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Sample records for certification plan transuranic

  1. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  2. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  3. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP

  4. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP

  5. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package (TRUPACT-11 SARP). In

  6. Hanford site transuranic waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management, and the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant' (DOE 1996d) (WIPP WAC). The WIPP WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WIPP WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their management of TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter41 (TRUPACT-11). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-I1 requirements in the ''Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package'' (NRC 1997) (TRUPACT-I1 SARP)

  7. Certification plan transuranic waste: Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of transuranic (TRU) waste handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWBF; and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification

  8. Savannah River Certification Plan for newly generated, contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Certification Plan document describes the necessary processes and methods for certifying unclassified, newly generated, contact-handled solid transuranic (TRU) waste at the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory (SRP, SRL) to comply with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). Section 2 contains the organizational structure as related to waste certification including a summary of functional responsibilities, levels of authority, and lines of communication of the various organizations involved in certification activities. Section 3 describes general plant operations and TRU waste generation. Included is a description of the TRU Waste classification system. Section 4 contains the SR site TRU Waste Quality Assurance Program Plan. Section 5 describes waste container procurement, inspection, and certification prior to being loaded with TRU waste. Certification of waste packages, after package closure in the waste generating areas, is described in Section 6. The packaging and certification of individual waste forms is described in Attachments 1-5. Included in each attachment is a description of controls used to ensure that waste packages meet all applicable waste form compliance requirements for shipment to the WIPP. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. National transuranic program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of various program initiatives, the U.S. generated and will continue to generate waste contaminated with radioactive materials. Because of increased awareness of the risks and special requirements to safely manage long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides, a new category of radioactive waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, was adopted in 1970. Heads of Field Elements can determine that other alpha-contaminated wastes, peculiar to a specific site, must be managed as transuranic wasteclose quotes. TRU waste is generated and stored at various DOE sites around the country. In December 1993, the National Transuranic Program Office (NTPO) was established as part of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to integrate and coordinate the diverse organizational elements that contribute to the complex-wide management of TRU waste. Numerous sites with small TRU waste inventories are also part of the national TRU waste system. The majority of TRU waste is also contaminated with hazardous materials and is thus considered mixed waste. Mixed waste must be managed in compliance with all federal, state, and local regulations that are applicable to the radioactive and/or hazardous component of the waste. Each generator site is responsible for the management of its respective waste. Sites must plan and implement programs to minimize, characterize, package, treat, store, ship, and dispose of all TRU waste; construct required waste management facilities and equipment; obtain permits; perform site-specific National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses; conduct environmental studies; perform laboratory analyses; and certify that waste meets appropriate disposal facility criteria. Due to the toxicity and long half-lives of TRU radionuclides, TRU waste must be disposed in a manner that offers greater confinement than shallow land burial

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.; Bates, L.D.; Box, W.D.; Aaron, W.S.; Setaro, J.A.

    1988-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that all DOE facilities handling defense transuranic (TRU) waste develop and implement a program whereby all TRU waste will be contained, stored, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in accordance with the requirements set forth in the DOE certification documents WIPP-DOE-069, 114, 120, 137, 157, and 158. The program described in this report describes how Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) intends to comply with these requirements and the techniques and procedures used to ensure that ORNL TRU wastes are certifiable for shipment to WIPP. This document describes the program for certification of newly generated (NG) contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. Previsions have been made for addenda, which will extend the coverage of this document to include certification of stored CH-TRU and NG and stored remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste, as necessary. 24 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP.

  12. Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This quality assurance plan identifies the data necessary, and techniques designed to attain the required quality, to meet the specific data quality objectives associated with the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report specifies sampling, waste testing, and analytical methods for transuranic wastes

  13. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory's many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory's boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department

  14. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory`s many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory`s boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department.

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste quality assurance project plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Transuranic (TRU) Waste Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) serves as the quality management plan for the characterization of transuranic waste in preparation for certification and transportation. The Transuranic Waste Characterization/Certification Program (TWCP) consists of personnel who sample and analyze waste, validate and report data; and provide project management, quality assurance, audit and assessment, and records management support, all in accordance with established requirements for disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. This QAPjP addresses how the TWCP meets the quality requirements of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the technical requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The TWCP characterizes and certifies retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste using the waste selection, testing, sampling, and analytical techniques and data quality objectives (DQOs) described in the QAPP, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Plan (Certification Plan), and the CST Waste Management Facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)]. At the present, the TWCP does not address remote-handled (RH) waste

  16. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste quality assurance project plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-14

    This Transuranic (TRU) Waste Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) serves as the quality management plan for the characterization of transuranic waste in preparation for certification and transportation. The Transuranic Waste Characterization/Certification Program (TWCP) consists of personnel who sample and analyze waste, validate and report data; and provide project management, quality assurance, audit and assessment, and records management support, all in accordance with established requirements for disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. This QAPjP addresses how the TWCP meets the quality requirements of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the technical requirements of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The TWCP characterizes and certifies retrievably stored and newly generated TRU waste using the waste selection, testing, sampling, and analytical techniques and data quality objectives (DQOs) described in the QAPP, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Certification Plan (Certification Plan), and the CST Waste Management Facilities Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)]. At the present, the TWCP does not address remote-handled (RH) waste.

  17. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility

  18. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

  19. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP).

  20. Westinghouse Hanford Company plan for certifying newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All transuranic (TRU) waste generators are required by US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A to package their TRU waste to comply with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Transuranic Waste Certification Plan was developed to ensure that TRU newly waste generated at WHC meets the WIPP-WAC and/or. The methods used at WHC to package TRU waste are described in sufficient detail to meet WIPP certification or the regulations. This document is organized to provide a brief overview of waste generation operations at WHC, along with details on data management for TRU waste. The methods used to implement this plan are discussed briefly along with the responsibilities and authorities of applicable organizations. This certification plan describes how WHC complies with all applicable regulations and requirements set forth in the latest approved revision of WIPP-DOE-069

  1. Final Inventory Work-Off Plan for ORNL transuranic wastes (1986 version)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Final Inventory Work-Off Plan (IWOP) for ORNL Transuranic Wastes addresses ORNL's strategy for retrieval, certification, and shipment of its stored and newly generated contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the proposed geologic repository near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document considers certification compliance with the WIPP waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and is consistent with the US Department of Energy's Long-Range Master Plan for Defense Transuranic Waste Management. This document characterizes Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) TRU waste by type and estimates the number of shipments required to dispose of it; describes the methods, facilities, and systems required for its certification and shipment; presents work-off strategies and schedules for retrieval, certification, and transportation; discusses the resource needs and additions that will be required for the effort and forecasts costs for the long-term TRU waste management program; and lists public documentation required to support certification facilities and strategies. 22 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Defense remote-handled transuranic waste implementation plan: Transuranic Waste Program System Integration Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a detailed schedule for the implementation of the strategy for managing defense remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste. The baseline management strategy was defined in the Defense Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Cost/Schedule Optimization Study and is summarized in this document. Also included are revised RH TRU waste inventory projections, current site management plans, a list of key decision points and milestones, and a discussion of uncertainties associated with management of RH TRU waste. The plans are summarized in a detailed schedule diagram and in an RH TRU waste work off diagram. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP

  4. Certification document for newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy has requested that all national laboratories handling defense waste develop and augment a program whereby all newly generated contact-handled transuranic (TRU) waste be contained, stored, and then shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in accordance with the requirements set forth in WIPP-DOE-114. The program described in this report delineates how Oak Ridge National Laboratory intends to comply with these requirements and lists the procedures used by each generator to ensure that their TRU wastes are certifiable for shipment to WIPP

  5. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, K M

    2000-01-01

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval ...

  6. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A', the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-I13 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1,4,20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1,20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  7. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1 , 20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  8. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-09-28

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1 , 20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  9. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-08-27

    Phase I retrieval of post-1970 TRU wastes from burial ground 218-W-4C can be done in a safe, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Initiating TRU retrieval by retrieving uncovered drums from Trenches 1, 20, and 29, will allow retrieval to begin under the current SWBG safety authorization basis. The retrieval of buried drums from Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29, which will require excavation, will commence once the uncovered drum are retrieved. This phased approach allows safety analysis for drum venting and drum module excavation to be completed and approved before the excavation proceeds. In addition, the lessons learned and the operational experience gained from the retrieval of uncovered drums can be applied to the more complicated retrieval of the buried drums. Precedents that have been set at SRS and LANL to perform retrieval without a trench cover, in the open air, should be followed. Open-air retrieval will result in significant cost savings over the original plans for Phase I retrieval (Project W-113). Based on LANL and SRS experience, open-air retrieval will have no adverse impacts to the environment or to the health and safety of workers or the public. Assaying the waste in the SWBG using a mobile assay system, will result in additional cost savings. It is expected that up to 50% of the suspect-TRU wastes will assay as LLW, allowing those waste to remain disposed of in the SWBG. Further processing, with its associated costs, will only occur to the portion of the waste that is verified to be TRU. Retrieval should be done, to the extent possible, under the current SWBG safety authorization basis as a normal part of SWBG operations. The use of existing personnel and existing procedures should be optimized. By working retrieval campaigns, typically during the slow months, it is easier to coordinate the availability of necessary operations personnel, and it is easier to coordinate the availability of a mobile assay vendor.

  10. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Qualit Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP)

  11. Test plan for demonstration of Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This plan describes tests to demonstrate the capability of the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) to monitor airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides and analyze soil, smear, and filter samples for alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides under field conditions. The RTML will be tested during June 1993 at a site adjacent to the Cold Test Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Measurement systems installed in the RTML that will be demonstrated include two large-area ionization chamber alpha spectrometers, an x-ray/gamma-ray spectrometer, and four alpha continuous air monitors. Test objectives, requirements for data quality, experimental apparatus and procedures, and safety and logistics issues are described.

  12. Test plan for demonstration of Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes tests to demonstrate the capability of the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) to monitor airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides and analyze soil, smear, and filter samples for alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides under field conditions. The RTML will be tested during June 1993 at a site adjacent to the Cold Test Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Measurement systems installed in the RTML that will be demonstrated include two large-area ionization chamber alpha spectrometers, an x-ray/gamma-ray spectrometer, and four alpha continuous air monitors. Test objectives, requirements for data quality, experimental apparatus and procedures, and safety and logistics issues are described

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory transuranic waste characterization and certification program - an overview of capabilities and capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has full capability to characterize transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for its projected opening. LANL TRU waste management operations also include facilities to repackage both drums of waste found not to be certifiable for WIPP and oversized boxes of waste that must be size reduced for shipment to WIPP. All characterization activities and repackaging are carried out under a quality assurance program designed to meet Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) requirements. The flow of waste containers through characterization operations, the facilities used for characterization, and the electronic data management system used for data package preparation and certification of TRU waste at LANL are described

  14. Transuranic waste characterization and certification for shipment to WIPP at the INEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Energy (DOE) weapons program legacy Transuranic (TRU) waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is scheduled for shipment and disposal in the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility in New Mexico beginning in 1998. The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located within the INEEL contains facilities and equipment to manage low-level, mixed (hazardous and radioactive), and TRU solid radioactive waste generated by the INEEL and other DOE laboratories and operations. The primary mission of the RWMC is safe disposal of INEEL-generated low-level waste (LLW), the temporary storage of mixed and TRU waste, and the characterization and certification of TRU waste in the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) for shipment and disposal. This paper provides an overview of the TRU waste characterization and certification activities at the 1NEEL. The normal process associated with the waste characterization involves a process flow through the SWEPP facility that begins with the drum selection and labeling effort and ends with the data review and quality verification activity. In between the drums pass through a number of inspection and assay stations including a real-time radioscopic system, a neutron assay system, and a gamma-ray spectrometer system. Each step in the process is designed to provide data required for reporting the waste physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, and structural integrity of the drum in accordance with the transportation requirements and the acceptance criteria requirements for disposal at the WIPP. The TRU waste characterization and certification is critical path for the start of shipment of TRU waste out of the State of Idaho in accordance with the DOE and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement. (author)

  15. Certification Plan, Radioactive Mixed Waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). RMW is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or transuranic (TRU) waste that is co-contaminated with dangerous waste as defined in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, 173-303-040 (18). This waste is to be transferred to the Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF (Section 4); and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification

  16. Westinghouse Hanford Company Plan for certifying newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) currently manages an interim storage site for Westinghouse Hanford and non-Westinghouse Hanford-generated transuranic (TRU) waste and operates TRU waste generating facilities within the Hanford Site in Washington State. Approval has been received from the Waste Acceptance Criteria Certification Committee (WACCC) and Westinghouse Hanford TRU waste generating facilities to certify newly generated contact-handled TRU (CH-TRU) solid waste to meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). This document describes the overall plan for certifying newly generated CH-TRU solid waste to meet the WAC requirements for storage at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Attached to this document are facility-specific certification plans for the Westinghouse Hanford TRU waste generators that have received WACCC approval. The certification plans describe operations that generate CH-TRU solid waste and the specific procedures by which these wastes will be certified and segregated from uncertified wastes at the generating facilities. 1 fig

  17. Westinghouse Hanford Company plan for certifying newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) currently manages an interim storage site for Westinghouse Hanford and non-Westinghouse Hanford-generated transuranic (TRU) waste and operates TRU waste generating facilities within the Hanford Site in Washington State. Approval has been received from the Waste Acceptance Criteria Certification Committee (WACCC) and Westinghouse Hanford TRU waste generating facilities to certify newly generated contact-handled TRU (CH-TRU) solid waste to meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). This document describes the plan for certifying newly generated CH-TRU solid waste to meet the WAC requirements for storage at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Attached to this document are facility-specific certification plans for the Westinghouse Hanford TRU waste generators that have received WACCC approval. The certification plans describe operations that generate CH-TRU solid waste and the specific procedures by which these wastes will be certified and segregated from uncertified wastes at the generating facilities. All newly generated CH-TRU solid waste is being transferred to the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF) and/or a controlled storage facility. These facilities will store the waste until the certified TRU waste can be sent to the WIPP site and the non-certified TRU waste can be sent to the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility. All non-certifiable TRU waste will be segregated and clearly identified

  18. Integration of long-range planning for management of defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As described in The Defense Waste Management Plan, the defense TRU program goal is to achieve permanent disposal and to end interim storage. TRU waste is currently stored at six Department of Energy (DOE) sites, and new waste is generated at several more sites. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project is well defined, and it has been necessary to integrate the activities of other parts of the TRU program in support of DOE Headquarters policy and the WIPP schedules and technical requirements. The strategy is described in the Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document. More detailed, quantitative plans have been developed through the use of several system models, with a Long-Range Master Plan for Defense Transuranic Waste Management as the focal point for coordination of proposed plans with all the parties involved

  19. Hanford contact-handled transuranic drum retrieval project planning document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the US that has generated and stored transuranic (TRU) wastes. The wastes were primarily placed in 55-gallon drums, stacked in trenches, and covered with soil. In 1970, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered that TRU wastes be segregated from other radioactive wastes and placed in retrievable storage until such time that the waste could be sent to a geologic repository and permanently disposed. Retrievable storage also defined container storage life by specifying that a container must be retrievable as a contamination-free container for 20 years. Hanford stored approximately 37,400 TRU containers in 20-year retrievable storage from 1970 to 1988. The Hanford TRU wastes placed in 20-year retrievable storage are considered disposed under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations since they were placed in storage prior to September 1988. The majority of containers were 55-gallon drums, but 20-year retrievable storage includes several TRU wastes covered with soil in different storage methods

  20. Certification plan for safety and PRA codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A certification plan for computer codes used in Safety Analyses and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the operation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors has been prepared. An action matrix, checklists, and a time schedule have been included in the plan. These items identify what is required to achieve certification of the codes. A list of Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SA ampersand PRA) computer codes covered by the certification plan has been assembled. A description of each of the codes was provided in Reference 4. The action matrix for the configuration control plan identifies code specific requirements that need to be met to achieve the certification plan's objectives. The checklist covers the specific procedures that are required to support the configuration control effort and supplement the software life cycle procedures based on QAP 20-1 (Reference 7). A qualification checklist for users establishes the minimum prerequisites and training for achieving levels of proficiency in using configuration controlled codes for critical parameter calculations

  1. FY85 Program plan for the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense TRU Waste Program (DTWP) is the focal point for the Department of Energy in national planning, integration, and technical development for TRU waste management. The scope of this program extends from the point of TRU waste generation through delivery to a permanent repository. The TRU program maintains a close interface with repository development to ensure program compatibility and coordination. The defense TRU program does not directly address commercial activities that generate TRU waste. Instead, it is concerned with providing alternatives to manage existing and future defense TRU wastes. The FY85 Program Plan is consistent with the Defense TRU Waste Program goals and objectives stated in the Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document, January 1984. The roles of participants, the responsibilities and authorities for Research and Development (R and D), the organizational interfaces and communication channels for R and D and the establishment of procedures for planning, reporting, and budgeting of all R and D activities meet requirements stated in the Technical Management Plan for the Transuranic Waste Management Program. The Program Plan is revised as needed. The work breakdown structure is reflected graphically immediately following the Administration section and is described in the subsequent narrative. Detailed budget planning (i.e., programmatic funding and capital equipment) is presented for FY85; outyear budget projections are presented for future years

  2. Project plans for transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy comples-10522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mctaggart, Jerri Lynne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lott, Sheila [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadbury, Casey [DOE

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), has been tasked to write Project Plans for all of the Small Quantity Sites (SQS) with defense related Transuranic (TRU) waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Transuranic Work-Off Plans were precursors to the Project Plans. LANL-CO prepared a Work-Off Plan for each small quantity site. The Work-Off Plan that identified issues, drivers, schedules, and inventory. Eight sites have been chosen to deinventory their legacy TRU waste; Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, General Electric-Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Area 300, Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Radiation Development, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Separations Process Research Unit. Each plan was written for contact and/or remote handled waste if present at the site. These project plans will assist the small quantity sites to ship legacy TRU waste offsite and de-inventory the site of legacy TRU waste. The DOE is working very diligently to reduce the nuclear foot print in the United States. Each of the eight SQSs will be de-inventoried of legacy TRU waste during a campaign that ends September 2011. The small quantity sites have a fraction of the waste that large quantity sites possess. During this campaign, the small quantity sites will package all of the legacy TRU waste and ship to Idaho or directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The sites will then be removed from the Transuranic Waste Inventory if they are de-inventoried of all waste. Each Project Plan includes the respective site inventory report, schedules, resources, drivers and any issues. These project plans have been written by the difficult waste team and will be approved by each site. Team members have been assigned to each site to write site specific project plans. Once the project plans have been written, the difficult team members will visit the sites to ensure nothing has

  3. Nuclear waste: Department of Energy's Transuranic Waste Disposal Plan needs revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic waste consists of discarded tools, rags, machinery, paper, sheet metal, and glass containing man-made radioactive elements that can be dangerous if inhaled, ingested, or absorbed into the body through an open wound. GAO found that the Defense Waste Management Plan does not provide the Congress with complete inventory and cost data or details on environmental and safety issues related to the permanent disposal of TRU waste; the Plan's $2.8 billion costs are understated by at least $300 million. Further, it does not include costs for disposing of buried waste, contaminated soil, and TRU waste that may not be accepted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Lastly, the Plan provides no details on the environmental and safety issues related to the permanent disposal of TRU waste, nor does it discuss the types of or timing for environmental analyses needed before WIPP starts operating

  4. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Transuranic Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, S.J.

    1996-08-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) specifies the quality of data necessary and the characterization techniques employed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to meet the objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) requirements. This QAPJP is written to conform with the requirements and guidelines specified in the QAPP and the associated documents referenced in the QAPP. This QAPJP is one of a set of five interrelated QAPjPs that describe the INEL Transuranic Waste Characterization Program (TWCP). Each of the five facilities participating in the TWCP has a QAPJP that describes the activities applicable to that particular facility. This QAPJP describes the roles and responsibilities of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) in the TWCP. Data quality objectives and quality assurance objectives are explained. Sample analysis procedures and associated quality assurance measures are also addressed; these include: sample chain of custody; data validation; usability and reporting; documentation and records; audits and 0385 assessments; laboratory QC samples; and instrument testing, inspection, maintenance and calibration. Finally, administrative quality control measures, such as document control, control of nonconformances, variances and QA status reporting are described.

  5. Test plan guidance for transuranic-contaminated arid landfill remedial technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides guidance for preparing plans to test or demonstrate buried waste assessment or remediation technologies supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Landfill Stabilization Focus Area, Transuranic-Contaminated Arid Landfill Product Line. This document also provides guidance for development of data quality objectives, along with the necessary data to meet the project objectives. The purpose is to ensure that useful data of known quality are collected to support conclusions associated with the designated demonstration or test. A properly prepared test plan will integrate specific and appropriate objectives with needed measurements to ensure data will reflect the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's mission, be consistent with Landfill Stabilization Focus Area test goals, and be useful for the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs and other potential partners (e.g., commercial concerns). The test plan becomes the planning and working document for the demonstration or test to be conducted ensuring procedures are followed that will allow data of sufficient quality to be collected for comparison and evaluation

  6. Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP

  7. Defense Waste Management Plan for buried transuranic-contaminated waste, transuranic-contaminated soil, and difficult-to-certify transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GAO recommended that DOE provide specific plans for permanent disposal of buried TRU-contaminated waste, TRU-contaminated soil, and difficult-to-certify TRU waste; cost estimates for permanent disposal of all TRU waste, including the options for the buried TRU-contaminated waste, TRU-contaminated soil, and difficult-to-certify TRU waste; and specific discussions of environmental and safety issues for the permanent disposal of TRU waste. Purpose of this document is to respond to the GAO recommendations by providing plans and cost estimates for the long-term isolation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste, TRU-contaminated soil, and difficult-to-certify TRU waste. This report also provides cost estimates for processing and certifying stored and newly generated TRU waste, decontaminating and decommissioning TRU waste processing facilities, and interim operations

  8. Human Systems Integration: Unmanned Aircraft Control Station Certification Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides guidance to the FAA on important human factors considerations that can be used to support the certification of a UAS Aircraft Control Station (ACS). This document provides a synopsis of the human factors analysis, design and test activities to be performed to provide a basis for FAA certification. The data from these analyses, design activities, and tests, along with data from certification/qualification tests of other key components should be used to establish the ACS certification basis. It is expected that this information will be useful to manufacturers in developing the ACS Certification Plan,, and in supporting the design of their ACS.

  9. Test plan for preparing the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory for field deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    This plan describes experimental work that will be performed during fiscal year 1994 to prepare the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) for routine field use by US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs. The RTML is a mobile, field-deployable laboratory developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that provides a rapid, cost-effective means of characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste remediation sites for low-level radioactive contaminants. Analytical instruments currently installed in the RTML include an extended-range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer; two, large-area, ionization chamber alpha spectrometers; and four alpha continuous air monitors. The RTML was field tested at the INEL during June 1993 in conjunction with the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration`s remote retrieval demonstration. The major tasks described in this test plan are to (a) evaluate the beta detectors for use in screening soil samples for {sup 90}Sr, (b) upgrade the alpha spectral analysis software programs, and (c) upgrade the photon spectral analysis software programs.

  10. Test plan for preparing the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory for field deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes experimental work that will be performed during fiscal year 1994 to prepare the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) for routine field use by US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs. The RTML is a mobile, field-deployable laboratory developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that provides a rapid, cost-effective means of characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste remediation sites for low-level radioactive contaminants. Analytical instruments currently installed in the RTML include an extended-range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer; two, large-area, ionization chamber alpha spectrometers; and four alpha continuous air monitors. The RTML was field tested at the INEL during June 1993 in conjunction with the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration's remote retrieval demonstration. The major tasks described in this test plan are to (a) evaluate the beta detectors for use in screening soil samples for 90Sr, (b) upgrade the alpha spectral analysis software programs, and (c) upgrade the photon spectral analysis software programs

  11. A nuclear power plant certification test plan and checklist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations within the nuclear industry are requiring that all reference plant simulators be certified prior to or during 1991. A certification test plan is essential to ensure that this goal is met. A description of each step in the certification process is provided in this paper, along with a checklist to help ensure completion of each item

  12. Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met

  13. Test plan for glove box testing with the real-time transuranic dust monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This test plan describes the objectives, instrumentation, and testing procedures used to prove the feasibility of a real-time transuranic dust monitor (RTDM). The RTDM is under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as a Waste Characterization Technology funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Project. The instrument is an in situ monitor that uses optical techniques to establish particle size, particle number density, and mass and species of heavy metal contamination. US Department of Energy orders mandate the assessment of radiological exposure and contamination spread during the remediation of radioactive waste. Of particular concern is heavy metal contamination of dust, both radioactive and nonradioactive. Small particles of metal, particularly the radioactive species, tend to become electrically charged and consequently attach themselves to dust particles. This airborne activated dust is a primary means of contamination transport during remediation activities, and therefore, must be continuously monitored to protect personnel involved in the operations and to control the spread of contamination. If real-time monitoring is not available there is increased likelihood of generating unacceptably high levels of contamination and being forced to shut down costly retrieval operations to decontaminate. A series of experiments are described to determine the optimal experimental design, operational parameters, and levels of detection for the RTDM. Initial screening will be performed using monodisperse particle standards to set parameters and calibrate the instrument. Additional testing will be performed using INEL soil samples spiked with a surrogate, cerium oxide, to prove the design before transporting the apparatus to the Test Reactor Area for testing with plutonium-contaminated dusts

  14. WASTE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM PLAN - REVISION 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary changes that have been made to this revision reflect the relocation of the Waste Certification Official (WCO) organizationally from the Quality Services Division (QSD) into the Laboratory Waste Services (LWS) Organization. Additionally, the responsibilities for program oversight have been differentiated between the QSD and LWS. The intent of this effort is to ensure that those oversight functions, which properly belonged to the WCO, moved with that function; but retain an independent oversight function outside of the LWS Organization ensuring the potential for introduction of organizational bias, regarding programmatic and technical issues, is minimized. The Waste Certification Program (WCP) itself has been modified to allow the waste certification function to be performed by any of the personnel within the LWS Waste Acceptance/Certification functional area. However, a single individual may not perform both the technical waste acceptance review and the final certification review on the same 2109 data package. Those reviews must be performed by separate individuals in a peer review process. There will continue to be a designated WCO who will have lead programmatic responsibility for the WCP and will exercise overall program operational oversite as well as determine the overall requirements of the certification program. The quality assurance organization will perform independent, outside oversight to ensure that any organizational bias does not degrade the integrity of the waste certification process. The core elements of the previous WCP have been retained, however, the terms and process structure have been modified.. There are now two ''control points,'' (1) the data package enters the waste certification process with the signature of the Generator Interface/Generator Interface Equivalent (GI/GIE), (2) the package is ''certified'', thus exiting the process. The WCP contains three steps, (1) the technical review for waste acceptance, (2) a review of the

  15. De-Inventory Plan for Transuranic Waste Stored at Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christensen, Davis V. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shepard, Mark D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-21

    This report describes the strategy and detailed work plan developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to disposition transuranic (TRU) waste stored at its Area G radioactive waste storage site. The focus at this time is on disposition of 3,706 m3 of TRU waste stored above grade by June 30, 2014, which is one of the commitments within the Framework Agreement: Realignment of Environmental Priorities between the Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the State of New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), Reference 1. A detailed project management schedule has been developed to manage this work and better ensure that all required activities are aligned and integrated. The schedule was developed in conjunction with personnel from the NNSA Los Alamos Site Office (LASO), the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), the Central Characterization Project (CCP), and Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). A detailed project management schedule for the remainder of the above grade inventory and the below grade inventory will be developed and incorporated into the De-Inventory Plan by December 31, 2012. This schedule will also include all newly-generated TRU waste received at Area G in FYs 2012 and 2013, which must be removed by no later than December 31, 2014, under the Framework Agreement. The TRU waste stored above grade at Area G is considered to be one of the highest nuclear safety risks at LANL, and the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board has expressed concern for the radioactive material at risk (MAR) contained within the above grade TRU waste inventory and has formally requested that DOE reduce the MAR. A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned extensive areas west of LANL in late June and July 2011. Although there was minimal to no impact by the fire to LANL, the fire heightened public concern and news media attention on TRU waste storage at Area G. After the fire, New Mexico Governor Susana Martinez also

  16. RETRIEVING SUSPECT TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS PROGRESS PLANS AND CHALLENGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the scope and status of the program for retrieval of suspect transuranic (TRU) waste stored in the Hanford Site low-level burial grounds. Beginning in 1970 and continuing until the late 1980's, waste suspected of containing significant quantities of transuranic isotopes was placed in ''retrievable'' storage in designated modules in the Hanford burial grounds, with the intent that the waste would be retrieved when a national repository for disposal of such waste became operational. Approximately 15,000 cubic meters of waste, suspected of being TRU, was placed in storage modules in four burial grounds. With the availability of the national repository (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), retrieval of the suspect TRU waste is now underway. Retrieval efforts, to date, have been conducted in storage modules that contain waste, which is in general, contact-handled, relatively new (1980's and later), is stacked in neat, engineered configurations, and has a relatively good record of waste characteristics. Even with these optimum conditions, retrieval personnel have had to deal with a large number of structurally degraded containers, radioactive contamination issues, and industrial hazards (including organic vapors). Future retrieval efforts in older, less engineered modules are expected to present additional hazards and difficult challenges

  17. RETRIEVING SUSPECT TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS PROGRESS PLANS & CHALLENGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the scope and status of the program for retrieval of suspect transuranic (TRU) waste stored in the Hanford Site low-level burial grounds. Beginning in 1970 and continuing until the late 1980's, waste suspected of containing significant quantities of transuranic isotopes was placed in ''retrievable'' storage in designated modules in the Hanford burial grounds, with the intent that the waste would be retrieved when a national repository for disposal of such waste became operational. Approximately 15,000 cubic meters of waste, suspected of being TRU, was placed in storage modules in four burial grounds. With the availability of the national repository (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), retrieval of the suspect TRU waste is now underway. Retrieval efforts, to date, have been conducted in storage modules that contain waste, which is in general, contact-handled, relatively new (1980's and later), is stacked in neat, engineered configurations, and has a relatively good record of waste characteristics. Even with these optimum conditions, retrieval personnel have had to deal with a large number of structurally degraded containers, radioactive contamination issues, and industrial hazards (including organic vapors). Future retrieval efforts in older, less engineered modules are expected to present additional hazards and difficult challenges.

  18. National Transuranic Program Charter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Transuranic Program Plan and Charter describes the functional elements of the National TRU Program, organizational relationships, programmatic responsibilities, division of work scope among the various DOE organizations that comprise the program, and program baselines against which overall progress will be measured. The charter defines the authorities and responsibilities of various organizations involved in the management of TRU waste throughout the DOE complex

  19. Water strategies for Swedish sustainable urban planning : A comparison between certification systems and urban water research

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöholm, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development is gaining more focus than ever, and sustainable urban water management is increasingly being incorporated in urban planning worldwide. Internationally, certification systems for sustainable urban planning have gained popularity, and a Swedish version of the British certification system BREEAM Communities is on its way. In this degree project the technical water related aspects of the certification system BREEAMCommunities are analyzed and compared with the correspondi...

  20. 78 FR 40625 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; Approval of... ``National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the Healthy... February 22, 2013 at 78 FR 12221 was approved by OMB on April 10, 2013, under OMB Control Number...

  1. 77 FR 4688 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free... continuous improvement plans if they fail to do so. This rule also proposes to amend NSLP and SNAP... a continuous improvement plan (CIP) aimed at fully meeting the benchmarks and improving...

  2. Processing Plan for Potentially Reactive/Ignitable Remote Handled Transuranic Waste at the Idaho Cleanup Project - 12090

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote Handle Transuranic (RH-TRU) Waste generated at Argonne National Laboratory - East, from the examination of irradiated and un-irradiated fuel pins and other reactor materials requires a detailed processing plan to ensure reactive/ignitable material is absent to meet WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria prior to shipping and disposal. The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) approach to repackaging Lot 2 waste and how we ensure prohibited materials are not present in waste intended for disposal at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 'WIPP' uses an Argon Repackaging Station (ARS), which provides an inert gas blanket. Opening of the Lot 2 containers under an argon gas blanket is proposed to be completed in the ARS. The ARS is an interim transition repackaging station that provides a mitigation technique to reduce the chances of a reoccurrence of a thermal event prior to rendering the waste 'Safe'. The consequences, should another thermal event be encountered, (which is likely) is to package the waste, apply the reactive and or ignitable codes to the container, and store until the future treatment permit and process are available. This is the same disposition that the two earlier containers in the 'Thermal Events' were assigned. By performing the initial handling under an inert gas blanket, the waste can sorted and segregate the fines and add the Met-L-X to minimize risk before it is exposed to air. The 1-gal cans that are inside the ANL-E canister will be removed and each can is moved to the ARS for repackaging. In the ARS, the 1-gal can is opened in the inerted environment. The contained waste is sorted, weighed, and visually examined for non compliant items such as unvented aerosol cans and liquids. The contents of the paint cans are transferred into a sieve and manipulated to allow the fines, if any, to be separated into the tray below. The fines are weighed and then blended with a minimum 5:1 mix of Met-L-X. Other debris materials found are segregated from the cans into containers

  3. Low-level waste certification plan for the WSCF Laboratory Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid, low-level waste certification plan for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) describes the organization and methodology for the certification of the solid low-level waste (LLW) that is transferred to the Hanford Site 200 Areas Storage and Disposal Facilities. This plan incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, including up-front minimization, and end product treatment to reduce the volume or toxicity of the waste. The plan also includes segregation of different waste types. This low-level waste certification plan applies only to waste generated in, or is the responsibility of the WSCF Laboratory Complex. The WSCF Laboratory Complex supports technical activities performed at the Hanford Site. Wet Chemical and radiochemical analyses are performed to support site operations, including environmental and effluent monitoring, chemical processing, RCRA and CERCLA analysis, and waste management activities. Environmental and effluent samples include liquid effluents, ground and surface waters, soils, animals, vegetation, and air filters

  4. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suermann, J.F.

    1996-04-01

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits.

  5. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits

  6. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT PLAN APPLICABLE FOR ECOTOURISM CERTIFICATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo Cătălin CREŢU; Petrică ȘTEFAN

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the certification procedure of ecological tourism as well as the criteria that have to be fulfilled by the lodging units whose desire is to voluntarily adhere to this new form of tourism. In Romania, the Certifying System in Ecotourism is used by the AER (Romanian Association of Ecotourism) and that adjusts the international experience into the national context. This is developed as the same as the Accreditation Program in Nature and Ecotourism promot...

  7. B Plant complex hazardous, mixed and low level waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes the administrative steps and handling methodology for certification of hazardous waste, mixed waste, and low level waste generated at B Plant Complex. The plan also provides the applicable elements of waste reduction and pollution prevention, including up front minimization and end product reduction of volume and/or toxicity. The plan is written to satisfy requirements for Hanford Site waste generators to have a waste certification program in place at their facility. This plan, as described, applies only to waste which is generated at, or is the responsibility of, B Plant Complex. The scope of this plan is derived from the requirements found in WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

  8. Overall strategy and program plan for management of radioactively contaminated liquid wastes and transuranic sludges at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of hydrofracture was terminated after 1984, and LW concentrate has been accumulated and stored since that time. Currently, the volume of stored LW concentrate is near the safe fill limit for the 11 storage tanks in the active LW system, and significant operational constraints are being experienced. The tanks that provide the storage capacity of the active LW system contain significant volumes of TRU sludges that have been designated remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes because of associated quantities of other radioisotopes, including 90Sr and 137Cs. Thirty-three additional tanks, which are inactive, also contain significant volumes of TRU waste and radioactive LW. A lack of adequate storage volume for LW jeopardizes ORNL's ability to ensure continued conduct of research and development (RandD) activities that generate LW because an unexpected operational incident could quickly deplete the remaining storage volume. Accordingly, a planning team comprised of staff members from the ORNL Nuclear and Chemical Waste Programs (NCWP) was created for developing recommended actions to be taken for management of LW. A program plan is presented which outlines work required for the development of a disposal method for each of the likely future waste streams associated with LW management and the disposal of the bulk of the resulting solid waste on the ORR. 8 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs

  9. ACCELERATION OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSURANIC WASTE DISPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) most significant risks is the site's inventory of transuranic waste retrievably stored above and below-ground in Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, particularly the dispersible high-activity waste stored above-ground in deteriorating facilities. The high activity waste represents approximately 50% (by activity) of the total 292,000 PE-Ci inventory remaining to be disposed. The transuramic waste inventory includes contact-handled and remote-handled waste packaged in drums, boxes, and oversized containers which are retrievably stored both above and below-ground. Although currently managed as transuranic waste, some of the inventory is low-level waste that can be disposed onsite or at approved offsite facilities. Dispositioning the transuranic waste inventory requires retrieval of the containers from above and below-ground storage, examination and repackaging or remediation as necessary, characterization, certification and loading for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad New Mexico, all in accordance with well-defined requirements and controls. Although operations are established to process and characterize the lower-activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, LAN L does not currently have the capability to repack high activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers (> 56 PE-Ci) or to process oversized containers with activity levels over 0.52 PE-Ci. Operational issues and compliance requirements have resulted in less than optimal processing capabilities for lower activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, limiting preparation and reducing dependability of shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Since becoming the Los Alamos National Laboratory contract in June 2006, Los Alamos National Security (LANS) L.L.C. has developed a comprehensive, integrated plan to effectively and efficiently disposition the transuranic waste inventory, working in concert with the Department of

  10. ACCELERATION OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSURANIC WASTE DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' LEARY, GERALD A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-04

    One of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) most significant risks is the site's inventory of transuranic waste retrievably stored above and below-ground in Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, particularly the dispersible high-activity waste stored above-ground in deteriorating facilities. The high activity waste represents approximately 50% (by activity) of the total 292,000 PE-Ci inventory remaining to be disposed. The transuramic waste inventory includes contact-handled and remote-handled waste packaged in drums, boxes, and oversized containers which are retrievably stored both above and below-ground. Although currently managed as transuranic waste, some of the inventory is low-level waste that can be disposed onsite or at approved offsite facilities. Dispositioning the transuranic waste inventory requires retrieval of the containers from above and below-ground storage, examination and repackaging or remediation as necessary, characterization, certification and loading for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad New Mexico, all in accordance with well-defined requirements and controls. Although operations are established to process and characterize the lower-activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, LAN L does not currently have the capability to repack high activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers (> 56 PE-Ci) or to process oversized containers with activity levels over 0.52 PE-Ci. Operational issues and compliance requirements have resulted in less than optimal processing capabilities for lower activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, limiting preparation and reducing dependability of shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Since becoming the Los Alamos National Laboratory contract in June 2006, Los Alamos National Security (LANS) L.L.C. has developed a comprehensive, integrated plan to effectively and efficiently disposition the transuranic waste inventory, working in concert with

  11. Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, F

    1994-06-01

    The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines 'dilemma' as "an argument forcing one to choose one of two alternatives both unfavourable to him (or her)". This is situation that frequently confronts the general practitioner. In this article a personal solution to the problem of 'certificates' is presented. Not every one will necessarily agree with the solutions presented and some may find them unacceptable, or have better solutions. The author warmly welcomes correspondence, either personal, or in the form of Letters to the Editor, as this is a subject in which consensus decisions are important. PMID:8053842

  12. Getting waste ready for shipment to the WIPP: integration of characterization and certification activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkule, B.; Knudsen, K.; Rogers, P.

    1996-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) serve as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The WIPP WAC address fulfillment of WIPP`s operational safety and performance assessment criteria, compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, and preparation of waste packages that meet all transportation criteria. At individual generator sites, preparation of transuranic waste for final disposal at WIPP includes characterizing the waste to meet the requirements of the transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) and certifying waste containers to meet the WIPP WAC and the Transuranic Package Transporter-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC). This paper compares the quality assurance and quality control requirements specified in the WIPP WAC, QAPP, and TRAMPAC and discusses the potential to consolidate activities to comply with the TRU waste characterization and certification program requirements.

  13. Repository disposal requirements for commercial transuranic wastes (generated without reprocessing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report forms a preliminary planning basis for disposal of commercial transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository. Because of the unlikely prospects for commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in the near-term, this report focuses on TRU wastes generated in a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. The four main objectives of this study were to: develop estimates of the current inventories, projected generation rates, and characteristics of commercial TRU wastes; develop proposed acceptance requirements for TRU wastes forms and waste canisters that ensure a safe and effective disposal system; develop certification procedures and processing requirements that ensure that TRU wastes delivered to a repository for disposal meet all applicable waste acceptance requirements; and identify alternative conceptual strategies for treatment and certification of commercial TRU first objective was accomplished through a survey of commercial producers of TRU wastes. The TRU waste acceptance and certification requirements that were developed were based on regulatory requirements, information in the literature, and from similar requirements already established for disposal of defense TRU wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which were adapted, where necessary, to disposal of commercial TRU wastes. The results of the TRU waste-producer survey indicated that there were a relatively large number of producers of small quantities of TRU wastes

  14. Inhaled transuranics in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to examine, in small animals, the fate and effects of inhaled transuranic compounds including plutonium dioxide, americium oxides, americium nitrates and curium oxides. This project should provide data for hazard evaluation and establishment of permissible exposure limits to man for inhaled transuranics, particularly with respect to the effects of radiation dose and dose distribution. Inhalation carcinogenesis was the primary effect evaluated

  15. Hanford Tank Farms Waste Certification Flow Loop Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A future requirement of Hanford Tank Farm operations will involve transfer of wastes from double shell tanks to the Waste Treatment Plant. As the U.S. Department of Energy contractor for Tank Farm Operations, Washington River Protection Solutions anticipates the need to certify that waste transfers comply with contractual requirements. This test plan describes the approach for evaluating several instruments that have potential to detect the onset of flow stratification and critical suspension velocity. The testing will be conducted in an existing pipe loop in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's facility that is being modified to accommodate the testing of instruments over a range of simulated waste properties and flow conditions. The testing phases, test matrix and types of simulants needed and the range of testing conditions required to evaluate the instruments are described.

  16. Hanford Tank Farms Waste Certification Flow Loop Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Scott, Paul A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Wells, Beric E.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Denslow, Kayte M.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.

    2010-01-01

    A future requirement of Hanford Tank Farm operations will involve transfer of wastes from double shell tanks to the Waste Treatment Plant. As the U.S. Department of Energy contractor for Tank Farm Operations, Washington River Protection Solutions anticipates the need to certify that waste transfers comply with contractual requirements. This test plan describes the approach for evaluating several instruments that have potential to detect the onset of flow stratification and critical suspension velocity. The testing will be conducted in an existing pipe loop in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s facility that is being modified to accommodate the testing of instruments over a range of simulated waste properties and flow conditions. The testing phases, test matrix and types of simulants needed and the range of testing conditions required to evaluate the instruments are described

  17. Mixed waste certification plan for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Hazardous Waste Handling Facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of mixed waste handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan is composed to meet the requirements found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and follows the suggested outline provided by WHC in the letter of April 26, 1990, to Dr. R.H. Thomas, Occupational Health Division, LBL. Mixed waste is to be transferred to the WHC Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington

  18. Intercalibration of transuranic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major objectives of the coordinated research programme on Transuranic Cycling Behaviour in the Marine Environment has been to achieve the comparability of the measurement results among the laboratories from different countries participating in the programme. In order to fulfil this objective, the intercalibration exercises of transuranic measurements using sea water and sediment samples were organized by the Monaco Laboratory within the duration of the programme in 1979-1981. The sediment and sea water samples were collected respectively by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre of India and the Hydrographic Institute of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the present report the results of these intercalibration exercises are surveyed

  19. Long-term management USDOE transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities for permanent disposal of US DOE TRU waste are presently focused on newly generated and stored waste. The buried waste and contaminated soils pose no near term problem. Decisions on any possible actions for these wastes will be deferred until the newly generated and stored wastes are being placed into disposal on a routine basis. Several elements must be in place before such disposal can become routine. These elements consist of: a disposal facility; waste acceptance criteria; waste certification mechanisms; waste processing facilities; and a waste transportation system. Each of these elements has been the subject of considerable activity in the recent past. Progress and plans for each element are summarized. As of January 1981, DOE has 60,500 m3 of waste classified as Transuranic waste (TRU) in retrievable storage, and projects that additional TRU waste will be generated at an average rate of 4500 m3 per year for the next 10 years. Over 99% of this waste is contact handled, with the remainder being remote handled, i.e., surface radiation dose levels exceeding 200 mrem/h. An estimated 273,000 m3 of TRU waste were placed in shallow land burial prior to establishment of the 1970 policy. In addition, large quantities of soil at DOE sites are contaminated with TRU elements due to disposal of liquid wastes and by contact of soil with solid, buried waste whose original containers are now badly degraded. Possibly as much as 10,000,000 m3 of soil are contaminated above 10 nCi/gm. Less than 1,000,000 m3 are estimated to be contaminated above 100 nCi/gm

  20. TRU waste inventory collection and work off plans for the centralization of TRU waste characterization/certification at INL - on your mark - get set - 9410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mctaggert, Jerri Lynne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lott, Sheila A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadbury, Casey [CBFO

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) amended the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Program: Treatment and Storage of Transuranic Waste to centralize transuranic (TRU) waste characterization/certification from fourteen TRU waste sites. This centralization will allow for treatment, characterization and certification ofTRU waste from the fourteen sites, thirteen of which are sites with small quantities ofTRU waste, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to shipping the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Centralization of this TRU waste will avoid the cost of building treatment, characterization, certification, and shipping capabilities at each of the small quantity sites that currently do not have existing facilities. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) and Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) will provide centralized shipping facilities, to WIPP, for all of the small quantity sites. Hanford, the one large quantity site identified in the ROD, has a large number of waste in containers that are overpacked into larger containers which are inefficient for shipment to and disposal at WIPP. The AMWTF at the INL will reduce the volume of much of the CH waste and make it much more efficient to ship and dispose of at WIPP. In addition, the INTEC has a certified remote handled (RH) TRU waste characterization/certification program at INL to disposition TRU waste from the sites identified in the ROD.

  1. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Sampling and Analysis Methods Manual (Methods Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP.

  2. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Sampling and Analysis Methods Manual (Methods Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP

  3. Transuranic waste management program and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1954, defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste has been received at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Prior to 1970, approximately 2.2 million cubic feet of transuranic waste were buried in shallow-land trenches and pits at the RWMC. Since 1970, an additional 2.1 million cubic feet of waste have been retrievably stored in aboveground engineered confinement. A major objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is the proper management of defense-generated transuranic waste. Strategies have been developed for managing INEL stored and buried transuranic waste. These strategies have been incorporated in the Defense Waste Management Plan and are currently being implemented with logistical coordination of transportation systems and schedules for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is providing nondestructive examination and assay of retrievably stored, contact-handled TRU waste. Construction of the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) was recently completed, and PREPP is currently undergoing system checkout. The PRFPP will provide processing capabilities for contact-handled waste not meeting WIPP-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In addition, ongoing studies and technology development efforts for managing the TRU waste such as remote-handled and buried TRU waste, are being conducted

  4. Transuranic Waste Management Program and Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1954, defense-generated transuranic (TRU) waste has been received at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Prior to 1970, approximately 2.2 million cubic feet of transuranic waste were buried in shallow-land trenches and pits at the RWMC. Since 1970, an additional 2.1 million cubic feet of waste have been retrievably stored in aboveground engineered confinement. A major objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management Program is the proper management of defense-generated transuranic waste. Strategies have been developed for managing INEL stored and buried transuranic waste. These strategies have been incorporated in the Defense Waste Management Plan and are currently being implemented with logistical coordination of transportation systems and schedules for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is providing nondestructive examination and assay of retrievably stored, contact-handled TRU waste. Construction of the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) was recently completed, and PREPP is currently undergoing system checkout. The PREPP will provide processing capabilities for contact-handled waste not meeting WIPP-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In addition, ongoing studies and technology development efforts for managing the TRU waste such as remote-handled and buried TRU waste, are being conducted

  5. 17 CFR 270.27f-1 - Notice of right of withdrawal required to be mailed to periodic payment plan certificate holders...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... required to be mailed to periodic payment plan certificate holders and exemption from section 27(f) for... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.27f-1 Notice of right of withdrawal required to be mailed to periodic payment plan certificate...

  6. Waste management/waste certification plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. Jr.; Hunt-Davenport, L.D.; Cofer, G.H.

    1995-03-01

    This Waste Management/Waste Certification (C) Plan, written for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), outlines the criteria and methodologies to be used in the management of waste generated during ORNL ER field activities. Other agreed upon methods may be used in the management of waste with consultation with ER and Waste Management Organization. The intent of this plan is to provide information for the minimization, handling, and disposal of waste generated by ER activities. This plan contains provisions for the safe and effective management of waste consistent with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) guidance. Components of this plan have been designed to protect the environment and the health and safety of workers and the public. It, therefore, stresses that investigation derived waste (IDW) and other waste be managed to ensure that (1) all efforts be made to minimize the amount of waste generated; (2) costs associated with sampling storage, analysis, transportation, and disposal are minimized; (3) the potential for public and worker exposure is not increased; and (4) additional contaminated areas are not created.

  7. Waste management/waste certification plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Waste Management/Waste Certification (C) Plan, written for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), outlines the criteria and methodologies to be used in the management of waste generated during ORNL ER field activities. Other agreed upon methods may be used in the management of waste with consultation with ER and Waste Management Organization. The intent of this plan is to provide information for the minimization, handling, and disposal of waste generated by ER activities. This plan contains provisions for the safe and effective management of waste consistent with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) guidance. Components of this plan have been designed to protect the environment and the health and safety of workers and the public. It, therefore, stresses that investigation derived waste (IDW) and other waste be managed to ensure that (1) all efforts be made to minimize the amount of waste generated; (2) costs associated with sampling storage, analysis, transportation, and disposal are minimized; (3) the potential for public and worker exposure is not increased; and (4) additional contaminated areas are not created

  8. On the use of an energy certification database to create indicators for energy planning purposes: Application in northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy certification of buildings, mandatory under the European Directive EPBD provides interesting data on the thermo-physical properties and geometry of existing buildings. Although the energy certificate is intended to provide the characteristics of individual buildings, so stimulating the real estate market toward ever better energy performance, data management of the certificates issued over time, using a national or regional energy cadastre, makes available a data base which is useful for energy planning in the building sector. This paper provides the needed results of a benchmarking study on data from the energy cadastre of the Lombardy Region, northern Italy. By integrating data from the energy cadastre (175.778 energy certificates) with the statistical data obtained from the national census, indicators were obtained on the energy performance of existing buildings. The energy indicators obtained, characterised by building type and construction period, normalised as a function of Degree-Days, become an effective tool for energy planning at local and regional scales. In the specific case, the energy indicators have been used to estimate the potential for energy retrofit of existing buildings in the Lombardy Region. The same indicators can also be used by municipalities for energy planning at the municipal or district level. -- Highlights: •A methodology in order to obtain energy performance indicators from an energy cadastre. •Data contained in the energy certificates can be used to understand the thermo-physical properties of an existing building. •Energy indicators on existing buildings are used as a tool for energy planning. •The analysis of the energy cadastre (official register) can detect errors in the registered energy certificates. •The energy indicators are used in order to quantify the energy retrofit potential in existing building stocks

  9. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TRANSURANIC (TRU) TANK WASTE IDENTIFICATION and PLANNING FOR REVRIEVAL TREATMENT and EVENTUAL DISPOSAL AT WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CH2M HILL Manford Group, Inc. (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the Office of River Protection (ORP) at Hanford. As an employee owned company, CHG employees have a strong motivation to develop innovative solutions to enhance project and company performance while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. CHG is responsible to manage and perform work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of legacy mixed radioactive waste currently at the Hanford Site tank farms. Safety and environmental awareness is integrated into all activities and work is accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. This paper focuses on the innovative strategy to identify, retrieve, treat, and dispose of Hanford Transuranic (TRU) tank waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  10. Analog elements for transuranic chemistries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical extraction technique for estimating the biologically available fraction of nonessential trace elements in soils has been developed. This procedure has been used in evaluating the uptake of naturally occurring transuranic analog elements from soils into several foodstuffs. The availability of the natural elements has been compared with the availability of their analog transuranics which have been derived from global fallout

  11. CLAB Transuranic Waste Spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into one of two Excel spreadsheets. The waste stream associated with the waste package determines which spreadsheet is actually used. The spreadsheets calculate the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) and the Radioactive Solid Waste Burial Ground Record (OSR 7-375 or OSR 7-375A). In addition, the spreadsheets calculate the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheets also have the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for each spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  12. Transporting transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Risk and cost perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an authorized US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development facility constructed near the city of Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico. The facility is intended to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste resulting from US defense activities. Under the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA), federal lands surrounding the WIPP facility were withdrawn from all public use and the title of those lands was transferred to the Secretary of Energy. The DOE's TRU waste is stored, and in some cases is still being generated, at 10 large-quantity and 13 small-quantity sites across the US. After applicable certification requirements have been met, the TRU waste at these sites will be sent to the WIPP to initiate the disposal phase of the facility, which according to current planning is projected to last for approximately 35 years

  13. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B.; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L.; Levene, Malcolm I.; Chervenak, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US) have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status. Purpose The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States. Materials and Methods This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006–2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life) in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams) without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM), nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and “other” or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board. Results Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21–0.53) than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1) and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83–2.38]). The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2). Conclusions This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives

  14. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Grünebaum

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status.The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States.This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM, nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board.Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53 than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1 and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]. The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2.This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal

  15. Low-level waste certification plan for the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Hazardous Waste Handling Facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan is composed to meet the requirements found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and follows the suggested outline provided by WHC in the letter of April 26, 1990, to Dr. R.H. Thomas, Occupational Health Division, LBL. LLW is to be transferred to the WHC Hanford Site Central Waste Complex and Burial Grounds in Hanford, Washington

  16. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA- 731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about the project description, project organization, and quality assurance and quality control procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System. This Quality Assurance Project Plan specifies the procedures for obtaining the data of known quality required by the closure activities for the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system

  17. Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) Strategy Document presents the general strategy for managing transuranic (TRU) waste materials generated during defense and research activities regulated by the US Department of Energy. The Strategy Document includes discussion of objectives and activities relating to the entire Defense Transuranic Waste Program. However, the primary focus is on the specific management responsibilities of the Transuranic Waste Lead Organization (TLO). The document also includes an updated summary of progress on TLO-managed activities over the past year

  18. 17 CFR 274.127f-1 - Form N-27F-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 45-day withdrawal right with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27F-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... periodic payment plan certificate holders of 45-day withdrawal right with respect to periodic payment plan... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Forms for Reports §...

  19. Enhanced CLAB transuranic waste spreadsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The spreadsheet calculates the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) including the weight percent of the various waste components. In addition, the spreadsheet calculates the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheet also has the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for the spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  20. Continuing certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northeast Utilities completed the initial certification milestone for its Millstone 2 simulator in June of 1989. NU intends to reach that milestone on its other 3 simulators by the 3rd quarter of 1990. This paper will provide an overview of the resources (manpower, simulator time, etc.) that NU has allocated to maintain its simulators ANS-3.5 compliant, i.e., certified. NU's plan for ensuring on-going compliance to the regulatory requirements is centered around its formal, proceduralized Certification Program which addresses, as one of its main functions, simulator configuration management. Simulator configuration management will remain an on-going commitment requiring considerable attention and allocation of resources throughout the life of the simulator. This paper will describe NU's experience with this phase of the certification process for the Millstone 2 simulator, namely: updating of the design data base, implementation of plant design changes and resolution of simulator deficiencies, performance testing (including operability testing), and documentation

  1. Waste management facilities cost information for transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing transuranic waste. The report`s information on treatment and storage modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  2. Waste management facilities cost information for transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing transuranic waste. The report's information on treatment and storage modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report

  3. Transuranic Behavior in Soils and Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objectives of these investigations are to determine (1) the potential for alteration of transuranic solubility through formation of transuranic complexes in soil and the role of the soil microflora in this process, (2) the extent of uptake nd translocation by plants and the sites of plant deposition of transuranics or their complexes, (3) the bond types and chemical forms of transuranics or their metabolites in microbes, plant tissues and soils, (4) the influence of soil properties, environmental conditions and cropping on these processes, and (5) the retention of airborne pollutants by plant foliage and their subsequent absorption by leaves and transport to seeds and roots

  4. 17 CFR 270.27e-1 - Requirements for notice to be mailed to certain purchasers of periodic payment plan certificates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.27e-1 Requirements for notice to be... plan are required less frequently than monthly, such a notice shall be mailed to any certificate holder... deemed a missed payment whether or not an equivalent payment is made subsequently by the...

  5. 17 CFR 274.127e-1 - Form N-27E-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27E-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... periodic payment plan certificate holders of 18-month surrender rights with respect to periodic payment... EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Forms for...

  6. Dosimetry of incorporated transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern in vivo and in vitro techniques for detecting transuranic radionuclides within the human body are described with special emphasis on multiparameter measuring methods developed at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. Furthermore, problems related to calibration and interpretation of measuring data are discussed and new methods presented for the calculation of committed dose equivalents on the basis of data from ICRP Publication 30. Also included is an introductory chapter on radiobiological fundamentals of intake, translocation and metabolism of these nuclides. (author)

  7. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory code assessment of the Rocky Flats transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report is an assessment of the content codes associated with transuranic waste shipped from the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado, to INEL. The primary objective of this document is to characterize and describe the transuranic wastes shipped to INEL from Rocky Flats by item description code (IDC). This information will aid INEL in determining if the waste meets the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The waste covered by this content code assessment was shipped from Rocky Flats between 1985 and 1989. These years coincide with the dates for information available in the Rocky Flats Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS). The majority of waste shipped during this time was certified to the existing WIPP WAC. This waste is referred to as precertified waste. Reassessment of these precertified waste containers is necessary because of changes in the WIPP WAC. To accomplish this assessment, the analytical and process knowledge available on the various IDCs used at Rocky Flats were evaluated. Rocky Flats sources for this information include employee interviews, SWIMS, Transuranic Waste Certification Program, Transuranic Waste Inspection Procedure, Backlog Waste Baseline Books, WIPP Experimental Waste Characterization Program (headspace analysis), and other related documents, procedures, and programs. Summaries are provided of: (a) certification information, (b) waste description, (c) generation source, (d) recovery method, (e) waste packaging and handling information, (f) container preparation information, (g) assay information, (h) inspection information, (i) analytical data, and (j) RCRA characterization.

  8. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory code assessment of the Rocky Flats transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an assessment of the content codes associated with transuranic waste shipped from the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado, to INEL. The primary objective of this document is to characterize and describe the transuranic wastes shipped to INEL from Rocky Flats by item description code (IDC). This information will aid INEL in determining if the waste meets the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The waste covered by this content code assessment was shipped from Rocky Flats between 1985 and 1989. These years coincide with the dates for information available in the Rocky Flats Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS). The majority of waste shipped during this time was certified to the existing WIPP WAC. This waste is referred to as precertified waste. Reassessment of these precertified waste containers is necessary because of changes in the WIPP WAC. To accomplish this assessment, the analytical and process knowledge available on the various IDCs used at Rocky Flats were evaluated. Rocky Flats sources for this information include employee interviews, SWIMS, Transuranic Waste Certification Program, Transuranic Waste Inspection Procedure, Backlog Waste Baseline Books, WIPP Experimental Waste Characterization Program (headspace analysis), and other related documents, procedures, and programs. Summaries are provided of: (a) certification information, (b) waste description, (c) generation source, (d) recovery method, (e) waste packaging and handling information, (f) container preparation information, (g) assay information, (h) inspection information, (i) analytical data, and (j) RCRA characterization

  9. Privatization of contact-handled transuranic waste transportation services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) currently stores and generates contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) waste at 10 major and 13 smaller sites across the United States. The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in May 1998 will begin the use of a radioactive waste transportation system to transport TRU waste from these sites to the WIPP for disposal. The DOE will transport CH-TRU waste in a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified type B package called the TRUPACT-II. The Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) has determined that the CH-TRU waste transportation system is sufficiently well defined to allow privatization, resulting in significant cost savings. The CAO manages the National Transuranic Program and has developed the National Transuranic (TRU) Waste Management Plan for integrating TRU waste management activities throughout the DOE complex. The management plan outlines an aggressive schedule for transporting and disposing of TRU waste at the WIPP. The WIPP is scheduled to begin receiving CH-TRU waste in May 1998, at which time five truck sets (a truck set consists of tractor, trailer, and three TRUPACT-IIs) will be in service. Starting in 1998, truck sets will be added until the fleet size reaches 20 in 2000. The WIPP CH-TRU waste-handling capacity will start at a rate of 250 shipments per year in 1998 and will increase to 850 shipments per year by the year 2000

  10. Transuranic element behavior in soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective of this study is to define soil, plant, and foliar interaction processes that influence the availability of transuranic elements to agricultural plants and animals as a basis for improved modeling and dose-assessment. Major areas of emphasis are: (1) soil and soil-microbial processes that influence the concentration and form of transuranic elements in soil solutions and availability to the plant root with time; (2) deposition and plant interception of airborne submicronic particles containing transuranic elements and their susceptibility to leaching; (3) plant processes that influence transport across plant root membrane and foliar surfaces, as well as the form and sites of deposition of transuranic elements in mature plants; and (4) the integrated effect of soil and plant processes on transuranic element availability to, and form in, animals that consume plants

  11. Standards and general criteria for the planning and certification of need of megavoltage radiation oncology units in health care facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimum standards and guidelines to be applied by State agencies and New Jersey health systems agencies in the examination of certificate-of-need applications and in the development of planning activities for radiation oncology units in health care facilities are presented. Radiation oncology is a medical discipline devoted to education and research in the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of neoplastic disease. The proper application of radiation can be directed at either curative or palliative intent. It is an important and effective technique for the management of cancer. Radiotherapy equipment in clinical use is divided into four main categories: superficial, orthovoltage, megavoltage, and treatment planning facilities. Particular attention is given to megavoltage equipment which emits or generates rays over 1,000 kilovolts. These high energy rays effect better penetration of human tissue and are skin-sparing in nature, thus allowing for better tumor-to- skin dose ratios. The regionalization of megavoltage therapy services is discussed. Data on hospital megavoltage facilities in New Jersey for 1974, 1975, and 1976 are provided. The standards and guidelines pertain to utilization, personnel, and general criteria. A form for use by megavoltage radiation therapy units is appended

  12. Scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance of the waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent successful certification and opening of a first-of-a-kind, deep geological repository for safe disposal of long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, New Mexico, United States of America (USA), embody both long-standing local and wide-spread, gradually achieved, scientific, institutional, regulatory, political, and public acceptance. The related historical background and development are outlined and the main contributors to the successful siting, certification, and acceptance of the WIPP TRUW repository, which may also serve as a model to success for other radioactive waste disposal programs, are described. (author)

  13. Selected transuranic waste immobilization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) elements may require immobilization prior to final disposal. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has conducted research and development to identify and characterize the wastes; to evaluate the possible immobilization requirements and treatment alternatives; and to develop immobilization process technologies. This paper describes systems that are anticipated to be capable of immobilizing a selected TRU waste stream consisting of a blend of process sludge and incinerator ash. The selected waste streams are based on the waste compositions generated at the Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado. The specific waste forms and processes considered are identified in Table 1. Summary results of leach testing of the immobilized waste forms is provided for comparison. This information along with the processing considerations identify the major advantages and disadvantages of each system. The evaluation of these considerations suggests the implementation for cement or glass system with preference to the cast cement system because of its process simplicity

  14. Integration of Professional Certification Examinations with the Financial Planning Curriculum: Increasing Efficiency, Motivation, and Professional Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Joseph W.; Zhu, Dandan; Hampton, Vickie L.; Chatterjee, Swarn; Salter, John

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical-based rationale and plan of action for educational programs to encourage and create opportunities for the integration of course study with professional exam preparation, while highlighting the complementary benefits for students, academic programs, and the financial services profession. Serving primarily as a…

  15. 78 FR 12221 - National School Lunch Program: Direct Certification Continuous Improvement Plans Required by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... than it actually is. To measure the actual impact of a large homeschooling population, for instance... Improvement Plans Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, in the Federal Register (77 FR 4688... aggregate number of students who were terminated as a result of verification but who were reinstated...

  16. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives

  17. The value of assessments in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Waste Certification Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will discuss the value of assessments in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Waste Certification Programs by: introducing the organization and purpose of the LLNL Waste Certification Programs for transuranic, low-level, and hazardous waste; examining the differences in internal assessment/audit requirements for these programs; discussing the values and costs of assessments in a waste certification program; presenting practical recommendations to maximize the value of your assessment programs; and presenting improvements in LLNL's waste certification processes that resulted from assessments

  18. Transuranic contaminated waste functional definition and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to examine the problem(s) of TRU waste classification and to document the development of an easy-to-apply standard(s) to determine whether or not this waste package should be emplaced in a geologic repository for final disposition. Transuranic wastes are especially significant because they have long half-lives and some are rather radiotoxic. Transuranic radionuclides are primarily produced by single or multiple neutron capture by U-238 in fuel elements during the operation of a nuclear reactor. Reprocessing of spent fuel elements attempts to remove plutonium, but since the separation is not complete, the resulting high-activity liquids still contain some plutonium as well as other transuranics. Likewise, transuranic contamination of low-activity wastes also occurs when the transuranic materials are handled or processed, which is primarily at federal facilities involved in R and D and nuclear weapons production. Transuranics are persistent in the environment and, as a general rule, are strongly retained by soils. They are not easily transported through most food chains, although some reconcentration does take place in the aquatic food chain. They pose no special biological hazard to humans upon ingestion because they are weakly absorbed from the gastrointestional tract. A greater hazard results from inhalation since they behave like normal dust and fractionate accordingly

  19. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document represents the development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specific identification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites can be grouped under uniform content codes without any lossof waste characterization information. The RH-TRUCON document provides an all-encompassing description for each content code and compiles this information for all DOE sites. Compliance with waste generation, processing, and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in this document foreach content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The content code gives an overall description of the RH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and packaging, as well as the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability of the waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the 72-B cask can be performed. The content codes also impose restrictions and requirements on the manner in which a payload can be assembled. The RH-TRU Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC), Appendix 1.3.7 of the 72-B Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR), describes the current governing procedures applicable for the qualification of waste as payload for the 72-B cask. The logic for this classification is presented in the 72-B Cask SAR. Together, these documents (RH-TRUCON, RH-TRAMPAC, and relevant sections of the 72-B Cask SAR) present the foundation and justification for classifying RH-TRU waste into content codes. Only content codes described in thisdocument can be considered for transport in the 72-B cask. Revisions to this document will be madeas additional waste qualifies for transport. Each content code uniquely

  20. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2001-08-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document representsthe development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specificidentification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites can be grouped under uniform content codes without any lossof waste characterization information. The RH-TRUCON document provides an all-encompassing|description for each content code and compiles this information for all DOE sites. Compliance withwaste generation, processing, and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in this document foreach content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The contentcode gives an overall description of the RH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and|packaging, as well as the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability ofthe waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the72-B cask can be performed. The content codes also impose restrictions and requirements on themanner in which a payload can be assembled.The RH-TRU Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC), Appendix 1.3.7of the 72-B Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR), describes the current governing procedures|applicable for the qualification of waste as payload for the 72-B cask. The logic for this|classification is presented in the 72-B Cask SAR. Together, these documents (RH-TRUCON,|RH-TRAMPAC, and relevant sections of the 72-B Cask SAR) present the foundation and|justification for classifying RH-TRU waste into content codes. Only content codes described in thisdocument can be considered for transport in the 72-B cask. Revisions to this document will be madeas additional waste qualifies for transport. |Each content code uniquely

  1. Hanford transuranic storage corrosion review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of atmospheric corrosion of the transuranic (TRU) waste drums at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Project, near Richland, Washington, was evaluated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The rate of corrosion is principally contingent upon the effects of humidity, airborne pollutants, and temperature. Results of the study indicate that actual penetration of barrels due to atmospheric corrosion will probably not occur within the 20-year specified recovery period. Several other US burial sites were surveyed, and it appears that there is sufficient uncertainty in the available data to prevent a clearcut statement of the corrosion rate at a specific site. Laboratory and site tests are recommended before any definite conclusions can be made. The corrosion potential at the Hanford TRU waste site could be reduced by a combination of changes in drum materials (for example, using galvanized barrels instead of the currently used mild steel barrels), environmental exposure conditions (for example, covering the barrels in one of numerous possible ways), and storage conditions

  2. Transuranics Laboratory, achievements and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Marine and Aquatic Radioecology Group (MARG) was established in 1985 with the main scope of analysing the consequences of the Palomares accident in the adjacent Mediterranean ecosystem. From then on and up to now , this Group has extended its investigations to other European marine environments, such as the Spanish Mediterranean margin, the Artic and the Atlantic. The main research of long-lived radionuclides (plutonium, americium and Cs-137) determining the orography influence, riverine inputs and their geo-chemical associations. This group is currently accomplishing new challenges on the radioecology field such as the development of techniques for transuranics speciation to determine their geo-chemical association to the main sediment compounds. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides distribution on salt-marsh areas affected by dry-wet periods is being studied as well as the possibilities of fusing crossed techniques for dating recent sediments (pollen, anthropogenic, ''210 Pb, etc). The Laboratory performance description, the procedures used, calculations, challenges and gaps are described in this report. (Author) 22 refs

  3. Estimating travel and service times for automated route planning and service certification in municipal waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Gianpaolo; Guerrieri, Antonio; Manni, Andrea; Manni, Emanuele

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, route planning algorithms are commonly used to generate detailed work schedules for solid waste collection vehicles. However, the reliability of such schedules relies heavily on the accuracy of a number of parameters, such as the actual service time at each collection location and the traversal times of the streets (which depend on the specific day of the week and the time of day). In this paper, we propose an automated classification and estimation algorithm that, based on Global Positioning System data collected by the fleet, estimates such parameters in a timely and accurate fashion. In particular, our approach is able to classify automatically events like stops due to traffic jams, stops at traffic lights and stops at collection sites. The system can also be used for automated fleet supervision and in order to notify on a web site whether certain services have been actually provided on a certain day, thus making waste management more accountable to citizens. An experimentation carried out in an Italian municipality shows the advantages of our approach. PMID:26421482

  4. Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment for Transuranic (TRU) Waste Pads. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a revision of the facility Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Pads located on the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The EPHA was conducted in accordance with Emergency Management Program Procedure (EMPP) 6Q-001 (Ref. 1). The EPHA provides the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts

  5. Structural integrity evaluation of transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 4,400 Transuranic (TRU) waste drums have been found to contain standing rain water in the drum annulus, liner, or both. This has caused some pitting corrosion damage to the inside surface of the drums. A dewatering plan is underway to inspect these drums and determine their reusability. The drums will then be stored inside the weather enclosures to mitigate the corrosion problem. The storage and any subsequent handling may extend to next 20 years until these drums are transported for final disposal at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report evaluates the loading conditions during storage and handling at SRS to ensure that these drums maintain their structural integrity. Structural analyses and fracture analyses have been performed to evaluate the storage and handling loading conditions of the drums. The analyses are based on the observation that the general corrosion will not be a concern in the weather enclosures. However, the pitting corrosion will continue to exist. Structural analyses using finite element techniques show that the drums containing 150 lbs to 800 lbs TRU waste could be safely handled under these conditions. Fracture analyses show that a drum containing 800 lbs of TRU waste could be safely handled provided a cluster of through wall corrosion pits is less than 4.0in. long. Some conclusions are derived from the drop tests performed at Sandia Labs. Drop tests at Sandia Labs were performed on new drums, however, some general observations can be made for the reusable SRS TRU drums (with some corrosion pitting) which are structurally sound and will have only limited corrosion in the future due to improved storage conditions. It is believed that the TRU drums, which have high ductility, will not fail (walls split apart) due to a postulated 10 foot drop. However, some drums which might develop localized pitting due to extended storage in the weather enclosures might fail in the event of a drop depending upon the location of corroded areas

  6. TRANSURANIC METAL HALIDES AND A PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION THEREOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, S.

    1951-03-20

    Halides of transuranic elements are prepared by contacting with aluminum and a halogen, or with an aluminum halide, a transuranic metal oxide, oxyhalide, halide, or mixture thereof at an elevated temperature.

  7. 33 CFR 274.5 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.5 Certification. Under the... certification of Civil Works personnel. Pending final approval of the DOD Agency Plan, all Corps of Engineers... and the Division Engineer....

  8. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated TRU waste certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from expensive characterization activities such as those associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form

  9. From the global efforts on certification of bioenergy towards an integrated approach based on sustainable land use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of 67 ongoing certification initiatives to safeguard the sustainability of bioenergy. Most recent initiatives are focused on the sustainability of liquid biofuels. Content-wise, most of these initiatives have mainly included environmental principles. Despite serious concerns in various parts of the world on the socio-economic impacts of bioenergy production, these are generally not included in existing bioenergy initiatives. At the same time, the overview shows a strong proliferation of standards. The overview shows that certification has the potential to influence direct, local impacts related to environmental and social effects of direct bioenergy production. Key recommendations to come to an efficient certification system include the need for further harmonization, availability of reliable data and linking indicators on a micro, meso and macro levels. Considering the multiple spatial scales, certification should be combined with additional measurements and tools on a regional, national and international level. The role of bioenergy production on indirect land use change (ILUC) is still very uncertain and current initiatives have rarely captured impacts from ILUC in their standards. Addressing unwanted LUC requires first of all sustainable land use production and good governance, regardless of the end-use of the product. It is therefore recommended to extend measures to mitigate impacts from LUC to other lands and feedstock. (author)

  10. Sampling soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  11. Methodology of integrated land as containing transuranic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the activity concentration of soil contaminated with transuranic on significant volumes is not trivial, is a technique that is necessary to evaluate the extent of large amounts of land (thousand m3) in restoration projects or to land contain americium or plutonium due to activities or incidents of the past.

  12. Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

    2010-11-01

    Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found

  13. Assessment of LANL transuranic waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings that resulted from the evaluation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TRU Waste Characterization Procedures, conducted to determine their compliance with applicable DOE requirements. The driving requirements for the procedures appear to be contained in DOE Order 5820.2A; specific reference is made to Chapter II of that document. In addition, the WIPP-WAC sets forth specific waste forms and establishes the basis for LANL's TRU Waste Acceptance Criteria; any characterization plan must utilize procedures that address the requirements of the WIPP-WAC in order to ensure compliance with it. The purpose of the characterization procedures is to provide details to waste generators and/or waste certifiers regarding how the characterization plan is implemented for the gathering of analytical and/or knowledge-of-process information to allow certification of the waste. An annotated outline was developed from those criteria found in Sections 4.0 and 5.0 of the WIPP-WAC. The annotated outline of elements that should be addressed in characterization procedures is provided

  14. Transuranic waste baseline inventory report. Revision No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (TWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties from across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system into a series of open-quotes waste profilesclose quotes that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The purpose of Revisions 0 and 1 of this report was to provide data to be included in the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) performance assessment (PA) processes for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revision 2 of the document expanded the original purpose and was also intended to support the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) requirement for providing the total DOE TRU waste inventory. The document included a chapter and an appendix that discussed the total DOE TRU waste inventory, including nondefense, commercial, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-contaminated, and buried (predominately pre-1970) TRU wastes that are not planned to be disposed of at WIPP

  15. Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the waste acceptance criteria applicable to the transportation, storage, and disposal of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These criteria serve as the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary directive for ensuring that CH-TRU waste is managed and disposed of in a manner that protects human health and safety and the environment.The authorization basis of WIPP for the disposal of CH-TRU waste includes the U.S.Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear EnergyAuthorization Act of 1980 (reference 1) and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA;reference 2). Included in this document are the requirements and associated criteriaimposed by these acts and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA,reference 3), as amended, on the CH-TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP.|The DOE TRU waste sites must certify CH-TRU waste payload containers to thecontact-handled waste acceptance criteria (CH-WAC) identified in this document. Asshown in figure 1.0, the flow-down of applicable requirements to the CH-WAC istraceable to several higher-tier documents, including the WIPP operational safetyrequirements derived from the WIPP CH Documented Safety Analysis (CH-DSA;reference 4), the transportation requirements for CH-TRU wastes derived from theTransuranic Package Transporter-Model II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT Certificates ofCompliance (references 5 and 5a), the WIPP LWA (reference 2), the WIPP HazardousWaste Facility Permit (reference 6), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) Compliance Certification Decision and approval for PCB disposal (references 7,34, 35, 36, and 37). The solid arrows shown in figure 1.0 represent the flow-down of allapplicable payload container-based requirements. The two dotted arrows shown infigure 1.0 represent the flow-down of summary level requirements only; i.e., the sitesmust reference the regulatory source

  16. Waste profiling of newly generated transuranic waste at TA-55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K. K.; Punjak, W. A. (Wayne A.); Montoya, A. J. (Andrew J.)

    2004-01-01

    For many years, segregation of transuranic (TRU) waste at Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was based on the TRU Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) Content Code (TRUCON Code)-dependent matrices, hazardous constituents, the nonhazardous nature of waste, nondestructive assay requirements, and other factors. This approach required well over a hundred active waste profiles for waste acceptance at the onsite treatment storage and disposal facility. Over the past few years, the profiling approach has evolved in an effort to make the waste disposition process more efficient. Based on interpretation of various requirements, TA-55 is further simplifying its waste management operations and plans to eventually have only a few tens of waste profiles to expedite the review and approval of drum data packages. Nondefense, or homogeneous, cemented, or vitrified wastes are excluded from discussion in this paper.

  17. Defense transuranic waste program strategy document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the strategy for managing transuranic (TRU) wastes generated in defense and research activities regulated by the US Department of Energy. It supercedes a document issued in July 1980. In addition to showing how current strategies of the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) are consistent with the national objective of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere, this document includes information about the activities of the Transuranic Lead Organization (TLO). To explain how the DTWP strategy is implemented, this document also discusses how the TLO coordinates and integrates the six separate elements of the DTWP: (1) Waste Generation Site Activities, (2) Storage Site Activities, (3) Burial Site Activities, (4) Technology Development, (5) Transportation Development, and (6) Permanent Disposal. Storage practices for TRU wastes do not pose short-term hazards to public health and safety or to the environment. Isolation of TRU wastes in a deep-mined geologic repository is considered the most promising of the waste disposal alternatives available. This assessment is supported by the DOE Record of Decision to proceed with research and development work at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico - a deep-mined geologic research and development project. In support of the WIPP research project and the permanent disposal of TRU waste, the DTWP strategy for the near term will concentrate on completion of procedures and the design and construction of all facilities necessary to certify newly-generated (NG) and stored TRU wastes for emplacement in the WIPP. In addition, the strategy involves evaluating alternatives for disposing of some transuranic wastes by methods which may allow for on-site disposal of these wastes and yet preserve adequate margins of safety to protect public health and the environment

  18. Los Alamos transuranic waste size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) was designed and constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the period of 1977 to 1981. This paper summarizes the engineering development, installation, and early test operations of the SRF. The facility incorporates a large stainless steel enclosure fitted with remote handling and cutting equipment to obtain an estimated 4:1 volume reduction of gloveboxes and other bulky metallic wastes

  19. Xenon Isotope Releases from Buried Transuranic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresel, P. E.; Waichler, S. R.; Kennedy, B. M.; Hayes, J. C.; McIntyre, J. I.; Giles, J. R.; Sondrup, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    Xenon is an inert rare gas produced as a fission product in nuclear reactors and through spontaneous fission of some transuranic isotopes. Thus, xenon will be released from buried transuranic waste. Two complementary methods are used to measure xenon isotopes: radiometric analysis for short-lived radioxenon isotopes and mass spectrometry for detection of stable xenon isotopes. Initial measurements near disposal facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site show radioxenon and stable xenon isotopic signatures that are indicative of transuranic waste. Radioxenon analysis has greater sensitivity due to the lower background concentrations and indicates spontaneous fission due to the short half life of the isotopes. Stable isotope ratios may be used to distinguish irradiated fuel sources from pure spontaneous fission sources and are not as dependent on rapid release from the waste form. The release rate is dependent on the type of waste and container integrity and is the greatest unknown in application of this technique. Numerical multi-phase transport modeling of burial grounds at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory indicates that, under generalized conditions, the radioxenon isotopes will diffuse away from the waste and be found in the soil cap and adjacent to the burial ground at levels many orders of magnitude above the detection limit.

  20. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  1. TRU waste certification and TRUPACT-2 payload verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) established a policy that requires each waste shipper to verify that all waste shipments meet the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) prior to being shipped. This verification provides assurance that transuranic (TRU) wastes meet the criteria while still retained in a facility where discrepancies can be immediately corrected. Each Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste facility planning to ship waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is required to develop and implement a specific program including Quality Assurance (QA) provisions to verify that waste is in full compliance with WIPP's WAC. This program is audited by a composite DOE and contractor audit team prior to granting the facility permission to certify waste. During interaction with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on payload verification for shipping in TRUPACT-II, a similar system was established by DOE. The TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report (SAR) contains the technical requirements and physical and chemical limits that payloads must meet (like the WAC). All shippers must plan and implement a payload control program including independent QA provisions. A similar composite audit team will conduct preshipment audits, frequent subsequent audits, and operations inspections to verify that all TRU waste shipments in TRUPACT-II meet the requirements of the Certificate of Compliance issued by the NRC which invokes the SAR requirements. 1 fig

  2. Defense Transuranic Waste Program. Transuranic waste transportation assessment and guidance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    The Transportation Assessment and Guidance Report (TAGR) is designed to provide DOE-managed defense sites with guidance and citable analyses addressing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements for qualifying and transporting transuranic (TRU) wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico.

  3. Defense Transuranic Waste Program. Transuranic waste transportation assessment and guidance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transportation Assessment and Guidance Report (TAGR) is designed to provide DOE-managed defense sites with guidance and citable analyses addressing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements for qualifying and transporting transuranic (TRU) wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico

  4. Hydrothermal processing of transuranic contaminated combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory have demonstrated the usefulness of hydrothermal processing for the disposal of a wide variety of transuranic contaminated combustible wastes. This paper provides an overview of the implementation and performance of hydrothermal treatment for concentrated salt solutions, explosives, propellants, organic solvents, halogenated solvents, and laboratory trash, such as paper and plastics. Reaction conditions vary from near ambient temperatures and pressure to over 1000degC and 100 MPa pressure. Studies involving both radioactive and non-radioactive waste simulants are discussed. (author)

  5. Statistics and sampling in transuranic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing data on transuranics in the environment exhibit a remarkably high variability from sample to sample (coefficients of variation of 100% or greater). This chapter stresses the necessity of adequate sample size and suggests various ways to increase sampling efficiency. Objectives in sampling are regarded as being of great importance in making decisions as to sampling methodology. Four different classes of sampling methods are described: (1) descriptive sampling, (2) sampling for spatial pattern, (3) analytical sampling, and (4) sampling for modeling. A number of research needs are identified in the various sampling categories along with several problems that appear to be common to two or more such areas

  6. Gamma analysis for transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive gamma analysis is one of the key technologies for the identification of transuranic elements in waste material. The techniques use high purity germanium detectors for the detection of the gamma photons. The detected signals are then analyzed in multi-channel gamma spectrometers to determine the photon energies. These photon energies are generally unique to the nuclide that produced the gamma rays and can, therefore, be used as an identifier of the nuclides present. This report is a discussion of methods used to calibrate the measurement systems and for the analysis of the data. 3 tabs

  7. Making transuranic assay measurements using modern controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes methodology and computer-controlled instrumentation developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that accurately performs nondestructive assays of large containers bearing transuranic wastes and nonradioactive matrix materials. These assay systems can measure fissile isotopes with 1-mg sensitivity and spontaneous neutron-emitting isotopes at a 10-mg sensitivity. The assays are performed by neutron interrogation, detection, and counting in a custom assay chamber. An International Business Machines Personal Computer (IBM-PC) is used to control the CAMAC-based instrumentation system that acquires the assay data. 6 refs., 7 figs

  8. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  9. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  10. Bone and lung tumor response following inhalation of transuranic nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight-hundred five rats exposed to transuranic nitrate aerosols developed 111 lung tumors and 24 bone tumors. Results for 239Pu(NO3)4, 238Pu(NO3)4, and 253Es(NO3)3 were similar, and comparable to what has been shown for the more refractory transuranic oxides

  11. Dosimetric and biokinetic model for transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic elements are members of the actinide series beyond uranium, all are artificially produced in nuclear reactors and several include alpha-emitting radioisotopes with very long half-lives. Among them neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium are the most abundant and the most important from the health physics view point. The International Commission on Radiological Protection developed a comprehensive dosimetric system with biokinetic models and parameters for the internal exposure to workers in its Publication 30. Since then the ICRP published a new recommendation in 1990 and published several reports related to the internal dosimetry as Publication 66 in 1994, Publication 67 and Publication 68 in 1995, Publication 69 and Publication 71 in 1996. The new dosimetric and biokinetic model for transuranic elements described in Publication 67 is a recycling compartment model composed of 19 compartments and 28 transfer rates, which are a product of many efforts devoted to the improvement of internal dosimetry. The new model is related to the human physiology and is based on the information obtained from studies on human tissue samples and animal experiments. Dose coefficients derived from these models should be used in the dose calculation for the radiation protection for members of the public. (author)

  12. Geochemistry of transuranic elements at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of transuranic and other radionuclides in the marine environment at Bikini Atoll was studied to better understand the geochemical cycling of radionuclides produced by nuclear testing between 1946 and 1958. The reef areas, which are washed continually by clean ocean water, have low levels of radionuclide concentrations. Radionuclides are contained in fallout particles of pulverized coral. In the water these particles may dissolve, be transported by currents within the Atoll, or enter the North Equatorial Current by tidal exchange of water in the lagoon. The transuranic elements are distributed widely in sediments over the northwest quadrant of the Atoll, which suggests that this area serves as a settling basin for particles. The distribution of plutonium in the water column indicates that plutonium in the sediments is released to the bottom waters and then is transported and diluted by the prevailing currents. Upon interaction with the lagoon environment, plutonium occurs in several physicochemical states. Laboratory tests and field studies at Bikini show that approximately 15% of the plutonium is associated with the colloidal fraction

  13. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This task is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34,000 liters of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. The grout was also completely contained within the two trenches as no grout constituents were observed in the 12 perimeter ground water monitoring wells. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over polyacrylate grout because of its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty of controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization process in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 115 years in the test soil. However, this calculated value is likely to be conservatively low because microbial degradation of the grout set accelerator or residual monomer may be contributing most to the measured microbial respiration. Addition work, using 14C-labeled acrylate and acrylamide grouts, is being carried out to more accurately estimate the grouts' microbiological half-life

  14. Fusion-Fission Burner for Transuranic Actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chan

    2013-10-01

    The 14-MeV DT fusion neutron spectrum from mirror confinement fusion can provide a unique capability to transmute the transuranic isotopes from light water reactors (LWR). The transuranic (TRU) actinides, high-level radioactive wastes, from spent LWR fuel pose serious worldwide problem with long-term decay heat and radiotoxicity. However, ``transmuted'' TRU actinides can not only reduce the inventory of the TRU in the spent fuel repository but also generate additional energy. Typical commercial LWR fuel assemblies for BWR (boiling water reactor) and PWR (pressurized water reactor) measure its assembly lengths with 4.470 m and 4.059 m, respectively, while its corresponding fuel rod lengths are 4.064 m and 3.851 m. Mirror-based fusion reactor has inherently simple geometry for transmutation blanket with steady-state reactor operation. Recent development of gas-dynamic mirror configuration has additional attractive feature with reduced size in central plasma chamber, thus providing a unique capability for incorporating the spent fuel assemblies into transmutation blanket designs. The system parameters for the gas-dynamic mirror-based hybrid burner will be discussed.

  15. The biological behaviour of inhaled transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological behaviour of inhaled transuranic elements has been reviewed by focus on different points of present interest. Lung clearance and translocation are largely affected by the chemistry of transuranic elements. However, especially for plutonium, some examples show that the kinetics of some chemical reactions are function of the element concentration: extrapolation to the biological concentrations must therefore be cautious. The importance of the specific activity is stressed by different behaviours of plutonium 238 and 239 oxides. In the case of 238Pu, it is responsible of the fast dissolution of the oxide by formation of nanometric particles. Whatever the isotopes, these particules have a particularly important function since their biological fate seems to disturb the established models. Their origin is still to be determined since they have been identified both in the combustion of Pu-Na or Pu-Mg simultaneously, and plutonium only. The bronchial clearance of micronic particles does not seem to be fast for the whole of the fraction cleared. A residual compartment, indeed low, will remain at the level of the bronchial epithelium for a rather long time. This must be taken into account by dosimetric evaluations at the cellular levels. In spite of the few restrictions stated, the body of knowledge makes a fair estimation of risks possible

  16. Transuranic complexation in soil and uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective of these studies is to define the role of soil microbial and chemical processes in influencing the long-term availability, distribution, and form of transuranic elements in plants and animals. In order to accomplish this objective, basic studies have been undertaken to determine: the effects of Pu and other transuranic elements on soil microbial populations and processes; the potential for alteration of valence state and formation of transuranic-organic complexes in soil as a function of soil physicochemical properties and soil microbial activity; the influence of soil microbial and plant processes on the kinetics, extent of uptake, sites of deposition, and form of transuranic elements in plants; and the gut transport and form of transuranic elements in animals as related to soil and plant variables

  17. Trainer certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A DOE Technical Safety Appraisal in October 1986 found that training at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant was fragmented and lacked uniformity. Training was localized in departments and was more often handled by line supervisors, etc. - with no certification. The Trainer Certification Program has provided the means for applying standard guidelines to ensure that training is designed, applied, and evaluated in a consistent, effective, and efficient manner. The program is in a state of substantial change and a target date for compliance is set for 1989. Trainer certification will provide both current and future resources to ensure consistent and effective training. 22 figures

  18. The National Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opened for nonmixed contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU) waste receipt on March 26, 1999, planning for the receipt of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste has been revitalized. WIPP is scheduled to begin receiving RH TRU waste in January 2002. Before the first receipt of RH waste at WIPP, the disposal of RH TRU waste must be coordinated with the waste management plans at the TRU waste sites, the packaging and transportation system must be in place and operational, and the WIPP RH must be operational. Successful implementation of the National RH TRU Waste Program will require that a commitment to sustained funding and full support of the entire DOE TRU waste complex be maintained. Implementation will also require effective application of capital assets, human resources, and a continued effort to identify and resolve programmatic and technical issues. Involvement of regulatory agencies, stakeholders, and affected tribal nations in decision-making processes will have a positive impact on successful implementation

  19. The Environmental Protection Agency's waste isolation pilot plant certification process: The steps leading to our decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 13, 1998, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its 'final certification decision' to certify that the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will comply with the radioactive waste disposal regulations set and the WIPP Compliance Criteria set forth at 40 CFR Parts 191 (US EPA, 1993) and 194 (US EPA, 1996) respectively. The WIPP will be the nation's first deep underground disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated as a result of defence activities. Since WIPP is a first-of-a-kind facility EPA's regulatory program contains an abundance of unique technical questions, as well as controversial policy considerations and legal issues. This paper presents the process that EPA undertook to reach its final decision. Oversight of the WIPP facility by EPA is governed by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (WIPP LWA), passed initially by Congress in 1992 and amended in 1996. The LWA required EPA to evaluate whether the WIPP will comply with Subparts B and C of 40 CFR Part 191, known as the disposal regulations. The EPA's final certification of compliance will allow the emplacement of radioactive waste in the WIPP to begin, provided that all other applicable health and safety standards have been met. The certification also allows Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to strip TRU waste from specific waste streams for disposal at the WIPP. However, the certification is subject to several conditions, most notably that EPA must approve site-specific waste characterisation measures and quality assurance plans before allowing sites other than LANL to ship waste for disposal at the WIPP

  20. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  1. Nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination of remote-handled transuranic waste at the ORNL waste handling and packaging plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the use of an electron linear accelerator (LINAC) in the performance of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) measurements of remote-handled transuranic wastes. The system will be used to perform waste characterization and certification activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant. The NDA and NDE technologies which were developed for contact-handled wastes are inadequate to perform such measurements on high gamma and neutron dose-rate wastes. A single LINAC will provide the interrogating fluxes required for both NDA and NDE measurements of the wastes. 11 refs., 6 figs

  2. The waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository: A case study in radioactive waste disposal safety and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological defense-generated transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) repository in the United States was certified on the 13 of May 1998 and opened on the 26 of March 1999. Two sets of safety/performance assessment calculations supporting the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository show that the maximum annual individual committed effective dose will be 32 times lower than the regulatory limit and that the cumulative amount of radionuclide releases will be at least 10 times, more likely at least 20 times, lower than the regulatory limits. Yet, perceptions remain among the public that the WIPP TRUW repository imposes an unacceptable risk

  3. Nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination of remote-handled transuranic waste at the ORNL waste handling and packaging plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Pajarito Scientific Corp. (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the use of an electron linear accelerator (LINAC) in the performance of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) measurements of remote-handled transuranic wastes. The system will be used to perform waste characterization and certification activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant. The NDA and NDE technologies which were developed for contact-handled wastes are inadequate to perform such measurements on high gamma and neutron dose-rate wastes. A single LINAC will provide the interrogating fluxes required for both NDA and NDE measurements of the wastes. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Climate certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced emissions of climate gases at the lowest cost require international cooperation in order to ensure that the most cost-efficient measures are taken. A market for emission rights is one way of achieving this. However, creating the right conditions for such a market to operate requires an unambiguous definition of the product to be traded. In this PM, the Swedish Power Association sketches out how such a product could be defined, and how a market for the resulting unambiguously defined product could be operated internationally, in parallel with other markets for energy products. Trade in climate certificates could become a joint EU approach to achieving common results within the field of climate policy. The main features of the proposal are as follows: Electricity producers would be allowed to issue climate certificates for electricity produced without climate-affecting emissions, e.g. in wind power plants. 1 kWh of electricity produced without emissions would entitle the utility to issue a climate certificate for 1 kWh. Electricity from power stations having low emissions, e.g. modern natural gas-fired plants, would entitle the utility to issue certificates in proportion to how much lower their emissions were in comparison with those from conventional coal-fired power stations. The number of certificates would be reduced by an individual coefficient, related directly to the quantity of climate-affecting emissions from the plant concerned. They would be traded and noted on markets in the various member countries. The certificates would not be nationally restricted, but could be traded across borders. Exchanges would be authorised by national authorities, in accordance with overall EU directives. These authorised exchanges would act as certification bodies, checking that certificates had been properly issued in accordance with a corresponding volume of electricity production. Electricity and certificates could be purchased from different suppliers. The

  5. Just Certification

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Piedregal, Virginie

    2009-01-01

    Through the justice principles –equality, time, status, need, efficiency and worth– developed by Jon Elster, we show in this article how fair trade certification for producers is legitimatised by stakeholders. Based on a field investigation with coffee growers in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia and with fair trade organisations in the North (Max Havelaar/FLO, Andines and Artisans du Monde), the analysis firstly reviews just certification according to the impersonal criteria of “mechanical” justice,...

  6. Faster, less expensive package certifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy Packaging Certification Staff (PCS) has been reviewing ways to shorten the radioactive material packaging certification process and reduce the overall costs of obtaining certification. The PCS can help to identify existing certified packaging designs that may meet a shipper's needs. If it is necessary to design a new packaging, then the fastest, easiest way toward certification is through the use of common designs and materials already familiar to the PCS (though this is not always possible or desirable). The shipper should be realistic about the amount of time, money, and documentation necessary to obtain a certification, and should involve the PCS early in the planning of the packaging. The PCS will not do design work or recommend a design, but can warn of potential pitfalls. The Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) is the basis for certification; therefore, the adequacy of the SARP should be the focal point of all efforts toward certification. Technical services provided by the PCS can help in the preparation of the SARP and can accelerate the certification process

  7. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equipment that was purchased in the abbreviated year 1 of this project has been used during year 2 to study the fundamental behavior of materials that simulate the behavior of the Hanford transuranic waste sludge. Two significant results have been found, and each has been submitted for publication. Both studies found non-DLVO behavior in simulant systems. These separate but related studies were performed concurrently. It was previously shown in Rassat et al.'s report Physical and Liquid Chemical Simulant Formulations for Transuranic Wastes in Hanford Single-Shell Tanks that colloidal clays behave similarly to transuranic waste sludge (PNNL-14333, National Technical Information Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce). Rassat et al. also discussed the pH and salt content of actual waste materials. It was shown that these materials exist at high pHs, generally above 10, and at high salt content, approximately 1.5 M from a mixture of different salts. A type of clay commonly studied, due to its uniformity, is a synthetic hectorite, Laponite. Therefore the work performed over the course of the last year was done mainly using suspensions of Laponite at high pH and involving high salt concentrations. One study was titled ''Relating Clay Rheology to Colloidal Parameters''. It has been submitted to the Journal of Colloid and INterface Science and is currently in the review process. The idea was to gain the ability to use measurable quantities to predict the flow behavior of clay systems, which should be similar to transuranic waste sludge. Leong et al. had previously shown that the yield stress of colloidal slurries of titania and alumina could be predicted, given the measurement of the accessible parameter zeta potential (Leong YK et al. J Chem Soc Faraday Trans, 19 (1993) 2473). Colloidal clays have a fundamentally different morphology and surface charge distribution than the spheroidal, uniformly charged colloids previously studied. This study was therefore performed in order to

  8. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, John C.

    2010-03-25

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  9. Los Alamos Transuranic Waste Size Reduction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) is a production oriented prototype. The facility is operated to remotely cut and repackage TRU contaminated metallic wastes (e.g., glove boxes, ducting and pipes) for eventual disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The resulting flat sections are packaged into a tested Department of Transportation Type 7A metal container. To date, the facility has successfully processed stainless steel glove boxes (with and without lead shielding construction) and retention tanks. We have found that used glove boxes generate more cutting fumes than do unused glove boxes or metal plates - possibly due to deeply embedded chemical residues from years of service. Water used as a secondary fluid with the plasma arc cutting system significantly reduces visible fume generation during the cutting of used glove boxes and lead-lined glove boxes. 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Recovery of transuranics from process residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process residues are generated at both the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during aqueous chemical and pyrochemical operations. Frequently, process operations will result in either impure products or produce residues sufficiently contaminated with transuranics to be nondiscardable as waste. Purification and recovery flowsheets for process residues have been developed to generate solutions compatible with subsequent Purex operations and either solid or liquid waste suitable for disposal. The ''scrub alloy'' and the ''anode heel alloy'' are examples of materials generated at RFP which have been processed at SRP using the developed recovery flowsheets. Examples of process residues being generated at SRP for which flowsheets are under development include LECO crucibles and alpha-contaminated hydraulic oil

  11. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated tru waste certification. Final revised version 3/97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from many of the expensive characterization activities associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying most of its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form

  12. Neural network utility in nondestructive transuranic waste assay, initial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of transuranic (TRU) and associated radioactive material quantities entrained in waste forms is a necessary component of waste characterization. Measurement performance requirements are specified in the National TRU Waste Characterization Program quality assurance plan for which compliance must be demonstrated prior to the transportation and disposition of wastes. With respect to this criterion, the existing TRU nondestructive waste assay (NDA) capability is inadequate for a significant fraction of the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste inventory. This is a result of the general application of safeguard-type measurement and calibration schemes to waste form configurations. Incompatibilities between such measurement methods and actual waste form configurations complicate regulation. compliance demonstration processes and illustrate the need for an alternate measurement interpretation paradigm. Hence, it appears necessary to supplement or perhaps restructure the perceived solution and approach to the waste NDA problem. The first step is to understand the magnitude of the waste matrix/source attribute space associated with those waste form configurations in inventory and how this creates complexities and unknowns with respect to existing NDA methods. Once defined and/or bounded, a conceptual method must be developed that specifies the necessary tools and the framework in which the tools are used. A promising framework is a hybridized neural network structure. Discussed are some typical complications associated with conventional waste NDA techniques and how improvements can be obtained through the application of neural networks

  13. Recertification Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP) Recertification Project was established to meet the requirement placed in the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) to demonstrate WIPP's continued compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) disposal regulations at five-year intervals. This plan delineates the end goal of the effort, sets out interim goals, and offers up guiding assumptions. In general, it sets the overall direction for a highly complex and interdependent set of tasks leading to recertification of the repository in the spring of 2004. In addition, this plan establishes the institutional roles and responsibilities of WIPP project participants in the recertification effort and lays out a high-level schedule for producing the Compliance Recertification Application (CRA). Detailed plans from each organization supporting this project have been included with this document as attachments. Each participant plan provides significantly more detail with descriptions of activities that are designed to ensure a successful outcome. Woven throughout this plan are the elements of guidance and direction gained from technical exchanges with EPA managers and staff. An important principle on which this plan is built is that the process of recertification will not involve modification to the certification baseline, nor will it involve rule making of any kind. Only changes previously approved by the EPA will be detailed in the CRA. EPA-approved changes to the WIPP certification will be accepted through modification or will be approved through the annual change reporting process. For any compliance areas that have not changed since the submission of the Compliance Certification Application(CCA), these will merely be incorporated in the CRA by reference. The CRA will cover all information since the October 1996 submittal of the CCA. A second major principle on which this plan is built stems from the EPA WIPP Recertification Guidance. That guidance makes it clear that, if

  14. Chemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical behaviour of transuranic elements in natural aquifer systems is governed by a variety of geochemical reactions, such as dissolution reaction (solubility), hydrolysis, complexation with inorganics or organics, redox reaction, colloid formation, geochemical interaction with surfaces of various minerals, coprecipitation, mineralisation etc. This paper reviews the present state of knowledge on some of these particular reactions. The emphasis is placed on how the individual reactions can be appraised for the long-term prediction of the geochemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the natural environment. Of the various reactions, the primary thermodynamic processes of dissolution of transuranic compounds in aquatic solution, complexation with important anions present in groundwater and colloid generation are discussed with notable examples. Various laser spectroscopy in use for the chemical speciation are mentioned briefly as for their spectroscopic capability as well as applicability. The present review discussion is primarily directed to a better understanding of the migration behaviour of transuranic elements in natural aquifer systems. (author) 100 refs

  15. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains 5 appendices. Title listing are: technologies for recovery of transuranics; nondestructive assay of TRU contaminated wastes; miscellaneous waste characteristics; acceptance criteria for TRU waste; and TRU waste treatment technologies

  16. TRANSURANIC INTERFACIAL REACTION STUDIES ON MANGANESE OXIDE HYDROXIDE MINERAL SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several DOE sites have been contaminated by transuranic radionuclide (TRU) discharges. Of these TRU, neptunium and plutonium are highly toxic and potentially mobile in the vadose zone. Modeling predictions of their potential hazard to humans require reliable estimates of migrat...

  17. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    This volume contains 5 appendices. Title listing are: technologies for recovery of transuranics; nondestructive assay of TRU contaminated wastes; miscellaneous waste characteristics; acceptance criteria for TRU waste; and TRU waste treatment technologies.

  18. Scenario analysis for transuranic transmutation by using fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symbiotic fast reactor scenarios with the existing nuclear power systems have been analyzed from the viewpoint of a transuranics transmutation. In this study, a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and an accelerator driven system (ADS) are considered as representative fast reactor systems. For a comparative analysis of the fuel cycle options, the once-through fuel cycle was at first analyzed based on the current nuclear power plant construction plan and the currently operating nuclear power plants such as the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor. After setting up a once-through fuel cycle model, the SFR and ADS scenarios were modeled based on the same nuclear energy demand prediction used for the once-through fuel cycle. Then important fuel cycle parameters such as the amount of the spent fuel and corresponding plutonium, minor actinides and fission products inventories were estimated and compared with those of the once-through fuel cycle. In this fuel cycle model, the Pyro process is assumed for all the spent fuel recycling. In the process all the actinides are recovered and some fraction of the fission product is removed. The deployment fractions of the fast reactor are 25, 10 and 20% for the periods of 2030-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100, respectively. In order to feed the fast reactor systems, it was also assumed that the PWR and CANDU spent fuels are reprocessed from 2025 and the fast reactor spent fuel reprocessing begins in 2035. The fuel cycle calculation was performed by the DYMOND code, which has been used for an analysis of the Generation-IV road map studies. The analysis results of the once-through fuel cycle can be summarized as follows: - The nuclear power demand is expected to grow to 25.2 GWe in the year 2100. - The total spent fuel inventory is expected to be 65000 t in 2100. - The transuranics and fission product inventories are estimated to be 660 and 2390 t, respectively, in 2100. The fast reactor cycle

  19. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  20. Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

  1. Transuranic isotopic analysis using gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D; Decman, D

    1998-10-15

    Transuranic waste typically emits gamma rays that are characteristic of the isotopic composition of the materials. If the area of the gamma ray photopeaks in a High Purity Ge (HPGe) spectrum can be accurately determined and if the gamma ray/x-ray branching ratios and half-lives for the radionuclides in the sample are known the relative concentration of each isotope in the waste can be determined using tomographic techniques. Methods used to accurately determine these photopeaks usually requires a computer code that does multi-peak analysis and unfolding of a given part of the gamma-ray spectrum. Computer techniques allow an accurate determination of the photopeaks and hence the isotopic composition of the waste material. These computer techniques can be automated for different spectra within a wide range of possible isotopic compositions. To improve photopeak statistics all of the spectra taken in a tomographic survey of the sample are summed and are used in the isotopic analysis. The method, accuracy, and limitations of this type of isotopic analysis system will be discussed. The gamma ray acquisition system is currently being upgraded with multiple HPGe detectors to improve the counting statistics obtainable in a given amount of time. The results of the DOE performance evaluations and the progress of the multiple detector upgrade will be discussed.

  2. Certification/enforcement analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Industry compliance with minimum energy efficiency standards will be assured through a two-part program approach of certification and enforcement activities. The technical support document (TSD) presents the analyses upon which the proposed rule for assuring that consumer product comply with applicable energy efficiency standards is based. Much of the TSD is based upon support provided DOE by Vitro Laboratories. The OAO Corporation provided additional support in the development of the sampling plan incorporated in the proposed rule. Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement, developed after consideration of various program options, benefits, and impacts, establishes the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy efficiency performance of covered consumer products. The results of the OAO analysis are given in Volume II of the TSD.

  3. Audit Report on 'Waste Processing and Recovery Act Acceleration Efforts for Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste at the Hanford Site'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's (EM), Richland Operations Office (Richland), is responsible for disposing of the Hanford Site's (Hanford) transuranic (TRU) waste, including nearly 12,000 cubic meters of radioactive contact-handled TRU wastes. Prior to disposing of this waste at the Department's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Richland must certify that it meets WIPP's waste acceptance criteria. To be certified, the waste must be characterized, screened for prohibited items, treated (if necessary) and placed into a satisfactory disposal container. In a February 2008 amendment to an existing Record of Decision (Decision), the Department announced its plan to ship up to 8,764 cubic meters of contact-handled TRU waste from Hanford and other waste generator sites to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) at Idaho's National Laboratory (INL) for processing and certification prior to disposal at WIPP. The Department decided to maximize the use of the AMWTP's automated waste processing capabilities to compact and, thereby, reduce the volume of contact-handled TRU waste. Compaction reduces the number of shipments and permits WIPP to more efficiently use its limited TRU waste disposal capacity. The Decision noted that the use of AMWTP would avoid the time and expense of establishing a processing capability at other sites. In May 2009, EM allocated $229 million of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) funds to support Hanford's Solid Waste Program, including Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Besides providing jobs, these funds were intended to accelerate cleanup in the short term. We initiated this audit to determine whether the Department was effectively using Recovery Act funds to accelerate processing of Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Relying on the availability of Recovery Act funds, the Department changed course and approved an alternative plan that could increase costs by about $25 million

  4. DB2 9 Fundamentals Certification Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Roger E

    2007-01-01

    Starting with the certification process itself and ending with the concept of isolation levels and locking, this guide covers everything needed to know to pass the DB2 9 Fundamentals Certification Exam (Exam 730). The prerequisite for all intermediate and follow-on DB2 certifications, XML usage, basic table creation, a rich set of sample questions, and detailed answers are all included, forming the foundation for understanding the newest version of IBM's flagship database product. Regardless of what future certification path the reader is planning on pursuing, this study guide will chart a cou

  5. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes.

  7. Induction melting of simulated transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coreless induction melting was investigated as a method to melt and consolidate waste material representative of the transuranic waste (TRU) stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Waste material was introduced onto the surface of a molten cast iron bath in a coreless induction furnace. Waste metallics were incorporated into the bath. Noncombustibles formed a slag which was poured or skimmed from the bath surface. Stack sampling was performed to characterize the off-gas and particulate matter evolved. Experimental melting tests were performed for a variety of types of wastes including metallics, chemical sludge, soil, concrete, and glass. Each test also included a representative level of combustible materials consisting of paper, wood, cloth, polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene. Metallic wastes were readily processed by induction melting with a minimum of slag production. Test waste consisting primarily of chemical sludge provided fluid slags which could be poured from the bath surface. Processing of wastes consisting of soil, concrete, or glass was limited by the inability to achieve fluid slags. It appears from test results that coreless induction melting is a feasible method to process INEL-type waste materials if two problems can be resolved. First, slag fluidity must be improved to facilitate the collection of slags formed from soil, concrete, or glass containing wastes. Secondly, refractory life must be further optimized to permit prolonged processing of the waste materials. The use of a chrome-bearing high-alumina refractory was found to resist slag line attach much better than a magnesia refractory, although some attack was still noted

  8. Sustainable Forest management: example of implementation of PEFC certification schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available After a short description of forest certification standards, the Authors outline PEFC certification schemes implemented in a study-case (municipal forest of Montano Antilia, in the National Park of Cilento and Vallo di Diano, South of Italy, discussing the limited success of certification and some of the obstacles to its adoption in the specific case. One of the barriers for the adoption of forest certification is the lack of basic information, even in presence of the Forests Management Plan.

  9. How to price imperfect certification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mysliveček, Jan

    -, č. 364 (2008), s. 1-37. ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant ostatní: Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 7743/2007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : certification * imperfect testing * competition Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp364.pdf

  10. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, W.C.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-07-01

    This report outlines the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. This document serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of transuranic wastes, waste forms, waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present NRC waste management program. No attempt is made to evaluate or analyze the suitability of one technology over another. Indeed, by the nature of this report, there is little critical evaluation or analysis of technologies because such analysis is only appropriate when evaluating a particular application or transuranic waste streams. Due to fiscal restriction, the data base is developed from a myriad of technical sources and does not necessarily contain operating experience and the current status of all technologies. Such an effort was beyond the scope of this report.

  11. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. This document serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of transuranic wastes, waste forms, waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present NRC waste management program. No attempt is made to evaluate or analyze the suitability of one technology over another. Indeed, by the nature of this report, there is little critical evaluation or analysis of technologies because such analysis is only appropriate when evaluating a particular application or transuranic waste streams. Due to fiscal restriction, the data base is developed from a myriad of technical sources and does not necessarily contain operating experience and the current status of all technologies. Such an effort was beyond the scope of this report

  12. Transuranic waste form characterization and data base. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Form Characterization and Data Base (Volume 1) provides a wide range of information from which a comprehensive data base can be established and from which standards and criteria can be developed for the present NRC waste management program. Supplementary information on each of the areas discussed in Volume 1 is presented in Appendices A through K (Volumes 2 and 3). The structure of the study (Volume 1) is outlined and appendices of Volumes 2 and 3 correlate with each main section of the report. The Executive Summary reviews the sources, quantities, characteristics and treatment of transuranic wastes in the United States. Due to the variety of potential treatment processes for transuranic wastes, the end products for long-term storage may have corresponding variations in quantities and characteristics

  13. Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE

  14. Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Mitch [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howard, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weyerman, Wade [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mctaggart, Jerri [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE

  15. Contact-handled transuranic transportation system structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT) is a Type B overpack being developed for contact-handled transuranic waste. End-on, side-on, and corner impacts of the loaded TRUPACT due to a 9 m drop onto an unyielding surface have been analyzed. In each case the analyses progressed from simplified hand approaches to successively more complex finite element calculations. The first analysis of each series represents the hand calculations which were carried out to obtain initial thicknesses of foam. The remaining analyses were performed using the dynamic and nonlinear analysis capabilities of ADINA, a structural analysis finite element computer program

  16. Recovery of legacy transuranic waste from earth-covered storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 1993, the University of California (UC) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) signed a consent agreement with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). This consent agreement requires retrieval of ∼ 16800 containers of legacy transuranic (TRU) and TRU-mixed waste from earth-covered storage and placement into storage in compliance with the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (NMHWA). Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project is a $43 million (estimated) 10-yr project to satisfy the requirements of the consent agreement and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. A preliminary safety analysis and facility design have been completed

  17. Evaluation Of Alternative Stronium And Transuranic Separation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to meet contract requirements on the concentrations of strontium-90 and transuranic isotopes in the immobilized low-activity waste, strontium-90 and transuranics must be removed from the supernate of tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. The process currently proposed for this application is an in-tank precipitation process using strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate. Development work on the process has not proceeded since 2005. The purpose of the evaluation is to identify whether any promising alternative processes have been developed since this issue was last examined, evaluate the alternatives and the baseline process, and recommend which process should be carried forward.

  18. Structural analysis of the TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT) is a Type B container under development at the Transportation Technology Center, Sandia National Laboratory, for use in the transportation of contact-handled transuranic waste. This report describes the numerical analyses of the container's response to end-on, side-on, and center of gravity over corner impacts on an unyielding surface following a 9 m free fall. The results of the analyses are compared to available experimental data. In general, the analytical predictions and experimental comparisons confirm the validity of the TRUPACT design concept

  19. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE STRONIUM AND TRANSURANIC SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMALLEY CS

    2011-04-25

    In order to meet contract requirements on the concentrations of strontium-90 and transuranic isotopes in the immobilized low-activity waste, strontium-90 and transuranics must be removed from the supernate of tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. The process currently proposed for this application is an in-tank precipitation process using strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate. Development work on the process has not proceeded since 2005. The purpose of the evaluation is to identify whether any promising alternative processes have been developed since this issue was last examined, evaluate the alternatives and the baseline process, and recommend which process should be carried forward.

  20. Data base on the environmental aspects of the transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics is a computerized information file containing indexed and abstracted references to literature on biological and medical studies of the effects of transuranics, biological and ecological availability, turnover, and food chain dynamics, analysis of environmental materials, environmental transport mechanisms, waste disposal, monitoring, and regulations and standards for environmental levels. Tabulated data on plutonium in mammals that were compiled by the Comparative Animal Research Laboratory staff are being merged with the bibliographic information from the data base, thus a more detailed retrieval in that subject area is possible. Services from the data base include annotated bibliographies and searches tailored to the researcher's needs

  1. MANAGEING THE RETRIEVAL RISK OF BURIED TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE WITH UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States-Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store transuranic (TRU) waste are almost certain to encounter waste packages with characteristics that are so unique as to warrant special precautions for retrieval. At the Hanford Site, a subgroup of stored TRU waste (12 drums) had special considerations due to the radioactive source content of plutonium oxide (PuO2), and the potential for high heat generation, pressurization, criticality, and high radiation. These characteristics bear on the approach to safely retrieve, overpack, vent, store, and transport the waste package. Because of the potential risk to personnel, contingency planning for unexpected conditions played an effective roll in work planning and in preparing workers for the field inspection activity. As a result, the integrity inspections successfully confirmed waste package configuration and waste confinement without experiencing any perturbations due to unanticipated packaging conditions. This paper discusses the engineering and field approach to managing the risk of retrieving TRU waste with unique characteristics

  2. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Mousseau; S.C. Raish; F.M. Russo

    2006-05-18

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  3. Transuranic storage and assay facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porten, D.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-12

    The Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF) Interim Safety Basis document provides the authorization basis for the interim operation and restriction on interim operations for the TRUSAF. The TRUSAF ISB demonstrates that the TRUSAF can be operated safely, protecting the workers, the public, and the environment. The previous safety analysis document TRUSAF Hazards Identification and Evaluation (WHC 1987) is superseded by this document.

  4. TRAN-STAT statistics for environmental transuranic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of TRAN-STAT is concerned with three related topics: results from the questionnaire included with the 3rd issue of TRAN-STAT, the role of the statistician in transuranic studies, and some effective ways for exploring data sets and communicating this information to others via effective data summaries

  5. Developing an institutional strategy for transporting defense transuranic waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late 1988, the US Department of Energy (DOE) expects to begin emplacing transuranic waste materials in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), an R and D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense program activities. Transuranic wastes are production-related materials, e.g., clothes, rags, tools, and similar items. These materials are contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium radionuclides with half-lives of > 20 yr and concentrations > 100 nCi/g. Much of the institutional groundwork has been done with local communities and the State of New Mexico on the siting and construction of the facility. A key to the success of the emplacement demonstration, however, will be a qualified transportation system together with institutional acceptance of the proposed shipments. The DOE's Defense Transuranic Waste Program, and its contractors, has lead responsibility for achieving this goal. The Joint Integration Office (JIO) of the DOE, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is taking the lead in implementing an integrated strategy for assessing nationwide institutional concerns over transportation of defense transuranic wastes and in developing ways to resolve or mitigate these concerns. Parallel prototype programs are under way to introduce both the new packaging systems and the institutional strategy to interested publics and organizations

  6. Utilization of borosilicate glass for transuranic waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incinerated transuranic waste and other low-level residues have been successfully vitrified by mixing with boric acid and sodium carbonate and heating to 10500C in a bench-scale continuous melter. The resulting borosilicate glass demonstrates excellent mechanical durability and chemical stability

  7. Management feature of transuranic for HTGR and LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-lived actinides from spent fuels can cause potential long-term environ- mental hazards. The generation and incineration of transuranic in different closed fuel cycles were studied. U and Pu were recycled from spent fuel in the 250 MW high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-pebble-bed-module (HTR-PM) U-Pu fuelled core, and then PuO2 and MOX fuel elements were designed based on this recycled U and Pu. These fuel elements were used to build up a new PuO2 or MOX fuelled core with the same geometry of the original reactor. Characteristics of transuranic incineration with HTGR open and closed fuel cycles were studied with VSOP code, and the corresponding results from the light water reactor were compared and analyzed. The transuranic generation with HTGR open fuel cycle is almost half of the corresponding result of the light water reactor. Thus, HTGR closed fuel cycles can effectively burn transuranic. (authors)

  8. Bone uptake of rare earths and transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of this paper formation conditions of citric complexes of rare earths and transuranic elements are presented. In the second part, role of binding proteins in plasma is emphasized. Finally biological behaviour of the injected elements is evidenced. A general mechanism for fixation of these elements in bone and liver is proposed

  9. No certificate, no chocolate

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Are you already ready to use “certificates” to log into CERN or to connect to the global “eduroam” wireless network? No, I am not talking about your birth certificate, medical certificates or academic certificates. I am referring to “certificates” used for authentication where you would usually use a password.   These digital certificates are a valid alternative to cumbersome passwords. Like the aforementioned personal certificates, a digital certificate is an official document that proves who you are or your qualifications. Your personal digital CERN certificate is tied to your digital identity at CERN. In that respect, a digital certificate is like a password. It is a credential that you must not share with anybody else! With your digital certificate, I can impersonate you and take over your mailbox, your web sessions and more… Digital certificates bind your digital identity to a public/private-key infrastructu...

  10. Certification for sugarcane production processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F. de; Walter, Arnaldo

    2012-07-01

    This chapter concerns with the meaning of certification, sustainability of bioenergy, sustainability initiatives and certification schemes, certification tendencies in Brazil, and the challenge for fulfilling criteria.

  11. Implementation plan for WRAP Module 1 operational readiness review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 (WRAP 1) will be used to receive, sample, treat, and ship contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU), low-level waste (LLW), and low-level mixed waste (LLMW) to storage and disposal sites both on the Hanford site and off-site. The primary mission of WRAP 1 is to characterize and certify CH waste in 55-gallon and 85-gallon drums; and its secondary function is to certify CH waste standard waste boxes (SWB) and boxes of similar size for disposal. The WRAP 1 will provide the capability for examination (including x-ray, visual, and contents sampling), limited treatment, repackaging, and certification of CH suspect-TRU waste in 55-gallon drums retrieved from storage, as well as newly generated CH LLW and CH TRU waste drums. The WRAP 1 will also provide examination (X-ray and visual only) and certification of CH LLW and CH TRU waste in small boxes. The decision to perform an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) was made in accordance with WHC-CM-5-34, Solid Waste Disposal Operations Administration, Section 1.4, Operational Readiness Activities. The ORR will ensure plant and equipment readiness, management and personnel readiness, and management programs readiness for the initial startup of the facility. This implementation plan is provided for defining the conduct of the WHC ORR

  12. Citizens guide to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Compliance Certification Application to the EPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has submitted an application to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for a certificate showing that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) complies with strict environmental regulations designed to safeguard humans and the environment for at least 10,000 years. Congress gave the EPA authority to regulate the WIPP site for disposal of transuranic waste under the 1992 WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The EPA has one year to review the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) before determining whether the DOE has successfully documented the WIPP's compliance with federal environmental standards. The application presents the conclusions of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering work specifically dedicated to disposal of transuranic waste at the WIPP. The application thoroughly documents how the natural characteristics of the WIPP site, along with engineered features, comply with the regulations. In the application, the DOE responds fully to the federal standards and to the EPA's certification criteria. This Citizens' Guide provides an overview of the CCA and its role in moving toward final disposal of transuranic waste

  13. Acceptable knowledge document for INEEL stored transuranic waste - Rocky Flats Plant waste. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document and supporting documentation provide a consistent, defensible, and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant which is currently in the accessible storage inventory at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inventory consists of transuranic (TRU) waste generated from 1972 through 1989. Regulations authorize waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities to use acceptable knowledge in appropriate circumstances to make hazardous waste determinations. Acceptable knowledge includes information relating to plant history, process operations, and waste management, in addition to waste-specific data generated prior to the effective date of the RCRA regulations. This document is organized to provide the reader a comprehensive presentation of the TRU waste inventory ranging from descriptions of the historical plant operations that generated and managed the waste to specific information about the composition of each waste group. Section 2 lists the requirements that dictate and direct TRU waste characterization and authorize the use of the acceptable knowledge approach. In addition to defining the TRU waste inventory, Section 3 summarizes the historical operations, waste management, characterization, and certification activities associated with the inventory. Sections 5.0 through 26.0 describe the waste groups in the inventory including waste generation, waste packaging, and waste characterization. This document includes an expanded discussion for each waste group of potential radionuclide contaminants, in addition to other physical properties and interferences that could potentially impact radioassay systems

  14. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant transuranic waste repository: A sleeping beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 13, 1998, crowning a 24-year United States Department of Energy effort, the US Environmental Protection Agency certified that the deep geological repository for safe disposal of long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste proposed by the DOE at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in New Mexico complied with all applicable environmental radiation protection standards and compliance criteria. Pursuant to the applicable law, the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, as amended in 1997, at the decision of the secretary of energy, the WIPP repository could open 30 calendar days after receiving the EPA certification. The secretary of energy announced May 13, 1998, that he intended to open the WIPP TRUW repository by June 14, 1998. However, at the end of 1998, the opening of the WIPP TRUW repository remains hostage to time-consuming, hazardous-waste-permitting procedures by the state of New Mexico Environment Department and two legal actions. Based on the EPA-verified high safety and the demonstrated risk reduction to both current and future generations offered by the WIPP TRUW repository, it is concluded that the WIPP TRUW repository is a sleeping beauty that will awake, perhaps in stages, and begin its important mission in 1999

  15. Acceptable knowledge document for INEEL stored transuranic waste -- Rocky Flats Plant waste. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-23

    This document and supporting documentation provide a consistent, defensible, and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant which is currently in the accessible storage inventory at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inventory consists of transuranic (TRU) waste generated from 1972 through 1989. Regulations authorize waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities to use acceptable knowledge in appropriate circumstances to make hazardous waste determinations. Acceptable knowledge includes information relating to plant history, process operations, and waste management, in addition to waste-specific data generated prior to the effective date of the RCRA regulations. This document is organized to provide the reader a comprehensive presentation of the TRU waste inventory ranging from descriptions of the historical plant operations that generated and managed the waste to specific information about the composition of each waste group. Section 2 lists the requirements that dictate and direct TRU waste characterization and authorize the use of the acceptable knowledge approach. In addition to defining the TRU waste inventory, Section 3 summarizes the historical operations, waste management, characterization, and certification activities associated with the inventory. Sections 5.0 through 26.0 describe the waste groups in the inventory including waste generation, waste packaging, and waste characterization. This document includes an expanded discussion for each waste group of potential radionuclide contaminants, in addition to other physical properties and interferences that could potentially impact radioassay systems.

  16. Defense waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defense high-level waste (HLW) and defense transuranic (TRU) waste are in interim storage at three sites, namely: at the Savannah River Plant, in South Carolina; at the Hanford Reservation, in Washington; and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho. Defense TRU waste is also in interim storage at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee; at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico; and at the Nevada Test Site, in Nevada. (Figure E-2). This document describes a workable approach for the permanent disposal of high-level and transuranic waste from atomic energy defense activities. The plan does not address the disposal of suspect waste which has been conservatively considered to be high-level or transuranic waste but which can be shown to be low-level waste. This material will be processed and disposed of in accordance with low-level waste practices. The primary goal of this program is to utilize or dispose of high-level and transuranic waste routinely, safely, and effectively. This goal will include the disposal of the backlog of stored defense waste. A Reference Plan for each of the sites describes the sequence of steps leading to permanent disposal. No technological breakthroughs are required to implement the reference plan. Not all final decisions concerning the activities described in this document have been made. These decisions will depend on: completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, authorization and appropriation of funds, agreements with states as appropriate, and in some cases, the results of pilot plant experiments and operational experience. The major elements of the reference plan for permanent disposal of defense high-level and transuranic waste are summarized

  17. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  18. Environmental aspects of the transuranics. A selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography of 470 references is from the computer file built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope is environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. Biological aspects of the transuranics is highlighted in this bibliography. In addition, supporting materials involving basic ecology studies, ecology of the Nevada Test Site, and reviews on other radionuclides are entered at the request of the NAEG. Significant numeric data is shown in tabular display or is noted for reference to the original document. The references are arranged by subject category with first authors arranged alphabetically within the category. Indexes are given for author, keywords, geographic location, permuted title, taxons, and publication description. (U.S.)

  19. Environmental aspects of the transuranics: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Martin, F.M.; Faust, R.A. (comp.)

    1976-07-01

    This bibliography of 500 references is compiled from the Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA`s Nevada Operations Office. The general scope is environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. Laboratory and field studies dealing with the effects of plutonium-239 on animals are highlighted in this bibliography. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews on the effects of other radionuclides upon man and his environment has been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with first authors appearing alphabetically in each category. Indexes are given for author, geographic location, keywords, taxons, permuted title and publication description.

  20. Environmental aspects of the transuranics: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography of 500 references is compiled from the Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope is environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. Laboratory and field studies dealing with the effects of plutonium-239 on animals are highlighted in this bibliography. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews on the effects of other radionuclides upon man and his environment has been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with first authors appearing alphabetically in each category. Indexes are given for author, geographic location, keywords, taxons, permuted title and publication description

  1. Effects of transuranics on pulmonary lymph nodes of rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary lymph nodes have been suggested as the ''critical'' tissue for insoluble, inhaled transuranic compounds owing to the high concentration of transuranics in these lymph nodes. About 800 rats were given from 0.2 to 3600 nCi of 238PuO2 or 239PuO2 by inhalation, intratracheal instillation, intrapleural injection, or intraperitoneal injection. From about 1 to 10 percent of deposited plutonium was translocated to pulmonary lymph nodes, the amount depending on the time after deposition and the route of administration; 238PuO2 was cleared from pulmonary lymph nodes faster than 239PuO2 owing to the greater in vivo solubility of 238PuO2. No primary tumors of pulmonary lymph nodes were observed, indicating that this tissue was not the critical tissue for carcinogenic induction

  2. Environmental aspects of the transuranics: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This eighth published bibliography of 427 references is compiled from the Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center's Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics. The data base was built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope covers environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. This bibliography highlights literature on plutonium 238 and 239 and americium in the critical organs of man and animals. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews and summarizing literature on other radionuclides have been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with leading authors appearing alphabetically in each category. Indexes are provided for author(s), geographic location, keyword(s), taxon, title, and publication description

  3. Transuranic wastes from the commercial light-water-reactor cccle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne and transuranic-contaminated wastes generated in postfission activities are identified by quantity and radioactivity for the case in which spent fuel is declared waste (once-through cycle) and that in which spent fuel is reprocessed and the recovered uranium and plutonium are recycled. Because no standard defining transuranic wastes is available at this time, in this chapter the waste source is used as the basis for such a definition. Radioactive wastes are generally treated to reduce their volume and/or mobility. For convenience the radioactive wastes discussed are categorized according to the treatment they require. A selected treatment process as well as the final treated volume is presented for each of the seven categories of waste

  4. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs

  5. Search for far transuranic elements in galactic comic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results on the search for the tracks of far transuranic elements of the galactic origin in olivine crystals from Marjalahti meteorite are presented. A total af 174 mm3 of olivines taken from the surface layers of the meteorite and 60 mm3 taken from its inner parts have been examined. The upper limit of the abundance of the Z >= 110 nuclei has been established to be -9 of the abundance of the Fe group nuclei. (orig.)

  6. Solid waste transuranic storage and assay facility indoor air sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingel, L.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    The purpose of the study is to collect and analyze samples of the indoor air at the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF), Westinghouse Hanford. A modified US EPA TO-14 methodology, using gas chromatography/mass spectrography, may be used for the collection and analysis of the samples. The information obtained will be used to estimate the total release of volatile organic compounds from TRUSAF to determine the need for air emmission permits.

  7. Transuranic inventory reduction in repository by partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promise of a new reprocessing technology and the issuance of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations concerning a geologic repository rekindle the interest in partitioning and transmutation of transuranic (TRU) elements from discharged reactor fuel as a high level waste management option. This paper investigates the TRU repository inventory reduction capability of the proposed advanced liquid metal reactors (ALMRs) and integral fast reactors (IFRs) as well as the plutonium recycled light water reactors (LWRs)

  8. Strategic management of health risks posed by buried transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategy is presented for reducing health risks at sites contaminated with buried transuranic (TRU) wastes by first taking measures to immobilize the contaminants until the second step, final action, becomes cost-effective and poses less risk to the remediation workers. The first step of this strategy does not preclude further action if it is warranted and is in harmony with environmental laws and regulations

  9. Fixation of transuranics with different degrees of oxidation on clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution coefficient (Ksub(d)) measurements available in the literature relate to plutonium, without reference to any particular valence state. It would be of interest to be able to ascertain the behaviour of this element (and the transuranics in general) from the nature of the chemical species taking part in the interaction with a natural or artificial medium (radioactive waste containment barriers). The author cites the results of measurements made for Np(IV), Np(V), Pu(IV), Pu(VI) and Am(III). Two types of clay have been tried out - bentonite and attapulgite. When the transuranic has been oxidized to a suitable degree, preferably by an electrochemical technique, it is brought into contact with a clay suspension. After stirring, decantation and filtration, the transuranic is analysed in the aqueous phase, by photospectrometry when the concentration makes it possible to do so (for NpO2+ and PuO22+, which have high molar absorption coefficients epsilon), or else by counting techniques (liquid scintillation and gamma spectrometry). The results are given in the form of graphs (log Ksub(d) = f(pH)) or tables. Emphasis is given to the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The effect of several mineral or organic anions (EDTA) on the retention of Np(V) is considered. An analysis is made of the behaviour of plutonium in accordance with its degree of oxidation. (author)

  10. Biogeochemistry of transuranic elements in Bikini Atoll lagoon. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of transuranic and other radionuclides in the marine environment at Bikini Atoll was studied to better understand the biogeochemical cycling of radionuclides produced during testing of some 23 nuclear and thermonuclear devices between 1946 and 1958. The radionuclides are primarily associated with the coralline sediments. However, the highest radionuclide concentrations are not found at the detonation craters but with the fine particles which have been washed out of the craters in the reef by the currents and deposited downstream. The transuranic elements are distributed widely in sediments over the northwest quadrant of the atoll suggesting that this area serves as a settling basin for particles. The transuranic elements associated with these sediment particles do not remain fixed but are remobilized and distributed asymmetrically in the water column throughout the lagoon. The physico-chemical states of plutonium, measured using dialysis and sorption techniques include approx. 15% colloidal and varying amounts in the soluble and particulate fractions depending on sample location. Uptake of these physicochemical states is extensive on plankton with distribution coefficients measured at Bikini between water and plankton of 104 - 106. The uptake of plutonium in higher organisms decreases with trophic level and low concentrations (approx. .001 pCi/g for 239240Pu) are found in the edible muscle of fish. The half-time for cleansing the reef of contaminant radionuclides has been estimated near the Bravo Crater using measurements made on the viscera of mullet

  11. Transuranic distribution beneath a retired underground disposal facility, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past liquid waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site included the discharge of solutions containing low-level concentrations of transuranics directly to the ground via structures collectively termed cribs. A study was conducted to determine the present spatial distribution of plutonium and americium beneath the retired 216-Z-1A Crib, which contains one of the highest cumulative plutonium inventories, 57 kilograms. Sixteen shallow wells were drilled in the unsaturated sediments underlying the facility using specialized, totally contained drilling techniques. Samples from each well were analyzed to obtain profiles of both sediment type and plutonium and americium concentrations as a function of depth beneath the facility. The results of the study show that the highest concentration of plutonium (>104 nCi/g of sediment) occurs within the first 3 meters of sediment beneath the central distribution pipe. The high activity at this position is tentatively attributed to the removal of solid particles from the waste stream by sediment filtration. The distributions of plutonium and americium in the sediments are similar. Peak transuranic activity in the sediment profile is generally associated with silt lenses or with major sedimentary unit interfaces (ie, sand to gravel). The maximum vertical extent of transuranic activity found is approximately 30 meters below the bottom of the crib or approximately 25 meters above the regional water table. No contamination greater than the instrumental limit of detection of 10-5 nCi/g of sediment was found from a depth of 30 to 40 meters, the maximum depth of sampling

  12. An automated Certification Authority

    CERN Document Server

    Shamardin, L V

    2002-01-01

    This note describe an approach to building an automated Certification Authority. It is compatible with basic requirements of RFC2527. It also supports Registration Authorities and Globus Toolkit grid-cert-renew automatic certificate renewal.

  13. Barrier Certificates Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Liyun; Gan, Ting; Xia, Bican; Zhan, Naijun

    2013-01-01

    A barrier certificate can separate the state space of a con- sidered hybrid system (HS) into safe and unsafe parts ac- cording to the safety property to be verified. Therefore this notion has been widely used in the verification of HSs. A stronger condition on barrier certificates means that less expressive barrier certificates can be synthesized. On the other hand, synthesizing more expressive barrier certificates often means high complexity. In [9], Kong et al consid- ered how to relax the ...

  14. Planning a Regional Energy System in Association with the Creation of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs, Statistical Analysis and Energy Efficiency Measures: An Italian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Fabbri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2002/91/EC EPBD introduced the Energy Performance Certificate (EPC as a tool to guide the real estate market in the creation of products (buildings with improved energy performances. The EPC’s information could be useful in the determination of relevant policies and also in studying the characteristics of the building resources of the territory. This paper presents a case study related to the EPC Database of the Emilia-Romagna Region in mid-northern Italy. The case study shows a way of elaborating the EPC information in statistical analysis evaluations with aggregate data, in order to measure a territory and then direct energy policies toward energy efficiency. A statistical approach was used to define a characteristic statistical indicator index of the EPC database, and compare the energy index with the bottom-up and top-down methods, in order to identify some energy policy scenarios.

  15. Building Intercultural Competence through Intercultural Competency Certification of Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeiro, Maria G. Fabregas; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Nuno de la Parra, Jose Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The Intercultural Competency Certificate (CCI in Spanish) designed for the Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP University) is a theory based comprehensive plan to develop undergraduate students' intercultural competence. This Certificate is based in the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) developed by…

  16. Vocational Certification in Office Education through Competency-Based Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzel, Sandra

    1978-01-01

    A Vocational Certificate of Completion is given by the Ohio State Department of Education to each vocational student to verify that the student has satisfactorily completed a vocational program. The author describes a plan in the senior stenography program at her high school to match the certificate's employment skill levels with competency-based…

  17. In situ vitrification: application analysis for stabilization of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in situ vitrification process builds upon the electric melter technology previously developed for high-level waste immobilization. In situ vitrification converts buried wastes and contaminated soil to an extremely durable glass and crystalline waste form by melting the materials, in place, using joule heating. Once the waste materials have been solidified, the high integrity waste form should not cause future ground subsidence. Environmental transport of the waste due to water or wind erosion, and plant or animal intrusion, is minimized. Environmental studies are currently being conducted to determine whether additional stabilization is required for certain in-ground transuranic waste sites. An applications analysis has been performed to identify several in situ vitrification process limitations which may exist at transuranic waste sites. Based on the process limit analysis, in situ vitrification is well suited for solidification of most in-ground transuranic wastes. The process is best suited for liquid disposal sites. A site-specific performance analysis, based on safety, health, environmental, and economic assessments, will be required to determine for which sites in situ vitrification is an acceptable disposal technique. Process economics of in situ vitrification compare favorably with other in-situ solidification processes and are an order of magnitude less than the costs for exhumation and disposal in a repository. Leachability of the vitrified product compares closely with that of Pyrex glass and is significantly better than granite, marble, or bottle glass. Total release to the environment from a vitrified waste site is estimated to be less than 10-5 parts per year. 32 figures, 30 tables

  18. Technology status report: Transuranic contamination control at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes proposed FY-92 work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in the field of contamination control during transuranic waste handling operations. The proposed work is both applied research and demonstration testing. The INEL needs for contamination control applied research and demonstration testing are listed along with a description of past accomplishments. The INEL proposal is compared to other proposals for contamination control work that are under consideration for funding by the Department of Energy. Benefits of this work and impacts of not sponsoring this work are also given. 21 refs

  19. Unique features of transuranic odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odd-odd nuclei in the transuranic region have significantly longer half-lives than their odd-mass core nuclei. Further, the occurrence of long-lived isomers is a quite common feature in these nuclei. Interestingly in almost all the known isomer pairs, the ambiguity in the relative energy placement of the two isomers does not enable to know which of the two isomers is the real ground state. This is due to the fact that due to large difference in isomer spins, the two do not connect through an isomeric transition (IT). In this report these properties are illustrated by discussing the Z=99 Einsteinium sequence of nuclei

  20. Fluidized bed incineration process design for transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluidized bed incineration facility has been installed at the Rocky Flats Plant to develop and demonstrate a process for the combustion of transuranic waste. The unit's capacity is about 82 kg/hr of combustible solid waste, which is nine times higher than the rate for the operating pilot-scale unit. The facility utilizes nonaqueous, in situ neutralization of acid gases. These gases are generated during the combustion of halogen-containing materials. The low-temperature (550 0C) operation eliminates refractory-lined equipment

  1. Gas generation from transuranic waste degradation: an interim assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of all available, applicable data pertaining to gas generation from the degradation of transuranic waste matrix material and packaging is presented. Waste forms are representative of existing defense-related TRU wastes and include cellulosics, plastics, rubbers, concrete, process sludges, and mild steel. Degradation mechanisms studied were radiolysis, thermal, bacterial, and chemical corrosion. Gas generation rates are presented in terms of moles of gas produced per year per drum, and in G(gas) values for radiolytic degradation. Comparison of generation rates is made, as is a discussion of potential short- and long-term concerns. Techniques for reducing gas generation rates are discussed. 6 figures, 10 tables

  2. Methods for removing transuranic elements from waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines a treatment scheme for separating and concentrating the transuranic (TRU) elements present in aqueous waste solutions stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The treatment method selected is carrier precipitation. Potential carriers will be evaluated in future laboratory work, beginning with ferric hydroxide and magnetite. The process will result in a supernatant with alpha activity low enough that it can be treated in the existing evaporator/concentrator at ANL. The separated TRU waste will be packaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  3. Solid, low-level radioactive waste certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities accept solid, low-level radioactive waste from onsite and offsite generators. This manual defines the certification program that is used to provide assurance that the waste meets the Hanford Site waste acceptance criteria. Specifically, this program defines the participation and responsibilities of Westinghouse Hanford Company Solid Waste Engineering Support, Westinghouse Hanford Company Quality Assurance, and both onsite and offsite waste generators. It is intended that waste generators use this document to develop certification plans and quality assurance program plans. This document is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved in providing assurance that generators have implemented a waste certification program. This assurance involves review and approval of generator certification plans, and review of generator's quality assurance program plans to ensure that they address all applicable requirements. The document also details the Westinghouse Hanford Company Waste Management Audit and Surveillance Program. 5 refs

  4. Assessment of gas flammability in transuranic waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package [Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) SARP] set limits for gas generation rates, wattage limits, and flammable volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in transuranic (TRU) waste containers that would be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Based on existing headspace gas data for drums stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), over 30 percent of the contact-handled TRU waste drums contain flammable VOC concentrations greater than the limit. Additional requirements may be imposed for emplacement of waste in the WIPP facility. The conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the facility required that flame tests be performed if significant levels of flammable VOCs were present in TRU waste containers. This paper describes an approach for investigating the potential flammability of TRU waste drums, which would increase the allowable concentrations of flammable VOCS. A flammability assessment methodology is presented that will allow more drums to be shipped to WIPP without treatment or repackaging and reduce the need for flame testing on drums. The approach includes experimental work to determine mixture lower explosive limits (MLEL) for the types of gas mixtures observed in TRU waste, a model for predicting the MLEL for mixtures of VOCS, hydrogen, and methane, and revised screening limits for total flammable VOCs concentrations and concentrations of hydrogen and methane using existing drum headspace gas data and the model predictions

  5. Data base of the environmental aspects of the transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indexed and abstracted references to the environmental aspects of the transuranium elements are entered into and are retrievable from a dynamic, computerized information file (or data base) that is easily modified to reflect changing research needs. The information is distilled from the documents with the specific needs of the researcher in mind, such as numeric results, new methods, or instrumentation. The major areas of evaluation are: biological and medical studies on the effects of the transuranics, particularly as these elements relate to health considerations in man; biological and ecological availability, turnover, and food chain dynamics; analysis of environmental materials; environmental transport mechanisms, including resuspension; waste disposal as related to environmental concerns; monitoring; and regulations and standards for environmental levels. Annotated references are indexed to allow easy access for retrieving references to documents of interest to the user. The goal is to furnish the users all the references related to their specific query and few that are unrelated. This is done by liberal use of subject categories and keyterms. The studies on man and animals are divided into the subject categories of medical and biological aspects. Those aspects that are considered important when the document is analyzed are tabulated. These data are sought for in the article, included in the abstracts, and indexed with keyterms. This checklist is one of the ways the Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics strives to give users a reference to every paper in their subject area

  6. Input of transuranic elements through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of 137Cs, 238Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241Am were carried out on river water as well as its suspended matter collected seasonally in 1977 from two Mediterranean rivers, the Var and the Rhone. The results show that although the concentrations of the soluble fractions of these radionuclides are higher in the Rhone than in the Var, even the elevated concentrations of soluble 137Cs (approximately 40 fCi.ltr-1) and sup(239+240)Pu (approximately 0.1 fCi.ltr-1) in the Rhone are much lower than the average concentrations of these nuclides in Mediterranean surface waters. On the other hand, the concentrations of the nuclides measured in suspended matter are roughly an order of magnitude higher in the Rhone than in the Var. Based on the results of measurements on the two rivers, and assuming that the annual average concentrations of the radionuclides in the Var and the Rhone respectively represent those in radiologically uncontaminated and contaminated Mediterranean rivers, the total inputs of 137Cs, 238Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241Am through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea have been estimated. Comparison of these estimated values with the inputs of fallout radionuclides by rain indicates that although local accumulation of transuranic nuclides may be observed on sediments taken from some limited estuarine areas, the geochemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean, as a whole, is exclusively governed today by the fallout input of these elements. (author)

  7. Transportation system (TRUPACT) for contact-handled transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contact-handled transuranic defense waste is being, and will continue to be, moved between a number of locations in the United States. The DOE is sponsoring development of safe, efficient, licensable, and cost-effective transportation systems to handle this waste. The systems being developed have been named TRUPACT which stands for TRansUranic PACkage Transporter. The system will be compatible with Type A packagings used by waste generators, interim storage facilities, and repositories. TRUPACT is required to be a Type B packaging since larger than Type A quantities of some radionuclides (particularly plutonium) may be involved in the collection of Type A packagings. TRUPACT must provide structural and thermal protection to the waste in hypothetical accident environments specified in DOT regulations 49CFR173 and NRC regulations 10CFR71. Preliminary design of the systems has been completed and final design for a truck system is underway. The status of the development program is reviewed in this paper and the reference design is described. Tests that have been conducted are discussed and long-term program objectives are reviewed

  8. Five decades ago: form the ''transuranics'' to nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of nuclear fission is one of the most outstanding episodes in the history of chemistry: It starts in the spring of 1934 when Enrico Fermi and his group irradiate uranium with neutrons and seem to succeed in going beyond uranium, the then heaviest known element, reaching the first transuranic element; it continues with Otto Hahn, Use Meilner and Fritz Slrassmann who believe to have found additional transuranic elements; with Irene Curie and Paul Saviich who observe an activity which somehow does not fit into that scheme; again with Otto Hahn and Fritz Slrassmann who first identify this activity as radium but then on the 17th of December 1938 after rigorous chemical tests realize that the activity is instead barium, thus discovering the fission of the uranium atom into two lighter nuclei; and with Use Meitner and Otto Robert Frisch who explain nuclear fission on the basis of an already known nuclear model; Otto Robert Frisch finally performs a physical experiment on the 13th of January 1939 which corroborates the fission of uranium. This discovery of nuclear fission is not only an event of historic dimensions, it is also an excellent example of how science evolves, not by successive logical steps but rather through strange detours. (orig.)

  9. Five decades ago: From the 'transuranics' to 'nuclear fission'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of nuclear fission is one of the most outstanding episodes in the history of chemistry: It starts in the spring of 1934 when Enrico Fermi and his group irradiate uranium with neutrons and seem to succeed in going beyond uranium, the then heaviest known element, reaching the first transuranic element; it continues with Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann who believe to have found additional transuranic elements; with Irene Curie and Paul Savitch who observe an activity which somehow does not fit into that scheme; again with Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann who first identify this activity as radium but then on the 17th of December 1938 after rigorous chemical tests realize that the activity is instead barium, thus discovering the fission of the uranium atom into two lighter nuclei; and with Lise Meitner and Otto Robert Frisch who explain nuclear fission on the basis of an already known nuclear model; Otto Robert Frisch finally performs a physical experiment on the 13th of January 1939 which corroborates the fission of uranium. This discovery of nuclear fission is not only an event of historic dimensions, it is also an excellent example of how science evolves, not by successive logical steps but rather through strange detours. (orig.)

  10. Decontamination of transuranic contaminated metals by melt refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melt refining of transuranic contaminated metals is a possible decontamination process with the potential advantages of producing metal for reuse and of simplifying chemical analyses. By routinely achieving the 10 nCi/g( about0.1ppm) level by melt refining, scrap metal can be removed from the transuranic waste category. (To demonstrate the effectiveness of this melt refining process, mild steel, stainless steel, nickel, and copper were contaminated with 500 ppm (μg/g) PuO2 and melted with various fluxes. The solidified slags and metals were analyzed for their plutonium contents, and corresponding partition ratios for plutonium were calculated. Some metals were double refined in order to study the effect of secondary slag treatment. The initial weight of the slags was also varied to investigate the effect of slag weight on the degree of plutonium removal. In general, all four metals could be decontaminated below 1 ppm (μg/g) Pu ( about100 nCi/g) by a single slag treatment. Doubling the slag weight did not improve decontamination significantly; however, double slag treatment using 5 wt.% slag did decontaminate the metals to below 0.1 ppm (μg/g) Pu (10 nCi/g).)

  11. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Hanford Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of Hanford's transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required methods used for waste characterization (Reference 1). Various programs exist to ensure the validity of waste characterization data; all of these cite the need for clearly defined knowledge of uncertainty, associated with any measurements taken. All measurements have an inherent uncertainty associated with them. The combined effect of all uncertainties associated with a measurement is referred to as the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU). The NDA measurement uncertainties can be numerous and complex. In addition to system-induced measurement uncertainty, other factors contribute to the TMU, each associated with a particular measurement. The NDA measurements at WRAP are based on processes (radioactive decay and induced fission) which are statistical in nature. As a result, the proper statistical summation of the various uncertainty components is essential. This report examines the contributing factors to NDA measurement uncertainty at WRAP. The significance of each factor on the TMU is analyzed, and a final method is given for determining the TMU for NDA measurements at WRAP. As more data becomes available, and WRAP gains in operational experience, this report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary. This report also includes the data flow paths for the analytical process in the radiometric determinations

  12. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLS, C.E.

    2000-02-24

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility, located on the Hanford Site in southeast Washington, is a key link in the certification of Hanford's transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste characterization is one of the vital functions performed at WRAP, and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of TRU waste containers is one of two required methods used for waste characterization (Reference 1). Various programs exist to ensure the validity of waste characterization data; all of these cite the need for clearly defined knowledge of uncertainty, associated with any measurements taken. All measurements have an inherent uncertainty associated with them. The combined effect of all uncertainties associated with a measurement is referred to as the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU). The NDA measurement uncertainties can be numerous and complex. In addition to system-induced measurement uncertainty, other factors contribute to the TMU, each associated with a particular measurement. The NDA measurements at WRAP are based on processes (radioactive decay and induced fission) which are statistical in nature. As a result, the proper statistical summation of the various uncertainty components is essential. This report examines the contributing factors to NDA measurement uncertainty at WRAP. The significance of each factor on the TMU is analyzed, and a final method is given for determining the TMU for NDA measurements at WRAP. As more data becomes available, and WRAP gains in operational experience, this report will be reviewed semi-annually and updated as necessary. This report also includes the data flow paths for the analytical process in the radiometric determinations.

  13. Combustion and fuel loading characteristics of Hanford Site transuranic solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is being designed for construction in the north end of the Central Waste Complex. The WRAP Facility will receive, store, and process radioactive solid waste of both transuranic (TRU) and mixed waste (mixed radioactive-chemical waste) categories. Most of the waste is in 208-L (55-gal) steel drums. Other containers such as wood and steel boxes, and various sized drums will also be processed in the facility. The largest volume of waste and the type addressed in this report is TRU in 208-L (55-gal) drums that is scheduled to be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1). Half of the TRU waste processed by WRAP 1 is expected to be retrieved stored waste and the other half newly generated waste. Both the stored and new waste will be processed to certify it for permanent storage in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or disposal. The stored waste will go through a process of retrieval, examination, analysis, segregation, repackaging, relabeling, and documentation before certification and WIPP shipment. Newly generated waste should be much easier to process and certify. However, a substantial number of drums of both retrievable and newly generated waste will require temporary storage and handling in WRAP. Most of the TRU waste is combustible or has combustible components. Therefore, the presence of a substantial volume of drummed combustible waste raises concern about fire safety in WRAP and similar waste drum storage facilities. This report analyzes the fire related characteristics of the expected WRAP TRU waste stream

  14. 28 CFR 22.23 - Privacy certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy certification. 22.23 Section 22.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND... been agreed upon for future maintenance of such data. (7) Project plans will be designed to...

  15. Energy saving certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French ministry of economy, finances and industry and the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) have organized on November 8, 2005, a colloquium for the presentation of the energy saving certificates, a new tool to oblige the energy suppliers to encourage their clients to make energy savings. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this colloquium about the following topics: state-of-the-art and presentation of the energy saving certificates system: presentation of the EEC system, presentation of the EEC standard operations; the energy saving certificates in Europe today: energy efficiency commitment in UK, Italian white certificate scheme, perspectives of the different European systems. (J.S.)

  16. Inspection and test planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of Quality Plan - arrangement of all necessary tests or inspections as far as possible filted to certain components or systems. Subject of Quality Plan - precise determination of tests or inspections and - according to the actual safety significance - the certificates to be done. Disposition of Quality Plan - accommodation of tests to the actual state of fabrication. Application of Quality Plan - to any component or system that is regarded. Supervision of Employment - by authorized personnel of manufacturer, customer or authority providing exact employment of quality plan. Overservance of Instructions - certificates given by authorized personnel. (orig./RW)

  17. Waste Generator Instructions: Key to Successful Implementation of the US DOE's 435.1 for Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions (LA-UR-12-24155) - 13218

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In times of continuing fiscal constraints, a management and operation tool that is straightforward to implement, works as advertised, and virtually ensures compliant waste packaging should be carefully considered and employed wherever practicable. In the near future, the Department of Energy (DOE) will issue the first major update to DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This update will contain a requirement for sites that do not have a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste certification program to use two newly developed technical standards: Contact-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions and Remote-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions. The technical standards are being developed from the DOE O 435.1 Notice, Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Packaging, approved August 2011. The packaging instructions will provide detailed information and instruction for packaging almost every conceivable type of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal at WIPP. While providing specificity, the packaging instructions leave to each site's own discretion the actual mechanics of how those Instructions will be functionally implemented at the floor level. While the Technical Standards are designed to provide precise information for compliant packaging, the density of the information in the packaging instructions necessitates a type of Rosetta Stone that translates the requirements into concise, clear, easy to use and operationally practical recipes that are waste stream and facility specific for use by both first line management and hands-on operations personnel. The Waste Generator Instructions provide the operator with step-by-step instructions that will integrate the sites' various operational requirements (e.g., health and safety limits, radiological limits or dose limits) and result in a WIPP certifiable waste and package that can be transported to and emplaced at WIPP. These little known but widely productive Waste

  18. Certification for Information Brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Deborah C.

    1995-01-01

    The future of the information broker business depends on certification. Some obstacles are lack of commonality, control, a professional title, and time. Core competencies (ethics, professional conduct, and client care) and specialties could determine certification criteria, and a grace period for phasing in established brokers could be initiated.…

  19. Electron accelerator based system for assay of transuranic waste barrels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete assay system for 208-liter barrels contianing transuranic wastes has been developed. The system consists of an 8-MeV commercial electron accelerator, neutron moderating cavity housing the waste barrel and containing neutron detectors, high resolution germanium gamma spectrometer, and x-ray radiography camera (both film and real time). The electron linac is used to produce bremsstrahlung and high-intensity pulsed neutron flux, both of which are used to interrogate the fissionable materials. The Differential Dieaway Technique is used to assay the amounts of fissile and fertile materials. The neutron flux is also used in the Prompt Gamma Activation Assay to determine and to quantify the matrix elements present in the barrels. This information is then used to correct the assay of fissionable material. The bremsstrahlung too, is also used by x-ray radiography system to further identify the matrix

  20. W-026, transuranic waste (TRU) glovebox acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-03-11

    On July 18, 1997, the Transuranic (TRU) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13021A-86. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, sorting table, lidder/delidder device and the TRU empty drum compactor were also conducted. As of February 25, 1998, 10 of the 102 test exceptions that affect the TRU glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  1. Nevada Applied Ecology Group procedures handbook for environmental transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) integrated research studies of environmental plutonium and other transuranics at the Nevada Test Site have required many standardized field and laboratory procedures. These include sampling techniques, collection and preparation, radiochemical and wet chemistry analysis, data bank storage and reporting, and statistical considerations for environmental samples of soil, vegetation, resuspended particles, animals, and other biological material. This document, printed in two volumes, includes most of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group standard procedures, with explanations as to the specific applications involved in the environmental studies. Where there is more than one document concerning a procedure, it has been included to indicate special studies or applications more complex than the routine standard sampling procedures utilized

  2. Nevada Applied Ecology Group procedures handbook for environmental transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) integrated research studies of environmental plutonium and other transuranics at the Nevada Test Site have required many standardized field and laboratory procedures. These include sampling techniques, collection and preparation, radiochemical and wet chemistry analysis, data bank storage and reporting, and statistical considerations for environmental samples of soil, vegetation, resuspended particles, animals, and others. This document, printed in two volumes, includes most of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group standard procedures, with explanations as to the specific applications involved in the environmental studies. Where there is more than one document concerning a procedure, it has been included to indicate special studies or applications perhaps more complex than the routine standard sampling procedures utilized

  3. Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document

  4. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  5. W-026, transuranic waste (TRU) glovebox acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 18, 1997, the Transuranic (TRU) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13021A-86. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, sorting table, lidder/delidder device and the TRU empty drum compactor were also conducted. As of February 25, 1998, 10 of the 102 test exceptions that affect the TRU glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test exceptions are provided as appendices to this report

  6. Development of consistent hazard controls for DOE transuranic waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of a re-engineering initiative undertaken with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) in order to standardize hazard analysis assumptions and methods and resulting safety controls applied to multiple transuranic (TRU) waste operations located across the United States. A wide range of safety controls are historically applied to transuranic waste operations, in spite of the fact that these operations have similar operational characteristics and hazard/accident potential. The re-engineering effort supported the development of a DOE technical standard with specific safety controls designated for accidents postulated during waste container retrieval, staging/storage, venting, onsite movements, and characterization activities. Controls cover preventive and mitigative measures; include both hardware and specific administrative controls; and provide protection to the facility worker, onsite co-located workers and the general public located outside of facility boundaries. The Standard development involved participation from all major DOE sites conducting TRU waste operations. Both safety analysts and operations personnel contributed to the re-engineering effort. Acknowledgment is given in particular to the following individuals who formed a core working group: Brenda Hawks, (DOE Oak Ridge Office), Patrice McEahern (CWI-Idaho), Jofu Mishima (Consultant), Louis Restrepo (Omicron), Jay Mullis (DOE-ORO), Mike Hitchler (WSMS), John Menna (WSMS), Jackie East (WSMS), Terry Foppe (CTAC), Carla Mewhinney (WIPP-SNL), Stephie Jennings (WIPP-LANL), Michael Mikolanis (DOESRS), Kraig Wendt (BBWI-Idaho), Lee Roberts (Fluor Hanford), and Jim Blankenhorn (WSRC). Additional acknowledgment is given to Dae Chung (EM) and Ines Triay (EM) for leadership and management of the re-engineering effort. (authors)

  7. Design of packaging for transporting transuranic contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contact-handled transuranic (C-TRU) waste continues to be generated and temporarily stored at a number of locations in the United States as a by-product of national defense programs. The Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories has assumed the lead lab responsibility for development of safe, efficient, licensable, and cost-effective transportation systems to be used in the management of this waste. The TRansUranic PACkage Transporter (TRUPACT), a Type B packaging, will be transported by rail or truck and will be compatible with Type A packagings used by waste generators, interim storage sites, and repositories. Developing an efficient interface with each facility is being given a high priority. CH-TRU waste is typically packaged in steel drums, fiberglass reinforced plywood (FRP) boxes, or a variety of steel boxes. The waste typically consists of plutonium contaminated metal scraps, sludge, paper, filters, and other materials resulting from production of weapons grade nuclear materials and from reprocessing operations. The activity of the waste is low with the maximum container surface dose rate being less than 200 mrem/h. Preliminary design of the packaging has been completed and effective methods have been employed to prevent failure under both the normal handling and hypothetical accident conditions. This paper describes design criteria adopted, mechanical and physical features of the packaging, and packaging features included to meet regulatory test conditions. In addition, analyses that have been conducted are summarized, scale model tests that have been performed are discussed, and the program schedule through delivery of first production units are outlined

  8. Electric arc furnace melting of simulated transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an interagency agreement between the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior, and the US Department of Energy through its contractor, EG and G Idaho, Inc., the Bureau conducted six melting tests at its Albany Research Center to assess the feasibility of melting transuranic-containing wastes. The tests were conducted with simulated wastes in a conventional refractory-lined electric arc furnace. Charge materials included concrete, soil, metal, wood, CaO- and Na2O-containing chemical waste sludges, cement, and polyethylene mixed in various proportions in both unburned and partially incinerated forms. The investigation showed that it is possible to melt these materials in a 1-metric-ton conventional electric arc furnace and separate the slag and metal provided that suitable fluxes are added to condition the silicious slages. However, the electric arc furnace cannot be considered an efficient incinerator. The molten slags were poured into 210-liter steel drums having a 0.64-cm-thick steel chill plate on the bottom. All slags were tapped from the furnace satisfactorily. The concrete and sludge materials required the most energy for melting (2.2 to 2.6 kWhr/kg). The highest electrode consumption occurred when the sludges were melted (0.04 kg/kg product). A high alumina-chrome refractory is satisfactory for use as a furnace lining in melting these wastes. Offgases and particulates from all of the tests were sampled and analyzed. The greatest amounts of particulate matter in the offgas streams were obtained from melting sludges and incinerated wastes. It is recommended that if a conventional electric arc furnace is used to melt transuranic waste that it (1) be fed slowly to prevent excessive fumes and flames and (2) be operated continuously to minimize startup problems and improve efficiency

  9. Degradation of transuranic waste drums in underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford site is one of several U.S. Department of Energy locations that has transuranic radioactive Waste in storage, resulting from nuclear weapons material production. Transuranic waste has extremely long-lived radionuclides requiring great care in management; such waste is slated for eventual disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Most of this waste is stored in 208-ell (55-gal) drums below ground. At the Hanford site 37 641 drums are stored in several trenches. The drums were stacked up to five high with plywood sheeting between the layers and on top of the stacks. Plastic tarps were used to cover the drums and the plywood, with several feet of earth backfilled on top of the plastic. A fraction of the drums (∼20%) were covered only with earth, not with plywood and plastic. The drums are either painted low-carbon steel or galvanized low-carbon steel. They have been placed in storage from 1970 to 1988, resulting in between 7 and 25 yr of storage. The environment is either soil or air atmosphere. The air atmosphere environment also includes, for some drum surfaces, contact with the underside of the tarp. The temperature of the air atmosphere is relatively uniform. Year-round measurements have not been taken, but available data suggest that the temperature span should be from ∼ 10 to 30 degrees C (50 to 86 degrees F). Humidity in underground storage module mock-ups has been measured at nearly 90% during testing in the summer months. Subsequent tests have shown that the humidity probably drops to 50 to 60% during other seasons. This report describes results of a project to inspect the condition of the waste drums

  10. Relationship of microbial processes to the fate of transuranic elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any assessment of the long-term behavior of the transuranics in the terrestrial environment must be based on determination of the factors influencing solubility in soil. The influence of soil properties and abiotic and biotic processes on the long-term solubility of the transuranics entering soils is reviewed in detail. Principal emphasis is directed toward the role of soil microorganisms. Emphasis is given to plutonium, but, where possible, the available information is used to discuss long-term behavior of other transuranics

  11. Risk perception on management of nuclear high-level and transuranic waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's program for disposing of nuclear High-Level Waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste has been impeded by overwhelming political opposition fueled by public perceptions of actual risk. Analysis of these perceptions shows them to be deeply rooted in images of fear and dread that have been present since the discovery of radioactivity. The development and use of nuclear weapons linked these images to reality and the mishandling of radioactive waste from the nations military weapons facilities has contributed toward creating a state of distrust that cannot be erased quickly or easily. In addition, the analysis indicates that even the highly educated technical community is not well informed on the latest technology involved with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. It is not surprising then, that the general public feels uncomfortable with DOE's management plans for with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. Postponing the permanent geologic repository and use of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) would provide the time necessary for difficult social and political issues to be resolved. It would also allow time for the public to become better educated if DOE chooses to become proactive

  12. Buried transuranic wastes at ORNL: Review of past estimates and reconciliation with current data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inventories of buried (generally meaning disposed of) transuranic (TRU) wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been estimated for site remediation and waste management planning over a period of about two decades. Estimates were required because of inadequate waste characterization and incomplete disposal records. For a variety of reasons, including changing definitions of TRU wastes, differing objectives for the estimates, and poor historical data, the published results have sometimes been in conflict. The purpose of this review was (1) to attempt to explain both the rationale for and differences among the various estimates, and (2) to update the estimates based on more recent information obtained from waste characterization and from evaluations of ORNL waste data bases and historical records. The latter included information obtained from an expert panel's review and reconciliation of inconsistencies in data identified during preparation of the ORNL input for the third revision of the Baseline Inventory Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The results summarize current understanding of the relationship between past estimates of buried TRU wastes and provide the most up-to-date information on recorded burials thereafter. The limitations of available information on the latter and thus the need for improved waste characterization are highlighted

  13. Risk perception on management of nuclear high-level and transuranic waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, L.A.

    1994-08-15

    The Department of Energy`s program for disposing of nuclear High-Level Waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste has been impeded by overwhelming political opposition fueled by public perceptions of actual risk. Analysis of these perceptions shows them to be deeply rooted in images of fear and dread that have been present since the discovery of radioactivity. The development and use of nuclear weapons linked these images to reality and the mishandling of radioactive waste from the nations military weapons facilities has contributed toward creating a state of distrust that cannot be erased quickly or easily. In addition, the analysis indicates that even the highly educated technical community is not well informed on the latest technology involved with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. It is not surprising then, that the general public feels uncomfortable with DOE`s management plans for with nuclear HLW and TRU waste disposal. Postponing the permanent geologic repository and use of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) would provide the time necessary for difficult social and political issues to be resolved. It would also allow time for the public to become better educated if DOE chooses to become proactive.

  14. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work by...

  15. Employment certificates on HRT

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    As part of the ongoing drive to simplify and streamline administrative procedures and processes, the IT and HR Departments have made employment certificates available on a self-service basis on the HRT application, in the main menu under "My self services". All members of the personnel can thus obtain a certificate of employment or association, in French or in English, for the present or past contractual period. The HR Department’s Records Office remains responsible for issuing any special certificates that might be required. IT-AIS (Administrative Information Services) HR-SPS (Services, Procedures & Social) Records Office – Tel. 73700

  16. LMR design concepts for transuranic management in low sodium void worth cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel cycle processing techniques and hard neutron spectrum of the integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metal fuel cycle have favorable characteristics for the management of transuranics; and the wide range of breeding characteristics available in metal fuelled cores provides for flexibility in transuranic management strategy. Previous studies indicate that most design options which decrease the breeding ratio also allow a decrease in sodium void worth; therefore, low void worths are achievable in transuranic burning (low breeding ratio) core designs. This paper describes numerous trade studies assessing various design options for a low void worth transuranic burner core. A flat annular core design appears to be a promising concept; the high leakage geometry yields a low breeding ratio and small sodium void worth. To allow flexibility in breeding characteristics, alternate design options which achieve fissile self-sufficiency are also evaluated. A self-sufficient core design which is interchangeable with the burner core and maintains a low sodium void worth is developed. (author)

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides baseline inventories of transuranic wastes for the WIPP facility. Information on waste forms, forecasting of future inventories, and waste stream originators is also provided. A diskette is provided which contains the inventory database

  18. Test and evaluation of a high-sensitivity assay system for bulk transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past year, we tested and evaluated the performance of an assay system that accommodates 55-gal drums of transuranic waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This neutron assay system provides a routine assay of fissile transuranic isotopes to the 1-mg sensitivity level with a pulsed active neutron interrogation based on the differential dieaway technique. A highly sensitive passive neutron measurement determines the content of spontaneous fission transuranic isotopes in each drum as well as an upper-bound estimate of the total alpha activity. All components of the combined, pulsed active and passive neutron assay system performed well on a routine basis during the test-and-evaluation period. We performed more than 400 combined passive and active assay measurements of waste drums at Oak Ridge. One-fifth of the initial set of waste drums measured contain less than 100 nCi/g of total transuranic isotopes and thus qualify legally as nontransuranic waste

  19. Disposal of transuranic solid waste using Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process for disposal of transuranic solid waste utilizes a molten salt to combust organic materials, to trap inorganic substances including transuranics, and to react chemically with acidic gases formed during combustion. Subsequent processing of the melt in an aqueous system produces three products: (1) ash, which includes the transuranics, (2) salt, which is recycled to the combustor, and (3) solid sodium chloride for disposal. The transuranics are readily leached from the ash and separated via ion exchange techniques. The leached ash is the second solid process product requiring disposal. No liquid wastes are produced in the process. The reductions in weight and volume are 82 and 98 percent respectively, if one considers the products from the process only. (U.S.)

  20. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  1. Digital signature and certification authorities

    OpenAIRE

    Prouza, Marek

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deal with Public Key Infrastructure issue, certificates and certification authorities. At the beginning there is included chapter about cryptography for better understanding including historical evolution of ciphers and analysis of three important ciphers. In the next chapter are discussed possibilities and principles of certification authorities, certificates and x509 standard. Following chapter discuss practical use of certificates in business, MS Office aplications and...

  2. Transuranic waste assay instrumentation: new developments and directions at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, D.A.; Umbarger, C.J.; West, L.; Smith, W.J.; Cates, M.R.; Noel, B.W.; Honey, F.J.; Franks, L.A.; Pigg, J.L.; Trundle, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is developing assay instrumentation for the quantitative analysis of transuranic materials found in bulk solid wastes generated by Department of Energy facilities and by the commercial nuclear power industry. This also includes wastes generated in the decontamination and decommissioning of facilities and wastes generated during burial ground exhumation. The assay instrumentation will have a detection capability for the transuranics of less than 10 nCi of activity per gram of waste whenever practicable.

  3. Removal of plutonium and other transuranic elements from man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the use of plutonium(Pu239)and the other transuranic elements in peaceful pursuits is added to their use for defence purposes, the chance of deposition within the body is increasing. Therapy for such conditions become increasingly important. Usually, Pu239 gains entry to the body by inhalation or through wounds. When the plutonium compound, which is inhaled is poorly soluble in the lung, it is difficult to evaluate treatment by assay of the urine and faeces. Likewise, when plutonium is deposited in a wound the absorption rate varies greatly depending upon solubility, physical state and other factors and the inference drawn from excretion in urine and faeces may be in considerable error since data relating excretion to body deposit is based on intravenous injection of the material. This almost never occurs in practice. Several employees who have had, for several years, depositions obtained accidentally by inhalation, varying from 1/2 to 10 times the maximum permissible limit (radiation guide) have been treated with the tri-sodium calcium salt of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and the present paper summarizes the results of such treatment in terms of rate of excretion of Pu239 in urine and faeces with and without treatment. A number of employees who have had depositions of plutonium or its compounds in flesh have also been treated at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation by surgical excision. This has sometimes been followed by intravenous DTPA therapy to increase elimination of systemically deposited Pu239. Our policy is to excise any measurable quantity of Pu239 if this may be accomplished with little hazard to the patient. The NCRP has not set a permissible limit or guide for Pu239 deposition in a wound. Basis for a guide figure is lacking at present and needs clarification by considerable study in animals and biopsy studies, where possible, in man. The assumption that the permissible wound deposition for Pu239 should be the same as that for the

  4. Indirect Air Carrier Certification

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Required information is entered in order to obtain an IAC certification and do business as an IAC. Information is verified through site inspections and inspections...

  5. Wind power certificate marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind Power Certificate marketing is a green power development program in Canada. The Pembina Institute partnered with Vision Quest Windelectric in October 2003 to sell Wind Power Certificates to individuals and businesses. Individuals who buy Wind Power Certificates directly support the development of wind energy in Canada and support one of Pembina's main areas of work, the development of sustainable energy. This presentation outlined both the successes and challenges of marketing the certificates. Wind Power Certificates represent the benefits that wind power generation provides, such as zero emissions of greenhouse gases and regional air pollutants; minimal impacts on the biosphere; and, offsetting life-cycle impacts of other energy sources such as fossil fuels. They also represent quality assurance on new wind power commissioned after April 2001. In the price structure of Pembina's Wind Power Certificate, a premium of 2.7 cents per kWh is charged above the regular electricity price. The premium is lowered slightly for purchases of 200 MWh or more. Pembina also began a secondary campaign in July 2004 to have 20,000 computers powered by wind across Canada. This PC campaign offers the general public an option to support wind power development in a way that is easy to understand. In the PC campaign, a consumer is asked to pay $16 per 3 years for a laptop computer or $32 per 3 years for an average desktop computer. Vision Quest has received a Market Incentive Program grant through Natural Resources Canada to help market Pembina's wind power programs. Although the programs are too new to provide important statistical information, some small successes have been reported to date including 1950 MWh of Wind Power Certificates that have been purchased, representing a reduction of about 1730 tonnes of carbon dioxide. One of the challenges facing the Wind Power Certificate program is that some companies feel they already pay too much for electricity and the premium cost of

  6. Certification of Pork Products

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Tomas K.H.; Foster, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide insights on the welfare distributional impact on consumer and producer welfare resulting from the development and implementation of a credence certification program in the U.S. pork sector. The certification program can provide various levels of tracking and tracing in the marketing chain. The modeling framework follows that of Nilsson (2005), which encompasses product differentiation and substitution across meat products at the consumer level and acr...

  7. PROJECT STRATEGY FOR THE REMEDIATION AND DISPOSITION OF LEGACY TRANSURANIC WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE, South Carolina, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.

    2010-12-17

    This paper discusses the Savannah River Site Accelerated Transuranic (TRU) Waste Project that was initiated in April of 2009 to accelerate the disposition of remaining legacy transuranic waste at the site. An overview of the project execution strategy that was implemented is discussed along with the lessons learned, challenges and improvements to date associated with waste characterization, facility modifications, startup planning, and remediation activities. The legacy waste was generated from approximately 1970 through 1990 and originated both on site as well as at multiple US Department of Energy sites. Approximately two thirds of the waste was previously dispositioned from 2006 to 2008, with the remaining one third being the more hazardous waste due to its activity (curie content) and the plutonium isotope Pu-238 quantities in the waste. The project strategy is a phased approach beginning with the lower activity waste in existing facilities while upgrades are made to support remediation of the higher activity waste. Five waste remediation process lines will be used to support the full remediation efforts which involve receipt of the legacy waste container, removal of prohibited items, venting of containers, and resizing of contents to fit into current approved waste shipping containers. Modifications have been minimized to the extent possible to meet the accelerated goals and involve limited upgrades to address life safety requirements, radiological containment needs, and handling equipment for the larger waste containers. Upgrades are also in progress for implementation of the TRUPACT III for the shipment of Standard Large Boxes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, the US TRU waste repository. The use of this larger shipping container is necessary for approximately 20% of the waste by volume due to limited size reduction capability. To date, approximately 25% of the waste has been dispositioned, and several improvements have been made to the overall processing

  8. Calculation of projected waste loads for transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of treatment and the treatment and interim storage site configurations (decentralized, regional, or centralized) impact transuranic (TRU) waste loads at and en route to sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Other elements that impact waste loads are the volume and characteristics of the waste and the unit operation parameters of the technologies used to treat it. Projected annual complexwide TRU waste loads under various TRU waste management alternatives were calculated using the WASTEunderscoreMGMT computational model. WASTEunderscoreMGMT accepts as input three types of data: (1) the waste stream inventory volume, mass, and contaminant characteristics by generating site and waste stream category; (2) unit operation parameters of treatment technologies; and (3) waste management alternative definitions. Results indicate that the designed capacity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, identified under all waste management alternatives as the permanent disposal facility for DOE-generated TRU waste, is sufficient for the projected complexwide TRU waste load under any of the alternatives

  9. Promises and Challenges of Thorium Implementation for Transuranic Transmutation - 13550

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E.; Wenner, M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Lindley, B. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fiorina, C. [Polytechnic of Milan (Italy); Phillips, C. [Energy Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges of implementing a thorium fuel cycle for recycle and transmutation of long-lived actinide components from used nuclear fuel. A multi-stage reactor system is proposed; the first stage consists of current UO{sub 2} once-through LWRs supplying transuranic isotopes that are continuously recycled and burned in second stage reactors in either a uranium (U) or thorium (Th) carrier. The second stage reactors considered for the analysis are Reduced Moderation Pressurized Water Reactors (RMPWRs), reconfigured from current PWR core designs, and Fast Reactors (FRs) with a burner core design. While both RMPWRs and FRs can in principle be employed, each reactor and associated technology has pros and cons. FRs have unmatched flexibility and transmutation efficiency. RMPWRs have higher fuel manufacturing and reprocessing requirements, but may represent a cheaper solution and the opportunity for a shorter time to licensing and deployment. All options require substantial developments in manufacturing, due to the high radiation field, and reprocessing, due to the very high actinide recovery ratio to elicit the claimed radiotoxicity reduction. Th reduces the number of transmutation reactors, and is required to enable a viable RMPWR design, but presents additional challenges on manufacturing and reprocessing. The tradeoff between the various options does not make the choice obvious. Moreover, without an overarching supporting policy in place, the costly and challenging technologies required inherently discourage industrialization of any transmutation scheme, regardless of the adoption of U or Th. (authors)

  10. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Waste Retireval Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, G.M.; Christensen, D.V.; Stanford, A.R.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents the status of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) project for remediation of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste from Pads 1, 2, and 4. Some of the TRU waste packages retrieved from Pad I are anticipated to be part of LANL`s initial inventory to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in April 1998. The TRU Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP) was initiated in February 1993 in response to the New Mexico Environment Department`s (NMED`s) Consent Agreement for Compliance Order, ``New Mexico Hazardous Waste Agreement (NMHWA) 93-03.`` The TWISP involves the recovery of approximately 16,865 TRU and TRU-mixed waste containers currently under earthen cover on Pads 1, 2, and 4 at Technical Area 54, Area G, and placement of that waste into inspectable storage. All waste will be moved into inspectable storage by September 30, 2003. Waste recovery and storage operations emphasize protection of worker safety, public health, and the environment.

  11. Supercompaction and repackaging facility for Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility (SaRF) for processing Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) generated transuranic (TRU) waste was conceptualized and has received funding of $1.9 million. The SaRF is scheduled for completion in September, 1989, and eliminates a labor intensive manual repackaging effort. The semi-automated, glovebox-contained SaRF is being designed to process 63,500 cubic feet of TRU waste annually for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). SaRF processing sequence is waste enters the process through an airlock or drum dump and the combustible waste is precompacted, drums are pierced to allow air to escape during supercompaction, and the drum is supercompacted and transferred to a load out station for final packaging into a 55 gallon drum. Preliminary evaluations indicate an average 5 to 1 volume reduction, 2 to 1 increased processing rate and 50% reduction in manpower. The SaRF produces a significant annual savings in labor, material, shipping, and burial costs over the projected 15 year life, and also improves operator safety, reduces personnel exposure, and improves the quality of the waste product

  12. Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility for Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility (SaRF) for processing Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) generated transuranic (TRU) waste was conceptualized and has received funding of $1.9 million. The SaRF is scheduled for completion in September, 1989 and will eliminate a labor intensive manual repackaging effort. The semi-automated glovebox-contained SaRF is being designed to process 63,500 cubic feet of TRU waste annually for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste will enter the process through an airlock or drum dump and the combustible waste will be precompacted. Drums will be pierced to allow air to escape during supercompaction. Each drum will be supercompacted and transferred to a load out station for final packaging into a 55 gallon drum. Preliminary evaluations indicate an average 5 to 1 volume reduction, 2 to 1 increased processing rate, and 50% reduction in manpower. The SaRF will produce a significant annual savings in labor, material, shipping, and burial costs over the projected 15 year life, and also improve operator safety, reduce personnel exposure, and improve the quality of the waste product. 1 ref., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Approach for systematic evaluation of transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an approach for systematic evaluation of management alternatives that are being considered for the treatment, storage, and disposal of transuranic waste (TRUW) at U.S. Department of Energy sites. The approach, which is currently under development, would apply WASTE-MGMT, a database application model developed at Argonne National Laboratory, to estimate projected environmental releases and would evaluate impact measures such as health risk and costs associated with each of the waste management alternatives. The customized application would combine site-specific TRUW inventory and characterization data with treatment and transportation parameters to estimate the quantities and characteristics of the wastes to be treated, emissions of hazardous substances from the treatment facilities, and the quantities and characteristics of the wastes to be shipped between sites. These data would then be used to estimate for several TRUW management scenarios the costs and health risks of constructing and operating the required treatment facilities and of transporting TRUW for treatment and final disposal. Treatment, storage, and disposal of TRUW at DOE sites is composed of many variables and options at each stage. The approach described in this paper would provide for efficient consideration of all of these facets when evaluating potentially feasible TRUW management alternatives. By expanding existing databases, this model could eventually be adapted to accommodate the introduction of new treatment technologies, updated TRUW characterization data, and/or revised waste acceptance criteria

  14. Innovative technologies for the remediation of transuranic- contaminated landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a comprehensive research,development, demonstration, testing and evaluation program to provide innovative technology systems to achieve its environmental management responsibilities. The Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for this research in support of the Offices of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management efforts. In fiscal year (FY) 1992 the OTD established the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID). The BWID mission was to support the development of emerging technologies for their application to the remediation of DOE buried waste site. During FY95, the BWID program was transitioned into a larger program which will focus its attention to DOE Landfills and Contaminated Soils. There search and activities formerly referred to as the BWID will now be associated with the Transuranic-contaminated Arid Landfill Stabilization Program.(TALS). The TALS Program supports these buried waste remediation efforts by seeking out the best talent to solve the technology challenges as identified in baseline remediation strategies. Experts from throughout the DOE complex, universities, private sector, and the international community are being included in this program to solve these challenges and ensure implementation and commercialization of innovative technologies

  15. Assessment of LANL transuranic mixed waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to present findings from the evaluation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TRU Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria to determine its compliance with applicable DOE requirements. The driving requirements for s TRU Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria are essentially those contained in the ''TRU Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant'' or WIPP WAC (DOE Report WIPP-DOE-069), 40 CFR 261-270, and DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management), specifically Chapter II which is entitled ''Management of Transuranic Waste''. The primary purpose of the LANL WAC is the establishment of those criteria that must be met by generators of TRU mixed waste before such waste can be accepted by the Waste Management Group. An annotated outline of a genetic TRU mixed waste acceptance criteria document was prepared from those requirements contained in the WIPP WAC, 40 CFR 261-270, and 5820.2A, and is based solely upon those requirements

  16. Degradation of transuranic-contaminated wastes under geological isolation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of extensive experimental studies on the degradation of existing defense transuranic-contaminated (TRU) wastes are presented. Environmental conditions for waste degradation are representative of deep geological isolation of TRU wastes in a bedded-salt repository, as anticipated for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico. TRU-contaminated waste matrices investigated include cellulosics, plastics, rubbers, mixed organic composite, bitumen, a developmental concrete-TRU ash matrix, mild steel, and inorganic process sludges. Degradation mechanisms studied were alpha radiolysis, microbial action, thermal decomposition and dewatering, and chemical corrosion. Experimental variables are waste composition, alpha-contamination level, temperature, pressure, time, water or brine content, aerobic or anaerobic conditions, etc. Results of waste degradation are presented in terms of gas generation rates, gas compositions, container corrosion rates, effectiveness of anti-corrosion coatings, microbial formation and degradation of chelating agents. Based on experimental results, the relative quantities of gas generated by individual mechanisms acting on the organic matrix wastes can be ranked as follows: (1) microbial action, (2) thermal decomposition (at 400C and higher), (3) alpha radiolysis, and (4) corrosion. Corrosion of metallic waste canisters and realistic bedded-salt repository conditions was determined not to have a significant effect on potential waste retrievability. The technical data provided in these studies are used in assessments to determine whether existing forms of TRU wastes are acceptable for safe geological isolation. (author)

  17. Investigation of Varied Strontium-Transuranic Precipitation Chemistries for Crossflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precipitation chemistries for strontium and transuranic (TRU) removal have been tested for crossflow filterability and lanthanide removal with simulants of Hanford tank 241-AN-107 supernate. This is the initial work indicating the usefulness of a strontium and permanganate precipitation process as applied to the Hanford River Protection Project. Precipitations with both ferric and ferrous iron were shown to be at least two orders of magnitude less filterable than a 0.1 gpm/ft target average flux that was desired at the time. A precipitate from a strontium nitrate strike alone was found to filter easily and to make the desired average flux. Other chemistries tested included precipitant of lanthanum(III), nickel (II), calcium (II), and a redox chemistry using sodium permanganate. Of these chemistries a strontium and permanganate strike including calcium provided the highest filter flux compared to the other chemistries. It showed the most promise in lanthanide removal as well. This work provides a promising direction for further work to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project. The work reported here was originally intended to satisfy needs for crossflow filter testing of a strontium and ferric precipitation method for treating Envelope C using a 241-AN-107 simulant

  18. Description of processes for the immobilization of selected transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processed sludge and incinerator-ash wastes contaminated with transuranic (TRU) elements may require immobilization to prevent the release of these elements to the environment. As part of the TRU Waste Immobilization Program sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing applicable waste-form and processing technology that may meet this need. This report defines and describes processes that are capable of immobilizing a selected TRU waste-stream consisting of a blend of three parts process sludge and one part incinerator ash. These selected waste streams are based on the compositions and generation rates of the waste processing and incineration facility at the Rocky Flats Plant. The specific waste forms that could be produced by the described processes include: in-can melted borosilicate-glass monolith; joule-heated melter borosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter aluminosilicate-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter basaltic-glass monolith or marble; joule-heated melter glass-ceramic monolith; cast-cement monolith; pressed-cement pellet; and cold-pressed sintered-ceramic pellet

  19. Transuranic radioactive (TRU) waste management in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States of America (USA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the safe management and disposal of all transuranic radioactive (TRU) waste. Based on the promising characteristics of the 225-million-year-old stable sequence of evaporitic rocks (mainly rock salt) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, an underground test facility was developed in the early 1980s at a depth of approximately 655 meters in the candidate host salt formation. In 1994, after more than 20 years of characterizing and evaluating the WIPP site, the DOE concluded that available data and long-term performance assessments (PAs) strongly indicated the WIPP site exhibits very suitable natural characteristics for hosting a deep geologic disposal facility (repository) for TRU waste. In April 1994, the DOE Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) presented a new strategy and an accelerated schedule targeting June 1998 for the opening of a TRU waste repository at the WIPP site. The main objectives of this strategy are to: resolve regulatory compliance and technical issues; characterize the waste; address transportation and safety issues; and involve stakeholders (interested parties) in the regulatory compliance process

  20. Promises and Challenges of Thorium Implementation for Transuranic Transmutation - 13550

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the challenges of implementing a thorium fuel cycle for recycle and transmutation of long-lived actinide components from used nuclear fuel. A multi-stage reactor system is proposed; the first stage consists of current UO2 once-through LWRs supplying transuranic isotopes that are continuously recycled and burned in second stage reactors in either a uranium (U) or thorium (Th) carrier. The second stage reactors considered for the analysis are Reduced Moderation Pressurized Water Reactors (RMPWRs), reconfigured from current PWR core designs, and Fast Reactors (FRs) with a burner core design. While both RMPWRs and FRs can in principle be employed, each reactor and associated technology has pros and cons. FRs have unmatched flexibility and transmutation efficiency. RMPWRs have higher fuel manufacturing and reprocessing requirements, but may represent a cheaper solution and the opportunity for a shorter time to licensing and deployment. All options require substantial developments in manufacturing, due to the high radiation field, and reprocessing, due to the very high actinide recovery ratio to elicit the claimed radiotoxicity reduction. Th reduces the number of transmutation reactors, and is required to enable a viable RMPWR design, but presents additional challenges on manufacturing and reprocessing. The tradeoff between the various options does not make the choice obvious. Moreover, without an overarching supporting policy in place, the costly and challenging technologies required inherently discourage industrialization of any transmutation scheme, regardless of the adoption of U or Th. (authors)

  1. Optimizing transuranic waste management-challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste in March of 1999, the granting of the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit in November 1999, and over two years of operational experience have demonstrated the Department of Energy's (DOE'S) capability in closing the nuclear energy cycle. While these achievements resolved several scientific, engineering, regulatory and political issues, the DOE has identified a new set of challenges that represent opportunities for improving programmatic efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and operational safety in managing the nation's TRU waste. The DOE has recognized that the complex administrative and regulatory requirements for characterization, transportation and disposal of TRU waste are costly (1). A review by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) states that these requirements lead to inefficient waste characterization, handling and transportation operations that in turn can lead to unnecessary radiation exposure to workers without a commensurate decrease in risk to the public and the environment (2). This paper provides an overview of the status of the WJPP repository, explains the principles of the proposed commercial business approach, and describes some of the proposed major enhancements of the TRU waste transportation systems. The DOE is developing a remote-handled (RH) waste program to enable emplacement of RH waste at WPP. This program includes appropriate facility modifications and regulatory changes (3).

  2. Sources, Speciation and Mobility of Plutonium and Other Transuranics in the Groundwater at the Savannah River Site (Sept. 2003-Sept. 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesseler, K.O.; Kaplan, D.; Peterson, S.; Dai, M.

    2006-11-07

    The intent of this research effort is to: i) provide the basis for accurate modeling and prediction of actinide transport; ii) allow for remediation strategies to be planned that might use in-situ manipulations of geochemical variables to enhance (for extraction) or retard (for immobilization) Pu mobility in the groundwater zone; iii) identify specific Pu sources and the extent of far field, or long-term migration of transuranics in groundwater; iv) reduce costly uncertainty in performance and risk assessment calculations. This new knowledge is essential to ensure continued public and worker safety at the DOE sites and the efficient management of cleanup and containment strategies.

  3. Sources, Speciation and Mobility of Plutonium and Other Transuranics in the Groundwater at the Savannah River Site (Sept. 2003-Sept. 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesseler, K.O.; Kaplan, D.; Peterson, S.; Dai, M.

    2006-11-07

    The intent of this research effort is to: (1) provide the basis for accurate modeling and prediction of actinide transport; (2) allow for remediation strategies to be planned that might use in-situ manipulations of geochemical variables to enhance (for extraction) or retard (for immobilization) Pu mobility in the groundwater zone; (3) identify specific Pu sources and the extent of far field, or long-term migration of transuranics in groundwater; (4) reduce costly uncertainty in performance and risk assessment calculations. This new knowledge is essential to ensure continued public and worker safety at the DOE sites and the efficient management of cleanup and containment strategies.

  4. Certification Considerations for Adaptive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Cofer, Darren; Musliner, David J.; Mueller, Joseph; Engstrom, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Advanced capabilities planned for the next generation of aircraft, including those that will operate within the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), will necessarily include complex new algorithms and non-traditional software elements. These aircraft will likely incorporate adaptive control algorithms that will provide enhanced safety, autonomy, and robustness during adverse conditions. Unmanned aircraft will operate alongside manned aircraft in the National Airspace (NAS), with intelligent software performing the high-level decision-making functions normally performed by human pilots. Even human-piloted aircraft will necessarily include more autonomy. However, there are serious barriers to the deployment of new capabilities, especially for those based upon software including adaptive control (AC) and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. Current civil aviation certification processes are based on the idea that the correct behavior of a system must be completely specified and verified prior to operation. This report by Rockwell Collins and SIFT documents our comprehensive study of the state of the art in intelligent and adaptive algorithms for the civil aviation domain, categorizing the approaches used and identifying gaps and challenges associated with certification of each approach.

  5. Nondestructive Testing Qualification and Certification of Personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of nondestructive testing qualification and certification of personnel system is very important for level up of this skill and result. The result of this efficiency is depend on a person's capability who has a sense of responsibility of this part. Now Korea Standards Committee is preparing for this system. But, that is not a detailed practice level. So in this report, We introduce ISO/DIS 9712 international standard to members and, translate it for collect the opinions of hereafter's plan.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniko Miler-Virc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ISO 14001 prescribes the requirements for a system, not environmental performance itself. Similarly, certification is of the management system itself, not environmental performance. An audit is not conducted to ascertain whether your flue gas emissions are less than X part per million nitrous oxide or that your wastewater effluent contains less that Y milligrams of bacteria per litre. Consequently, the procces of auditing the system for compliance to the standard entails checking to see that all of the necessary components of a functioning system are present and working properly.           A company can have a complete and fully functional EMS as prescribed by ISO 14001 without being certified. As certification can add to the time and expense of EMS development, it is important for you to establish, in advance, whether certification is of net benefit to you. Although most companies that develop an EMS do in fact certify, there are cases where certification does not add immediate value. Certification is not always beneficial to small and medium sized companies. Certification is not always necessary for companies with one or two large clients with environmental demands who are satisfied that you have a functional EMS (second-party declaration. Whatever decision you make, it is important to remember that just as a driver′s licence does not automatically make you a good driver, ISO 14001 certification does not automatically make your company environmentally benign or ensure that you will continually improve environmental performance. The system is only as good as the people who operate it.

  7. Assessment of radiation effects in defense transuranic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actinide concentrations of the defense transuranic (TRU) wastes were analyzed and the potential effects of the radiation on the properties of the wastes after conversion to immobile forms were assessed. The study focused on the contact-handled retrievably-stored wastes. The major components of the current inventory are defense plutonium-contaminated wastes containing various amounts of 241Am. The wastes stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are typical of the wastes in this category. There is also a substantial amount of wastes contaminated with plutonium enriched in 238Pu arising from the Department of Energy's isotopic heat-source programs. Most of these wastes are stored at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) sites. Four reference wastes were selected representing a credible range of actinide activities and were used for estimating radiation doses to the final waste forms based on: INEL first stage sludge, a composite of all wastes at INEL, a composite of all wastes at LANL including both defense and heat source plutonium wastes, and a composite of all heat-source plutonium wastes at SRP free from defense plutonium. From integrated alpha and beta-gamma doses over a 105y storage period, it is concluded that: accumulated beta-gamma doses of 106 to 108 rad over a 105 y storage period will not significantly change physical properties of the waste form. The alpha decay doses are 3-30 x 1016 decays/cm3 (up to 3 x 1010 rad ionizing radiation from alpha particles) accumulated over a 105 y storage period. Radiolytic gas generation can be substantial in waste forms containing water or organic materials. The effect of leachant radiolysis on the leachabilities of TRU waste forms is not sufficiently understood to rule out the need for testing with actinide-doped specimens

  8. Intermediate depth burial of classified transuranic wastes in arid alluvium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermediate depth disposal operations were conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1984 through 1989. These operations emplaced high-specific activity low-level wastes (LLW) and limited quantities of classified transuranic (TRU) wastes in 37 m (120-ft) deep, Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes. The GCD boreholes are 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and founded in a thick sequence of arid alluvium. The bottom 15 m (50 ft) of each borehole was used for waste emplacement and the upper 21 m (70 ft) was backfilled with native alluvium. The bottom of each GCD borehole is almost 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in one of the most arid portions of the US, with an average precipitation of 13 cm (5 inches) per year. The limited precipitation, coupled with generally warm temperatures and low humidities results in a hydrologic system dominated by evapotranspiration. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191 defines the requirements for protection of human health from disposed TRU wastes. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU wastes emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA's 40 CFR 191 requirements. This paper describes DOE's actions undertaken to evaluate whether the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes will, or will not, endanger human health. Based on preliminary modeling, the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes meet the EPA's requirements, and are, therefore, protective of human health

  9. Defense Remote Handled Transuranic Waste Cost/Schedule Optimization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to provide the DOE information with which it can establish the most efficient program for the long management and disposal, in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste. To fulfill this purpose, a comprehensive review of waste characteristics, existing and projected waste inventories, processing and transportation options, and WIPP requirements was made. Cost differences between waste management alternatives were analyzed and compared to an established baseline. The result of this study is an information package that DOE can use as the basis for policy decisions. As part of this study, a comprehensive list of alternatives for each element of the baseline was developed and reviewed with the sites. The principle conclusions of the study follow. A single processing facility for RH TRU waste is both necessary and sufficient. The RH TRU processing facility should be located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Shielding of RH TRU to contact handled levels is not an economic alternative in general, but is an acceptable alternative for specific waste streams. Compaction is only cost effective at the ORNL processing facility, with a possible exception at Hanford for small compaction of paint cans of newly generated glovebox waste. It is more cost effective to ship certified waste to WIPP in 55-gal drums than in canisters, assuming a suitable drum cask becomes available. Some waste forms cannot be packaged in drums, a canister/shielded cask capability is also required. To achieve the desired disposal rate, the ORNL processing facility must be operational by 1996. Implementing the conclusions of this study can save approximately $110 million, compared to the baseline, in facility, transportation, and interim storage costs through the year 2013. 10 figs., 28 tabs

  10. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste - transuranics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Hanford Plutonium and Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX), in Richland, Washington, plutonium and uranium products are recovered from irradiated fuel by a solvent extraction process. A byproduct of this process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste (CAW), is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks (DSTs) on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant located nearby. In B-Plant, the transuranic (TRU) elements in NCAW are separated from the non-TRU elements. The majority of the TRU elements in NCAW are in the solids. Therefore, the primary processing operation is to separate the NCAW solids (NCAW-TRU) from the NCAW liquid. These two waste streams will be pumped to suitable holding tanks before being further processed for permanent disposal. To ensure that the retrieval and transportation of NCAW and NCAW-TRU are successful, researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the rheological and transport properties of the slurries. This evaluation had two phases. First, researchers conducted laboratory rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW and NCAW-TRU. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. This scale-up procedure has already been successfully used to predict the critical transport properties of a slurry (Neutralized Cladding Removal Waste) with rheological properties similar to those displayed by NCAW and NCAW-TRU

  11. Contact-handled transuranic waste mock retrieval demonstration: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the results of the Contact-Handled Transuranic (CH TRU) Waste Mock Retrieval Demonstration which was conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Successful completion of the demonstration using mock (non-radioactive) waste packages is a prerequisite to the receipt of actual CH TRU waste. The demonstration was witnessed by members of the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) of the State of New Mexico. The demonstration was completed in Room 1 of Panel 1 of the WIPP underground storage area. This area was configured to simulate in-situ storage conditions projected to be encountered late in the retrieval period. The retrieval period extends for 10 years beyond the Operations Demonstration period which is up to five years in duration. At the conclusion of the Operations Demonstration, a declaration would be made regarding whether or not WIPP should become a permanent TRU disposal facility. Even though salt creep in the storage area is not projected to contact the waste stack, as a worst-case scenario, the demonstration included retrieval techniques which would be employed should stack contamination be encountered. A Contamination Control Barrier was installed upstream of the demonstration waste stack. This barrier incorporated a pass-through system which was used to overpack simulated contaminated waste package. The demonstration confirmed the acceptability of WIPP operational procedures, personnel, equipment, and techniques. Further, extrapolation of the operating time line data developed during this demonstration has confirmed that in-room retrieval of up to 930,000 ft3 of CH TRU waste can be completed within applicable radiological and time constraints. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Methodology for forecasting in the Swedish–Norwegian market for el-certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe a novel methodology for forecasting in the Swedish–Norwegian el-certificate market, which is a variant of a tradable green certificate scheme. For the forecasting, the el-certificate market is integrated in the electricity-market model EMPS, which has weekly to hourly time-step length, whereas the planning horizon can be several years. Strategies for the certificate inventory are calculated by stochastic dynamic programming, whereas penalty-rates for non-compliance during the annual settlement of certificates are determined endogenously. In the paper the methodology is described, and we show the performance of the model under different cases that can occur in the el-certificate market. The general results correspond to theoretical findings in previous studies for tradable green certificate markets, in particular that price-scenarios spread out in such a way that the unconditional expected value of certificates is relatively stable throughout the planning period. In addition the presented methodologies allows to assess the actual dynamics of the certificate price due to climatic uncertainty. Finally, special cases are indentified where the certificate price becomes excessively high respectively zero, due the design-specific dynamics of the penalty rate. - Highlights: • A method for forecasting in the Swedish–Norwegian el-certificate market is proposed. • The developed model integrates the el-certificate and the power market. • Banking of certificates and the endogenously calculated penalty rate are included. • The certificate value is calculated using Stochastic-Dynamic-Programming. • Price dynamics due to climatic weather uncertainties are assessed and illustrated

  13. Rehabilitation Counselor Certification: Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jodi L.; Barros-Bailey, Mary; Chapman, Cindy; Nunez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification and presents recent changes and strategic goals for moving forward. Challenges and opportunities for the profession in relation to certification are also discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)

  14. Certification et equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colardyn, Danielle

    1992-11-01

    The new economic and social equilibrium which is gradually coming about in Europe has significant consequences in terms of mobility, recognition of qualifications and certification. Specifically in the educational arena, questions are raised as to the social and vocational value of certificates, and the recognition of vocational skills. These skills are part of the wealth of the particular countries in the Community, and of each of the individuals who are now confronted by the enlarged economic and social space, in its varying forms. In this European context, what is examined here is more particularly the French situation, from the point of view of the evolution of the notion of certification and recognition of skills, and of policies both of qualification, and of initial and continuing training of the work force.

  15. Soy production and certification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomei, Julia; Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena;

    2010-01-01

    With the rising emphasis on biofuels as a potential solution to climate change, this paper asks whether certification schemes, developed to promote sustainable feedstock production, are able to deliver genuine sustainability benefits. The Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS) is a certification...... scheme that aims to promote responsible soy production through the development of principles and criteria. However, can and does this initiative address the negative impacts associated with the intensive production of soy? Taking the example of soy biodiesel produced in Argentina, this paper asks whether...... the social and environmental impacts of soybean production can be mitigated by the RTRS. It concludes that at present certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address either the institutional challenges associated with their implementation or the detrimental impacts of the additional demand...

  16. Board Certification in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…

  17. Review of the WIPP draft application to show compliance with EPA transuranic waste disposal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Clemo, T.M. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The EEG was established in 1978 with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the State of New Mexico. Public Law 100-456, the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989, Section 1433, assigned EEG to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and continued the original contract DE-AC04-79AL10752 through DOE contract DE-AC04-89AL58309. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, continues the authorization. EEG performs independent technical analyses of the suitability of the proposed site; the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term integrity; suitability and safety of the transportation systems; suitability of the Waste Acceptance Criteria and the generator sites` compliance with them; and related subjects. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the DOE and its contractors, other federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. Another important function of EEG is the independent environmental monitoring of background radioactivity in air, water, and soil, both on-site and off-site.

  18. Review of the WIPP draft application to show compliance with EPA transuranic waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The EEG was established in 1978 with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the State of New Mexico. Public Law 100-456, the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989, Section 1433, assigned EEG to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and continued the original contract DE-AC04-79AL10752 through DOE contract DE-AC04-89AL58309. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, continues the authorization. EEG performs independent technical analyses of the suitability of the proposed site; the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term integrity; suitability and safety of the transportation systems; suitability of the Waste Acceptance Criteria and the generator sites' compliance with them; and related subjects. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the DOE and its contractors, other federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. Another important function of EEG is the independent environmental monitoring of background radioactivity in air, water, and soil, both on-site and off-site

  19. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) transuranic performance demonstration program sample packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Performance Demonstration Program (TPDP) sample packaging is used to transport highway route controlled quantities of weapons grade (WG) plutonium samples from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility and back. The purpose of these shipments is to test the nondestructive assay equipment in the WRAP facility as part of the Nondestructive Waste Assay PDP. The PDP is part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National TRU Program managed by the U. S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Details of this program are found in CAO-94-1045, Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program (CAO 1994); INEL-96/0129, Design of Benign Matrix Drums for the Non-Destructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996a); and INEL-96/0245, Design of Phase 1 Radioactive Working Reference Materials for the Nondestructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996b). Other program documentation is maintained by the national TRU program and each DOE site participating in the program. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the TRU PDP sample packaging meets the onsite transportation safety requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for an onsite Transportation Hazard Indicator (THI) 2 packaging. This SARP, however, does not include evaluation of any operations within the PFP or WRAP facilities, including handling, maintenance, storage, or operating requirements, except as they apply directly to transportation between the gate of PFP and the gate of the WRAP facility. All other activities are subject to the requirements of the facility safety analysis reports (FSAR) of the PFP or WRAP facility and requirements of the PDP

  20. Behavior of a high-temperature gas reactor with transuranic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we modeled a high-temperature gas reactor, HTGR, of prismatic block type using the SCALE 6.0 code to analyze the use of transuranic fuel in these reactors. To represent the concept, the Japanese HTTR reactor was chosen. The fuels considered used transuranic elements from UREX+ reprocessing of burned PWR fuel spiked with depleted U or Th. The calculations, performed for typical temperatures of HTR reactors, showed that, in mixtures with the same percentage of fissile material, the initial effective multiplication factor, Keff , is higher in the mixtures containing Th than that with U. Comparisons between the two types of fuel were performed using fuel pairs with the same initial Keff. During burn-up, the two mixtures show a slow and practically equal decrease in Keff. For the same level of burnup, mixtures containing Th show greater effectiveness in burning transuranics and total plutonium when compared to corresponding mixtures with depleted U. (author)

  1. Innovative technologies for the remediation of transuranic-contaminated landfills. Appendix 13: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic-Contaminated Arid Landfill Stabilization Programme, formerly the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Programme, was organized by the Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, to (a) manage the development of emerging technologies that could be successfully applied to remediation and (b) promote the use of these technologies to improve environmental restoration and waste management operations for transuranic-contaminated landfills in arid environments. Implementing the Transuranic-Contaminated Arid Landfill Stabilization Programme involved three key strategies: 1) A systems engineering approach was used to include an overall perspective of the entire remediation process; 2) State-of-the-art science and technology were sought for improving the remediation system; 3) Integrated product teams which were comprised of end users, regulators, stakeholders, as well as industry partners were formed

  2. The current strategy for safe management and disposal of transuranic radioactive waste in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current laws in the United States of America direct the Department of Energy (DOE) to safely manage transuranic radioactive waste resulting from past, current and future defense-related nuclear activities. They also direct the DOE to develop and operate a deep geological repository for safe disposal of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP will be a world-class first of a kind facility for safe disposal of long-lived transuranic waste. It will be the first permanent repository licensed under a rigorous, ultra-conservative regulatory program requiring a risk-based performance assessment to demonstrate compliance with the environmental standards for 10,000 years. Its continued safe operation in compliance with several hazardous waste regulations and one of the strictest environmental radiation protection standards in the world will enhance public confidence in the safety of deep geological repositories both in the USA and abroad

  3. Current status of the multi-isotopic transuranic-waste-assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed, constructed, tested, and are scheduled to field a 208-l barrel-sized working version of our multi-isotopic transuranic assay system. This system uses both passive neutron multiplicity and pulsed active measurements to identify and quantify spontaneous neutron emitters and fissile TRU isotopes. Using the system we can separately quantify up to seven individual transuranic isotopes under favorable conditions with the intrinsic sensitivity to screen or assay barrels at or below the 10 nCi/g transuranic level. Our measured 3 sigma sensitivity for 239Pu is about 0.5 mg. A large range of waste matrix materials can be accommodated by the system, as well as extremes in both gamma-ray and neutron backgrounds

  4. Transuranic-aerosol-measurement system for the workplace or stack monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compact transuranic-aerosol-measurement system, using alpha spectroscopy at vacuum, has a sensitivity of less than 0.5 MPC-h for 239Pu. In addition, a detector is mounted in the inlet pipe that responds immediately if there is a release of radioactivity; then, after an appropriate time, the filter is moved to the vacuum chamber for more sensitive off-line analysis. The system is very efficient for particles as large as 10 μ m in diameter. A microcomputer controls the filter transport, operates as a 256-channel pulse-height analyzer (PHA), performs calculations, checks calibration, and drives a matrix display and a central computer. This instrument, the Workplace Transuranic Aerosol Measurement System (WOTAMS), has been developed for use in facilities that process transuranics with the expectation it will further evolve into a commercial product to replace those less sensitive instruments now widely used. 10 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  5. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournoyer, Michael E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nixon, Archie E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dodge, Robert L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fife, Keith W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Arnold M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  6. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National

  7. Transuranic (TRU) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actinide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter or longer glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glovebox as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste volume generation by almost 2½ times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos

  8. Pharmacist specialty certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Sharon M

    2012-03-01

    Nutrition support is a pharmacy specialty in which pharmacists work with prescribers, conduct order review, and either perform or oversee compounding of these complex parenteral nutrition formulations. Pharmacists should be certified in this specialty, and the options for certification are outlined in this article. PMID:22275326

  9. Transuranic radionuclides in the environment surrounding radioactive waste diposal sites, a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, A.C.; Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Brunk, J.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Jones, H.E.; Kehl, S.; Stuart, M.L.; Wasley, L.M.; Bradsher, R.V. [and others

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e. site specific). An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. In an attempt to gather relevant information about the transuranic radionuclides in a variety of environments, we conducted an extensive literature search. In our literature search we identified over 5700 potential written sources of information for review. In addition, we have identified many references which were not found through the literature searches, but which were known to contain useful data. A total of approximately 2600 documents were determined to contain information which would be useful for an in depth study of radionuclides in different environments. The journal articles, books, reports and other documents were reviewed to obtain the source term of the radionuclides studied. Most references containing laboratory study data were not included in our databases. Although these may contain valuable data, we were trying to compile references with information on the behavior of the transuranics in the specific environment being studied.

  10. Application of service examinations to transuranic waste container integrity at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic waste containers in retrievable storage trenches at the Hanford Site and their storage environment are described. The containers are of various types, predominantly steel 0.21-m3 (55-gal) drums and boxes of many different sizes and materials. The storage environment is direct soil burial and aboveground storage under plastic tarps with earth on top of the tarps. Available data from several transuranic waste storage sites are summarized and degradation rates are projected for containers in storage at the Hanford Site

  11. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author)

  12. Application of service examinations to transuranic waste container integrity at the Hanford Site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.; Burbank, D.A. Jr.; Anderson, B.C.; Demiter, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    Transuranic waste containers in retrievable storage trenches at the Hanford Site and their storage environment are described. The containers are of various types, predominantly steel 0.21-m{sup 3} (55-gal) drums and boxes of many different sizes and materials. The storage environment is direct soil burial and aboveground storage under plastic tarps with earth on top of the tarps. Available data from several transuranic waste storage sites are summarized and degradation rates are projected for containers in storage at the Hanford Site.

  13. Green certificates and greenhouse gas emissions certificates - Instruments of the liberalized electricity market in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Governmental Decision No. 443/2003 and GD 1892 / 2004 aimed to the harmonization of the Romanian legislative framework with EU Directive 2001/77/EC which purposes to promote an increasing in the contribution of RES to electricity production in the internal market for electricity. In Romania's case green certificate system was adopted with mandatory quotas for suppliers as a national target for 2010 of 33 % of total consumption to be covered by electricity produced from renewable energy sources. The annual maximum and minimum value for Green Certificates trading is 24 Euro/certificate and 42 Euro/certificate, respectively. Suppliers are obliged to buy yearly a number of Green certificates equal with the mandatory quota multiplied with the amount of electricity sold yearly to their final consumers. The additional price received for the Green Certificates sold is determined on a parallel market, separated from the electricity market, where the environmental benefits of the 'clean' electricity production are traded. The regulator can modify these quotas established by Government Decision when the installed capacity in the power plants which use RES cannot secure the demand of Green Certificates; This system was introduced in November 2005. The number of issued green certificates in 2005 was only 345, so by ANRE Order no. 46 / 2005, the mandatory quota for 2005 was reduced at 2.6% from legal quota established for 2005. In the first month of 2006 5997 Green Certificates were sold at the price of 146 RON. Emissions trading is the most compatible flexible mechanisms of Kyoto Protocol with deregulated electricity markets. The Directive 2003/87/CE referring at CO2 emission trading within Europe came into force and till 31 March 2004 all the countries had to present to the Commission their national plan to comply with Directive's rules. There is great uncertainty worldwide on how GHG emissions reduction and trading schemes will develop. Previous visions of a single (Kyoto

  14. TRUPACT-2 design, testing and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large volume of contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) nuclear waste has been generated and has accumulated at ten Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Approximately 168,000 cubic meters of this waste has been targeted for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Shipment of all of this waste is expected to require more than 15,000 shipments, totalling approximately 38 million kilometers of travel. The TRUPACT-II is a reusable package for shipment of CH TRU waste; it is designed in accordance with US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for Type B packages found in 10 CFR 71. There are two separate levels of containment to permit shipment of plutonium in excess of 740 GBq per package. The packaging is a right circular cylinder in shape, with a domed top and a flat bottom; external dimensions are 240 centimeters in diameter and 309 centimeters high. The capacity of each TRUPACT-II is 3182 kilograms of waste that can be loaded into fourteen 210-1 drums; or two 1.9 cubic meters standard waste boxes (SWBs). Three TRUPACT-II packages are transported on a custom designed semitrailer which is pulled by a conventional tractor for highway transport of CH TRU waste between DOE sites and to the WIPP near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the TRUPACT-II Package was initially submitted to the NRC in March 1989. Four revisions were issued during the period from May through August 1989. NRC certification of the package was received on August 30, 1989. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Certification of solar products - The Florida experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POST,HAROLD N.; ROLAND,JAMES D.; VENTRE,GERARD G.; HUGGINS,JAMES C.

    2000-02-02

    Florida legislation enacted in 1976 directed the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to develop standards for solar energy systems manufactured or sold in the state, establish criteria for testing the performance of solar energy systems, and provide a means to display compliance with approved performance tests for these systems. This mandate has been effectively implemented for both solar domestic water heating and solar pool heating systems. With growing interest and markets for photovoltaic systems, plans are presently being developed to expand the scope of the mandate to include photovoltaic technology. This paper discusses four complementary facets of a photovoltaic (PV) system certification program. They include PV module performance characterization and rating; PV system design review and approval; examination and authorization of photovoltaic system installers; and inspection and acceptance testing of PV system installation. The suggested photovoltaic system process builds on lessons learned from over 20 years of testing, certifying and labeling of solar thermal collectors, and the certification of solar thermal systems.

  16. Certification of solar products - The Florida experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florida legislation enacted in 1976 directed the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to develop standards for solar energy systems manufactured or sold in the state, establish criteria for testing the performance of solar energy systems, and provide a means to display compliance with approved performance tests for these systems. This mandate has been effectively implemented for both solar domestic water heating and solar pool heating systems. With growing interest and markets for photovoltaic systems, plans are presently being developed to expand the scope of the mandate to include photovoltaic technology. This paper discusses four complementary facets of a photovoltaic (PV) system certification program. They include PV module performance characterization and rating; PV system design review and approval; examination and authorization of photovoltaic system installers; and inspection and acceptance testing of PV system installation. The suggested photovoltaic system process builds on lessons learned from over 20 years of testing, certifying and labeling of solar thermal collectors, and the certification of solar thermal systems

  17. TRUPACT-1 implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.D.; Tappen, J.J. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Joint Integration Office); Christensen, D.S. (USDOE Joint Integration Office, Albuquerque, NM (United States)) (eds.)

    1985-09-01

    TRUPACT-1, the TRansUranic PACkage Transporter is a packaging designed to transport defense contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste from generating and interim TRU waste storage facilities to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Prior to fabrication and procurement of a full fleet, an initial design (TRUPACT-1) will be introduced to the defense TRU waste complex through use in an operational prototype fleet which will consist of Units 1, 2, and 3. In an effort to provide a relatively smooth introduction of the TRUPACT-1, the TRUPACT Technical Team (TTT) has developed the following implementation plan. The plan provides detailed information on user handling opportunities, schedules, equipment, responsibilities, reporting and data collection activities to be performed. The intent of this document is to provide users of the TRUPACT-1 with a guidance document, complete with references, that will allow the smooth introduction of this new transportation system by providing the information necessary for collecting operational, performance and cost data. These data will be used in modeling and full fleet design and procurement activities. In addition, these data will help fine tune procedures in the inspection and maintenance document and the operational document. Additional objectives of this plan are to aid in the establishment of site operational, inspection and maintenance procedures as well as training of site operators and briefing state and local officials.

  18. Performance assessment in support of the 1996 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A decision analysis perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Anderson, D.R.; Jow, H.N.; Marietta, M.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basabilvazo, G. [Dept. of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic waste. The primary regulatory requirements (i.e., 40 CFR 191 and 40 CFR 194) placed on the WIPP by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) involve a complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) for normalized radionuclide releases to the accessible environment. The interpretation and use of this CCDF from a decision analysis perspective is discussed and illustrated with results from the 1996 performance assessment for the WIPP, which was carried out to support a compliance certification application by the DOE to the EPA for the WIPP.

  19. Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment

  20. Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment.

  1. 78 FR 59981 - Proposed Revision to Physical Security-Standard Design Certification and Operating Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ..., incorporate licensing experience from previous design certification application reviews, and to inform... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard review plan-draft section revision; request...

  2. Certification as a viable quality assurance mechanism in transition economies: evidence, theory, and open questions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortmann, Andreas; Svítková, Katarína; Krnáčová, A.

    Praha : Transparency International-Czech Republic, 2005, s. 7-46 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : certification * nonprofit organizations * transition Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.transparency.cz/pdf/ti_cert_eng_1.pdf

  3. 9 CFR 151.4 - Pedigree certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pedigree certificate. 151.4 Section... Purebred Animals § 151.4 Pedigree certificate. A pedigree certificate for an animal of a breed listed in... English in the pedigree certificate for the animal or in a separate certificate appended to the...

  4. 46 CFR 107.258 - Crane certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crane certification. 107.258 Section 107.258 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.258 Crane certification. (a) The Coast Guard may accept current certificates issued by approved organizations as evidence of condition and suitability of cranes. The...

  5. 10 CFR 501.61 - Certification contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unit is expected to be placed in service. (9) Certification by an officer of the company or his... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification contents. 501.61 Section 501.61 Energy... Certifications § 501.61 Certification contents. (a) A self-certification filed under section 201(d) of FUA...

  6. "Comprehensive" energy certificate

    OpenAIRE

    Kolenac, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The thesis discusses calculated and measured energy certificates of a building, which were calculated and measured for the building of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy in Ljubljana - the FGG building. The necessary calculations of the energy provided for functioning of the building were performed in accordance with the methodology specified in the applicable legal basis. The thesis provides measures for improving the thermal envelope of the building and presents an example of moni...

  7. Understanding Certificate Revocation

    OpenAIRE

    Hagström, Åsa

    2006-01-01

    Correct certificate revocation practices are essential to each public-key infrastructure. While there exist a number of protocols to achieve revocation in PKI systems, there has been very little work on the theory behind it: Which different types of revocation can be identified? What is the intended effect of a specific revocation type to the knowledge base of each entity? As a first step towards a methodology for the development of reliable models, we present a graph-based formalism for spec...

  8. A Comparison of Methods Used to Evaluate Intakes of Transuranics Influenced by Chelation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of methods is used to evaluate the intake of transuranics influenced by chelation therapy. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the mechanistic method by using it to validate Hall's method and Jech's method. This is accomplished by using the mechanistic method to generate a known set of data suitable for benchmarking all three methods

  9. Using Downhole Probes to Locate and Characterize Buried Transuranic and Mixed Low Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinman, Donald K; Bramblett, Richard L; Hertzog, Russel C

    2012-06-25

    Borehole logging probes were developed and tested to locate and quantify transuranic elements in subsurface disposal areas and in contaminated sites at USDOE Weapons Complex sites. A new method of measuring very high levels of chlroine in the subsurface was developed using pulsed neutron technology from oilfield applications. The probes were demonstrated at the Hanford site in wells containing plutonium and other contaminants.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 2. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This document is the Baseline Inventory Report for the transuranic (alpha-bearing) wastes stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Waste stream profiles including origin, applicable EPA codes, typical isotopic composition, typical waste densities, and typical rates of waste generation for each facility are presented for wastes stored at the WIPP.

  11. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  12. Transuranics contribution off Palomares coast: tracing history and routes to the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Palomares accident, 1966, a land monitoring program has been running. The study of the possible transfer of the residual transuranics contamination on land to the marine environment began in 1986. This paper presents the use of artificial and natural radionuclides as valuable tools for the evaluation of the possible pathways by which the transfer to the Mediterranean sea could occur. (Author)

  13. Complexation of transuranic ions by humic substances: Application of laboratory results to the natural system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental investigations show transuranic ions sorb to humic substances. The resulting species are often mobile and are expected to be important vectors in the migration of transuranic ions in natural systems. However, these environmental studies yield no quantitative data useful for modeling. Laboratory complexation experiments with transuranic ions and humic substances generate thermodynamic data required for complexation modeling. The data presented in this work are based on the metal ion charge neutralization model, which is briefly described. When a consistent complexation model is used, similar results are obtained from different experimental conditions, techniques, and laboratories. Trivalent transuranic ions (Cm(III), Am(III)) have been extensively studied with respect to pH, ionic strength, origin of humic acid, and mixed species formation. The complexation of Np(V) has been examined over a large pH and metal ion concentration range with different humic acids. Some data does exist on the complexation ion concentration range with different humic acids. Some data does exist on the complexation of plutonium with humic acid, however further work is needed. Calculations on the Gorleben aquifer system using the thermodynamic data are presented. Critical information lacking from the thermodynamic database is identified. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping

  15. Program Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Program Implementation Plan (PIP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) current approaches for managing the permanent disposal of defense high-level waste (HLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and low-level waste (LLW) from atomic energy defense activities. It documents the implementation of the HLW and TRU waste policies as stated in the Defense Waste Management Plan (DWMP) (DOE/DP-0015), dated June 1983, and also addresses the management of LLW. The narrative reflects both accomplishments and changes in the scope of activities. All cost tables and milestone schedules are current as of January 1987. The goals of the program, to provide safe processing and utilization, storage, and disposal of DOE radioactive waste and byproducts to support defense nuclear materials production activities, and to implement cost-effective improvements in all of its ongoing and planned activities, have not changed

  16. Sampling and analysis validates acceptable knowledge on LANL transuranic, heterogeneous, debris waste, or ''Cutting the Gordian knot that binds WIPP''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through sampling and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analyses, LANL and the DOE validated that a LANL transuranic (TRU) waste (TA-55-43, Lot No. 01) was not a Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) hazardous waste. This paper describes the sampling and analysis project as well as the statistical assessment of the analytical results. The analyses were conducted according to the requirements and procedures in the sampling and analysis plan approved by the New Mexico Environmental Department. The plan used a statistical approach that was consistent with the stratified, random sampling requirements of SW-846. LANL adhered to the plan during sampling and chemical analysis of randomly selected items of the five major types of materials in this heterogeneous, radioactive, debris waste. To generate portions of the plan, LANL analyzed a number of non-radioactive items that were representative of the mix of items present in the waste stream. Data from these cold surrogates were used to generate means and variances needed to optimize the design. Based on statistical arguments alone, only two samples from the entire waste stream were deemed necessary, however a decision was made to analyze at least two samples of each of the five major waste types. To obtain these samples, nine TRU waste drums were opened. Sixty-six radioactively contaminated and four non-radioactive grab samples were collected. Portions of the samples were composited for chemical analyses. In addition, a radioactively contaminated sample of rust-colored powder of interest to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) was collected and qualitatively identified as rust

  17. The Wipp Disposal Decision Plan: the Successful Road Map for Transparent and Credible Decision-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological repository for long-lived, transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) opened on the 26th of March 1999. Beginning on the 4th of April 1994, the United States Department of Energy (DOE), implemented the WIPP Disposal Decision Plan (DDP), which embodied the five-year vision and intents of the then DOE Manager of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO), presently the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The successful design and implementation of the DDP ensured good science, enhanced regulator and stake holder (affected and interested parties) interactions and acceptance of programmatic decisions, which resulted in the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the 18th of May 1998, almost three years earlier than projected in November 1993. The present paper contains three sections: A concise background information on the CBFO's TRUW disposal program, incl. the legal framework, current status, and author-envisioned challenges and solutions; A description of the main components and attributes of the WIPP DDP. A summary of the lessons learned during and after the 1994 through 1998 implementation of the WIPP DDP

  18. Efficient Certificate Management in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Samara, Ghassan

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks is one of the most challenging research area in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in this research We propose a flexible, simple, and scalable design for VANET certificates, and new methods for efficient certificate management, which will Reduce channel overhead by eliminating the use of CRL, and make Better certificate Revocation Management. Also it will increase the security of the network and helps in identifying the adversary vehicle.

  19. Verifying generator waste certification: NTS waste characterization QA requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste management activities managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) include the disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) and mixed waste (MW), waste which is both radioactive and hazardous. A majority of the packaged LLW is received from offsite DOE generators. Interim status for receipt of MW at the NTS Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) was received from the state of Nevada in 1987. The RWMS Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is expected to be operational in 1988 for approved DOE MW generators. The Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria and Certification Requirements (NVO-185, Revision 5) delineates waste acceptance criteria for waste disposal at the NTS. Regulation of the hazardous component of mixed waste requires the implementation of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Waste generators must implement a waste certification program to provide assurance that the disposal site waste acceptance criteria are met. The DOE/Nevada Operations Office (NV) developed guidance for generator waste certification program plans. Periodic technical audits are conducted by DOE/NV to assess performance of the waste certification programs. The audit scope is patterned from the waste certification program plan guidance as it integrates and provides a common format for the applicable criteria. The criteria focus on items and activities critical to processing, characterizing, packaging, certifying, and shipping waste

  20. Analysis of a Building Energy Efficiency Certification System in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Duk Joon Park; Ki Hyung Yu; Yong Sang Yoon; Kee Han Kim; Sun Sook Kim

    2015-01-01

    The Korean government has established a national plan for the promotion of zero energy buildings to respond to climate change and energy crises. To achieve this plan, several energy efficiency policies for new and existing buildings have been developed. The Building Energy Efficiency Certification System (BEECS) aims to promote the spread of high energy-efficient buildings by evaluating and certifying building energy performance. This study discussed Korean building energy efficiency policies...

  1. Assessment of Physical Properties of Transuranic Waste in Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is in the process of identifying and developing supplemental process technologies to accelerate the tank waste cleanup mission. One technology targets disposal of Hanford transuranic (TRU) process wastes stored in single-shell tanks (SSTs). Ten Hanford SSTs are candidates for designation as contact-handled TRU waste type: the B-200 series tanks (241-B-201, -B-202, -B-203, and -B-204), the T-200 series tanks (241-T-201, -T-202, -T-203, and -T-204), and Tanks 241-T-110 and T-111. Current plans identify a process in which these wastes are retrieved from the tanks, either dry or with a recycled liquid stream to help mobilize the waste in the tank and through transfer lines and vessels, dewatered to remove excess liquid, and transferred to waste packages in a form suitable for disposal. CH2M HILL seeks to procure a process for dewatering, handling, and packaging the contact-handled TRU waste after it is retrieved. An understanding of waste physical properties is needed to support design of the SST TRU handling and packaging system and to produce suitable physical simulants to test such a process. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked with developing these waste simulants. This report summarizes PNNL's assessment of available waste physical property information for the 10 candidate TRU SSTs. Data sources include the Hanford Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) database, technical reports, and visual observations from the review of photographs and videotape recordings taken during the extrusion of various SST TRU waste core samples. While the retrieval process is expected to alter certain waste physical properties such as shear strength, the effects of this process on waste properties cannot yet be quantified. Therefore, the scope of this report is to describe the properties of SST TRU wastes as they are known for unprocessed wastes or, in some cases, for diluted waste samples. The report focuses on

  2. Assessment of Physical Properties of Transuranic Waste in Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassat, Scot D.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Wells, Beric E.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Caldwell, Dustin D.

    2003-03-05

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is in the process of identifying and developing supplemental process technologies to accelerate the tank waste cleanup mission. One technology targets disposal of Hanford transuranic (TRU) process wastes stored in single-shell tanks (SSTs). Ten Hanford SSTs are candidates for designation as contact-handled TRU waste type: the B-200 series tanks (241-B-201, -B-202, -B-203, and -B-204), the T-200 series tanks (241-T-201, -T-202, -T-203, and -T-204), and Tanks 241-T-110 and T-111. Current plans identify a process in which these wastes are retrieved from the tanks, either dry or with a recycled liquid stream to help mobilize the waste in the tank and through transfer lines and vessels, dewatered to remove excess liquid, and transferred to waste packages in a form suitable for disposal. CH2M HILL seeks to procure a process for dewatering, handling, and packaging the contact-handled TRU waste after it is retrieved. An understanding of waste physical properties is needed to support design of the SST TRU handling and packaging system and to produce suitable physical simulants to test such a process. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked with developing these waste simulants. This report summarizes PNNL's assessment of available waste physical property information for the 10 candidate TRU SSTs. Data sources include the Hanford Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) database, technical reports, and visual observations from the review of photographs and videotape recordings taken during the extrusion of various SST TRU waste core samples. While the retrieval process is expected to alter certain waste physical properties such as shear strength, the effects of this process on waste properties cannot yet be quantified. Therefore, the scope of this report is to describe the properties of SST TRU wastes as they are known for unprocessed wastes or, in some cases, for diluted waste samples. The report

  3. ANALYSIS OF AVAILABLE HYDROGEN DATA & ACCUMULATION OF HYDROGEN IN UNVENTED TRANSURANIC (TRU) DRUMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAYLEY, L

    2004-06-24

    This document provides a response to the second action required in the approval for the Justification for Continued Operations (JCO) Assay and Shipment of Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers in 218-W-4C. The Waste Management Project continues to make progress toward shipping certified TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As the existing inventory of TRU waste in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) storage buildings is shipped, and the uncovered inventory is removed from the trenches and prepared for shipment from the Hanford Site, the covered inventory of suspect TRU wastes must be retrieved and prepared for processing for shipment to WIPP. Accumulation of hydrogen in unvented TRU waste containers is a concern due to the possibility of explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. The frequency and consequence of these gas mixtures resulting in an explosion must be addressed. The purpose of this study is to recommend an approach and schedule for venting TRU waste containers in the low-level burial ground (LLBG) trenches in conjunction with TRU Retrieval Project activities. This study provides a detailed analysis of the expected probability of hydrogen gas accumulation in significant quantities in unvented drums. Hydrogen gas accumulation in TRU drums is presented and evaluated in the following three categories: Hydrogen concentrations less than 5 vol%; Hydrogen between 5-15 vol%; and Hydrogen concentrations above 15 vol%. This analysis is based on complex-wide experience with TRU waste drums, available experimental data, and evaluations of storage conditions. Data reviewed in this report includes experience from the Idaho National Environmental Engineering Laboratories (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratories, (ORNL), Rocky Flats sites, Matrix Depletion Program and the National Transportation and Packaging Program. Based on this analysis, as well as an assessment of the probability and

  4. Transuranic Contamination in Sediment and Groundwater at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2009-08-20

    A review of transuranic radionuclide contamination in sediments and groundwater at the DOE’s Hanford Site was conducted. The review focused primarily on plutonium-239/240 and americium-241; however, other transuranic nuclides were discussed as well, including neptunium-237, plutonium-238, and plutonium-241. The scope of the review included liquid process wastes intentionally disposed to constructed waste disposal facilities such as trenches and cribs, burial grounds, and unplanned releases to the ground surface. The review did not include liquid wastes disposed to tanks or solid wastes disposed to burial grounds. It is estimated that over 11,800 Ci of plutonium-239, 28,700 Ci of americium-241, and 55 Ci of neptunium-237 have been disposed as liquid waste to the near surface environment at the Hanford Site. Despite the very large quantities of transuranic contaminants disposed to the vadose zone at Hanford, only minuscule amounts have entered the groundwater. Currently, no wells onsite exceed the DOE derived concentration guide for plutonium-239/240 (30 pCi/L) or any other transuranic contaminant in filtered samples. The DOE derived concentration guide was exceeded by a small fraction in unfiltered samples from one well (299-E28-23) in recent years (35.4 and 40.4 pCi/L in FY 2006). The primary reason that disposal of these large quantities of transuranic radionuclides directly to the vadose zone at the Hanford Site has not resulted in widespread groundwater contamination is that under the typical oxidizing and neutral to slightly alkaline pH conditions of the Hanford vadose zone, transuranic radionuclides (plutonium and americium in particular) have a very low solubility and high affinity for surface adsorption to mineral surfaces common within the Hanford vadose zone. Other important factors are the fact that the vadose zone is typically very thick (hundreds of feet) and the net infiltration rate is very low due to the desert climate. In some cases where

  5. PULSE Pilot Certification Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Pape-Lindstrom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The pilot certification process is an ambitious, nationwide endeavor designed to motivate important changes in life sciences education that are in line with the recommendations of the 2011 Vision and Change Report: A Call to Action (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 2011.  It is the goal of the certification process to acknowledge departments that have progressed towards full implementation of the tenets of Vision and Change and to motivate departments that have not begun to adopt the recommendations to consider doing so.  More than 70 life science departments applied to be part of the pilot certification process, funded by a National Science Foundation grant, and eight were selected based on initial evidence of transformed and innovative educational practices.  The programs chosen represent a wide variety of schools, including two-year colleges, liberal-arts institutions, regional comprehensive colleges, research universities and minority serving institutions.  Outcomes from this pilot were released June 1, 2015 (www.pulsecommunity.org, with all eight programs being recognized as having progressed along a continuum of change.  Five levels of achievement were defined as PULSE Pilot Progression Levels.  Of the eight departments in the pilot, one achieved “PULSE Progression Level III: Accomplished”.  Six departments achieved “PULSE Progression Level II: Developing” and one pilot department achieved “PULSE Progression Level I: Beginning”.  All of the schools have made significant movement towards the recommendations of Vision and Change relative to a traditional life sciences curriculum.  Overall, the response from the eight pilot schools has been positive. 

  6. Repackaging of High Fissile TRU Waste at the Transuranic Waste Processing Center - 13240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-six drums of high fissile transuranic (TRU) waste from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operations were declared waste in the mid-1980's and placed in storage with the legacy TRU waste inventory for future treatment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Repackaging and treatment of the waste at the TRU Waste Packaging Center (TWPC) will require the installation of additional equipment and capabilities to address the hazards for handling and repackaging the waste compared to typical Contact Handled (CH) TRU waste that is processed at the TWPC, including potential hydrogen accumulation in legacy 6M/2R packaging configurations, potential presence of reactive plutonium hydrides, and significant low energy gamma radiation dose rates. All of the waste is anticipated to be repackaged at the TWPC and certified for disposal at WIPP. The waste is currently packaged in multiple layers of containers which presents additional challenges for repackaging activities due to the potential for the accumulation of hydrogen gas in the container headspace in quantities than could exceed the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL). The outer container for each waste package is a stainless steel 0.21 m3 (55-gal) drum which contains either a 0.04 m3 or 0.06 m3 (10-gal or 15-gal) 6M drum. The inner 2R container in each 6M drum is ∼12 cm (5 in) outside diameter x 30-36 cm (12-14 in) long and is considered to be a > 4 liter sealed container relative to TRU waste packaging criteria. Inside the 2R containers are multiple configurations of food pack cans, pipe nipples, and welded capsules. The waste contains significant quantities of high burn-up plutonium oxides and metals with a heavy weight percentage of higher atomic mass isotopes and the subsequent in-growth of significant quantities of americium. Significant low energy gamma radiation is expected to be present due to the americium in-growth. Radiation dose rates on inner containers are estimated to be 1-3 mSv/hr (100

  7. Project Plan for the evaluation of REDC waste for TRU-waste radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project plan describes the plan to determine whether the solid radioactive wastes generated by the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) meet the Department of Energy's definition of transuranic wastes. Existing waste characterization methods will be evaluated, as well as historical data, and recommendations will be made as necessary

  8. An innovative approach to nuclear reactor design certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Electric has proposed that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) consider adding an Appendix to 10CFR50 that would specifically address NRC Safety Review and Design Certification of advanced reactors through use of an experience building test program. The proposal was made in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored review of the General Electric advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) concept, Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM). This paper provides a description of the proposed new 10CFR50 Appendix. It also provides the basis for the proposed new approach to Design Certification and outlines the plans that are in place for further review and consideration by the NRC

  9. Paper Lives: Certification vs. Licensure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaye YILMAZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1990s certification has increasingly been considered as a tool to increase the chance to find job particularly by youngsters. However under the circumstances that exist today it is known that having certificates does not automatically lead to get job, even contrary job seekers may remain jobless after they pay huge amounts of money to certfication firms. The very fast increase in the number of certfying firms confirms the fact that there is an ongoing demand for short term qualification courses. Another process which accompanies to private certification is that the loosing ground in public education that despite corporations still care about diplomas in hiring they reject job applications in the case of absence of certificates. In this study certification as a popular phenomenon has been compared with licensure in the context of waged engineers and their chambers. As a consequence of the analyses made for this study, it may be concluded that there is a capital accumulation which is carried out via two layers of working classes: masses who are obliged to be certified and waged laborers who work in certification industry in order to improve skills of those who are in need to be certified. During reviewing of literature it has also been witnessed that the academic writings focusing on the numbers, wages and working conditions of trainers hired by certification firms is virtually non exist. Therefore study suggests further researches especially on waged trainers working in private certification firms.

  10. Study of the association between exposure to transuranic radionuclides and cancer death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahian, Naz Afarin

    An exploratory epidemiological study has been conducted on 319 deceased nuclear workers, who had recorded intakes and histories of employment for at least one year during the time period from 1943 to 1995, at different facilities including the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites, and thorium and uranium mining and milling plants. These workers voluntarily agreed to donate their organs or whole body to the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) for scientific research purposes. The majority of this population was involved in documented radiological incidents during their careers. Many were exposed to transuranic radionuclides primarily via inhalation or puncture wounds. The purpose of this study was to find the level of dose that was received by the USTUR registrants following accidents and subsequent to mitigating actions, and to investigate whether or not there is any association between exposure to these transuranic radionuclides and cancer deaths. The external and internal dose assessments were performed using occupational radiation exposure histories and postmortem concentrations of transuranic radionuclides in critical organs, respectively. Statistical data analyses were performed to identify whether or not the USTUR registrants can be categorized as a 'low-dose' population and to investigate the potential correlation between exposure to transuranic radionuclides and causes of death within this population due to cancers of the lungs and liver as well as cancers of all sites, while controlling for the effects of other confounders. Based on the statistical tests performed, the USTUR registrants can be categorized as a low-dose population in terms of their occupational external exposures. However, when considering their total effective dose equivalents from both external penetrating radiation and internal exposure to transuranic radionuclides, they can not be categorized as a low-dose population with a 95% confidence level (alpha = 0

  11. A Little Here, A Little There, A Fairly Big Problem Everywhere: Small Quantity Site Transuranic Waste Disposition Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, Dale Elden; Parker, Douglas Wayne; Moss, J.; Monk, Thomas Hugh; Fritz, Lori Lee; Daugherty, B.; Hladek, K.; Kosiewicx, S.

    2000-03-01

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far.

  12. A little here, a little there, a fairly big problem everywhere: Small quantity site transuranic waste disposition alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Luke; D. Parker; J. Moss; T. Monk (INEEL); L. Fritz (DOE-ID); B. Daugherty (SRS); K. Hladek (WM Federal Services Hanford); S. Kosiewicx (LANL)

    2000-02-27

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound Laboratory. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far.

  13. Personnel training and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to make the full benefits of neutron radiography available in the nondestructive test (NDT) field, it has been necessary to formalize its application. A group under the Penetrating Radiation Committee of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) was organized to prepare a recommended practice for neutron radiography. The recommended practices require the establishment of an appropriate certification program. The requirements on the employer to establish and maintain a qualification and certification program are outlined. To conduct a program of nondestructive testing using neutron radiography requires the usual three levels of qualified and certified personnel. The program is administered by a Level III person. Routine exposure, reviews, and reporting of test results are the responsibilities of Level I and Level II personnal. The amount of training and nature of the required practical examination are also specified. The recommended practices document assures users that NDT work in the field of neutron radiography is performed by qualified personnel. Although no training courses are available to provide experience in the depth required by the recommended practices document, SNT-TC-1A, short courses are provided at a number of locations to familarize user's representatives with the interpretation of neutron radiographs and capabilities and limitations of the technique

  14. Incorporation of transuranics into vegetable and field crops grown at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radish, lettuce, barley, and alfalfa plants were grown from seeds in undisturbed soil in Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site to determine the uptake of transuranics under field conditions. The plants were grown in small greenhouses erected over the soil to preclude aerial deposition of resuspended transuranics on the growing plants. The crops were irrigated during the growing season with either distilled water, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in distilled water, fertilizer in distilled water, or a combination of DTPA and fertilizer in distilled water. The plutonium and americium contents of the harvested plants showed differences which are mostly attributable to the effects of the treatments and the resulting changes in soil pH during the experiment

  15. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380{sup 3} corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  16. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,3803 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  17. Environmental aspects of the transuranics. A selected, annotated bibliography. Volume 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ninth published bibliography of 589 references is compiled from the Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center's Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics. The data base was built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of DOE's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope covers environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. This annotated bibliography highlights literature on plutonium 238 and 239 and americium 241 in the critical organs of man and animals. Studies on the migration of plutonium and the transplutonics through the environment are also emphasized. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews and summarizing literature on other radionuclides have been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with leading authors appearing alphabetically within each category. Indexes are provided for author(s), geographic location, keywords, taxonomic name, title, and publication description

  18. Environmental aspects of the transuranics: a selected, annotated bibliography. [Pu-238, Pu-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Martin, F.M.; Fore, C.S. (comps.)

    1977-03-01

    This eighth published bibliography of 427 references is compiled from the Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center's Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics. The data base was built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of ERDA's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope covers environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. This bibliography highlights literature on plutonium 238 and 239 and americium in the critical organs of man and animals. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews and summarizing literature on other radionuclides have been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with leading authors appearing alphabetically in each category. Indexes are provided for author(s), geographic location, keyword(s), taxon, title, and publication description.

  19. Evaluation of alternative treatments for spent fuel rod consolidation wastes and other miscellaneous commercial transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight alternative treatments (and four subalternatives) are considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel consolidation. Waste treatment is assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage facility was used as a reference). Disposal in a geologic repository is also assumed. The cost, process characteristics, and waste form characteristics are evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicates that selection of a high-volume-reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS process. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration

  20. Synthesis of neutron-rich transuranic nuclei in fissile spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of synthesizing neutron-rich superheavy elements in spallation targets of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) is considered. A dedicated software called Nuclide Composition Dynamics (NuCoD) was developed to model the evolution of isotope composition in the targets during a long-time irradiation by intense proton and deuteron beams. Simulation results show that transuranic elements up to 249Bk can be produced in multiple neutron capture reactions in macroscopic quantities. However, the neutron flux achievable in a spallation target is still insufficient to overcome the so-called fermium gap. Further optimization of the target design, in particular, by including moderating material and covering it by a reflector could turn ADS into an alternative source of transuranic elements in addition to nuclear fission reactors

  1. A transuranic-aerosol-measurement system for the workplace or stack monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compact transuranic-aerosol-measurement system, using alpha spectroscopy at vacuum, has a sensitivity of less than 0.5 MPC-hr for 239Pu. In addition, a detector is mounted in the inlet pipe that responds immediately if there is a release of radioactivity; then, after an appropriate time, the filter is moved to the vacuum chamber for more sensitive off-line analysis. The system is very efficient for particles as large as 10 μm in diameter. A micro-computer controls the filter transport, operates as a 256-channel PHA, performs calculations, checks calibration, and drives a matrix display and a central computer. This instrument, called WOTAMS, has been developed for use in facilities that process transuranics with the expectation it will further evolve into a commercial product to replace those less sensitive instruments now widely used

  2. Deposition, translocation and effects of transuranic particles inhaled by experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation exposure constitutes the most likely route of entrance for transuranics into the body. Cancer is the most likely consequence of exposure, but several thousand workers have been exposed during the last 30 yrs without, so far, evidence of exposure-related effects. Several soluble and insoluble transuranic compounds have been studied in rodents and dogs, either alone or combined with exposure to other materials (e.g., PuO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/ fuel and Na). These studies have provided a wide variety of spatial and temporal dose distribution patterns in the lung. The distribution and total initial deposition in the respiratory tract is a function of the physical characteristics of the inhaled aerosols (size distribution, shape, hygroscopicity) and of the morphology and physiology of the animal. Translocation rates, organ and tissue distribution and excretion in urine and feces, are a function of the physicochemical characteristics of the deposited material (solubility, specific activity, chemical compound, etc.). Differences in rate of translocation of the solubilized material, primarily to the liver and bone, determines the radiation dose to the various tissues involved. Insoluble particles of plutonium dioxide are transferred to the thoracic lymph nodes, which may be functionally destroyed as a consequence. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are the main causes of death in animals with cumulative radiation doses to the lung of a few thousand rads. The most significant long-term effect of inhaled transuranic compounds in animals is the development of lung and bone tumors. The main type of lung tumor in both dog and rat is the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma). However, tumor type is a function of radiation dose and dose-distribution at high doses. Bone ranks next to lung as the tissue developing the most tumors following inhalation of transuranics

  3. Maria Goeppert Mayer's Theoretical Work on Rare-Earth and Transuranic Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Frank Y.

    2008-01-01

    After the discovery of element 93 neptunium by Edwin McMillan and Philip H. Abelson in 1941, Maria Goeppert Mayer applied the Thomas-Fermi model to calculate the electronic configuration of heavy elements and predicted the occurrence of a second rare-earth series in the vicinity of elements 91 or 92 extending to the transuranic elements. Mayer was motivated by Enrico Fermi, who was at the time contemplating military uses of nuclear energy. Historical development of nuclear science research le...

  4. Preliminary analysis of treatment strategies for transuranic wastes from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a comparison of six treatment options for transuranic wastes (TRUW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel. Projected transuranic waste streams from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), the reference fuel reprocessing plant in this report, were grouped into the five categories of hulls and hardware, failed equipment, filters, fluorinator solids, and general process trash (GPT) and sample and analytical cell (SAC) wastes. Six potential treatment options were selected for the five categories of waste. These options represent six basic treatment objectives: (1) no treatment, (2) minimum treatment (compaction), (3) minimum number of processes and products (cementing or grouting), (4) maximum volume reduction without decontamination (melting, incinerating, hot pressing), (5) maximum volume reduction with decontamination (decontamination, treatment of residues), and (6) noncombustible waste forms (melting, incinerating, cementing). Schemes for treatment of each waste type were selected and developed for each treatment option and each type of waste. From these schemes, transuranic waste volumes were found to vary from 1 m3/MTU for no treatment to as low as 0.02 m3/MTU. Based on conceptual design requirements, life-cycle costs were estimated for treatment plus on-site storage, transportation, and disposal of both high-level and transuranic wastes (and incremental low-level wastes) from 70,000 MTU. The study concludes that extensive treatment is warranted from both cost and waste form characteristics considerations, and that the characteristics of most of the processing systems used are acceptable. The study recommends that additional combinations of treatment methods or strategies be evaluated and that in the interim, melting, incineration, and cementing be further developed for commercial TRUW. 45 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs

  5. Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS)

  6. A passive-active neutron device for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined passive-active neutron assay device was constructed for assaying remote-handled transuranic waste. A study of matrix and source position effects in active assays showed that a knowledge of the source position alone is not sufficient to correct for position-related errors in highly moderating or absorbing matrices. An alternate function for the active assay of solid fuel pellets was derived, although the efficacy of this approach remains to be established

  7. U.S. experience with acid digestion of combustible transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated transuranic waste from a plutonium finishing plant has been processed in a waste treatment demonstration plant, the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) located at Hanford, Washington, U.S.A. Waste treatment experience, including process and equipment performance, the behavior of plutonium in the system, and chemical and nuclear safety are all discussed. The complementary relationship of this research and development to that at the ALONA pilot plant in Mol, Belgium is noted

  8. Behavior of a high-temperature gas reactor with transuranic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortini, A.; Pereira, C.; Sousa, R.V.; Veloso, M.A.F.; Costa, A.L.; Silva, C.A.; Cardoso, F.S., E-mail: fortini@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we modeled a high-temperature gas reactor, HTGR, of prismatic block type using the SCALE 6.0 code to analyze the use of transuranic fuel in these reactors. To represent the concept, the Japanese HTTR reactor was chosen. The fuels considered used transuranic elements from UREX+ reprocessing of burned PWR fuel spiked with depleted U or Th. The calculations, performed for typical temperatures of HTR reactors, showed that, in mixtures with the same percentage of fissile material, the initial effective multiplication factor, K{sub eff} , is higher in the mixtures containing Th than that with U. Comparisons between the two types of fuel were performed using fuel pairs with the same initial K{sub eff}. During burn-up, the two mixtures show a slow and practically equal decrease in K{sub eff}. For the same level of burnup, mixtures containing Th show greater effectiveness in burning transuranics and total plutonium when compared to corresponding mixtures with depleted U. (author)

  9. Management of transuranics using the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 50 years of activities following the discovery of self-sustaining fission chains have given rise to a buildup of roughly 900 tons of manmade transuranics. Of the total, about 260 tons of Pu239 were generated for use in weapons while the remainder were generated as a byproduct of electrical power produced worldwide by the commercial thermal nuclear power industry. What is to be done with these actinides? The options for disposition include interminable storage, burial, or recycle for use. The pros and cons of each option are being vigorously debated regarding the impact upon the issues of human and ecological risk -- both current and future; weapons proliferation potential -- both current and future; and total life cycle benefits and costs. As to the options for utilization, commercial uses for actinides (uranium and transuranics) are of limited diversity. The actinides have in the past and will in the future find application in large scale mostly by virtue of their ability to release energy through fission, and here their utility is unmatched -- whether the application be in commercial electricity generation or in armaments. The integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle offers a number of features for management of the current and future burden of manmade transuranic materials and for capturing the energy content of the U238. These features are discussed here

  10. 12 CFR 561.9 - Certificate account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate account. 561.9 Section 561.9 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.9 Certificate account. The term certificate account means a savings account evidenced by a certificate that must be held for a fixed or minimum term....

  11. Interactions between the power and green certificate markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current trend of liberalising the power markets is combined with ambitious deployment plans for power production based on renewable energy supplies. A new policy scheme to ensure this extension has been developed in the form of a green certificate system, with a politically determined target of deployment. In such a system, producers of renewably based electricity receive tradable certificates in proportion to the electricity they produce. The producer can thereby sell these certificates and receive additional revenue apart from the power price. This paper studies the price and consumption effects of such a system. With a simple model we show that the effects are ambiguous. This ambiguity is caused by the interaction between the two markets. Therefore, the green certificate system is difficult to manage if the State has parallel energy targets, such as a desired deployment of renewably based energy and a stabilisation or reduction of the energy consumption. In addition, this complicates the regulation through a deployment target of renewably based power production, as the regulator has to be aware of the different effects, which follow a specific target. Until now, these effects have not been considered in the analyses of the green certificate system when introducing the system, even though it might have considerable consequences for the success of the system. (author)

  12. Sampling and analysis plan for ORNL filter press cake waste from the Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the sampling and analytical procedures needed for the initial characterization of the filter press cake waste from the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It is anticipated that revisions to this document will occur as operating experience and sample results suggest appropriate changes be made. Application of this document will be controlled through the ORNL Waste Management and Remedial Action Division. The sampling strategy is designed to ensure that the samples collected present an accurate representation of the waste process stream. Using process knowledge and preliminary radiological activity screens, the filter press cake waste is known to contain radionuclides. Chemical characterization under the premise of this sampling and analysis plan will provide information regarding possible treatments and ultimately, disposal of filter press cake waste at an offsite location. The sampling strategy and analyses requested are based on the K-25 waste acceptance criteria and the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements [2, NVO-325, Rev. 1]. The sampling strategy will demonstrate that for the filter press cake waste there is (1) an absence of RCRA and PCBs wastes, (2) an absence of transuranic (TRU) wastes, and (3) a quantifiable amount of radionuclide activity

  13. Shipping Remote Handled Transuranic Waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - An Operational Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January 18, 2007, the first ever shipment of Remote Handled Transuranic (RH TRU) waste left the gate at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), headed toward the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal, thus concluding one of the most stressful, yet rewarding, periods the authors have ever experienced. The race began in earnest on October 16, 2006, with signature of the New Mexico Environment Department Secretary's Final Order, ruling that the '..draft permit as changed is hereby approved in its entirety.' This established the effective date of the approved permit as November 16, 2006. The permit modification was a consolidation of several Class 3 modification requests, one of which included incorporation of RH TRU requirements and another of which incorporated the requirements of Section 311 of Public Law 108-137. The obvious goal was to complete the first shipment by November 17. While many had anticipated its approval, the time had finally come to actually implement, and time seemed to be the main item lacking. At that point, even the most aggressive schedule that could be seriously documented showed a first ship date in March 2007. Even though planning for this eventuality had started in May 2005 with the arrival of the current Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) contractor (and even before that), there were many facility and system modifications to complete, startup authorizations to fulfill, and many regulatory audits and approvals to obtain before the first drum could be loaded. Through the dedicated efforts of the ICP workers, the partnership with Department of Energy (DOE) - Idaho, the coordinated integration with the Central Characterization Project (CCP), the flexibility and understanding of the regulatory community, and the added encouragement of DOE - Carlsbad Field Office and at Headquarters, the first RH TRU canister was loaded on December 22, 2006. Following final regulatory approval on January 17, 2007, the historic event finally occurred the

  14. Certification of district heating substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-01-15

    These Technical Regulations, F:103-6, have been produced and published by the Swedish District Heating Association in conjunction with manufacturers. Approved testing is part of the process of obtaining certification for a district heating substation. In addition, the process includes a review of documentation and of the manufacturer's production inspection procedures. A certified unit fulfils the requirements set out in the Association's document F:101, General Technical Requirements. Until further notice, the Association has selected SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden for certification of district heating substations. Certification means that the quality and function/performance of a prefabricated district heating substation have been examined and approved. Certification test method F:103-6 includes both static and dynamic tests and inspections. Detailed information on the district heating substation and its properties is given in the certification test reports. The unique feature of this certification is that the test reports are in the public domain. This is possible because the Association has full right of insight into the certification process, and because testing is performed in accordance with test programmes and procedures decided by the Association. In this document (F: 103-6), the Association specifies what is to be reported when SP carries out inspections at the manufacturer's premises. This can include details of claims lodged with the manufacturer and/or non-compliances with the required specification of the district heating substation. Such cases will be considered by a Certification Panel. Test reports and certificates provide information on the district heating substation's properties and performance, which can be used when assessing the substations. The technical tests do not address the long-term properties of substations, but SP's inspection specifically includes visual examination and application of its

  15. Renewable Energy Certificate Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwendolyn S. Andersen

    2012-07-17

    This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

  16. Systematic evaluation of options to avoid generation of noncertifiable transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, J.M.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Triay, I.; Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.

    1998-03-01

    At present, >35% of the volume of newly generated transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory is not certifiable for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Noncertifiable waste would constitute 900--1,000 m{sup 3} of the 2,600 m{sup 3} of waste projected during the period of the Environmental Management (EM) Accelerated Cleanup: Focus on 2006 plan (DOE, 1997). Volume expansion of this waste to meet thermal limits would increase the shipped volume to {approximately}5,400 m{sup 3}. This paper presents the results of efforts to define which TRU waste streams are noncertifiable at Los Alamos, and to prioritize site-specific options to reduce the volume of certifiable waste over the period of the EM Accelerated Cleanup Plan. A team of Los Alamos TRU waste generators and waste managers reviewed historic generation rates and thermal loads and current practices to estimate the projected volume and thermal load of TRU waste streams for Fiscal Years 1999--2006. These data defined four major problem TRU waste streams. Estimates were also made of the volume expansion that would be required to meet the permissible wattages for all waste. The four waste streams defined were: (1) {sup 238}Pu-contaminated combustible waste from production of Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) with {sup 238}Pu activity which exceeds allowable shipping limits by 10--100X. (2) {sup 241}Am-contaminated cement waste from plutonium recovery processes (nitric and hydrochloric acid recovery) are estimated to exceed thermal limits by {approximately}3X. (3) {sup 239}Pu-contaminated combustible waste, mainly organic waste materials contaminated with {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am, is estimated to exceed thermal load requirements by a factor of {approximately}2X. (4) Oversized metal waste objects, (especially gloveboxes), cannot be shipped as is to WIPP because they will not fit in a standard waste box or drum.

  17. WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 2: Parameter documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program and were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probability models require input parameters that are defined by a statistical distribution. Developing parameters begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. Parameter development may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling laboratory or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformations. Documentation of parameter development is designed to answer two questions: What source information was used to develop this parameter? and Why was this particular data set/information used? Therefore, complete documentation requires integrating information from code sponsors, parameter task leaders, performance assessment analysts, and experimental principal investigators. This paper, Part 2 of 2 parts, contains a discussion of the WIPP CCA PA Parameter Tracking System, document traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews

  18. Flibe blanket concept for transmuting transuranic elements and long lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Molten salt (Flibe) fusion blanket concept has been developed to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. This blanket concept can achieve the top rated solution, the complete elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products. Small driven fusion devices with low neutron wall loading and low neutron fluence can perform this function. A 344-MW integrated fusion power from D-T plasmas for thirty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can dispose of 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. In addition, the utilization of this blanket concept eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. This application provides an excellent opportunity to develop and to enhance the public acceptance of the fusion energy for the future. The energy from the transmutation process is utilized to produce revenue. Flibe, lithium-lead eutectic, and liquid lead are possible candidates. The liquid blankets have several features, which are suited for W application. It can operate at constant thermal power without interruption for refueling by adjusting the concentration of the transuranic elements and lithium-6. These liquids operate at low-pressure, which reduces the primary stresses in the structure material. Development and fabrication costs of solid transuranic materials are eliminated. Burnup limit of the transuranic elements due to radiation effects is eliminated. Heat is generated within the liquid, which simplifies the heat removal process without producing thermal stresses. These blanket concepts have large negative temperature coefficient with respect to the blanket reactivity, which enhances the safety performance. These liquids are chemically and thermally stable under irradiation conditions, which minimize the radioactive waste volume. The operational record of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor with Flibe was very successful

  19. Exploitation of a Breakthrough in Magnetic Confinement Fusion to Improve Transuranic Incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic nuclear waste is developed by combining a subcritical fusion-fission hybrid assembly uniquely equipped to burn the worst thermal non-fissile transuranic isotopes with a new fuel cycle that uses cheaper light water reactors for most of the transmutation. The centerpiece of this fuel cycle, the high power density compact fusion neutron source (CFNS, 100 MW, outer radius <3 m), is made possible by a new divertor with a heat-handling capacity five times that of the standard alternative. The number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of waste is about an order of magnitude below the corresponding number of critical fast spectrum reactors (FR) as the latter cannot fully exploit the new fuel cycle. Also, the time needed for 99% transuranic waste destruction reduces from centuries (with FR) to decades. The generic Hybrid, combining neutron-rich fusion with energy-rich fission, was first conceptualized several decades ago. However, it is only now that accumulated advances in fusion science and technology allow designing a neutron source like CFNS that is simultaneously compact and high power density, offering a neutron source an order of magnitude stronger than that obtained from accelerator driven systems. The former is essential for efficient coupling to the fission blanket, and the latter is key to efficient neutron production necessary to yield high neutron fluxes needed for effective transmutation. The recent invention of the SuperX-Divertor (SXD)1, a new magnetic configuration that allows the system to safely exhaust large heat and particle fluxes peculiar to CFNS-like devices, is a crucial addition to the underlying knowledge base. The subcritical FFTS acquires a definite advantage over the critical FR approach because of its ability to support an innovative fuel cycle that makes the cheaper LWR do the bulk (75%) of the transuranic transmutation via deep burn in an inert matrix fuel

  20. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  1. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals

  2. Upgrade and Certification of the Los Alamos National Laboratory SHENC 2011 - 12270

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive assay measurements of Transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) required the addition of a standard waste box (SWB) assay system. A Super High Efficiency Neutron Counter (SHENC) located at Hanford was identified to be relocated to LANL. After careful evaluation of waste streams at LANL, it was determined that the current configuration of the SHENC was not sufficient to quantify certain waste streams. At LANL, there is still a large amount of waste that needs to be retrieved and repackaged within SWB's to meet agreements with the State of New Mexico. Prior to relocating the SHENC, the only assay systems available were High Efficiency Neutron Counters having only a 55-gallon drum capacity. Further analyses indicated that the SHENC system should be capable of quantitative gamma measurements that are to be linked, and combined, with the neutron measurements. The SHENC system was therefore augmented with a new high-resolution gamma spectroscopy system using BE5030 detectors and upgraded gamma electronics. The neutron side of the system was also upgraded with an advanced shift register (JSR-15), an improved Programmable Logic Controller and NDA-2000 software. This report will include calibration of both the neutron and gamma modalities of the SHENC system and how the modality results are combined to produce a single assay result. Preliminary performance results will be discussed based on both mock and real waste measurements. Discussions will also include a complete description of the adjustable parameters as well as the calibration plan, techniques and validations including calibration confirmation based on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). The SHENC was successfully upgraded to efficiently measure the complex waste streams at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A new PLC was successfully added to the system for Add-A-Source control. A new shift register was added to the SHENC (JSR-15) which provides

  3. ACCELERATING HANFORD TRANSURANC (TRU) WASTE CERTIFICATION and SHIPMENT FROM 2 PER YEAR TO 12 PER MONTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    storage building to provide sufficient space for the required temperature residence time; installing filter and sample ports in the drums using a pneumatic dart method; improving gas analysis time using cryofocusing technology and using both onsite and offsite labs for redundancy of analysis capability. The need for real-time radiography was reduced by implementing avisual examination technique as the waste was being packaged. Key to implementing the visual examination technique was the use of a ''portable procedure'' that can be used anywhere on the Hanford Site. This approach has been used successfully for packaging newly generated waste from various decontamination and decommissioning projects. Using a glovebox for repackaging drums has also been a rate-limiting step in accelerating the characterization of TRU waste at Hanford. The impacts of this requirement, however, have been minimized in two ways: first, by venting certain heat-sealed bags, and second, by implementing hydrogen and methane testing of headspace gas for high gram drums with multiple layers of confinement. The details of these specific efforts are included in a separate paper. Payload assembly and loading efficiencies of the TRUPACT-II, and certification and shipment efficiencies were instrumental to Hanford's successfully accelerating shipments. Loading time of TRUPACT II's for a shipment (three TRUPACTS per shipment) went from four days to two days. Future acceleration plans include certification of a box radioassay unit to assay TRU standard waste boxes (SWB) for shipment to WIPP and adding additional payload building/loadout stations to increase the shipping capabilities

  4. Board Certification: The Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Susan H

    2016-09-01

    This article reviews globalization of quality standards in medicine, with emphasis on accreditation and certification. In conjunction with the 100th anniversary of the American Board of Ophthalmology, the author explores globalization movements, standards of quality, expectations of others seeking certification, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) International, interrelationships with the ABMS, and considerations both pragmatic and philosophical in addressing globalization of standards. PMID:27550006

  5. The legitimacy of biofuel certification

    OpenAIRE

    Partzsch, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The biofuel boom is placing enormous demands on existing cropping systems, with the most crucial consequences in the agri-food sector. The biofuel industry is responding by initiating private governance and certification. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and the Cramer Commission, among others, have formulated criteria on ?sustainable? biofuel production and processing. This article explores the legitimacy of private governance and certification by the biofuel...

  6. Framework for Certification of Fish Propagation, Protection and Monitoring Facilities. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Costello, Ronald J.

    1997-06-01

    A conceptual framework for certification of fish production and monitoring facilities including software templates to expedite implementation of the framework are presented. The framework is based on well established and widely utilized project management techniques. The implementation templates are overlays for Microsoft Professional Office software products: Excel, Word, and Project. Use of the software templates requires Microsoft Professional Office. The certification framework integrates two classical project management processes with a third process for facility certification. These processes are: (1) organization and definition of the project, (2) acquisition and organization of project documentation, and (3) facility certification. The certification process consists of systematic review of the production processes and the characteristics of the produced product. The criteria for certification review are the plans and specifications for the products and production processes that guided development of the facility. The facility is certified when the production processes are operating as designed and the product produced meets specifications. Within this framework, certification is a performance based process, not dissimilar from that practiced in many professions and required for many process, or a product meets professional/industry standards of performance. In the case of fish production facilities, the certifying authority may be diffuse, consisting of many entities acting through a process such as NEPA. A cornerstone of certification is accountability, over the long term, for the operation and products of a facility. This is particularly important for fish production facilities where the overall goal of the facility may require decades to accomplish.

  7. 47 CFR 54.508 - Technology plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that the Department of Education adopts future technology plan requirements that require one or more of... covered by the future Department of Education technology plan requirements. (c) Timing of certification... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technology plans. 54.508 Section...

  8. 10 CFR 76.91 - Emergency planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency planning. 76.91 Section 76.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.91 Emergency planning... Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Public Law 99-499, or other State...

  9. 46 CFR 71.20-10 - Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plans. 71.20-10 Section 71.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection... approved by the Commandant. The procedure for submitting plans and the list of plans to be supplied is...

  10. Statistical sampling plan for the TRU waste assay facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to limited space, there is a need to dispose appropriately of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory transuranic waste which is presently stored below ground in 55-gal (208-l) drums within weather-resistant structures. Waste containing less than 100 nCi/g transuranics can be removed from the present storage and be buried, while waste containing greater than 100 nCi/g transuranics must continue to be retrievably stored. To make the necessary measurements needed to determine the drums that can be buried, a transuranic Neutron Interrogation Assay System (NIAS) has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and can make the needed measurements much faster than previous techniques which involved γ-ray spectroscopy. The previous techniques are reliable but time consuming. Therefore, a validation study has been planned to determine the ability of the NIAS to make adequate measurements. The validation of the NIAS will be based on a paired comparison of a sample of measurements made by the previous techniques and the NIAS. The purpose of this report is to describe the proposed sampling plan and the statistical analyses needed to validate the NIAS. 5 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  11. Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC) Legacy Tank RH-TRU Sludge Processing and Compliance Strategy - 13255

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to safely and efficiently treat its 'legacy' transuranic (TRU) waste and mixed low-level waste (LLW) from past research and defense activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) so that the waste is prepared for safe and secure disposal. The TWPC operates an Environmental Management (EM) waste processing facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The TWPC is classified as a Hazard Category 2, non-reactor nuclear facility. This facility receives, treats, and packages low-level waste and TRU waste stored at various facilities on the ORR for eventual off-site disposal at various DOE sites and commercial facilities. The Remote Handled TRU Waste Sludge held in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) was produced as a result of the collection, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive waste originating from the ORNL radiochemical processing and radioisotope production programs. The MVSTs contain most of the associated waste from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the ORNL's Tank Farms in Bethel Valley and the sludge (SL) and associated waste from the Old Hydro-fracture Facility tanks and other Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) tanks. The SL Processing Facility Build-outs (SL-PFB) Project is integral to the EM cleanup mission at ORNL and is being accelerated by DOE to meet updated regulatory commitments in the Site Treatment Plan. To meet these commitments a Baseline (BL) Change Proposal (BCP) is being submitted to provide continued spending authority as the project re-initiation extends across fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) into fiscal year 2013. Future waste from the ORNL Building 3019 U-233 Disposition project, in the form of U-233 dissolved in nitric acid and water, down-blended with depleted uranyl nitrate solution is also expected to be transferred to the 7856 MVST Annex Facility (formally the Capacity Increase Project (CIP) Tanks) for co-processing with the SL. The SL-PFB project will construct and install

  12. The interaction between electricity, heat and gas in a tradable green certificate system. Paper for the analysis phase of InTraCert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The InTraCert project aims to explore the possibility of integrating the existing and planned Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) schemes in the European Union and, therefore, creating a plausible unified market for TGCs. In particular, attention was paid to the possibilities of integrating TGCs for green electricity, green heat and biogas. Specific issues at stake when taking green heat and biogas into account in a green certificate system were analyzed. The analysis shows that production-based issuing of certificates is preferred, although for practical reasons it is easier to start with grid-based (and 'electricity-only') certificates. Conversion between different certificates and units are of main concern when green heat and biogas are included in the system. The kWh seems to be a convenient unit to issue the certificates. It should be possible to exchange certificates for new certificates, i.e. 'redemption for conversion' (conversion of the certificates in parallel with the conversion of the physical energy flow), as opposed to the redemption of certificates to fulfil an obligation. Mandatory demand, or the obligation, should suitably be put on consumers and stated in general terms. The consumer may then decide on the preferred energy mix to fulfil his obligation. Countries may allow for the possibility to comply with the obligation using foreign certificates and restrict the import of TGCs that they judge to be unacceptable. However, for substantial international trade to take place, some harmonisation, e.g. for issuing certificates, is required. 6 refs

  13. Analysis of a Building Energy Efficiency Certification System in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk Joon Park

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Korean government has established a national plan for the promotion of zero energy buildings to respond to climate change and energy crises. To achieve this plan, several energy efficiency policies for new and existing buildings have been developed. The Building Energy Efficiency Certification System (BEECS aims to promote the spread of high energy-efficient buildings by evaluating and certifying building energy performance. This study discussed Korean building energy efficiency policies and analyzed especially the influence of the BEECS on the actual energy consumption of a residential building and calculated energy performance of non-residential buildings. The BEECS was evaluated to have influence on gas and district heating consumption in residential buildings. For non-residential buildings, a decreasing trend was shown in calculated primary energy consumption in the years since the BEECS has been enacted. Appropriate improvements of the certification system were also discussed by analyzing relationship between building characteristics and their energy consumptions.

  14. Certification of training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Richard S.

    1994-01-01

    Training has been around as an informal process for countless years. Most higher order animals require some level of training in hunting, social skills, or other survival related skills to continue their existence beyond early infancy. Much of the training is accomplished through imitation, trial and error, and good luck. In some ways the essentials of training in aviation have not deviated from this original formula a great deal. One of the major changes in aviation and other technical areas is that more complex response chains based on a broader base of knowledge are now required. 'To certify' means many things according to the American Heritage dictionary of the English Language. These meanings range from 'to guarantee as meeting a standard' to 'to declare legally insane'. For this discussion, we will use the definition 'an action taken by some authoritative body that essentially guarantees that the instruction meets some defined standard'. In order to make this certification, the responsible body subjects the educational process, training, training device, or simulator to some type of examination to determine its adequacy or validity.

  15. Ecotourism certification and its progress in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the middle 1990s, ecotourism certification has been given more and more attention to around the world.As a developing country with abundant ecotourism products, it is necessaryfor China to adopt certification to ensure sustainable development of ecotourism. But there are few products certificated until now in China. After reviewing the trend of ecotourism certification in the world and summarizing its theory and method, this paper analyzes the progress and prospect of ecotourism certification in China, and concludes that certification in China is necessary and promising.

  16. Performance assessment requirements for the identification and tracking of transuranic waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, C.A. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Weston, W.W. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    To demonstrate compliance with environmental radiation protection standards for management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes, a performance assessment (PA) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was made of waste-waste and waste-repository interactions and impacts on disposal system performance. An estimate of waste components and accumulated quantities was derived from a roll-up of the generator/storage sites` TRU waste inventories. Waste components of significance, and some of negligible effect, were fixed input parameters in the model. The results identified several waste components that require identification and tracking of quantities to ensure that repository limits are not exceeded. The rationale used to establish waste component limits based on input estimates is discussed. The distinction between repository limits and waste container limits is explained. Controls used to ensure that no limits are exceeded are identified. For waste components with no explicit repository based limits, other applicable limits are contained in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The 10 radionuclides targeted for identification and tracking on either a waste container or a waste stream basis include Am-241, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, U-233, U-234, U-238, Sr-90, and Cs-137. The accumulative activities of these radionuclides are to be inventoried at the time of emplacement in the WIPP. Changes in inventory curie content as a function of radionuclide decay and ingrowth over time will be calculated and tracked. Due to the large margin of compliance demonstrated by PA with the 10,000 year release limits specified, the quality assurance objective for radioassay of the 10 radionuclides need to be no more restrictive than those already identified for addressing the requirements imposed by transportation and WIPP disposal operations in Section 9 of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. 6 refs.

  17. The use of EDTA and DTPA for accelerating the removal of deposited transuranic elements from humans

    CERN Document Server

    Spoor, N L

    1977-01-01

    EDTA and DTPA have been prominent among the chelating agents used to increase the rate of excretion of certain deposited heavy metals from the human body. Since 1959, DTPA, administered either by intravenous injection or by aerosol inhalation, has been widely used to treat workers contaminated by plutonium or a higher actinide. In this report, an attempt is made to assess the toxicities of EDTA and DTPA and to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of DTPA as a drug for removing deposited transuranic elements.

  18. Entrained Solids, Strontium-Transuranic Precipitation, and Crossflow Filtration of AN102 Small C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.A.

    2000-09-27

    This work is the first active crossflow filter testing of the new strontium-permanganate process for Envelope C at the Savannah River Technology Center. Extreme filtration difficulties with the ferric hydroxide precipitation led to investigations of other chemistries with simulants. The current process includes the isotopic dilution by precipitation from inactive strontium nitrate addition. A permanganate strike to replace ferric reagents was found to provide practical filterability and good lanthanide or transuranic decontamination. That work had been supported with simulant and active beaker testing.

  19. Strontium-Transuranic Precipitation and Crossflow Filtration of 241-AN-102 Large C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.A.

    2001-05-21

    This work provides an important confirmation of the new strontium/permanganate precipitation process to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C (Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107) wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project. As a bench-scale demonstration, a series of seven precipitation batches and crossflow filtration campaigns were performed to remove strontium-90 and transuranics from 16.5 liters of Tank 241-AN-102 ''Large C'' supernatant liquid containing entrained solids.

  20. Hazardous gas production by alpha particles in solid organic transuranic waste matrices. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'This project uses fundamental radiation chemical techniques to elucidate the basic processes occurring in the heavy-ion radiolysis of solid hydrocarbon matrices such as polymers and organic resins that are associated with many of the transuranic waste deposits or the transportation of these radionuclides. The environmental management of mixed waste containing transuranic radionuclides is difficult because these nuclides are alpha particle emitters and the energy deposited by the alpha particles causes chemical transformations in the matrices accompanying the waste. Most radiolysis programs focus on conventional radiation such as gamma rays, but the chemical changes induced by alpha particles and other heavy ions are typically very different and product yields can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The objective of this research is to measure the production of gases, especially molecular hydrogen, produced in the proton, helium ion, and carbon ion radiolysis of selected solid organic matrices in order to obtain fundamental mechanistic information on the radiolytic decomposition of these materials. This knowledge can also be used to directly give reasonable estimates of explosive or flammability hazards in the storage or transport of transuranic wastes in order to enhance the safety of DOE sites. This report summarizes the work after eight months of a three-year project on determining the production of hazardous gases in transuranic waste. The first stage of the project was to design and build an assembly to irradiate solid organic matrices using accelerated ion beams. It is necessary to measure absolute radiolytic yields, and simulate some of the conditions found in the field. A window assembly was constructed allowing the beam to pass consecutively through a collimator, a vacuum exit window and into the solid sample. The beam is stopped in the sample and the entire end of the assembly is a Faraday cup. Integration of the collected current, in conjunction

  1. Understanding the Subsurface Reactive Transport of Transuranic Contaminants at DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Mark O. [Auburn University; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E. [University of Notre Dame; Saiers, James E. [Yale University; Shuh, David K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2013-12-20

    Our primary hypothesis is that actinides can interact with surfaces in fundamentally different ways than other metals, metalloids, and oxyanions and that this fundamental difference requires new approaches to studying and modeling transuranic sorption to minerals and geomedia. This project supports a key mission of the SBR program to develop sufficient scientific understanding such that DOE sites will be able to incorporate coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes into decision making for environmental management and long-term stewardship, while also supporting DOE’s commitment to education, training, and collaboration with DOE user facilities.

  2. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1979-01-15

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual.

  3. Remediation of ultra low level of transuranics from potable water using hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of nuclear accidents like Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Fukushima, Japan (11 March, 2011) and nuclear accidents like Chernobyl, USSR (March, 1986), where large amount of activity spread in public domain necessitate the need of development of new material which can efficiently remove transuranic from potable water without disturbing its water quality. Three different types of natural sorbents were developed using natural siliceous material, sodium alginate and impregnation of goethite in alginate matrix. Experiments were carried out for decontamination of americium and plutonium by using Calcium Alginate (Cal-Alg) and Goethite impregnated Cal-Alg (Geo-Cal-Alg) respectively

  4. The use of EDTA and DTPA for accelerating the removal of deposited transuranic elements from humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDTA and DTPA have been prominent among the chelating agents used to increase the rate of excretion of certain deposited heavy metals from the human body. Since 1959, DTPA, administered either by intravenous injection or by aerosol inhalation, has been widely used to treat workers contaminated by plutonium or a higher actinide. In this report, an attempt is made to assess the toxicities of EDTA and DTPA and to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of DTPA as a drug for removing deposited transuranic elements. (author)

  5. 3He detector design for low-level transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From this study it appears that a logical configuration of 3He detectors imbedded in CH2 for nondestructive assay of low-level transuranic waste is: rho = 1 atmosphere, d = 2.54 cm, x = 5.08 cm, t = 15.24 cm, h = 61 cm, and N = 5. If a greater detector response is desired, the best way to achieve it is to first double the detector height, h, and then to increase the number of tubes, N, and/or increase the 3He density, rho

  6. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual

  7. The effect of vibration on alpha radiolysis of transuranic (TRU) waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on previously unpublished scoping work related to the potential for vibration to redistribute radionuclides on transuranic (TRU) waste. If this were to happen, the amount of gases generated, including hydrogen, could be increased above the undisturbed levels. This could be an important consideration for transport of TRU wastes either at DOE sites or from them to a future repository, e.g., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These preliminary data on drums of real waste seem to suggest that radionuclide redistribution does not occur. However improvements in the experimental methodology are suggested to enhance safety of future experiments on real wastes as well as to provide more rigorous data

  8. AutoCAD 2014 review for certification official certification preparation

    CERN Document Server

    ASCENT center for technical knowledge

    2014-01-01

    The AutoCAD® 2014 Review for Certification book is intended for users of AutoCAD® preparing to complete the AutoCAD 2014 Certified Professional exam. This book contains a collection of relevant instructional topics, practice exercises, and review questions from the Autodesk Official Training Guides (AOTG) from ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge pertaining specifically to the Certified Professional exam topics and objectives. This book is intended for experienced users of AutoCAD in preparation for certification. New users of AutoCAD should refer to the AOTG training guides from ASCENT, such as AutoCAD/AutoCAD LT 2014 Fundamentals, for more comprehensive instruction.

  9. Transuranic concentrations in selected biotic and abiotic components of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Test Reactor Area ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRA leaching pond area was sampled from June through August 1976 and again in 1977 to determine the concentration of five transuranic radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, Cm-242, and Cm-244, in abiotic and biotic components of this freshwater ecosystem. Highest concentration ratios were obtained for periphytic, planktonic, and sediment components of the system. Concentrations of these radionuclides decreased with increasing trophic level organisms, i.e., aquatic insects and bird species. Plant species analyzed had concentration ratios of approximately one to two orders of magnitude. These data represent the first investigation of five transuranic radionuclides being concurrently studied within a single freshwater ecosystem. The complete transuranic inventory will be combined with limnological data to compare the distribution of these nuclides with data obtained from other freshwater systems. From these comparisons, models concerning the movement of the radionuclides within and away from a freshwater system will be developed

  10. "The Buffett Plan for Reducing the Trade Deficit"

    OpenAIRE

    Papadimitriou, Dimitri B.; Hannsgen, Greg; Zezza, Gennaro

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a plan proposed by Warren Buffett, in which importers would be required to obtain certificates proportional to the amount of non-oil goods (and possibly also services) they brought into the country. These certificates would be granted to firms that exported goods. Exporting firms could then sell certificates to importing firms on an organized market. In this paper, starting from a relatively neutral projection of all major variables for the U.S. economy, we estimate that ...

  11. Establishment of the Certification System "Gynaecological Dysplasia" in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, M W; Quaas, J; Bischofberger, A; Kämmerle, A; Lux, M P; Wesselmann, S

    2014-09-01

    Gynaecological cancer centres have been established nationwide in Germany since 2008 according to the certification system of the German Cancer Society (Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft e. V. [DKG]) and the German Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe e. V. [DGGG]). However, patient access to the certified gynaecological cancer centres is currently only possible through direct referrals. A longitudinal structure with the corresponding long-term documentation of both the high-grade precursors as well as the cancers does not exist as yet. According to the aims of the National Cancer Plan, a corresponding structure for the cancer entity "cervix carcinoma" should be established. The foundations for such a structure are appropriate diagnostic units that are responsible, after nationwide screening, for clarification according to guideline-conform principles. On the basis of the vote of the certification commission for gynaecological cancer centres under the chairmanship of the DKG, the Working Group for Gynaecological Oncology (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie e. V. [AGO]), the Committee on Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Zervixpathologie & Kolposkopie [AG-CPC]) and the DGGG the certification system for gynaecological dysplasia has been established. As a general principle, a distinction is made between the certification of a consulting practice for gynaecological dysplasia and a gynaecological dysplasia facility in order to integrate both outpatient and inpatient health-care facilities into the certification system. In analogy to the further catalogue of requirements from the DKG, quantitative and qualitative minimum numbers are demanded. Furthermore, the requirements of the certification process include a summary of patient information, the applied guidelines, continuing and further training, interdisciplinary cooperation in tumour boards, contents or, respectively, procedure

  12. Certificate Transparency in Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Certificate Transparency provides auditability to the widely used X.509 Public Key Infrastructure (PKIX) authentication in Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol. Transparency logs issue signed promises of inclusions to be used together with certificates for authentication of TLS servers. Google Chrome enforces the use of Certificate Transparency for validation of Extended Validation (EV) certificates. This thesis proposes a methodology for asserting correct operation and presents a survey o...

  13. DINI Institutional Repository Certification and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Dobratz, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Overview on certification of institutional repositories as a means to support Open Access in Germany and description of the DINI Certificate 2006 developed by DINI, the German Initiative for Networked Information. The DINI Certificate for Document and Publication Repositories shows potential users and authors of digital documents that a certain level of quality in operating the repository is guaranteed and that this distinguishes it from common institutional web servers. The Certificate ca...

  14. Is it time for rubberwood certification?

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Aini Zakaria; Lim Hin Fui; Ismariah Ahmad; Rohana Abd Rahman; Norliyana Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The increase in global attention on climate change, also heightens pressure on the implementation of certification on rubberwood plantation. Certification ensures that resources are managed sustainably for economic, environmental and societal benefits. The international push for rubberwood certification is an urgent issue as MalaysiaÕs furniture exporters are facing great pressure from the American and European markets. Some furniture buyers from Europe and America require certification espec...

  15. Quality certificates for homeopathic matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarilys de Toledo Cesar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To produce homeopathic medicines, pharmacies need raw materials (mother tinctures and diluted-agitated solutions, named “matrices”, provided by insumes suppliers. The “matrices” are ultra high dilutions and can not be tested against Analysis Reports. Aims: to propose alternatives to the matrices Analysis Report; to contribute to the quality of homeopathic medicines and treatment. Method: search of information present in the documentation provided from 2 national and 3 European suppliers in order to develop criteria. Discussion: the needed concepts for compliance with the orders throughout their production process were presented. The control of information involved in the process allows to trace the production of matrices, providing an indication of the quality with which they were obtained. Each supplier gives different approach to issuing a document, calling it Certificate of Conformity Protocol Preparation, Manufacturing Certificate or Quality Certificate. Summarizing, it is a supplier's declaration, which involves the quality control of raw materials, packaging materials and of the process used, but not a report that enables customers to repeat the analysis. A model was proposed for a Certificate of Quality, with the minimum information needed to indicate to the pharmacies that there is a control of the process. This certificate shall contain statements about the process. Conclusion: Quality Certificate seems to be the best document to ensure the pharmacy that the matrix obtained presents characteristics compatible with the preparation of a quality homeopathic medicine.

  16. Study of the land to sea transport of transuranic elements. Application to the Palomares Accident (Almeria 1966)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents a study on the land to sea transport of transuranic elements applied to a precise scenery at southern coast of Spain: the Palomares ecosystem, where in 1966 an accidental release of transuranics occurred (an USAF b-52 carrying four thermonuclear bombs). The study has been focused on the depositional history recorded in sediments from different sea depths. The experimental basis has been the measurement of Pu, Am, radiocaesium, and natural radionuclides in marine sediments from the referred zone, that involved the setting up of high sensitivity alpha and gamma spectrometry systems; the chronology of sediment was established by applying the CRS model to unsupported Pb-210 profiles. (author)

  17. In situ vitrification of transuranic wastes: An updated systems evaluation and applications assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a process whereby joule heating immobilizes contaminated soil in place into a durable glass and crystalline waste form. Numerous technological advances made during the past three years in the design, fabrication, and testing of the ISV process are discussed. Performance analysis of ISV focuses on process equipment, element retention (in the vitrified soil during processing), melt geometry, depth monitors, and electrodes. The types of soil and waste processed by ISV are evaluated as process parameters. Economic data provide the production costs of the large-scale unit for radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes (wet and dry). The processing of transuranic-contaminated soils are discussed with respect to occupational and public safety. Alternative applications and operating sequences for various waste sites are identified. The technological data base warrants conducting a large-scale radioactive test at a contaminated soil site at Hanford to provide a representative waste form that can be evaluated to determine its suitability for in-place stabilization of transuranic-contaminated soils

  18. The chemical behavior of the transuranic elements and the barrier function in natural aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a geological repository for long-lived radioactive wastes, such as actinides and certain fission products, most of the stored radionuclides remain immobile in the particular geological formation. If any of these could possibly become mobile, only trace concentrations of a few radionuclides would result. Nevertheless, with an inventory in the repository of many tonnes of transuranic elements, the amounts that could disperse cannot be neglected. A critical assessment of the chemical behavior of these nuclides, especially their migration properties in the aquifer system around the repository site, is mandatory for analysis of the long-term safety. The chemistry requited for this includes many geochemical multicomponent reactions that are so far only partially understood and hich therefore can be quantified only incompletely. A few of these reactions have been discussed in this paper based on present knowledge. If a comprehensive discussion of the subject is impossible because of this ack of information then an attempt to emphasize the importance of the predominant geochemical reactions of the transuranic elements in various aquifer systems should be made

  19. Dangerous Waste Characteristics of Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed Wastes from the Hanford Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, Joel M.; Bryan, Garry H.; Deschane, Jaquetta R.

    2004-08-31

    This report summarizes existing analytical data from samples taken from the Hanford tanks designated as potentially containing transuranic mixed process wastes. Process knowledge of the wastes transferred to these tanks has been reviewed to determine whether the dangerous waste characteristics now assigned to all Hanford underground storage tanks are applicable to these particular wastes. Supplemental technologies are being examined to accelerate the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission and accomplish waste treatment safely and efficiently. To date, 11 Hanford waste tanks have been designated as potentially containing contact-handled (CH) transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes. The CH-TRUM wastes are found in single-shell tanks B-201 through B-204, T-201 through T-204, T-104, T-110, and T-111. Methods and equipment to solidify and package the CH-TRUM wastes are part of the supplemental technologies being evaluated. The resulting packages and wastes must be acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The dangerous waste characteristics being considered include ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity arising from the presence of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol at levels above the dangerous waste threshold. The analytical data reviewed include concentrations of sulfur, sulfate, cyanide, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, total organic carbon, and oxalate; the composition of the tank headspace, pH, and mercury. Differential scanning calorimetry results were used to determine the energetics of the wastes as a function of temperature.

  20. Distribution of transuranic isotopes in the water of the North Sea and adjacent regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1978 to 1980 large scale investigations were carried out for the determination of transuranics in the Western Baltic Sea, in the Kattegat and Skagerrak, and in the whole of the North Sea including a strip to the West and East of the Orkney and Shetland Islands, as well as in a region between North Cape and Spitzbergen. The measurements in the North Sea region were carried out in order to gain better knowledge about the further spreading and behaviour of transuranic isotopes which are introduced into the sea from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. As far as the other areas are concerned, measurements are intended to provide basic data to supplement the only very meagre data material available. The isotopes of 238Pu and 239+240Pu were determined from 60 l unfiltered seawater according to the method of Murray and Statham. Nevertheless, for analysis of 241Am, 200 l of seawater were required owing to the lower concentrations. For that reason, this isotope could be determined in only a limited number of samples taken from particularly interesting regions. The data of 1978 were made known in an earlier report; however, they are now interpreted together with the present results

  1. The behaviour of transuranic mixed oxide fuel in a Candu-900 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of transuranic actinide fuels for use in current thermal reactors provides a useful intermediary step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Extraction of actinides reduces the longevity, radiation and heat loads of spent material. The burning of transuranic fuels in current reactors for a limited amount of cycles reduces the infrastructure demand for fast reactors and provides an effective synergy that can result in a reduction of as much as 95% of spent fuel waste while reducing the fast reactor infrastructure needed by a factor of almost 13.5 [1]. This paper examines the features of actinide mixed oxide fuel, TRUMOX, in a CANDUR* nuclear reactor. The actinide concentrations used were based on extraction from 30 year cooled spent fuel and mixed with natural uranium in 3.1 wt% actinide MOX fuel. Full lattice cell modeling was performed using the WIMS-AECL code, super-cell calculations were analyzed in DRAGON and full core analysis was executed in the RFSP 2-group diffusion code. A time-average full core model was produced and analyzed for reactor coefficients, reactivity device worth and online fuelling impacts. The standard CANDU operational limits were maintained throughout operations. The TRUMOX fuel design achieved a burnup of 27.36 MWd/kg HE. A full TRUMOX fuelled CANDU was shown to operate within acceptable limits and provided a viable intermediary step for burning actinides. The recycling, reprocessing and reuse of spent fuels produces a much more sustainable and efficient nuclear fuel cycle. (authors)

  2. The pursuit of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification for campus housing at public universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalinka, April Hicks

    This dissertation identifies the reasons why institutions of higher education pursue Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification for new construction of campus housing. The research was guided by three questions: 1. Why did the institution choose to pursue LEED certification for campus housing? 2. What considerations should be made in the design, development, and planning process of a LEED residence hall? 3. What significant impact has the LEED residence hall made on campus? The outcomes of this study will provide insight to university and housing administrators who are considering pursuit of LEED certification for new residence hall development. The primary sources of data are chief housing officers or their designees at public four-year colleges and universities with new campus housing awarded LEED certification. Qualitative research techniques were used to conduct interviews by LEED certification level: Platinum, Silver, Gold, and Certified. Data collection ended when data saturation of each question in each certification level was achieved. This dissertation offers reasons why universities pursue LEED certification: state requirement, institutional commitment, institutional standard, environmental stewardship, departmental decision, and student interest. Additionally, considerations and lessons learned from the pursuit of LEED certification have been identified and can serve as a guide to housing administrators who aim to achieve any LEED level certification.

  3. Transuranic resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of aged resuspension sources are more uncertain than those of new resuspension sources, which can be investigated using inert-particle controlled-tracer sources. Even though airborne concentrations are low, one aged uniform-area source which can be used for resuspension studies is the accumulated radionuclide fallout in the soil from stratospheric and tropospheric fallout debris. Airborne radionuclide concentrations from this source were investigated at convenient locations on the Hanford site. The objective is to summarize plutonium and americium resuspension research conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1977 to 1983. Airborne plutonium was determined at five sites in the Hanford area, and both plutonium and americium were determined at two Hanford sites. Airborne plutonium and americium were examined as a function of aerodynamic particle diameter, sampling height, wind speed increments, and wind direction increments. The following results are discussed: airborne radionuclide concentrations, μCi/cm3 of sampled air; radionuclide activity densities, μCi/g of airborne solids; airborne plutonium fluxes, μCi/(m2 day); 241Am/239+240Pu) activity ratios, (μCi 241Am)/(μCi239+240Pu); and airborne solid concentrations, μg/m3 of sampled air. In addition, a relationship based on field data for aged plutonium sources at Bikini Atoll, the Hanford site, and Rocky Flats was developed to estimate the maximum expected plutonium activity density on airborne solids compared to activity densities for bulk surface-soil samples. As a result, it is possible to more accurately predict resuspension factor ranges as a function of the resuspension source activity densities. 31 references, 18 figures, 5 tables

  4. Open source systems security certification

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, Ernesto; El Ioini, Nabil

    2009-01-01

    Open Source Advances in Computer Applications book series provides timely technological and business information for: Enabling Open Source Systems (OSS) to become an integral part of systems and devices produced by technology companies; Inserting OSS in the critical path of complex network development and embedded products, including methodologies and tools for domain-specific OSS testing (lab code available), plus certification of security, dependability and safety properties for complex systems; Ensuring integrated systems, including OSS, meet performance and security requirements as well as achieving the necessary certifications, according to the overall strategy of OSS usage on the part of the adopter

  5. 46 CFR 107.309 - Crane plans and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crane plans and information. 107.309 Section 107.309... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Plan Approval § 107.309 Crane plans and information. (a) Three copies of each of... support and stability of each crane under its rated load. (3) Plans showing the installation of the...

  6. Certification and the Branding of HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Saul

    2012-01-01

    Although calls continue to establish certification, several certifications for human resource development (HRD) practitioners already exist, although none use the name HRD. This Forum explores what those certification programs are and what their availability means to the development of the HRD "brand" (the impressions of the service derived from…

  7. 34 CFR 34.21 - Employer certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer certification. 34.21 Section 34.21 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.21 Employer certification. (a) Along with a garnishment order, we send to an employer a certification in a form...

  8. 46 CFR 109.439 - Crane certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crane certificates. 109.439 Section 109.439 Shipping... Reports, Notifications, and Records Records § 109.439 Crane certificates. The master or person in charge shall insure that the following certificates and records for each crane are maintained on the unit:...

  9. 26 CFR 1.43-3 - Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1.43-3 Certification (a) Petroleum engineer's certification of a project—(1) In general. A petroleum... requirements of section 43(c)(2)(A). A petroleum engineer's certification must be submitted for each project. The petroleum engineer certifying a project must be duly registered or certified in any State....

  10. 14 CFR 21.275 - Experimental certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Experimental certificates. 21.275 Section 21.275 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... certificates. (a) The manufacturer shall, before issuing an experimental certificate, obtain from...

  11. 75 FR 71454 - NIJ Certification Programs Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... of Justice Programs NIJ Certification Programs Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of the NIJ Certification Programs Workshop. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is hosting a Certification Programs Workshop to introduce NIJ standards for law...

  12. 14 CFR 137.11 - Certificate required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 137.11 Certificate required. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this... dispensing of water on forest fires by rotorcraft external-load means, need not comply with this subpart....

  13. 29 CFR 1926.29 - Acceptable certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Acceptable certifications. (a) Pressure vessels. Current and valid certification by an insurance company or... be in compliance with the requirements of this part when evidence of current and valid certification by an insurance company or regulatory authority attesting to the safe installation, inspection,...

  14. Performance Assessment in Support of the 1996 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Basabilvazo, G.; Helton, J.C.; Jow, H.-N.; Marietta, M.G.

    1998-10-14

    The conceptual and computational structure of a performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. Important parts of thk structure are @ maintenance of a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertain, with stochastic uncefinty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 Y regulatory period fiat applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from `the imprecision with which many of the quantities rquired in tie `hdysis are known, (ii) use of Latin hypercttbe sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncefirtty, (iii) use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncetinty, and OV) efficient use of tie necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to SUPPOII the analysis. The WIPP is under development by the U.S. Department of Ener~ (DOE) for the geologic (i.e., deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, with the indicated PA supporting a ~Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996 for tie necessary certifications for the WIPP to begin operation. If certified, the WIPP will be the first operational faciliv in tie United States for the geologic disposal of ra&oactive waste.

  15. Certification of VOC canister samplers for use at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site is designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) mixed waste. An air monitoring program has been established at the WIPP site to verify that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) do not migrate out of the disposal unit. In this air monitoring program, modified commercially available dual canister samplers are used to collect air samples for VOC analysis. Sampler certification, sample collection, and sample analysis are performed based on the procedures contained in US Environmental Protection Agency's Compendium Method TO-14. The canister samplers are certified for cleanliness by passing humid zero air through the entire sampling system and collecting a sample in a canister over a 24-hour period. In addition, each canister sampler is certified for target compound recovery efficiency by passing a humid calibration gas standard through the entire sampling system and collecting a sample in a canister over a 24-hour period. In this paper, the authors discuss the techniques developed for meeting the stringent certification requirements of the monitoring program and present data to support the need for these stringent requirements

  16. Unvented Drum Handling Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The

  17. Effects of acquiring FSC forest management certification for Japanese enterprises using SmartWood Audits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katsuaki SUGIURA; Takuyuki YOSHIOKA; Kouki INOUE

    2012-01-01

    We explore the organizational,environmental,and economic effects of sustainable forest management (FM) certification by SmartWood (SW),one of the certification bodies accredited by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) to carry out certification in Japan.We closely investigated three enterprises:the Yusuhara Forest Owners' Cooperative,Yamanashi Prefectural Forest,and Ryujin-mura Forest Owners' Cooperative.Interviews with representatives of these entities provided crucial empirical information regarding the influence of certification on environmental assessment,rare-species protection,landscape-management planning,management objectives,and forest supervision.Attainment of FM status improved environmental awareness and engendered positive changes in assessing and managing forests and other natural resources but simultaneously imposed heavier economic costs.

  18. Teacher Certification/Preparation Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Rita

    1990-01-01

    Presents guidelines for general and theater specialist K-12 teacher certification developed by the American Alliance for Theatre Education and the Speech Communication Association. Advocates that all teachers have preparation in arts and communication and that theater and communication specialists continue to be trained. (SR)

  19. Trusted Certificates in Quantum Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, William

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the performance of Kak's three stage quantum cryptographic protocol based on public key cryptography against a man-in-the-middle attack. A method for protecting against such an attack is presented using certificates distributed by a trusted third party.

  20. AN EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT TO DETERMINE MORE EFFECTIVE VOCATIONAL TEACHER CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES IN MICHIGAN BY COMPETENCY EXAMINATIONS. FINAL REPORT OF PHASE I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAZANAS, H.D.; KIEFT, L.D.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS PROJECT WAS TO DETERMINE MORE EFFECTIVE VOCATIONAL TEACHER CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES IN MICHIGAN WITH PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETENCY EXAMINATIONS FOR USE IN CERTIFICATION OF TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL TEACHERS. STATE PLANS FROM 31 STATES WERE REVIEWED. QUESTIONNAIRES TO STATE DIRECTORS COLLECTED INFORMATION AND…

  1. Planetary Protection Alternate Protocol Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amy; Barengoltz, Jack; Tisdale, David

    The talk presents a standardized approach for new method certification or alterative testing protocol (ATP) certification against the existing U.S. Planetary Protection Standards. In consideration of new method certification there are two phases of activities that are relevant to the certification process. The first is sample acquisition which typically incorporates swab or wipes sampling on relevant hardware, associated facilities and ground support equipment. The sampling methods introduce considerations of field sampling efficiency as it relates to spore distribution on the spacecraft, spacecraft material influences on the ability of the swab or wipe to remove spores from the hardware, the types of swabs and wipes used (polyester, cotton, macrofoam), and human sampling influences. The second portion of a new protocol certification looks specifically at the lab work-up or analysis of the samples provided to the laboratory. Variables in this process include selection of appropriate biomarkers, extraction efficiencies (removal of spores or constituents of interest from the sampling device), and a method's ability to accurately determine the number of spores present in the sample with a statistically valid level of confidence as described by parameters such as precision, accuracy, robustness, specificity and sensitivity. Considerations for alternative testing protocols such as those which utilize bioburden reduction techniques include selection of appropriate biomarkers for testing, test materials and a defined statistical approach that provides sufficient scientific data to support the modification of an existing NASA specification or the generation of a new NASA specification. Synergies between the U.S. and European Space Agency approaches will also be discussed.

  2. Environmental certificate to Salmisaari plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SFS-EN ISO 14001 certificate has been granted in October 2nd 2000 to the environmental systems of Salmisaari power plant area owned by Helsinki Energia. The certificate cowers power and district heat generation at the power plants of the Salmisaari area. The certified system will be used as the basis for the future environmental work. Salmisaari B is a combined heat and power plant, and Salmisaari A is a boiler plant generating district heat for use in winter. Both plants use coal as main fuel. Dusts and sulphur compounds are removed from the flue gases formed in combustion in desulphurisation plant. Development of the environmental system started in autumn 1997 by excursion to acquaint the environmental system of the Rauhalahti power plant. Development work started in spring 1998. External evaluations and the recording of the present situation by DNV (Det Norske Veritas) consulting services were carried out at the end of 1999. The inspection of the management was carried out in the beginning of 2000 and the auditing was made in May 2000. Auditing showed about ten faults or lacks in the system, which were repaired. DNV Certification Oy/AB carried out the certification. Certification granted in the beginning of October 2000, covers power and district heat generation of the Salmisaari plants, as well as all the operations and systems, such as power station, underground oil storages, coal storage and the Tammasaari coal and oil unloading docks and Kellosaari power plants, connected to them. Desulphurisation plant of Salmisaari has operated since 1987, and NOx emissions have been reduced since 1991 by improved coal combustion system. In Hanasaari power plant the combustion technology was renewed during reduction of NOx emissions in 1994

  3. Current Status and Problems in Certification of Sustainable Forest Management in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Xie, Dongming; Wang, Danyin; Deng, Hongbing

    2011-12-01

    Forest certification is a mechanism involving the regulation of trade of forest products in order to protect forest resources and improve forest management. Although China had a late start in adopting this process, the country has made good progress in recent years. As of July 31, 2009, 17 forest management enterprises and more than one million hectares of forests in China have been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Several major factors affect forest certification in China. The first set is institutional in nature. Forest management in China is based on centralized national plans and therefore lacks flexibility. A second factor is public awareness. The importance and value of forest certification are not widely understood and thus consumers do not make informed choices regarding certified forest products. The third major factor is the cost of certification. Together these factors have constrained the development of China's forest certification efforts. However, the process does have great potential. According to preliminary calculations, if 50% of China's commercial forests were certified, the economic cost of forest certification would range from US0.66-86.63 million while the economic benefits for the forestry business sector could exceed US150 million. With continuing progress in forest management practices and the development of international trade in forest products, it becomes important to improve the forest certification process in China. This can be achieved by improving the forest management system, constructing and perfecting market access mechanisms for certificated forest products, and increasing public awareness of environmental protection, forest certification, and their interrelationship.

  4. Current status and problems in certification of sustainable forest management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Xie, Dongming; Wang, Danyin; Deng, Hongbing

    2011-12-01

    Forest certification is a mechanism involving the regulation of trade of forest products in order to protect forest resources and improve forest management. Although China had a late start in adopting this process, the country has made good progress in recent years. As of July 31, 2009, 17 forest management enterprises and more than one million hectares of forests in China have been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). Several major factors affect forest certification in China. The first set is institutional in nature. Forest management in China is based on centralized national plans and therefore lacks flexibility. A second factor is public awareness. The importance and value of forest certification are not widely understood and thus consumers do not make informed choices regarding certified forest products. The third major factor is the cost of certification. Together these factors have constrained the development of China's forest certification efforts. However, the process does have great potential. According to preliminary calculations, if 50% of China's commercial forests were certified, the economic cost of forest certification would range from US$0.66-86.63 million while the economic benefits for the forestry business sector could exceed US$150 million. With continuing progress in forest management practices and the development of international trade in forest products, it becomes important to improve the forest certification process in China. This can be achieved by improving the forest management system, constructing and perfecting market access mechanisms for certificated forest products, and increasing public awareness of environmental protection, forest certification, and their interrelationship. PMID:21327561

  5. Use of WIMS-E lattice code for prediction of the transuranic source term for spent fuel dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent source term analysis has shown a discrepancy between ORIGEN2 transuranic isotopic production estimates and those produced with the WIMS-E lattice physics code. Excellent agreement between relevant experimental measurements and WIMS-E was shown, thus exposing an error in the cross section library used by ORIGEN2

  6. Methodology of integrated land as containing transuranic; Metodologia de medida integrada de tierras con contenido de transuranidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa Garces, E.; Saez Vergara, J. C.; Burgos Garcia, D.; Sancho Llerandi, C.

    2011-07-01

    The determination of the activity concentration of soil contaminated with transuranic on significant volumes is not trivial, is a technique that is necessary to evaluate the extent of large amounts of land (thousand m3) in restoration projects or to land contain americium or plutonium due to activities or incidents of the past.

  7. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was completed as required by DOE Order 5480.23. The purpose of this document is to construct a safety basis that supports the design and permits construction of the facility. The facility has been designed to the requirements of a Radioactive Solid Waste Facility presented in DOE Order 6430.1A

  8. Certification and licensing of clinical medical physicists in AFOMP countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In many countries the education and training of medical physicists has changed over the last few decades 'om being rather ad hoc to becoming structured with residency programs becoming quite common. These are often followed by formal certification by independent bodies, and medical physics professional organizations MPPOs) affirming the quality of certified physicists and recognizing their competence and ability to practice independently. Policies on the training and education of medical physicists have been developed by the International organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) and by the Asia Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics AFOMP). Currently nine countries in Asia-Oceania operate systems for the certification of clinical medical physicists and four others are planning or implementing such systems. The existing systems, which are described in his paper, generally conform to the policies. Licensing of medical physicists, which is primarily the responsibility of government bodies, is almost unknown in that region. (author)

  9. Gates Fund Creates Plan for College Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation plans to spend several hundred million dollars over the next five years to double the number of low-income young people who complete a college degree or certificate program by age 26. Foundation officials described the ambitious plan to an exclusive group of education leaders, citing 2025 as a target goal. If…

  10. 14 CFR 93.323 - Flight plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight plans. 93.323 Section 93.323... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.323 Flight plans. Each certificate holder conducting a commercial...

  11. Transuranic and fission product contamination in lake sediments from an alpine wetland, Boreon (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranics and fission products have been measured in lake sediment samples, collected in an alpine wetland, to determine their vertical distribution and calculate inventories. The radionuclides considered are 9Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239/24Pu and 241Am. From the results, a better knowledge of radionuclide accumulation mode and behaviour was obtained. In addition, the origins of the individual pollutants could be deduced from activity ratios. Analyses were made on different sediment cores. The sampling sites were chosen to enable future determination of the mass balances of the radiopollutants. As the selected study area is in a recreational area used by urban populations, a rough estimate was made of the mean external dose from 137Cs for comparison with the French regulation

  12. Transuranic removal from neutralized current acid waste with pneumatic hydropulse filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) is generated by the solvent extraction portion of the PUREX process. It contains <20% solids by volume, and is currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. These solids contain the transuranic (TRU) elements and most of the fission products and will be converted to glass for permanent disposal. Because of the high cost of vitrification and repository disposal, there is a large economic incentive to minimize volume. Separation of the solids from the supernatant liquor provides a more concentrated high-level waste stream for vitrification, thereby reducing the cost. Removal of the solids will also provide an approximately TRU- free supernatant liquor which can be disposed of as grout in near-surface facilities. Allowing the solids to settle, then decanting (settle/decant) and filtering the supernatant are the principal unit operations used for TRU removal. These unit operations as shown will be used at the B Plant, an existing facility at the Hanford Site

  13. Layer thickness evaluation for transuranic transmutation in a fusion–fission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Layer thickness for transmutation in a fusion–fission system was evaluated. • The calculations were performed using MONTEBURNS code. • The results indicate the best thickness and volume ratio to induce transmutation. - Abstract: Layer thickness for transuranic transmutation in a fusion–fission system was evaluated using two different ways. In the first one, transmutation layer thicknesses were designed maintaining the fuel rod radius constant; in the second part, while the transmutation layer thickness increases, the fuel rod radius decreases maintaining ks (source-multiplication factor) ≈0.95. Spent fuel reprocessed by UREX+ method and then spiked with thorium and uranium composes the transmutation layer. The calculations were performed using MONTEBURNS code (MCNP5 and ORIGEN 2.1). The results indicate the best thickness and the volume ratio between the coolant and the fuel composition to induce transmutation

  14. Identification of the fast and thermal neutron characteristics of transuranic waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, B.H. Jr.; Bramblett, R.L. [Lockheed Martin Specialty Components, Largo, FL (United States); Hensley, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Fissile and spontaneously fissioning material in transuranic waste drums can be most sensitively assayed using an active and passive neutron assay system such as the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay. Both the active and the passive assays are distorted by the presence of the waste matrix and containerization. For accurate assaying, this distortion must be characterized and accounted for. An External Matrix Probe technique has been developed that accomplishes this task. Correlations between in-drum neutron flux measurements and monitors in the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay chamber with various matrix materials provide a non-invasive means of predicting the thermal neutron flux in waste drums. Similarly, measures of the transmission of fast neutrons emitted from sources in the drum. Results obtained using the Lockheed Martin Specialty Components Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay system are discussed. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Layer thickness evaluation for transuranic transmutation in a fusion–fission system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Carlos E., E-mail: carlosvelcab@eng-nucl.mest.ufmg.br [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear—Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, 31.270-90, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rede Nacional de Fusão (FINEP/CNPq), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Claubia, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear—Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, 31.270-90, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rede Nacional de Fusão (FINEP/CNPq), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F., E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear—Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, 31.270-90, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rede Nacional de Fusão (FINEP/CNPq), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Antonella L., E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear—Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, 31.270-90, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rede Nacional de Fusão (FINEP/CNPq), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Layer thickness for transmutation in a fusion–fission system was evaluated. • The calculations were performed using MONTEBURNS code. • The results indicate the best thickness and volume ratio to induce transmutation. - Abstract: Layer thickness for transuranic transmutation in a fusion–fission system was evaluated using two different ways. In the first one, transmutation layer thicknesses were designed maintaining the fuel rod radius constant; in the second part, while the transmutation layer thickness increases, the fuel rod radius decreases maintaining k{sub s} (source-multiplication factor) ≈0.95. Spent fuel reprocessed by UREX+ method and then spiked with thorium and uranium composes the transmutation layer. The calculations were performed using MONTEBURNS code (MCNP5 and ORIGEN 2.1). The results indicate the best thickness and the volume ratio between the coolant and the fuel composition to induce transmutation.

  16. TRUSYSTEM - A computerized system for the management of defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is embarking on a program to dispose of defense transuranic waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. In order to ensure that WIPP receives the waste at the required rate, the careful management of a logistic system involving numerous DOE facilities and specialized waste transports is required. TRUSYSTEM is being used in the design and operation of this complex system. TRUSYSTEM consists of a computerized database (PRIMS), a system simulation program (TRUSIM), and software for the monitoring and dispatching of waste transports (PHOENIX). This system designed to operate on the new generation of microcomputers, is being written in machine independent code (FORTRAN and ''C''). It is easily maintained and can be moved between different types of computers. TRUSYSTEM resides entirely within computer memory. This provides the speed necessary for real-time operations

  17. TRUSYSTEM: A computerized system for the management of defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is embarking on a program to dispose of defense transuranic waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. In order to ensure that WIPP receives the waste at the required rate, the careful management of a logistic system involving numerous DOE facilities and specialized transports is required. TRUSYSTEM is being used in the design and operation of this complex system. TRUSYSTEM consists of a computerized database, a system simulation program, and software for the monitoring and dispatching of waste transport. This system, designed to operate on new generation of microcomputers, is being written in machine independent code (FORTRAN and ''C''). It is easily maintained and can be moved among different types of computers. TRUSYSTEM resides entirely within computer memory. This provides the speed necessary for real-time operations

  18. Removing transuranic waste from water: The TRU/Clear process system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major advance toward solving some of the most intractable problems of environmental cleanup is the TRU/Clear Process System invented by a team of researchers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This process was developed to extract and remove the final trace amounts of the radioactive elements called transuranic (TRU) elements from wastewater streams produced by nuclear facilities. The system, which is completely compatible with existing wastewater treatment technologies, is potentially capable of removing other toxic heavy metals, such as arsenic, mercury, and cadmium, as well as hazardous organic contaminants from wastewater. Future users of the LANL system might include electronics manufacturers and chemical production plants as well as the nuclear industry. The process defines a new chemistry and chemical technology for wastewater treatment that makes a near-zero discharge of pollutants feasible in the near future, while reducing overall waste management costs

  19. Evaluation of alternatives for high-level and transuranic radioactive- waste disposal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, M.M. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The remand of the US Environmental Protection Agency`s long-term performance standards for radioactive-waste disposal provides an opportunity to suggest modifications that would make the regulation more defensible and remove inconsistencies yet retain the basic structure of the original rule. Proposed modifications are in three specific areas: release and dose limits, probabilistic containment requirements, and transuranic-waste disposal criteria. Examination of the modifications includes discussion of the alternatives, demonstration of methods of development and implementation, comparison of the characteristics, attributes, and deficiencies of possible options within each area, and analysis of the implications for performance assessments. An additional consideration is the impact on the entire regulation when developing or modifying the individual components of the radiological standards.

  20. The TRUSPEAK Concept: Combining CMPO and HDEHP for Separating Trivalent Lanthanides from the Transuranic Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Gelis, Artem V.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Pittman, Jonathan W.; Warner, Marvin G.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2013-04-08

    Combining octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) into a single process solvent for separating transuranic elements from liquid high-level waste is explored. Co-extraction of americium and the lanthanide elements from nitric acid solution is possible with a solvent mixture consisting of 0.1-M CMPO plus 1-M HDEHP in n-dodecane. Switching the aqueous-phase chemistry to a citrate-buffered solution of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) allows for selective stripping of americium, separating it from the lanthanide elements. Potential strategies for managing molybdenum and zirconium (both of which co-extract with americium and the lanthanides) have been developed. The work presented here demonstrates the feasibility of combining CMPO and HDEHP into a single extraction solvent for recovering americium from high-level waste and its separation from the lanthanides.

  1. Combining CMPO and HEH[EHP] for Separating Trivalent Lanthanides from the Transuranic Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carter, Jennifer C.

    2013-09-05

    Combining octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) into a single process solvent for separating transuranic elements from liquid high-level waste is explored. The lanthanides and americium can be co-extracted from HNO3 into 0.2 mol/L CMPO + 1.0 mol/L HEH[EHP] in n-dodecane. The extraction is relatively insensitive to the HNO3 concentration within 0.1 to 5 mol/L HNO3. Americium can be selectively stripped from the CMPO/HEH[EHP] solvent into a citrate-buffered N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid solution . Separation factors >14 can be achieved in the range pH 2.5 to 3.7, and the separation factors are relatively insensitive to pH, a major advantage of this solvent formulation.

  2. Evaluation of alternatives for high-level and transuranic radioactive- waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remand of the US Environmental Protection Agency's long-term performance standards for radioactive-waste disposal provides an opportunity to suggest modifications that would make the regulation more defensible and remove inconsistencies yet retain the basic structure of the original rule. Proposed modifications are in three specific areas: release and dose limits, probabilistic containment requirements, and transuranic-waste disposal criteria. Examination of the modifications includes discussion of the alternatives, demonstration of methods of development and implementation, comparison of the characteristics, attributes, and deficiencies of possible options within each area, and analysis of the implications for performance assessments. An additional consideration is the impact on the entire regulation when developing or modifying the individual components of the radiological standards

  3. Transuranics elimination in an optimised pebble-bed sub-critical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a nuclear energy economy the nuclear waste is a big burden to its further development and deployment. The possibility of eliminating the long-term part of the waste presents an appealing opportunity to the sustainability and acceptance of a better and cleaner source of energy. It is shown that the proposed pebble-bed transmutator has suitable characteristics to transmute most of the isotopes that contribute to the long-term radioactivity. This proposed reactor presents also inherent safety characteristics, which is a necessary element in a new reactor design to be accepted by the society. Throughout this paper, we will characterise the new reactor concept, and present some of the neutronics and safety characteristics of an accelerator driven pebble-bed reactor, (ADS) for transuranics elimination. (author)

  4. Incinerator development program for processing transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fall of 1981, two short-term tests were conducted on a controlled air and a rotary kiln incinerator to assess their potential for processing transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The primary purpose of the test program was a proof-of-principle verification that the incinerators could achieve near-complete combustion of the combustible portion of the waste, while mixed with high percentages of noncombustible and metal waste materials. Other important test objectives were to obtain system design information including off-gas and end-product characteristics and incinerator operating parameters. Approximately 7200 kg of simulated (non-TRU) waste from the INEL were processed during the two tests

  5. Case studies of corrosion of mixed waste and transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents three case studies of corrosion of waste drums at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Corrosion was not anticipated by the waste generators, but occurred because of subtle chemical or physical mechanisms. In one case, drums of a cemented transuranic (TRU) sludge experienced general and pitting corrosion. In the second instance, a chemical from a commercial paint stripper migrated from its primary containment drums to chemically attack overpack drums made of mild carbon steel. In the third case, drums of mixed low level waste (MLLW) soil corroded drum packaging even though the waste appeared to be dry when it was placed in the drums. These case studies are jointly discussed as ''lessons learned'' to enhance awareness of subtle mechanisms that can contribute to the corrosion of radioactive waste drums during interim storage

  6. Matrix effects of TRU [transuranic] assays using the SWEPP PAN assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drum Assay System (DAS) at the Stored Waste Experimental Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a second-generation active-passive neutron assay system. It has been used to assay over 5000 208-liter drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Data from these assays have been examined and compared with the assays performed at Rocky Flats, mainly utilize counting of 239Pu gamma rays. For the most part the passive assays are in very good agreement with the Rocky Flats assays. The active assays are strongly correlated with the results of the other two methods, but require matrix-dependent correction factors beyond those provided by the system itself. A set of matrix-dependent correction factors has been developed from the study of the assay results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Near-complete transuranic waste incineration in a thorium fuelled pressurised water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Thorium, transuranic waste fuelled pressurised water reactor (such as EPR). ► Evolution of isotopes modelled over 125 years. ► All actinides returned to the reactor after reprocessing. ► Rapid and near complete elimination of transuranic waste is possible. ► Competitive burn-up is achievable and reactor is stable and controllable. - Abstract: The production of long-lived transuranic (TRU) waste is a major disadvantage of fission-based nuclear power. Incineration, and virtual elimination, of waste stockpiles is possible in a thorium (Th) fuelled critical or subcritical fast reactor. Fuel cycles producing a net decrease in TRUs are possible in conventional pressurised water reactors (PWRs). However, minor actinides (MAs) have a detrimental effect on reactivity and stability, ultimately limiting the quality and quantity of waste that can be incinerated. In this paper, we propose using a thorium-retained-actinides fuel cycle in PWRs, where the reactor is fuelled with a mixture of thorium and TRU waste, and after discharge all actinides are reprocessed and returned to the reactor. To investigate the feasibility and performance of this fuel cycle an assembly-level analysis for a one-batch reloading strategy was completed over 125 years of operation using WIMS 9. This one-batch analysis was performed for simplicity, but allowed an indicative assessment of the performance of a four-batch fuel management strategy. The build-up of 233U in the reactor allowed continued reactive and stable operation, until all significant actinide populations had reached pseudo-equilibrium in the reactor. It was therefore possible to achieve near-complete transuranic waste incineration, even for fuels with significant MA content. The average incineration rate was initially around 330 kg per GWth year and tended towards 250 kg per GWth year over several decades: a performance comparable to that achieved in a fast reactor. Using multiple batch fuel management, competitive

  8. Relationship of microbial processes to the fate of transuranic elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review considers the influence of soil physiochemical and microbial processes on the long-term solubility, form, and plant availability of plutonium and other transuranic elements important in the nuclear fuel cycle. Emphasis is placed on delineation of the relationships between soil chemical and microbial processes and the role of soil microorganisms in effecting solubilization and transformation of elements considered largely insoluble in soils strictly on the basis of their inorganic chemical characteristics. Soluble, diffusible Pu in soils (usually less than 0.1% of total) appears to be largely present as particulates of hydrated oxide, but several lines of evidence suggest that microorganisms may influence the solubility of Pu and that the nonparticulate plant-available fraction is stabilized in solution by inorganic or organic ligands of limited concentration in soil. The role of soil microorganisms in influencing the solubility, form and plant-availability of the transuranics is discussed on the basis of the known chemistry of organic ligands in soils, effects on the soil microflora, and principal microbial transformation mechanisms, including direct alteration (valence state, alkylation), indirect alteration (metabolite interactions, influence on the physiochemical environment), and cycling processes (biological uptake and release on decomposition of tissues). The toxicity of Pu to microorganisms depends on Pu solubility in soil. However, soil microorganisms are generally resistant to Pu, with toxicity apparently due to radiation rather than chemical effects. Highly resistant bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes have been isolated from soil, and these organisms have been shown to be capable of transporting Pu into the cell and altering its form in the cell and in solution. The resulting soluble Pu complexes tend to be of higher molecular weight than simple complexes (Pu-DTPA) and negatively charged

  9. Assessment of change in shallow land burial limits for defense transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an emerging consensus within the waste management technical community that the current concentration limit of 10 nCi/g for shallow land burial (SLB) of transuranic (TRU) waste is excessively restrictive. A concentration limit for SLB in the range of 100 to 1000 nCi/g is reasonable and justifiable based upon these reasons: Resultant increase in collective radiation dose (total population dose) would be very small, and the net detriment to public health would be negligible. Increasing the limit is cost-effective and could save hundreds of millions of dollars for the national economy over time. The hazard resulting from the increased SLB limit for TRU would be significantly less than that due to many naturally occurring mineral deposits and/or human activities. Expenditures directed toward health and safety conform to the economic law of diminishing returns: as the absolute expenditure increases, the marginal return decreases. Excessive restriction of the TRU concentration limit for SLB needlessly diverts limited resources (time, talent, and money) from other areas of health and safety where they might be more beneficially applied. Despite considerable effort, this study did not find any compelling technical argument to maintain the limit for TRU in SLB at 10 nCi/g. Subsequent to the initial preparation of this document, the US Department of Energy issued DOE Order 5820 which raises the administrative disposal limit for transuranic wastes from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g. In addition, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has subsequently proposed and adopted a revised version of regulation 10 CFR 61 in which the disposal limit for shallow land burial of Category C (intruder protected) waste is set at 100 nCi/g

  10. The utilization of freeze-cast scaffolds for burning transuranic elements in SMRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed at investigating the viability of burning transuranic elements in SMRs, using the IRIS model as a basis, including freeze-cast sc olds in the fuel pins. The IRIS reactor is an integral design reactor, having all of its primary components inside the pressure vessel, assuring unique characteristics regarding economy, safety and non-proliferation. Freeze-cast scaffolds are strong solid structures, built in a process of freezing powder material. When applied to the fuel pins, they allow a precise placement of different materials. Am-241 is a representative of the transuranic elements with high cross section values in the thermal spectrum, presenting itself as a great candidate for this application. Two models were compared: the Am model, having two types of fuel - the americium alloy and UO2 -, and a reference model, with the freeze-cast structures but only uranium as a fuel. Through the utilization of the package MCNP5, it was possible to obtain and analyze: (I) keff values, (II) axial and radial flux proles, (III) maximum fuel temperature and (IV) power peaking factors. It was possible to observe that the keff values, even though higher than 1, are considered small in both models when compared to PWRs in beginning of life, compromising the fuel life, and showing a tendency of neutron absorption by the ceramic scaffolds. The values were even lower for the Am model, confirming the suspicion that americium would be a great neutron absorber due to the resonances observed in the cross section. However, shutdown margin was achieved in both models, both in hot and cold conditions. The flux profiles showed consistency, showing a visible flattening in the radial flux profile for the Am model. The power peaking factors are close to those of a typical PWR, and fuel maximum temperature also showed satisfying numbers. (author)

  11. The behaviour of transuranic mixed oxide fuel in a Candu-900 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morreale, A. C.; Ball, M. R.; Novog, D. R.; Luxat, J. C. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, McMaster Univ., 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The production of transuranic actinide fuels for use in current thermal reactors provides a useful intermediary step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Extraction of actinides reduces the longevity, radiation and heat loads of spent material. The burning of transuranic fuels in current reactors for a limited amount of cycles reduces the infrastructure demand for fast reactors and provides an effective synergy that can result in a reduction of as much as 95% of spent fuel waste while reducing the fast reactor infrastructure needed by a factor of almost 13.5 [1]. This paper examines the features of actinide mixed oxide fuel, TRUMOX, in a CANDU{sup R}* nuclear reactor. The actinide concentrations used were based on extraction from 30 year cooled spent fuel and mixed with natural uranium in 3.1 wt% actinide MOX fuel. Full lattice cell modeling was performed using the WIMS-AECL code, super-cell calculations were analyzed in DRAGON and full core analysis was executed in the RFSP 2-group diffusion code. A time-average full core model was produced and analyzed for reactor coefficients, reactivity device worth and online fuelling impacts. The standard CANDU operational limits were maintained throughout operations. The TRUMOX fuel design achieved a burnup of 27.36 MWd/kg HE. A full TRUMOX fuelled CANDU was shown to operate within acceptable limits and provided a viable intermediary step for burning actinides. The recycling, reprocessing and reuse of spent fuels produces a much more sustainable and efficient nuclear fuel cycle. (authors)

  12. Transport through deep aquifers of transuranic nuclides leached from vitrified high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results presented in this paper are the first output of a new program carried out at the Joint Research Centre of Ispra on underground migration of actinides related to risk evaluation of the geological waste disposal option. In order to simulate the expected conditions of glass leaching and underground transport in the laboratory, a water pathway is established which flows over the actinide-bearing borosilicate glass, through a filter and then up through columns containing soil samples. Water fractions are continuously collected and analyzed at the column outlet; the water velocity through the columns corresponds to a groundwater movement of about 25 m/y. The experiments are carried out over periods of 1 to 6 months, and at the end the columns are cut into thin sections and the distribution profile of transuranic isotopes is measured. These initial results already demonstrate a certain number of phenomena; firstly, that the soil matrix studied effectively retains the transuranic nuclides. However the more effective processes seem not to be related to the high effective filtering ability of sandy clays. Further the data appears to show that both for plutonium and americium cationic species are only present at very low levels and negatively charged species appear, for plutonium at least, to be the main mobile form. For both plutonium and americium a soluble anionic form having a concentration of 10-13M was detected which was not retained by the columns. Under the present experimental conditions, this concentration is about four orders of magnitude lower than the Maximum Permissible Concentration for drinking water

  13. Combining extractant systems for the simultaneous extraction of transuranic elements and selected fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The popularity of solvent extraction (SX) stems from its ability to operate in a continuous mode, to achieve high throughputs and high decontamination factors of product streams, and to utilize relatively small quantities of very selective chemical compounds as metal ion complexants. The chemical pretreatment of nuclear waste for the purpose of waste minimization will probably utilize one or more SX processes. Because of the diversity and complexity of nuclear waste, perhaps the greatest difficulty for the separation chemist is to develop processes that remove not only actinides but also selected fission products in a single process. A stand alone acid-side SX process (TRUEX) for removal of uranium and transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am) from nuclear waste has been widely reported. Recently, an acid-side SX process (SREX) to extract and recover 90Sr from high-level nuclear waste has also been reported. Both the TRUEX and SREX processes extract Tc to a significant extent although not as efficiently as they extract transuranics and Sr. Ideally one would like to have a process that can extract and recover all actinides as well as 99Tc, 90Sr, and 137Cs. A possible solution to multielement extraction is to mix two extractants with totally different properties into a single process solvent formulation. For this approach to be successful, both extractants must be essentially the same type, either neutral, liquid cationic, or liquid anionic. Experimental work has been carried out on mixed TRUEX and SREX processes, for synthetically created waste, and demonstrates the combined solvent formulation is effective at extracting both the actinides and Tc, as well as Sr. There is no evidence for the presence of either synergistic or antagonistic effects between the two extractants. This demonstates the feasibility of at least part of a combined solvent extraction scheme

  14. 76 FR 62062 - Proposed Approval of the Central Characterization Project's Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Federal Register on May 18, 1998 (63 FR 27354). The Agency officially recertified WIPP on November 18, 2010 (75 FR 70584). Both the certification and recertification determined that WIPP complies with the... a pedigree similar to the containers in PKE00044 described in the accompanying inspection...

  15. 21 CFR 80.37 - Treatment of batch pending certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of batch pending certification. 80.37... COLOR ADDITIVE CERTIFICATION Certification Procedures § 80.37 Treatment of batch pending certification. Immediately after the sample that is to accompany a request for certification of a batch of color additive...

  16. 40 CFR 80.163 - Detergent certification options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to approved State programs). (d) CARB-Based Certification. A valid certification under section 2257 of Title 13, California Code of Regulations (CARB certification) may be the basis for a certification... at the LAC specified in the CARB certification only in gasoline that meets the requirements...

  17. 46 CFR 189.60-40 - Duration of Convention certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of Convention certificates. 189.60-40 Section... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 189.60-40 Duration of Convention certificates. (a) The following certificates are valid for...

  18. 46 CFR 91.60-40 - Duration of Convention certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of Convention certificates. 91.60-40 Section 91... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-40 Duration of Convention certificates. (a) The following certificates are valid for...

  19. 46 CFR 71.75-15 - Posting of Convention certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting of Convention certificates. 71.75-15 Section 71... AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1960 § 71.75-15 Posting of Convention certificates. (a) The certificates described in this subpart,...

  20. IN-SITU ASSAY OF TRANSURANIC RADIONUCLIDES IN THE VADOSE ZONE USING HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTRAL GAMMA LOGGING - A HANFORD CASE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROHAY VJ; HENWOOD P; MCCAIN R

    2009-11-30

    High-resolution spectral gamma logging in steel-cased boreholes is used to detect and quantify transuranic radionuclides in the subsurface. Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-241, and Np-237 are identified based on characteristic decay gammas. Typical minimum detectable levels are on the order of 20 to 40 nCi/g. In intervals of high transuranic concentrations, gamma rays from other sources may complicate analysis and interpretation. Gamma rays detected in the borehole may originate from three sources: decay of the parent transuranic radionuclide or a daughter; alpha interactions; and interactions with neutrons resulting from either spontaneous fission or alpha particle interactions.