent 10 years. Methods The clinical data of the patients who were pathologically diagnosed as invasive cervical cancer in Daping Hospital of TMMU from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into different age groups and analyzed according to age, clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approach. Results Clinical data of 950 patients with invasive cervical cancer were reviewed in this study. The mean age of the patients was 46.9 years. The clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approaches were different in different age groups. Analysis of the age structure of the patients, the onset age of cervical cancer seemed to increase year by year. Conclusion The clinical features of cervical cancer are diversity in different age, and the strategy for controlling its development should be varied according to age. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.09

  2. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lízia Maria Franco dos Reis Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON. METHODS: Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. RESULTS: Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 ± 7.8 and passive (7.2 ± 10.6 smoking versus no smoking (3.7 ± 5.1; with/without alcoholism (7.8 ± 1.4 and 6.9 ± 10.1; with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 ± 10.5 and 1.3 ± 1.7; and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 ± 4.3, 10.6 ± 5.3, 22.7 ± 11.9 and 1.3 ± 1.4 found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  3. Serpins promote cancer cell survival and vascular co-option in brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Manuel; Obenauf, Anna C; Jin, Xin; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Xiang H-F; Lee, Derek J; Chaft, Jamie E; Kris, Mark G; Huse, Jason T; Brogi, Edi; Massagué, Joan

    2014-02-27

    Brain metastasis is an ominous complication of cancer, yet most cancer cells that infiltrate the brain die of unknown causes. Here, we identify plasmin from the reactive brain stroma as a defense against metastatic invasion, and plasminogen activator (PA) inhibitory serpins in cancer cells as a shield against this defense. Plasmin suppresses brain metastasis in two ways: by converting membrane-bound astrocytic FasL into a paracrine death signal for cancer cells, and by inactivating the axon pathfinding molecule L1CAM, which metastatic cells express for spreading along brain capillaries and for metastatic outgrowth. Brain metastatic cells from lung cancer and breast cancer express high levels of anti-PA serpins, including neuroserpin and serpin B2, to prevent plasmin generation and its metastasis-suppressive effects. By protecting cancer cells from death signals and fostering vascular co-option, anti-PA serpins provide a unifying mechanism for the initiation of brain metastasis in lung and breast cancers.

  4. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  5. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  6. Therapeutic immunization strategies against cervical cancer : induction of cell-mediated immunity in murine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bungener, Laura Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this thesis is the development of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and pre-malignant precursor lesions of cervical cancer (CIN lesions). Cervical cancer is caused by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of high r

  7. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of cervical cancer and the coverage in cervical cancer screening are usually reported by including in the denominator all women from the general population. However, after hysterectomy women are not at risk anymore of developing cervical cancer. Therefore, it makes...

  8. Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

  9. Metachronous penile metastasis from rectal cancer after total pelvic exenteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuta Kimura; Dai Shida; Keiichi Nasu; Hiroki Matsunaga; Masahiro Warabi; Satoru Inoue

    2012-01-01

    Despite its abundant vascularization and extensive circulatory communication with neighboring organs,metastases to the penis are a rare event.A 57-yearold male,who had undergone total pelvic exenteration for rectal cancer sixteen months earlier,demonstrated an abnormal uptake within his penis by positron emission tomography/computed tomography.A single elastic nodule of the middle penis shaft was noted deep within Bucks fascia.No other obvious recurrent site was noted except the penile lesion.Total penectomy was performed as a curative resection based on a diagnosis of isolated penile metastasis from rectal cancer.A histopathological examination revealed an increase of well differentiated adenocarcinoma in the corpus spongiosum consistent with his primary rectal tumor.The immunohistochemistry of the tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for cytokeratin 20 and negative staining for cytokeratin 7,which strongly supported a diagnosis of penile metastasis from the rectum.The patient is alive more than two years without any recurrence.

  10. Research Progress of Lung Cancer with Leptomeningeal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua MA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal metastases is one of the most serious complications of lung cancer, the patients with poor prognosis. Leptomeningeal metastasis in patients with lack specificity of clinical manifestations. The main clinical performance are the damage of cerebral symptoms, cranial nerve and spinal nerve. The diagnosis primarily based on the history of tumor, clinical symptoms, enhance magnetic resnance image (MRI scan and cerebrospinal fluid cytology. In recent years, new ways of detecting clinically, significantly increase the rate of early detection of leptomeningeal metastases. The effect of comprehensive treatments are still sad. The paper make a review of research progress in pathologic physiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis methods and treatments of lung cancer with leptomeningeal metastases.

  11. The cancer glycome: carbohydrates as mediators of metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavey, Siobhan V; Huynh, Daisy; Reagan, Michaela R; Manier, Salomon; Moschetta, Michele; Kawano, Yawara; Roccaro, Aldo M; Ghobrial, Irene M; Joshi, Lokesh; O'Dwyer, Michael E

    2015-07-01

    Glycosylation is a frequent post-translational modification which results in the addition of carbohydrate determinants, "glycans", to cell surface proteins and lipids. These glycan structures form the "glycome" and play an integral role in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions through modulation of adhesion and cell trafficking. Glycosylation is increasingly recognized as a modulator of the malignant phenotype of cancer cells, where the interaction between cells and the tumor micro-environment is altered to facilitate processes such as drug resistance and metastasis. Changes in glycosylation of cell surface adhesion molecules such as selectin ligands, integrins and mucins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several solid and hematological malignancies, often with prognostic implications. In this review we focus on the functional significance of alterations in cancer cell glycosylation, in terms of cell adhesion, trafficking and the metastatic cascade and provide insights into the prognostic and therapeutic implications of recent findings in this fast-evolving niche.

  12. Fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with cancer cells:metastasis as a secondary disease in cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John M. Pawelek

    2014-01-01

    This perspective article highlights the leukocyte-cancer cellhybrid theory as a mechanism for cancer metastasis. Beginning from the first proposal of the theory more than a century ago and continuing today with the first proof for this theory in a human cancer, the hybrid theory offers a unifying explanation for metastasis. In this scenario, leukocyte fusion with a cancer cellis a secondary disease superimposed upon the early tumor, giving birth to a new, malignant cellwith a leukocyte-cancer cellhybrid epigenome.

  13. Inhibitory effect of Trolox on the migration and invasion of human lung and cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ho Joong; Kim, Yoonseo; Kang, Hyereen; Sull, Jae Woong; Kim, Yoon Suk; Jang, Sung-Wuk; Ko, Jesang

    2012-02-01

    The antioxidant 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) is implicated in migration and invasion of metastatic tumors. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of Trolox on metastatic cancer cells is not known. We found that a non-cytotoxic dose of Trolox decreased phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced invasion and migration of both A549 and HeLa cancer cells. We also found that Trolox suppressed both the expression and the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and that the promoter activity of PMA-induced MMP-9 was inhibited by Trolox. Our results show that Trolox inhibits the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppression of NF-κB transactivation. These results indicate that Trolox inhibits NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression, leading to the suppression of migration and invasion in lung and cervical cancer cells. Trolox is a potential agent for clinical use in preventing the invasion and metastasis of human malignant lung and cervical cancers.

  14. Current Approaches of Photothermal Therapy in Treating Cancer Metastasis with Nanotherapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Lili; Wang, Hong; He, Bin; Zeng, Lijuan; Tan, Tao; Cao, Haiqiang; He, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhiwen; Guo, Shengrong; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metastasis accounts for the high mortality of many types of cancer. Owing to the unique advantages of high specificity and minimal invasiveness, photothermal therapy (PTT) has been evidenced with great potential in treating cancer metastasis. In this review, we outline the current approaches of PTT with respect to its application in treating metastatic cancer. PTT can be used alone, guided with multimodal imaging, or combined with the current available therapies for effective treatment...

  15. Cost-Utility Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Cervical Screening on Cervical Cancer Patient in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Dolk, Franklin Christiaan; Suwantika, Auliya A.; Westra, Tjalke Arend; WIlschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, the clinical and economic burdens of cervical cancer are still substantial issues in Indonesia. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to model the costs, clinical benefits, and cost-utility of both visual inspection with acetic

  16. Colorectal cancer manifesting with metastasis to prolactinoma: report of a case involving symptoms mimicking pituitary apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewjitcharoen, Yotsapon; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Siwanuwatn, Rungsak; Sunthornyothin, Sarat

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary metastasis is an uncommon first presentation of systemic malignancy. The most common presenting symptom of pituitary metastasis is diabetes insipidus reflecting involvement of the stalk and/or posterior pituitary. We herein present a unique case of the coexistence of both a functioning pituitary adenoma (prolactinoma) and pituitary metastasis of advanced colorectal cancer with pituitary apoplexy as the first manifestation of underlying malignancy. The present case emphasizes the need to consider pituitary metastasis as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with pituitary lesions and be aware that tumor-to-tumor metastasis can occur unexpectedly in those with pituitary metastases.

  17. Can radical parametrectomy be omitted inoccult cervical cancer afterextrafascial hysterectomy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-WuLu,; JingLi,; Yun-YunLiu,; Chang-HaoLiu,; Guo-CaiXu,; Ling-LingXie,; Miao-FangWu; Zhong-QiuLin

    2015-01-01

    Background:Occult invasive cervical cancer discovered after simple hysterectomy is not common, radical parame‑trectomy (RP) is a preferred option for young women. However, the morbidity of RP was high. The aim of our study is to assess the incidence of parametrial involvement in patients who underwent radical parametrectomy for occult cervical cancer or radical hysterectomy for early‑stage cervical cancer and to suggest an algorithm for the triage of patients with occult cervical cancer to avoid RP. Methods:A total of 13 patients with occult cervical cancer who had undergone RP with an upper vaginectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were included in this retrospective study. Data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of the cases were collected. The published literature was also reviewed, and low risk factors for parametrial involvement in early‑stage cervical cancer were analyzed. Results:Of the 13 patients, 9 had a stage IB1 lesion, and 4 had a stage IA2 lesion. There were four patients with grade 1 disease, seven with grade 2 disease, and two with grade 3 disease. The median age of the entire patients was 41years. The most common indication for extrafascial hysterectomy was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3. Three patients had visible lesions measuring 10–30mm, in diameter and ten patients had cervical stromal invasions with depths ranging from 4 to 9mm; only one patient had more than 50% stromal invasion, and four patients had lymph‑vascular space invasion (LVSI). Perioperative complications included intraoperative bowel injury, blood transfusion, vesico‑vaginal ifstula, and ileus (1 case for each). Postoperative pathologic examination results did not show residual disease or parametrial involvement. One patient with positive lymph nodes received concurrent radiation therapy. Only one patient experienced recurrence. Conclusions:Perioperative complications following RP were common, whereas the incidence of parametrial involve‑ment was very low

  18. Preprocessing: A Step in Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  19. Preprocessing for Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  20. Highlights on recurrence after surgery for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Blaakær, Jan

    Objective After surgery due to cervical cancer women are offered to attend a follow-up program 10 times during five years with the purpose for early diagnosis of recurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the follow-up program, which has remained unchanged for 20 years even though reminding...... and concerning women, who we consider healthy after surgery. Methods A retrospective longitudinal study of women attending follow-up program after surgery due to cervical cancer at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital. 524 patients were identified from 1996 to 2011...... with the diagnosis of cervical cancer combined with a surgical procedure. From the national pathological database and patient files information was extracted. Information was stored in Epidata. Associations were calculated using stratified analysis and logistic regression. Results 133(25%) women of 524 needed...

  1. HPV与宫颈癌%Hunum papillomavirus and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁玉兰; 梁新芳

    2008-01-01

    It has been approved that the genital human papillomavirus(HPV) infection is one of the leading causes of cervical cancer.Over two-thirds of cervical cancer cases are associated with infection of either HPV16 or HPV18.The success of HPV prophylactic vaccine development is the milestone of cervical cancer prevention of humankind.%人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)的感染已被证实与宫颈癌的发生有密切关系.超过2/3的宫颈癌与HPV16或HPV18感染有关.HPV预防性疫苗研制的成功则是子宫颈癌预防研究的里程碑.

  2. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Hylke W; van der Zee, Ate G J; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects ∼500,000 women worldwide, and ∼275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%. One of the factors thought to contribute to treatment failure is the ability of tumor cells to repair chemoradiotherapy-induced DNA damage. Therefore, sensitization of tumor cells for chemoradiotherapy via inhibition of the DNA damage response (DDR) as a novel strategy to improve therapy effect, is currently studied pre-clinically as well as in the clinic. Almost invariably, cervical carcinogenesis involves infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), which inactivates part of the DNA damage response. This HPV-mediated partial inactivation of the DDR presents therapeutic targeting of the residual DDR as an interesting approach to achieve chemoradio-sensitization for cervical cancer. How the DDR can be most efficiently targeted, however, remains unclear. The fact that cisplatin and radiotherapy activate multiple signaling axes within the DDR further complicates a rational choice of therapeutic targets within the DDR. In this review, we provide an overview of the current preclinical and clinical knowledge about targeting the DDR in cervical cancer.

  3. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  4. Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and its relation with cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Idrees Muhammad; Khan Khalida; Zahra Amreen; Faridi Rabia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women. Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for decades. Keeping in mind the multiple risk factors related with cervical cancer such as early age sexual activities, t...

  5. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for cervical cytology terminology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbert, A.; Bergeron, C.; Wiener, H.; Schenck, U.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Arbyn, M.

    2007-01-01

    There are many different systems of cytology classification used in the member states of the European Union (EU) and many different languages. The following short annexe to Chapter 3 of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening provides a framework that will allow di

  6. Role of chemoradiation in advanced cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh T

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective randomized study was conducted in our department of Radiotherapy, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal to evaluating the role of chemoradiation in the management of advanced inoperable cervical cancer (stage IIB-IIIB taking only radiation treatment as control spanning the period 1996-1999. Of the fifty patients accumulated in the study group, three patients did not complete treatment, one expired due to other causes and three were lost to follow up. Likewise, of the forty-six patients in the control group, one patient did not complete treatment and 4 were lost to follow up. Thus only 43 and 41 patients were available for the result analysis for the study and control groups respectively. The early treatment response as assessed after two months of treatment conclusion were 79.1%, 13.9%, 93.0% and 58.5%, 31.7%, 90.2% as complete response (CR, partial response (PR, and total response (TR respectively for the study and control groups. Our patients included in this study had a median follow up of 35 months and 33 months for study and control groups respectively. For this follow up, the disease-free survival, survival with disease and overall survival were 67.4%, 7.0%, 74.4% and 43.9%, 12.2%, 56.1% for study and control groups respectively. There was an increase in early side-effects in the chemoradiation group but the difference was not significant. Because of the early side effects, treatment delays ensued in 7 patients (16.3% and in 3 patients (7.3% in the study and control groups respectively. There was no significant increase in the late treatment toxicities in both the groups.

  7. Human Papillomavirus 16E6 Oncogene Mutation in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Sun; Xiao-qin Ha; Tong-de Lv; Chuan-ping Xing; Bin Liu; Xiao-zhe Cao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide, after breast cancer. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are considered to be the major causes of cervical cancer. HPV16 is the most common type of HR-HPVs and HPV16 E6 gene is one of the major oncogenes. Specific mutations are considered as dangerous factors causing CC. This study was designed to find mutations of HPV16 E6 and the relationship between the mutations and the happening of CC.Methods: The tissue DNA was extracted from 15 biopsies of CC. Part of HPV16 E6 gene (nucleotide 201-523) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the CC tissue DNA. The PCR fragments were sequenced and analyzed.Results: The result of PCR showed that the positive rate of HPV16 E6 was 93.33% (14/15). After sequencing and analyzing, in the 13 out of 14 PCR fragments, 4 maintained prototype (30.77%), 8 had a same 350G mutation (61.54%), and 1 had a 249G mutation (7.69%).Conclusion: This study suggest that there is a high infection rate of HPV in cervical cancer and most of the HPV16 E6 gene has mutations. Those mutations may have an association with the development of cervical cancer.

  8. Current Approaches of Photothermal Therapy in Treating Cancer Metastasis with Nanotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lili; Wang, Hong; He, Bin; Zeng, Lijuan; Tan, Tao; Cao, Haiqiang; He, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhiwen; Guo, Shengrong; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metastasis accounts for the high mortality of many types of cancer. Owing to the unique advantages of high specificity and minimal invasiveness, photothermal therapy (PTT) has been evidenced with great potential in treating cancer metastasis. In this review, we outline the current approaches of PTT with respect to its application in treating metastatic cancer. PTT can be used alone, guided with multimodal imaging, or combined with the current available therapies for effective treatment of cancer metastasis. Numerous types of photothermal nanotherapeutics (PTN) have been developed with encouraging therapeutic efficacy on metastatic cancer in many preclinical animal experiments. We summarize the design and performance of various PTN in PTT alone and their combinational therapy. We also point out the lacking area and the most promising approaches in this challenging field. In conclusion, PTT or their combinational therapy can provide an essential promising therapeutic modality against cancer metastasis.

  9. Twist and YB-1 gene expression in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue as well as its correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Liu; Hong Li; Yu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the Twist and YB-1 gene expression in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue as well as its correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Methods:Normal cervical tissue, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue and cervical cancer tissue were collected for study. ELISA kits were used to detect Twist, YB-1, E-cadherin,β-catenin, N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical tissue, and immunohistochemistry was used to detect Twist and YB-1 expression levels in cervical tissue.Results:Twist and YB-1 contents, cell positive rate and immunohistochemical scores as well as N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical cancer tissue and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissue while E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents were lower than those in normal cervical tissue; Twist and YB-1 contents, cell positive rate and immunohistochemical scores as well as N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue while E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents were lower than those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue; the higher the Twist and YB-1 expression levels in cervical cancer tissue, the lower the E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents, and the higher the N-cadherin and Vimentin contents.Conclusions: Twist and YB-1 gene overexpression can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition to be involved in the occurrence of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  10. Tumor microenvironment regulates metastasis and metastasis genes of mouse MMTV-PymT mammary cancer cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbeck, J L; Thudi, N K; Martin, C K; Premanandan, C; Yu, L; Ostrowksi, M C; Rosol, T J

    2014-07-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death in breast cancer patients, yet there are challenges to modeling this process in vivo. The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of injection site on tumor growth and metastasis and gene expression of breast cancer cells in vivo using the MMTV-PymT breast cancer model (Met-1 cells). Met-1 cells were injected into 5 sites (subcutaneous, mammary fat pad, tail vein, intracardiac, and intratibial), and tumors and metastases were monitored using bioluminescent imaging and confirmed with gross necropsy and histopathology. Met-1 tumors were analyzed based on morphology and changes in gene expression in each tissue microenvironment. There were 6 permissible sites of Met-1 tumor growth (mammary gland, subcutis, lung, adrenal gland, ovary, bone). Met-1 cells grew faster in the subcutis compared to mammary fat pad tumors (highest Ki-67 index). Morphologic differences were evident in each tumor microenvironment. Finally, 7 genes were differentially expressed in the Met-1 tumors in the 6 sites of growth or metastasis. This investigation demonstrates that breast cancer progression and metastasis are regulated by not only the tumor cells but also the experimental model and unique molecular signals from the tumor microenvironment.

  11. Expression of Tra2β in Cancer Cells as a Potential Contributory Factor to Neoplasia and Metastasis

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    Andrew Best

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The splicing regulator proteins SRSF1 (also known as ASF/SF2 and SRSF3 (also known as SRP20 belong to the SR family of proteins and can be upregulated in cancer. The SRSF1 gene itself is amplified in some cancer cells, and cancer-associated changes in the expression of MYC also increase SRSF1 gene expression. Increased concentrations of SRSF1 protein promote prooncogenic splicing patterns of a number of key regulators of cell growth. Here, we review the evidence that upregulation of the SR-related Tra2β protein might have a similar role in cancer cells. The TRA2B gene encoding Tra2β is amplified in particular tumours including those of the lung, ovary, cervix, stomach, head, and neck. Both TRA2B RNA and Tra2β protein levels are upregulated in breast, cervical, ovarian, and colon cancer, and Tra2β expression is associated with cancer cell survival. The TRA2B gene is a transcriptional target of the protooncogene ETS-1 which might cause higher levels of expression in some cancer cells which express this transcription factor. Known Tra2β splicing targets have important roles in cancer cells, where they affect metastasis, proliferation, and cell survival. Tra2β protein is also known to interact directly with the RBMY protein which is implicated in liver cancer.

  12. A Gompertzian model with random effects to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni; Rosli, Norhayati [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a Gompertzian model with random effects is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via maximum likehood estimation. We apply 4-stage Runge-Kutta (SRK4) for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of the cervical cancer growth. Low values of root mean-square error (RMSE) of Gompertzian model with random effect indicate good fits.

  13. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor and UTM Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  14. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

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    Bobdey, Saurabh; Sathwara, Jignasa; Jain, Aanchal; Balasubramaniam, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cytology (Pap smear), and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on visual screening test

  15. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA, magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI, cytology (Pap smear, and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on

  16. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  17. Applicability of preoperative nuclear morphometry to evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Masaaki Karino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously reported the utility of preoperative nuclear morphometry for evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastases in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma, however, is known to differ depending on the anatomical site of the primary tumor, such as the tongue, gingiva, mouth floor, and buccal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of this morphometric technique to evaluating the risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: A digital image system was used to measure the mean nuclear area, mean nuclear perimeter, nuclear circular rate, ratio of nuclear length to width (aspect ratio, and nuclear area coefficient of variation (NACV. Relationships between these parameters and nodal status were evaluated by t-test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma (52 of the tongue, 25 of the gingiva, 4 of the buccal mucosa, and 7 of the mouth floor were included: 46 with positive node classification and 42 with negative node classification. Nuclear area and perimeter were significantly larger in node-positive cases than in node-negative cases; however, there were no significant differences in circular rate, aspect ratio, or NACV. We derived two risk models based on the results of multivariate analysis: Model 1, which identified age and mean nuclear area and Model 2, which identified age and mean nuclear perimeter. It should be noted that primary tumor site was not associated the pN-positive status. There were no significant differences in pathological nodal status by aspect ratio, NACV, or primary tumor site. CONCLUSION: Our method of preoperative nuclear morphometry may contribute valuable information to evaluations of the risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. Serological diagnostic factors for liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the serological diagnostic factors for liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer.METHODS:One hundred and six adult in-patients with colorectal cancer were studied and divided into patients with liver metastasis(n = 56) and patients without liver metastasis(n = 50).Serum levels of tumor and biochemical markers for liver were measured at the time of diagnosis.RESULTS:The mean survival time was 55.9 mo,36.8 mo and 68.3 mo for the overall patients,patients with liver metastasis and ...

  19. Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women.

  20. Lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in breast cancer

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    Subramanian Ashok

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There have been few studies on lymphangiogenesis in the past due to the lack of specific lymphatic endothelial markers, and lymphatic-specific growth factors. Recently, these limitations have been relieved by the discovery of a small number of potential lymphatic-specific markers. The relationship between lymphangiogenesis and regional or distant metastasis has not previously been investigated in humans. Using these lymphatic markers, it is possible to explore the relationship between lymphangiogenesis and tumour metastasis. This study indirectly quantified lymphangiogenesis by measuring mRNA expression of all seven lymphatic markers described above in breast cancers and correlated these markers with lymphatic involvement and survival. The cDNA from 153 frozen archived breast samples were analysed with Q-PCR for all seven lymphangiogenic markers. This was correlated with various prognostic factors as well as patient survival. Results There was significantly greater expression of all 7 markers in malignant compared to benign breast tissue. In addition, there was greater expression in lymph node positive/grade 3 tumours when compared to lymph node negative/grade 1 tumours. In 5 of the markers, there was a greater expression in poor NPI prognostic tumours when compared to favourable prognostic tumours which was not statistically significant. There was no association between recurrence risk and lymphangiogenic marker expression. Conclusion In summary, the findings from this study show that lymphangiogenesis, measured by specific lymphatic marker expression, is higher in breast cancers than in normal breast tissue. Secondly, breast cancers which have metastasised to the regional lymphatics show higher expression compared to those which have not, although the individual differences for all five markers were not statistically significant.

  1. Risk model in stage IB1-IIB cervical cancer with positive node after radical hysterectomy

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    Chen Z

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhilan Chen,1,2,* Kecheng Huang,1,* Zhiyong Lu,1,3 Song Deng,1,4 Jiaqiang Xiong,1 Jia Huang,1 Xiong Li,5 Fangxu Tang,1 Zhihao Wang,6 Haiying Sun,1 Lin Wang,1 Shasha Zhou,1 Xiaoli Wang,1 Yao Jia,1 Ting Hu,1 Juan Gui,7 Dongyi Wan,1 Ding Ma,1 Shuang Li,1 Shixuan Wang11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Techonology, Wuhan, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Wuhan, 3Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Tai-He Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi, Hubei, 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wuhan Central Hospital, Wuhan, 6Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education of China for Neurological Disorders, Huazhong University of Science and Techonology, Wuhan, 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors in patients with surgically treated node-positive IB1-IIB cervical cancer and to establish a risk model for disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS. A total of 170 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy as primary treatment for node-positive International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage IB1-IIB cervical cancer from January 2002 to December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Five published risk models were evaluated in this population. The variables, including common iliac lymph node metastasis and parametrial invasion, were independent predictors of outcome in a multivariate analysis using a Cox regression model. Three distinct prognostic groups (low, intermediate, and high risk

  2. Aurora kinase A induces papillary thyroid cancer lymph node metastasis by promoting cofilin-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaiti, Yusufu; Jie, Tan; Jing, Zhou; Changwen, Wang; Pan, Yu; Chen, Chen; Tao, Huang

    2016-04-22

    Aurora-A (Aur-A), a member of the serine/threonine Aurora kinase family, plays an important role in ensuring genetic stability during cell division. Previous studies indicated that Aur-A possesses oncogenic activity and may be a valuable therapeutic target in cancer therapy. However, the role of Aur-A in the most common thyroid cancer, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), remains largely unknown. In patients with PTC, cancer cell migration and invasion account for most of the metastasis, recurrence, and cancer-related deaths. Cofilin-1 (CFL-1) is the most important effector of actin polymerization and depolymerization, determining the direction of cell migration. Here, we assessed the correlation between Aur-A and CFL-1 in PTC with lymph node metastasis. Tissue microarray data showed that simultaneous overexpression of Aur-A and CFL-1 correlated with lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer tissue. Inhibition of Aur-A suppressed thyroid cancer cell migration in vitro and decreased lymph node metastasis in nude mice. Importantly, Aur-A increased the non-phosphorylated, active form of CFL-1 in TPC-1 cells, thus promoting cancer cell migration and thyroid cancer lymph node metastasis. Our findings indicate that the combination of Aur-A and CFL-1 may be useful as a molecular prediction model for lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer and raise the possibility of targeting Aur-A and CFL-1 for more effective treatment of thyroid cancer.

  3. Dietary energy balance modulates ovarian cancer progression and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Dar, Sajad A; Morris, Robert T; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2014-08-15

    A high energy balance, or caloric excess, accounts as a tumor promoting factor, while a negative energy balance via caloric restriction, has been shown to delay cancer progression. The effect of energy balance on ovarian cancer progression was investigated in an isogeneic immunocompetent mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer kept on a regimen of regular diet, high energy diet (HED) and calorie restricted diet (CRD), prior to inoculating the animals intraperitoneally with the mouse ovarian surface epithelial ID8 cancer cells. Tumor evaluation revealed that mice group on HED displayed the most extensive tumor formation with the highest tumor score at all organ sites (diaphragm, peritoneum, bowel, liver, kidney, spleen), accompanied with increased levels of insulin, leptin, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), VEGF and interleukin 6 (IL-6). On the other hand, the mice group on CRD exhibited the least tumor burden associated with a significant reduction in levels of insulin, IGF-1, leptin, MCP-1, VEGF and IL-6. Immunohistochemistry analysis of tumors from HED mice showed higher activation of Akt and mTOR with decreased adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and SIRT1 activation, while tumors from the CRD group exhibited the reverse profile. In conclusion, ovarian cancer growth and metastasis occurred more aggressively under HED conditions and was significantly curtailed under CRD. The suggested mechanism involves modulated secretion of growth factors, cytokines and altered regulation of AMPK and SIRT1 that converges on mTOR inhibition. While the role of a high energy state in ovarian cancer has not been confirnmed in the literature, the current findings support investigating the potential impact of diet modulation as adjunct to other anticancer therapies and as possible individualized treatment strategy of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  4. Investigation of the roles of exosomes in colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Ding, Xiaoling; Nan, Lijuan; Wang, Yiting; Wang, Jing; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Jihong; Zhu, Wei; Ni, Bing; Dong, Suzhen; Yu, Lei

    2015-05-01

    The leading cause of death among cancer patients is tumor metastasis. Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging as mediators of metastasis. In the present study, we demonstrated that exosomes play a pivotal role in the metastatic progression of colorectal cancer. First, a nude mouse model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis was established and characterized. Then, we demonstrated that exosomes from a highly liver metastatic colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29) could significantly increase the metastatic tumor burden and distribution in the mouse liver of Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells, which ordinarily exhibit poor liver metastatic potential. We further investigated the mechanisms by which HT-29-derived-exosomes influence the liver metastasis of colorectal cancer and found that mice treated with HT-29-derived exosomes had a relatively higher level of CXCR4 in the metastatic microenvironment, indicating that exosomes may promote colorectal cancer metastasis by recruiting CXCR4-expressing stromal cells to develop a permissive metastatic microenvironment. Finally, the migration of Caco-2 cells was significantly increased following treatment with HT-29-derived exosomes in vitro, further supporting a role for exosomes in modulating colorectal tumor-derived liver metastasis. The data from the present study may facilitate further translational medicine research into the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

  5. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, S; Jensen-Fangel, S;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical...... performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the interpretation of results. RESULTS: We followed 1140 WLWH and 17 046 controls with no prior history of ICC or hysterectomy for 9491 and 156 865 person-years, respectively. Compared with controls, the overall...

  6. Pleuropneumonectomy for diffuse pleural metastasis in primary lung cancer

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    Wen-Bo Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze a single institution experience with pleuropneumonectomy for pleural metastasis and malignant pleural effusion in primary lung cancer. Materials and Methods: From August 1978 to August 2011, 66 consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent pleuropneumonectomy. Patients were followed-up after the operation. The quality-of-life and the survival time were recorded. Results: All the 66 patients were successfully operated on, including 38 patients in early years (1978-1993 and 28 patients in recent years (1994-2011. Two patients in early years died after the operation. Post-operative complications occurred including heart arrhythmia, respiratory insufficiency and bacterial infection of residual lung, chylothoraxin and mental disorder. A total of 61 patients have been successfully followed-up and three patients in early years were lost in 1 year after the operation. Local recurrence was found in seven cases (4 in early years, 3 in recent years and distant metastasis was found in 48 cases (29 in early years, 19 in recent years. A total of 54 patients died from tumors, seven patients survived. The actuarial 1, 2 and 3-year survival rates are 72.7%, 27.2% and 6.1% of 36 in patients of early years and 85.7%, 46.4% and 21.4% in 28 patients of recent years. The mean survival and the median survival of the total 64 patients were 20.0 ± 10.9 months and 17 months respectively. Further analysis showed that the mean survival and the median survival of the 36 patients in early years were 17.2 ± 9.7 months and 15 months, in contrast to 23.4 ± 11.3 months and 18 months of the 28 patients in recent years. Conclusion: Pleuropneumonectomy is an option of patients with advanced-stage lung cancer associated with uncontrolled malignant pleural fluid by conservative therapies. Strict selection of patient to be operated, careful procedures to eradicate obvious tumors and metastasis and enhanced post-operative combined

  7. Illness Perception, Knowledge and Self-Care about Cervical Cancer

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    Elisa Kern de Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a central role in early detection of cervical cancer. Common Sense Model proposes that the nature and organization of illness representations can guide actions related to health and how self-care is exercised. The aim of this study was to describe and compare illness perception, knowledge and self-care in women with and without cancer precursor lesions. Participants were 92 women (aged 18-59 from primary care unity divided into two groups: women with and without premalignant lesion. Measures for illness perception, knowledge and self-care were used. There was no statistically significant difference (t test e chi-square test between groups in the variables analyzed. Despite the risk for cervical cancer, women with precursor lesions do not adjust their illness perceptions, knowledge and self-care to the situation. These data show the need to warn women against the cervical cancer risks, because their distorted perceptions and lack of knowledge about the disease may hamper the screening and control of cervical cancer.

  8. Cervical cancer in north-eastern Libya: 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khaial, F; Bodalal, Z; Elramli, A; Elkhwsky, F; Eltaguri, A; Bendardaf, R

    2014-08-01

    Libya is a country with a low population, listed under the EMRO. Using registers and patient records from a major primary oncology clinic, data was gathered from Libyan cervical cancer patients and various parameters were studied across 9 years. Out of 4,090 female cancer cases during the study period, 1.8% were cervical cancer (n = 74). The average age of presentation was 53 years, with most of the cases (60%, n = 44) being premenopausal. Approximately 65% (n = 48) of cervical cancer patients are diagnosed at later stages (i.e. stages III and IV). The majority of these cases are squamous cell carcinoma (83.8%, n = 62), while 16.2% (n = 12) were found to be adenocarcinoma. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma presented at later stages more often than those with adenocarcinoma. Human papilloma virus was strongly implicated in cervical cancer, with 94% (n = 63) of those who were tested being positive for HPV-16 (82.5%, n = 52) and HPV-18 (12.7%, n = 8). Diagnosis was most frequently made through biopsy (97.3%, n = 72) as opposed to Pap smears (2.7%, n = 2). Most Libyan patients were put through chemotherapy (75%, n = 55) and triple therapy (surgery with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy) was the most common (38%, n = 28) modality of treatment. Comparisons were made between Libya and other nations, either in the developed world or neighbouring countries. The major problem of cervical cancer in Libya is delayed presentation and hence, all the recommendations focus on increased awareness for the populace, implementation of a national cancer control plan and a national screening programme.

  9. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the α-Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species α5 (HPV51), α6 (HPV56), α7 (HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59) and α9 (HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58). Less evidence is available for a thirteenth type (HPV68, α7), which is classified as a 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic). Moreover, seven other phylogenetically related types (HPV26, HPV53, HPV66, HPV67, HPV68, HPV70 and HPV73) were identified as single HPV infections in certain rare cases of cervical cancer and were considered possibly carcinogenic (2B carcinogens). Recently, Halec et al [7] demonstrated that the molecular signature of HPV-induced carcinogenesis (presence of type-specific spliced E6*| mRNA; increased expression of p16; and decreased expression of cyclin D1, p53 and Rb) was similar in cervical cancers containing single infections with one of the eight afore-mentioned 2A or 2B carcinogens to those in cancers with single infections with group 1 carcinogens. Ninety six percent of cervical cancers are attributable to one of the 13 most common HPV types (groups 1 and 2A). Including the additional seven HPV types (group 2B) added 2.6%, to reach a total of 98.7% of all HPV-positive cervical cancers. From recently updated meta-analyses, it was shown that HPV68, HPV26, HPV66, HPV67, HPV73 and HPV82 were significantly more common in cancer cases than in women with normal cervical cytology, suggesting that for these HPV types, an upgrading of the carcinogen classification could be considered. However, there is no need to include them in HPV screening tests or vaccines, given their rarity in

  10. High Expression of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) and NF-κB Predicts Poor Prognosis in Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiwang; Zhang, Xia; Ye, Xiaojuan; Feng, Chan; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yonglin; Lin, Yun; Dong, Chunyan

    2017-01-11

    BACKGROUND SDF-1 and NF-κB are associated with the prognosis of a wide range of cancers, but their value in cervical cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer and their significance in clinical prognosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in 105 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical cancer tissues and the adjacent tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results were semi-quantitatively scored and analyzed by chi-square test. The overall survival times (OS) were collected by follow-up and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS The expression level of both SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer are higher than that in the adjacent tissues (PSDF-1 expression are correlated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade (PSDF-1or NF-κB tended to have much shorter survival time than patients with negative expression. In addition, multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that SDF-1 expression and lymph node metastasis are independent predictors of the OS in cervical cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS The expression of SDF-1 is significantly associated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade. The expression of NF-κB is significantly associated with tumor size, FIGO histology grade, and lymph node metastasis. The positive SDF-1or NF-κB expression is significantly correlated with poor prognosis. These may be valuable biomarkers for the prognosis and the potential therapeutic targets of cervical cancer.

  11. An In Vivo Mouse Model for Human Prostate Cancer Metastasis

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    Aaron M. Havens

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed a sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR assay that allows us to track early lodging/homing events in vivo. We used this technology to develop a metastasis assay of human prostate cancer (PCa growth in severe combined immunodeficient mice. For this purpose, marked human PCa cell lines were implanted subcutaneously or in the prostate (orthotopically of severe combined immunodeficient mice as models of primary tumors. Mice were then sacrificed at various time points, and distant tissues were investigated for the presence of metastatic cells. At 3 weeks, a number of tissues were recovered and evaluated by QPCR for the presence of metastatic cells. The data demonstrate that several PCa cell lines are able to spread from the primary lesion and take up residence in distant sites. If the primary tumors were resected at 3 weeks, in several cases, metastastic lesions were identified over the course of 9 months. We propose that this new model may be particularly useful in exploring the molecular events in early metastasis, identifying the metastatic niche, and studying issues pertaining to dormancy.

  12. Increased entropy of signal transduction in the cancer metastasis phenotype

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    Teschendorff Andrew E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The statistical study of biological networks has led to important novel biological insights, such as the presence of hubs and hierarchical modularity. There is also a growing interest in studying the statistical properties of networks in the context of cancer genomics. However, relatively little is known as to what network features differ between the cancer and normal cell physiologies, or between different cancer cell phenotypes. Results Based on the observation that frequent genomic alterations underlie a more aggressive cancer phenotype, we asked if such an effect could be detectable as an increase in the randomness of local gene expression patterns. Using a breast cancer gene expression data set and a model network of protein interactions we derive constrained weighted networks defined by a stochastic information flux matrix reflecting expression correlations between interacting proteins. Based on this stochastic matrix we propose and compute an entropy measure that quantifies the degree of randomness in the local pattern of information flux around single genes. By comparing the local entropies in the non-metastatic versus metastatic breast cancer networks, we here show that breast cancers that metastasize are characterised by a small yet significant increase in the degree of randomness of local expression patterns. We validate this result in three additional breast cancer expression data sets and demonstrate that local entropy better characterises the metastatic phenotype than other non-entropy based measures. We show that increases in entropy can be used to identify genes and signalling pathways implicated in breast cancer metastasis and provide examples of de-novo discoveries of gene modules with known roles in apoptosis, immune-mediated tumour suppression, cell-cycle and tumour invasion. Importantly, we also identify a novel gene module within the insulin growth factor signalling pathway, alteration of which may

  13. Wnt signaling pathway: implications for therapy in lung cancer and bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yongming; Chen, Yan

    2014-10-10

    Lung cancer remains a major worldwide health problem and patients have high rate of metastasis including bone. Although pathologic characteristics of this disease are clear and well established, much remains to be understood about this tumor, particularly at the molecular signaling level. Secreted signaling molecules of the Wnt family have been widely investigated and found to play a prominent role to induce human malignant diseases, such as breast and prostate cancer. A variety of studies have also demonstrated that the Wnt signaling pathway is closely associated with bone malignancies including osteosarcoma, multiple myeloma, and breast or prostate cancer induced bone metastasis. The aim of this review is to provide a summary regarding the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in lung cancer and bone metastasis, highlighting the aberrant activation of Wnt in this malignancy. We also discuss the potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of lung cancer and cancer induced bone metastasis targeting the Wnt pathway.

  14. Folate receptor and Ki-67 nucleoprotein expressions in cervical cancer tissue and their correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Yan; Feng Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To detect the expression of both FR-α protein and ki-67 in cervical cancer tissues, and discuss the relationship between them and clinical significance.Methods:Using immunohistochemical method test normal cervical tissue and cervical cancer tissue before FR-α protein expression and the expression of Ki-67.Results:FR- protein expression in normal cervical tissues was positive for 7.0% while in cervical cancer tissue the positive rate was 82.1%. The difference was statistically significant. Ki-67 protein expression in normal cervical tissues was 0% while in cervical cancer tissue the positive rate was 80.2%. The difference was statistically significant. The two protein expression in cervical cancer stageⅠ,Ⅱ and stageⅢ were different, but the difference was not statistically significant. In cervical cancer tissues, both the two protein were positively correlated. There are correlations between them. Difference was statistically significant.Conclusion:FR-α elevated protein expression is involved in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. FR-α protein expression in cervical cancer and precancerous tissue has correlation with Ki-67, FR-α protein maybe participate in the occurrence and development of the cell proliferation in cervical cancer.

  15. The Cancer Cell Oxygen Sensor PHD2 Promotes Metastasis via Activation of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kuchnio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several questions about the role of the oxygen sensor prolyl-hydroxylase 2 (PHD2 in cancer have not been addressed. First, the role of PHD2 in metastasis has not been studied in a spontaneous tumor model. Here, we show that global PHD2 haplodeficiency reduced metastasis without affecting tumor growth. Second, it is unknown whether PHD2 regulates cancer by affecting cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs. We show that PHD2 haplodeficiency reduced metastasis via two mechanisms: (1 by decreasing CAF activation, matrix production, and contraction by CAFs, an effect that surprisingly relied on PHD2 deletion in cancer cells, but not in CAFs; and (2 by improving tumor vessel normalization. Third, the effect of concomitant PHD2 inhibition in malignant and stromal cells (mimicking PHD2 inhibitor treatment is unknown. We show that global PHD2 haplodeficiency, induced not only before but also after tumor onset, impaired metastasis. These findings warrant investigation of PHD2’s therapeutic potential.

  16. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions and Screening Behaviour Among Female University Students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females.

  17. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Induced DDR2 Mediates Stromal-Breast Cancer Interactions and Metastasis Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased collagen deposition by breast cancer (BC-associated mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSC promotes metastasis, but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we report that the collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2 is essential for stromal-BC communication. In human BC metastasis, DDR2 is concordantly upregulated in metastatic cancer and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. In MSCs isolated from human BC metastasis, DDR2 maintains a fibroblastic phenotype with collagen deposition and induces pathological activation of DDR2 signaling in BC cells. Loss of DDR2 in MSCs impairs their ability to promote DDR2 phosphorylation in BC cells, as well as BC cell alignment, migration, and metastasis. Female ddr2-deficient mice homozygous for the slie mutation show inefficient spontaneous BC metastasis. These results point to a role for mesenchymal stem cell DDR2 in metastasis and suggest a therapeutic approach for metastatic BC.

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Induced DDR2 Mediates Stromal-Breast Cancer Interactions and Metastasis Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Maria E; Martin, Emily E; Anwar, Talha; Arellano-Garcia, Caroline; Medhora, Natasha; Lama, Arjun; Chen, Yu-Chih; Tanager, Kevin S; Yoon, Euisik; Kidwell, Kelley M; Ge, Chunxi; Franceschi, Renny T; Kleer, Celina G

    2017-01-31

    Increased collagen deposition by breast cancer (BC)-associated mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSC) promotes metastasis, but the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we report that the collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is essential for stromal-BC communication. In human BC metastasis, DDR2 is concordantly upregulated in metastatic cancer and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. In MSCs isolated from human BC metastasis, DDR2 maintains a fibroblastic phenotype with collagen deposition and induces pathological activation of DDR2 signaling in BC cells. Loss of DDR2 in MSCs impairs their ability to promote DDR2 phosphorylation in BC cells, as well as BC cell alignment, migration, and metastasis. Female ddr2-deficient mice homozygous for the slie mutation show inefficient spontaneous BC metastasis. These results point to a role for mesenchymal stem cell DDR2 in metastasis and suggest a therapeutic approach for metastatic BC.

  20. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  1. CANCER METASTASIS DIRECTLY ERADICATED BY TARGETED THERAPY WITHA MODIFIED SALMONELLA TYPHYMURIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Ming ZHAO; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Norio; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Katsuro; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is the life-threatening aspect of cancer and is usually resistant to standard treatment. We report here a targeted therapy strategy for cancer metastasis using a modified strain of Salmonella typhimurium. The genetically modified strain of S. typhimurium is auxotrophic for the amino acids arginine and leucine. These mutations preclude growth in normal tissue but do not reduce bacterial virulence in tumor cells. The tumor-targeting strain of S. typhimurium, termed A1-R and ex...

  2. Analysis of clinicopathological factors associated with bone metastasis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhu, Shu; Xie, Xiu-zhen; Guo, Shan-feng; Tong, Liang-qian; Zhou, Sheng; Zhao, Ming; Xianyu, Zhi-qun; Zhu, Xiao-hua; Xiong, Wei

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women today. Once breast cancer metastasizes to bone, mortality increases. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify patients with high risk of bone metastasis, and to find predictive factors for the occurrence of bone metastasis at an earlier stage of breast cancer. Three hundred and sixty patients with pathologically proved breast cancer visiting the Department of Nuclear Medicine for whole body bone scan from January 2006 and January 2009 were investigated in this study. Clinicopathological information was obtained, which consisted of age, menopausal status, clinical staging, lymph node stage, histological grade, the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Correlation between bone metastasis and the associated factors was tested by using the Chi-square test. A Cox multivariate analysis was used to assess the factors which independently contributed to survival after bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. Survival curves were drawn for metastasis-free interval and the independent factors which contributed to survival, using the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty-four patients were excluded from subsequent analysis. Three hundred and thirty-six enrolled patients ranged in age from 22 to 77 years (mean, 47.8 years). ER/PR status [ER(+) vs. ER(-), χ (2)=4.328, P=0.037; ER(+)PR(+) vs. ER(+)PR(-), χ (2)=4.425, P=0.035] and histological grade (χ (2)=7.131, P=0.028) were significantly associated with bone metastasis. ER status (x (2)=8.315, P=0.004) and metastasis-free interval (χ (2)=6.863, P=0.009) were independent prognostic factors for survival in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. Our study suggested that ER/PR status and histological grade are risk factors for the development of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. However, ER status and metastasis-free interval are independent prognostic factors for survival in

  3. Schisandrin B attenuates cancer invasion and metastasis via inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the major cause of cancer related death and targeting the process of metastasis has been proposed as a strategy to combat cancer. Therefore, to develop candidate drugs that target the process of metastasis is very important. In the preliminary studies, we found that schisandrin B (Sch B, a naturally-occurring dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan with very low toxicity, could suppress cancer metastasis. METHODOLOGY: BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously or injected via tail vein with murine breast cancer 4T1 cells. Mice were divided into Sch B-treated and control groups. The primary tumor growth, local invasion, lung and bone metastasis, and survival time were monitored. Tumor biopsies were examined immuno- and histo-pathologically. The inhibitory activity of Sch B on TGF-β induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of 4T1 and primary human breast cancer cells was assayed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sch B significantly suppressed the spontaneous lung and bone metastasis of 4T1 cells inoculated s.c. without significant effect on primary tumor growth and significantly extended the survival time of these mice. Sch B did not inhibit lung metastasis of 4T1 cells that were injected via tail vein. Delayed start of treatment with Sch B in mice with pre-existing tumors did not reduce lung metastasis. These results suggested that Sch B acted at the step of local invasion. Histopathological evidences demonstrated that the primary tumors in Sch B group were significantly less locally invasive than control tumors. In vitro assays demonstrated that Sch B could inhibit TGF-β induced EMT of 4T1 cells and of primary human breast cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Sch B significantly suppresses the lung and bone metastasis of 4T1 cells via inhibiting EMT, suggesting its potential application in targeting the process of cancer metastasis.

  4. Thyroid gland metastasis arising from breast cancer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chenfang

    2013-06-01

    The thyroid gland is an uncommon site for metastasis to develop and thus metastases arising from breast cancer are rarely observed. In the present study, we describe a case of a 45-year-old female with a three-year history of breast cancer who presented with a thyroid mass that was diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma by histopathological analysis of the subtotal thyroidectomy specimen. To ascertain the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, we evaluated two types of markers; those that possessed a similar expression status in the original and metastatic lesions [ER, PR and CerbB-2 (HER2/neu)], and those that are capable of differentiating between metastatic lesions and the surrounding thyroid components (TG and TTF-1). The results showed that ER, PR and CerbB-2 demonstrated a similar expression pattern in primary breast carcinoma and thyroid lesions. Meanwhile, in the thyroid lesions, the malignant cells showed negative staining for TG and TTF-1, which confirmed that lesions were not thyroid in origin. This case may prompt clinicians that although thyroid gland are uncommon metastatic site, a diagnosis of metastatic disease should be considered when new aggregates are identified in the thyroid glands and histopathological analysis may aid the diagnosis.

  5. Bilateral Choroidal Metastasis from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Namad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast and lung cancers are the most common primary neoplasms to manifest with choroidal metastases. The incidence of choroidal metastases from metastatic lung cancer was reported to be 2–6.7%. We report a case of bilateral choroidal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer. A 59-year-old Caucasian female patient, never a smoker, was diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to the pleura, bones, and the brain. Her initial scan of the chest showed innumerable soft tissue nodules and mediastinal adenopathy compatible with metastatic disease. Her initial brain MRI showed numerous small enhancing lesions consistent with extensive disease. Unfortunately, during her follow-up visits, she presented with bulge on her left eye. Simultaneously, her follow-up chest scan showed increase in the size of the lung nodules. She continued to have a reasonable performance status at that time, except for mild increase in her dyspnea. The choroidal metastases require a multidisciplinary care and should be among the differential patients with malignancy who present with ocular symptoms.

  6. Human papillomavirus prevalence in paired urine and cervical samples in women invited for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Elena; Bonanni, Paolo; Sani, Cristina; Lastrucci, Vieri; Carozzi, Francesca; Iossa, Anna; Andersson, Karin Louise; Brandigi, Livia; Di Pierro, Carmelina; Confortini, Massimo; Levi, Miriam; Boccalini, Sara; Indiani, Laura; Sala, Antonino; Tanini, Tommaso; Bechini, Angela; Azzari, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    With the introduction of Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in young girls in 2007, it is important to monitor HPV infections and epidemiological changes in this target population. The present study has evaluated the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in paired cervical and urine samples to understand if HPV testing in urine could be used as non-invasive method to monitor HPV status in young women. The study enrolled 216 twenty five-year-old women, resident in Florence and invited for the first time to the cervical cancer Screening Program within a project evaluating the impact of HPV vaccination. HPV genotyping was performed on 216 paired urine and cervical samples. The overall concordance between cervix and urine samples, investigated by HPV genotyping (INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra), was: 85.6% (184/215), 84.6% (182/215), 80% (172/215) when the same HPV, at least the same HR HPV and all HR HPV, respectively, were detected. HPV type specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples was observed in 85.8% (175/204) of women with normal cytology and in seven out of nine women with abnormal cytology. Urine seems to be a suitable and reliable biological material for HPV DNA detection as evidenced by the high concordance with HPV detected in cervical samples. These results suggest that urine could be a good noninvasive tool to monitor HPV infection in vaccinated women.

  7. Blocking the adhesion cascade at the premetastatic niche for prevention of breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shin-Ae; Hasan, Nafis; Mann, Aman P; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Lichao; Morris, Lynsie; Zhu, Weizhu; Zhao, Yan D; Suh, K Stephen; Dooley, William C; Volk, David; Gorenstein, David G; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Rui, Hallgeir; Tanaka, Takemi

    2015-06-01

    Shear-resistant adhesion and extravasation of disseminated cancer cells at the target organ is a crucial step in hematogenous metastasis. We found that the vascular adhesion molecule E-selectin preferentially promoted the shear-resistant adhesion and transendothelial migration of the estrogen receptor (ER)(-)/CD44(+) hormone-independent breast cancer cells, but not of the ER(+)/CD44(-/low) hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. Coincidentally, CD44(+) breast cancer cells were abundant in metastatic lung and brain lesions in ER(-) breast cancer, suggesting that E-selectin supports hematogenous metastasis of ER(-)/CD44(+) breast cancer. In an attempt to prevent hematogenous metastasis through the inhibition of a shear-resistant adhesion of CD44(+) cancer cells to E-selectin-expressing blood vessels on the premetastatic niche, an E-selectin targeted aptamer (ESTA) was developed. We demonstrated that a single intravenous injection of ESTA reduced metastases to a baseline level in both syngeneic and xenogeneic forced breast cancer metastasis models without relocating the site of metastasis. The effect of ESTA was absent in E-selectin knockout mice, suggesting that E-selectin is a molecular target of ESTA. Our data highlight the potential application of an E-selectin antagonist for the prevention of hematogenous metastasis of ER(-)/CD44(+) breast cancer.

  8. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  9. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  10. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  11. "Inside and outside": Sikh women's perspectives on cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Nelly D; Vollman, Ardene Robinson

    2007-03-01

    Cervical cancer can be detected at an early stage through regular screening. The literature suggests that cervical cancer in immigrant women, a growing population in Canada, is less likely to be detected early than it is in the general population, as immigrant women tend not to take advantage of screening. Culturally appropriate screening services for immigrant women are few. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted with female members of an urban Sikh community in Canada to explore perspectives on cervical cancer screening. In-depth interviews (13) and focus groups (3) were carried out to uncover challenges to cervical cancer screening. The researchers identified a prevailing theme of "inside/outside" whereby the women felt confined to their community, finding it difficult to move "outside" into Canadian society in order to participate in screening. Lack of knowledge about the importance of prevention, influence of family and community, and health-provider issues affected the women's access to screening. The results will be helpful for nurses planning and delivering screening services to Sikh women.

  12. SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY AND CELLULAR IMMUNITY IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Kenbaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular mechanisms are quite important immunological components of tumor surveillance, being, however, most vulnerable to influence of different adverse factors, including surgery-associated stress and ionizing radiation. Our study was aimed for assessing specific effects of immunotherapy upon indices of cellular immunity in patients with cervical cancer. Eighty-eight patients with cervical cancer (clinical stage I-IIA, Т1аN0M0-T2aN0M0, who underwent appropriate surgery (for IA stage, or a combined treatment, including surgery gamma-ray teletherapy (IB, IIA stages are under study. The patients were distributed in two groups, depending on the therapy applied. Group 1 included patients subjected to surgical treatment plus and radiation therapy, Group 2 included those patients who were treated according to this protocol, with addition of a specific immunotherapy. Contents of T cells and various CD subpopulations of T-lymphocytes were identified by immunofluorescence techniques. Among patients with cervical cancer at clinical stages IA, IB, IIA, a reliable decrease in cellular immunity indices was registered, both after surgery, and during combined treatment. Introduction of specific immunotherapy to the conventional treatment schedule was associated with increase of cellular immune indices, and, in first line, the antineoplastic mechanisms (e.g., NK’s and NKT cell contents. One should point to a relatively low efficiency of this immunotherapy in combined treatment of patients with cervical cancer at IIA stage.

  13. Evolution of the health economics of cervical cancer vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferko, Nicole; Postma, Maarten; Gallivan, Steve; Kruzikas, Denise; Drummond, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of modelling for cervical cancer vaccination. We provide an interpretation and summary of conclusions pertaining to the usefulness of different models, the predicted epidemiological impact of vaccination and the cost-effectiveness of adolescent, catch-up and sex-specif

  14. Improving cervical cancer screening rates in an urban HIV clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sara L; Suharwardy, Sanaa H; Bodavula, Phani; Schechtman, Kenneth; Overton, E Turner; Onen, Nur F; Lane, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer; however, screening rates remain low. The objectives of this study were to analyze a quality improvement intervention to increase cervical cancer screening rates in an urban academic HIV clinic and to identify factors associated with inadequate screening. Barriers to screening were identified by a multidisciplinary quality improvement committee at the Washington University Infectious Diseases clinic. Several strategies were developed to address these barriers. The years pre- and post-implementation were analyzed to examine the clinical impact of the intervention. A total of 422 women were seen in both the pre-implementation and post-implementation periods. In the pre-implementation period, 222 women (53%) underwent cervical cancer screening in the form of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing. In the post-implementation period, 318 women (75.3%) underwent cervical cancer screening (p screening included fewer visits attended (pre: 4.2 ± 1.5; post: 3.4 ± 1.4; p screening rates in an urban academic HIV clinic.

  15. Recent Developments in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rebolj (Matejka)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common female malignancy, diagnosed in 500,000 women each year, while 275,000 die from it. Without prevention, the peak incidence occurs at a relatively young age, between 40-55 years, when women are still active on the labour market and have

  16. Cervical cancer, quality issues in early detection and prognostic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, A.

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that cervical cancer incidence will reduce in The Netherlands over the next decades, as a result of hrHPV vaccination and hrHPV-based screening. Untill then, quality of care could need some improvements as suggested by the work described in this thesis. Novel tools are being indicated

  17. Diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); N. van der Lubbe (Nils); H.M.A. van Agt (H. M A)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The amount of diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening has been assessed prospectively and related to mortality reduction. Assumptions are based on data from Dutch screening programmes and on a scenario for future developments. With 5 invita

  18. Early cervical cancer coexistent with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.; Kalter, C.; Roberts, W.S.; Cavanagh, D.

    1989-07-01

    Early invasive carcinoma of the cervix may be treated by surgery or radiation therapy. Two patients with early cervical cancer are presented whose concomitant inflammatory bowel disease figured significantly in the selection of surgery as treatment. The use of radiotherapy in the face of inflammatory bowel disease, however, is not clearly addressed in the literature.

  19. Cytokine expression & TGF-beta signaling in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloth, Judith Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Immune surveillance is of utmost importance in preventing cervical carcinogenesis. Cytokines play a central role in directing and fine tuning the immune response. In cancer, cytokines can either be involved in stimulating the anti-tumor immune response or in tumor growth and progression. The studies

  20. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  1. Significance of Lymph Node Metastasis in Cancer Dissemination of Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Keun Cho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lymph node metastasis (LNM in many solid cancers is a well-known prognostic factor; however, it has been debated whether regional LNM simply reflects tumor aggressiveness or is a source for further tumor dissemination. Similarly, the metastatic process in head and neck cancer (HNC has not been fully evaluated. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relative significance of LNM in metastatic cascade of HNC using functional imaging of HNC patients and molecular imaging in in vivo models. First, we analyzed 18Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET parameters of 117 patients with oral cancer. The primary tumor and nodal PET parameters were measured separately, and survival analyses were conducted on the basis of clinical and PET variables to identify significant prognostic factors. In multivariate analyses, we found that only the metastatic node PET values were significant. Next, we compared the relative frequency of lung metastasis in primary ear tumors versus lymph node (LN tumors, and we tested the rate of lung metastasis in another animal model, in which each animal had both primary and LN tumors that were expressing different colors. As a result, LN tumors showed higher frequencies of lung metastasis compared to orthotopic primary tumors. In color-matched comparisons, the relative contribution to lung metastasis was higher in LN tumors than in primary tumors, although both primary and LN tumors caused lung metastases. In summary, tumors growing in the LN microenvironment spread to systemic sites more commonly than primary tumors in HNC, suggesting that the adequate management of LNM can reduce further systemic metastasis.

  2. A risk evaluation model of cervical cancer based on etiology and human leukocyte antigen allele susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicheng Hu

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: This model, based on etiology and HLA allele susceptibility, can estimate the risk of cervical cancer in chronic cervicitis patients after HPV infection. It combines genetic and environmental factors and significantly enhances the accuracy of risk evaluation for cervical cancer. This model could be used to select patients for intervention therapy and to guide patient classification management.

  3. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas C; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and identifies areas for programmatic development to meet the global development goal to reduce cancer-related mortality. Advanced stage at presentation and gaps in prevention, screening, diagnostic, and treatment capacities contribute to reduced cervical cancer survival. Cost-effective cervical cancer screening strategies implemented in low resource settings can reduce cervical cancer mortality. Patient- and system-based barriers need to be addressed as part of any cervical cancer control program. Limited human capacity and infrastructure in SSA are major barriers to comprehensive cervical cancer care. Management of early-stage, locally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer involves multispecialty care, including gynecology oncology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, radiation oncology, and palliative care. Investment in cervical cancer care programs in low- and middle-income countries will need to include effective recruitment programs to engage women in the community to access cancer screening and diagnosis services. Though cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable cancer, the challenges to cervical control in SSA are great and will require a broadly integrated and sustained effort by multiple stakeholders before meaningful progress can be achieved.

  4. Establishment of an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtaining laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L W; Wang, J L; Zhang, L Y; Yang, S M; Li, C S; Yu, N; Zhao W, J D; Zhao, L D; Li, K; Liu, M B; Zhai, S Q

    2013-01-01

    To establish an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtain laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2 in logarithmic phase were inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice. HEP-2 cells metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes were isolated, cultured, and re-inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice twice. The tumor formation in the tongue and in the cervical lymph nodes was confirmed by pathological examination. Carcinoma cells' ability of invasion and migration was detected by transwell assay. Human specific Alu sequences were detected by PCR, which indicated that the tumor cells originated from human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2. Finally, an animal model of spontaneous lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was successfully established. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells with high metastatic potential to lymph nodes were obtained through repeated inoculations. .

  5. Cervical dysplasia - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to detect cervical cancer. Limited or early cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ, or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or dysplasia) requires treatment with ablation therapy, usually in the form of ...

  6. Metformin may protect nondiabetic breast cancer women from metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haggar, Sahar Mohammed; El-Shitany, Nagla A; Mostafa, Mohamed Farouk; El-Bassiouny, Noha Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Metformin, a widely prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent, has recently received a big interest because of its potential antitumorigenic effects in different cancer types. The present study investigated the impact of adding metformin to breast cancer adjuvant therapy in nondiabetic women on, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBG), the molar ratio of IGF-1 to IGFBP-3, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and metastasis. 102 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were divided into 2 main groups, a control group and a metformin group. All women were treated with adjuvant therapy, according to the protocols of Ministry of Health and Population and National Cancer Institute, Egypt. Moreover, the women in the metformin group received 850 mg of metformin twice daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after chemotherapy (CT), after 6 months of hormonal therapy (6-HT) and 12 months of hormonal therapy (12-HT) for analysis of serum IGF-1, IGFBP-3, insulin, FBG and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3). Metformin resulted in a significant reduction of IGF-1, IGF-1: IGFBP-3 molar ratio, insulin, FBG and HOMA-IR. On the other hand, metformin caused a significant increase of IGFBP-3. Moreover, metformin significantly decreased the numbers of metastatic cases after 6-HT. Metformin may have potential antitumor and antimetastatic effects that need further clinical investigations. This may be attributed to either the significant increase of the apoptotic inducer IGFBP-3 or/and the significant reduction of mitogenic insulin, IGF-1, free bioactive IGF-1, FBG and HOMA-IR.

  7. Discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy promotes metastasis through a liver revascularization mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yunlong; Zhang, Yin; Iwamoto, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The impact of discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy in promoting cancer metastasis is unknown. Here we show discontinuation of anti-VEGF treatment creates a time-window of profound structural changes of liver sinusoidal vasculatures, exhibiting hyper-permeability and enlarged open-pore sizes......, but not tumour cell-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is responsible for cancer metastasis. Deletion of hepatocyte VEGF markedly ablates the 'off-drug'-induced metastasis. These findings provide mechanistic insights on anti-VEGF cessation-induced metastasis and raise a new challenge...... of the fenestrated endothelium and loss of VE-cadherin. The drug cessation caused highly leaky hepatic vasculatures permit tumour cell intravasation and extravasation. Discontinuation of an anti-VEGF antibody-based drug and sunitinib markedly promotes liver metastasis. Mechanistically, host hepatocyte...

  8. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  9. Optoelectronic method for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruski, D.; Przybylski, M.; Kędzia, W.; Kędzia, H.; Jagielska-Pruska, J.; Spaczyński, M.

    2011-12-01

    The optoelectronic method is one of the most promising concepts of biophysical program of the diagnostics of CIN and cervical cancer. Objectives of the work are evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of the optoelectronic method in the detection of CIN and cervical cancer. The paper shows correlation between the pNOR number and sensitivity/specificity of the optoelectronic method. The study included 293 patients with abnormal cervical cytology result and the following examinations: examination with the use of the optoelectronic method — Truscreen, colposcopic examination, and histopathologic biopsy. Specificity of the optoelectronic method for LGSIL was estimated at 65.70%, for HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix amounted to 90.38%. Specificity of the optoelectronic method used to confirm lack of cervical pathology was estimated at 78.89%. The field under the ROC curve for the optoelectronic method was estimated at 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) which shows high diagnostic value of the test in the detection of HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma. The optoelectronic method is characterised by high usefulness in the detection of CIN, present in the squamous epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix.

  10. Prolactin and prolactin receptor expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascencio-Cedillo, Rafael; López-Pulido, Edgar Ivan; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Del Toro-Arreola, Susana; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Pérez-Montiel, Delia; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura

    2015-04-01

    Prolactin receptor (PRLR) overexpression could play a role in tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to determine prolactin (PRL) and PRLR expression in biopsies from patients with precursor lesions and uterine cervical cancer. PRLR expression was analyzed in 63 paraffin-embedded biopsies of uterine cervical tissue. In total, eleven low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 23 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), 21 uterine cervical cancers (UCC) and 8 normal epithelium (NE) were examined using immunoperoxidase staining and Western blot analysis. Additionally, PRL expression was identified in human cervical cancer serum and tissues. The PRLR expression was found to be significantly increased in cervical cancer in comparison with normal tissue and precursor lesions (P prolactin expression was similar in precursor lesions and cervical cancer by Western blot analysis. Our data suggest a possible role for PRLR in the progression of cervical cancer.

  11. 血管内皮生长因子-C在口腔癌中的 表达及与颈淋巴结转移关系%Expression of VEGF-C and its Correlation with Cervical Lymph Nodes Metastasis of Oral Cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温玉明; 于大海; 王昌美; 李龙江; 王晓毅; 唐休发; 付风华

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is known to be capable of inducing cell proliferation of lymphatic endothelia and development of lymphatic vessels. Thus, in the current study the expression of VEGF-C was investigated to understand the mechanism of lymphatic metastasis of oral cancer. Methods:VEGF-C protein expression in benign and malignant oral lesions was investigated with an immunohistochemical staining assay, followed by light microscopic examination and image analysis. Results: Immunohistostaining of VEGF-C was observed in normal, benign and malignant epithelia, as well as in some lymphatic vessels. The VEGF-C positive rate was significantly higher in squamous carcinomas than in normal tissues and benign lesions. It was also noted that in squamous carcinomas the expression level of VEGF-C correlated well with pathological grades and stages of lymph node metastasis, but not with clinical grades. Conclusion: These findings suggest that VEGF-C may promote lymphatic metastasis of oral cancer, and it is possible to be used as a predictor for the lymphatic metastasis and prognosis of oral cancer.%目的:了解口腔癌的颈淋巴结转移机制,观察具有介导淋巴管内皮细胞和淋巴管增殖的血管内皮生长因子-C(VEGF-C)在口腔癌中的表达。方法:采用免疫组化染色,光镜及图像分析观察并确定VEGF-C在正常口腔粘膜、白斑及鳞癌等组织中的表达。结果:在正常及病变上皮组织中皆有VEGF-C的表达,部分淋巴管也有表达。但鳞癌组织表达明显高于正常口腔粘膜及白斑;鳞癌表达强度与病理分级、淋巴结转移密切相关,与临床分期无关。结论:VEGF-C通过介导淋巴管内皮细胞及淋巴管增殖有利于颈淋巴道转移的发生,VEGF-C检测可作为预测淋巴道转移及预后判断的指标之一。

  12. Novel candidate metastasis genes as putative drug targets for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, Wilhelmina Paulina Elisabeth van

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive studies to unravel molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer metastasis, still 3500 women die of the results of this disease in the Netherlands each year. Improving our understanding of metastasis formation remains a challenge for further drug development. The scope of this the

  13. Treatment outcomes of patients with cervical cancer with complete metabolic responses after definitive chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onal, Cem [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana Research and Treatment Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Adana (Turkey); Reyhan, Mehmet; Yapar, Ali Fuat [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Guler, Ozan C. [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Adana (Turkey)

    2014-07-15

    We sought to evaluate failure patterns and prognostic factors predictive of recurrences and survival in cervical cancer patients who are treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (ChRT), who have a subsequent complete metabolic response (CMR) with {sup 18} F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) after treatment. The records of 152 cervical cancer patients who were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy were evaluated. All patients underwent pre-treatment positron emission tomography (PET-CT), and post-treatment PET-CT was performed within a median of 3.9 months (range, 3.0-9.8 months) after the completion of ChRT. The prognoses of partial response/progressive disease (PR/PD) cases (30 patients, 18 %) and CMR cases (122 patients, %82) were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analysis effecting the treatment outcome was performed in CMR cases. The median follow-ups for all patients and surviving patients were 28.7 (range, 3.3-78.7 months) and 33.2 months (range, 6.23-78.7 months), respectively. Four-year overall survival (OS) rate was significantly better in patients with CMR compared to patients with PR/PD (66.9 % vs. 12.4 %, p < 0.001, respectively). Patients with PR/PD had higher maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of primary cervical tumor (26.4 ± 10.1 vs. 15.9 ± 6.3; p < 0.001) and larger tumor (6.4 cm ± 2.3 cm vs. 5.0 cm ± 1.4 cm; p < 0.001) compared to patients with CMR. Of the 122 patients with post-treatment CMRs, 25 (21 %) developed local, locoregional, or distant failure. In univariate analysis, tumor size ≥ 5 cm, 'International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' (FIGO) stage ≥ IIB, and pelvic and/or para-aortic lymph node metastasis were predictive of both overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), while histology was predictive of only OS. In multivariate analysis, tumor size, stage and lymph node metastasis were predictive of OS and DFS. Although CMR is associated with

  14. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass

  15. Therapeutic effect analysis of different neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the locally cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Ju Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the therapeutic effect of different neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the locally cervical cancer.Methods:A total of 85 patients with cervical cancer for the initial treatment who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2011 to January, 2013 were included in the study and divided into the observation group and the control group according to different chemotherapy regimens. The way of drug administration is by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The patients in the observation group were given Taxol in combined with carboplatin for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, while the patients in the control group were given irinotecan in combined with carboplatin. The remission degree of clinical symptoms, chemotherapeutic effect, toxic and side effect, and operation evaluation 14 and 20 days after chemotherapy were evaluated.Results:The comparison of clinical symptom remission between the two groups was not statistically significant. The occurrence rate of myelosuppression in III-IV degree in the observation was significantly higher than that in the control group, but the occurrence rate of diarrhea was significantly lower than that in the control group. The comparisons of operation time and intraoperative amount of bleeding after chemotherapy between the two groups were not statistically significant. The comparisons of the occurrence rates of parametrial infiltration and lymphatic metastasis and the muscular layer invasion depth were not statistically significant.Conclusions:Arterial embolism neoadjuvant chemotherapy can obviously shorten the tumor volume in patients with local cervical cancer, relieve the clinical symptoms, and enhance the living qualities, but in the clinical application, appropriate chemotherapy regimen should be chosen according to the specific condition.

  16. Laparoscopic, robotic and open method of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puliyath Geetha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Over the last two decades, numerous studies have indicated the feasibility of minimally invasive surgery for early cervical cancer without compromising the oncological outcome. Objective : Systematic literature review and meta analysis aimed at evaluating the outcome of laparoscopic and robotic radical hysterectomy (LRH and RRH and comparing the results with abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH. Search Strategy : Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and Reference lists were searched for articles published until January 31 st 2011, using the terms radical hysterectomy, laparoscopic radical hysterectomy, robotic radical hysterectomy, surgical treatment of cervical cancer and complications of radical hysterectomy. Selection Criteria : Studies that reported outcome measures of radical hysterectomy by open method, laparoscopic and robotic methods were selected. Data collection and analysis: Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted and tabulated the data and pooled estimates were obtained on the surgical and oncological outcomes. Results : Mean sample size, age and body mass index across the three types of RH studies were similar. Mean operation time across the three types of RH studies was comparable. Mean blood loss and transfusion rate are significantly higher in ARH compared to both LRH and RRH. Duration of stay in hospital for RRH was significantly less than the other two methods. The mean number of lymph nodes obtained, nodal metastasis and positive margins across the three types of RH studies were similar. Post operative infectious morbidity was significantly higher among patients who underwent ARH compared to the other two methods and a higher rate of cystotomy in LRH. Conclusions : Minimally invasive surgery especially robotic radical hysterectomy may be a better and safe option for surgical treatment of cervical cancer. The laparoscopic method is not free from complications. However, experience of surgeon may

  17. Fra-1 is downregulated in cervical cancer tissues and promotes cervical cancer cell apoptosis by p53 signaling pathway in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Songshu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Luo, Guijuan; Jiang, Bin; Tian, Qi; Li, Yueran; Xue, Min

    2015-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a potentially preventable disease; however, it is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Cervical cancer is thought to develop through a multistep process involving virus, tumor suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes and immunological factors. It is known that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but insufficient to cause malignancy. At present, the etiology of cervical carcinoma remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the expression of FOS-like antigen-1 (Fra-1) gene was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting techniques. To uncover the effect of Fra-1 on cervical cancer, we tested and confirmed that Fra-1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells by MMT assays in vitro. At the same time, overexpression of Fra-1 promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. To explore the possible mechanism of Fra-1 in cervical cancer, we tested the expression levels of key molecules in p53 signaling pathway by western blotting technology. The results showed that p53 was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues, but MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MDM2) was upregulated in cervical cancer. In vitro, the p53 was upregulated and MDM2 was downregulated in HeLa cells with Fra-1 overexpression. In summary, our results suggested that Fra-1 expression is low in cervical cancer tissues and promotes apoptosis of cervical cancer cells by p53 signaling pathway.

  18. Endotracheal metastasis seen on FDG PET/CT in a patient with previous colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hye Kyung; Kwon, Hyung Woo; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki [National Cancer Center, Gayang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Endotracheal/endobronchial metastasis, which is from either primary bronchogenic carcinoma or a tumor of non-pulmonary origin, is a rare but life-threatening condition. Among the different locations in the tracheobronchial tree, the trachea is an extremely rare location for metastasis from extrapulmonary tumor. To the best of our knowledge, endotracheal metastasis that was clearly visualized by F-18 FDG PET/CT has not been previously reported. We herein report on a patient with a FDG-avid endotracheal eccentric mass that was confirmed as metastasis from rectal cancer

  19. Diagnosis of Cervical Metastatic Lymph Nodes in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Is CT Enhancement Useful for Diagnosing Lymph Node Metastasis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to determine the utility of CT enhancement for diagnosing metastatic lymphadenopathy in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and especially in the lymph nodes (LNs) of the lateral neck level and that are not suspicious for metastasis on ultrasonography (US). Our study population included 34 consecutive LNs of 31 patients (25 females and 6 males, mean age: 46.7 yrs) with PTC and who had no suspicious metastatic lateral cervical LN on preoperative US, but enhancement of the lateral cervical LNs was seen on CT. To objectify the degree of enhancement, the difference of Hounsfield units between the suspicious LN and that of the ipsilateral SCM muscle was calculated. For the node-by-node analysis, marking of the corresponding LN with CT enhancement on the second look US was performed. The final assessment was attained by surgical dissection of the marked LNs. The medical records were reviewed for the patients' age and gender and the size of the LNs. Among the 34 LNs, 17 LNs were diagnosed as metastasis and 17 were benign. There was no difference in the size of the LNs between two the groups (benign and metastatic). The patients who had metastatic LNs were younger than those patients with benign LNs (p = 0.037). The incidence of metastatic LN was higher in the male patients than in the female patients (F:M = 38.5%:100%, p = 0.018). There was no statistical difference between the metastatic LNs and benign LNs according to the degree of enhancement (p = 0.953). The degree of CT enhancement is not feasible to use for diagnosing metastatic LNs in the lateral neck level in patients with PTC

  20. Differential secretome analysis reveals CST6 as a suppressor of breast cancer bone metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jin; Yan Zhang; Hui Li; Ling Yao; Da Fu; Xuebiao Yao; Lisa X Xu; Xiaofang Hu; Guohong Hu

    2012-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a frequent complication of breast cancer and a common cause of morbidity and mortality from the disease.During metastasis secreted proteins play crucial roles in the interactions between cancer cells and host stroma.To characterize the secreted proteins that are associated with breast cancer bone metastasis,we preformed a label-free proteomic analysis to compare the secretomes of four MDA-MB-231 (MDA231) derivative cell lines with varied capacities of bone metastasis.A total of 128 proteins were found to be consistently up-/down-regulated in the conditioned medium of bone-tropic cancer cells.The enriched molecular functions of the altered proteins included receptor binding and peptidase inhibition.Through additional transcriptomic analyses of breast cancer cells,we selected cystatin E/M (CST6),a cysteine protease inhibitor down-regulated in bone-metastatic cells,for further functional studies.Our results showed that CST6 suppressed the proliferation,colony formation,migration and invasion of breast cancer cells.The suppressive function against cancer cell motility was carried out by cancer cell-derived soluble CST6.More importantly,ectopic expression of CST6 in cancer cells rescued mice from overt osteolytic metastasis and deaths in the animal study,while CST6 knockdown markedly enhanced cancer cell bone metastasis and shortened animal survival.Overall,our study provided a systemic secretome analysis of breast cancer bone tropism and established secreted CST6 as a bonafide suppressor of breast cancer osteolytic metastasis.

  1. Therapeutic options for peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriel Glockzin; Hans J Schlitt; Pompiliu Piso

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or tumor recurrence in patients with colorectal cancer. Due to the improvement of systemic chemotherapy, the development of targeted therapy and the introduction of additive treatment options such as cytoreductive surgery(CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy(HIPEC), the therapeutic approach to peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer(pm CRC) has changed over recent decades, and patient survival has improved. Moreover, in contrast to palliative systemic chemotherapy or best supportive care, the inclusion of CRS and HIPEC as inherent components of a multidisciplinary treatment regimen provides a therapeutic approach with curative intent. Although CRS and HIPEC are increasingly accepted as the standard of care for selected patients and have become part of numerous national and international guidelines, the individual role, optimal timing and ideal sequence of the different systemic, local and surgical treatment options remains a matter of debate. Ongoing and future randomized controlled clinical trials may help clarify the impact of the different components, allow for further improvement of patient selection and support the standar-dization of oncologic treatment regimens for pm CRC. The addition of further therapeutic options such as neo-adjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy, should be investig-ated to optimize therapeutic regimens and further improve the oncological outcome.

  2. Dynamics of tissue topology during cancer invasion and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance L.

    2013-12-01

    During tumor progression, cancer cells mix with other cell populations including epithelial and endothelial cells. Although potentially important clinically as well as for our understanding of basic tumor biology, the process of mixing is largely a mystery. Furthermore, there is no rigorous, analytical measure available for quantifying the mixing of compartments within a tumor. I present here a mathematical model of tissue repair and tumor growth based on collective cell migration that simulates a wide range of observed tumor behaviors with correct tissue compartmentalization and connectivity. The resulting dynamics are analyzed in light of the Euler characteristic number (χ), which describes key topological features such as fragmentation, looping and cavities. The analysis predicts a number of regimes in which the cancer cells can encapsulate normal tissue, form a co-interdigitating mass, or become fragmented and encapsulated by endothelial or epithelial structures. Key processes that affect the topological changes are the production of provisional matrix in the tumor, and the migration of endothelial or epithelial cells on this matrix. Furthermore, the simulations predict that topological changes during tumor invasion into blood vessels may contribute to metastasis. The topological analysis outlined here could be useful for tumor diagnosis or monitoring response to therapy and would only require high resolution, 3D image data to resolve and track the various cell compartments.

  3. STRIPAK components determine mode of cancer cell migration and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Chris D.; Hooper, Steven; Tozluoglu, Melda; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Fletcher, Georgina; Erler, Janine T.; Bates, Paul A.; Thompson, Barry; Sahai, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The contractile actomyosin cytoskeleton and its connection to the plasma membrane are critical for control of cell shape and migration. We identify three STRIPAK complex components, FAM40A, FAM40B, and STRN3, as regulators of the actomyosin cortex. We show that FAM40A negatively regulates the MST3 and MST4 kinases, which promote the co-localisation of the contractile actomyosin machinery with the Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin family proteins by phosphorylating the inhibitors of PPP1CB, PPP1R14A-D. Using computational modelling, in vitro cell migration assays and in vivo breast cancer metastasis assays we demonstrate that co-localisation of contractile activity and actin-plasma membrane linkage reduces cell speed on planar surfaces, but favours migration in confined environments similar to those observed in vivo. We further show that FAM40B mutations found in human tumours uncouple it from PP2A and enable it to drive a contractile phenotype, which may underlie its role in human cancer. PMID:25531779

  4. Pre-invasive cervical disease and uterine cervical cancer in Brazilian adolescents: prevalence and related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Denise Leite Maia; Trajano, Alexandre José Baptista; Silva,Kátia Silveira da; Russomano, Fábio Bastos

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to describe the prevalence and factors associated with uterine cervical cancer (CA) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 702 sexually active adolescents treated at a general hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1993 to 2002. Screening was performed by cytopathology and colposcopy and confirmation by biopsy. Exposure variables were socio-demographic characteristics and those related to reproduc...

  5. Clinical outcomes of adjuvant radiation therapy and prognostic factors in early stage uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Rhee, Woo Joong; Choi, Seo Hee; Kim, Gwi Eon; Kim, Yong Bae [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, EunJi; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Sung Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and to analyze prognostic factors of survival in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IB-IIA uterine cervical cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 148 patients with FIGO IB-IIA uterine cervical cancer who underwent surgery followed by adjuvant RT at the Yonsei Cancer Center between June 1997 and December 2011. Adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis or an extended field with or without brachytherapy. Among all patients, 57 (38.5%) received adjuvant chemotherapy either concurrently or sequentially. To analyze prognostic factors, we assessed clinicopathologic variables and metabolic parameters measured on preoperative {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). To evaluate the predictive performance of metabolic parameters, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The median follow-up period was 63.2 months (range, 2.7 to 206.8 months). Locoregional recurrence alone occurred in 6 patients, while distant metastasis was present in 16 patients, including 2 patients with simultaneous regional failure. The 5-year and 10-year OSs were 87.0% and 85.4%, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year DFSs were 83.8% and 82.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, pathologic type and tumor size were shown to be significant prognostic factors associated with both DFS and OS. In subset analysis of 40 patients who underwent preoperative PET/CT, total lesion glycolysis was shown to be the most significant prognostic factor among the clinicopathologic variables and metabolic parameters for DFS. Our results demonstrated that adjuvant RT following hysterectomy effectively improves local control. From the subset analysis of preoperative PET/CT, we can consider that metabolic parameters may hold prognostic

  6. Quality of life of women undergoing treatment for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Ana Dallabrida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of women with cervical cancer. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study developed with 43 women undergoing oncological treatment assisted at an Oncology High Complexity Center, in the Southern region of Brazil. The instrument used was the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer – Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30, and the data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The average age was 54.6 years old. Married women prevailed (53.4%, with incomplete elementary education (72.1% and income from one to two minimum wages (62.8%. Quality of Life was considered very satisfactory. According to the development scales and emotional functioning, the result was from regular to satisfactory. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue, lack of appetite and pain. There is a need of structure of public health policies, for preventing cervical cancer in the most vulnerable population.

  7. Control of cervical cancer: women's options and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Joanna M; Ngan, Hextan; Garland, Suzanne; Wright, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Cervical cancer takes the lives of more than 250,000 women each year globally, particularly in under-resourced areas of low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Options for cancer control and treatment have reached a point that there are interventions for control that could be adopted for virtually every resource and demographic situation. Women die despite the availability of attractive control options, which means that educating policy makers, women's health professionals, as well as women themselves, must become a major focus for ongoing control of this disease. The human right to life, to prevention of suffering, and to education are all key rights linked to improving the control of cervical cancer and saving the lives of women, particularly in resource-poor parts of the world.

  8. Urinary selenium excretion in patients with cervical uterine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, M; Gaudry, A; Revel, G; Martínez, T; Cabrera, L

    2001-02-01

    In this work, we report on a relationship between urinary selenium and the development of cervical uterine cancer. A simple chemical method was developed to concentrate trace amounts of selenium from relatively large urine samples by use of small activated carbon filters. When these filters are irradiated with thermal neutrons, selenium can be determined either by 77mSe (t1/2 = 17.5 s) or 75Se (t1/2 = 120 d). In this article, we report the results for 82 urine samples from women with cervical uterine cancer in several stages of development and from healthy controls. These results show a statistically significant increase of selenium excretion in cancer patients as compared to controls. Urinary selenium excretion is highest for patients in the intermediate stages of the disease.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camisao, Claudia C. [Hospital Sao Lucas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ccamisao@inca.gov.br; Brenna, Sylvia M.F. [Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lombardelli, Karen V.P. [Hospital do Cancer (HCII), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Djahjah, Maria Celia R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Ginecologia

    2007-05-15

    Cervical cancer is the worldwide leading cause of cancer-related death of women, especially in developing countries. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommends staging during surgery, however, surgical-pathologic staging would not be feasible in cases of more advanced cancers. Generally, in these cases, the staging is performed by means of clinical and gynecological examination and basic imaging studies. However, such an approach fails to demonstrate the actual extent of the disease, and does not include significant prognostic factors such as tumor volume, stromal invasion and lymph node involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging has increasingly been utilized in cervical cancer staging, since at early stages of the disease its performance may be compared to intraoperative findings and, at advanced stages, it shows to be superior to the clinical evaluation. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging presents an excellent imaging resolution for the different densities of pelvic structures, does not require ionizing radiation, is comfortable for the patient, improves de staging, allowing the early detection of recurrence and the identification of reliable prognostic factors which contribute to the therapeutic decision making process and results prediction with an excellent cost-effectiveness. The present article is aimed at reviewing the most significant aspects of magnetic resonance imaging in the cervical cancer staging. (author)

  10. Status and prognosis of lymph node metastasis in patients with cardia cancer - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Cecilie; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Achiam, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) has a poor prognosis and survival rates significantly decreases if lymph node metastasis is present. An extensive lymphadenectomy may increase chances of cure, but may also lead to further postoperative morbidity and mortality...... identifying relevant studies describing lymph node metastasis and the associated prognosis. Lymph node stations were classified according to the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association guidelines. RESULTS: The highest incidence of metastasis is seen in the nearest regional lymph nodes, station no. 1......-3 and additionally in no. 7, 9 and 11. Correspondingly the best survival is seen when metastasis remain in the most locoregional nodes and survival equally tends to decrease as the metastasis become more distant. Furthermore, the presence of lymph node metastasis significantly correlates to the TNM-stage. Incidences...

  11. Meaningful prevention of breast cancer metastasis: candidate therapeutics, preclinical validation, and clinical trial concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alexandra S; Steeg, Patricia S

    2015-01-01

    The development of drugs to treat breast and other cancers proceeds through phase I dose finding, phase II efficacy, and phase III comparative studies in the metastatic setting, only then asking if metastasis can be prevented in adjuvant trials. Compounds without overt cytotoxic activity, such as those developed to inhibit metastatic colonization, will likely fail to shrink established lesions in the metastatic setting and never be tested in a metastasis prevention scenario where they were preclinically validated. We and others have proposed phase II primary and secondary metastasis prevention studies to address this need. Herein, we have asked whether preclinical metastasis prevention data agrees with the positive adjuvant setting trials. The data are limited but complimentary. We also review fundamental pathways involved in metastasis, including Src, integrins, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and fibrosis, for their clinical progress to date and potential for metastasis prevention. Issues of inadequate preclinical validation and clinical toxicity profiles are discussed.

  12. Monoamine Oxidase A: A Novel Target for Progression and Metastasis of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Target for Progression and Metastasis of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jean C. Shih, Ph.D. CONTRATING ORGANIZATION...aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services

  13. Complex pattern of colon cancer recurrence including a kidney metastasis: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helfried Waleczek; Moritz N Wente; Jürgen Kozianka

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of a 77-year-old female with a local recurrence of cancer after right hemicolectomy which infiltrated the pancreatic head affording pancreatoduodenectomy, who developed 3 years later recurrent tumor masses localized in the mesentery of the jejunum and in the lower pole of the left kidney. Partial nephrectomy and a segment resection of the small bowel were performed. Histological examination of both specimens revealed a necrotic metastasis of the primary carcinoma of the colon. Although intraluminal implantation of colon cancer cells in the renal pelvic mucosa from ureteric metastasis has been described, metastasis of a colorectal cancer in the kidney parenchyma is extremely rare and can be treated in an organ preserving manner. A complex pattern of colon cancer recurrence with unusual and rare sites of metastasis is reported.

  14. Suppressing effect of resveratrol on the migration and invasion of human metastatic lung and cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Suk; Sull, Jae Woong; Sung, Ho Joong

    2012-09-01

    The antioxidant 3,4',5 tri-hydroxystilbene (resveratrol), a phytoalexin found in grapes, shows cancer preventive activities, including inhibition of migration and invasion of metastatic tumors. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of resveratrol on tumor metastasis, especially in human metastatic lung and cervical cancers is not clear. A non-cytotoxic dosage of resveratrol causes a reduction in the generation of reactive oxygen species, and suppresses phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced invasion and migration in both A549 and HeLa cells. Resveratrol also decreases both the expression and the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and the promoter activity of PMA-stimulated MMP-9 is also inhibited. However, resveratrol does not affect either the expression or the proteolytic activity of MMP-2. Our results also show that resveratrol suppresses the transcription of MMP-9 by the inhibition of both NF-κB and AP-1 transactivation. These results indicate that resveratrol inhibits both NF-κB and AP-1 mediated MMP-9 expression, leading to suppression of migration and invasion of human metastatic lung and cervical cancer cells. Resveratrol has potential for clinical use in preventing invasion by human metastatic lung and cervical cancers.

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Synergistic Therapeutic Effect of Cisplatin with Human Papillomavirus16 E6/E7 CRISPR/Cas9 on Cervical Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 is one of the major etiologic factors of cervical cancer. Our study aims to investigate the potentiality of the antiviral clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated Cas9 system (CRISPR/Cas9 targeting the E6 and E7 oncogenes of HPV16 as a potential chemosensitizer of cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP for cervical cancer. METHODS: Specifically, the therapeutic efficacy of combination of CDDP and HPV16 E6 + E7-CRISPR/Cas9 was assessed in cervical cancer cells and cervical cancer xenograft models. RESULTS: In vitro experiments showed that long-term exposure of SiHa cells to the HPV16 E6 + E7-CRISPR/Cas9 induced apoptosis, and its pro-apoptosis effect became more obvious when combined with CDDP. In vivo study found the efficacy of the combination of HPV16 E6 + E7-CRISPR/Cas9 and CDDP were superior to either of the treatments in term of apoptosis induction and metastasis inhibition. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results suggested that HPV16 E6 + E7-CRISPR/Cas9 could be an effective sensitizer of CDDP chemotherapy in cervical cancer.

  16. Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis: Unusual Presentation of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma - Diagnosed By FNAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Buch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is a rare neoplasm that usually arises from minor salivary glands. It is characteristically locally infiltrative, exhibiting perineural invasion, has a tendency for local recurrence and prolonged clinical course. A 60 year old male, chronic smoker presented with swelling of the left cervical lymph node since two months. Examination revealed a solitary firm, non tender, non mobile left cervical swelling measuring 2 x 1 cm. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC was done from the cervical lymph node. The diagnosis of metastatic deposits of ACC was given. Detail examination of the oral cavity revealed a small swelling at the floor of the mouth. Biopsy of the swelling confirmed ACC on histopathological examination. An unusual feature of adenoid cystic carcinoma is the low incidence of metastases to regional lymph nodes. The case is presented to highlight its unusual presentation and utility of FNAC in rapid diagnosis.

  17. [Management of pregnant women with advanced cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincens, C; Dupaigne, D; de Tayrac, R; Mares, P

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to update the management of pregnant women with advanced cervical cancer, thanks to a literature review indexed in Medline((R)) (from 1980 till 2006 using those keywords: advanced cervix cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pregnancy), ScienceDirect (from 1990 till 2006) and the French Encyclopédie Médico-Chirurgicale. It occurs that pregnancy is a privileged period to diagnose cervical cancer, particularly in early stages. We ought to beware of symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, which could be underestimated during pregnancy. Colposcopically selected biopsies are reference techniques to confirm the diagnostic. The assessment of extension includes an abdominal and pelvic MRI and echography and a radiography of the chest for locally advanced stages. The decision to interrupt pregnancy should be based on a collegial evaluation and depends on state and histology of disease, patient's desire for pregnancy, as well as gestational age and disease evolution. Cesarean is preferred to natural delivery even though survival rates are the same. The cesarean section prevents from short-term complications and recurrence on the episiotomy, but the hysterotomy type is controversial throughout literature. The prognosis of cervical cancer does not seem to be influenced by pregnancy. Management is the same, even though we have to adapt the treatment from the pregnancy state. No study could show the benefit and the safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy during pregnancy, due to few cases, but it could be a solution with patients suffering from an advanced cancer and not willing to stop pregnancy. To conclude, the detection by cervical smears should be systematic during pregnancy. When cancer is diagnosed, cesarean section is the favourite way to deliver. Pregnancy does not modify disease's prognosis and the therapeutic choice depends on the stage of the disease.

  18. MiR-888 regulates side population properties and cancer metastasis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengjian; Chen, Liangbiao

    2014-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have recently been reported to possess properties related to cancer metastasis. However, the mechanism by which microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate these properties remains unclear. This study aims to investigate a correlation between miRNAs and the side population (SP) of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 with CSC properties. miR-888 was found in our previous study to be up-regulated in SP cells and predicted to target E-Cadherin directly, indicating a potential role in maintaining SP properties and regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer metastasis. After the over-expression of miR-888 in MCF-7 cells and knock-down of its expression in SP cells, we found that miR-888 played a role in maintaining CSC-related properties. Next, miR-888 was found to regulate the EMT process by targeting related gene expression. Lastly, MCF-7 cells over-expressing miR-888 exhibited a significant reduction in their ability to adhere to the extracellular matrix and an increased potential for migration and invasion, whereas knock-down of miR-888 expression in SP cells reversed these trends. In conclusion, miR-888 maintains SP properties and regulates EMT and metastasis in MCF-7 cells, potentially by targeting E-Cadherin expression.

  19. EGFR and HER2 expression in primary cervical cancers and corresponding lymph node metastases: Implications for targeted radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhengyan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins overexpressed on the surface of tumor cells can be selectively targeted. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 are among the most often targeted proteins. The level and stability of expression in both primary tumors and corresponding metastases is crucial in the assessment of a receptor as target for imaging in nuclear medicine and for various forms of therapy. So far, the expression of EGFR and HER2 has only been determined in primary cervical cancers, and we have not found published data regarding the receptor status in corresponding metastatic lesions. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether any of these receptors are suitable as target for clinical diagnosis and therapy. Methods Expression of EGFR and HER2 was investigated immunohistochemically in both lymph node metastases and corresponding primary cervical cancers (n = 53. HER2 and EGFR expression was scored using HercepTest criteria (0, 1+, 2+ or 3+. Results EGFR overexpression (2+ or 3+ was found in 64% (35/53 of the primary cervical tumors and 60% (32/53 of the corresponding lymph node metastases. There was a good concordance between the primary tumors and the paired metastases regarding EGFR expression. Only four patients who had 2+ or 3+ in the primary tumors changed to 0 or 1+ in lymph node metastases, and another two cases changed the other way around. None of the primary tumors or the lymph node metastases expressed HER2 protein. Conclusion The EGFR expression seems to be common and stable during cervical cancer metastasis, which is encouraging for testing of EGFR targeted radiotherapy. HER2 appears to be of poor interest as a potential target in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  20. MicroRNAs:regulators of cancer metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Ming Ding

    2014-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with solid tumors. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, in which epithelial cells are converted into mesenchymal cells, is frequently activated during cancer invasion and metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are smal , non-coding RNAs that provide widespread expressional control by repressing mRNA translation and inducing mRNA degradation. The fundamental roles of miRNAs in tumor growth and metastasis have been increasingly wel recognized. A growing number of miRNAs are reported to regulate tumor invasion/metastasis through EMT-related and/or non-EMT-related mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the functional role and molecular mechanism of miRNAs in regulating cancer metastasis and EMT.

  1. Relationship between Preoperative Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Lymph Node Metastasis in Early Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cai-Gang; LU Ping; LU Yang; ZHANG Rui-shan; JIN Feng; XU Hui-mian; WANG Shu-bao; CHEN Jun-qing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the features of the preoperative clinicopathologic characteristics in correlation with lymph node metastasis. Methods: The preoperative clinicopathologic characteristics and lymph node metastasis of 265 patients with early gastric carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The three clinicopathologic characteristics, maximum cancer diameter >2cm under endoscope, poor differentiation and excavated type were significant high risk independent preoperative clinicopathologic characteristics(P<0.05). The patients who had none of the three preoperative clinicopathologic characteristics had no lymph node metastasis, while 27.27% of the patients who had all the three preoperative clinicopathologic characteristics had N2 lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: The three preoperative clinicopathologic characteristics, maximum cancer diameter under endoscope, cell differentiation and gross type were very useful to evaluate the extent of lymph node metastasis.

  2. HPV16 oncoproteins promote cervical cancer invasiveness by upregulating specific matrix metalloproteinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jittranan Kaewprag

    Full Text Available Production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs for degradation of extracellular matrix is a vital step in cancer metastasis. We investigated the effects of HPV16 oncoproteins (16E6, 16E6*I and 16E7, either individually or combined, on the transcription of 7 MMPs implicated in cervical cancer invasiveness. The levels of 7 MMPs reported to be increased in cervical cancer were determined in C33A stably expressing different HPV16 oncoproteins using quantitative RT-PCR and compared with invasion ability of cell lines using in vitro invasion and wound healing assays. Overexpression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP was detected in HPV16E6E7 expressing cells which correlated with increased cell invasion. Combination of HPV oncoproteins always showed greater effects than its individual form. Inhibition of cell invasion using a specific MMP-2 inhibitor, OA-Hy, and anti-MT1-MMP antibody confirmed that invasion in these cells was dependent on both MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression. Depletion of HPV16E6E7 by shRNA-mediated knock-down experiments resulted in decreased MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression levels as well as reduced invasion ability which strongly suggested specific effects of HPV oncoproteins on both MMPs and on cell invasion. Immunohistochemistry study in invasive cervical cancers confirmed the enhanced in vivo expression of these two MMPs in HPV16-infected cells. In addition, possible sites required by HPV16E6E7 on the MMP-2 and MT1-MMP promoters were investigated and PEA3 (at -552/-540 for MMP-2, -303 for MT1-MMP and Sp1 (at -91 for MMP-2, -102 for MT1-MMP binding sites were shown to be essential for mediating their transactivation activity. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that HPV16E6 and E7 oncoproteins cooperate in promoting cervical cancer invasiveness by specifically upregulating MMP-2 and MT1-MMP transcription in a similar manner.

  3. HPV16 oncoproteins promote cervical cancer invasiveness by upregulating specific matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewprag, Jittranan; Umnajvijit, Wareerat; Ngamkham, Jarunya; Ponglikitmongkol, Mathurose

    2013-01-01

    Production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for degradation of extracellular matrix is a vital step in cancer metastasis. We investigated the effects of HPV16 oncoproteins (16E6, 16E6*I and 16E7), either individually or combined, on the transcription of 7 MMPs implicated in cervical cancer invasiveness. The levels of 7 MMPs reported to be increased in cervical cancer were determined in C33A stably expressing different HPV16 oncoproteins using quantitative RT-PCR and compared with invasion ability of cell lines using in vitro invasion and wound healing assays. Overexpression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP was detected in HPV16E6E7 expressing cells which correlated with increased cell invasion. Combination of HPV oncoproteins always showed greater effects than its individual form. Inhibition of cell invasion using a specific MMP-2 inhibitor, OA-Hy, and anti-MT1-MMP antibody confirmed that invasion in these cells was dependent on both MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression. Depletion of HPV16E6E7 by shRNA-mediated knock-down experiments resulted in decreased MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression levels as well as reduced invasion ability which strongly suggested specific effects of HPV oncoproteins on both MMPs and on cell invasion. Immunohistochemistry study in invasive cervical cancers confirmed the enhanced in vivo expression of these two MMPs in HPV16-infected cells. In addition, possible sites required by HPV16E6E7 on the MMP-2 and MT1-MMP promoters were investigated and PEA3 (at -552/-540 for MMP-2, -303 for MT1-MMP) and Sp1 (at -91 for MMP-2, -102 for MT1-MMP) binding sites were shown to be essential for mediating their transactivation activity. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that HPV16E6 and E7 oncoproteins cooperate in promoting cervical cancer invasiveness by specifically upregulating MMP-2 and MT1-MMP transcription in a similar manner.

  4. Sentinel lymph node detection by combined dye-isotope technique and its predictive value for cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with lingual carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国慧; 樊卫; 张伟光; 彭汉伟

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the clinical value of combined dye-isotope technique in detecting sentinel lymph node (SLN) and to examine whether the characteristics of SLN accurately predict cervical lymph node metastasis in lingual carcinoma. Methods Thirty patients with lingual carcinoma without lymph metastasis were injected with a dose of about 18.5 MBq of 99mTc-SC (sulfur colloid), around the tumor tissues before surgery, and lymphoscintigraphy was performed 5, 10, 30, 60 minutes, and 6 hours after injection. In the following day, all patients were injected with isosulfan blue dye around the primary tumor during surgery to trace SLN and underwent standard cervical lymph node dissection after SLN dissection. The pathological results of SLN were compared with standard lymph node dissection for their ability to accurately predict the final pathological status of the cervical lymph nodes.Results SLN was successfully identified in 100% of the patients. Both positive and negative predictive values of SLN were 100%. The accuracy rate was 100%, and there were no false negatives. Conclusions The detection of SLN using combined dye-isotope technique could accurately predict cervical lymph node metastasis in lingual carcinoma.

  5. Biologia molecular do câncer cervical Molecular biology of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Augusto Rivoire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A carcinogênese é um processo de múltiplas etapas. Alterações no equilíbrio citogenético ocorrem na transformação do epitélio normal a câncer cervical. Numerosos estudos apoiam a hipótese de que a infecção por HPV está associada com o desenvolvimento de alterações malignas e pré-malignas do trato genital inferior. Neste trabalho são apresentadas as bases para a compreensão da oncogênese cervical. O ciclo celular é controlado por proto-oncogenes e genes supressores. Quando ocorrem mutações, proto-oncogenes tornam-se oncogenes, que são carcinogênicos e causam multiplicação celular excessiva. A perda da ação de genes supressores funcionais pode levar a célula ao crescimento inadequado. O ciclo celular também pode ser alterado pela ação de vírus, entre eles o HPV (Human Papiloma Virus, de especial interesse na oncogênese cervical. Os tipos de HPV 16 e 18 são os de maior interesse, freqüentemente associados a câncer cervical e anal. O conhecimento das bases moleculares que estão envolvidas na oncogênese cervical tem sido possível devido a utilização de técnicas avançadas de biologia molecular. A associação destas técnicas aos métodos diagnósticos clássicos, poderão levar a uma melhor avaliação das neoplasias cervicais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento de novas terapias, talvez menos invasivas e mais efetivas.Carcinogenesis involves several steps. Disorders of the cytogenetic balance occur during the evolution from normal epithelium to cervical cancer. Several studies support the hypothesis that the Human Papiloma Virus (HPV infection is associated to development of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical cancer. In this review we show the basis to understand cervical oncogenesis. The cell cycle is controlled by protooncogenes and supressive genes. This orchestrated cell cycle can be affected by virus such as HPV. Of special interest in the cervical carcinogenesis are the HPV subtypes 16 and 18

  6. Palliative Surgery for Rare Cases of Anterior Urethral Metastasis in Prostate Cancer

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    Enrique Gómez Gómez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penis metastasis from prostate cancer is very rare, and its management varies from case to case as there are very few cases reported in the literature. We describe a patient with prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy who presented with urethral bleeding as a symptom of anterior urethral metastasis during followup. We propose a way to manage this and review the literature.

  7. Palliative Surgery for Rare Cases of Anterior Urethral Metastasis in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gómez, Enrique; Carrasco Aznar, Jose Carlos; Moreno Rodríguez, Maria del Mar; Valero Rosa, José; Requena Tapia, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Penis metastasis from prostate cancer is very rare, and its management varies from case to case as there are very few cases reported in the literature. We describe a patient with prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy who presented with urethral bleeding as a symptom of anterior urethral metastasis during followup. We propose a way to manage this and review the literature. PMID:25161796

  8. Comparison of gene sets for expression profiling: prediction of metastasis from low-malignant breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mads; Tan, Qihua; Eiriksdottir, Freyja;

    2007-01-01

    -six tumors from low-risk patients and 34 low-malignant T2 tumors from patients with slightly higher risk have been examined by genome-wide gene expression analysis. Nine prognostic gene sets were tested in this data set. RESULTS: A 32-gene profile (HUMAC32) that accurately predicts metastasis has previously...... sets, mainly developed in high-risk cancers, predict metastasis from low-malignant cancer....

  9. Clinical application of whole blood red cell distribution width in lung cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐阳飏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of whole blood red cell distribution width(RDW)in discriminating lung cancer metastasis.Methods A retropective analysis was conducted on the patients who were initially diagnosed as primary lung cancer.A total of 525 patients were included for analysis between January 2012 and July2013,stratified by different stages and metastasis scenarios.RDW data was investigated.Kruskal-Wallis H tests

  10. Semaphorin 4D Promotes Skeletal Metastasis in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Hua; Buhamrah, Asma; Schneider, Abraham; Lin, Yi-Ling; Zhou, Hua; Bugshan, Amr; Basile, John R

    2016-01-01

    Bone density is controlled by interactions between osteoclasts, which resorb bone, and osteoblasts, which deposit it. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, originally shown to function in the immune system and to provide chemotactic cues for axon guidance, are now known to play a role in this process as well. Emerging data have identified Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) as a product of osteoclasts acting through its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts to inhibit their function, tipping the balance of bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies overexpress Sema4D, so we theorized that tumor cells could be exploiting this pathway to establish lytic skeletal metastases. Here, we use measurements of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro and a mouse model of skeletal metastasis to demonstrate that both soluble Sema4D and protein produced by the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 inhibits differentiation of MC3T3 cells, an osteoblast cell line, and their ability to form mineralized tissues, while Sema4D-mediated induction of IL-8 and LIX/CXCL5, the murine homologue of IL-8, increases osteoclast numbers and activity. We also observe a decrease in the number of bone metastases in mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells when Sema4D is silenced by RNA interference. These results are significant because treatments directed at suppression of skeletal metastases in bone-homing malignancies usually work by arresting bone remodeling, potentially leading to skeletal fragility, a significant problem in patient management. Targeting Sema4D in these cancers would not affect bone remodeling and therefore could elicit an improved therapeutic result without the debilitating side effects.

  11. Semaphorin 4D Promotes Skeletal Metastasis in Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hua Yang

    Full Text Available Bone density is controlled by interactions between osteoclasts, which resorb bone, and osteoblasts, which deposit it. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, originally shown to function in the immune system and to provide chemotactic cues for axon guidance, are now known to play a role in this process as well. Emerging data have identified Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D as a product of osteoclasts acting through its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts to inhibit their function, tipping the balance of bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies overexpress Sema4D, so we theorized that tumor cells could be exploiting this pathway to establish lytic skeletal metastases. Here, we use measurements of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro and a mouse model of skeletal metastasis to demonstrate that both soluble Sema4D and protein produced by the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 inhibits differentiation of MC3T3 cells, an osteoblast cell line, and their ability to form mineralized tissues, while Sema4D-mediated induction of IL-8 and LIX/CXCL5, the murine homologue of IL-8, increases osteoclast numbers and activity. We also observe a decrease in the number of bone metastases in mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells when Sema4D is silenced by RNA interference. These results are significant because treatments directed at suppression of skeletal metastases in bone-homing malignancies usually work by arresting bone remodeling, potentially leading to skeletal fragility, a significant problem in patient management. Targeting Sema4D in these cancers would not affect bone remodeling and therefore could elicit an improved therapeutic result without the debilitating side effects.

  12. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  13. Metastin has potential as a suitable biomarker and novel effective therapy for cancer metastasis (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Sunao; Tang, Xian Yang; Sato, Haruhiro; Usui, Yukio; Uchida, Toyoaki; Terachi, Toshiro

    2010-09-01

    Cancer metastasis is a leading cause of death in cancer patients and is a multistep process involving complex interactions between tumor and host cells. To metastasize, tumor cells must invade or migrate from the primary tumor and be transported to close or distant secondary sites. A tumor cell should successfully accomplish each step of the pathway or metastasis may not develop. KiSS-1 is a human metastasis suppressor gene that inhibits metastasis of human melanomas and breast carcinomas without affecting tumorigenicity. KiSS-1 encodes a carboxy-terminally amidated peptide with 54 amino-acid residues. The peptide was isolated from human placenta as the endogenous ligand of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor and termed 'metastin'. The literature reports metastin related to human carcinoma, such as melanoma, thyroid cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, as well as breast, ovarian, bladder and kidney cancer. These malignancies are difficult to treat and, even in early-stage cancer, a number of patients develop metastasis shortly after surgery. Studies have suggested that metastin inhibits tumor invasion or migration through focal adhesion kinase, paxillin, MAP kinase or Rho A. Additionally, metastin may be a biomarker in ESCC, pancreatic carcinoma and bladder cancer. Metastin has potential as a suitable biomarker in the identification of tumors with high metastatic potential and as a novel effective treatment modality for patients with metastasis.

  14. A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEDIASTINAL LYMPH NODE METASTASIS OF LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective:To investigate pathologically the characteristics of lung cancer metastasis by mediastinal lymph node ways (N2). Methods: Of 398 lung cancer patients who underwent radical pulmonectomy and extensive lymph node dissection, 160 patients were diagnosed as with N2 metastasis, their 352 groups of mediastinal lymph nodes invaded were subject to the pathological study. Results: Evidences showed that the N2 metastasis of lung cancer was very active. It appears as single group or multi-group or jumping-form metastasis, rating 41.2%, 58.8% and 29.3% respectively. In addition, the extension of N2 metastasis was large, the most concentrated site was the 7th group lymph node (48.8%), then the 4th, 3rd and 5th group, rating 45.6%, 31.3% and 25.6% respectively. The occurrence of N2 metastasis was highly correlated with the site, size, histopathological type and the grade of differentiation of the cancer. An another feature of N2 metastasis was the invasion of metastasized lymph node into the bronchial wall, especially in adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: In order to achieve the radical removal of tumor, it is necessary to dissect the lymph nodes of the hilar and upper and lower mediastinum at the homolateral thoracic cavity actively and completely; beside, attention may be paid to the bronchial wall invasion caused by the lymph nodes metastasized.

  15. Rrp1b, a new candidate susceptibility gene for breast cancer progression and metastasis.

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    Nigel P S Crawford

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel candidate metastasis modifier, ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B (Rrp1b, was identified through two independent approaches. First, yeast two-hybrid, immunoprecipitation, and functional assays demonstrated a physical and functional interaction between Rrp1b and the previous identified metastasis modifier Sipa1. In parallel, using mouse and human metastasis gene expression data it was observed that extracellular matrix (ECM genes are common components of metastasis predictive signatures, suggesting that ECM genes are either important markers or causal factors in metastasis. To investigate the relationship between ECM genes and poor prognosis in breast cancer, expression quantitative trait locus analysis of polyoma middle-T transgene-induced mammary tumor was performed. ECM gene expression was found to be consistently associated with Rrp1b expression. In vitro expression of Rrp1b significantly altered ECM gene expression, tumor growth, and dissemination in metastasis assays. Furthermore, a gene signature induced by ectopic expression of Rrp1b in tumor cells predicted survival in a human breast cancer gene expression dataset. Finally, constitutional polymorphism within RRP1B was found to be significantly associated with tumor progression in two independent breast cancer cohorts. These data suggest that RRP1B may be a novel susceptibility gene for breast cancer progression and metastasis.

  16. Aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical Epidemiological aspects of cervical cancer

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    Antonio Aleixo Neto

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi efetuada revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical, um dos mais freqüentes em mulheres de países em desenvolvimento. No Brasil a incidência varia de 23,7/100.000, em Porto Alegre, a 83,2/100.000, em Recife. Nos Estados Unidos a incidência em 1978 foi de 6,8/100.000 entre as mulheres brancas e de 14,7/100.000 entre as negras. Várias observações sugerem a hipótese de que o câncer cervical esteja relacionado com algum aspecto da atividade sexual, possivelmente algum agente transmitido por via venérea. As evidências têm implicado o papilomavirus humano (HPV como o principal agente etiológico deste câncer. Vários trabalhos foram analisados quanto à validade desta hipótese etiológica, mostrando que há uma relação entre HPV e o câncer cervical. Foram analisados os fatores de risco mais conhecidos, tais como o comportamento sexual, o tabagismo e a contracepção, diante das várias possibilidades etiológicas existentes.A review concerning the epidemiological issues relating to cervical cancer, one of the most frequent in the women of developing countries, was undertaken in - Brazil, the incidence rate varies from 23.7/100,000 in Porto Alegre to 83.2/100,000 in Recife. In the United States, the 1978 incidence rate was 6.8/100,000 in white women and 14.7/100,000 among black women. Several studies have suggested the hypotheses that cervical cancer could be related to some venereal agent. The evidences have shown the human papillomavirus (HPV to be the main etiological agent. Several studies on the validity of such a hypotheses were realyzed and it became clear that there does infact exist a relationship between the HPV and cervical cancer. Finally, the better known risk factors, such as sexual behaviour, smoking and the contraception were studied in the light of the various etiological hypotheses.

  17. Invadopodia Are Required for Cancer Cell Extravasation and Are a Therapeutic Target for Metastasis

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    Hon S. Leong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cell extravasation is a key step during cancer metastasis, yet the precise mechanisms that regulate this dynamic process are unclear. We utilized a high-resolution time-lapse intravital imaging approach to visualize the dynamics of cancer cell extravasation in vivo. During intravascular migration, cancer cells form protrusive structures identified as invadopodia by their enrichment of MT1-MMP, cortactin, Tks4, and importantly Tks5, which localizes exclusively to invadopodia. Cancer cells extend invadopodia through the endothelium into the extravascular stroma prior to their extravasation at endothelial junctions. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of invadopodia initiation (cortactin, maturation (Tks5, or function (Tks4 resulted in an abrogation of cancer cell extravasation and metastatic colony formation in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. This provides direct evidence of a functional role for invadopodia during cancer cell extravasation and distant metastasis and reveals an opportunity for therapeutic intervention in this clinically important process.

  18. Role of CXCL12 in metastasis of human ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-ping; WU Xiao-hua; XING Han-ying; DU Xing-yan

    2007-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we have verified that CXCR4 expression is correlated with tumor aggressive progression and poor prognosis in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of CXCL12-CXCR4 axis on the metastasis of human ovarian cancer.Methods The expressions of CXCR4 and CXCL12 mRNA and protein in human ovarian cancer cell line CAOV-3 was detected by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Methythiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) was used to analyze the effect of different concentrations of CXCL12 on the proliferation of CAOV-3 cells. Transwell invasion chamber and matrigel were used to evaluate the effect of various concentrations of CXCL12 and ascites on the migration and invasion of CAOV-3 cells. The expressions of integrin β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) mRNA were detected by RT-PCR. Data were analyzed using ANOVA by SAS 6.12.Results Under serum-free suboptimal culture conditions, CXCL12 (100 ng/ml) significantly enhanced the proliferation of CAOV-3 cells compared with the control and 10 ng/ml CXCL12 groups (0.428±0.051 vs. 0.325±0.045 and 0.328±0.039, P<0.05). This enhancing effect of CXCL12 was significantly inhibited by 10 μg/ml neutralizing CXCR4 antibody or 1 μg/ml CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. However, 10 μg/ml neutralizing CXCR4 antibody could not inhibit cell proliferation without CXCL12. The levels of migration and invasion of the CAOV-3 cells treated with 100 ng/ml CXCL12 were significantly higher than those in the control (migration: 523.3±25.2 vs 108.0±7.2; invasion: 39.3±4.0 vs. 4.0±1.0). The enhancing effect of CXCL12 on cell migration and invasion increased with the concentration of CXCL12 (100 ng/ml vs10 ng/ml: migration, 523.3±25.2 vs 211.7±24.7; invasion, 39.3±4.0 vs 15.7±3.1, P<0.05), and was strongly inhibited by 10 μg/ml neutralizing CXCR4 antibody or 1 μg/ml AMD3100. The number of migrated and invading cells in the CAOV-3 added with ascites was significantly

  19. Clinical evaluation of chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer

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    Kaneyasu, Yuko; Okawa, Tomohiko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan); Okawa-Kita, Midori

    1997-11-01

    Locally advanced cervical cancer has a poor prognosis, poor survival rate, and high local failure rate. A number of questions regarding the optimal agents and schedule of concurrent chemoradiation remain unanswered. To improve the cure rate for advanced or recurrent cervix cancer, we studied intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) with or without radiotherapy. We analyzed 52 cases of advanced or recurrent cervical cancer treated by IAIC with or without radiotherapy. IAIC regimen was separated into two groups: group I consisted of 5-FU+MMC{+-}ADM (30 cases) and group II of CDDP+MMC{+-}5-FU (22 cases). The tip of the catheter was placed in the bifurcation of abdominal aorta or the bilateral internal iliac arteries (7 cases). The overall response rate (CR+PR) was 71%, 87% in patients receiving radiotherapy, 50% in those without radiotherapy, and 100% in primary cases. The five-year survival rate was 20% in primary cases, 14% in recurrent cases, 3% in group I and 38% in group II by chemotherapy regimen. Severe (more than grade III) hematological acute side effects were found in 48% of all cases, but recovered by interruption of drugs. In 7 cases in which the tip of the catheter was placed in internal iliac arteries, there were severe skin ulcers in 2 cases and severe pain of leg or gluteal region which need narcotics in 2 cases. These data suggest that IAIC mainly with cisplatin with or without radiotherapy is one of the effective treatments for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. But we should check blood flow distribution periodically, and control the concentration of drugs. To improve the survival rate for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, we should discuss neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and maintenance systemic chemotherapy. (author)

  20. Behaviour among women in the scope of cervical cancer prevention

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    Aleksandra Słopiecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cytological examination is a simple and inexpensive method used in the prevention of cervical cancer. In Poland, too low proportions of women still have the test. Aim of the research : To analyse the attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention. Material and methods : Two hundred and ten hospitalized women were invited to take part in the investigation. The research used the diagnostic poll method, using the author’s original questionnaire form. The research was carried out in four gynaecological wards. Results : Of the women who participated in the research, 16.2% by the time of diagnosis had never received a Pap test. In the analysed group, 88.2% of women were not referred to a specialist for a Pap test. Among all respondents, only 35.7% underwent cervix cytology regularly, i.e. once a year or once every 2 years. Conclusions : The effort made by the women towards the attitudes of cervical cancer prevention was insufficient; still too many women had not reported to the specialist for taking material from the cervix, or did not do so regularly. A significant relation in the behaviour of women was found depending on their level of education and place of residence. Greater activity of nurses, midwives and family physicians in stimulating Polish women to participate in prevention programmes for cervical cancer is advisable. To increase the health awareness of girls and women, it is important to include in the curriculum, especially in secondary schools, the issues of prevention of female reproductive system cancer.