Sample records for cerro grande fire

  1. The Cerro Grande Fire - From Wildfire Modeling Through the Fire Aftermath

    Rudell, T. M. (Theresa M.); Gille, R. W. (Roland W.)


    The Cerro Grande Fire developed from a prescribed burn by the National Park Service at Bandelier National Monument near Los Alamos, New Mexico. When the burn went out of control and became a wildfire, it attracted worldwide attention because it threatened the birthplace of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Was LANL prepared for a fire? What lessons have been learned?

  2. The Cerro Grande Fire - From Wildlife Modeling Through the Fire Aftermath

    Rudell, T. M. (Theresa M.); Gille, R. W. (Roland W.)


    The Cerro Grande Fire developed from a prescribed burn by the National Park Service at Bandelier National Monument near Los Alamos, New Mexico. When the burn went out of control and became a wildfire, it attracted worldwide attention because it threatened the birthplace of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Was LANL prepared for a fire? What lessons have been learned?

  3. Fire Management Lessons Learned From the Cerro Grande (Los Alamos) Fire and Actions Needed to Reduce Fire Risks

    Hill, Barry


    We are here today to discuss two related issues, lessons learned from the recent Cerro Grande fire, and, on a broader note, actions needed to mitigate current hazardous forest conditions in the interior West...

  4. Burn Severities, Fire Intensities, and Impacts to Major Vegation Types from the Cerro Grande Fire

    Balice, R.G.; Bennett, K.D.; Wright, M.A.


    The Cerro Grande Fire resulted in major impacts and changes to the ecosystems that were burned. To partially document these effects, we estimated the acreage of major vegetation types that were burned at selected burn severity levels and fire intensity levels. To accomplish this, we adopted independently developed burn severity and fire intensity maps, in combination with a land cover map developed for habitat management purposes, as a basis for the analysis. To provide a measure of confidence in the acreage estimates, the accuracies of these maps were also assessed. In addition, two other maps of comparable quality were assessed for accuracy: one that was developed for mapping fuel risk and a second map that resulted from a preliminary application of an evolutionary computation software system, called GENIE. According to the burn severity map and the fire intensity map, the Cerro Grande Fire is estimated to have covered 42,885.4 acres and 42,854.7 acres, respectively. Of this, 57.0 percent was burned at low severity and 34.7 percent was burned at high severity. Similarly, 40.0 percent of the Cerro Grande Fire burned at high fire intensity, greater than 70 percent mortality, while 33.1 percent burned at moderately low intensity, 10 to 40 percent mortality. The most frequently burned cover types over the entire Cerro Grande Fire were ponderosa pine forest and mixed conifer forest, at approximately 43 percent each. However, portions of the fire that burned on Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) property were predominantly in ponderosa pine forests, whereas the Cerro Grande Fire burned primarily in mixed conifer forests on lands managed by other agencies. Some of the polygons of burn severities and fire intensities were extensive. The two largest burn severity polygons were 10,111 acres and 10,903 acres and these were burned at low severity. The next two largest polygons were 8999 acres (14 square miles) and 1551 acres (2.4 square miles) and both of these polygons

  5. Burn Severities, Fire Intensities, and Impacts to Major Vegetation Types from the Cerro Grande Fire

    Balice, Randy G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wright, Marjorie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Cerro Grande Fire resulted in major impacts and changes to the ecosystems that were burned. To partially document these effects, we estimated the acreage of major vegetation types that were burned at selected burn severity levels and fire intensity levels. To accomplish this, we adopted independently developed burn severity and fire intensity maps, in combination with a land cover map developed for habitat management purposes, as a basis for the analysis. To provide a measure of confidence in the acreage estimates, the accuracies of these maps were also assessed. In addition, two other maps of comparable quality were assessed for accuracy: one that was developed for mapping fuel risk and a second map that resulted from a preliminary application of an evolutionary computation software system, called GENIE.

  6. Measurements of air contaminants during the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Eberhart, Craig


    Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants was continued throughout the Cerro Grande fire that burned part of Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the fire, samples were collected more frequently than normal because buildup of smoke particles on the filters was decreasing the air flow. Overall, actual sampling time was 96% of the total possible sampling time for the May 2000 samples. To evaluate potential human exposure to air contaminants, the samples were analyzed as soon as possible and for additional specific radionuclides. Analyses showed that the smoke from the fire included resuspended radon decay products that had been accumulating for many years on the vegetation and the forest floor that burned. Concentrations of plutonium, americium, and depleted uranium were also measurable, but at locations and concentrations comparable to non-fire periods. A continuous particulate matter sampler measured concentrations that exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-10 (particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter). These high concentrations were caused by smoke from the fire when it was close to the sampler.

  7. Cerro Grande Fire Impact to Water Quality and Stream Flow near Los Alamos National Laboratory: Results of Four Years of Monitoring

    B.M. Gallaher; R.J. Koch


    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande fire burned about 7400 acres of mixed conifer forest on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and much of the 10,000 acres of mountainside draining onto LANL was severely burned. The resulting burned landscapes raised concerns of increased storm runoff and transport of contaminants by runoff in the canyons traversing LANL. The first storms after the fire produced runoff peaks that were more than 200 times greater than prefire levels. Total runoff volume for the year 2000 increased 50% over prefire years, despite a decline in total precipitation of 13% below normal and a general decrease in the number of monsoonal thunderstorms. The majority of runoff in 2000 occurred in the canyons at LANL south of Pueblo Canyon (70%), where the highest runoff volume occurred in Water Canyon and the peak discharge occurred in Pajarito Canyon. This report describes the observed effects of the Cerro Grande fire and related environmental impacts to watersheds at and near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the first four runoff seasons after the fire, from 2000 through 2003. Spatial and temporal trends in radiological and chemical constituents that were identified as being associated with the Cerro Grande fire and those that were identified as being associated with historic LANL discharges are evaluated with regard to impacts to the Rio Grande and area reservoirs downstream of LANL. The results of environmental sampling performed by LANL, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) after the Cerro Grande fire are included in the evaluation. Effects are described for storm runoff, baseflow, stream sediments, and area regional reservoir sediment.

  8. Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005

    Rupp, Susan P. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)


    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the

  9. Geographic Information System (GIS) Emergency Support for the May 2000 Cerro Grande Wildfire, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA

    C.R.Mynard; G.N.Keating; P.M.Rich; D.R. Bleakly


    In May 2000 the Cerro Grande wildfire swept through Los Alamos, New Mexico, burning approximately 17,400 ha (43,000 acres) and causing evacuation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the communities of Los Alamos and White Rock. An integral part of emergency response during the fire was the use of geographic information system (GIS) technology, which continues to be used in support of post-fire restoration and environmental monitoring. During the fire Laboratory GIS staff and volunteers from other organizations worked to produce maps and provide support for emergency managers, including at an emergency GIS facility in Santa Fe. Subsequent to the fire, Laboratory GIS teams supported the multiagency Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) team to provide GIS data and maps for planning mitigation efforts. The GIS teams continue to help researchers, operations personnel, and managers deal with the tremendous changes caused by the fire. Much of the work is under the auspices of the Cerro Grande Rehabilitation Project (CGRP) to promote recovery from fire damage, improve information exchange, enhance emergency management, and conduct mitigation activities. GIS efforts during the fire provided important lessons about institutional matters, working relationships, and emergency preparedness. These lessons include the importance of (1) an integrated framework for assessing natural and human hazards in a landscape context; (2) a strong GIS capability for emergency response; (3) coordinated emergency plans for GIS operations; (4) a method for employees to report their whereabouts and receive authoritative information during an evacuation; (5) GIS data that are complete, backed-up, and available during an emergency; (6) adaptation of GIS to the circumstances of the emergency; (7) better coordination in the GIS community; (8) better integration of GIS into LANL operations; and (9) a central data warehouse for data and metadata. These lessons are important for planning

  10. 75 FR 10308 - Fire Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Record of Decision, Grand Canyon...


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Fire Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact... Statement for the Fire Management Plan, Grand Canyon National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National... the Record of Decision for the Fire Management Plan, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. On January...

  11. Ocorrência de lepidópteros de importância médica (Lepidoptera: Aididae, Lasiocampidae, Limacodidae e Megalopygidae no Cerro da Buena, município de Morro Redondo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Ricardo Russo Siewert


    Full Text Available   O propósito deste estudo foi registrar a fauna de lepidópteros de importância médica ocorrente no Cerro da Buena, município de Morro Redondo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, entre fevereiro de 2009 a janeiro de 2011. Foram registradas 32 espécies de mariposas, pertencentes à Aididae (1, Lasiocampidae (17, Limacodidae (7 e Megalopygidae (7. Três novas ocorrências de Lasiocampidae para o Rio Grande do Sul foram realizadas: Artace argentina Schaus, 1924, Euglyphis kotzschi Draudt, 1927 e Tolype trilinea (Dognin, 1901.

  12. Continuing fire regimes in remote forests of Grand Canyon National Park

    Peter Z. Fule; Thomas A. Heinlein; W. Wallace Covington; Margaret H. Moore


    Ponderosa pine forests in which frequent fire regimes continue up to the present would be invaluable points of reference for assessing natural ecological attributes. A few remote forests on the North Rim of Grand Canyon National Park come close to this ideal: never-harvested, distant from human communities and fire suppression resources, and with several low-intensity...

  13. Reducing firing of an early pottery making kiln at Batan Grande, Peru: A Moessbauer study

    Wagner, U.; Gebhard, R.; Haeusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Riederer, J.; Shimada, I.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, F.E.


    Material from field firing experiments using a 2,700-year old Formative kiln at Batan Grande, Peru, was studied by X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The experiments explore the technology involved in producing the gray and black reduced ware for which Cupisnique and other Formative ceramics are justly known. During firing, the iron-bearing compounds in clays undergo characteristic changes which depend on kiln temperature and atmosphere. These changes can be observed in the Moessbauer spectra. By comparing spectra of an appropriate clay fired in field experiments and in the laboratory with the spectra of ancient ceramics, a description of Formative firing techniques in a reducing environment is attempted

  14. Fire response of the endangered Pinus culminicola stands after 18 years in Cerro El Potosí, northeast Mexico

    José R. Arévalo


    Research highlights: Management efforts are necessary to maintain a natural fire regime and ensure grazing exclusion in order to favor the conservation of the community dominated by this rare species P. culminicola.

  15. Cerro Largo South orientation

    Pradier, B.


    This work is about Cerro Largo South orientation. The site is located in the northeast of Uruguay in the south of Melo city, Department of Cerro Largo. The study was carried out in the young edge socket in the East side of a small valley. This metamorphic socket constituted by gneisses and crystalline limestone are in contact with upper carboniferous formations and basal deposits composed by sandstones and conglomerates

  16. Object-based Forest Fire Analysis for Pedrógão Grande Fire Using Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel-2A Imagery

    Tonbul, H.; Kavzoglu, T.


    Forest fires are among the most important natural disasters with the damage to the natural habitat and human-life. Mapping damaged forest fires is crucial for assessing ecological effects caused by fire, monitoring land cover changes and modeling atmospheric and climatic effects of fire. In this context, satellite data provides a great advantage to users by providing a rapid process of detecting burning areas and determining the severity of fire damage. Especially, Mediterranean ecosystems countries sets the suitable conditions for the forest fires. In this study, the determination of burnt areas of forest fire in Pedrógão Grande region of Portugal occurred in June 2017 was carried out using Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel-2A satellite images. The Pedrógão Grande fire was one of the largest fires in Portugal, more than 60 people was killed and thousands of hectares were ravaged. In this study, four pairs of pre-fire and post-fire top of atmosphere (TOA) and atmospherically corrected images were utilized. The red and near infrared (NIR) spectral bands of pre-fire and post-fire images were stacked and multiresolution segmentation algorithm was applied. In the segmentation processes, the image objects were generated with estimated optimum homogeneity criteria. Using eCognition software, rule sets have been created to distinguish unburned areas from burned areas. In constructing the rule sets, NDVI threshold values were determined pre- and post-fire and areas where vegetation loss was detected using the NDVI difference image. The results showed that both satellite images yielded successful results for burned area discrimination with a very high degree of consistency in terms of spatial overlap and total burned area (over 93%). Object based image analysis (OBIA) was found highly effective in delineation of burnt areas.

  17. Reducing firing of an early pottery making kiln at Batán Grande, Peru: A Mössbauer study

    Wagner, U.; Gebhard, R.; Häusler, W.; Hutzelmann, T.; Riederer, J.; Shimada, I.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, F. E.


    Material from field firing experiments using a 2,700-year old Formative kiln at Batán Grande, Peru, was studied by X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The experiments explore the technology involved in producing the gray and black reduced ware for which Cupisnique and other Formative ceramics are justly known. During firing, the iron-bearing compounds in clays undergo characteristic changes which depend on kiln temperature and atmosphere. These changes can be observed in the Mössbauer spectra. By comparing spectra of an appropriate clay fired in field experiments and in the laboratory with the spectra of ancient ceramics, a description of Formative firing techniques in a reducing environment is attempted.

  18. Grand challenges in developing a predictive understanding of global fire dynamics

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Wiggins, E. B.; Andela, N.; Morton, D. C.; Veraverbeke, S.; van der Werf, G.


    High quality satellite observations of burned area and fire thermal anomalies over the past two decades have transformed our understanding of climate, ecosystem, and human controls on the spatial and temporal distribution of landscape fires. The satellite observations provide evidence for a rapid and widespread loss of fire from grassland and savanna ecosystems worldwide. Continued expansion of industrial agriculture suggests that observed declines in global burned area are likely to continue in future decades, with profound consequences for ecosystem function and the habitat of many endangered species. Satellite time series also highlight the importance of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes as drivers of interannual variability. In many regions, lead times between climate indices and fire activity are considerable, enabling the development of early warning prediction systems for fire season severity. With the recent availability of high-resolution observations from Suomi NPP, Landsat 8, and Sentinel 2, the field of global fire ecology is poised to make even more significant breakthroughs over the next decade. With these new observations, it may be possible to reduce uncertainties in the spatial pattern of burned area by several fold. It is difficult to overstate the importance of these new data constraints for improving our understanding of fire impacts on human health and radiative forcing of climate change. A key research challenge in this context is to understand how the loss of global burned area will affect magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink and trends in atmospheric composition. Advances in prognostic fire modeling will require new approaches linking agriculture with landscape fire dynamics. A critical need in this context is the development of predictive models of road networks and other drivers of land fragmentation, and a closer integration of fragmentation information with algorithms predicting fire spread. Concurrently, a better

  19. Overview of Cerro Prieto studies

    Lippmann, M.J.


    The studies performed on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico, since the late 1950's are summarized. Emphasis is given to those activities leading to the identification of the sources of heat and mass, the fluid flow paths, and the phenomena occurring in the field in its natural state and under exploitation.

  20. Development of ecological restoration experiments in fire adapted forests at Grand Canyon National Park

    Thomas A. Heinlein; W. Wallace Covington; Peter Z. Fule; Margaret H. Moore; Hiram B. Smith


    The management of national park and wilderness areas dominated by forest ecosystems adapted to frequent, low-intensity fires, continues to be a tremendous challenge. Throughout the inland West and particularly in the Southwest, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and mixed conifer forests have become dense and structurally homogeneous after periods of...

  1. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    Dominguez A., Bernardo


    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  2. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal fire events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 3

    Lambright, J.; Yakle, J.


    This report, Volume 3, presents the details of the analysis of core damage frequency due to fire during shutdown Plant Operational State 5 at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Insights from previous fire analyses (Peach Bottom, Surry, LaSalle) were used to the greatest extent possible in this analysis. The fire analysis was fully integrated utilizing the same event trees and fault trees that were used in the internal events analysis. In assessing shutdown risk due to fire at Grand Gulf, a detailed screening was performed which included the following elements: (a) Computer-aided vital area analysis; (b) Plant inspections; (c) Credit for automatic fire protection systems; (d) Recovery of random failures; (e) Detailed fire propagation modeling. This screening process revealed that all plant areas had a negligible (<1.0E-8 per year) contribution to fire-induced core damage frequency

  3. FIRE

    Brtis, J.S.; Hausheer, T.G.


    FIRE, a microcomputer based program to assist engineers in reviewing and documenting the fire protection impact of design changes has been developed. Acting as an electronic consultant, FIRE is designed to work with an experienced nuclear system engineer, who may not have any detailed fire protection expertise. FIRE helps the engineer to decide if a modification might adversely affect the fire protection design of the station. Since its first development, FIRE has been customized to reflect the fire protection philosophy of the Commonwealth Edison Company. That program is in early production use. This paper discusses the FIRE program in light of its being a useful application of expert system technologies in the power industry

  4. Geohydrology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer

    Sanchez R, J.; de la Pena L, A.


    The most recent information on the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer is summarized, with special emphasis on the initial production zone where the wells completed in the Alpha aquifer are located. These wells produce steam for power plant units 1 and 2. Brief comments also are made on the Beta aquifer, which underlies the Alpha aquifer in the Cerro Prieto I area and which extends to the east to what is known as the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas. The location of the area studied is shown. The Alpha and Beta aquifers differ in their mineralogy and cementing mineral composition, temperatures, and piezometric levels. The difference in piezometric levels indicates that there is no local communication between the two aquifers. This situation has been verified by a well interference test, using well E-1 as a producer in the Beta aquifer and well M-46 as the observation well in the Alpha aquifer. No interference between them was observed. Information on the geology, geohydrology, and geochemistry of Cerro Prieto is presented.

  5. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.


    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  6. Optical atmospheric extinction over Cerro Paranal

    Patat, F.; Moehler, S.; O'Brien, K.; Pompei, E.; Bensby, T.; Carraro, G.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fox, A.; Gavignaud, I.; James, G.; Korhonen, H.; Ledoux, C.; Randall, S.; Sana, H.A.A.; Smoker, J.; Stefl, S.; Szeifert, T.


    Aims. The present study was conducted to determine the optical extinction curve for Cerro Paranal under typical clear-sky observing conditions, with the purpose of providing the community with a function to be used to correct the observed spectra, with an accuracy of 0.01 mag airmass-1.

  7. Exploration and development of Cerro Prieto

    Teilman, M.A.; Cordon, U.J.


    A brief retrospective of the exploration and field model development at Cerro Prieto are presented. Representative field models are presented for each of the work phases. These models demonstrate how the concept of the field evolved - from a small 2 km/sup 2/ area with a relatively unknown reservoir configuration - to a geothermal resource area over 20 km/sup 2/ where the hydrothermal processes and structural environment are being studied in detail. A model integrating information from these studies was developed.

  8. Uranium prospecting in Cerro Partido Region-Encruzilhada do Sul Basin-RS, Brazil

    Fraenkel, M.O.


    The Cerro Partido residual basin is a shallow (85 meters) and small (25km 2 ) sedimentary basin, a remainder of the erosive cicle, enclosed in the pre-cambrian granitic rocks of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield. Grades of 0.2 + U 3 O 8 were found in its upper-paleozoic sandstones and shales drilles for uranium. The small size and thicknesses of these concentrations prevent their economic mining. However, the different levels of the shield exposed by tectonics, the intrusive granitic, riolitic and syenitic rocks, the anomalous uranium contents in sedimentary and crystalline rocks recommend further investigations on the shield area

  9. Evaluation of geologic characteristics at Cerro Prieto

    Howard, J.H.; Halfman, S.E.; Vonder Haar, S.P.


    Computerized well-log analysis of Cerro Prieto has led to the identification of a relatively large and irregular low-density volume extending from near the surface in the vicinity of Laguna Volcano to greater depths toward the northeast. This low-density volume is located about a plane of symmetry of a self-potential anomaly and a group of northeast trending active faults. The presence of a volume of relatively high-density rock has been recognized at shallow depths in the initially developed part of the resource. It is believed to be due to minerals deposited by cooled, rising geothermal brine. Storativity calculated from well logs at the south end of the western part of the field shows acceptable comparison with storativity calculated from well tests. The amount of fluid produced from the field during the period 1973-1977 is greater than the amount in situ calculated from the completed interval thicknesses. Because this part of the field is still producing today, fluid must be recharging this part of the field.

  10. Characterizing Spatial Neighborhoods of Refugia Following Large Fires in Northern New Mexico USA

    Sandra L. Haire


    Full Text Available The spatial patterns resulting from large fires include refugial habitats that support surviving legacies and promote ecosystem recovery. To better understand the diverse ecological functions of refugia on burn mosaics, we used remotely sensed data to quantify neighborhood patterns of areas relatively unchanged following the 2011 Las Conchas fire. Spatial patterns of refugia measured within 10-ha moving windows varied across a gradient from areas of high density, clustered in space, to sparsely populated neighborhoods that occurred in the background matrix. The scaling of these patterns was related to the underlying structure of topography measured by slope, aspect and potential soil wetness, and spatially varying climate. Using a nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis of species cover data collected post-Las Conchas, we found that trees and forest associates were present across the refugial gradient, but communities also exhibited a range of species compositions and potential functions. Spatial patterns of refugia quantified for three previous burns (La Mesa 1977, Dome 1996, Cerro Grande 2000 were dynamic between fire events, but most refugia persisted through at least two fires. Efforts to maintain burn heterogeneity and its ecological functions can begin with identifying where refugia are likely to occur, using terrain-based microclimate models, burn severity models and available field data.

  11. Uruguay mining Inventory: geochemical prospecting results of Cerro de las Cuentas mapping

    Spangenberg, J.; Filippini, J.


    This work is about the geochemical prospecting carried out into the Uruguay mining inventory framework. In this case the survey was in Cerro de las Cuentas mapping. Cerro Largo department. Scale 1 / 50000.

  12. Report of boring made in the South of Cerro Largo district (Cerro Largo) 1977-1978

    Massa, E.


    The present work are within the framework and compiles the data obtained by means of the study of the perforations executed in the District Cerro Largo Sur of the detailed prospection of uranium minerals. This study was carried out by technicians of Geologic ex--Institute of Uruguay (IGU) - at the moment National Direction of Mining and Geology. (DINAMIGE). The works began at the beginning of 1977 and continued until 1978 July; The headquarters of the program of prospection of uranium was carried out by Ing. Hector Goso. In this report the conclusions drawn at the time of the detection of the works in the District already published, as well as the litologicos cuts of all the executed perforations are included

  13. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province; Uranio en rocas sedimentarias en el departamento de Cerro Largo

    Scaron, P; Garau Tous, M


    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore.

  14. Grandes remolques

    Editorial, Equipo


    Full Text Available El empleo creciente del material pesado auxiliar en la construcción de obras de ingeniería civil ha motivado la fabricación de grandes plataformas, capaces de transportar toda clase de maquinaria auxiliar. En general, este tipo de maquinaria requiere medios de transporte, pues su circulación por carreteras es lenta, obstructiva y cara, siempre que se trate de grandes distancias, caso presente en la mayoría de ocasiones en que se exige un traslado de esta maquinaria de una a otra obra.

  15. Criteria for determining casing depth in Cerro Prieto

    Olivas M., H.M.; Vaca S., J.M.E.


    On the basis of geological data obtained during drilling and its relation to electric logs, together with the problems that arose when drilling through formations until the production zone was reached, it is possible to establish the most suitable manner to line a well and thus formulate an optimum casings program. The main criteria to be taken into consideration in preparing such a program and its application in the drilling of wells programmed in Cerro Prieto to optimize and economize such drilling and achieve suitable techniques for well completion are presented. The criteria are based on the characteristics of the Cerro Prieto field and on casing design factors, as well as a experience gained during drilling in such a field.

  16. Grandes cocinas

    García de Castro, Emilio


    Full Text Available Se describen en este artículo una serie de aparatos para grandes cocinas, vistos por los autores durante un rápido viaje por Alemania. Aprovechando los datos obtenidos se analizan brevemente las necesidades de una gran cocina moderna, comentando los planos de las instalaciones en varios hoteles o instituciones de todo el mundo. La mayoría de la información.

  17. Geophysical investigations of magma plumbing systems at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua

    MacQueen, Patricia Grace


    Cerro Negro near Léon, Nicaragua is a very young (163 years), relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan (recurrence interval 6-7 years), presenting a significant hazard to nearby communities. Previous studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcano. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data collected at Cerro Negro has revealed connected positive d...

  18. Paracas geoglyphs of the peruvian south coast: Cerro Lechuza and Cerro Pico

    García Soto, Rubén


    Traditionally, the manufacture of large found drawings on desert plains and hill slopes of the Peruvian south coast was at-tributed to the Nasca society. However, since the 1980s, it is known that this cultural manifestation is a tradition that wouldhave begun towards the 750 BC during the early part of the development of the Paracas culture. Paracas geoglyphs have beenreported from Pisco to the Rio Grande Basin of Nasca, particularly in the area of Palpa where the where they have identifiedm...

  19. A re-appraisal of the stratigraphy and volcanology of the Cerro Galán volcanic system, NW Argentina

    Folkes, Christopher B.; Wright, Heather M.; Cas, Ray A.F.; de Silva, Shanaka L.; Lesti, Chiara; Viramonte, Jose G.


    From detailed fieldwork and biotite 40Ar/39Ar dating correlated with paleomagnetic analyses of lithic clasts, we present a revision of the stratigraphy, areal extent and volume estimates of ignimbrites in the Cerro Galán volcanic complex. We find evidence for nine distinct outflow ignimbrites, including two newly identified ignimbrites in the Toconquis Group (the Pitas and Vega Ignimbrites). Toconquis Group Ignimbrites (~5.60–4.51 Ma biotite ages) have been discovered to the southwest and north of the caldera, increasing their spatial extents from previous estimates. Previously thought to be contemporaneous, we distinguish the Real Grande Ignimbrite (4.68 ± 0.07 Ma biotite age) from the Cueva Negra Ignimbrite (3.77 ± 0.08 Ma biotite age). The form and collapse processes of the Cerro Galán caldera are also reassessed. Based on re-interpretation of the margins of the caldera, we find evidence for a fault-bounded trapdoor collapse hinged along a regional N-S fault on the eastern side of the caldera and accommodated on a N-S fault on the western caldera margin. The collapsed area defines a roughly isosceles trapezoid shape elongated E-W and with maximum dimensions 27 × 16 km. The Cerro Galán Ignimbrite (CGI; 2.08 ± 0.02 Ma sanidine age) outflow sheet extends to 40 km in all directions from the inferred structural margins, with a maximum runout distance of ~80 km to the north of the caldera. New deposit volume estimates confirm an increase in eruptive volume through time, wherein the Toconquis Group Ignimbrites increase in volume from the ~10 km3 Lower Merihuaca Ignimbrite to a maximum of ~390 km3 (Dense Rock Equivalent; DRE) with the Real Grande Ignimbrite. The climactic CGI has a revised volume of ~630 km3 (DRE), approximately two thirds of the commonly quoted value.

  20. Report of the Cerro Chato ultrabasic geophysical studies

    Cicalese, H.; Mari, C.; Lema, F.; Valverde, C.; Haut, R.


    This report refers to the obtained results of geophysical practiced during the year 1985 in the area of the ultrabasic of Cerro Chato, located in the area called Puntas del Malbajar in Durazno province. The aim was rehearsed an answer of an ultrabasic behaviour of the geophysical prospecting methods.They were carried out studies in magnetometry, induced polarization, electromagnetism and resistivity measurements in electric vertical sound. As well conclusions as recommendations express that applied geophysical methods allow to make ultrabasic charts or maps.

  1. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Cerro Partido Sheet F-24

    Diaz, R; Albanell, H.; Bossi, J.


    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Cerro Partido) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils. The area corresponding to the Cerro Partido fotoplano is located in the orogenic belt or Don Feliciano belt

  2. Geophysical Investigations of Magma Plumbing Systems at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    MacQueen, Patricia Grace

    Cerro Negro near Leon, Nicaragua is a very young (163 years), relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan (recurrence interval 6--7 years), presenting a significant hazard to nearby communities. Previous studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcano. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data collected at Cerro Negro has revealed connected positive density anomalies beneath Cerro Negro and Las Pilas-El Hoyo. These findings suggest that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping a large magma reservoir beneath Las Pilas-El Hoyo, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest vent on the Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcanic complex. As such, it is possible that the intensity of volcanic hazards at Cerro Negro may eventually increase in the future to resemble those pertaining to a stratovolcano. Keywords: Cerro Negro; Las Pilas-El Hoyo; Bouguer gravity; magmatic plumbing systems; potential fields; volcano.

  3. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.


    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  4. Characterization of pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas, Zacatecas, Mexico

    Lopez-del-Rio, H.; Mireles-Garcia, F. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, UAZ, Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez-Cardona, R.Y. [Unidad Academica de Antropologia, UAZ, Zacatecas (Mexico); Nicolas-Caretta, M. [INAH Delegacion Zacatecas (Mexico); Coordinacion de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, UASLP, Fracc. Talleres, SLP (Mexico); Speakman, R.J. [Museum Conservation Inst., Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD (United States); Glascock, M.D. [Research Reactor Center, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)


    With the aim of classifying prehispanic pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas site, Juchipila, Zacatecas, Mexico, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to analyze ceramic samples at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center. Thirty-two chemical elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Two multivariate statistical methods, cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Mesoamerican ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Malpaso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de Las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas, Zacatecas, Mexico

    Lopez-del-Rio, H.; Mireles-Garcia, F.; Mendez-Cardona, R.Y.; Nicolas-Caretta, M.; Speakman, R.J.; Glascock, M.D.


    With the aim of classifying prehispanic pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas site, Juchipila, Zacatecas, Mexico, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to analyze ceramic samples at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center. Thirty-two chemical elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Two multivariate statistical methods, cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Mesoamerican ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Malpaso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de Las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (orig.)

  6. Connected magma plumbing system between Cerro Negro and El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua revealed by gravity survey

    MacQueen, Patricia; Zurek, Jeffrey; Williams-Jones, Glyn


    Cerro Negro, near León, Nicaragua is a young, relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan. Multiple explosive eruptions have deposited significant amounts of ash on León and the surrounding rural communities. While a number of studies investigate the geochemistry and stress regime of the volcano, subsurface structures have only been studied by diffuse soil gas surveys. These studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring volcanic features. To address these questions, we collected 119 gravity measurements around Cerro Negro volcano in an attempt to delineate deep structures at the volcano. The resulting complete Bouguer anomaly map revealed local positive gravity anomalies (wavelength 0.5 to 2 km, magnitude +4 mGal) and regional positive (10 km wavelength, magnitudes +10 and +8 mGal) and negative (12 and 6 km wavelength, magnitudes -18 and -13 mGal) Bouguer anomalies. Further analysis of these gravity data through inversion has revealed both local and regional density anomalies that we interpret as intrusive complexes at Cerro Negro and in the Nicaraguan Volcanic Arc. The local density anomalies at Cerro Negro have a density of 2700 kg m-3 (basalt) and are located between -250 and -2000 m above sea level. The distribution of recovered density anomalies suggests that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping an interconnected magma plumbing system beneath El Hoyo, Cerro La Mula, and Cerro Negro, and more than seven other proximal volcanic features, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest cone of a Cerro Negro-El Hoyo volcanic complex.

  7. Elevated Rocky Mountain elk numbers prevent positive effects of fire on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment

    Smith, David Solance; Fettig, Stephen M.; Bowker, Matthew A.


    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most widespread tree species in North America and has supported a unique ecosystem for tens of thousands of years, yet is currently threatened by dramatic loss and possible local extinctions. While multiple factors such as climate change and fire suppression are thought to contribute to aspen’s decline, increased browsing by elk (Cervus elaphus), which have experienced dramatic population increases in the last ∼80 years, may severely inhibit aspen growth and regeneration. Fires are known to favor aspen recovery, but in the last several decades the spatial scale and intensity of wildfires has greatly increased, with poorly understood ramifications for aspen growth. Here, focusing on the 2000 Cerro Grande fire in central New Mexico – one of the earliest fires described as a “mega-fire” - we use three methods to examine the impact of elk browsing on aspen regeneration after a mega-fire. First, we use an exclosure experiment to show that aspen growing in the absence of elk were 3× taller than trees growing in the presence of elk. Further, aspen that were both protected from elk and experienced burning were 8.5× taller than unburned trees growing in the presence of elk, suggesting that the combination of release from herbivores and stimulation from fire creates the largest aspen growth rates. Second, using surveys at the landscape level, we found a correlation between elk browsing intensity and aspen height, such that where elk browsing was highest, aspen were shortest. This relationship between elk browsing intensity and aspen height was stronger in burned (r = −0.53) compared to unburned (r = −0.24) areas. Third, in conjunction with the landscape-level surveys, we identified possible natural refugia, microsites containing downed logs, shrubs etc. that may inhibit elk browsing by physically blocking aspen from elk or by impeding elk’s ability to move through the forest patch. We did not find any

  8. Report of boring made in the South of Cerro Largo district (Cerro Largo) 1977-1978[Study of Uranium prospection in Uruguay]; Informe de los trabajos de perforacion efectuados en el distrito Cerro Largo Sur (Dpto. Cerro Largo) 1977 - 1978

    Massa, E


    The present work are within the framework and compiles the data obtained by means of the study of the perforations executed in the District Cerro Largo Sur of the detailed prospection of uranium minerals. This study was carried out by technicians of Geologic ex--Institute of Uruguay (IGU) - at the moment National Direction of Mining and Geology. (DINAMIGE). The works began at the beginning of 1977 and continued until 1978 July; The headquarters of the program of prospection of uranium was carried out by Ing. Hector Goso. In this report the conclusions drawn at the time of the detection of the works in the District already published, as well as the litologicos cuts of all the executed perforations are included.

  9. Cerro Amarillo rhyolites, advanced AFC in the northern SVZ, Chile

    Godoy, E; Hildreth, W


    Cerro Amarillo is a Quaternary medium size (500m high, 2 km 2 ) rhyolite dome complex located close to the Chile-Argentina border, reaching a height of 4162 m, between the headwaters of the Rio Colina and the Nieves Negras Pass. It overlies a broad anticline of thick Middle Jurassic pelites (Alvarez et al., 1997). Thiele (1980) includes this complex in his 'Unidad Volcanica Antigua', a Pleistocene composite map unit made up of andesites and trachyandesites. Ramos et al. (1997), while recognizing its rhyolitic character, assigned a Tertiary age to the lava domes, most likely based on the late Pliocene age of silicic dikes outcropping eastward, in Argentina. Both the lack of younger overlying units and freshness of its components, together with preservation of the unconsolidated, easily eroded pyroclastic deposits at its base, suggest, however, that it is not older than Pleistocene (au)

  10. Groundwater Chemistry and Overpressure Evidences in Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Ivan Morales-Arredondo


    Full Text Available In order to understand the geological and hydrogeological processes influencing the hydrogeochemical behavior of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CP aquifer, Mexico, a characterization of the water samples collected from geothermal wells was carried out. Different hydrochemical diagrams were used to evaluate brine evolution of the aquifer. To determine pressure conditions at depth, a calculation was performed using hydrostatic and lithostatic properties from CP, considering geological characteristics of the study area, and theoretical information about some basin environments. Groundwater shows hydrogeochemical and geological evidences of the diagenetic evolution that indicate overpressure conditions. Some physical, chemical, textural, and mineralogical properties reported in the lithological column from CP are explained understanding the evolutionary process of the sedimentary material that composes the aquifer.

  11. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)


    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  12. Cerro Baúl: un enclave wari en interacción con Tiwanaku

    Williams, Patrick Ryan; Isla, Johny A.; Nash, Donna J.


    Cerro Baul: A Wari Enclave Interacting with TiwanakuWari expansion to the extreme south of Peru is a phenomenon whose study began 20 years ago, with the discovery of a great arquitectonic complex at Cerro Baul. The excavations undertaken in the last 3 years have revealed that Cerro Baul was more than a military fortress; it was the most important political and religious center that Wari established in the only region where there is direct evidence of interaction with Tiwanaku, the altiplano s...

  13. Minería, conflicto y mediadores locales: Minera San Xavier en Cerro de San Pedro, México Mineira, conflito e mediadores locais: Minera San Xavier em Cerro de San Pedro Mining, conflict and local brokers: Minera San Xavier in Cerro de San Pedro

    Hernán Horacio Schiaffini


    Full Text Available Este trabajo indaga en las instancias de mediación que intervienen en la articulación de procesos económicos de gran escala y su puesta en práctica local. Basándonos en el conflicto que se produjo en el Municipio de Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México entre la empresa Minera San Xavier y el Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO a la misma, aplicamos el método etnográfico con el objetivo de describir las estructuras locales de mediación política y analizar sus prácticas y racionalidad. Intentamos demostrar así la importancia de los factores políticos locales en las vinculaciones entre estado, empresa y población.Este trabalho indaga nas instâncias de mediação que intervêm em processos econômicos de grande escala e sua posta em prática local. Baseando-nos no conflito no Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México entre a empresa Minera San Xavier e a Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO aplicamos o método etnográfico pra descrever as estruturas de mediação política locais e analisar suas práticas e racionalidade. Tenta-se demonstrar assim a importância dos fatores políticos locais nas vinculações entre estado, empresa e população.This paper investigates in instances of mediation involved in large-scale economic processes and local implementation. Analyzing the conflict in Cerro de San Pedro (San Luis Potosí, México among San Xavier mining company and the Frente Amplio Opositor (FAO, it applies an ethnographic approach to describe the local structures of political mediation and its practices and rationality. The work shows the relevance of local factors in the relationships between State, company and people.

  14. Report of mortmorilloniticas clay in the Medina swamp (Cerro Largo district)

    Gomez Rifas, C.; Heinzen, W.; Theune, C.


    This report describes the prospect ion work for the montmorillonitics clay in the region of Medina swamp in Cerro Largo district. The existence of new deposits was detected by cartography and geological study.

  15. Hidrogeologic and geophysical studies into Agro school Melo UTU Cerro Largo province

    Heinzen, W.; Santana, I.; Mari, C.


    The technical University UTU of Uruguay requested and Hidrogeologic study with the aim to analyze the factibility to discover underground stream waters which supply groundwaters into agro school Ing Agr. Alcides E Pintos Melo, Cerro Largo province.


    William H.J. Strosnider


    Full Text Available El drenaje acido de minas (DAM es un problema a nivel mundial. El co-tratamiento pasivo de DAM con aguas residuales municipales (ARM es una manera efectiva y de bajo costo que utiliza los nutrientes de ARM para tratar las concentraciones de metales y sulfato en DAM. Cerro Rico de Potosí, Bolivia es una de las grandes ciudades mineras en el mundo que tiene muchos problemas con el DAM. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar velocidades de reacción de Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, y otros metales en DAM provenientes de un flujo de agua en Cerro Rico usando un sistema reactor de tres etapas. El DAM tenía un pH de 3.58, acidez de 1080 mg/L equivalente a CaCO3 conteniendo concentraciones de 12, 68, 17, y 550 mg/L de Al, Fe, Mn y Zn respectivamente. Las velocidades de reacción de Al, Fe, Mn y Zn fueron de 1.43, 2.09, 0.01 y 0.10 d-1, respectivamente.

  17. Uranium and Molybdenum extraction from a Cerro Solo deposit ore

    Becquart, Elena T.; Arias, Maria J.; Fuente, Juan C. de la; Misischia, Yamila A.; Santa Cruz, Daniel E.; Tomellini, Guido C.


    Cerro Solo, located in Chubut, Argentina, is a sandstone type uranium-molybdenum deposit. Good recovery of both elements can be achieved by acid leaching of the ore but the presence of molybdenum in pregnant liquors is an inconvenient to uranium separation and purification. A two steps process is developed. A selective alkaline leaching of the ore with sodium hydroxide allows separating and recovering of molybdenum and after solid-liquid separation, the ore is acid leached to recover uranium. Several samples averaging 0,2% uranium and 0,1% molybdenum with variable U/Mo ratio have been used and in both steps, leaching and oxidant reagents concentration, temperature and residence time in a stirred tank leaching have been studied. In alkaline leaching molybdenum recoveries greater than 96% are achieved, with 1% uranium extraction. In acid leaching up to 93% of the uranium is extracted and Mo/U ratio in solvent extraction feed is between 0,013 and 0,025. (author)

  18. Performance of casings in Cerro Prieto production wells

    Dominguez A, B.; Vital B, F.; Bermejo M, F.; Sanchez G, G.


    A careful evaluation of different production casings used at Cerro Prieto from 1964 to date has shown that the following casings have yielded particularly impressive results: 7 5/8-in. diameter, J-55, 26 lb/ft; 7 5/8-in. diameter, K-55, 45.3 lb/ft; and 5-in. diameter, K-55, 23.2 lb/ft. These casings differ from others of the same diameter but lighter weight which were also used at the field. The results are favorable in spite of severe construction problems, especially the loss of circulation during cementing operations, which we encountered in some of the wells where these casings were used. The use of gravity-fed fine sand as packing material and the arrangement of the production and intermediate casings were important in avoiding damage due to tension-compression stresses and, above all, damage due to internal or external corrosion over time. This situation is clearly evidenced if we compare the damage to the above casings with that experienced by grade N-80 production casings, especially in a corrosive environment.

  19. Investigating the subsurface connection beneath Cerro Negro volcano and the El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua

    Venugopal, Swetha; Moune, Séverine; Williams-Jones, Glyn


    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano along the Central American Volcanic Belt (CAVB), is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent basaltic eruptions. The neighbouring El Hoyo complex, of which Las Pilas is the dominant edifice, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Previous studies have suggested a deep link beneath these two closely spaced volcanoes (McKnight, 1995; MacQueen, 2013). Melt inclusions were collected from various tephra samples in order to determine whether a connection exists and to delineate the features of this link. Major, volatile, and trace elemental compositions reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive endmember and El Hoyo representing the evolved endmember. Magmatic conditions at the time of melt inclusion entrapment were estimated with major and volatile contents: 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for El Hoyo melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. Trace element contents are distinct and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallise while El Hoyo magmas are a mix between primitive Cerro Negro melts and residual and evolved El Hoyo magma. Modelling of end member compositions with alphaMELTS confirms the unique nature of El Hoyo magmas as resulting from incremental mixing between Cerro Negro and residual evolved magma at 4 km depth. Combining all available literature data, this study presents a model of the interconnected subsurface plumbing system. This model considers the modern day analogue of the Lemptégy cinder cones in Massif Central, France and incorporates structurally controlled dykes. The main implications of this study are the classification of Cerro Negro as the newest conduit within the El Hoyo Complex as well as the potential re-activation of the El Hoyo edifice.

  20. Update of the conceptual geological model for the geothermal reservoir in Cerro Prieto, BC; Actualizacion del modelo geologico conceptual del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Lira Herrera, Hector [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, B.C., (Mexico)


    An updated, conceptual geologic model is presented for the geothermal reservoir in Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The tectonic extension that formed the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States and Northwestern Mexico during Upper Tertiary in the Cerro Prieto area resulted in the formation of a half graben tectonic basin between the Cerro Prieto and Imperial faults. Called the Cerro Prieto basin, it includes listric faults, predominately northwest-southwest trending, stepped generally to the northeast. The zone of cortical weakness, formed during the Tertiary, allowed an intrusion of basic rock associated with the magnetic anomaly know as Nuevo Leon. The intrusive rock has been fed by new magmatic intrusions originated by the present tectonic extension of the Gulf of California. The oldest rocks identified in the area are gneiss and biotite-schists of Permian-Jurassic age and tonalities of Jurassic-Cretaceous age in contact with Cretaceous granites, all representing the regional basement. The lithologic column in the subsurface of the Cerro Prieto basin in formed by a basement of Cretaceous granites; an argillaceous package resting on the basement composed of gray shales with interleaves of sandstone, Tertiary brown-shales and mudstone, with an average thickness of 2700 m; clastic sediments of the Quaternary age deposited mainly by the Colorado River and alluvial fans of the Cucapa Range, comprised of gravel, sands and clays with an average thickness of 2500 m, covering the shales. The fluids feeding the geothermal reservoir heat as they pass though the zone where the basic intrusive is located (the heat source) and migrate through the listric faults toward the permeable layers of sandstone located within the gray shales. [Spanish] Se presenta el modelo geologico conceptual actualizado del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto. La tectonica extensional que origino la Provincia de Cuencas y Cordilleras (Basin and Range) del oeste de Estados Unidos y

  1. Geology and geochemistry of Pelagatos, Cerro del Agua, and Dos Cerros monogenetic volcanoes in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, south of México City

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Siebe, Claus; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle


    This study focuses on the geology and geochemistry of three closely-spaced monogenetic volcanoes that are located in the NE sector of the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field near México City. Pelagatos (3020 m.a.s.l.) is a small scoria cone (0.0017 km 3) with lava flows (0.036 km 3) that covered an area of 4.9 km 2. Cerro del Agua scoria cone (3480 m.a.s.l., 0.028 km 3) produced several lava flows (0.24 km 3) covering an area of 17.6 km 2. Dos Cerros is a lava shield which covers an area of 80.3 km 2 and is crowned by two scoria cones: Tezpomayo (3080 m.a.s.l., 0.022 km 3) and La Ninfa (3000 m.a.s.l., 0.032 km 3). The eruptions of Cerro del Agua and Pelagatos occurred between 2500 and 14,000 yr BP. The Dos Cerros eruption took place close to 14,000 yr BP as constrained by radiocarbon dating. Rocks from these three volcanoes are olivine-hypersthene normative basaltic andesites and andesites with porphyritic, aphanitic, and glomeroporphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblages include olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene phenocrysts (≤ 10 vol.%) embedded in a trachytic groundmass which consists mainly of plagioclase microlites and glass. Pelagatos rocks also present quartz xenocrysts. Due to their high Cr and Ni contents, and high Mg#s, Pelagatos rocks are considered to be derived from primitive magmas, hence the importance of this volcano for understanding petrogenetic processes in this region. Major and trace element abundances and petrography of products from these volcanoes indicate a certain degree of crystal fractionation during ascent to the surface. However, the magmas that formed the volcanoes evolved independently from each other and are not cogenetically related. REE, HFSE, LILE, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions point towards a heterogeneous mantle source that has been metasomatized by aqueous/melt phases from the subducted Cocos slab. There is no clear evidence of important crustal contributions in the compositions of Pelagatos and

  2. Fire Perimeters

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  3. Fire History

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  4. Evaluation of the Cerro Solo nuclear ore, province of Chubut. The Cerro Solo project within the frame of uranium exploration in Argentina. Pt. 1

    Solis, R.J.; Navarra, P.R.; Benitez, A.F.; Gallucci, A.R.


    The Cerro Solo ore deposit was selected by the CNEA to invest in an assessment project because of their promising grade and amount of known and potential resources, significant to Argentina's uranium requirements. The deposit, which is located in the central region of the Chubut Province, belongs to the sandstone type and is hosted by the cretaceous Chubut Group. Technical studies carried out forecast an important growth of nuclear capacity to meet Argentina's energy requirements in the first two decades of of the the next century. To be in position to confront the challenge presented by increasing uranium resources to fuel the nuclear powers plants it is very important, as a first step, to improve the geological knowledge of uranium favorability in the country. The preliminary results of the Cerro Solo project indicate that the eastern slope of the Pichinan hills is a promising area for development of uranium resources, increasing the favorability of the San Jorge Basin in order to allow contributing to meet future uranium requirements. The Cerro Solo Project was planned in a sequential manner, as a multidisciplinary effort which includes studies on: geologic setting of mineralization, resource estimates, costs of mining and milling methods, economic analysis and environmental impact research. Among the mining methods, studies include the alternative of the in-situ leaching technology, which is becoming a low producing cost interesting possibility. (Author)

  5. Fuels planning: Managing forest structure to reduce fire hazard

    David L. Peterson; Morris C. Johnson; James K. Agee; Theresa B. Jain; Donald McKenzie; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt


    Prior to the 20th century, low intensity fires burned regularly in most arid to semiarid forest ecosystems, with ignitions caused by lightning and humans (e.g., Baisan and Swetnam 1997, Allen et al. 2002, Hessl et al. 2004). Low intensity fires controlled regeneration of fire sensitive (e.g., grand fir [Abies grandis]) species (Arno and Allison-Bunnell 2002), promoted...

  6. Mining inventory of Uruguay. Results of geochemical prospecting of Cerro Partido fotoplano

    Zeegers, H.; Artignan, D.; Vairon, P.


    This work is about the analitical results of the geological prospection carried out in Cerro Partido zone within the framework of Mining inventory of Uruguay. In this fotoplano (Esc. 1/50.000 and 1/400.000 there are metamorphic, mesozoic and carbonated formations

  7. Forecast of environmental impact in the evaluation of Cerro Solo nuclear mine

    Gallucci, A.R.


    This work presents a project for the study of the environmental impact of the Cerro Solo uranium mine. The survey is to be carried out performing different kinds of studies: mineralization, tectonics, hydrogeology, preliminary studies on different exploitation methods, costs, reserves estimation, economical studies and preliminary studies on possible environmental impacts. (author). 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Grand Hotel prijutil hudozhnikov


    Raadioajakirjanik Lea Veelmaa lindistas "Kunstikanali" 2004. a. esimese saate Grand Hotel Viljandis. Saatekülaliseks oli maalikunstnik Andres Tolts. Toltsi kaheksa akrüülmaali on eksponeeritud hotelli fuajees ja restoranis

  9. Grand Mal Seizure

    ... grand mal seizures include: A family history of seizure disorders Any injury to the brain from trauma, a ... the risk of birth defects. If you have epilepsy and plan to become pregnant, work with your ...

  10. Geología de la región del Cerro Guanaquero, Río Diamante, Mendoza Geology of Cerro Guanaquero region, Diamante River, Mendoza

    Federico Fuentes; Victor A. Ramos


    El estudio realizado presenta nuevos datos sobre un sector poco conocido de la Cordillera Principal de Mendoza, en la alta cuenca del río Diamante en las adyacencias del cerro Guanaquero, y los primeros datos geocronológicos de sus rocas volcánicas. Las unidades geológicas presentes en el área se dividen en cuatro grupos principales: secuencias sedimentarias mesozoicas marinas y continentales intensamente plegadas y falladas; intrusivos y volcanitas intermedias de edad neógena; rocas volcánic...

  11. Consideration of the ultramafic intrusive rocks in Arroyo Las Palmas (ex Cerro Chato - Las Canias) Durazno. R. O. del Uruguay

    Coronel, N.


    This work is about the ultramafic rocks which its chemistry composition fluctuate since the basic to the ultra basic field and appear in the nascent of the Las Palmas stream near Las Canias and Cerro Chato district.

  12. Final Environmental Assessment: Installation of Digital Airport Surveillance Radar at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota


    Grand Forks AFB public web site. Notices of Availability were published in the Grand Forks Herald on 10 Mar 2011 and on the Grand Forks AFB web site from...Squadron (319th) FTA Fire Training Area GATR Ground-Air Transmit Receive GFAFB Grand Forks Air Force Base GHG Greenhouse Gas Hz Hertz IEEE Institute of...feet west of the closed/capped ERP Site FT-02, the Fire Training Area/Old Sanitary Landfill Area ( FTA /OSLA), which encompasses 28 acres, five of

  13. The last glacial cycle and palaeolake synchrony in the southern bolivian Altiplano: Cerro Azanaques case study


    Full Text Available SYNCHRONISME ENTRE LE DERNIER CYCLE GLACIAIRE ET L'EXTENSION DES PALÉOLACS DANS LE SUD DE L'ALTIPLANO BOLIVIEN : EXEMPLE DU CERRO AZANAQUES. Dans la Cordillère Orientale, au niveau du Cerro Azanaques (18°S, Bolivie, des moraines, des sédiments glaciaires, des rivages paléolacustres, des deltas et des stromatolites qui se sont préservés, révèlent des conditions climatiques fortement différentes dans le passé. La culmination de la dernière avancée du glacier Lijunimani a été datée par la méthode du radiocarbone à 13 000 ans BP à partir de sédiments glaciaires ayant remanié un horizon organique de tourbe. La cartographie de cette diacmitite argileuse particulière révèle un delta en forme de cône bordé par un glacier cela montre que les glaciers et les anciens systèmes lacustres font partie d'un processus d'expansion simultanée. L'étude stratigraphique détaillée réalisée au Cerro Azanaques fournit de fortes évidences allant dans le sens d'une réponse commune des glaciers et des lacs à un signal piloté par un changement climatique les lacs ne sont donc pas le simple résultat de la fonte des glaciers des cordillères. SINCRONISMO ENTRE EL ÚLTIMO CICLO GLACIAL Y LA EXTENSIÓN DE LOS PALEOLAGOS EN EL SUR DEL ALTIPLANO BOLIVIANO: CASO DEL CERRO AZANAQUES. En la Cordillera Oriental, a la altura del Cerro Azanaques (18º S, Bolivia aparecen preservadas morrenas y sedimentos glaciares, líneas de costa paleolacustres, deltas y estromatolitos, lo que revela condiciones climáticas pasadas significativamente diferentes. La culminación del último avance del glaciar Lijunimani ha sido fechada mediante radiocarbono a 13 000 años BP a partir de sedimentos glaciares que han desplazado un horizonte orgánico de turba. La cartografía de esta particular diamictita arcillosa revela un delta en forma de abanico con hielo en sus márgenes lo que indica que los glaciares y los sistemas paleolacustres sufrieron un proceso

  14. Paracas Cultural Readaptation To The Nasca Entity: An Approach From The Settlement Of Cerro Cordova

    Llanos Jacinto, Oscar Daniel


    Except rare exceptions, the Paracas society of the Ica valley has been extensively studied from decontextualized materials, including pottery collected from clandestine tomb excavations in the Ocucaje basin. From the stylistic analysis of these pieces, which also included Nasca specimens, the hypothesis was elaborated that assumed the birth from the Paracas, expressed in the well-known axiom «transition paracas-nasca». The works carried out in Cerro Córdova and those that since 2009 are carri...

  15. Works carried out in the south of Cerro Largo district. Uranium prospection programme. Preliminary report

    Goso, H.


    During the carried out work of radimetric preliminary Investigation in the northeast of the uraniferous country were detected radimetric anonalias which are associated to the formation San Gregorio and Tres Islas. Later the works of prospection ratified those anomalies to which they defined in the environs other anomalies. The studies of revision of these conducted anomalies they took to conclude the necessity to carry out a detailed study of the area to that district was denominated Cerro Largo Sur

  16. Relationship between water chemistry and sediment mineralogy in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field: a preliminary report

    Valette-Silver, J.N. (Univ. de Perpignan, France); Thompson, J.M.; Ball, J.W.


    The chemical compositions of waters collected from the Cerro Prieto geothermal production wells and hydrothermal emanations are different. Compared to the Cerro Prieto well waters, the surficial waters generally contain significantly less potassium, slightly less calcium and chloride, and significantly more magnesium and sulfate. In comparison to the unaltered sediments, the changes in the mineralogy of the altered sediments appear to be controlled by the type of emanation (well, spring, mud pot, geyser, fumarole, or cold pool). However, an increase in quartz and potassium feldspar percentages seems to be characteristic of the majority of the sediments in contact with geothermal fluids. Preliminary attempts to model the chemical processes occurring in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field using chemical equilibrium calculations are reported. For this purpose the chemical compositions of thermal waters (well and surficial emanation) were used as input data to make calculations with SOLMNEQ and WATEQ2 computer programs. Then the theoretical mineral composition of altered sediments was predicted and compared to the mineralogy actually observed in the solid samples.

  17. Evolution of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system as interpreted from vitrinite reflectance under isothermal conditions

    Barker, C.E. (US Geological Survey, Denver, CO); Pawlewicz, M.J.; Bostick, N.H.; Elders, W.A.


    Temperature estimates from reflectance data in the Cerro Prieto system correlate with modern temperature logs and temperature estimates from fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope geothermometry indicating that the temperature in the central portion of the Cerro Prieto System is now at its historical maximum. Isoreflectance lines formed by contouring vitrinite reflectance data for a given isothermal surface define an imaginary surface that indicates an apparent duration of heating in the system. The 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface has a complex dome-like form suggesting a localized heat source that has caused shallow heating in the central portion of this system. Isoreflectance lines relative to this 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface define a zone of low reflectance roughly corresponding to the crest of the isothermal surface. Comparison of these two surfaces suggest that the shallow heating in the central portion of Cerro Prieto is young relative to the heating (to 250/sup 0/C) on the system margins. Laboratory and theoretical models of hydrothermal convection cells suggest that the form of the observed 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface and the reflectance surface derived relative to it results from the convective rise of thermal fluids under the influence of a regional hydrodynamic gradient that induces a shift of the hydrothermal heating effects to the southwest.

  18. Democracy and "Grand" Corruption.

    Rose-Ackerman, Susan


    Defines "grand" corruption as that occurring at the higher levels of a political system and involving large sums of money. Discusses the impact and incentives for this level of corruption as well as various government responses. Identifies multinational corporations as the major malefactors. (MJP)

  19. The GRANDE detector

    Adams, A.; Bond, R.; Coleman, L.; Rollefson, A.; Wold, D.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, H.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Wilson, C.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.


    In this paper we present a detector facility which meets the requirements outlined above for a next-generation instrument. GRANDE (Gamma Ray and Neutrino DEtector) is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. (orig.)

  20. Triggering the GRANDE array

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.


    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  1. Grand-Bassam


    l'estuaire du fleuve Comoé (Grand-Bassam, Côte d'Ivoire). Kouassi Laurent ADOPO1*, Apie Colette AKOBE1, Etche Mireille AMANI2,. Sylvain MONDE3 et Kouamé AKA3. (1)Laboratoire de Géologie Marine, Sédimentologie et Environnement, Centre de Recherche en Ecologie,. Université Felix Houphouet Boigny Abidjan, ...

  2. Fire protection

    Janetzky, E.


    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  3. Department of Energy: Opportunities Exist to Improve Los Alamos' Equipment Purchasing Practices


    In fiscal year 2000, the Department of Energy (DOE) received $13.2 million in supplemental funding to replace equipment lost in the May 2000 Cerro Grande fire that damaged the Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  4. El recorrido al Cerro Gordo y el ritual tepehuano de las ofrendas en los cerros de la comunidad de San Bernardino de Milpillas

    Chantal CRAMAUSSEL


    Full Text Available El ritual de las ofrendas es una ceremonia propiciatoria de la lluvia que se efectúa al terminar la estación seca en los cerros más altos de la comunidad de San Bernardino de Milpillas Chico, en la Sierra Tepehuana del estado de Durango. A esos rituales distintos de los cató- licos que forman parte del ciclo anual de costumbre concurren las autoridades civiles, los curanderos y miembros del Consejo de ancianos. Es un momento muy importante en el que se refuerza la cohesión de los tepehuanos que tienen un patrón de asentamiento muy disperso, como los demás grupos del norte, pero sus rituales presentan también similitudes con los mesoamericanos.

  5. Grand unified theories

    Langacker, P.


    In this talk I discuss the present status of these theories and of their observational and experimental implications. In section II, I briefly review the standard SU 3 sup(c) x SU 2 x U 1 model of the strong and electroweak interactions. Although phenomenologically successful, the standard model leaves many questions unanswered. Some of these questions are addressed by grand unified theories, which are defined and discussed in Section III. The Georgi-Glashow SU 5 model is described, as are theories based on larger groups such as SO 10 , E 6 , or SO 16 . It is emphasized that there are many possible grand unified theories and that it is an experimental problem not only to test the basic ideas but to discriminate between models. (orig./HSI)

  6. Asymptotically safe grand unification

    Bajc, Borut [J. Stefan Institute,1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sannino, Francesco [CP-Origins & the Danish IAS, University of Southern Denmark,Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Université de Lyon, France, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR5822 IPNL,F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)


    Phenomenologically appealing supersymmetric grand unified theories have large gauge representations and thus are not asymptotically free. Their ultraviolet validity is limited by the appearance of a Landau pole well before the Planck scale. One could hope that these theories save themselves, before the inclusion of gravity, by generating an interacting ultraviolet fixed point, similar to the one recently discovered in non-supersymmetric gauge-Yukawa theories. Employing a-maximization, a-theorem, unitarity bounds, as well as positivity of other central charges we nonperturbatively rule out this possibility for a broad class of prime candidates of phenomenologically relevant supersymmetric grand unified theories. We also uncover candidates passing these tests, which have either exotic matter or contain one field decoupled from the superpotential. The latter class of theories contains a model with the minimal matter content required by phenomenology.

  7. Areas to explore surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Areas para exploracion en los alrededores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    Exploration plays an important role in tapping underground natural resources-whether water, oil, natural gas or minerals. Exploratory data allow us to learn reservoir conditions, increasing probable reserves and reservoir life span. Around the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, and in the Mexicali Valley in general, exploration had almost stopped but recently was resumed by the Studies Division of Comision Federal de ELectricidad (CFE)'s Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos. The division sent technical personnel to structurally map the northern and eastern portions of Laguna Salada. The paper offers a general outline of the main zones undergoing exploratory studies-studies perhaps culminating in siting exploratory wells to locate more geothermal resources (and ultimately producing them using binary power plants). CFE also wants to site injection wells west of the current production zone, and this is covered, as well. All activities are meant to increase the productive lifespan of the geothermal reservoir. [Spanish] Cuando se trata de la explotacion de recursos naturales del subsuelo, sea agua, gas, petroleo o minerales, la exploracion juega un papel muy importante, ya que permite conocer las condiciones del yacimiento que pudieran llevar a incrementar las reservas de los recursos explotados y extender su vida util. En las zonas aledanas al campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, y en general en el Valle de Mexicali, la exploracion estaba practicamente detenida habiendose reactivado a raiz de que la Subgerencia de Estudios de la Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) envio personal para realizar mapeos estructurales en las porciones norte y oriente de la Laguna Salada. Este trabajo presenta un panorama general de las areas prioritarias para realizar estudios exploratorios y poder programar, con mas bases, pozos exploratorios enfocados a localizar mas recursos geotermicos, inclusive para generar energia por medio

  8. Basic aspects of the Cerro Prieto reservoir water recharge; Aspectos basicos de la recarga de agua al reservorio de Cerro Prieto

    Mercado, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field, located 30 km South of Mexicali City, Baja California, has at present an installed capacity of 620 MW in geothermal power plants, that operating with endogenous steam, make use of the underground energy by means of deep wells, from which about 80 million cubic meters per year of high enthalpy water and steam mixture are extracted. During the exploitation physical an chemical changes in the hydrothermal fluids discharged by the wells have been detected, which shows, among other things, an elevated water recharge, located towards the West area of the field and a low recharge in the part of the east zone area. For this reason the hot brine waste re-injection is recommended, (previously treated to eliminate the silica excess) to thermally an hydraulically recharge the reservoir in that part of the field. [Espanol] El campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, situado a 30 km al sur de la ciudad de Mexicali, Baja California, cuenta actualmente, despues de 18 anos en explotacion, con 620 MW de capacidad instalada en plantas geotermoelectricas que, operando con vapor endogeno, aprovechan la energia del subsuelo mediante pozos profundos de los que se extraen alrededor de 80 millones de metros cubicos por ano de una mezcla de agua vapor de elevada entalpia. Durante la explotacion se han percibido cambios fisicos y quimicos en los fluidos hidrotermales descargados por los pozos, lo que indica, entre otras cosas, una recarga elevada de agua localizada hacia el poniente del campo y una recarga baja en una zona de la parte oriental. Por ello se recomienda la reinyeccion de salmuera geotermica caliente de desecho (previamente tratada para eliminar el exceso de silice) para recargar termica e hidraulicamente el reservorio en esa parte del campo.

  9. Basic aspects of the Cerro Prieto reservoir water recharge; Aspectos basicos de la recarga de agua al reservorio de Cerro Prieto

    Mercado, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field, located 30 km South of Mexicali City, Baja California, has at present an installed capacity of 620 MW in geothermal power plants, that operating with endogenous steam, make use of the underground energy by means of deep wells, from which about 80 million cubic meters per year of high enthalpy water and steam mixture are extracted. During the exploitation physical an chemical changes in the hydrothermal fluids discharged by the wells have been detected, which shows, among other things, an elevated water recharge, located towards the West area of the field and a low recharge in the part of the east zone area. For this reason the hot brine waste re-injection is recommended, (previously treated to eliminate the silica excess) to thermally an hydraulically recharge the reservoir in that part of the field. [Espanol] El campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, situado a 30 km al sur de la ciudad de Mexicali, Baja California, cuenta actualmente, despues de 18 anos en explotacion, con 620 MW de capacidad instalada en plantas geotermoelectricas que, operando con vapor endogeno, aprovechan la energia del subsuelo mediante pozos profundos de los que se extraen alrededor de 80 millones de metros cubicos por ano de una mezcla de agua vapor de elevada entalpia. Durante la explotacion se han percibido cambios fisicos y quimicos en los fluidos hidrotermales descargados por los pozos, lo que indica, entre otras cosas, una recarga elevada de agua localizada hacia el poniente del campo y una recarga baja en una zona de la parte oriental. Por ello se recomienda la reinyeccion de salmuera geotermica caliente de desecho (previamente tratada para eliminar el exceso de silice) para recargar termica e hidraulicamente el reservorio en esa parte del campo.


    The first endcap disc of CMS being lowered slowly and carefully 100 m underground into the experimental cavern. The disc is one of 15 large pieces to make the grand descent.  The uniquely shaped slice, 16 m high, about 50 cm thick weighs 400 tonnes. The two HF that were lowered earlier in November can also be seen in the foreground and background.  

  11. Fire Stations

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  12. Adsorber fires

    Holmes, W.


    The following conclusions are offered with respect to activated charcoal filter systems in nuclear power plants: (1) The use of activated charcoal in nuclear facilities presents a potential for deep-seated fires. (2) The defense-in-depth approach to nuclear fire safety requires that if an ignition should occur, fires must be detected quickly and subsequently suppressed. (3) Deep-seated fires in charcoal beds are difficult to extinguish. (4) Automatic water sprays can be used to extinguish fires rapidly and reliably when properly introduced into the burning medium. The second part of the conclusions offered are more like challenges: (1) The problem associated with inadvertent actuations of fire protection systems is not a major one, and it can be reduced further by proper design review, installation, testing, and maintenance. Eliminating automatic fire extinguishing systems for the protection of charcoal adsorbers is not justified. (2) Removal of automatic fire protection systems due to fear of inadvertent fire protection system operation is a case of treating the effect rather than the cause. On the other hand, properly maintaining automatic fire protection systems will preserve the risk of fire loss at acceptable levels while at the same time reducing the risk of damage presented by inadvertent operation of fire protection systems

  13. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  14. Forest fires

    Fuller, M.


    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance


    Vela Velarde, Carlos


    Se estudia el sitio Cerro Los Hornos, ubicado en la costa de Tacna, sur del Perú. Presenta cerámica con filiación Inka Imperial o Cuzco Policromo, pero de fabricación local; esta presencia cultural es consecuencia del proceso de expansión Inka a la costa sur del Perú, la cual establece relaciones con la sociedad local The place studied is Cerro Los Hornos located in the coast of Tacna, south of Peru, presents ceramic with filiation Inka Imperial or Cuzco Policromo, but of local production;...

  16. 222Radon Concentration Measurements biased to Cerro Prieto Fault for Verify its Continuity to the Northwest of the Mexicali Valley.

    Lazaro-Mancilla, O.; Lopez, D. L.; Reyes-Lopez, J. A.; Carreón-Diazconti, C.; Ramirez-Hernandez, J.


    The need to know the exact location in the field of the fault traces in Mexicali has been an important affair due that the topography in this valley is almost flat and fault traces are hidden by plow zone, for this reason, the southern and northern ends of the San Jacinto and Cerro Prieto fault zones, respectively, are not well defined beneath the thick sequence of late Holocene Lake Cahuilla deposits. The purpose of this study was to verify if Cerro Prieto fault is the continuation to the southeast of the San Jacinto Fault proposed by Hogan in 2002 who based his analysis on pre-agriculture geomorphy, relocation and analysis of regional microseismicity, and trench exposures from a paleoseismic site in Laguna Xochimilco, Mexicali. In this study, four radon (222Rn) profiles were carried out in the Mexicali Valley, first, to the SW-NE of Cerro Prieto Volcano, second, to the W-E along the highway Libramiento San Luis Río Colorado-Tecate, third, to the W-E of Laguna Xochimilco and fourth, to the W-E of the Colonia Progreso. The Radon results allow us to identify in the Cerro Prieto profile four regions where the values exceed 100 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), these regions can be associated to fault traces, one of them associated to the Cerro Prieto Fault (200 pCi/L) and other related with Michoacán de Ocampo Fault (450 pCi/L). The profile Libramiento San Luis Río Colorado-Tecate, show three regions above 100 pCi/L, two of them related to the same faults. In spite of the results of the Laguna Xochimilco, site used by Hogan (2002), the profile permit us observe three regions above the 100 pCi/L, but we can associate only one of the regions above this level to the Michoacán de Ocampo Fault, but none region to the Cerro Prieto Fault. Finally in spite of the Colonia Progreso is the shortest profile with only five stations, it shows one region with a value of 270 pCi/L that we can correlate with the Cerro Prieto Fault. The results of this study allow us to think in the

  17. Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Denis Alcides-Rezende


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyse the integration of information systems and information technology resources in the municipal planning of 14 small cities of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil. The research methodology consisted of a multiple case study together with a convenient non-probabilistic sample chosen through a research protocol. The results demonstrate the difficulties of these cities to organise the municipal data as well as their struggle for accessibility of information and planning for management and control.

  18. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara


    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  19. Elemental analysis of pottery from Cerro de las Ventanas, Zacatecas, by INAA

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles G, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez C, R. Y. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Antropologia, Apdo. Postal 555 Suc. C, Zacatecas (Mexico); Nicolas C, M. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Coordinacion de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Av. Industrias 101-A, Fracc. Talleres, 78494 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Speakman, R. J. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, 20746 Maryland (United States); Glascock, M. D. [Reactor Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, 65211 Missouri (United States)


    Fifteen ceramic fragments samples from Cerro de las Ventanas site, Zacatecas, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Thirty-two elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Meso american ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Mal paso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (Author)

  20. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum



    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt. The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degrees} C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3--5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  1. Elemental analysis of pottery from Cerro de las Ventanas, Zacatecas, by INAA

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles G, F.; Mendez C, R. Y.; Nicolas C, M.; Speakman, R. J.; Glascock, M. D.


    Fifteen ceramic fragments samples from Cerro de las Ventanas site, Zacatecas, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Thirty-two elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Meso american ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Mal paso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (Author)

  2. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.


    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  3. Reservoir Simulation on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field: A Continuing Study

    Castaneda, M.; Marquez, R.; Arellano, V.; Esquer, C.A.


    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of complex geological and hydrological structure. It is located at the southern end of the Salton-Mexicali trough which includes other geothermal anomalies as Heber and East Mesa. Although in 1973, the initial power plant installed capacity was 75 MW of electrical power, this amount increased to 180 MW in 1981 as field development continued. It is expected to have a generating capacity of 620 MW by the end of 1985, when two new plants will be completely in operation. Questions about field deliverability, reservoir life and ultimate recovery related to planned installations are being presently asked. Numerical modeling studies can give very valuable answers to these questions, even at the early stages in the development of a field. An effort to simulate the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir has been undergoing for almost two years. A joint project among Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Intercomp of Houstin, Texas, was created to perform reservoir engineering and simulation studies on this field. The final project objective is tosimulate the behavior of the old field region when production from additional wells located in the undeveloped field zones will be used for feeding the new power plants.

  4. Presence of cross flow in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Presencia de flujo cruzado en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    During the development of Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, exploitation has increased gradually, causing a continuous drop in pressure to almost 100 bars in the central and eastern parts of the field. This has occurred despite the high natural recharge induced by the reservoir exploitation and helped by the high permeability of the reservoir and the wide availability of natural recharge of low-temperature water in the vicinity. The strata above the production zones have significantly lower temperatures than these zones, but due to the particular characteristics of the reservoir, do not have pressure drops. As the pressure of producing strata declines, the hydraulic pressure differential between them and the overlying strata increases. Thus in recent years the phenomenon of cross flow occurs with greater frequency and severity. In this paper, this phenomenon is analyzed, detailing the specific mechanisms favoring it and identifying the stage (drilling or workover) in which it commonly occurs. Rigorous supervision during these stages is crucial to identifying cross flow and to taking necessary measures to save the well. Cross flow cases are presented at different stages in the history of a well: during drilling, repair, before and during the stimulation, and during production. [Spanish] Durante el desarrollo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, la explotacion se ha incrementado en forma gradual provocando una continua caida de presion, que en las porciones central y oriente ha sido de casi 100 bars. Esto ha ocurrido a pesar de la enorme recarga natural inducida por la explotacion, favorecida por la alta permeabilidad del yacimiento y la gran disponibilidad de recarga natural de agua de baja temperatura en los alrededores del mismo. Los estratos ubicados encima de las zonas productoras presentan temperaturas significativamente menores que estos, pero debido a las caracteristicas particulares del yacimiento, no han presentado abatimiento en su presion. En la

  5. Geohydrologic conditions of the shallow aquifer in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field zone; Condiciones geohidrologicas del acuifero somero en la zona del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto

    Vazquez Gonzalez, Rogelio [CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)


    Based on geohydrologic information reported by Comision Nacional del Agua, Comision Federal de Electricidad and several academic institutions, we have performed an analysis to establish in general terms, the past and present behavior of the shallow aquifer in the Cerro Prieto geothermal zone (CPGZ). The main features of the aquifer, derived from the interpretation of the results obtained with several disciplines, are as follows: The shallow aquifer in CPGZ is part of the regional hydrologic system of the Mexicali valley basin. The basin is filled with unconsolidated delta deposits interbedded with alluvial sediments from the Sierra Cucapa, which forms an impervious boundary. Because the lack of information about the hydraulic properties of the sediments, just possible ranges of values were obtained for the hydraulic conductivity and storativity corresponding to three deposit environments: a) delta flood plain facies, b) estuarine or lagoon environment facies, c) distal alluvial fan facies. [Spanish] Con base en la informacion geohidrologica de la Comision Nacional del Agua, la Comision Federal de Electricidad e instituciones academicas, se realizo un analisis para establecer las condiciones geohidrologicas y el panorama general del comportamiento historico y actual del acuifero somero en la zona del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP). De la interpretacion e integracion de los resultados obtenidos de las diferentes disciplinas utilizadas en el desarrollo del estudio, se derivan las siguientes conclusiones: El acuifero somero en la zona del CGCP forma parte del acuifero regional del valle de Mexicali. La secuencia litologica en el area de estudio esta constituida por sedimentos no consolidados de origen deltaico interdigitados con sedimentos aluviales provenientes de la Sierra Cucapa, que sirve como frontera impermeable. La informacion sobre las propiedades hidraulicas de los materiales en el area de interes es limitada, por lo cual solo se determinan los

  6. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  7. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird


    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...




    Full Text Available Com objetivo de resgatar germoplasma de Cucurbita spp. da agricultura familiar do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, quantificar a variabilidade fenotípica e identificar as principais espécies cultivadas, foram organizadas 17 expedições para coleta de acessos, nos municípios de Baraúna, Rio do Fogo e Touros (principais fornecedores de frutos para o comercio estadual e de mais oito municípios de diferentes microrregiões do Estado (Apodi, Caraúbas, Ceará Mirim, Cerro Corá, Currais Novos, João Câmara, Lagoa Nova e Macaíba. Cada acesso coletado foi composto por um fruto ou aproximadamente vinte sementes fornecidas pelo próprio agricultor. Todos os acessos foram identificados quanto à espécie botânica e realizados os procedimentos de acondicionamento, identificação e armazenamento das sementes em câmara fria para preservação do material. Uma amostra dos acessos coletados como frutos e uma pequena parte dos acessos obtidos como sementes da espécie C. moschata foram multiplicados usando-se autofecundação das plantas. Plantas e frutos foram caracterizados preliminarmente com auxílio de descritores morfológicos. Resgatou-se acessos em todos os municípios visitados, sendo 112 de C. moschata e 50 de C. maxima. Verificou-se predominância do cultivo da espécie C. moschata bem como constatou-se grande variabilidade para vários descritores de planta e fruto nos acessos que foram caracterizados.

  9. Cassini's Grand Finale Overview

    Spilker, L. J.


    After 13 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn ended in a science-rich blaze of glory. Cassini sent back its final bits of unique science data on September 15, 2017, as it plunged into Saturn's atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements. Cassini's final phase covered roughly ten months and ended with the first time exploration of the region between the rings and planet. In late 2016 Cassini transitioned to a series of 20 Ring Grazing orbits with peripases just outside Saturn's F ring, providing close flybys of tiny ring moons, including Pan, Daphnis and Atlas, and high-resolution views of Saturn's A and F rings. A final Titan flyby in late April 2017 propelled Cassini across Saturn's main rings and into its Grand Finale orbits. Comprised of 22 orbits, Cassini repeatedly dove between Saturn's innermost rings and upper atmosphere to answer fundamental questions unattainable earlier in the mission. The last orbit turned the spacecraft into the first Saturn atmosphere probe. The Grand Finale orbits provided highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and in-situ sampling of the ring particle composition, Saturn's atmosphere, plasma, and innermost radiation belts. The gravitational field was measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet, winds in the deeper atmosphere, and mass of the rings. The magnetic field provided insight into the physical nature of the magnetic dynamo and structure of the internal magnetic field. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer sampled the upper atmosphere for molecules that escape the atmosphere in addition to molecules originating from the rings. The cosmic dust analyzer directly sampled the composition from different parts of the main rings for the first time. Fields and particles instruments directly measured the plasma environment between the rings and planet. Science highlights and new mysteries collected in the Grand

  10. Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the reservoir to produce steam at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento para producir vapor en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C.

    Rodriguez Rodriguez; Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir for steam production are defined, taking into account the minimal acceptable steam production at the surface, considering a rank of mixed-enthalpies for different well-depths, and allowing proper assessments for the impacts of the changes in fluid reservoir pressure and enthalpy. Factors able to influence steam production are discussed. They have to be considered when deciding whether or not to drill or repair a well in a particular area of the reservoir. These evaluations become much more relevant by considering the huge thermodynamic changes that have occurred at the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir from its development, starting in 1973, which has lead to abandoning some steam producing areas in the field. [Spanish] Las condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, para producir vapor se determinan tomando en cuenta la minima produccion de vapor aceptable en superficie, considerando un rango de entalpias de la mezcla y para diferentes profundidades de pozos, lo que permite valorar adecuadamente el impacto de la evolucion de la presion y entalpia del fluido en el yacimiento. Se discuten los factores que pueden afectar la produccion de vapor, los cuales se deben tomar en cuenta para determinar la conveniencia o no de perforar o reparar un pozo en determinada zona del yacimiento. Estas evaluaciones adquieren gran relevancia al considerar los enormes cambios termodinamicos que ha presentado el yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, como resultado de su explotacion iniciada en 1973, lo que ha llevado a abandonar algunas zonas del campo para la produccion de vapor. Palabras Clave: Cerro Prieto, entalpia, evaluacion de yacimientos, politicas de explotacion, presion, produccion de vapor.

  11. Extension of the Cerro Prieto field and zones in the Mexicali Valley with geothermal possibilities in the future

    Fonseca L, H.L.; de la Pena L, A.; Puente C, I.; Diaz C, E.


    This study concerns the possible extension of the Cerro Prieto field and identification of other zones in the Mexicali Valley with geothermal development potential by assessing the structural geologic conditions in relation to the regional tectonic framework and the integration of geologic and geophysical surveys carried out at Cerro Prieto. This study is based on data obtained from the wells drilled to date and the available geological and geophysical information. With this information, a geologic model of the field is developed as a general description of the geometry of what might be the geothermal reservoir of the Cerro Prieto field. In areas with geothermal potential within the Mexicali Valley, the location of irrigation wells with anomalous temperatures was taken as a point of departure for subsequent studies. Based on this initial information, gravity and magnetic surveys were made, followed by seismic reflection and refraction surveys and the drilling of 1200-m-deep multiple-use wells. Based on the results of the final integration of these studies with the geology of the region, it is suggested that the following areas should be explored further: east of Cerro Prieto, Tulecheck, Riito, Aeropuerto-Algodones, and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora.

  12. Grand unification and supergravity

    Nanopoulos, D.V.

    Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) are very successful, but they suffer from fine-tuning or hierarchy problems. It seems that more symmetry beyond the gauge symmetry is needed and indeed supersymmetric GUTs may provide the correct framework in solving the hierarchy problems. These are reviewed. From the results discussed, it is seen that for the first time in particle physics, gravity seems to play a dominant role. It may be responsible for GUT breaking, SU(2) x U(1) breaking, fermion masses, proton decay and a consistent cosmological picture. Supergravity seems to offer a consistent, effective theory for energies below the Planck scale to N=1 local SUSY but also, in the context of N=8 extended supergravity with a dynamically realized SU(8), there may be a consistent fundamental unified theory of all interactions. (U.K.)

  13. Grand unification: status report

    Georgi, H.


    Grand unification is reviewed with regard to the flavor puzzle and the hierarchy puzzle. Progress in CP and the PQWWKDFS axion is reviewed. The neutrino mass and B-L research, the understanding and assimilation of the language of effective theories (which divide the momentum scale up into regions), with focus on the models, are surveyed. Various unified models are organized according to whether they address the hierarchy puzzle or the flavor puzzle. SU(5), SO(10), E6, and Higgs are considered simple and explicit models. Global symmetry addresses hierarchy puzzle, but the rules are unclear. In SO (18), with regard to hierarchy, perturbation theory breaks down. SO (14) fails for hierarchy because of GIM, b and t problems. Supersymmetry and technicolor with regard to flavor puzzle are questioned. The CP solution of ETC and Composite C models (addressing both flavor and hierarchy) is a minus. Composite A model has no evident virtues, and the basic idea of ETC model needs checking

  14. Grand unified theories. Pt. 2

    Ellis, J.


    The author gives an introduction to the construction of grand unified theories on the base of the SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) model of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions. Especially he discusses the proton decay, neutrino masses and oscillations, and cosmological implications in connection with grand unified theories. (orig./HSI)

  15. La importancia de ser grande

    Baisre, J. A.


    Se responde a las preguntas ¿por qué los mamíferos marinos son los animales más grandes del planeta?, ¿Por qué los peces no pueden ser más grandes?. Éstas y otras interrogantes son respondidas de forma sencilla y clara.

  16. Mapping fire effects on ash and soil properties. Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Strielko, Irina


    scales and the future perspectives. References Finley, C.D., Glenn, N.F. (2010) Fire and vegetation type effects on soil hydrophobicity and infiltration in the sagebrussh-steppe: II. Hyperspectral analysis. Journal of Arid Environments, 74: 660-666. Fox, D.A., Maselli, F., Carrega, P. (2008) Using SPOT images and field sampling to map burn severity and vegetation factors affecting post-fire erosion risk. Catena, 75: 326-335. Gimeno-Garcia. E., Andreu., V., Rubio, J.L. (2004) Spatial patterns of soil temperatures during experiemntal fires. Geoderma, 118: 17-34. Hirobe, M., Tokushi, N., Wachrinrat, C., Takeda, H. (2003) Fire history influences on the spatial heterogeneity of soil nitrogen transformations in three adjacent stands in a dry tropical forest in Thailand. Plant and Soil, 249: 309-318. Kokaly, R.F., Rockwell, B.W., Haire, S.L., King, T.V.V. (2007) Characterization of post fire surface cover, soils, and burn severity at the Cerro Grande fire, New Mexico, using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 106: 305-325. Lewis, S.A., Hudak, A.T., Ottmar, R.D., Robichaud, P.R., Lentile, L.B., Hood, S.M., Cronan, J.B., Morgan, P. (2012) Using hyperspectral imagery to estimate forest floor consumption from wildfire in boreal forests of Alaska. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 20: 255-271. Lewis, S.A., Robichaud, P.R., Frazier, B.E., Wu, J.Q., Laes, D.Y.M. (2008) Using hyperspectral imagery to predict post-wildfire soil repellency. Geomorphology, 98, 192-205. Miller, J.D., Yool, S. (2002) Mapping forest post-fire canopy consumption in several overstory types using multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM data. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 82: 481-496. Outeiro, L., Aspero, F., Ubeda, X. (2008) Geostatistical methods to study spatial variability of soil cation after a prescribed fire and rainfall. Catena, 74: 310-320. Parsons, A., Robichaud, P.R., Lewis, S.A., Napper, C., Clark, J.T. (2010) Field guide for mapping post-fire soil

  17. Microfaunal evidence of age and depositional environments of the Cerro Prieto section (Plio-Pleistocene), Baja California, Mexico

    Ingle, J.C. Jr.


    Microfossils including benthic and planktic foraminifera, ostracodes, calcareous algae, fish skeletal material, and fragments of pelecypods were found in 14 core samples from depths of 185 to 1952 m in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, providing evidence of both the age and depositional history of sediments comprising the 3000-m-thick Pliocene and Pleistocene section in this area. Ostracodes of brackish water and marine origin constitute the most common microfossils present in this sequence occurring in 8 samples; in situ littoral and neritic species of benthic foraminifera occur in 5 samples with planktic species present in 2 samples. Distributional patterns of ostracodes and foraminifera together with previously analyzed lithofacies (Lyons and van de Kamp, 1980) indicate that the Cerro Prieto section represents an intertonguing complex of alluvial, deltaic, estuarine, and shallow marine environments deposited along the front of the Colorado River delta as it prograded across the Salton Trough during Pliocene and Pleistocene time. Foraminiferal evidence indicates that a sand and shale unit commonly present at depths between 700 and 1100 m represents a significant mid-Pleistocene marine incursion in the Cerro Prieto area. Tentative correlation of the Cerro Prieto section with the well dated Palm Springs Formation of the Imperial Valley, California area suggests that the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary occurs at a depth of approximately 2000 m in the area of well M-93. Reworked specimens of Cretaceous foraminifera and fragments of the Cretaceous pelecypod Inoceramus were found in five samples further substantiating the Colorado Plateau provenance of a significant portion of the Colorado River deltaic sediments in the Cerro Prieto area.

  18. On fire

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  19. Fire Power

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee


    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  20. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  1. Forest-fire models

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager


    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  2. Hydrothermal alteration of sediments associated with surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Esquer P., I.; Elders, W.A.; Collier, P.C.; Hoagland, J.R.


    A study of the mineralogical changes associated with these hydrothermal vents was initiated with the aim of developing possible exploration tools for geothermal resources. The Cerro Prieto reservoir has already been explored by extensive deep drilling so that relationships between surface manifestations and deeper hydrothermal processes could be established directly. Approximately 120 samples of surface sediments were collected both inside and outside of the vents. The mineralogy of the altered sediments studied appears to be controlled by the type of emission. A comparison between the changes in mineralogy due to low temperature hydrothermal activity in the reservoir, seen in samples from boreholes, and mineralogical changes in the surface emission samples shows similar general trends below 180 C: increase of quartz, feldspar and illite, with subsequent disappearance of kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite and dolomite. These mineral assemblages seem to be characteristic products of the discharge from high intensity geothermal fields.

  3. Burning down the brewery: establishing and evacuating an ancient imperial colony at Cerro Baul, Peru.

    Moseley, Michael E; Nash, Donna J; Williams, Patrick Ryan; DeFrance, Susan D; Miranda, Ana; Ruales, Mario


    Before the Inca reigned, two empires held sway over the central Andes from anno Domini 600 to 1000: the Wari empire to the north ruled much of Peru, and Tiwanaku to the south reigned in Bolivia. Face-to-face contact came when both colonized the Moquegua Valley sierra in southern Peru. The state-sponsored Wari incursion, described here, entailed large-scale agrarian reclamation to sustain the occupation of two hills and the adjacent high mesa of Cerro Baúl. Monumental buildings were erected atop the mesa to serve an embassy-like delegation of nobles and attendant personnel that endured for centuries. Final evacuation of the Baúl enclave was accompanied by elaborate ceremonies with brewing, drinking, feasting, vessel smashing, and building burning.

  4. Changing fluvial styles in volcaniclastic successions: A cretaceous example from the Cerro Barcino Formation, Patagonia

    Umazano, A. Martín; Krause, J. Marcelo; Bellosi, Eduardo S.; Perez, Mariano; Visconti, Graciela; Melchor, Ricardo N.


    The Cretaceous Puesto La Paloma (PLPM) and Cerro Castaño (CCM) members (Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut Group) are pyroclastic-rich, alluvial successions deposited in the Somuncurá-Cañadón Asfalto Basin during sag and endorheic conditions. The PLPM comprises sheet-like tuffaceous sandstone strata, whereas the overlying CCM includes sheet-to ribbon-channel sandstone bodies intercalated within tuffaceous and fine-grained sediments. In this context, the goals of this contribution were: i) to make a detailed documentation of the contrasting sedimentary palaeonvironments; and ii) to infer the allocyclic controls that governed the sedimentation of both units. The study area is located in the western sector of the basin, where six localities, which were studied. Six facies associations were defined including ash-falls, sheet-floods, shallow lakes, aeolian, fluvial channel-belts, and reworked debris-flows. We defined four stratigraphic intervals for the studied sections, denominated 1 to 4 in chronological order of deposition, which increase their thicknesses toward the Puesto Mesa-Cerro León site. The interval 1 (18-42 m thick) corresponds to the PLPM and includes numerous pedogenized sheet-flood deposits, carbonate-rich lacustrine, aeolian sandy facies, and ash-fall beds. The interval 1 is interpreted as an ephemeral and unconfined alluvial system that interacted with aeolian dunes and dry interdune zones. The interval 2 (20-47 m thick) represents the lower part of the CCM. It shows an alternation of fluvial channel-belt deposits and vegetated floodplain facies with sediments originated from sheet-floods, lakes, and few ash-falls and debris-flows. The mean palaeoflow was toward E-SE, except in the northernmost locality where the drainage was towards SW. Proportion of channel-belt bodies ranges from 10 to 36%, reaching higher values in the northern part of the study area, where they are also thicker. The interval 2 represents a permanent, meandering or locally low


    María Dolores Gómez Moreno


    Full Text Available Los desprendimientos son un proceso natural que afecta, de forma generalizada en el Valle de Ricote, a las laderas del tipo cantil-talud. Su peligrosidad radica en que los bloques desprendidos del escarpe ruedan con facilidad, talud abajo, cuando son descalzados por efecto de la escorrentía superfi cial o desestabilizados por movimientos sísmicos. El planeamiento urbanístico se convierte en factor inductor del riesgo al clasifi car como urbanizables y urbanos suelos que, por su ubicación en pie de ladera, deberían excluirse de cualquier proceso urbanizador. Este es el caso de Archena en el entorno inmediato del cerro del Ope.

  6. Comments on some of the drilling and completion problems in Cerro Prieto geothermal wells

    Dominguez A, B.; Sanchez G, G.


    From 1960 to the present, 85 wells with a total drilling length exceeding 160,000 m have been constructed at Cerro Prieto, a modest figure compared to an oil field. This activity took place in five stages, each characterized by changes and modifications required by various drilling and well-completion problems. Initially, the technical procedures followed were similar to those used in the oil industry. However, several problems emerged as a result of the relatively high temperatures found in the geothermal reservoir. The various problems that have been encountered can be considered to be related to drilling fluids, cements and cementing operations, lithology, geothermal fluid characteristics, and casings and their accessories. As the importance of high temperatures and the characteristics of the geothermal reservoir fluids were better understood, the criteria were modified to optimize well-completion operations, and satisfactory results have been achieved to date.

  7. Volcanic hazard map for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua

    Asahina, T.; Navarro, M.; Strauch, W.


    A volcano hazard study was conducted for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua, based on geological and volcanological field investigations, air photo analyses, and numerical eruption simulation. These volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes of the country. This study was realized 2004-2006 through technical cooperation of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with INETER, upon the request of the Government of Nicaragua. The resulting volcanic hazard map on 1:50,000 scale displays the hazards of lava flow, pyroclastic flows, lahars, tephra fall, volcanic bombs for an area of 1,300 square kilometers. The map and corresponding GIS coverage was handed out to Central, Departmental and Municipal authorities for their use and is included in a National GIS on Georisks developed and maintained by INETER.

  8. Stratigraphic and tectonic revision of Cerro Olivo Complex located of Southeastern of Uruguay

    Masquelin, E.


    This paper presents a stratigraphic and tectonic revision of Cerro Olivo Complex, located in the Southeastern part of the Uruguayan Predevonian Shield. This informal lithostratigraphic unit constitutes the country rock for the emplacement of late-orogenic granitoids, during Neoproterozoic to Cambrian times. This unit groups all the lithodemes affected by deformation and metamorphism. Recent studies indicate the presence of straight gneisses of quartzo-feldspathic composition in the coast of Maldonado Department. These rocks were interpreted as the result of intense deformation in high temperature. These tectonites base a new stratigraphic insight for the complex. They allow their lithotypes to be organized by petrotectonic features, being a function of PT conditions for every last strain process [es

  9. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil



    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  10. Diameter characterization of timber species in primary forests of Cerro Murrucucu

    Villa G, Ana Maria


    This study in Cerro Murrucucu forests establishes the minimum fell diameter (DMC) and its fell cycle (C). It classifies the forest in 1 (Iess damaged) and 2 (severely damaged). Ten species were selected by means of the importance Value Index (IVI) and the DMC was determined. C was estimated through the times of step method. Pentaclethra macroloba showed the highest IVI (21.5% and 21.09% for forests 1 and 2, respectively). In spite of the deterioration of forest 2 the species still showed highest importance. In forest 1 an equilibrium can be deduced, whereas in forest 2 most of the considered species show instability. The DMC for forests 1 and 2 were 30 and 20 cm respectively, indicating extractive activities are deteriorating the latest. C was 51.8 years

  11. Análisis de la estabilidad del cerro Shishio mediante el empleo de técnicas numéricas

    Vintimilla Avila, Maribel Cristina


    La presente investigación analiza la estabilidad existente en el Cerro Shishio ubicado en el sector de La Josefina por medio de técnicas numéricas. El deslizamiento del cerro Shishio provocado por el desfogue de las aguas represadas por el deslizamiento del cerro Tamuga, se originó en el material de la Formación Tarqui, el mismo que se deslizó sobre un roca intrusiva muy alterada. En la actualidad se puede observar el material deslizado acumulado al pie del talud, que ahora sirve de soporte ...

  12. Photosynthesis within Mars' volcanic craters?: Insights from Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    Rogers, K. L.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.


    Discrete locales of sulfate-rich bedrocks exist on Mars and in many cases represent the products of acid-sulfate alteration of martian basalt. In some places, the products have been attributed to hydrothermal processes from local volcanism. In order to evaluate the habitability of such an environment, we are investigating the geochemical and biological composition of active fumaroles at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where fresh basaltic cinders similar in composition to martian basalts are altered by acidic, sulfur-bearing gases. Temperatures at active fumaroles can reach as high as 400°C and the pH of the steam ranges from Cyanobacteria and Ktedonobacteria, however Actinobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were also identified. Many of the cyanobacterial sequences were similar to those of the eukaryotic Cyanidiales, red algae that inhabit acidic, geothermal environments. Many of sequences related to Ktedonobacteria and Actinobacteria have also been found in acid mine drainage environments. The Archaeal community was far less diverse, with sequences matching those of unclassified Desulfurococcales and unclassified Thermoprotei. These sequences were more distant from isolated species than the bacterial sequences. Similar bacterial and archaeal communities have been found in hot spring environments in Yellowstone National Park, Greenland, Iceland, New Zealand and Costa Rica. Some of Mars' volcanoes were active for billions of years and by analogy to Cerro Negro, may have hosted photosynthetic organisms that could have been preserved in alteration mineral assemblages. Even on a generally cold and dry Mars, volcanic craters likely provided long-lived warm and wet conditions and should be a key target for future exploration assessing habitability.

  13. Grand slam on cancer.

    Gartrell, Nanette


    A winner of 59 Grand Slam championships including a record 9 Wimbledon singles titles, Martina Navratilova is the most successful woman tennis player of the modern era. Martina was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame, named "Tour Player of the Year" seven times by the Women's Tennis Association, declared "Female Athlete of the Year" by the Associated Press, and ranked one of the "Top Forty Athletes of All-Time" by Sports Illustrated. Equally accomplished off the court, Martina is an author, philanthropist, TV commentator, and activist who has dedicated her life to educating people about prejudice and stereotypes. After coming out as a lesbian in 1981, Martina became a tireless advocate of equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and she has contributed generously to the LGBT community. Martina is the author of seven books, including most recently Shape Your Self: My 6-Step Diet and Fitness Plan to Achieve the Best Shape of your Life, an inspiring guide to healthy living and personal fitness. Martina was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010.

  14. Magnetic spectrometer Grand Raiden

    Fujiwara, M.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujita, Y.; Hatanaka, K.; Ikegami, H.; Katayama, I.; Nagayama, K.; Matsuoka, N.; Morinobu, S.; Noro, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.


    A high-resolution magnetic spectrometer called 'Grand Raiden' is operated at the RCNP ring cyclotron facility in Osaka for nuclear physics studies at intermediate energies. This magnetic spectrometer has excellent ion-optical properties. In the design of the spectrometer, the second-order dispersion matching condition has been taken into account, and almost all the aberration terms such as (x vertical bar θ 3 ), (x vertical bar θφ 2 ), (x vertical bar θ 2 δ) and (x vertical bar θδ 2 ) in a third-order matrix calculation are optimized. A large magnetic rigidity of the spectrometer (K = 1400 MeV) gives a great advantage to measure the charge-exchange ( 3 He, t) reactions at 450 MeV. The ability of the high-resolution measurement has been demonstrated. Various coincidence measurements are performed to study the nuclear structures of highly excited states through decay properties of nuclear levels following nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

  15. Clinical physiology grand rounds.

    Richards, Jeremy; Schwartzstein, Richard; Irish, Julie; Almeida, Jacqueline; Roberts, David


    Clinical Physiology Grand Rounds (CPGR) is an interactive, case-based conference for medical students designed to: (1) integrate preclinical and clinical learning; (2) promote inductive clinical reasoning; and (3) emphasise students as peer teachers. CPGR specifically encourages mixed learning level student interactions and emphasises the use of concept mapping. We describe the theoretical basis and logistical considerations for an interactive, integrative, mixed-learner environment such as CPGR. In addition, we report qualitative data regarding students' attitudes towards and perceptions of CPGR. Medical students from first to fourth year participate in a monthly, interactive conference. The CPGR was designed to bridge gaps and reinforce linkages between basic science and clinical concepts, and to incorporate interactive vertical integration between preclinical and clinical students. Medical education and content experts use Socratic, interactive teaching methods to develop real-time concept maps to emphasise the presence and importance of linkages across curricula. Student focus groups were held to assess attitudes towards and perceptions of the mixed-learner environment and concept maps in CPGR. Qualitative analyses of focus group transcripts were performed to develop themes and codes describing the students' impressions of CPGR. CPGR is a case-based, interactive conference designed to help students gain an increased appreciation of linkages between basic science and clinical medicine concepts, and an increased awareness of clinical reasoning thought processes. Success is dependent upon explicit attention being given to goals for students' integrated learning. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  16. Synthesis of the works of geophysical (electrical soundings) carried out in the region of the anomalies of Yerba Sola (Cerro Largo) Uruguay

    Perrin, J.


    In this report has been studied geographical localization, geology, geophysics prospection, equipment and methods used and their results in Yerba Sola anomalies Province Cerro Largo and Fraile Muerto formation

  17. Analyzing the economics of tamarisk in the Pecos, Rio Grande, and Colorado River Watersheds

    Joseph W. Lewis; Allen Basala; Erika Zavaleta; Douglas L. Parker; John Taylor; Mark Horner; Christopher Dionigi; Timothy Carlson; Samuel Spiller; Frederick Nibling


    The potential economic effects of tamarisk (saltcedar), and the costs and benefits associated with controlling tamarisk infestations are being evaluated on the Pecos, Rio Grande, and Colorado River watersheds. Resource impacts analyzed include water, wildlife habitat, and fire risk. The extent of existing infestations will be quantified and projected over the next 30...

  18. Effect of prescribed burning on mortality of resettlement ponderosa pines in Grand Canyon National Park

    G. Alan Kaufmann; W. Wallace Covington


    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees established before Euro-American settlement are becoming rare on the landscape. Prescribed fire is the prime tool used to restore ponderosa pine ecosystems, but can cause high mortality in presettlement ponderosa pines. This study uses retrospective techniques to estimate mortality from prescribed burns within Grand Canyon...

  19. Report of the seismic activity at the Cerro Prieto B.C., Mexico, geothermal field during 1996; Reporte de la actividad sismica registrada en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico, durante 1996

    Escamilla Hernandez, Abelardo [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)


    In February 1996 started the operation of the Seismic Network of Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (RESICP). It is constituted by five digital stations with velocity sensors of three components and a natural period of one second. The network worked continuously until December 2, 1996. During this period, we located 270 events in the field area and its neighborhood, with coda-length magnitude 1Cerro Prieto Dos and Cerro Prieto Tres. The recorded activity is less than in Zone A, focal depths are between five and seven km, and the coda- length magnitude is 1Cerro Prieto volcano and to the NW of it. The activity was of swarm type mainly, and inside this zone was recorded the greater event for the region (M{sub c}=4.21, 30 August at 06:245 Universal Time), coda-length magnitude 1 Cerro Prieto (RESICP); consta de cinco estaciones de tipo digital, sensores de velocidad de tres componentes, y periodo natural de un segundo. Trabajo en forma ininterrumpida hasta el 2 de diciembre de 1996. Durante ese periodo se localizaron

  20. Fire safety

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.


    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  1. Windscale fire

    Auxier, J.A.


    A graphite fire in the Windscale No. 1 reactor occurred during the period October 8-12, 1957. The Windscale reactors were located on a coastal plain in northwest England and were used to produce plutonium. A great wealth of information was gathered on the causes, handling, decontamination, and environmental effects of reactor accidents. Topics of discussion include: the cause of the fire; handling of the incident; radiation doses to the population; and radiation effects on the population

  2. Corrosion in pipelines and well casings at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Corrosion en tuberias de linea y de revestimiento de pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Miranda Herrera, Carlos A.; Canchola Felix, Ismael; Raygoza Flores, Joaquin; Mora Perez, Othon [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    In the area called Poligono Hidalgo, inside the Cerro Prieto IV zone in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, corrosion has occurred in the last few years on well casings and pipelines used for geothermal fluids. Corrosion test results are presented here for pipes, type API L-80 and ASTM A-53 grade B, which were subjected to condensate from wells 403 and 424. These wells have thrown corroded material from their respective casings. With these data we pinpoint corrosive conditions in this field area and determine which pipes are adequate to case wells in similar chemical, production conditions to minimize adverse effects and extend the life of the well, allowing more efficient exploitation of the deepest production zones in the reservoir. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, dentro del area del Poligono Hidalgo en el sector conocido como Cerro Prieto IV, algunos pozos han presentado en los ultimos anos desgastes en sus tuberias de revestimiento y en las tuberias de linea para el transporte del fluido geotermico. Se presentan resultados de pruebas de corrosion con tuberias tipo API L-80 y ASTM A-53 grado B al ser sometidas al condensado de los pozos 403 y 424, los cuales han estado arrojando material de sus respectivas tuberias de revestimiento. Con estos datos se pretende conocer las condiciones corrosivas de esa zona del campo y determinar cual seria la tuberia ideal a utilizar en pozos con condiciones quimicas de produccion semejantes a fin de minimizar este efecto adverso y prolongar la vida de los pozos, a la vez que se permita la explotacion eficiente de las zonas productoras mas profundas del yacimiento.

  3. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island.

    Nikos Poulakakis

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp. is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises.

  4. The age and thermal history of Cerro Rico de Potosi, Bolivia

    Cunningham, C.G.; Zartman, R.E.; McKee, E.H.; Rye, R.O.; Naeser, C.W.; Sanjines, V.O.; Ericksen, G.E.; Tavera, V.F.


    Cerro Rico de Potosi, Bolivia, is the world's largest silver deposit and has been mined since the sixteenth century for silver, and for tin and zinc during the twentieth century, together with by-product copper and lead. The deposit consists primarily of veins that cut an altered igneous body that we interpret to be a dacitic volcanic dome and its underlying tuff ring and explosion breccia. The deposit is compositionally and thermally zoned, having a core of cassiterite, wolframite, bismuthinite, and arsenopyrite surrounded by a peripheral, lower-temperature mineral assemblage consisting principally of sphalerite, galena, lead sulfosalt, and silver minerals. The low-temperature assemblage also was superim-posed on the high-temperature assemblage in response to cooling of the main hydrothermal system. Both the dacite dome and the ore fluids were derived from a larger magmatic hydrothermal source at depth. The dome was repeatedly fractured by recurrent movement on the fault system that guided its initial emplacement. The dome was extruded at 13.8 ?? 0.2 Ma (2??), based on U-Th-Pb dating of zircon. Mineralization and alteration occurred within about 0.3 my of dome emplacement, as indicated by a 40Ar/39Ar date of 13.76 ?? 0.10 Ma (1??) for sericite from the pervasive quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration associated with the main-stage, high-temperature, mineralization. The last thermal event able to reset zircon fission tracks occurred no later than 12.5 ?? 1.1 Ma (1??). as indicated by fission-tract dating. Minor sericite. and magmatic-steam alunite veins, were episodically formed around 11 Ma and between 8.3 and 5.7 Ma; the younger episodes occurring at the time of extensional fracturing at Cerro Rico and widespread volcanism in the adjacent Los Frailes volcanic field. None of these younger events appear to be signific-ant thermal/mineralizing events: the exceptionally flat thermal release pattern of 39Ar from sericite and the results of the fission-tract dating of

  5. Dimensión sociopolítica y religiosa de la Capacocha del Cerro Aconcagua


    Full Text Available DIMENTION SOCIO-POLITIQUE ET RELIGIEUSE DE LA CAPACOCHA DE L'ACONCAGUA. Sur un contrefort de l’Aconcagua un groupe d’andinistes a trouvé une sépulture ayant les caractéristiques d’une capacocha. Dans cet essai nous étudierons et commenterons quelques éléments qui la composent, spécialement des petites figures en métal et mullu avec leurs tenues, en prenant comme référence les informations coloniales et les données de l’archéologie. Parmi les sujets traités nous trouverons : la présence de Huayna Capac au Chili, l’alliance entre Chinchaysuyu et Collasuyu sous la domination inca, les chemins rituels, l’oracle et le maintien du souvenir de l’ancien dieu Con. En un contrafuerte del cerro Aconcagua, un grupo de andinistas encontró un entierro que reúne las condiciones que lo definen como una capacocha. En este ensayo se estudian y comentan algunos de los elementos que la componen -especialmente las figuritas de metal y mullu con sus atuendos- tomando como referencia las noticias coloniales y los datos arqueológicos. Entre los temas tratados tenemos: la presencia de Huayna Capac en Chile la alianza entre Chinchaysuyu y Collasuyu bajo el dominio incaico los caminos rituales el oráculo y la supervivencia del recuerdo del antiguo dios Con. SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS DIMENSION OF THE CAPACOCHA OF THE CERRO ACONCAGUA. In a secondary mountain range of the Aconcagua Mt., a group of mountain-climbers found an interment possessing the attributes of a capacocha. In this essay some of the elements composing it namely the small metal and mullu figures with their garments, drawing on colonial documents and archaeological data, are studied and commented upon. Among the subjects considered the following: the presence of Huayna Capac in Chile, the coalition between Chinchaysuyu and Collasuyu under the Inca empire, the ritual roads, the oracle and the survival of the memories of the ancient god Con.

  6. The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Summer Student Programs in La Serena, Chile

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Smith, C.; Van Der Bliek, N. S.; James, D.


    The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) offers positions for U.S. and Chilean student interns during the Chilean summer months of January-March (northern winter semester) at the CTIO offices in La Serena, Chile. CTIO is part of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) of the United States, focused on the development of astronomy in the southern hemisphere. Six undergraduate research assistantships are offered for U.S. physics and astronomy undergraduate students through the NSF-funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. The CTIO-funded Prácticas de Investigación en Astronomía (PIA) program is run concurrently with the REU program, and offers two research assistantships for Chilean undergraduate or 1st or 2nd year masters students, also at the CTIO offices in La Serena, Chile. The CTIO REU and PIA programs provide exceptional opportunities for students considering a career in astronomy to engage in substantive research activities with scientists working at the forefront of contemporary astrophysics. Student participants work on specific research projects in close collaboration with members of the CTIO scientific and technical staff, such as galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing, supernovae, planetary nebulae, stellar populations, star clusters, star formation, variable stars and interstellar medium. The CTIO REU and PIA programs emphasize observational techniques and provide opportunities for direct observational experience using CTIO's state-of-the-art telescopes and instrumentation. The programs run for 10 weeks, from mid-January to the end of March. A two-night observing run on Cerro Tololo and a field trip to another observatory in Chile are included for students of both programs. These positions are full time, and those selected will receive a modest stipend and subsidized housing on the grounds of the offices of CTIO in La Serena, as well as travel costs to and from La Serena. In addition, the students have the

  7. Intense Seismic Activity at Chiles and Cerro Negro Volcanoes on the Colombia-Ecuador Border

    Torres, R. A.; Cadena, O.; Gomez, D.; Ruiz, M. C.; Prejean, S. G.; Lyons, J. J.; White, R. A.


    The region of Chiles and Cerro Negro volcanoes, located on the Colombian-Ecuadorian border, has experienced an ongoing seismic swarm beginning in Aug. 2013. Based on concern for local residents and authorities, a cooperative broadband monitoring network was installed by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano in Colombia and the Instituto Geofísico of the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador. Since November 2013 more than 538,000 earthquakes were recorded; although since May 2015 the seismicity has decreased significantly to an average of 70 events per day. Three large earthquake swarms with increasing energy occurred in Aug.-Oct. 2013, March-May 2014, and Sept.-Dec. 2014. By the end of 2014, roughly 400 earthquakes greater than M 3 had occurred with a maximum rate of 8000 earthquakes per day. The largest earthquake was a 5.6 ML on Oct. 20, 2014. This event produced an InSAR coseismic deformation of ~23 cm (S. Ebmeier, personal communication). Most events are typical brittle failure volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes that are located in a cluster beneath the southern flank of Chiles volcano, with depths between 1.5 and 10 km. Although the great majority of earthquakes are VT, some low-frequency (LF, ~0.5 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF) events have occurred. Particle motion analysis suggests that the VLF source migrated with time. While a VLF on Oct. 15, 2014 was located south of Chiles volcano, near the InSAR source, the VLF registered on Feb. 14, 2015 was likely located very close to Chiles Volcano. We infer that magma intrusion and resulting fluid exsolution at depths greater than 5 km are driving seismicity in the Chiles-Cerro Negro region. However earthquakes are failing in a manner consistent with regional tectonics. Relative relocations reveal a structure consistent with mapped regional faults. Thus seismicity is likely controlled by an interaction of magmatic and tectonic processes. Because the regional stress field is highly compressional and the volcanoes

  8. Perspective view over the Grand Canyon, Arizona


    This simulated true color perspective view over the Grand Canyon was created from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data acquired on May 12, 2000. The Grand Canyon Village is in the lower foreground; the Bright Angel Trail crosses the Tonto Platform, before dropping down to the Colorado Village and then to the Phantom Ranch (green area across the river). Bright Angel Canyon and the North Rim dominate the view. At the top center of the image the dark blue area with light blue haze is an active forest fire. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 5 km in foreground to 40 km Location: 36.3 degrees north latitude, 112 degrees west longitude Orientation: North-northeast at top Original Data Resolution: ASTER 15 meters Dates Acquired: May 12, 2000

  9. The Final Days of Paracas in Cerro del Gentil, Chincha Valley, Peru


    This article describes and analyzes a highly significant archaeological context discovered in a late Paracas (400–200 BCE) sunken patio in the monumental platform mound of Cerro Gentil, located in the Chincha Valley, Peru. This patio area was used for several centuries for ritual activities, including large-scale feasting and other public gatherings. At one point late in this historical sequence people deposited a great deal of objects in what is demonstrably a single historical event. This was quickly followed by a series of minor events stratigraphically immediately above this larger event. This entire ritual process included the consumption of liquids and food, and involved the offering of whole pottery, pottery fragments, botanical remains, bone, lithics, baskets, pyro-engraved gourds, mummies, and other objects. We interpret these events as an “abandonment ceremony” or “termination ritual” during the late Paracas period, one that may have lasted for weeks or even months. The subsequent Topará occupation at the site (ca. 200 BCE- AD 100) involved the architectural enhancement of the mound area, but the pattern of use of the patio itself ended. Such a termination ritual signals a reorganization in the regional political structure of Paracas society. PMID:27144824

  10. Measurement of radon (222Rn) in thermal water of Cerro Pacho, Coatepeque Caldera, El Salvador

    Rodriguez, Ramiro; Olmos, Rodolfo; Payes, Julio


    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations and radio ( 226 Ra) evaluation dissolved in thermal spring water are presented to contribute to volcanic monitoring, adapting and validating analytical methodology. Sampling was discreet and monthly type, from June 2011 to March 2013. Radon levels was vary from 0,48 ± 0,1 to 1,54 ± 0,13 Bq/L (average 1,24 Bq/L). Radio concentrations were evaluated from January to December 2012. The values found do not show radio detection confidence level of 95% with respect to the detection limit (4,2 mBq/L). A decrease in radon was observed possibly related to subduction anomalies with epicenter at 143 km from Cerro Pacho, in November 2012, volcanic seismicity was also recorded 40 days before with increments of microearthquakes and volcano-tectonic activity. The first measurements of radon in thermal water have been generated, establishing the baseline to evaluate the behavior of these radionuclides with seismic activity. (author) [es

  11. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

    Cindy M. Hurtado


    Full Text Available The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA, they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine transects were established and 21 camera trap stations were placed along 16 km2 in three localities of PNCA, from August 2012 to April 2013. Total sampling effort was 215 km of transects and 4077 camera-days. We documented 22 species; including 17 with camera trapping, 11 with transect census, and 10 with specimen collection.  Camera traps were the most effective method, and four species (Dasyprocta punctata, Cuniculus paca, Leopardus wiedii and Puma concolor were documented only with this method. This comprised the first Peruvian record for Dasyprocta punctata, and the first record for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes for Cuniculus paca. Also, both specimen collections and sightings confirm the presence of Potos flavus, first record in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes. Panthera onca, Tremarctos ornatus and Saimiri sciureus are considered locally extinct, while several species are in need of further research. We highlight the importance of the high diversity of this rainforests and encourage local authorities to give the area the highest priority in conservation.

  12. Woodland diagnosis of ecological reserve "Cerro de Amalucan" in the City of Puebla, México

    Francisco Domínguez Hernández


    Full Text Available Trees in urban parks play a key role in the sustainability of cities. The tree is urban landscape of a city, provides environmental, aesthetic, scenic, recreational, cultural and economic benefits. The obwas to study the current state of woodland in the Cerro de Amalucan Ecological Reserve in the city of Puebla, Mexico, a forest dasometric diagnosis was applied by sampling in the area. Settling 17 sampling sites area of 1000 m2, completely randomized design with dasometric data. The results were averaged 183.5 trees per hectare, the most dominant Eucalyptus sp with 61.5% of actual stocks species. Following the species Cupressus lindleyi with 22.2%. Subsequently, the species Juniperus deppeana, with 6.8%, and the species Ipomoea murocoides, which had 2.9% of the total population, like the species polystachya Eysenhardtia, continuing the species flaccid Juniperus, with 1.6%, followed Cupressus sempervirens with 0.96%, Casuarina equisetifolia, with 0.64%, finally Pinus patula with 0.64%. Are cataloged as exotic tree species the next in line: Eucalyptus sp, and Casuarina equisetifolia, Cupressus lindleyi, Cupressus semprevirens and Pinus patula and were characterized as native species: Juniperus deppeana Eysenhardtia polystachya, Juniperus flacida. The areas are to manage 20 hectares with reforestation for restoration, on 75 hectares’ protection is carried out in areas prone to invasion and species conservation and recreation area with 40 hectares for hiking, ecological tours, bike paths and recreation.

  13. Optical and infrared observations of SN 1987A from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory

    Phillips, M.M.


    Results from optical and infrared observations of SN 1987A obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory over the first seven months since core collapse are reviewed. Around 130 days after outburst, the bolometric light curve began to smoothly decline at a rate of ∼ 0.01 mag day-1, providing dramatic confirmation of the prediction that radioactivity had powered the optical display after the first month./ the peculiar color changes are kinks observed beginning on the 25th day probably signaled the initial release of trapped energy from mass 56 material. The bolometric luminosity of SN 1987A was unusually low at first, but reached a value more typical of other type II supernovae by the time that the final exponential decline had begun. Over much of the period covered by these observations, the optical and infrared spectra were characterized by strong absorption lines of Ba II and Sr II. Comparison with the spectra of other type II supernovae at similar stages of evolution supports the suggestion that s-processed elements were enriched in the hydrogen envelope of the progenitor, Sanduleak - 69 degrees 202

  14. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J


    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  15. Cerro Negro bitumen degradation by a consortium of marine benthic microorganisms

    Potter, T.L.; Duval, B. [USDA-ARA, Tifton, GA (USA). Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory


    Cerro Negro bitumen, separated from an Orimulsion sample, was incubated for up to 120 days with sediments collected at a petroleum-impacted site in Tampa Bay, Florida. Biodegradation conditions were optimized by increasing bitumen surface area, continuous agitation on a shaker apparatus, use of a complete growth medium, and maintenance at 37{degree}C. Aerobic degradation conditions were promoted by maintaining sediment contact with the laboratory atmosphere. Bitumen recovered in solvent extracts when compared to autoclaved controls decreased by up to 40% during the first 56 days. There was no detectable change after this. Molasses addition and use of a culture enriched from the sediments did not change the extent or rate of decrease in bitumen recovery. Chemical fractionation of bitumen control and degraded bitumen showed that aromatic and aliphatic fractions were depleted by {approx} 50%. Accumulation of polars was observed; however, the apparent increase was relatively small when compared to the mass loss of the other fractions. Selected biomarker ratios were not affected by incubation indicating their utility for fingerprinting the source bitumen in environmental samples. PAH distribution in the aromatic fraction favored the higher alkyl-homologues with the relative degree of alkylation increasing as the mass of bitumen recovered decreased with degradation. The study showed that up to 40% of the bitumen was bioaccessible and that bioremediation may be a treatment option for sediments contaminated with bitumen by an Orimulsion spill. 36 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. 3-cerro y 4-mundo: los números del banquete en las ofrendas quechuas

    David Lorente Fernández


    Full Text Available Las ofrendas quechuas del sur del Perú son platos alimenticios, banquetes destinados principalmente a la pachamama y los apus, pero también elaborados sistemas matemáticos regidos por operaciones sofisticadas. Sirviéndose de dos números fundamentales, el 3 y el 4, los especialistas rituales son capaces de transmitir mensajes polisémicos. Mediante el número 3 aglutinan clientes, parajes y cerros, en suma, «personas» capaces de interactuar entre sí. El 3 aparece en los k’intus de hojas de coca y en las oraciones que se recitan durante el proceso de realizar la ofrenda. Por el contrario, el número 4 no indica relaciones sino formas espaciales: es un operador geométrico que unifica la servilleta ceremonial (unk’uña, el papel envoltorio y el paquete acabado para representar las cuatro direcciones del mundo y hacer de la ofrenda un mundo en miniatura. Gracias a los dos números el ritualista puede recrear el cosmos, establecer convenios con los dioses y definir nuevas situaciones favorables para la vida de sus clientes.

  17. Unrest of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex: A binational Ecuador - Colombia effort

    Ruiz, M. C.; Gomez, D.; Torres, R.; Cadena, O.; Mothes, P. A.; Anzieta, J. C.; Pacheco, D. A.; Bernard, B.; Acero, W.; Hidalgo, S.; Enriquez, W.; Cordova, A.


    The increasing seismic activity at the area of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located at the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto OVSP, a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area and more than 100.000 events are recorded since November 2013. The largest and more recent swarm has a daily average of 676 events between March and June 2014. Currently a seismic network of 8 seismic stations (5 in the Colombian and 3 in Ecuadorean side) are deployed in this area. Epicenters of more than 315 seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0 and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most of events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Nine events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 and the largest event occurred on April 30. 2014 with a local magnitude of 4.7 and inverse-transcurrent component focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. Events with large magnitudes (above 3.0) show a very long-period component. Hot spring and deformation measurements also show signals of volcanic unrest.

  18. Application of oil-field well log interpretation techniques to the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Ershaghi, I.; Phillips, L.B.; Dougherty, E.L.; Handy, L.L.


    An example is presented of the application of oil-field techniques to the Cerro Prieto Field, Mexico. The lithology in this field (sand-shale lithology) is relatively similar to oil-field systems. The study was undertaken as a part of the first series of case studies supported by the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program (GLIP) of the US Department of Energy. The suites of logs for individual wells were far from complete. This was partly because of adverse borehole conditions but mostly because of unavailability of high-temperature tools. The most complete set of logs was a combination of Dual Induction Laterolog, Compensated Formation Density Gamma Ray, Compensated Neutron Log, and Saraband. Temperature data about the wells were sketchy, and the logs had been run under pre-cooled mud condition. A system of interpretation consisting of a combination of graphic and numerical studies was used to study the logs. From graphical studies, evidence of hydrothermal alteration may be established from the trend analysis of SP (self potential) and ILD (deep induction log). Furthermore, the cross plot techniques using data from density and neutron logs may help in establishing compaction as well as rock density profile with depth. In the numerical method, R/sub wa/ values from three different resistivity logs were computed and brought into agreement. From this approach, values of formation temperature and mud filtrate resistivity effective at the time of logging were established.

  19. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  20. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fire Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Fire Safety What's in ... event of a fire emergency in your home. Fire Prevention Of course, the best way to practice ...

  1. Fire Research Enclosure

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  2. Subsurface Connections and Magma Mixing as revealed by Olivine- and Pyroxene-Hosted Melt Inclusions from Cerro Negro Volcano and the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua.

    Venugopal, S.; Moune, S.; Williams-Jones, G.


    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano in the Central American Volcanic Belt, is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent explosive basaltic eruptions. Las Pilas, on the other hand, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Based on historical data, these two closely spaced volcanoes have shown concurrent eruptive behavior, suggesting a subsurface connection. To further investigate this link, melt inclusions, which are blebs of melt trapped in growing crystals, were the obvious choice for optimal comparison of sources and determination of pre-eruptive volatile contents and magmatic conditions. Olivine-hosted inclusions were chosen for both volcanoes and pyroxene-hosted inclusions were also sampled from Las Pilas to represent the evolved melt. Major, volatile and trace elements reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive end member and Las Pilas representing the evolved end member. Volatile contents are high for Cerro Negro (up to 1260 ppm CO2, 4.27 wt% H2O and 1700 ppm S) suggesting that volatile exsolution is likely the trigger for Cerro Negro's explosive eruptions. Las Pilas volatile contents are lower but consistent with degassing and evolutionary trends shown by major oxides. Trace element contents are rather unique and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallize while Las Pilas magmas are the products of mixing. Magmatic conditions were estimated with major and volatile contents: at least 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for Las Pilas melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. In combination with available literature data, this study suggests an interconnected subsurface plumbing system and thus Cerro Negro should be considered as the newest vent within the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex.

  3. Fire Models and Design Fires

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  4. Selected topics in grand unification

    Seckel, D.


    This dissertation is a collection of four pieces of research dealing with grand unification. The topics are neutron oscillation, CP violation, magnetic monopole abundance and distribution in neutron stars, and a proposal for an inflationary cosmology driven by stress-energy in domain walls

  5. Introduction to grand unification theories

    Kang, Kyungsik


    We introduce the Georgi-Glashow model based on the minimal gauge group SU(5) as a prototype grand unification theory of the electroweak and strong interactions. Simple estimation of sin 2 thetasub(W) in the symmetry limit and the renormalization corrections at the energy scale of Msub(W) are given along wich other successes of the SU(5) model

  6. Coordinated Exploration for Grand Challenges

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph


    Grand challenges are among the most complex problems for modern societies. Many governments and foundations provide substantial resources to encourage the search for solutions. Due to the significance of these problems, organizations often form partnerships in what we call search consortia to eng...

  7. U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology from the Cerro Empexa Formation, 1st and 2nd Regions, Precordillera, northern Chile

    Tomlinson, A.J; Martin, M.W; Blanco, N.; Perez de Arce, C


    The Cerro Empexa Formation (Galli, 1957) is a regionally distributed andesitic volcanic and continental sedimentary unit exposed in the Precordillera of the 1st and 2nd Regions of northern Chile. The formation has generally been considered to lie within the Lower or 'mid' Cretaceous, however, this assignment is based on scant, unreliable geochronologic data. Furthermore, there are conflicting interpretations as to whether the unit predates or postdates the first major Mesozoic shortening event affecting northern Chile. Because of the formation's presumed mid-Cretaceous age and its stratigraphic position over older back-arc sedimentary successions, the unit has been interpreted to represent products of the first eastward jump in the Andean magmatic arc from the arc's initial position in the Cordillera de la Costa (Scheuber and Reutter, 1992). In this paper we present the results of mapping and field observations that indicate exposures previously assigned to the Cerro Empexa Formation include two andesitic volcanic units separated by a major unconformity. The Cerro Empexa Formation proper lies above this unconformity. We also present U-Pb zircon and K-Ar geochronology that indicate the Cerro Empexa Formation is latest Cretaceous in its lower levels, and integrate our data with previously reported 40 Ar/ 39 Ar and fission-track data in the Cerros de Montecristo area (Maksaev, 1990; Maksaev and Zentilli, 1999) to show that 1800±600 m of rocks were deposited within ca. 2.5 m.y (au)

  8. Validating numerical simulations of snow avalanches using dendrochronology: the Cerro Ventana event in Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    A. Casteller


    Full Text Available The damage caused by snow avalanches to property and human lives is underestimated in many regions around the world, especially where this natural hazard remains poorly documented. One such region is the Argentinean Andes, where numerous settlements are threatened almost every winter by large snow avalanches. On 1 September 2002, the largest tragedy in the history of Argentinean mountaineering took place at Cerro Ventana, Northern Patagonia: nine persons were killed and seven others injured by a snow avalanche. In this paper, we combine both numerical modeling and dendrochronological investigations to reconstruct this event. Using information released by local governmental authorities and compiled in the field, the avalanche event was numerically simulated using the avalanche dynamics programs AVAL-1D and RAMMS. Avalanche characteristics, such as extent and date were determined using dendrochronological techniques. Model simulation results were compared with documentary and tree-ring evidences for the 2002 event. Our results show a good agreement between the simulated projection of the avalanche and its reconstructed extent using tree-ring records. Differences between the observed and the simulated avalanche, principally related to the snow height deposition in the run-out zone, are mostly attributed to the low resolution of the digital elevation model used to represent the valley topography. The main contributions of this study are (1 to provide the first calibration of numerical avalanche models for the Patagonian Andes and (2 to highlight the potential of Nothofagus pumilio tree-ring records to reconstruct past snow-avalanche events in time and space. Future research should focus on testing this combined approach in other forested regions of the Andes.

  9. The CCAT-prime Extreme Field-of-View Submillimeter Telescope on Cerro Chajnantor

    Koopman, Brian; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Fich, Michel; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Herter, Terry L.; Murray, Norman W.; Niemack, Michael D.; Riechers, Dominik; Schilke, Peter; Stacey, Gordon J.; Stutzki, Juergen; CCAT-prime Collaboration


    CCAT-prime is a six meter aperture off-axis submillimeter telescope that we plan to build at 5600m elevation on Cerro Chajnantor in Chile. The CCAT-prime optics are based on a cross-Dragone design with high throughput and a wide field-of-view optimized to increase the mapping speed of next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. These characteristics make CCAT-prime an excellent platform for a wide range of next generation millimeter and submillimeter science goals, and a potential platform for CMB stage-IV measurements. Here we present the telescope design for CCAT-prime and review the science goals.Taking advantage of the high elevation site, the first generation instrument for CCAT-prime will measure seven different frequency bands from 350um to 3mm. These seven bands will enable precise measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effects (SZE) by separating contributions from CMB, thermal SZE, kinetic SZE, bright submm galaxies, and radio sources with a goal of extracting the peculiar velocities from a large number of galaxy clusters. Additional science priorities for CCAT-prime include: Galactic Ecology studies of the dynamic intersteller medium by mapping the fine structure lines [CI], [CII] and [NII] as well as high-excitation CO lines at the shortest wavelength bands; high redshift intensity mapping of [CII] emission from star-forming galaxies that likely dominates cosmic reionization at z~5-9 to probe the Epoch of Reionization; and next generation CMB polarization measurements to constrain inflation and cosmological models. The CCAT-prime facility will further our understanding of astrophysical processes from moments after the Big Bang to the present-day evolution of the Milky Way.

  10. Downwelling Far-Infrared Radiance Spectra Measured by FIRST at Cerro Toco, Chile

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Latvakoski, H.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.


    The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument is a Fourier transform spectrometer developed by NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with the Space Dynamics Laboratory and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. FIRST was initially developed for measuring the far-infrared portion of Earth's longwave spectrum as a balloon borne instrument and later was reconfigured to operate as a ground-based instrument. In its current ground-based configuration FIRST was deployed at 17500 ft on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile, from August to October, 2009. There the integrated precipitable water (IPW) was as low as 0.02 cm. FIRST measurements from days with IPW between 0.024 and 0.035 cm during the campaign are presented here between 200 cm-1 and 800 cm-1. Significant spectral development in the far-IR is observed over the entire 200 cm-1 to 800 cm-1 band. Water vapor and temperature profiles from radiosonde and GVRP measurements are used as inputs to the AER Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) utilizing the AER v3.2 line parameter database. Uncertainties in both the measured and modeled radiances are accounted for in this study. The residual LBLRTM - FIRST is calculated to assess agreement between the measured and modeled spectra. Measured and model radiances generally agree to within the combined uncertainties for wavenumbers greater than 360 cm-1. At wavenumbers less than 360 cm-1 persistent troughs in the residual are present outside of the combined uncertainties. These features are present on different days and at different water vapor amounts. Possible solutions for these features are discussed.

  11. Far-IR measurements at Cerro Toco, Chile: FIRST, REFIR, and AERI

    Cageao, Richard P.; Alford, J. Ashley; Johnson, David G.; Kratz, David P.; Mlynczak, Martin G.


    In mid-2009, the Radiative Heating in the Underexplored Bands Campaign II (RHUBC-II) was conducted from Cerro Toco, Chile, a high, dry, remote mountain plateau, 23°S , 67.8°W at 5.4km, in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile. From this site, dominant IR water vapor absorption bands and continuum, saturated when viewed from the surface at lower altitudes, or in less dry locales, were investigated in detail, elucidating infrared (IR) absorption and emission in the atmosphere. Three Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) instruments were at the site, the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST), the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared (REFIR), and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). In a side-by-side comparison, these measured atmospheric downwelling radiation, with overlapping spectral coverage from 5 to 100μm (2000 to 100cm-1), and instrument spectral resolutions from 0.5 to 0.643cm-1, unapodized. In addition to the FTIR and other ground-based IR and microwave instrumentation, pressure/temperature/relative humidity measuring sondes, for atmospheric profiles to 18km, were launched from the site several times a day. The derived water vapor profiles, determined at times matching the FTIR measurement times, were used to model atmospheric radiative transfer. Comparison of instrument data, all at the same spectral resolution, and model calculations, are presented along with a technique for determining adjustments to line-by-line calculation continuum models. This was a major objective of the campaign.

  12. Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes

    P. Ginot


    Full Text Available A 36 m long ice core down to bedrock from the Cerro Tapado glacier (5536 m a.s.l, 30°08' S, 69°55' W was analyzed to reconstruct past climatic conditions for Northern Chile. Because of the marked seasonality in the precipitation (short wet winter and extended dry summer periods in this region, major snow ablation and related post-depositional processes occur on the glacier surface during summer periods. They include predominantly sublimation and dry deposition. Assuming that, like measured during the field campaign, the enrichment of chloride was always related to sublimation, the chemical record along the ice core may be applied to reconstruct the history of such secondary processes linked to the past climatic conditions over northern Chile. For the time period 1962–1999, a mean annual net accumulation of 316 mm water equivalent (weq and 327 mm weq loss by sublimation was deduced by this method. This corresponds to an initial total annual accumulation of 539 mm weq. The annual variability of the accumulation and sublimation is related with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI: higher net-accumulation during El-Niño years and more sublimation during La Niña years. The deepest part of the ice record shows a time discontinuity; with an ice body deposited under different climatic conditions: 290 mm higher precipitation but with reduced seasonal distribution (+470 mm in winter and –180 mm in summer and –3°C lower mean annual temperature. Unfortunately, its age is unknown. The comparison with regional proxy data however let us conclude that the glacier buildup did most likely occur after the dry mid-Holocene.

  13. Evolution of the CP-I sector of the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir, BC, and exploitation alternatives; Evolucion del sector CP-I del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, y alternativas de explotacion

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    After 35 years of exploitation of the CP-I (Cerro Prieto I) sector of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, its thermal conditions have been declined substantially; the number of production wells is reduced and exploitation has been abandoned in some zones. However with a binary cycle, it is still possible to generate electricity from the remaining reservoir energy. To do so, one needs to know a detailed reservoir history of the sector, identifying the best potential strata to be assessed. In this paper, the CP-I reservoir evolution is presented and its exploitation and main reservoir characteristics -which play important roles- are identified. The CP-I zones offering the best conditions for binary cycle exploitation are identified. Exploiting partially abandoned reservoir sections is crucial for the future of the field. If such sections can be made to produce, this will help reduce the progressive steam-production decline in the occurring since production began. The production decline had been mitigated by a large area available for drilling replacement production wells, but such an area is limited now, due to the vast number of operating wells. [Spanish] Despues de 35 anos de explotacion del yacimiento en el sector de CP-I (Cerro Prieto I) del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, sus condiciones termicas han declinado considerablemente, por lo que el numero de pozos productores ha disminuido, dejando algunas zonas abandonadas a la explotacion. Sin embargo, aun es posible aprovechar la energia que contiene este sector del yacimiento para la generacion de electricidad mediante ciclo binario. Para ello primeramente se debe conocer en detalle cual ha sido la evolucion del yacimiento en este sector, identificando los estratos de mejor potencial para evaluarlos posteriormente. En este estudio se presenta la evolucion del yacimiento de CP-I como respuesta a su explotacion, identificando las principales caracteristicas del yacimiento que determinan su comportamiento. Asi

  14. Criteria to determine the depth of the production interval in wells of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Criterios para determinar la profundidad del intervalo productor en pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Leon Vivar, Jesus Saul de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    Ways to select the depth of the production interval or to complete wells in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field have changed during the development of the field. From 1961 when drilling began to the middle of 2005, a total of 325 wells were drilled. The paper compares the approaches used in the past with those of the last ten years. The Cerro Prieto system has been classified as being of liquid-dominated and high-temperature. Today, after 33 years of commercial exploitation, it has experienced a series of thermal and geochemical fluid changes making it necessary to modify the ways to select the depth of the well production intervals, according to the observed behavior of the reservoir. The new criteria include the thermal approach, the geological approach, the geochemical approach and a comparative approach with neighboring wells. If most of these criteria are interpreted correctly, the success of a well is ensured. [Spanish] Los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor o la terminacion de los pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto han cambiado durante el desarrollo del mismo. De 1961, cuando se perforaron los primeros pozos, hasta mediados del 2005 se han perforado un total de 325 pozos. En el presente articulo se hara una breve revision de cuales han sido los criterios usados en el pasado y los que se han venido empleando en los ultimos diez anos. El yacimiento de Cerro Prieto ha sido clasificado como de liquido dominante, de alta temperatura, pero actualmente, despues de 33 anos de explotacion comercial, ha sufrido una serie de cambios termicos y geoquimicos en sus fluidos, por lo que ha sido necesario modificar los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor de los pozos de acuerdo al comportamiento observado en el yacimiento. Los criterios actuales se dividen en cuatro: 1. Criterio termico, 2. Criterio geologico, 3. Criterio geoquimico y 4. Criterio comparativo de los pozos vecinos. Cuando la mayoria de estos

  15. Update of the basement model of the Cerro Prieto, B. C., geothermal field, Mexico; Actualizacion del modelo del basamento en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Gonzalez Lopez, Macario [Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)


    With the aim to actualize the basement model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, a gravity interpretation has been held. We modeled in 2.5 D, nine profiles traced over the Bouguer anomaly map. Well data concerning lithology and density changes were used to fit the gravity models. Results of this work confirm that the geometry of the basement of Cerro Prieto, corresponds to a structural sequence. From west to east it starts as a big depression, continues with a strong uplift of the basement in the middle sector and finally deepens eastward in steps. The basement model proposed in the present work, defines a similar trend to that established by Fonseca y Razo (1980), but there are differences in basement depth in some areas. In the present model we interpret basement depths between 200 and 400 m deeper than in previous models to the south and northwest of the actual exploitation zone. [Spanish] Con el fin de actualizar el modelo del basamento en el Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto, se realizo una reinterpretacion gravimetrica, modelando en 2.5 D, 9 perfiles trazados sobre el mapa de anomalia de Bouguer. Utilizando la informacion litologica obtenida a traves de numerosas perforaciones profundas, se hicieron coincidir, dentro de los mofelos gravimetricos, las principales variaciones litologicas con cambios en la densidad. Los resultados de este trabajo reiteran que la geometria del basamento del Campo de Cerro Prieto, vista de W a E, corresponde con una secuencia estructural que se inicia con una gran depresion en el W, continua con un fuerte levantamiento y finalmente se extiende con una tendencia a profundizarse hacia el E de forma escalonada. El modelo de basamento derivado del presente trabajo, define una tendencia muy similar al modelo de basamento establecido (Fonseca y Razo, 1980), pero difiere en cuanto a la profundidad en algunos sectores del campo. En el actual trabajo se interpreta una profundidad entre 200 y 400 m mayor hacia el sur y noroeste de la

  16. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Robert E. Keane


    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  17. Fire Symfonier

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt


    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  18. Production induced boiling and cold water entry in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir indicated by chemical and physical measurements

    Grant, M.A. (DSIR, Wellington, New Zealand); Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, A.


    Chemical and physical data suggest that the relatively shallow western part of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is bounded below by low permeability rocks, and above and at the sides by an interface with cooler water. There is no continuous permeability barrier around or immediately above the reservoir. Permeability within the reservoir is dominantly intergranular. Mixture with cooler water rather than boiling is the dominant cooling process in the natural state, and production causes displacement of hot water by cooler water, not by vapor. Local boiling occurs near most wells in response to pressure decreases, but no general vapor zone has formed.

  19. Proyecto de electrificación y alumbrado de la urbanización "Cerro Belmonte" en Madrid

    García Galiano, Alejandro


    En primer lugar lo que el lector se encontrará será una Memoria Descriptiva donde se explican los elementos constructivos utilizados y diseñados para cumplir con el objetivo de dotar a la Urbanización “Cerro Belmonte” de Madrid de los servicios de Energía Eléctrica y Alumbrado Público. Los servicios de Energía Eléctrica comprenden: • Redes de Media Tensión • Centros de Transformación • Redes de Baja Tensión • Canalizaciones y arquetas Se contempla la definición de e...

  20. Fault Length Vs Fault Displacement Evaluation In The Case Of Cerro Prieto Pull-Apart Basin (Baja California, Mexico) Subsidence

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Farfan, F.; Garcia Arthur, M. A.; Orozco, L.; Brassea, J.


    The Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin is located in the southern part of San Andreas Fault system, and is characterized by high seismicity, recent volcanism, tectonic deformation and hydrothermal activity (Lomnitz et al, 1970; Elders et al., 1984; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008). Since the Cerro Prieto geothermal field production started, in 1973, significant subsidence increase was observed (Glowacka and Nava, 1996, Glowacka et al., 1999), and a relation between fluid extraction rate and subsidence rate has been suggested (op. cit.). Analysis of existing deformation data (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, Sarychikhina 2011) points to the fact that, although the extraction changes influence the subsidence rate, the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. Tectonic faults act as water barriers in the direction perpendicular to the fault, and/or separate regions with different compaction, and as effect the significant part of the subsidence is released as vertical displacement on the ground surface along fault rupture. These faults ruptures cause damages to roads and irrigation canals and water leakage. Since 1996, a network of geotechnical instruments has operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. To date, the network (REDECVAM: Mexicali Valley Crustal Strain Measurement Array) includes two crackmeters and eight tiltmeters installed on, or very close to, the main faults; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 minutes range. Additionally, there are benchmarks for measuring vertical fault displacements for which readings are recorded every 3 months. Since the crackmeter measures vertical displacement on the fault at one place only, the question appears: can we use the crackmeter data to evaluate how long is the lenth of the fractured fault, and how quickly it grows, so we can know where we can expect fractures in the canals or roads? We used the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) relations between

  1. Geología de la región del Cerro Guanaquero, Río Diamante, Mendoza

    Federico Fuentes; Victor A. Ramos


    El estudio realizado presenta nuevos datos sobre un sector poco conocido de la Cordillera Principal de Mendoza, en la alta cuenca del río Diamante en las adyacencias del cerro Guanaquero, y los primeros datos geocronológicos de sus rocas volcánicas. Las unidades geológicas presentes en el área se dividen en cuatro grupos principales: secuencias sedimentarias mesozoicas marinas y continentales intensamente plegadas y falladas; intrusivos y volcanitas intermedias de edad neógena; rocas volcánic...

  2. Estudio de la líqueno flora encontrada en el Cerro de Quininí, Tibacuy, Cundinamarca

    Alejandro Parra; Oscar Vivas; Francisco Hormaza


    Se realizó un muestreo de la liquen o flora del cerro de Quininí, Tibacuy, Cundinamarca para estudiar las características morfológicas externas de los géneros de líquenes encontrados en el. A su vez se hizo la revisión bibliográfica acerca de dichos géneros, datando así la riqueza de líquenes en la zona con 8 géneros en total y con respecto al papel de bioindicadores se mostró el grado de intervención para el lugar.

  3. Gestión del agua subterránea en el Barrio Cerro Los Leones de Tandil (Argentina)

    Rodriguez, Corina Iris; Jacinto, Guillermina; Ruiz de Galarreta, Alejandro; Banda Noriega, Roxana


    En este trabajo se describen y analizan los actores y modos de explotación y uso involucrados en la gestión del recurso hídrico subterráneo en un barrio periférico de Tandil -Cerro Los Leones- (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina), que carece de servicios de agua potable y cloacas. Estudios previos demostraron contaminación química y bacteriológica del agua que pone en riesgo la salud de la población. Se caracterizan los modos de uso y explotación del agua, señalando importantes deficiencias...

  4. Results from KASCADE–Grande

    Bertaina, M.; Apel, W.D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.


    The KASCADE–Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10 14 –10 18 eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10 16 –10 18 eV range by sampling charged (N ch ) and muon (N μ ) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE–Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  5. Results from KASCADE-Grande

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velazquez, J.C. [Universidad Michoacana, Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); and others


    The KASCADE-Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10{sup 14}-10{sup 18} eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV range by sampling charged (N{sub ch}) and muon (N{sub {mu}}) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE-Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  6. Cassini's Grand Finale Science Highlights

    Spilker, Linda


    After 13 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn ended in a science-rich blaze of glory. Cassini returned its final bits of unique science data on September 15, 2017, as it plunged into Saturn's atmosphere satisfying planetary protection requirements. Cassini's Grand Finale covered a period of roughly five months and ended with the first time exploration of the region between the rings and planet.The final close flyby of Titan in late April 2017 propelled Cassini across Saturn’s main rings and into its Grand Finale orbits; 22 orbits that repeatedly dove between Saturn’s innermost rings and upper atmosphere making Cassini the first spacecraft to explore this region. The last orbit turned the spacecraft into the first Saturn upper atmospheric probe.The Grand Finale orbits provided highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and in-situ sampling of the ring particle composition, Saturn's atmosphere, plasma, and innermost radiation belts. The gravitational field was measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet, winds in the deeper atmosphere, and mass of the rings. The magnetic field provided insight into the physical nature of the magnetic dynamo and structure of the internal magnetic field. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer sampled the upper atmosphere for molecules that escape the atmosphere in addition to molecules originating from the rings. The cosmic dust analyzer directly sampled the composition from different parts of the main rings for the first time. Fields and particles instruments directly measured the plasma environment between the rings and planet.Science highlights and new mysteries gleaned to date from the Grand Finale orbits will be discussed.The research described in this paper was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2017

  7. Grandes números primos

    Bang, Thöger


    En las escuelas danesas la teoría de los números se ha ido restringiendo gradualmente hasta no incluir sino la demostración de la descomposición univoca de los números enteros en números primos y la demostración del teorema clásico de EUCLIDES sobre la existencia de un número primo arbitrariamente grande.

  8. Browns Ferry fire

    Harkleroad, J.R.


    A synopsis of the March 22, 1975 fire at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is discussed. Emphasis is placed on events prior to and during the fire. How the fire started, fire fighting activities, fire and smoke development, and restoration activities are discussed

  9. Magma-Tectonic Interactions along the Central America Volcanic Arc: Insights from the August 1999 Magmatic and Tectonic Event at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    La Femina, P.; Connor, C.; Strauch, W.


    Volcanic vent alignments form parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal stress, accommodating extensional strain via dike injection. Roughly east-west extension within the Central America Volcanic Arc is accommodated along north-northwest-trending basaltic vent alignments. In Nicaragua, these alignments are located in a northwest-trending zone of dextral shear, with shear accommodated along northeast trending bookshelf faults. The recent eruption of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua and Marabios Range seismic swarm revealed the interaction of these fault systems. A low energy (VEI 1), small volume (0.001 km3 DRE) eruption of highly crystalline basalt occurred at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, August 5-7, 1999. This eruption followed three tectonic earthquakes (each Mw 5.2) in the vicinity of Cerro Negro hours before the onset of eruptive activity. The temporal and spatial pattern of microseismicity and focal mechanisms of the Mw 5.2 earthquakes suggests the activation of northeast-trending faults northwest and southeast of Cerro Negro within the Marabios Range. The eruption was confined to three new vents formed on the southern flank of Cerro Negro along a preexisting north-northwest trending alignment; the El Hoyo alignment of cinder cones, maars and explosion craters. Surface ruptures formed > 1 km south and southeast of the new vents suggest dike injection. Numerical simulations of conduit flow illustrate that the observed effusion rates (up to 65 ms-1) and fountain heights (50-300 m) can be achieved by eruption of magma with little or no excess fluid pressure, in response to tectonic strain. These observations and models suggest that 1999 Cerro Negro activity is an excellent example of tectonically induced small-volume eruptions in an arc setting.

  10. Grand unification theory and technicolor

    Rubakov, V.A.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.


    The lecture course can be considered as introduction to the problems concerning grand unification models. The course is incomplete. Such problems as CP-violations in strong interactions and the problem of gravitational interaction inclusion in the scheme of grand unification theory are not touched upon. Models of early unification, in which strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are compared according to the ''strength'' at energies of about 10 5 -10 6 GeV, are not discussed. Models with horizontal symmetry, considering different generations of quarks and leptons from one viewpoint, are not analyzed. Cosmological applications of supersymmetric unified theories are not considered. Certain problems of standard elementary particle theory, philosophy of the great unification, general properties of the grand unification models and the main principles of the construction of models: the SU(5) model, models on the SO(10) groups, have been considered. The problem of supersymmetric unification hierarchies, supersymmetric generalization of the minimum SU(5) model, supersymmetry violation and the problem of hierarchies, phenomenology of the o.rand unification models, cosmological application and technicolour, are discussed

  11. Changes in steam production due to the reservoir conditions in Cerro Prieto, Baja California; Cambios en la produccion de vapor debido a las condiciones del yacimiento en Cerro Prieto, Baja California

    Morales Cardenas, Ramon; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco H. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    In more than 35 years of exploitation, thermodynamic conditions have changed in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir. The effects are analyzed of the changes to the reservoir and their consequences to steam production in different field zones. For steam production, the most important features of reservoir fluids are enthalpies and pressures. The evolution of these features is presented in an enthalpy-pressure diagram. Here it can be seen that some reservoir zones have almost reached abandonment conditions. [Spanish] En mas de 35 anos de explotacion el yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto ha experimentado cambios en sus condiciones termodinamicas. En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de esos cambios del yacimiento y su repercusion en la produccion de vapor para las diferentes zonas en las que se ha dividido el campo. Las propiedades mas importantes del fluido en el yacimiento para la produccion de vapor son su entalpia y su presion, por lo que se presenta la evolucion de esas propiedades en un diagrama de presion-entalpia, en el que se observa que hay zonas del yacimiento que estan proximas a alcanzar condiciones de abandono.

  12. Petrografía, caracterización geoquímica y análisis microestructural del granito del cerro Siempre Amigos, sierras de Azul, Tandilia

    Angeletti, Melisa; Frisicale, María Cristina; Dimieri, Luis V


    El cerro Siempre Amigos integra las sierras de Azul, Tandilia, distante 28 km al sur de la ciudad de Azul y 3 km al norte de la megacizalla de Azul, zona de cizalla subvertical donde el basamento se encuentra deformado a milonitas y ultramilonitas. La litología predominante en el cerro Siempre Amigos es un granito paleoproterozoico deformado que en el centro y hacia los bordes se encuentra interdigitado con una roca gnéisica y cuerpos de anfibolitas subverticales de rumbo similar a la foliaci...

  13. Importaciones áticas del siglo V a.C. del Cerro del Prado (Algeciras, Cádiz

    Cabrera, Paloma


    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze a group of Attic imports, found in the excavations of Cerro del Prado, a settlement situated in the Bahía de Algeciras (Cádiz. The great interest of this group lies in the fact that it belongs to a particular chronological period, the last third of the 5th century B.C., as we have not found later imports, and in the almost exclusive presence of black glazed vases, which gives US an idea of a very definitive demand of the punic society of the Iberian Peninsula regarding the trade of greek goods.

    Presentamos en este trabajo un conjunto de importaciones áticas halladas en las excavaciones del Cerro del Prado, situado en la bahía de Algeciras (Cádiz. El interés de este conjunto reside en su pertenencia a un momento cronológico muy concreto: el último tercio del siglo V a.C., no habiéndose hallado importaciones más modernas y en la presencia absoluta de vasos de barniz negro, lo que nos habla de una demanda muy determinada de la sociedad púnica peninsular frente al comercio de productos griegos.

  14. Summary of a Gas Transport Tracer Test in the Deep Cerros Del Rio Basalts, Mesita del Buey, Los Alamos NM.

    Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ortiz, John Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salazar, Larry Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Snyder, Emily Elisabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Here we describe results from a tracer test in the Cerros del Rio basalt beneath Mesita del Buey, Technical Area 54 (TA-54) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). This report follows from plans outlined in our previous Tracer Test Work Plan (LANL 2016). These activities were conducted by LANL to further characterize subsurface properties of the Cerros del Rio basalts at Material Disposal Area (MDA) L (Figure 1.1-1). The work presented follows from the “Interim Measures Work Plan for Soil-Vapor Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Material Disposal Area L, Technical Area 54, Revision 1,” submitted to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in September 2014 (LANL 2014). Remediation of the MDA L vapor plume by soil-vapor extraction (SVE) is recommended as part of the final remedy in the “Corrective Measures Evaluation Report for Material Disposal Area L, Solid Waste Management Unit 54-006, at Technical Area 54, Revision 2” to meet a remedial action objective of preventing groundwater from being impacted above a regulatory standard by the transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to groundwater through soil vapor (LANL 2011).

  15. Pinus Culminicola Andresen y Beaman y sus asociaciones en la ladera sur del cerro La Viga, Coahuila

    Rubén Sánchez Silva


    Full Text Available Pinus culminicola was described in 1961 with samples from the Cerro Potosí, State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The species was reported in the Sierras La Marta in 1962, and San Antonio de las Alazanas in 1975, State of Coahuila, indicating that there were not pure associations. In 1979 the species was colected in the Sierra La Viga, Coahuila, at 3 300 m, without data on environmental conditions in which it grows. The distribution of  P. culminicola is restricted to the south slope of the Cerro La Viga. The associations identified and described in this paper are: (1 Scrub of Quercus rugosa – Quercus durifolia – Cercocarpus montanus with elements of P. culminicola; (2 Pinus montezumae–Pseudotsuga macrolepisy with elements of P. culminicola, Quercus spp. and Arbutus xalapensis (3 P. culminicola– Quercus rugosa (both of them as shrubs; (4 P. montezumac–P. macrolepis–Pinus ayacahuite–P. culminicola; (5 pure scrub of P. culminicola; (6 P. culminicola– Dasylirion tezanum (sometimes with Arctostaphylos pungens and Quercus spp., shrublike; (7 Pinus hartwegii–P. culminicola; (8 P. hartwegii with elements of P. macrolepis and P. culminicola; and (9 induced prairie. There are differences in dominance of the species in accordance to the particular characteristics of each place, with presence of herbaceous from high altitudes. The altitude at which these associations occur, varies from 2 900 m to 3 700 m, although isolated elements of P. culminicola–were found at 2 700 m.

  16. Paleomagnetism in the Determination of the Emplacement Temperature of Cerro Colorado Tuff Cone, El Pinacate Volcanic Field, Sonora, Mexico.

    Rodriguez Trejo, A.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Vidal Solano, J. R.; Garcia Amador, B.; Gonzalez-Rangel, J. A.


    Cerro Colorado Maar is located at the World Heritage Site, biosphere reserve El Pinacate and Gran Desierto del Altar, at the NNW region of Sonora, Mexico (in El Pinacate Volcanic Field). It is a tuff cone, about 1 km diameter, result of several phreatomagmatic episodes during the late Quaternary. We report paleomagnetic and rock magnetic properties from fusiform volcanic bombs obtained from the borders of Cerro Colorado. This study is based in the thermoremanent magnetization TRM normally acquired by volcanic rocks, which can be used to estimate the emplacement temperature range. We performed the experiments on 20 lithic fragments (10 cm to 20 cm approximately), taking 6-8 paleomagnetic cores from each. Rock magnetic experiments (magnetic susceptibility vs. temperature (k-T), hysteresis curves and FORC analysis, shows that the main magnetic mineral carriers of magnetization are titanomagnetite and titanohematite in different levels of intergrowth. The k-T curves suggest in many cases, only one magnetic phase, but also in other cases a second magnetic phase. Thermal demagnetization was used to demagnetize the specimens in detailed short steps and make a well-defined emplacement temperature determination ranges. We found that temperature emplacement determination range for these two magnetic phases is between 350-450 °C, and 550-580 °C, respectively. These results are consistent with those expected in an eruption of Surtsey type, showing a distinct volcanic activity compared to the other craters from El Pinacate volcanic field.

  17. Downwelling Far-Infrared Emission Spectra Measured By First at Cerro Toco, Chile and Table Mountain, California

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.


    The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument is a Fourier transform spectrometer developed to measure the important far-infrared spectrum between 100 and 650 cm-1. Presented here are measurements made by FIRST during two successful deployments in a ground-based configuration to measure downwelling longwave radiation at Earth's surface. The initial deployment was to Cerro Toco, Chile, where FIRST operated from August to October, 2009 as part of the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC-II) campaign. After recalibration, FIRST was deployed to the Table Mountain Facility from September through October, 2012. Spectra observed at each location are substantially different, due in large part to the order of magnitude difference in integrated precipitable water vapor (0.3 cm at Table Mountain, 0.03 cm at Cerro Toco). Dry days for both campaigns are chosen for analysis - 09/24/2009 and 10/19/2012. Also available during both deployments are coincident radiosonde temperature and water vapor vertical profiles which are used as inputs a line-by-line radiative transfer program. Comparisons between measured and modeled spectra are presented over the 200 to 800 cm-1 range. An extensive error analysis of both the measured and modeled spectra is presented. In general, the differences between the measured and modeled spectra are within their combined uncertainties.


    William H.J. Strosnider


    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide environmental problem. The passive co-treatment of AMD with municipal waste water (MWW is a cost effective approach that uses nutrients in MWW in order to treat high concentrations of metals and sulfate found in AMD. Cerro Rico de Potosí in Bolivia is one of the biggest mining cities in the world, and it is constantly facing problems with AMD. The goal of this study was to determine the reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and other metals found in an AMD discharge from Cerro Rico by a three-stage reactor system. The AMD had a pH of 3.58 and acidity of 1080 mg/L as CaCO3 equivalent containing 12, 68, 17 and 550 mg/L of dissolved Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn respectively. The reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn were 1.43, 2.09, 0.01, and 0.10 d-1, respectively.

  19. Fire Ant Bites

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  20. Fire safety at home

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  1. Crown Fire Potential

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  2. National Fire Protection Association

    ... closed NFPA Journal® NFPA Journal® Update (newsletter) Fire Technology ... die from American home fires, and another 13,000 are injured each year. This is the story of fire that the statistics won't show ...


    Otto Dvořák


    This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  4. Grand unification: quo vadis domine

    Senjanovic, G.


    The present theoretical and experimental situation with grand unification is summarized. The issues of proton decay and the Weinberg angle are addressed, going through the predictions of both the standard SU(5) theory and its supersymmetric extension. The SO(10) theory, which provides a minimal one family model, is then studied. The gravitational characteristics of domain walls and strings are then discussed. It is argued that there is a need to go beyond SO(10) in order to incorporate a unified picture of families. This leads to the prediction of mirror fermions, whose physics is analyzed. 31 refs

  5. Graafikatriennaali grand prix Korea kunstnikule


    Tallinna XI graafikatriennaali rahvusvaheline žürii andis grand prix korea kunstnikule Chung¡Sang-Gonile, kolm võrdset preemiat - soome kunstnikele Anita Jensenile ja Tapani Mikkonenile ning jaapani kunstnikule Estuko Obatale. Eesti Kunstimuuseumi preemia - Wendy Swallow. Tallinna linna preemia ja Ivar Luki sponsoripreemia - Walter Jule. Sponsoripreemiad : Paletti Eesti AS preemia - Inga Heamägi; Rannila Profiili preemia - Mojca Zlokarnik; UNDP preemia - Andrea Juan. Rotermanni soolalao arhitektuuri- ja kunstikeskuse diplom - Lis Ingram, Heli Päivikki Kurunsaari, Randi Strand, Wendy Swallow

  6. Grand Challenges of Enterprise Integration

    Brosey, W.D; Neal, R.E.; Marks, D.


    Enterprise Integration connects and combines people, processes, systems, and technologies to ensure that the right people and the right processes have the right information and the right resources at the right time. A consensus roadmap for Technologies for Enterprise Integration was created as part of an industry/government/academia partnership in the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Initiative (IMTI). Two of the grand challenges identified by the roadmapping effort will be addressed here--Customer Responsive Enterprises and Totally Connected Enterprises. Each of these challenges is briefly discussed as to the current state of industry and the future vision as developed in the roadmap.

  7. Grand Challenges for Environmental Magnetism

    Verosub, K. L.


    The development of new, inexpensive, and rapid geochemical methods for determining the ages of geologic materials, their elemental composition, and their isotopic ratios over a broad array of elements puts into sharp focus the question: What information can environmental magnetic methods provide that can't be obtained using these other methods? Because iron is ubiquitous in the Earth's crust and because it exists in so many different forms, a discipline that looks in detail at iron-bearing minerals does have the potential to make significant contributions to the study of surficial processes. However, to reach that potential requires the development of new environmental magnetic methods. I would like to put forward three Grand Challenges for environmental magnetism that have the potential to move the field forward to a new level of scientific sophistication and that will allow environmental magnetists to compete successfully in a world increasingly dominated by geochemists. The first Grand Challenge is the development of new techniques that lead to the direct and unambiguous identification of the full suite of magnetic minerals. For many environmental magnetic applications, the key magnetic minerals are not just magnetite and hematite but also iron oxy-hydroxides (goethite, lepidocrocite, akaganeite, ferrihydrite), carbonates (siderite) and sulfides (pyrrhotite and greigite) as well as compounds involving iron and other transition metals (cobalt and nickel). The second Grand Challenge is the development of new analytical methods that provide specific quantitative values for the amount of each magnetic mineral present in a sample. One promising approach to this problem is the application of two- or three-component multivariate analysis to arrays of downcore environmental magnetic parameters. The third Grand Challenge is the development of new ways of determining, not just the average values, but the actual distributions of grain sizes and coercivities of each mineral

  8. The Grand Challenges of Nanotechnology

    Lane, Neal


    Amazing breakthroughs and advances continue to be made in nanoscale science and engineering and the rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology, including near-commercial applications in biomedicine, computing and environmental protection. The National Nanotechnology Initiative, begun by the Clinton Administration has placed nanoscale research on a new funding trajectory. But, many 'grand challenges' must be overcome, technical ones as well as those related to funding, science and technology workforce, and the need for stronger collaboration across discipline, organizations, government agencies and with other countries

  9. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan


    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  10. The Air Is on Fire

    Thérèse Guilbert


    Full Text Available C’est un grand néon rose fluorescent accroché à la façade de verre de la Fondation Cartier qui affiche le nom de David Lynch et annonce l’exposition The Air Is on Fire (du 3 mars au 27 mai 2007. La forme froide des lettres intriquées évoque l’architecture industrielle qui fascine tant l’artiste et, sans surprise, le modèle du néon sera à chercher dans la collection de ses dessins soigneux. Car on connaissait David Lynch le cinéaste, mais voilà le plasticien : peintures et aquarelles, sculptu...

  11. Land subsidence in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, 1 Baja California, Mexico, from 1994 to 2005. An integrated analysis of DInSAR, levelingand geological data.

    Sarychikhina, O; Glowacka, E; Mellors, R; Vidal, F S


    Cerro Prieto is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field. The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. In this paper, the technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is applied using C-band ENVISAR ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2006 to determine the extent and amount of land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The DInSAR results were compared with published data from precise leveling surveys (1994- 1997 and 1997-2006) and detailed geological information in order to improve the understanding of temporal and spatial distributions of anthropogenic subsidence in the Mexicali Valley. The leveling and DInSAR data were modeled to characterize the observed deformation in terms of fluid extraction. The results confirm that the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. These faults likely act as groundwater flow barriers for aquifers and reservoirs. The shape of the subsiding area coincides with the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin. In addition, the spatial pattern of the subsidence as well as changes in rate are highly correlated with the development of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  12. El sistema de yacimientos de mamíferos miocenos del Cerro de los Batallones, Cuenca de Madrid: estado actual y perspectivas

    Morales, J.; Pozo, M.; Silva, P.G.; Domingo, M.S.; López-Antoñanzas, R.; Álvarez Sierra, A.; Antón, M.; Martín Escorza, C.; Quiralte, V.; Salesa, M.J.; Sánchez, I.M.; Azanza, B.; Calvo, J.P.; Carrasco, P.; García-Paredes, I.; Knoll, F.; Hernández Fernández, M.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Merino, L.; Meulen, van der A.J.; Montoya, P.; Peigné, S.; Peláez-Campomanes, P.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Turner, A.; Abella, J.; Alcalde, G.M.; Andrés, M.; DeMiguel, D.; Cantalapiedra, J.L.; Fraile, S.; García Yelo, B.A.; Gómez Cano, A.R.; López Guerrero, P.; Oliver Pérez, A.; Siliceo, G.


    The Cerro de los Batallones (Los Batallones Butte) is located in the central-northern area of the Madrid Basin, central Spain. Nine vertebrates localities containing a large variety of mammals of Upper Vallesian Age (Late Miocene) have been found associated with the sediments forming the butte. From

  13. Trace Element Geochemistry of Silica Phases: Understanding the Evolution of the Cerro Pabellón Geothermal System

    Alvear, B.; Morata, D.; Leisen, M.; Reich, M.; Barra, F.


    The study of mineral textures coupled with trace element geochemistry has proven to be a useful tool to understand the evolution of geological environments. The purpose of this study is to provide new constrains on the formation of an active geothermal system, specifically the Cerro Pabellón field. The Cerro Pabellón system is located at 4500 m above sea level and is the first geothermal power plant in operation in Chile and South America. Thirteen samples were collected from a 550 m long drill core. Samples were first studied under petrographic microscopy followed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with a cathodoluminescence detector (CL-SEM). The different textures recognized using petrography and the CL-SEM technique were later analyzed by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in order to determine variations in the trace element concentrations as a function of silica textures. Two vein types (A and B) with different silica polymorphs were identified by CL-SEM. Vein type A has only a colloform texture, whereas vein type B, younger and crosscutting the type A, shows zonation, colloform, and jigsaw textures. LA-ICPMS results show high concentrations of Li, Al, Na, K, As, and Sb for all types of silica. A comparison between vein type A and B, show that vein type A is Al-Na-K-Li poor (2088, 36, 309, and 122 ppm average, respectively) and As-Sb rich (43 and 249 ppm average, respectively). On the other hand, vein type B has variable concentrations of Al-Na-K-Li-Sb, but usually higher than in vein type A. Overall, the Cerro Pabellón geothermal system shows high concentrations of Li and Sb, reaching up to 360 and 703 ppm, respectively. Our preliminary results show that the trace element geochemistry is strongly related to the different silica textures, which formed as a response to different thermodynamic conditions and fluid-rock ratios. This work is a contribution to the FONDAP-CONICYT 15090013 Project.

  14. Hydraulic model of the steam-lines network of the Cerro Prieto, B.C., geothermal field; Modelo hidraulico de la red de vaporductos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C.

    Salaices, E; Garcia, A; Martinez J I; Ovando, R; Cecenas, M; Hernandez A F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Canchola, I; Mora, O; Miranda, C; Herandez, M; Lopez, S; Murillo, I [Comision Federal de Electricidad, B.C (Mexico)


    The steam-line network of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is composed of 184 wells, and 162 of the wells are integrated and connected by pipes. Thirteen power units, with an installed electrical capacity of 720 MW, are fed by that network. The network length is 120 km, including pipes of several diameters with branches and interconnections. The extension and complexity of the steam-line system make it difficult to analyze the transport and supply of steam to the power plants. For that it was necessary to have a tool capable of analyzing the system and the performance of the network as a whole, as well as the direction and flow volumes in each part of the system. In this paper, a hydraulic model of the Cerro Prieto steam-line network is presented. The model can determine the performance of the whole network by quantifying the pressure drops, flows and heat losses of the components. The model analyses the consequences of changes in operating conditions, steam production, maintenance activities and design (such as the integration of new wells). The model was developed using PIPEPHASE 9.0, a numeric simulator of multi-phase flow in steady state with heat transfer. It is used to model systems and pipe networks for steam- and condensate-transport. [Spanish] La red de vaporductos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto esta compuesta por un conjunto de 184 pozos, de los cuales 162 son pozos integrados, interconectados entre si a traves de una red de tuberias. Por medio de esta red se alimentan 13 unidades generadoras de electricidad con una capacidad total instalada de 720 MWe. La red tiene una longitud aproximada de 120 kilometros y esta compuesta por tuberias de diferentes diametros, ramales, interconexiones, etc. La complejidad y extension del sistema de vaporductos hace muy dificil el analisis del transporte y suministro de vapor a las plantas generadoras. Lo anterior creo la necesidad de contar con una herramienta que ayudara en el analisis del sistema con el fin de

  15. Cost model for geothermal wells applied to the Cerro Prieto geothermal field case, BC Abstract; Modelo de costeo de pozos geotermicos aplicado para el caso del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Vaca Serrano, Jaime M.E [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    A project for drilling geothermal wells to produce electrical energy can be defined as a sequence of plans to get steam or geothermal fluids to satisfy a previously known demand, and, under the best possible conditions, to obtain payment. This paper presents a cost model for nine wells drilled at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in 2005 and 2006 to supply steam to the power plants operating in the field. The cost model is based on the well cost, the initial steam production, the annual decline of steam, the drilling schedule and the break-even point for each well. The model shows the cost of steam by the ton and the sale price needed to determine the discount rate and the investment return time. [Spanish] Un proyecto de perforacion de pozos geotermicos puede definirse como una secuencia o sucesion de planes para obtener vapor o fluidos geotermicos destinados a satisfacer una demanda previamente determinada, que se emplearan principalmente para generar energia electrica, bajo las mejores condiciones para obtener un pago. Este trabajo presenta un modelo de costeo para nueve pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, que fueron perforados entre 2005 y 2006 como parte del suministro de vapor para las plantas generadoras que operan en este campo. El modelo de costeo se basa en el costo por pozo, la produccion inicial de vapor, la declinacion anual de vapor, los intereses de las obras de perforacion y el punto de equilibrio para cada pozo. Los resultados permiten conocer el costo de la tonelada de vapor y el precio de venta para determinar la tasa de descuento y el tiempo de retorno de la inversion.

  16. Tornos de alfarero protohistóricos del Cerro de las Cabezas (Valdepeñas, Ciudad Real = Protohistoric potter’s wheels in the Iberian archaeological site ‘Cerro de las Cabezas’ (Valdepeñas, Ciudad Real

    Domingo Fernández Maroto


    Full Text Available El yacimiento ibérico del “Cerro de las Cabezas” ha proporcionado cuatro piezas líticas que identificamos como pertenecientes a tornos de alfarero. Este oppidum ya ha sido puesto de manifiesto como un centro productor y difusor de cerámica ibérica. A través del análisis e interpretación de estas piezas y de las referencias obtenidas en otros yacimientos de la Península Ibérica y del Próximo Oriente, hemos podido confirmar que dos de estas piezas corresponden a un mismo torno, por lo que podemos considerar esta circunstancia como excepcional, dado que hasta el momento, en la Península Ibérica solo se tienen noticias de hallazgos de piezas descontextualizadas y dispersas. Nos encontramos así, con el primer torno  protohistórico completo adscrito a una cronología en torno al siglo III a.C.The Iberian archaeological site ‘Cerro de las Cabezas’ has provided four stone pieces that we identify as belonging to potter’s wheels. This oppidum has been revealed as a producer and spreading centre of Iberian pottery. Through the analysis and interpretation of these pieces, as well as the references obtained from other sites in the Iberian Peninsula and the Middle East, we are able to confirm that two of these findings correspond to the same potter’s wheel. As a result, we could take into account this fact as an exceptional circumstance, because, so far, we only know about some scattered pieces taken out of context in the Iberian Peninsula. Consequently, we have maybe found the first complete protohistoric slow potter’s wheel dating from around the third century BC.

  17. Noise reduction in steam-vent points at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Reduccion del ruido en puntos de desfogue en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Miranda Herrera, Carlos A [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    Steam silencers have been placed on the power units regulation system of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, but not where the steam-pipes vent high-pressure steam (rupture disks). Moreover, the power-unit silencers are large and their abilities to reduce noise depend on an external, uncontrollable factor: pores sizes in the volcanic rocks they are made of. Thus a compact, economic and relatively easy to construct metallic silencer was designed to be used at several points of dry-steam venting to minimize the noise. The design was based on orifice-plate equations and a prototype was constructed and tested. It proved capable of reducing noise by 30 decibels for atmospheric discharges of primary steam at operating pressures. The size of the silencer can be adjusted to the particular needs of each vent case. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto solo existen silenciadores de vapor en el sistema de regulacion de las plantas generadoras, pero no en los sitios de desfogue de vapor a alta presion en los vaporductos (discos de ruptura). Ademas, los silenciadores de las plantas son muy robustos y su capacidad de reduccion del ruido depende de un factor externo no controlable, como es el tamano del poro de la roca volcanica con el que estan construidos. Por lo tanto, se diseno un silenciador metalico compacto, economico y relativamente facil de fabricar, para utilizarse en diversos puntos de descarga de vapor seco a fin de minimizar el ruido. El diseno se realizo con base en las ecuaciones de la placa de orificio. Se construyo un prototipo cuyas pruebas demostraron que es capaz de reducir el ruido hasta en 30 decibeles, al descargar desde la presion de operacion de vapor primario hacia la presion atmosferica. Las dimensiones del silenciador pueden ajustarse a las necesidades particulares de cada caso de desfogue.

  18. Fires, ecological effects of

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane


    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  19. A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains

    Margolis, E.Q.; Swetnam, T.W.; Allen, Craig D.


    Dendroecological techniques were applied to reconstruct stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Fourteen stand-replacing fires were dated to 8 unique fire years (1842–1901) using four lines of evidence at each of 12 sites within the upper Rio Grande Basin. The four lines of evidence were (i) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) inner-ring dates, (ii) fire-killed conifer bark-ring dates, (iii) tree-ring width changes or other morphological indicators of injury, and (iv) fire scars. The annual precision of dating allowed the identification of synchronous stand-replacing fire years among the sites, and co-occurrence with regional surface fire events previously reconstructed from a network of fire scar collections in lower elevation pine forests across the southwestern United States. Nearly all of the synchronous stand-replacing and surface fire years coincided with severe droughts, because climate variability created regional conditions where stand-replacing fires and surface fires burned across ecosystems. Reconstructed stand-replacing fires that predate substantial Anglo-American settlement in this region provide direct evidence that stand-replacing fires were a feature of high-elevation forests before extensive and intensive land-use practices (e.g., logging, railroad, and mining) began in the late 19th century.




    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del inventario florístico realizado entre agosto de 1987y julio de 1988, en el Cerro del Cuchillo, municipio de Riosucio (Chocó, Tapón delDarién colombiano. Se efectuaron diez salidas de campo con duración de quincedías cada una . Se registraron 127 familias, 428 géneros y 747 especies. Las divisionesmejor representadas fueron Magnoliophyta con 112 familias, 402 géneros y 705especies; Pteridophyta con trece familias, 23 géneros y 40 especies. Cycadophytaestuvo representada por la familia Zamiaceae con una especie y Gnetophyta por lafamilia Gnetaceae con una especie. Entre las plantas con flores (Magnoliophyta, elgrupo mejor representado fue la clase Magnoliopsida con 94 familias, 324 génerosy 573 especies. La clase Liliopsida estuvo representada por 18 familias, 78 génerosy 132 especies.

  1. Burning down the brewery: Establishing and evacuating an ancient imperial colony at Cerro Baúl, Peru

    Moseley, Michael E.; Nash, Donna J.; Williams, Patrick Ryan; deFrance, Susan D.; Miranda, Ana; Ruales, Mario


    Before the Inca reigned, two empires held sway over the central Andes from anno Domini 600 to 1000: the Wari empire to the north ruled much of Peru, and Tiwanaku to the south reigned in Bolivia. Face-to-face contact came when both colonized the Moquegua Valley sierra in southern Peru. The state-sponsored Wari incursion, described here, entailed large-scale agrarian reclamation to sustain the occupation of two hills and the adjacent high mesa of Cerro Baúl. Monumental buildings were erected atop the mesa to serve an embassy-like delegation of nobles and attendant personnel that endured for centuries. Final evacuation of the Baúl enclave was accompanied by elaborate ceremonies with brewing, drinking, feasting, vessel smashing, and building burning. PMID:16293691

  2. Evaluación Integral del Riesgo Volcánico del Cerro Machín, Colombia

    Leonel Vega Mora; Fernando Javier Diaz


    El volcán Cerro Machín (VCM) se encuentra situado en la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Por la composición química, magnitud y extensión de sus erupciones pasadas se reconoce como un volcán explosivo de gran potencial de daño, cuya actividad futura podría afectar intensamente y durante mucho tiempo (meses hasta años) una región estratégica para la economía del país, que cubre áreas pertenecientes a los departamentos de Tolima, Quindío, Valle del Cauca y Cundinamarca, en las cuales habitan cer...

  3. Evaluation of the Cerro Solo nuclear ore, province of Chubut. On the economic parameters of the deposit. Pt. 3

    Navarra, P.R.; Sardin, P.G.; Urquiza, L.; Bernal, G.J.; Guzman Lobos, D.


    Preliminary results of the resources estimation carried out in the Cerro Solo uranium ore deposit, located in the Chubut Province, 1900 km SW from Buenos Aires and 380 Km W from Trelew, presented in tonnes of uranium recoverable at costs up to U$S 80/kgU, are as follows: a) Reasonable assured resources (indicated): 800 tU; b) Estimates Additional Resources (inferred): 2200 tU. Economic evaluation at the order-of-magnitude level, performed using the grade-tonnage model of the deposit, resulted a useful tool in the different stages of the project to identify the influence of technical parameters on the potential profitability. Research about feasibility of in-situ leaching method of exploitation for this deposit introduces an interesting alternative for future uranium production in the country. (Author)

  4. A new species of Cryptonympha Lugo-Ortiz McCafferty (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae) from Cerro Duida (Venezuela).

    Derka, TomÁŠ; Nieto, Carolina


    The genus Cryptonympha includes three species: C. copiosa Lugo-Ortiz McCafferty, 1998; C. dasilvai Salles Francischetti, 2004 and C. genevievae Thomas, Manchon Glémet, 2013, known only from the nymphal stage. A description of the nymph of a fourth representative, Cryptonympha tracheata sp. n. is provided here, based on material collected in a blackwater stream on the slopes of the Cerro Duida mountain in south-western Venezuela. The nymph of the new species can be easily distinguished from the other species of the genus by very long tracheal gills II-VII, 2.5 times the length of each tergum, gill I small, nearly half length of gill IV and by posterior margin of terga with rounded spines. A complete description of the new species and a key for nymphs of all known Cryptonympha species are provided.

  5. Micas at magmatic and hydrothermal stages in the environment of the Cerro Verde Santa Rosa porphyry copper type deposit

    Le Bel, L


    The chemical composition of biotites and sericites from the Cerro Verde porphyry copper type deposit have been investigated in detail, using an electron microprobe. The main results of the study are: Al/sup vi/ and Ti contents of biotites of magmatic as well as hydrothermal origin may be related to the temperature of crystallization estimed by independent methods. On the other hand the Mg/Fe and Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios are almost constant. This fact is interpreted in terms of fO/sub 2/; sericites have a phengitic composition in which the solubilities of the two end-members celadonite and paragonite are controlled by a fluid phase under P, T conditions that could be estimated.

  6. Notes on the ecology of Phyllodactylus reissi (Phyllodactylidae: Sauria in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (Tumbes, Peru

    Juan Carlos Jordán Arizmendi


    Full Text Available Some basics aspects on the ecology of the nocturnal gecko Phyllodactylus reissi from Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (Tumbes, Peru are described. This species used rock boulders (57,4% and trees (31,9% as microhabitats primarily, exhibiting a nocturnal activity pattern, with a peak between 2100-2200 hours, remaining active until midnight. Body temperature (mean 24,4 ºC was correlated with both air and substrate temperature, with the last variable affecting in higher degree (47% the body temperature of this species. The slightly high body temperature of Phyllodactylus reissi, compared to other Phyllodactylus geckos, could be related to nocturnal microhabitat use and diurnal retreat site selection. More studies on lizard ecology from this endangered ecosystem are needed.


    William H.J. Strosnider


    Full Text Available Intensive mining and processing of the polymetallic sulfide ore body of Cerro Rico de Potosí (Bolivia has occurred since 1545. To further investigate acid mine drainage (AMD discharges and their link to downstream contamination, data were gathered during two sampling events during the most extreme periods of the dry and wet seasons of one year. Concentrations of Ag, B, Ba, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn and V in AMD and receiving streams were greater than Bolivian discharge limits and receiving water body guidelines as well as international agricultural use standards. High concentrations of rare earth metals have been documented in this area. Results indicate that contamination from mining has a larger scope than previously thought and underscore the importance of remediation.

  8. Charnockitic ortho gneisses and mafic granulites of Cerro Olivo complex, proterozoic basement of SE Uruguay, Part 1: Geology

    Masquelin, H.


    Charnockitic ortho gneisses and mafic granulite s exposed in the Cerro Bori Block, in the center of Punta del Este terrain, were the first document occurrence of granulitic rocks from SE sector of the Uruguayan Shield. We present here their main geological features, with the purpose to suggest some petrologic and structural interesting problems for a future lithogeochemical, mineral chemistry, stable isotopes and fluid inclusion studies about these rocks. We propose some speculation form field-based studies considering a cognate magmatic origin of both kinds of rocks, previous to a homogeneous granulitic metamorphism. Some structural evidences indicate that after their uplift, these rocks were located on over thickened crust, at great to medium deepness. A cataclasis during anatexis and amphibolite-facies mineral association stabilization are common phenomena. Other evidences suggest a polycyclic character for the regional geologic evolution

  9. Building 431 fire tests

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Ford, H.W.; Magee, M.W.


    An extensive discussion of considerations for fire protection in the LLL mirror fusion test facility (MFTF) is presented. Because of the large volume and high bays of the building, sufficient data on fire detection is unavailable. Results of fire detection tests using controlled fire sources in the building are presented. Extensive data concerning the behavior of the building atmosphere are included. Candidate fire detection instrumentation and extinguishing systems for use in the building are briefly reviewed

  10. Fire-Walking

    Willey, David


    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk ( He currently…

  11. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Hindle, D.


    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  12. Development of the Cerro solo deposit and uranium favorability of the San Jorge Gulf Basin, province of Chubut

    Navarra, P.R.; Benitez, A.F.


    In the future the uranium exploration activities of CNEA would tend to improve the knowledge of geology and uranium favorability; to perform prospection tasks, and research and development in exploration technologies, to contribute to be in a position to meet the requirements of the country in the long term. On the other hand, a strong growth of nuclear capacity is expected in the first two decades of the next century. Based on its promising grade, the Cerro Solo uranium ore deposit was selected in 1990 by the CNEA to carry out an assessment project. The intensive exploration level was accomplished, as follows: definition of general characteristics of the main orebodies; detailed geologic studies; estimation of resources with adequate data; and preliminary selection of mining-milling methods to estimate the potential profitability of the project. The deposit belongs to the sandstone type. The mineralized layers are distributed into the fluvial sandstones and conglomerates of the cretaceous Chubut Group, lying 50 to 130 m deep Resources of the deposit, with an average grade of 0.3% U, in tonnes of recoverable uranium at costs of up to $80/kg U, are: Reasonable Assured Resources (RAR): 800 t U, Estimated Additional Resources, Category I (EAR-I): 2100 t U. Follow-up drilling programmes are being performed at present in some of the target sites defined in the paleochannel that hosts the Cerro Solo deposit, in order to establish the hypothetical resources of the area. The sites were determined as a result of the exploration that CNEA conducted in the Pichinan uranium district. Recently a regional research project was formulated, for the detailed exploration in the San Jorge Gulf Basin, where the Chubut Group is distributed. 17 refs, 4 figs

  13. Analysis of the Nuevo Leon magnetic anomaly and its possible relation to the Cerro Prieto magmatic-hydrothermal system

    Goldstein, N.E.; Wilt, M.J.; Corrigan, D.J.


    The broad dipolar magnetic anomaly whose positive peak is centered near Ejido Nuevo Leon, some 5 km east of the Cerro Prieto I Power Plant, has long been suspected to have a genetic relationship to the thermal source of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system. This suspicion was reinforced after several deep geothermal wells, drilled to depths of 3 to 3.5 km over the anomaly, intersected an apparent dike-sill complex consisting mainly of diabase but with minor rhyodacite. A detailed fit of the observed magnetic field to a computer model indicates that the source may be approximated by a tabular block 4 by 6 km in area, 3.7 km in depth, 2.3 km thick, and dipping slightly to the north. Mafic dike chips from one well, NL-1, were analyzed by means of electron microprobe analyses which showed tham to contain a titanomagnetite that is paramagnetic at in-situ temperature conditions. As the dike mineralogy does not account for the magnetic anomaly, the magnetic source is believed to be a deeper, magnetite-rich assemblage of peridotite-gabbro plutons. the suite of igneous rocks was probably passively emplaced at a shallow depth in response to crustal extension and thinning brought on by strike-slip faulting. The bottom of the magnetic source body, at an estimated depth of 6 km, is presumed to be at or near that of the Curie isotherm (575/sup 0/C) for magnetite, the principal ferromagnetic mineral in peridotitic-gabbroic rocks. The geological model derived from the magnetic study is generally supported by other geophysical data. In particular, earthquake data suggest dike injection is occurring at depths of 6 to 11 km in an area beneath the magnetic source. Thus, it is possible that heat for the geothermal field is being maintained by continuing crustal extension and magmatic activity.

  14. Google Earth Grand Tour Themes

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.; Dordevic, M. M.


    As part of an NSF TUES Type 3 project entitled "Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE)," we are assembling a "Grand Tour" of locations on Earth and other terrestrial bodies that every geoscience student should know about and visit at least in virtual reality. Based on feedback from colleagues at previous meetings, we have identified nine Grand Tour themes: "Plates and Plumes," "Rocks and Regions," "Geology Through Time," "The Mapping Challenge*," "U.S. National Parks*," "The Magical Mystery Tour*," "Resources and Hazards," "Planets and Moons," and "Top of the Pops." Themes marked with an asterisk are most developed at this stage and will be demonstrated in real time. The Mapping Challenge invites students to trace geological contacts, measure bedding strike and dip and the plunge, trend, and facing of a fold. There is an advanced tool for modeling periclinal folds. The challenge is presented in a game-like format with an emphasis on puzzle-solving that will appeal to students regardless of gender. For the tour of U.S. national parks, we divided the most geologically important parks into four groups—Western Pacific, West Coast, Rockies, and East Coast. We are combining our own team's GigaPan imagery with imagery already available on the Internet. There is a great deal of imagery just waiting to be annotated for geological education purposes. The Magical Mystery Tour takes students to Google Streetview locations selected by instructors. Students are presented with questions or tasks and are given automatic feedback. Other themes are under development. Within each theme, we are crowd-sourcing contributions from colleagues and inviting colleagues to vote for or against proposed locations and student interactions. The GEODE team includes the authors and: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Gene Cooper, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Bill Richards, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury.

  15. Next Generation Innovation Policy and Grand Challenges

    Kuhlmann, Stefan; Rip, Arie


    The paper explores transformative ways to address Grand Challenges, while locating them in a broader diagnosis of ongoing changes. Coping with Grand Challenges is a challenge in its own right, for policy as well as for science, technology, and innovation actors. The paper presents building blocks

  16. Proton hexality in local grand unification

    Foerste, Stefan; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics


    Proton hexality is a discrete symmetry that avoids the problem of too fast proton decay in the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Unfortunately it is inconsistent with conventional grand unification. We show that proton hexality can be incorporated in the scheme of ''Local Grand Unification'' discussed in the framework of model building in (heterotic) string theory. (orig.)

  17. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw


    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  18. 3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona


    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as

  19. La Grande: volver a empezar

    Julio Premat


    Full Text Available Este texto, borrador de un trabajo más amplio, pretende despejar algunas pistas de lectura de La grande, en tanto que paradójico final de la producción de Saer. Digo “paradójico” porque puede tomársela como una novela de comienzo o de origen : de un volver a empezar, en todos los sentidos del término. En esa perspectiva podrían estudiarse algunos núcleos temáticos (como el retorno o el recuerdo de cara a la construcción del texto, a la relación planteada con la tradición y a la singular historia de su escritura (y al material genético que rodea y completa esta novela a la vez inacabada y póstuma. En esta intervención, la idea es la de comentar tres textos, escenas o frases del texto, y a partir de allí esbozar pistas para un estudio que está en ciernes.Première ébauche d’un travail de plus d’ampleur, ce texte vise à éclairer quelques pistes de lecture de La grande, en tant que fin paradoxale de la production de Saer. Je dis « paradoxale » parce que l’on peut considérer cette œuvre comme un roman des commencements ou des origines : comme un retour aux débuts, dans tous les sens du terme. Dans cette perspective, plusieurs nœuds thématiques (comme le retour ou le souvenir pourraient être étudiés en relation à la construction du texte, à la relation qui s’établit avec la tradition et à la singulière histoire de son écriture (et au matériau génétique qui entoure et complète ce roman, à la fois inachevé et posthume. Il sera question ici de commenter trois textes, scènes ou phrases du texte, et d’ébaucher à partir de là quelques pistes pour une étude à l’état naissant.The objective of this text, a draft for a broader work, is to outline some reading clues for La grande, inasmuch as it constitutes a paradoxical ending of Saer’s production. I say “paradoxical” because we can consider this work a novel of beginnings or of origins: a return to the beginning, in every meaning of the

  20. Configuration of the mudstones, gray- and coffee-colored shale lithologic units, zones of silica and epidote, and their relation to the tectonics of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Cobo R, J.M.


    Based on well cuttings, five lithological units have been recognized within the area of what is now the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. These five units are described. Differences in origin, mineralogy, grading, color, compaction, etc., are shown.

  1. Decree 343/012. Is regulated the servitude established by Decree-Law 10,383, on several lines of electricity conduction -150 KV to be built in the departments of Florida, Cerro Largo, Maldonado, Flores, San Jose and Tacuarembo


    This decree regulates the establishment of electricity conduction in Florida, Cerro Largo, Maldonado, Flores, San Jose and Tacuarembo towns. These electrical lines are necessary to provide the public service by UTE

  2. Grado de discapacidad en pacientes hemipléjicos del "Policlínico Docente Universitario del Cerro" Evaluation of disability in hemiplegic patients from Cerro university teaching polyclinic

    Abel Estévez Perera


    Full Text Available Introducción: la hemiplejía como consecuencia de un ictus constituye una importante causa de discapacidad. La continuidad y calidad en el proceso rehabilitador supone mejores perspectivas en el pronóstico de los pacientes. Objetivo: evaluar el grado de discapacidad en los pacientes hemipléjicos del área de salud del Policlínico Docente Universitario del Cerro. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, transversal en los pacientes que acudieron consecutivamente al área de rehabilitación del citado policlínico, desde septiembre de 2009 hasta julio de 2011. La muestra estuvo constituida por 124 hemipléjicos por enfermedad cerebrovascular mayores de 15 años, los cuales fueron evaluados con la Escala de Discapacidad de Rosetón. Se excluyeron los enfermos con afasia sensorial o mixta y aquellos que se negaron a participar. Resultados: en 84 (67,8 % pacientes se encontró independencia para la orientación y predominó la semidependencia para el desplazamiento y las necesidades físicas. Para la higiene personal, 48 (38,7 % pacientes resultaron ser dependientes. La falta de motivación para ocupar el tiempo libre se encontró en 92 (74,2 % pacientes, casi siempre por dificultades en la convivencia y en las relaciones familiares. Conclusiones: el grado de discapacidad de los pacientes hemipléjicos evaluados viene dado por la semidependencia en el desplazamiento y las necesidades físicas y la dependencia para el autocuidado. Las dificultades en la convivencia y las relaciones familiares interfieren en la motivación del paciente para ocupar el tiempo libre.Introduction: hemiplegia is an important cause of disability as a result of a stroke. The persistence and quality of the rehabilitative process lead to better results in the patient prognosis. Objective: to evaluate the extent of disability in hemiplegic patients from the health area under "Cerro" university teaching polyclinics. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in

  3. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith


    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  4. A review of fire interactions and mass fires

    Mark A. Finney; Sara S. McAllister


    The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire...

  5. A Grande Reportagem no contexto informativo SIC

    Colaço, Vanessa Alexandra Francisco


    Os telespectadores querem ver grandes reportagens? Como evoluíram as audiências da Grande Reportagem SIC? É este o produto premium da estação? Terá este formato um investimento e continuidade garantidas? Estas são algumas das questões formuladas e às quais se procurou dar resposta neste Relatório de Estágio. Neste trabalho traça-se o perfil do programa Grande Reportagem SIC, clarificando a linha editorial que lhe serviu de base, procurando perceber as suas dinâmicas e passando em revista mome...

  6. Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification

    Arnowitt, R.; Nath, P.


    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) x U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field

  7. Two-phase characteristics of the feeding fluid of Cerro Prieto IV wells (Mexico) obtained by gas equilibrium; Caracteristicas bifasicas del fluido de alimentacion de pozos de Cerro Prieto IV (Mexico), obtenidas por equilibrio gaseoso

    Barragan-Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano-Gomez, Victor Manuel; Portugal-Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); De Leon-Vivar, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)


    The gas composition of fluids produced by CP IV geothermal wells from the Cerro Prieto field was studied in order to identify different types of fluids entering the wells by estimating their temperature and excess steam. A method based on the Fischer Tropsch reaction and H2S equilibrium with pyrite-pyrrhotite as mineral buffer (FTHSH3) was used. The results for the reservoir natural state indicated the presence of fluids with heterogeneous reservoir temperature (between 275 and 310 degrees Celsius) and excess steam values, which were found from negative (boiled liquid that has lost steam when flowing to the well) to one (steam phase with zero liquid saturation). The study for individual wells in which boiling processes were identified, showed that through time, the feeding fluids consist of a two-phase mixture with different liquid/steam proportions. Also, the results suggested that a steam phase could occur at CP IV which is added to the feeding fluid, depending on the operation conditions of the wells. The origin of this steam could be the boiling of the deeper liquid due to a pressure drop. [Spanish] Se estudio la composicion gaseosa de los fluidos producidos por pozos geotermicos del sector CP IV del campo de Cerro Prieto para tratar de distinguir aportes de fluidos diferentes mediante la estimacion de su temperatura de yacimiento y del exceso de vapor. Se utilizo un metodo de equilibrio gaseoso basado en la reaccion de Fischer Tropsch y el equilibrio combinado pirita-pirrotita (FT-HSH3). Los resultados obtenidos indican que en el estado inicial del yacimiento existen fluidos que muestran heterogeneidad en los valores de temperatura de yacimiento (entre 275 y 310 grados Celsius), asi como en el exceso de vapor con valores desde negativos (liquido que despues de ebullir ha perdido vapor en su trayecto hacia el pozo) hasta uno (vapor con cero saturacion de liquido). El estudio individual de los pozos con fenomenos de ebullicion muestra que a traves del tiempo

  8. Studies for recovering injection capacity in wells of the Cerro Prieto, BC, geothermal field; Estudios para recuperar la capacidad de aceptacion en pozos inyectores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Alvarez Rosales, Julio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    As in geothermal fields around the world, at Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, former exploratory and production wells are used to inject residual brine. Since the 1980s, studies and activities have been carried out to find ways to recharge the reservoir and dispose of brine without harming the environment or underground aquifers. These include infiltration and cold-and-hot injection. Some of the studies are presented here, including analyses of litho-facies; core samples; pressure, temperature and spinner logs; well tests and injection rates-plus some studies on the shallow aquifer. All have been useful in fulfilling requirements made by environmental authorities. Because injection rates constantly decrease due to formation damage, it is proposed an additional technique be used to reduce such damages and prolong the lifetime of cold-and-hot injection wells-while ensuring the environment and shallow aquifers are not affected. [Spanish] Al igual que en diversos campos geotermicos en el mundo, en el de Cerro Prieto, Baja California se han utilizado tanto pozos inyectores perforados ex profeso como antiguos pozos exploratorios y productores para inyectar el fluido residual al subsuelo. Desde la decada de los 80 se han realizado diversos estudios y acciones en ese campo geotermico para recargar al yacimiento y para disponer del fluido residual, sin ocasionar danos al ambiente ni a los cuerpos hidricos del subsuelo, que van desde la infiltracion hasta la inyeccion en frio y en caliente. Este articulo presenta los diferentes estudios realizados con ese objetivo en el campo, incluyendo el analisis de litofacies, de nucleos de formacion, de registros de presion, temperatura y spinner, las pruebas en pozos y analisis de tasas de aceptacion, asi como los efectuados en el acuifero superficial. Todos ellos han sido de utilidad para atender los requerimientos de las autoridades ambientales. Finalmente, y en virtud de que las tasas de aceptacion de los pozos

  9. Mineralogy of the silica-epidote mineralized zone (SEMZ) in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir, B.C., Mexico; Mineralogia de la zona mineralizada de silice-epidota (ZMSE) del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Izquierdo, Georgina; Aragon, Alfonso; Portugal, Enrique; Arellano; Victor M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Leon, Jesus de; Alvarez, Julio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, B.C. (Mexico)


    The distribution of hydrothermal minerals, mineral assemblages and fluid inclusion data were taken from drill cuttings from the production zone of wells all over the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The production zone has been termed the silica-epidote mineralized zone (SEMZ), and is located in the deep part of the gray shale where thick layers of sandstone are found. Common mineral assemblages show three temperature ranges in the SEMZ: <200 degrees Celsius, 200-250 degrees Celsius and 250-300 degrees Celsius. The first range is characterized by clays, calcite and quartz; the second by quartz, epidote, chlorite and mica, and the third by epidote, amphibole, illite and chlorite. The study of fluid inclusions in authigenic grain quartz has shown two-phase fluid inclusions (liquid + vapor) of different salinities. A wide range exists of homogenization temperatures (Th) and for some wells there is a good agreement between Th and direct temperature measurements. [Spanish] Se determino la distribucion de minerales hidrotermales y las asociaciones parageneticas y se realizo el estudio microtermometrico de inclusiones fluidas a partir de recortes de perforacion de pozos de las distintas areas del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto. Las muestras de recortes y nucleos de perforacion estudiados provienen de la zona de produccion a la que se le ha denominado Zona Mineralizada de Silice-Epidota (ZMSE), que se encuentra en la parte profunda de la lutita gris con importantes horizontes de areniscas. En esta zona las asociaciones parageneticas mas comunes han mostrado tres intervalos de temperatura para la ZMSE: <200 degrees Celsius, 200-250 degrees Celsius, 250-300 degrees Celsius. El primer intervalo esta caracterizado principalmente por arcillas, calcita y cuarzo; el segundo por cuarzo, epidota, clorita y micas, y el tercero por epidota, anfiboles, illita y clorita. El estudio de inclusiones fluidas en fragmentos de cuarzo autigenico mostro la presencia de inclusiones de dos fases

  10. Geological and production analyses focused on exploration of the eastern part of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Analisis geologico-productivo enfocado a la exploracion de la parte oriental del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    The eastern part of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CGCP), known as Poligono Nuevo Leon, is an area with proven geothermal resources, as confirmed by seven directional wells located toward the east and by vertical well M-200 located inside the polygon. Well M-200 was drilled in 1984 and has produced about 4 million tons of steam to date. It is integrated into the CP-2 sector, producing 68 t/h of steam. Presently the eastern part of CGCP, representing 25% of the total field area, is producing over half of the steam for the entire field. In the last few years, the steam has come only after increasing the number of production wells located in the eastern zone of CGCP (Rodriguez, 2006), where pressure, enthalpy and temperature conditions are better than in other parts of the field. However in the long term it will be necessary to incorporate Poligono Nuevo Leon into the productive area to expand the productive life of CGCP. This paper includes a geological analysis, plus models for steam production, temperature and enthalpy for Poligono Nuevo Leon. [Spanish] La parte oriental del Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP), conocida como Poligono Nuevo Leon, representa una area potencial con recursos geotermicos comprobados, lo que demuestran siete pozos direccionales que se han perforado hacia el este, asi como el pozo vertical M-200, localizado dentro del poligono. El pozo M-200 se perforo en 1984 y ha producido a la fecha alrededor de 4 millones de toneladas de vapor, estando integrado al sector CP-2 una produccion de 68 t/h de vapor. Actualmente la parte oriental del CGCP, que representa el 25% del area total del campo, produce mas de la mitad del total de vapor del campo. El suministro de vapor en los ultimos anos se ha logrado cubrir aumentando el numero de pozos en operacion localizados en la zona oriente del CGCP (Rodriguez, 2006), ya que es aqui donde hay condiciones de presion, entalpia y temperatura del yacimiento que son mejores que en otras areas del campo

  11. Fires and Food Safety

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  12. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    Rorty, Richard


    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  13. Tunnel fire dynamics

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders


    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  14. Fire Stations - 2007

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  15. Seerley Road Fire Site

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  16. Buildings exposed to fire


    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  17. Interagency Wildland Fire Cooperation


    Wildlife Fire Assistance includes training personnel, forms partnerships for prescribed burns, state and regional data for fire management plans, develops agreements for DoD civilians to be reimbursed...

  18. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  19. Fire Stations - 2009

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  20. The OECD FIRE database

    Angner, A.; Berg, H.P.; Roewekamp, M.; Werner, W.; Gauvain, J.


    Realistic modelling of fire scenarios is still difficult due to the scarcity of reliable data needed for deterministic and probabilistic fire safety analysis. Therefore, it has been recognized as highly important to establish a fire event database on an international level. In consequence, several member countries of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have decided in 2000 to establish the International Fire Data Exchange Project (OECD FIRE) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data related to fire events at nuclear power plants. This paper presents the OECD FIRE project objectives, work scope and current status of the OECD FIRE database after 3 years of operation as well as first preliminary statistical insights gained from the collected data. (orig.)


    Otto Dvořák


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  2. Evaluation of the Cerro Solo nuclear ore, province of Chubut. Geological characteristics of the deposit and of the basin. Pt. 2

    Benitez, A.F.; Fuente, A.; Maloberti, A.; Landi, V.A.; Bianchi, R.E.; Marveggio de Bianchi, N.; Gayone, M.R.


    The Cerro Solo uranium ore deposit, is located 420 km west from Trelew city, Chubut province, in the extra-andean. The geologic environment belongs to the northwest edge portion of the intracratonic San Jorge Gulf Basin. The uraniferous district is named Pichinanes Ridge district. The mineralization lies 25 to 130 m depth, and is hosted by Los Adobes formation aged Aptian-Albian, made up by conglomerates, sandstones, coarse-sandstones and less abundant siltstones and claystones. The Cerro Solo ore deposit that belongs to the sandstone type-uranium occurrences are lenticular or tabular shaped, associated with organic material and pyrite, generally roughly parallel to the bedding (Trend-Type). The uranium minerals are uraninite and coffinite associated with organic material and pyrite, and frequently hematite, goethite, calcite, siderite and barite are observed. (Author)

  3. The rules of urban planning and administrative responsibilities in protecting to the vulnerability and risk of Cerro Tapezco in Santa Ana

    Castro Leiton, Karina


    An analysis of regulation is made of land use and administrative management of the Cerro Tapezco to show that as the years have passed it has been verified that the Costa Rican law on town planning has been inadequate for current problems due to lack of updating of various scientific and technical sources also dispersion and proliferation of competences of administrative authorities. The physical setting and planning rules is identified for CerroTapezco and surrounding towns. Local actions are explored in the elaboration of improvement and reform of the regulatory plan of Santa Ana. The administrative entities and institutions with competence in the development and implementation of plans have been identified, assessing deficiencies, inconsistencies and administrative omissions in urban planning of the city of Santa Ana and recommending changes necessary for the proper application of the Costa Rican law [es

  4. Loft fire protection

    White, E.R.; Jensen, J.D.


    Quantified criteria that was developed and applied to provide in-depth fire protection for the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility are presented. The presentation describes the evolution process that elevated the facility's fire protection from minimal to that required for a highly protected risk or improved risk. Explored are some infrequently used fire protection measures that are poorly understood outside the fire protection profession

  5. Reconstruction of fire regimes through integrated paleoecological proxy data and ecological modeling.

    Iglesias, Virginia; Yospin, Gabriel I; Whitlock, Cathy


    Fire is a key ecological process affecting vegetation dynamics and land cover. The characteristic frequency, size, and intensity of fire are driven by interactions between top-down climate-driven and bottom-up fuel-related processes. Disentangling climatic from non-climatic drivers of past fire regimes is a grand challenge in Earth systems science, and a topic where both paleoecology and ecological modeling have made substantial contributions. In this manuscript, we (1) review the use of sedimentary charcoal as a fire proxy and the methods used in charcoal-based fire history reconstructions; (2) identify existing techniques for paleoecological modeling; and (3) evaluate opportunities for coupling of paleoecological and ecological modeling approaches to better understand the causes and consequences of past, present, and future fire activity.

  6. Fire as Technology

    Rudolph, Robert N.


    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  7. Fourmile Canyon Fire Findings

    Russell Graham; Mark Finney; Chuck McHugh; Jack Cohen; Dave Calkin; Rick Stratton; Larry Bradshaw; Ned Nikolov


    The Fourmile Canyon Fire burned in the fall of 2010 in the Rocky Mountain Front Range adjacent to Boulder, Colorado. The fire occurred in steep, rugged terrain, primarily on privately owned mixed ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests. The fire started on September 6 when the humidity of the air was very dry (¡Ö

  8. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de


    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  9. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  10. Fire Department Emergency Response

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.


    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services

  11. Equipping tomorrow's fire manager

    Christopher A. Dicus


    Fire managers are challenged with an ever-increasing array of both responsibilities and critics. As in the past, fire managers must master the elements of fire behavior and ecology using the latest technologies. In addition, today’s managers must be equipped with the skills necessary to understand and liaise with a burgeoning group of vocal stakeholders while also...

  12. Fire and forest meteorology

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan


    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  13. Cost of two fire

    Vasil'ev, Yu.


    The problem of the protection of nuclear sites in connection with the fires in summer of 2000 near two greatest nuclear sites: the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory located on the site of Hanford Nuclear Center, and Los Alamos National Laboratory is considered. Both fires occur beyond the Laboratories. Undertaken urgent procedures for fire fighting and recovery of the objects are characterized [ru

  14. Notas sobre la ecología de Phyllodactylus reissi (Phyllodactylidae: Sauria) en el Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (Tumbes, Perú)

    Jordán Arizmendi, Juan Carlos


    Some basics aspects on the ecology of the nocturnal gecko Phyllodactylus reissi from Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (Tumbes, Peru) are described. This species used rock boulders (57,4%) and trees (31,9%) as microhabitats primarily, exhibiting a nocturnal activity pattern, with a peak between 2100-2200 hours, remaining active until midnight. Body temperature (mean 24,4 ºC) was correlated with both air and substrate temperature, with the last variable affecting in higher degree (47%) the bod...

  15. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician - Silurian times

    Wegmann, Maja I.; Riller, Ulrich; Hongn, Fernando D.; Glodny, Johannes; Oncken, Onno


    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NW-Argentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relationship between individual segments of the shear plane and principal axes of mineral fabric ellipsoids indicates reverse-sense of shear with a minor component of left-lateral displacement. This is compatible with the kinematics of other ductile deformation zones in this area, collectively forming a network, which accomplished orogen-parallel extension in addition to vertical thickening. Using the Rb-Sr isotopic system, an undeformed pegmatite dike of the Cerro Durazno Pluton was dated at 455.8 ± 3.6 Ma and mineral fabrics of the Agua Rosada Shear Zone formed at middle greenschist-facies metamorphism gave deformation ages of 437.0 ± 3.8 Ma and ⩽428.4 ± 4.5 Ma. Thus, tectonic overprint at low metamorphic grade occurred about 20-30 Ma after terminal magmatism in the Cerro Durazno area. Our data from the Cerro Durazno area and regional considerations suggest that the western margin of Gondwana was characterized by orogen-parallel extension in addition to crustal thickening as well as episodes of magmatism and ductile deformation that varied greatly in time and space.

  16. Calidad de adn de personas impactadas por la minería artesanal en el cerro el toro, huamachuco, la libertad 2010

    Casanova Herrera, Hugo Enrique


    The present research work is to determine the toxic substances and DNA damage for people impacted by artisanal mining of Cerro El Toro, using the comet assay. Knowing that at present the impact of mining is a problem that affects the global environment and to Peru by the. gold mining in people causing health problems that could reach various cancer diseases, caused by a genotoxic effect of the chemicals used in mining affecting chromosomal DNA. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used as a met...

  17. Impact of Santiago de Chile urban atmospheric pollution on anthropogenic trace elements enrichment in snow precipitation at Cerro Colorado, Central Andes

    Cereceda-Balic, F.; Palomo-Marín, M. R.; Bernalte, E.; Vidal, V.; Christie, J.; Fadic, X.; Guevara, J. L.; Miro, C.; Pinilla Gil, E.


    Seasonal snow precipitation in the Andes mountain range is evaluated as an environmental indicator of the composition of atmospheric emissions in Santiago de Chile metropolitan area, by measuring a set of representative trace elements in snow samples by ICP-MS. Three late winter sampling campaigns (2003, 2008 and 2009) were conducted in three sampling areas around Cerro Colorado, a Central Andes mountain range sector NE of Santiago (36 km). Nevados de Chillán, a sector in The Andes located about 500 km south from the metropolitan area, was selected as a reference area. The experimental results at Cerro Colorado and Nevados de Chillán were compared with previously published data of fresh snow from remote and urban background sites. High snow concentrations of a range of anthropogenic marker elements were found at Cerro Colorado, probably derived from Santiago urban aerosol transport and deposition combined with the effect of mining and smelting activities in the area, whereas Nevados de Chillán levels roughly correspond to urban background areas. Enhanced concentrations in surface snow respect to deeper samples are discussed. Significant differences found between the 2003, 2008 and 2009 anthropogenic source markers profiles at Cerro Colorado sampling points were correlated with changes in emission sources at the city. The preliminary results obtained in this study, the first of this kind in the southern hemisphere, show promising use of snow precipitation in the Central Andes as a suitable matrix for receptor model studies aimed at identifying and quantifying pollution sources in Santiago de Chile.

  18. Pucarilla-Cerro Tipillas volcanic complex: the oldest recognized caldera in the southeastern portion of central volcanic zone of Central Andes?

    Guzman, Silvina; Petrinovic, Ivan [CONICET -IBIGEO. Museo de Cs. Naturales, Universidad de Salta, Mendoza 2 (4400), Salta (Argentina)], E-mail:


    We recognize the most eastern and oldest collapse caldera structure in the southern portion of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. A description of Middle-Upper Miocene successions related to explosive- effusive events is presented. The location of this centre close to Cerro Galn Caldera attests a recurrence in the volcanism between 12 and 2 Ma in this portion of the Altiplano - Puna Plateau.

  19. Report about drilling works made in 13 Anomaly de Taylor and in the N- NE of its, around Fraile Muerto (Cerro Largo district): Uranium project

    Massa, J; Pirelli, H.


    The perforations were carried out to investigate in depth denominated anomaly 13 detected during the Taylor Mission (1975) and extended the punch area of study during you are suitable DINAMIGE-BRGM (Project the present report details the activities realised in the environs Fraile Muerto (Cerro Largo district) by the command team of perforations of the uranium project. Previously and contemporarily to the executed works, prospection became geophysical ground geochemistry geology and, works. (Uranium)

  20. Las cinco grandes dimensiones de la personalidad

    Jan ter Laak


    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa las distintas posiciones teóricas sobre las cinco grandes dimensiones de la personalidad, mostrando las semejanzas y diferencias entre las posturas teóricas. Esta contribución presenta lo siguiente: (a la génesis del contenido y la estructura de las cinco dimensiones; (b la fortaleza de las cinco dimensiones; (e la relación de las cinco grandes dimensiones con otros constructos de personalidad; (d discute el valor predictivo de las puntuaciones del perfil de las cinco dimensiones para criterios pertinentes; (e analiza el estatus teórico de las cinco dimensiones; (f discute críticas históricas sobre las cinco grandes dimensiones y se formulan respuestas a estas críticas; (g hace conjeturas para el futuro de las cinco grandes dimensiones; y (h concluye con algunas conclusiones y comentarios.

  1. Chemical variations in the Cerro de Mercado (Durango, Mexico) fluorapatite: Assessing the effect of heterogeneity on a geochronologic standard.

    Boyce, J. W.; Hodges, K. V.


    Despite the lack of an official pronouncement, the fluorapatite of Cerro de Mercado, Durango, Mexico has become the de facto standard for (U-Th)/He geochronology. In addition to being relatively inclusion-free and easily obtained, these crystals are commonly in excess of 5mm in diameter, permitting the removal of the outer skin of the crystal, theoretically eliminating the alpha-ejection correction. However, bulk analyses of the Durango fluorapatite indicate a substantial variation in U and Th concentrations from aliquot to aliquot (167-238 ppm Th; 9.7-12.3 ppm U, [1]). If similar variations were to occur on the sub-grain scale, small fragments of single crystals could contain helium excesses or deficiencies due to alpha-ejection exchange between zones with varying parent element content. We have performed a series of experiments to quantify the intra-grain variation in U and Th, in order to model the effect of this variation on ages determined on Durango fluorapatite. X-ray maps show concentric zonation in U and Th, with similar, but more apparently pronounced zonation in Si and Cl. Preliminary laser-ablation ICPMS data indicate, not surprisingly, that intra-grain variations in U and Th concentrations obtained by analysis of ~35 μ m spots are larger than that which had been previously obtained by bulk analytical techniques (with overall concentrations greater than for bulk analyses). Thus far, analyses yield U concentrations varying from 11 to 16 ppm, and Th concentrations ranging from 220 to 340 ppm. Modeling underway suggests that parent element variations on the order of 50%, such as those observed, and the resulting differential alpha-exchange could lead to several percent error in age, for ~100 μ m fragments. The effect scales inversely with fragment size, with 300 μ m fragments (roughly the size of a large, single grain analysis) having only ~1% error. This may offer an explanation for the previously observed inability to reproduce ages for the Durango

  2. Grand unification and gravity - selected topics

    Zee, A.


    The material given here was presented in lectures delivered at the 4th Kyoto Summer Institute on Grand Unification and Related Topics. It consists of six sections. The sections are: the family problem, fermion mass hierarchy, maximal local symmetry, operator analysis of new physics, dynamically generated gravity, and Kaluza theory and grand unification. The last section contains a (hopefully) pedagogical introduction to Kaluza theory. For pedagogical completeness, several appendices reviewing some elementary notions of differential geometry have been added

  3. Addition of schelita residue from the mine in Cerro Cora Bodo / RN in the composition of ceramic materials; Adicao de residuo de scheelita da mina Bodo em Cerro Cora/RN na composicao de materiais ceramicos

    Almeida, A.B.D. de; Souza, M. M. de; Farias, D.S.U. de; Lima, T.C. de; Nobrega, L.F.P. de M. [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), RN (Brazil); Mendes, L.B., E-mail: [Fundacao de Apoio a Pesquisa do Rio Grande do Norte (FAPERN), Natal RN (Brazil)


    Mining activities produce mineral waste that can degrade the environment. The waste generated by companies is not reused due to the fact they fail to present an application for it that proves to be economically viable. Seeking the reuse of mineral waste and reduce the environmental impacts, this work addresses the chemical characterization by x-ray fluorescence (FRX), of the processing of scheelite reject at Bodo mine in Cerro Cora-RN. For the procedure, the sample was collected, grounded and sieved to #200, and then characterized to evaluate its chemical composition and its potential to be incorporated into materials. Besides the characterization, a water absorption test and also a bending test were performed to analyze the power and tension of the material. The result of the analysis indicated that the sample researched presents a greater concentration of SiO{sub 2} to be used as a structuring element in ceramic mass, but in the traditional formulation, it will only be added 10% of the reject in its formulation, because besides the SiO{sub 2} in the sample analyzed other elements that act with fluxes were found. It was also observed the material has low water absorption, but the reject reached low strength and breakdown voltage. We concluded that the reject of scheelite presents great potential, and therefore, further tests can be conducted to analyze the possibility of being added as raw material for the formulation of other materials like cement. (author)

  4. Fires of sodium installations

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.


    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  5. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Sharry, J A


    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  6. Fire retardant formulations


    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  7. A preliminary interpretation of gas composition in the CP IV sector wells, Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor M; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Perez Hernandez, Alfredo; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio; Leon Vivar, Jesus de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General Cerro Prieto, B.C. (Mexico)


    To increase the electrical generation capacity of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field from 620 MW to 720 MW, the Cerro Prieto IV (CP IV) sector of the field was developed in the NE portion of the exploited field. Fourteen new wells have been drilled there since 2000. The wells in CP IV zone produce two-phase fluids at wellhead with heterogeneous steam fraction characteristics: at the central zone and towards the NW, the wells are liquid-dominated while those towards the E and S produce a relatively high steam fraction. This work studies the gas compositions of produced fluids to obtain reservoir parameters such as temperature and steam fraction and identify different sources of fluids in the wells. A method was used based on the Fischer Tropsch reaction and H{sub 2}S equilibria with pyrite-pyrrhotite as a mineral buffer (FT-HSH3). The results for the natural state showed the presence of fluids with reservoir temperatures from 275 to 310 degrees Celsius and excess steam values from -1 to 50%. Data are aligned in a FT-HSH3 trend, suggesting that the well discharges consist of a mixture in different proportions of the two end members. One seems to be a liquid with a temperature of over 300 degrees Celsius with negative or negligible excess steam. The other seems to be a two-phase fluid with a temperature of about 275 degrees Celsius and an excess steam fraction of about 0.5. According to the data for single wells and depending on the production conditions of the wells, reservoir fluid mixtures could occur in different proportions of liquid and steam. Data for 2005 that included wells drilled after 2000 suggest the presence of a steam phase in the reservoir. The steam could be generated with the boiling of deep reservoir fluid from a pressure drop. The mixing trend obtained for the natural state was also seen for 2005 data but lower temperatures (from 265 to 295 degrees Celsius) were obtained compared with those for natural conditions. The entry of lower

  8. Addition of schelita residue from the mine in Cerro Cora Bodo / RN in the composition of ceramic materials

    Almeida, A.B.D. de; Souza, M. M. de; Farias, D.S.U. de; Lima, T.C. de; Nobrega, L.F.P. de M.; Mendes, L.B.


    Mining activities produce mineral waste that can degrade the environment. The waste generated by companies is not reused due to the fact they fail to present an application for it that proves to be economically viable. Seeking the reuse of mineral waste and reduce the environmental impacts, this work addresses the chemical characterization by x-ray fluorescence (FRX), of the processing of scheelite reject at Bodo mine in Cerro Cora-RN. For the procedure, the sample was collected, grounded and sieved to #200, and then characterized to evaluate its chemical composition and its potential to be incorporated into materials. Besides the characterization, a water absorption test and also a bending test were performed to analyze the power and tension of the material. The result of the analysis indicated that the sample researched presents a greater concentration of SiO_2 to be used as a structuring element in ceramic mass, but in the traditional formulation, it will only be added 10% of the reject in its formulation, because besides the SiO_2 in the sample analyzed other elements that act with fluxes were found. It was also observed the material has low water absorption, but the reject reached low strength and breakdown voltage. We concluded that the reject of scheelite presents great potential, and therefore, further tests can be conducted to analyze the possibility of being added as raw material for the formulation of other materials like cement. (author)

  9. Gestión del agua subterránea en el Barrio Cerro Los Leones de Tandil (Argentina

    Corina Iris Rodriguez


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen y analizan los actores y modos de explotación y uso involucrados en la gestión del recurso hídrico subterráneo en un barrio periférico de Tandil -Cerro Los Leones- (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, que carece de servicios de agua potable y cloacas. Estudios previos demostraron contaminación química y bacteriológica del agua que pone en riesgo la salud de la población. Se caracterizan los modos de uso y explotación del agua, señalando importantes defi ciencias en el diseño, construcción y mantenimiento de perforaciones y sistemas de disposición de efl uentes. Ante la necesidad y el desafío de la gestión integrada del recurso, se plantean linea mientos tendientes a su sustentabilidad, referidos a la planifi cación del uso, el abastecimiento de agua potable, el diseño de perforaciones y la educación ambiental.


    Elsa Adriana Cárdenas Quiroga


    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de simular futuros flujos piroclásticos que podría producir el Volcán Cerro Machín, ubicado en la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Esta simulación se realizó con el programa VolcFlow desarrollado por el Laboratorio de Magmas y Volcanes de la Universidad Blaise Pascal, Francia, diseñado especialmente para modelar el comportamiento de este tipo de productos volcánicos, ya que está basado en las características reológicas de esos flujos. Se comparan las áreas que serían potencialmente afectadas por una erupción de ese tipo y los espesores del material que se depositaría con resultados obtenidos de simulaciones realizadas con un Model Builder desarrollado en ARC GIS por el Grupo de Investigación Geomática Aplicada de la Universidad Militar Nueva Granada en Colombia, obteniéndose resultados similares.

  11. Palynological analysis of camelid coprolites: seasonality in the use of the site Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (Santa Cruz, Argentina)

    Velázquez, Nadia Jimena; Burry, Lidia Susana; Fugassa, Martín Horacio; Civalero, María Teresa; Aschero, Carlos Alberto


    Palynological, palaeoparasitological and paleobotanical studies of coprolites found in archaeological sites from Perito Moreno National Park (47°57‧S72°05‧W) yielded information on diet, palaeoenvironment and health. These studies allowed adding evidence to the reconstruction of life history of the hunter-gatherers that inhabited Patagonia during the Holocene. We examined the season of the year when camelid Lama guanicoe coprolites (5400 ± 64 yr 14C BP to 9640 ± 190 yr 14C BP) were deposited at Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (site CCP7). The study used palynological evidence and comparison with pollen spectra of modern feces collected during summer, fall, winter and spring of 2010. The dominant types were: pollen of Nothofagus, Empetrum rubrum, Asteraceae subfam. Asteroideae, Nassauvia, Caryophyllaceae and Poaceae; fern spores; remains of Eimeria macusaniensis; and plant remains of Poaceae, Festuca pallescens, Stipa speciosa, Armeria maritima, Gaultheria mucronata and E. rubrum. Pollen spectra of modern and fossil feces were used for multivariate analysis. Coprolites associated to fall and winter modern feces. These results and those obtained from pollen concentration values and the presence of pollen types indicators of seasonality, allowed the determination of summer, fall and winter coprolites. However, caution must be taken with the seasonality results of coprolites dated earlier than 9000 years BP since the environmental conditions differed from now. The site was probably a camelid shelter during the unfavorable seasons.

  12. El patrimonio industrial petrolero en la Patagonia: Comodoro Rivadavia (Argentina y Cerro Sombrero (Chile. Una perspectiva comparada

    Pía Acevedo Méndez


    Full Text Available El hallazgo de petróleo en Comodoro Rivadavia (Chubut, Argentina y en Manantiales (Tierra del Fuego, lado chileno, motivó la construcción de espacios socioproductivos bajo el modelo de Company Towns. En el caso argentino la empresa estatal Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (Y.P.F creó el Campamento Central y la Empresa Nacional del Petróleo (ENAP creó Cerro Sombrero en Chile, los que en la década de 1970 formaron dos tejidos urbanos (barrio en el caso argentino y pueblo en el caso chileno. En esta dinámica se transformó el modo de habitar de ambos espacios, que se convirtieron en potenciales elementos turísticos, teniendo en cuenta que desde el año 2014 poseen reconocimiento patrimonial relacionado con su pasado petrolero y su arquitectura moderna. El objetivo es comparar cómo ambas empresas petroleras estatales construyeron dichos espacios “urbanos” y sus comunidades sociolaborales e indagar en la relación identidad/ patrimonio de ypefeanos y enapinos.

  13. Dieta de murciélagos nectarívoros del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes

    Edith Arias


    Full Text Available En el Perú se reporta la presencia de 18 especies de murciélagos nectarívoros, sin embargo se cuenta con poca información sobre la dieta de estas especies. En este estudio se reporta por primera vez la dieta de los nectarívoros Glossophaga soricina, Lonchophylla hesperia y Anoura geoffroyi en el bosque seco ecuatorial y del bosque tropical del Pacífico del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes. Analizamos 21 contenidos gastrointestinales e identificamos ocho morfotipos de polen pertenecientes a las familias Bombacaceae, Cactaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Myrtaceae, Malvaceae y Rosaceae. Encontramos evidencia del síndrome de quiropterofilia en Bombacaceae, Cactaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae y Rubiaceae. Observamos que A. geoffroyi consume polen de Ceiba trichistandra, Solanaceae y Rubiacea; G. soricina consume de Abutilon reflexum, Armathocereus cartwrightianus, C. trichistandra y Rubiaceae; y L. hesperia de A. cartwrightianus, Eriobotrya japonica, Fabaceae y Psidium sp.; sugiriendo una dieta generalista en estas especies. Los murciélagos G. soricina y A. geoffroyi comparten el consumo del ceibo C. trichistandra y de la Rubiaceae, mientras que G. soricina comparte con L. hesperia el consumo del cactus A. cartwrightianus. Los otros morfotipos de polen no fueron compartidos entre murciélagos. Se encuentra además que el ceibo C. trichistandra fue la especie más consumida, especialmente por G. soricina.

  14. Experimental and petrological constraints on long-term magma dynamics and post-climactic eruptions at the Cerro Galán caldera system, NW Argentina

    Grocke, Stephanie B.; Andrews, Benjamin J.; de Silva, Shanaka L.


    Cerro Galán in NW Argentina records > 3.5 Myr of magmatic evolution of a major resurgent caldera complex. Beginning at 5.72 Ma, nine rhyodacitic ignimbrites (68-71 wt% SiO2) with a combined minimum volume of > 1200 km3 (Dense Rock Equivalent; DRE) have been erupted. The youngest of those ignimbrites is the eponymous, geochemically homogenous, caldera-forming 2.08 ± 0.02 Ma Cerro Galán Ignimbrite (CGI; > 630 km3 DRE). Following this climactic supereruption, structural and magmatic resurgence led to the formation of a resurgent dome and post-climactic lava domes and their associated pyroclastic deposits. A clear transition from amphibole to sanidine-bearing magmas occurred during the evolution of Cerro Galán and is inferred to represent a shallowing of the magma system. We test this hypothesis here using experimental phase equilibria. We conducted a series of phase equilibria experiments on the post-climactic dome lithologies under H2O-saturated conditions using cold seal Waspaloy pressure vessels with an intrinsic log fO2 of NNO + 1 ± 0.5 across a temperature-pressure range of 750-900 °C and 50-200 MPa (PH2O = Ptotal), respectively. Petrologic and geochemical analysis of the post-climactic lithologies shows that the natural phase assemblage (plagioclase + quartz + biotite + sanidine + Fe-Ti oxides ± apatite ± zircon) is stable at history of Cerro Galán is informed through a detailed investigation of the textural differences among the post-climactic dome lithologies, and a comparison of those textures with previously published decompression experiments. These suggest that the highly vesiculated, pumiceous clasts with rare microlites represent magma stored within the core of the lava dome that decompressed relatively rapidly (0.003-0.0003 MPa s-1) and evolved via closed system degassing. Resulting over-pressure of the dome may have triggered superficial explosion. In contrast, dense clasts with abundant crystalline silica precipitates represent more typical

  15. Fire risk in California

    Peterson, Seth Howard

    Fire is an integral part of ecosystems in the western United States. Decades of fire suppression have led to (unnaturally) large accumulations of fuel in some forest communities, such as the lower elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada. Urban sprawl into fire prone chaparral vegetation in southern California has put human lives at risk and the decreased fire return intervals have put the vegetation community at risk of type conversion. This research examines the factors affecting fire risk in two of the dominant landscapes in the state of California, chaparral and inland coniferous forests. Live fuel moisture (LFM) is important for fire ignition, spread rate, and intensity in chaparral. LFM maps were generated for Los Angeles County by developing and then inverting robust cross-validated regression equations from time series field data and vegetation indices (VIs) and phenological metrics from MODIS data. Fire fuels, including understory fuels which are not visible to remote sensing instruments, were mapped in Yosemite National Park using the random forests decision tree algorithm and climatic, topographic, remotely sensed, and fire history variables. Combining the disparate data sources served to improve classification accuracies. The models were inverted to produce maps of fuel models and fuel amounts, and these showed that fire fuel amounts are highest in the low elevation forests that have been most affected by fire suppression impacting the natural fire regime. Wildland fires in chaparral commonly burn in late summer or fall when LFM is near its annual low, however, the Jesusita Fire burned in early May of 2009, when LFM was still relatively high. The HFire fire spread model was used to simulate the growth of the Jesusita Fire using LFM maps derived from imagery acquired at the time of the fire and imagery acquired in late August to determine how much different the fire would have been if it had occurred later in the year. Simulated fires were 1.5 times larger

  16. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  17. All fired up

    CERN Bulletin


    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  18. Managing wildland fires: integrating weather models into fire projections

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Francis Fujioka


    Flames from the Old Fire sweep through lands north of San Bernardino during late fall of 2003. Like many Southern California fires, the Old Fire consumed susceptible forests at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a...

  19. 2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges

    Reichert, William “Monty”; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David


    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community ( Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies—Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell—were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities. PMID:21171147

  20. Analysis of productive evolution of well M-19A, Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Analisis de la evolucion productiva del pozo M-19A del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Marco H; Romero-Rios, Francisco [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    Well M-19A has been the most productive in the Cerro Prieto field, producing around 40 million tons of fluid. The well went on line in February 1975 and was in continuous operation until June 2006. Monthly measurements for over 30 years of operating conditions and chemical and isotopic analyses of the fluids allow identification of the most significant processes occurring in the zone where the well is located. Three dominant recharge types have been identified, each lasting about 10 years. They are a) a recharge of fluids of lower temperature than the production fluids, even though the chemical and isotopic compositions are similar; b) a recharge of lower-temperature fluids with diluted chemical and isotopic compositions; and c) a progressive recharge of reinjected water with a higher chloride concentration and heavy isotopic composition. The production and reinjection rates for over 30 years of production history in the M-19A well zone allow for speculation of a reservoir pressure recovery, which is confirmed with a calculation using production data from well M-19A. The evolution of the reservoir pressure in the zone contrasts with the rest of the reservoir, where a constant pressure drop is observed, particularly toward the central and eastern parts of the field. [Spanish] El pozo M-19A ha sido el mas productivo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, alcanzando una extraccion de mas de 40 millones de toneladas de fluido. Fue integrado a produccion en febrero de 1975 y hasta junio de 2006 ha permanecido en produccion en forma continua. Las mediciones mensuales de sus condiciones operativas y los analisis quimicos e isotopicos del agua producida permiten identificar los procesos mas significativos que han ocurrido a lo largo de esos mas de 30 anos en la zona donde se localiza el pozo. Se han identificado tres tipos de recarga dominantes que se presentan durante un periodo cercano a 10 anos cada uno, los cuales son: a) una recarga de fluidos de menor temperatura

  1. Comportamiento del asma bronquial en un área de salud del policlínico Cerro Behavior of bronchial asthma in a health area of the "Cerro" polyclinic

    Marlene Álvarez Carmenate


    Full Text Available Introducción: el asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en pediatría y una de las principales causas de consulta. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento del asma bronquial como problema de salud. Métodos: trabajo descriptivo, prospectivo, de corte longitudinal, en 309 niños con edades comprendidas entre 0 y 19 años con el diagnóstico de asma bronquial, atendidos en los 15 consultorios médicos del grupo básico de trabajo A del policlínico universitario "Cerro", en el período comprendido entre el 1º de enero de 2007 y el 31 de diciembre de 2007. Método empírico para la obtención de los datos clínicos epidemiológicos, y como técnica, la encuesta a través de un cuestionario. Resultados: 148 pacientes (48 % se encontraban entre 10 y 14 años, 175 (56,6 % del sexo masculino, 136 (44 % fueron clasificados como persistentes ligeros, 140 (58 % presentaron rinitis y 57 (24 % dermatitis. Había fumadores en las viviendas de 303 pacientes (98 %, hacinamiento en 290 casos (94 % y el polvo en el hogar 284 (92 %. Conclusiones: predominio en el grupo de edades de 10 a 14 años, sexo masculino. En cuanto a la severidad de la enfermedad predominó la forma persistente ligera, las manifestaciones atópicas más frecuentes fueron la rinitis y la dermatitis, los principales factores de riesgo fueron el humo del tabaco, el polvo en el hogar y el hacinamiento, y el tratamiento de elección fue el de la crisis. Se observó la falta de organización y unidad de criterios para el enfoque integral de la política intercrisis o de sostén en la atención de los pacientes.Introduction: bronchial asthma is the more frequent chronic disease in Pediatrics and one of the major causes of consultation. Objective: to describe the behavior of bronchial asthma as a health problem. Methods: a longitudinal, prospective and descriptive study was conducted in 309 children aged between 0 and 19 diagnosed with bronchial asthmas seen in the 15 medical

  2. PATRONES DE CONSUMO FINAL DE CÉRVIDOS EN EL PARANÁ MEDIO: EL CASO DEL SITIO CERRO AGUARÁ / Cervids final consumption patterns in middle Paraná River: the case of Cerro Aguará archaeological site

    Leonardo Mucciolo


    Full Text Available Los cérvidos fueron amplia y regularmente explotados por los cazadores-recolectores que habitaron la macroregión del Paraná-Plata durante el Holoceno tardío. En la cuenca media del Paraná, sin embargo, muy pocos estudios han enfocado sobre las estrategias empleadas para su obtención, procesamiento y consumo. Teniendo en cuenta esto, el objetivo de este trabajo es explorar dichos aspectos a partir del análisis de los conjuntos de cérvidos provenientes del sitio arqueológico Cerro Aguará, localizado en el departamento General Obligado (provincia de Santa Fe. La perspectiva seleccionada propone al consumo como factor preponderante en la configuración del registro zooarqueológico dentro del continuum de actividades que componen la explotación faunística. Desde esta perspectiva, y tomando en consideración que las carcasas de los cérvidos proveen distintos tipos de recursos alimenticios con diferentes costos de extracción (carne, médula y grasa ósea, se evalúan diferentes indicadores para establecer si existió diferente intensidad en su procesamiento. Los resultados indican que las dos especies de cérvidos identificadas en el sitio, Blastocerus dichotomus y Ozotoceros bezoarticus, ocuparon un rol preponderante en la dieta, aunque las carcasas del primero fueron empleadas más intensivamente probablemente en correlación con su mayor disponibilidad de nutrientes internos, tales como la médula y posiblemente la grasa ósea.  Abstract  Cervids were wide and regularly exploited by several Late Holocene hunter-gatherers inhabiting Paraná Plata macroregion. In the middle Paraná river, however, few research has been made on strategies involving their procurement, processing and consumption. The purpose of this article is to explore those aspects from the analysis of cervid assemblages of Cerro Aguará archaeological site (General Obligado, Santa Fe province. The selected perspective proposes final consumption as one of the most

  3. Biomass co-firing

    Yin, Chungen


    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  4. Fire safety analysis: methodology

    Kazarians, M.


    From a review of the fires that have occurred in nuclear power plants and the results of fire risk studies that have been completed over the last 17 years, we can conclude that internal fires in nuclear power plants can be an important contributor to plant risk. Methods and data are available to quantify the fire risk. These methods and data have been subjected to a series of reviews and detailed scrutiny and have been applied to a large number of plants. There is no doubt that we do not know everything about fire and its impact on a nuclear power plants. However, this lack of knowledge or uncertainty can be quantified and can be used in the decision making process. In other words, the methods entail uncertainties and limitations that are not insurmountable and there is little or no basis for the results of a fire risk analysis fail to support a decision process

  5. Little Bear Fire Summary Report

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith


    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  6. Fire management in central America

    Andrea L. Koonce; Armando González-Cabán


    Information on fire management operations in Central America is scant. To evaluate the known level of fire occurrence in seven countries in that area, fire management officers were asked to provide information on their fire control organizations and on any available fire statistics. The seven countries surveyed were Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua,...

  7. The human and fire connection

    Theresa B. Jain


    We refer to fire as a natural disturbance, but unlike other disturbances such as forest insects and diseases, fire has had an intimate relationship with humans. Fire facilitated human evolution over two million years ago when our ancestors began to use fire to cook. Fire empowered our furbearers to adapt to cold climates, allowing humans to disperse and settle into...

  8. Designing fire safe interiors.

    Belles, D W


    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  10. WebFIRE

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  11. Fire safety engineering

    Smith, D.N.


    The periodic occurrence of large-scale, potentially disastrous industrial accidents involving fire in hazardous environments such as oilwell blowouts, petrochemical explosions and nuclear installations highlights the need for an integrated approach to fire safety engineering. Risk reduction 'by design' and rapid response are of equal importance in the saving of life and property in such situations. This volume of papers covers the subject thoroughly, touching on such topics as hazard analysis, safety design and testing, fire detection and control, and includes studies of fire hazard in the context of environment protection. (author)

  12. Modeling of compartment fire

    Sathiah, P.; Siccama, A.; Visser, D.; Komen, E.


    Fire accident in a containment is a serious threat to nuclear reactors. Fire can cause substantial loss to life and property. The risk posed by fire can also exceed the risk from internal events within a nuclear reactor. Numerous research efforts have been performed to understand and analyze the phenomenon of fire in nuclear reactor and its consequences. Modeling of fire is an important subject in the field of fire safety engineering. Two approaches which are commonly used in fire modeling are zonal modeling and field modeling. The objective of this work is to compare zonal and field modeling approach against a pool fired experiment performed in a well-confined compartment. Numerical simulations were performed against experiments, which were conducted within PRISME program under the framework of OECD. In these experiments, effects of ventilation flow rate on heat release rate in a confined and mechanically ventilated compartment is investigated. Time dependent changes in gas temperature and oxygen mass fraction were measured. The trends obtained by numerical simulation performed using zonal model and field model compares well with experiments. Further validation is needed before this code can be used for fire safety analyses. (author)

  13. Effective Higgs theories in supersymmetric grand unification

    Zheng, Sibo [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)


    The effective Higgs theories at the TeV scale in supersymmetric SU(5) grand unification models are systematically derived. Restricted to extensions on 5{sub H} containing the Higgs sector we show that only two types of real (vector-like) models and one type of chiral model are found to be consistent with perturbative grand unification. While the chiral model has been excluded by the LHC data, the fate of perturbative unification will be uniquely determined by the two classes of vector-like models. (orig.)

  14. Grand Tour: immaginario, territorio e culture digitali

    Emiliano Ilardi


    Full Text Available Il Grand Tour può essere recuperato come asset narrativo utile per un intervento strategico di re-branding del viaggio in Italia? Il contributo analizza il contesto e le condizioni per una progettazione di questo livello nell’ambiente culturale dell’epoca digitale. Considerando gli archetipi moderni della mediazione dei luoghi come una grande riserva di senso, da riattivare sia nelle pratiche basate sui format seriali e transmediali che valorizzano i territori nella produzione creativa, sia nella costruzione di infrastrutture digitali e  transluoghi per la valorizzazione degli attrattori culturali.

  15. A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics

    Lawrie, Ian D


    A unified account of the principles of theoretical physics, A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics, Second Edition stresses the inter-relationships between areas that are usually treated as independent. The profound unifying influence of geometrical ideas, the powerful formal similarities between statistical mechanics and quantum field theory, and the ubiquitous role of symmetries in determining the essential structure of physical theories are emphasized throughout.This second edition conducts a grand tour of the fundamental theories that shape our modern understanding of the physical wor

  16. 44 CFR 295.50 - Definitions.


    ... Administrative Appeal. It excludes the opinions, memoranda and work papers of our attorneys and drafts of... liability company, estate, trust, county, city, State, school district, special district or other non..., conclusive and irrevocable election to have all Losses resulting from the Cerro Grande Fire reviewed by FEMA...

  17. Mineralogy, structural control and age of the Incachule Sb epithermal veins, the Cerro Aguas Calientes collapse caldera, Central Puna

    Salado Paz, Natalia; Petrinovic, Iván; Do Campo, Margarita; Brod, José Affonso; Nieto, Fernando; da Silva Souza, Valmir; Wemmer, Klauss; Payrola, Patricio; Ventura, Roberto


    The Incachule Sb epithermal veins is located near to the N-E rim of the Cerro Aguas Calientes collapse caldera (17.5-10.8 Ma), in the geologic province of Puna, Salta- Argentina. It is hosted in Miocene felsic volcanic rocks with continental arc signature. The district includes twelve vein systems with mineralization of Sb occurring in hydrothermal breccias and stockwork. The veins are composed of quartz-sulfide with pyrite, stibnite and arsenopyrite. All around the veins, wall rocks are variably altered to clay minerals and sulfates in an area of around 2.5 km wide by more than 7 km long. The hydrothermal alterations recognized are: silicic, phyllic and argillic. The veins are characterized by high contents of Sb, As, and Tl and intermediate contents of Pb-Zn-Cu, and traces of Ag and Au. Homogenization and ice-melting temperatures of fluid inclusions vary from 125 °C to 189 °C and -2.4 °C to -0.8 °C. The isotopic data indicated a range of δ34S -3.04‰ to +0.72‰ consistent with a magmatic source for sulfur. We present the firsts K-Ar ages for hydrothermal illite/smectite mixed layers (I/SR1, 60% illite layers) and illite that constrain the age of the ore deposit (8.5-6.7 ± 0.2 Ma). The data shown here, let characterized the Incachule district as a shallow low sulfidation epithermal system hosted in a collapse caldera. Our data also indicate that mineralization is structurally controlled by a fault system related to the 10.3 Ma collapse of Aguas Calientes caldera. The interpreted local stress field is consistent with the regional one.

  18. Síndrome de Burnout en estudiantes internos durante su estancia por el Hospital Pediátrico del Cerro

    José Ramón Acosta-Torres


    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la presencia del síndrome de Burnout en su orientación unidimensional entre los estudiantes internos del sexto año de la carrera de Medicina durante su rotación por Pediatría. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal y descriptivo mediante la aplicación de la Escala Unidimensional del Burnout Estudiantil de Barraza Macías a una muestra de 230 alumnos del sexto año de la carrera de Medicina, durante su rotación por el Hospital Docente Pediátrico del Cerro, previo consentimiento informado; se indagó la presencia del mismo, sus características y se relacionó la entidad con las variables de la edad y el sexo de los estudiantes. Una vez obtenidos los datos, éstos se almacenaron en una página Excel y se procesaron por el programa XLSTAT 9, mediante la aplicación del método porcentual y el estadígrafo X2, con una significación de p < 0,05. Resultados: Se observó una incidencia del síndrome de Burnout con un nivel leve (83,91% y moderado (13,42% en la población estudiada. Su predominio se identificó en el sexo femenino, con significación estadística e independiente de la edad. Conclusiones: Los alumnos internos en su rotación por la asignatura de Pediatría se encuentran afectados en su mayoría por el síndrome de Burnout en un nivel leve, observándose dependencia del mismo en relación con el sexo femenino.

  19. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Not reported 7% In transport 1% 195 incidents Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...




    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estudiar la fauna anfibia en el Cerro Murrucucú (PNN Paramillo,Tierralta, Córdoba, se realizaron muestreos durante los meses de diciembre de2004, enero y febrero de 2005 en diferentes localidades; se utilizaron dos estrategiasde muestreo (búsqueda libre por inspección visual y trampas de caída. En primerainstancia se comparó la riqueza y la abundancia de las especies en tres zonasaltitudinales en uno de los sectores mejor conservados del Cerro. Se encontró queen la parte baja y media predominan las especies de la familia Hylidae, mientras queen la parte alta predominan representantes de la familia Brachycephalidae, en sumayoría especies del género Eleutherodactylus. Se registran 52 especies para el CerroMurrucucú, que representan el 8% del total de especies en Colombia y más del 80% delas documentadas para el Departamento de Córdoba; las cuales están agrupadas en dosórdenes, 10 familias y 26 géneros. Las familias más representativas, Brachycephalidaee Hylidae, concentran un poco más del 50% de las especies. También se registraronpor primera vez 18 especies para el Departamento de Córdoba y se amplia el rangode distribución geográfico de 18 especies y altitudinal de siete de estas. Se tiene elprimer registro de Eleutherodactylus cruentus para Colombia y el primero de E. viejaspara la Cordillera Occidental Colombiana

  1. High-resolution carbonate isotopic study of the Mural Formation (Cerro Pimas section), Sonora, México: Implications for early Albian oceanic anoxic events

    Madhavaraju, J.; Lee, Yong Il; Scott, R. W.; González-León, C. M.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Saucedo-Samaniego, J. C.; Ramasamy, S.


    The 420-m thick stratigraphic section of the Mural Formation that is exposed in the Cerro Pimas area of northern Sonora, Mexico, is composed of limestone lithofacies ranging from bioclastic wackestone to boundstone, whose biota is characterized by low diversity. Prominent age-diagnostic fossils are benthic foraminifera and long-ranging calcareous algae that indicate the Aptian/Albian boundary is close to the base of the Los Coyotes Member. The carbonates of this formation have negative to positive δ13C values (-4.63 to +2.6‰) and highly depleted δ18O values that range from -12.74 to -8.34‰. The absence of correlation between δ13C and δ18O values supports a primary marine origin for the δ13C values of these limestones. The carbon-isotopic curve of the Cerro Pimas stratigraphic section has well-defined δ13C segments (C8 - C15) that compare with published curves of similar age. In the lower part of the early Albian Los Coyotes Member, the presence of OAE 1b is indicated by an increase followed by a decrease in δ13C values, suggesting correlation with the Kilian Event. The middle part of the Los Coyotes Member has a significant negative carbon-isotope excursion correlated with the globally recognizable early Albian Paquier event. Moreover, another significant negative carbon-isotope shift is observed in the upper part of the Los Coyotes Member, which can be correlated with the Leenhardt Event. The occurrence of the Kilian, Paquier and Leenhardt Events (OAE 1b cluster) in the Cerro Pimas stratigraphy confirms the global nature of these early Albian disturbances of the carbon cycle.

  2. The fire brigade renovates


    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  3. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.


    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  4. Advanced fire information system

    Frost, PE


    Full Text Available The South African Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real-time satellite-based fire monitoring system in Africa. It was originally developed for, and funded by, the electrical power utility Eskom, to reduce the impact of wild...

  5. Hot fire, cool soil

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.


    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures

  6. Hilbert's Grand Hotel with a series twist

    Wijeratne, Chanakya; Mamolo, Ami; Zazkis, Rina


    This paper presents a new twist on a familiar paradox, linking seemingly disparate ideas under one roof. Hilbert's Grand Hotel, a paradox which addresses infinite set comparisons is adapted and extended to incorporate ideas from calculus - namely infinite series. We present and resolve several variations, and invite the reader to explore his or her own variations.

  7. "Teine" võitis Prantsusmaal Grand Prix'


    Prantsusmaal Essonne'is toimuval 8. Euroopa filmifestivalil Cinessonne sai üliõpilaste žürii grand prix rahvusvahelises ühistöös valminud tantsufilm "Teine" ("Another") : režissöör Rene Vilbre. Ka teistest festivalidest, kus film osalenud

  8. The Virtual Grand Tour as Educational Paradigm

    Hansen, Per Skafte; Mouritsen, Lars


    The Virtual Grand Tour as defined here bears some resemblance to its 18th century ancestor: a wide range of individual topics are treated as a whole; a tutor, whether real or simulated, present or remote, is provided; a set of problem solving tools forms an integrated part of the "traveller...

  9. Grand Prix Eurovision: Eine Fankultur im Medienzeitalter

    Heinz Moser


    Full Text Available Der Grand Prix Eurovision ist seit Jahrzehnten eine der bekanntesten Unterhaltungssendungen im europäischen Raum. Dennoch erregte es Verwunderung, wenn der Schreibende Bekannten darüber berichtete, daß dies ein Forschungsgegenstand sei. Wurde von Interviews mit Grand Prix-Fans erzählt, so fielen schnell Aussagen wie: „Wie kann man sich nur für so etwas Abseitiges und Triviales wie den Grand Prix interessieren“. Dennoch bin ich der Meinung, daß Fankulturen für die entstehende Mediengesellschaft ein nicht unwichtiges Forschungsthema darstellen. Zwar geht es nicht um eine medienpädagogische Fragestellung im engeren Sinne; die Fans des Grand Prix Eurovision sind dem Jugendalter längst entwachsen. Dennoch handelt es sich bei Fangemeinschaften um Phänomene, die im Rahmen von Jugend- und Kinderkulturen von besonderer Relevanz sind. So meint Winter (1997, daß jugendliche Fanwelten eine bedeutende Rolle als Kristallisationspunkte kultureller Differenzierung spielen: ,Die Zugehörigkeit zu einer Fan weit ist Teil der jugendlichen Lebensbewältigung in der Postmoderne, denn in der Gemeinschaft der Fans können Jugendliche emotionale Allianzen eingehen, außeralltäglichen Beschäftigungen nachgehen, expressive Identitätsmuster gemeinschaftlich realisieren und sich mit ihrer Lebenssituation als Heranwachsende auseinandersetzen“ (Winter 1997, S. 51f..

  10. Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center

    Hamill, John F.


    The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, one of the world's most spectacular gorges, is a premier U.S. National Park and a World Heritage Site. The canyon supports a diverse array of distinctive plants and animals and contains cultural resources significant to the region's Native Americans. About 15 miles upstream of Grand Canyon National Park sits Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1963, which created Lake Powell. The dam provides hydroelectric power for 200 wholesale customers in six western States, but it has also altered the Colorado River's flow, temperature, and sediment-carrying capacity. Over time this has resulted in beach erosion, invasion and expansion of nonnative species, and losses of native fish. Public concern about the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations prompted the passage of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to operate the dam 'to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established...' This legislation also required the creation of a long-term monitoring and research program to provide information that could inform decisions related to dam operations and protection of downstream resources.

  11. Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.

    Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert


    This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial…

  12. Rio Branco, grand strategy and naval power

    João Paulo Alsina Jr.


    Full Text Available This article addresses Baron of Rio Branco's grand strategy and the role played by the naval reorganization program (1904-1910 in this context. The ensuing case study determined the domestic and international constraints that affected the program, as well as the worldview of the patron of Brazilian diplomacy regarding military power's instrumentality to foreign policy.

  13. Reisipakkumine - Grand Tour Itaalias / Mai Levin

    Levin, Mai, 1942-


    Tiina Abeli koostatud ja Urmas Viigi kujundatud näitus "Grand Tour. Eesti kunstnikud Itaalias" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 05. aprillini. Loetletud eksponeeritud tööde autoreid. Näitus annab ülevaate, kes siinsetest kunstnikest 19. sajandi algusest kuni 1930ndate aastateni Itaalias käisid ja kuidas see nende loomingut mõjutas

  14. Middle Rio Grande Basin Research Report 2008

    Deborah M. Finch; Catherine Dold


    An ecosystem is rarely static. A natural system composed of plants, animals, and microorganisms interacting with an area's physical factors, an ecosystem is always fluctuating and evolving. But sometimes, often at the hands of humans, ecosystems change too much. Such is the case with many of the ecosystems of the Middle Rio Grande Basin of New Mexico.

  15. Panel - Rio Grande restoration: Future directions

    Deborah M. Finch; Pete V. Domenici; Jeffrey. C. Whitney; Steve Harris; Brian Shields; Clifford S. Crawford


    The purpose of this panel was to discuss historical and current changes to the Rio Grande system, focusing on the middle Basin, and to present and review different individual, organizational, and political perspectives on the future of the system. Invitations were made to panelists based on their past and current interests and activities pertaining to restoration of...

  16. La intrusión de Cerro Redondo (Pérmico Inferior, Cordillera Ibérica, Zaragoza): reconstrucción 3D y modelo de emplazamiento

    Majarena Serrano, Urbez; Gil Imaz, Andrés; Lago San José, Marceliano; Galé, Carlos


    La intrusión subvolcánica de Cerro Redondo (Cordillera Ibérica, Zaragoza), de edad Pérmico Inferior, muestra una composición dactíca, una naturaleza calcoalcalina y se caracteriza por presentar una marcada estructuración interna determinada por un bandeado subvertical y d e espaciado variable (1-25 cm), que se encuentra afectado por numerosos pliegues d e flujo magmático de distinta escala (desde centimétrica hasta hectométrica). El estudio cartográfico y de la anisotropia de la susceptib...

  17. Parasitosis intestinales en niños ingresados en el Hospital Universitario Pediátrico del Cerro, La Habana, Cuba

    Núñez, Fidel A.; González, Odalys M.; Bravo, . José R.; Escobedo, Ángel A.; González, Ida


    Se realizó un estudio sobre parasitismo intestinal en 401 niños ingresados en el Hospital Universitario Pediátrico del Cerro entre los meses de mayo y junio de 1999. Para esta finalidad se tomó una muestra representativa, aleatoria y estratificada por servicios. Por cada niño, se recogieron 3 muestras de heces preservadas en formaldehído, las que se procesaron por 3 métodos parasitológicos. La prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal fue de 15 % en el hospital, y no se encontraron diferencias en...

  18. Reporte de un opilión cavernícola de la familia Gonyleptidae encontrado en el cerro de Quininí, Tibacuy, Cundinamarca

    Alejandro Parra


    Full Text Available En la observación bioespelológica en una gruta ubicada en el cerro de Quinini, inspección de policía de Cumaca, Cundinamarca, se encontró una población de Opiliones de la Familia Gonyleptidae ,familia por primera vez reportada para Colombia. Se observó en los opiliones conductas de apareamiento y se realizó un estudio morfológico para una determinación taxonómica profunda.

  19. Reporte de un opilión cavernícola de la familia Gonyleptidae encontrado en el cerro de Quininí, Tibacuy, Cundinamarca

    Alejandro Parra; Oscar Vivas; Francisco Hormanza


    En la observación bioespelológica en una gruta ubicada en el cerro de Quinini, inspección de policía de Cumaca, Cundinamarca, se encontró una población de Opiliones de la Familia Gonyleptidae ,familia por primera vez reportada para Colombia. Se observó en los opiliones conductas de apareamiento y se realizó un estudio morfológico para una determinación taxonómica profunda.

  20. A Review of Fire Interactions and Mass Fires

    Mark A. Finney


    Full Text Available The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire spread where none otherwise existed. Fire-fire interactions occur naturally when spot fires start ahead of the main fire and when separate fire events converge in one location. Interactions can be created intentionally during prescribed fires by using spatial ignition patterns. Mass fires are among the most extreme examples of interactive behavior. This paper presents a review of the detailed effects of fire-fire interaction in terms of merging or coalescence criteria, burning rates, flame dimensions, flame temperature, indraft velocity, pulsation, and convection column dynamics. Though relevant in many situations, these changes in fire behavior have yet to be included in any operational-fire models or decision support systems.

  1. Fires in Chile


    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Sodium fire protection

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.


    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  3. Gaseous equilibrium in sector CP IV of the Cerro Prieto, B.C. Mexico geothermal field; Equilibrio gaseoso en el sector CP IV del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); De Leon Vivar, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Campo Geotermico Cerro Prieto, Cerro Prieto, B. C. (Mexico)


    Sector CP IV is located in the NE portion of the Cerrro Prieto geothermal field. The wells of this zone produce two-phase fluids, with different characteristics as far as their steam fraction content; in the central part and towards the NW the fluids are of dominant liquid type whereas towards the E and the S, the fluid contains a relatively higher steam fraction. The results of gaseous equilibrium FT- HSH3 showed that the fluids in the deposit are at temperatures between 275 Celsius degrees and 310 Celsius degrees and contain steam fractions between 0.01 and 0.5. The data found for the natural state are aligned in a tendency defined in the diagram FT- HSH3, that suggest the wells receive different proportions from preexisting steam in the deposit, which are mixed with the liquid phase to produce the observed discharges. The present data, besides showing the presence of deposit steam, also indicates the entrance of lower temperature fluid in the central part of sector CP IV. [Spanish] El sector CP IV se localiza en la porcion NE del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto. Los pozos de esta zona producen fluidos bifasicos, con diferentes caracteristicas en cuanto a su contenido de fraccion de vapor: en la parte central y hacia el NW los fluidos son de tipo liquido dominante mientras que hacia el E y hacia el S, el fluido contiene una fraccion relativamente alta de vapor. Los resultados de equilibrio gaseoso FT-HSH3 mostraron que los fluidos en el yacimiento se encuentran a temperaturas de entre 275 grados Celsius y 310 grados Celsius y contienen fracciones de vapor de entre -.01 y .5. Los datos hallados para el estado natural se alinean en una tendencia definida en el diagrama FT-HSH3, que sugiere que los pozos reciben diferentes proporciones de vapor pre-existente en el yacimiento, que se mezclan con fase liquida para producir las descargas que se observan. Los datos actuales, ademas de mostrar la presencia de vapor de yacimiento, tambien indican la entrada de fluidos de

  4. USFA NFIRS 2005 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2005 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  5. USFA NFIRS 2008 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2008 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  6. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)


    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  7. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  8. Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    Berg, H. P.


    Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

  9. Fire protection for clean rooms

    Kirson, D.


    The fire protection engineer often must decide what size fire can be tolerated before automatic fire suppression systems actuate. Is it a wastepaper basket fire, a bushel basket fire...? In the case of state-of-the-art clean rooms, the answer clearly is not even an incipient fire. Minor fires in clean rooms can cause major losses. This paper discusses what a clean room is and gives a brief overview of the unique fire protection challenges encountered. The two major causes of fire related to clean rooms in the semiconductor industry are flammable/pyrophoric gas fires in plastic ducts and polypropylene wet bench fires. This paper concentrates on plastic ductwork in clean rooms, sprinkler protection in ductwork, and protection for wet benches

  10. Fire adaptation in Neblinaria celiae (Theaceae), a high-elevation rosette shrub endemic to a wet equatorial tepui

    Givnish, T.J.; McDiarmid, R.W.; Buck, W.R.


    Neblinaria celiae (Theaceae), a rosette shrub endemic to the exceedingly rainy summit of remote Cerro de la Neblina in southern Venezuela, has a previously undescribed set of adaptations to fire. Its growth form entails sparse branching, massive terminal leaf rosettes, and thick bark. It is highly fire-tolerant, with a survival rate of 93% in a stand recently ignited by lightning, vs. 0% in seven co-occurring woody species. Survival increases sharply with rosette height, favoring a sparsely branched habit that would maximize the rate of upward growth through the sparse fuel layer supported by a sterile substrate. Thick bark and massive rosettes help protect cambial and foliar meristems from brief exposure to high temperatures. Rosettes on shorter plants are exposed to greater damage from fire near the ground and, as expected, are bigger and impound more rainwater; the greater number of leaves nearly balances the greater leaf mortality caused by fire. We relate Neblinaria's growth form to its dominance atop Neblina, to a general model for the evolution of sparse branching, and to the evolution of growth form in other tepui plants.

  11. Relación entre la Comunicación y su Eficacia de los Programas Sociales del Ministerio de Desarrollo e Inclusión Social en el Cono Norte Distrito de Cerro Colorado, Arequipa, 2016

    Llanos Mendoza, Daniela Flora


    La presente tesis cuyo enunciado del problema es: Relación entre la comunicación y su eficacia de los programas sociales del Ministerio de Desarrollo e Inclusión Social en el Cono Norte, distrito de Cerro Colorado de Arequipa “2016”; tiene como objetivo: determinar la relación entre la comunicación y su eficacia de los programas sociales del Ministerio de Desarrollo de Inclusión Social en el Cono Norte, Cerro Colorado, Arequipa. Se planteó la siguiente hipótesis para el presente estudio:...

  12. The contribution of natural fire management to wilderness fire science

    Carol Miller


    When the federal agencies established policies in the late 1960s and early 1970s to allow the use of natural fires in wilderness, they launched a natural fire management experiment in a handful of wilderness areas. As a result, wildland fire has played more of its natural role in wilderness than anywhere else. Much of what we understand about fire ecology comes from...

  13. Changes in fire weather distributions: effects on predicted fire behavior

    Lucy A. Salazar; Larry S. Bradshaw


    Data that represent average worst fire weather for a particular area are used to index daily fire danger; however, they do not account for different locations or diurnal weather changes that significantly affect fire behavior potential. To study the effects that selected changes in weather databases have on computed fire behavior parameters, weather data for the...

  14. Humans, Fires, and Forests - Social science applied to fire management

    Hanna J. Cortner; Donald R. Field; Pam Jakes; James D. Buthman


    The 2000 and 2002 fire seasons resulted in increased political scrutiny of the nation's wildland fire threats, and given the fact that millions of acres of lands are still at high risk for future catastrophic fire events, the issues highlighted by the recent fire seasons are not likely to go away any time soon. Recognizing the magnitude of the problem, the...

  15. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)


    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  16. Fire test database

    Lee, J.A.


    This paper describes a project recently completed for EPRI by Impell. The purpose of the project was to develop a reference database of fire tests performed on non-typical fire rated assemblies. The database is designed for use by utility fire protection engineers to locate test reports for power plant fire rated assemblies. As utilities prepare to respond to Information Notice 88-04, the database will identify utilities, vendors or manufacturers who have specific fire test data. The database contains fire test report summaries for 729 tested configurations. For each summary, a contact is identified from whom a copy of the complete fire test report can be obtained. Five types of configurations are included: doors, dampers, seals, wraps and walls. The database is computerized. One version for IBM; one for Mac. Each database is accessed through user-friendly software which allows adding, deleting, browsing, etc. through the database. There are five major database files. One each for the five types of tested configurations. The contents of each provides significant information regarding the test method and the physical attributes of the tested configuration. 3 figs

  17. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID


    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  18. Rock-magnetism and ore microscopy of the magnetite-apatite ore deposit from Cerro de Mercado, Mexico

    Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Caballero-Miranda, C.; Vivallo, W.


    Rock-magnetic and microscopic studies of the iron ores and associated igneous rocks in the Cerro de Mercado, Mexico, were carried out to determine the magnetic mineralogy and origin of natural remanent magnetization (NRM), related to the thermo-chemical processes due to hydrothermalism. Chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) seems to be present in most of investigated ore and wall rock samples, replacing completely or partially an original thermoremanent magnetization (TRM). Magnetite (or Ti-poor titanomagnetite) and hematite are commonly found in the ores. Although hematite may carry a stable CRM, no secondary components are detected above 580°, which probably attests that oxidation occurred soon enough after the extrusion and cooling of the ore-bearing magma. NRM polarities for most of the studied units are reverse. There is some scatter in the cleaned remanence directions of the ores, which may result from physical movement of the ores during faulting or mining, or from perturbation of the ambient field during remanence acquisition by inhomogeneous internal fields within these strongly magnetic ore deposits. The microscopy study under reflected light shows that the magnetic carriers are mainly titanomagnetite, with significant amounts of ilmenite-hematite minerals, and goethite-limonite resulting from alteration processes. Magmatic titanomagnetites, which are found in igneous rocks, show trellis, sandwich, and composite textures, which are compatible with high temperature (deuteric) oxy-exsolution processes. Hydrothermal alteration in ore deposits is mainly indicated by martitization in oxide minerals. Grain sizes range from a few microns to >100 mm, and possible magnetic state from single to multidomain, in agreement with hysteresis measurements. Thermal spectra, continuous susceptibility measurements, and IRM (isothermal remanent magnetization) acquisition suggest a predominance of spinels as magnetic carriers, most probably titanomagnetites with low

  19. Recycling of water, carbon, and sulfur during subduction of serpentinites: A stable isotope study of Cerro del Almirez, Spain

    Alt, Jeffrey C.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Turchyn, Alexandra; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Gómez Pugnaire, María Teresa; Marchesi, Claudio


    We use the concentrations and isotope compositions of water, carbon, and sulfur in serpentinites and their dehydration products to trace the cycling of volatiles during subduction. Antigorite serpentinites from the Cerro del Almirez complex, Spain, contain 9–12 wt.% H2O and 910 ± 730 ppm sulfur, and have bulk δ18O values of 8.6 ± 0.4‰, δD = − 54 ± 5‰, and δ34S = 5.0‰, consistent with serpentinization at temperatures of ~ 200 °C by seawater hydrothermal fluids in a seafloor setting. The serpentinites were dehydrated to chlorite–harzburgite (olivine + orthopyroxene + chlorite) at 700 °C and 1.6–1.9 GPa during subduction metamorphism, resulting in loss of water, and sulfur. The chlorite–harzburgites contain 5.7 ± 1.9 wt.% H2O, and have bulk δ18O = 8.0 ± 0.9‰, and δD = − 77 ± 11‰. The rocks contain 650 ± 620 ppm sulfur having δ34S = 1.2‰. Dehydration of serpentinite resulted in loss of 5 wt.% H2O having δ18O = 8–10‰ and δD = − 27 to − 65‰, and loss of 260 ppm sulfur as sulfate, having δ34S = 14.5‰. The contents and δ13C of total carbon in the two rock types overlap, with a broad trend of decreasing carbon contents and δ13C from ~ 1300 to 200 ppm and − 9.6 to − 20.2‰. This reflects mixing between reduced carbon in the rocks (210 ppm, δ13C ≈ − 26‰) and seawater-derived carbonate (δ13C ≈ − 1‰). Our results indicate: 1) Serpentinized oceanic peridotites carry significant amounts of isotopically fractionated water, carbon and sulfur into subduction zones; 2) Subduction of serpentinites to high P and T results in loss of water, and sulfur, which can induce melting and contribute to 18O, D, and 34S enrichments and oxidation of the sub-arc mantle wedge; and 3) Isotopically fractionated water, carbon, and sulfur in serpentinite dehydration products are recycled deeper into the mantle where they can contribute to isotope heterogeneities and may be significant for volatile budgets of the deep Earth.

  20. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

    Gerardo Avalos


    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  1. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de la Muerte, Costa Rica.

    Avalos, Gerardo; Soto, Alejandra; Alfaro, Willy


    Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant) and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis), dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads), and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon). Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of captured

  2. Anchoring the landscape: human utilization of the Cerro Gavilán 2 rockshelter, Middle Orinoco, from the Early Holocene to the present

    Kay Scaramelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Initial archaeological investigations at Cerro Gavilán 2, a rockshelter located in the Bolívar State of Venezuela, reveal evidence for human activity that spans the Early Holocene to the present. This report summarizes the information obtained through surface collection, limited excavation, and documentation of the surface features and rock art in the cave. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C analysis established dates from excavated strata that range between 9250 ± 60 BP to 3440 ± 40 BP, and are associated with a unifacial flake technology and charred faunal and floral remains, whereas surface remains span the known ceramic sequence for the area. Rock art corresponds to distinctive superimposed styles that indicate continual repainting of the cave through time, serving to anchor the site to the landscape for multiple societies inhabiting the region. It is suggested that the shelter may have fulfilled different functions over time and a sequence of seasonal residential, ritual, and funerary activities is proposed. The rich cultural context found in Cerro Gavilán 2 contributes to advances in Amazonian archaeology that are redefining our knowledge of early developments and the complexity of human/environmental interactions in tropical America.


    Mariano Bonomo


    Full Text Available In this paper the results of the studies carried out on ceramic and bone materials recorded at Cerro Tapera Vázquez site (Argentinean Northeast are presented. Taxonomic, anatomic and taphonomic studies of bone assemblages and technological-decorative analysis and refitting of pottery were undertaken. The site is located on a mound next to El Ceibo Creek, where 16 m2 were excavated in 2008. Abundant smooth, incised and modeled pottery (handles and zoomorphic appendages and numerous bones remains of Myocastor coypus (most frequent taxon, Blastocerus dichotomus, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Cavia aperea, Leopardus geoffroyi, Lycalopex gymnocercus, Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, birds and fish (Siluriformes and Characiformes were recorded. Except Cavia aperea rodent and Dusicyon gimnocercus fox, all taxa show evidence of anthropic modification (cut marks, fresh fractures and burning. Two radiocarbon dates were obtained: 650 and 520 yrs. BP. The results reached in this study lead to the conclusion that the pre-Hispanic populations that occupied Cerro Tapera Vázquez by the end of the Late Holocene were riverine canoe peoples, with complex ceramic technology and subsistence based on hunting of coypu, capybara and cervids, fishing and small-scale horticulture.

  4. Cable tray fire tests

    Klamerus, L.J.


    Funds were authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. The activities of this program through August 1978 are summarized. A survey of industry to determine current design practices and a screening test to select two cable constructions which were used in small scale and full scale testing are described. Both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness are outlined

  5. Chemistry fighting against fires

    Raffalsky, K.


    A detailed report is given on the general principle 'fire' and on fires as fast chemical reactions between consumable material and oxygen of the air (exothermal oxidation) as well as on the classes of fires A to D. Class D includes strongly incadescent burnable metals such as K, Na, Li, Cs, Rb, U, Pu, Ce, Zr, Be, Ca, Sr, Ba etc. The burning process, the extinguishing effects, the development of the extinguisher and its present state are individually dealt with. (HK/LH) [de

  6. Coal-fired generation

    Breeze, Paul


    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  7. Modeling urban fire growth

    Waterman, T.E.; Takata, A.N.


    The IITRI Urban Fire Spread Model as well as others of similar vintage were constrained by computer size and running costs such that many approximations/generalizations were introduced to reduce program complexity and data storage requirements. Simplifications were introduced both in input data and in fire growth and spread calculations. Modern computational capabilities offer the means to introduce greater detail and to examine its practical significance on urban fire predictions. Selected portions of the model are described as presently configured, and potential modifications are discussed. A single tract model is hypothesized which permits the importance of various model details to be assessed, and, other model applications are identified

  8. Laboratory fire behavior measurements of chaparral crown fire

    C. Sanpakit; S. Omodan; D. Weise; M Princevac


    In 2013, there was an estimated 9,900 wildland fires that claimed more than 577,000 acres of land. That same year, about 542 prescribed fires were used to treat 48,554 acres by several agencies in California. Being able to understand fires using laboratory models can better prepare individuals to combat or use fires. Our research focused on chaparral crown fires....

  9. An 800-year fire history

    Stanley G. Kitchen


    "Fire in the woods!" The words are a real heart stopper. Yet in spite of its capacity to destroy, fire plays an essential role in shaping plant communities. Knowledge of the patterns of fire over long time periods is critical for understanding this role. Trees often retain evidence of nonlethal fires in the form of injuries or scars in the annual growth rings...

  10. Fire tests and their relevance

    Malhotra, H.L.


    Background information is provided about the nature of fire tests in general, not specifically designed for testing nuclear flasks. Headings are: brief history (including various temperature/time fire curves); the current position; types of tests; validation of fire tests; fire safety system. (U.K.)

  11. Fire safety of wood construction

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger


    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  12. Subsurface Fire Hazards Technical Report

    Logan, R.C.


    The results from this report are preliminary and cannot be used as input into documents supporting procurement, fabrication, or construction. This technical report identifies fire hazards and proposes their mitigation for the subsurface repository fire protection system. The proposed mitigation establishes the minimum level of fire protection to meet NRC regulations, DOE fire protection orders, that ensure fire containment, adequate life safety provisions, and minimize property loss. Equipment requiring automatic fire suppression systems is identified. The subsurface fire hazards that are identified can be adequately mitigated

  13. Plutonium fires; Incendies de plutonium

    Mestre, E.


    The author reports an information survey on accidents which occurred when handling plutonium. He first addresses accidents reported in documents. He indicates the circumstances and consequences of these accidents (explosion in glove boxes, fires of plutonium chips, plutonium fire followed by filter destruction, explosion during plutonium chip dissolution followed by chip fire). He describes hazards associated with plutonium fires: atmosphere and surface contamination, criticality. The author gives some advices to avoid plutonium fires. These advices concern electric installations, the use of flammable solvents, general cautions associated with plutonium handling, venting and filtration. He finally describes how to fight plutonium fires, and measures to be taken after the fire (staff contamination control, atmosphere control)

  14. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.


    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  15. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.


    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  16. Fire in the Earth system.

    Bowman, David M J S; Balch, Jennifer K; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J; Carlson, Jean M; Cochrane, Mark A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Defries, Ruth S; Doyle, John C; Harrison, Sandy P; Johnston, Fay H; Keeley, Jon E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Kull, Christian A; Marston, J Brad; Moritz, Max A; Prentice, I Colin; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Swetnam, Thomas W; van der Werf, Guido R; Pyne, Stephen J


    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  17. Cosmological implications of grand unified theories

    Nanopoulos, D.V.


    These lectures, mainly devoted to the cosmological implications of GUTs, also include the essential ingredients of GUTs and some of their important applications to particle physics. Section 1 contains some basic points concerning the structure of the standard strong and electroweak interactions prior to grand unification. A detailed expose of GUTs is attempted in sect. 2, including their basci principles and their consequences for particle physics. The minimal, simplest GUT, SU 5 is analysed in some detail and it will be used throughout these lectures as the GUT prototype. Finally, sect. 3 contains the most important cosmological implications of GUTs, including baryon number generation in the early Universe (in rather lengthy detail), dissipative processes in the very early Universe, grand unified monopoles, etc. (orig./HSI)

  18. The geology of Piz Pian Grand

    Huber, M.; Staeuble, J.


    Nagra has identified four potential sites for a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste. Exploration work is already underway at Oberbauenstock (UR) and Piz Pian Grand (GR). As part of the investigations in the Piz Pian Grand area, geological surface mapping was carried out between 1984 and 1987. Since the data obtained is still being evaluated, it would be premature to draw any interpretative conclusions at this stage. On the other hand, some of the most significant observations of this work can be summarised here. As a first step, the geological framework in which these investigations are to be seen should be defined. Observations will then be made on the rock content (lithology) and geometric structure (structural geology) of the area. (author) 6 figs

  19. The economics of fire protection

    Ramachandran, Ganapathy


    This important new book, the first of its kind in the fire safety field, discusses the economic problems faced by decision-makers in the areas of fire safety and fire precautions. The author considers the theoretical aspects of cost-benefit analysis and other relevant economic problems with practical applications to fire protection systems. Clear examples are included to illustrate these techniques in action. The work covers: * the performance and effectiveness of passive fire protection measures such as structural fire resistance and means of escape facilities, and active systems such as sprinklers and detectors * the importance of educating for better understanding and implementation of fire prevention through publicity campaigns and fire brigade operations * cost-benefit analysis of fire protection measures and their combinations, taking into account trade-offs between these measures. The book is essential reading for consultants and academics in construction management, economics and fire safety, as well ...

  20. Cable fire tests in France

    Kaercher, M.


    Modifications are being carried out in all French nuclear power plants to improve fire safety. These modifications are based on a three level defense in depth concept: fire preventing, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire containing requires many modifications such as protection of cable races and assessment of fire propagation which both need R and D development. On one hand, cable wraps made with mineral wool were tested in all configurations including effect of aging, overheating and fire and qualified for the use as protection from common failure modes. On the other hand, cables races in scale one were subject to gas burner or solvent pool fire to simulate ignition and fire propagation between trays and flash over situations. These tests have been performed under several typical lay out conditions. The results of the tests can be used as input data in computer modelling for validation of fire protection measures. (orig.) [de


    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.


    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  2. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

    Gerardo Avalos


    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  3. Grand Gulf-prioritization of regulatory requirements

    Meisner, M.J.


    As cost pressures mount, Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) is relying increasingly on various prioritization approaches to implement, modify, eliminate, or defer regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements can be prioritized through the use of three measures: (1) safety (or risk) significance; (2) cost; and (3) public policy (or political) significance. This paper summarizes GGNS' efforts to implement solutions to regulatory issues using these three prioritization schemes to preserve a balance between cost and safety benefit

  4. Between two evils: Investors prefer grand corruption!

    Graf Lambsdorff, Johann


    Recent empirical studies claim that, in addition to levels of corruption, investors are deterred by its unpredictability. I claim instead that it is petty corruption that deters investors. I employ seven subcomponents of corruption for a sample of 102 countries that appear in the 2003 Global Competitiveness Report of the WEF. The second principal component of this data depicts a grand, political type, embracing corruption in government policymaking and in judicial decisions as opposed to corr...

  5. Grand Challenges in Music Information Research

    Goto, Masataka


    This paper discusses some grand challenges in which music information research will impact our daily lives and our society in the future. Here, some fundamental questions are how to provide the best music for each person, how to predict music trends, how to enrich human-music relationships, how to evolve new music, and how to address environmental, energy issues by using music technologies. Our goal is to increase both attractiveness and social impacts of music information research in the fut...

  6. Meliponiculture in Rio Grande do Norte

    Ulysses Madureira Maia


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Maia U.M., Jaffe R., Carvalho A.T. & Imperatriz-Fonseca V.L. [Meliponiculture in Rio Grande do Norte.] Meliponicultura no Rio Grande do Norte. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:327-333, 2015. Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901, Brasil. E-mail: This study aimed to assess the current status of stingless bee beekeeping (meliponiculture in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, with the aid of structured questionnaires made during visits to beekeepers. The results were compared with a previous census made in the state and with a similar study from Australia. Meliponiculture in Rio Grande do Norte is still informal and little standardized. The activity has grown in recent years considering the mean number of nests per beekeeper. Most apiaries are formed of up to 50 colonies, usually distributed in the backyards of homes. Twelve species of stingless bees were reared in the state, and the most common was the “Jandaíra” bee (Melipona subnitida, whose honey is considered medicinal. While many beekeepers already know the importance of bees as pollinators, stingless bees are still not used for crop pollination. Compared to a recent analysis of beekeeping in Australia, meliponiculture in Brazil is more traditional, honey is the main product and the number of colonies per beekeeper is much higher. Our results highlight the need to reinforce knowledge about bees and promote specific training aimed at improving and standardizing management practices.

  7. Neutrino mixing in a grand unified theory

    Milton, K.; Tanaka, K.


    Neutrino mixing in a grand unified theory in which the neutrino mass matrix is determined by the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism was investigated. With an arbitrary real right-handed Majorana mass matrix which incorporates three neutrino mass scales, the effects of the up-quark mass matrix are found to be dominant and as a result no significant mixing of ν/sub e/ occurs, while ν/sub μ/ - ν/sub γ/ mixing can be substantial

  8. The Grand Strategy of Charles de Gaulle


    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Grand Startegy of Charles de Gaulle 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...dependent on French influence within NATO and the Common Market . De Gaulle frequently used these fora to veto British and American initiatives. As Cook...the reserve currency. Gold would be the basis of international finance and a French-dominated European Common Market would provide the framework

  9. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  10. Fire Resistant Materials


    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  11. Fire and smoke retardants

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  12. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to...

  13. Fire Perimeters (2012)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  14. RETRO Fires Aggr

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...


    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  16. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  17. Findings From Fire Inspections

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  18. Fire History Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past fire occurrence from tree rings, charcoal found in lake sediments, and other proxies. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  19. Fire Safety Deficiencies

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all fire safety deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection...

  20. Future Integrated Fire Control

    Young, Bonnie W


    Future advances in fire control for air and missile defense depend largely on a network-enabled foundation that enables the collaborative use of distributed warfare assets for time-critical operations...

  1. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Zucca, Carol; And Others


    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  2. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.


    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  3. Haze in the Grand Canyon: An evaluation of the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment


    The Grand Canyon is one of the most spectacular natural sights on earth. Approximately 4 million visitors travel to Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) each year to enjoy its majestic geological formations and intensely colored views. However, visibility in GCNP can be impaired by small increases in concentrations of fine suspended particles that scatter and absorb light; the resulting visibility degradation is perceived as haze. Sulfate particles are a major factor in visibility impairment at Grand Canyon in summer and winter. Many wintertime hazes at GCNP are believed to result from the accumulation of emissions from local sources during conditions of air stagnation, which occur more frequently in winter than in summer. In January and February 1987, the National Park Service (NPS) carried out a large-scale experiment known as the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment (WHITEX) to investigate the causes of wintertime haze in the region of GCNP and Canyonlands National Park. The overall objective of WHITEX was to assess the feasibility of attributing visibility impairment in specific geographic regions to emissions from a single point source. The experiment called for the injection of a tracer, deuterated methane (CD{sub 4}), into one of the stacks of the Navajo Generating Station (NGS), a major coal-fired power plant located 25 km from the GCNP boundary and 110 km northeast of Grand Canyon Village. A network of field stations was established in the vicinity -- mostly to the northeast of GCNP and NGS -- to measure CD{sub 4} concentrations, atmospheric aerosol and optical properties, and other chemical and physical attributes. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  4. [Grand Banks activity : updates and opportunities

    Bruce, G.


    An overview of the exploration and on-going activities by the petroleum industry on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland was presented. The two offshore oil developments underway are Hibernia and Terra Nova, both located in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin. Current production from Hibernia is 68,000 bopd, expected to rise to 130,000 bopd in 1999. The Terra Nova Field is still under development. Total recoverable reserves from the 17 discoveries made in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin are estimated at 1.6 billion barrels of oil and 4 trillion cubic feet of gas. Industry participants in the area include Amoco, Petro-Canada, Mobil, Chevron, Husky and Norsk Hydro. Petro-Canada believes the Grand Banks represent one of the best opportunities for oil anywhere in the world. There are currently 21 exploration licenses held on the Grand Banks. Major attractions of the area include the large reserve potential, the relatively low finding costs, the size of the pools being discovered, improvements in offshore technology that have substantially lowered development costs, and a profit-sensitive generic royalty regime that ensures reasonable rates of return for investors. figs

  5. Proton decay in grand unified theories

    Lucha, W.


    Interactions which violate the conservation of baryon and lepton number represent an intrinsic part of all grand unified theories (GUTs) of strong and electroweak interactions. These new interactions - predicted within the framework of GUTs - generate B and L violating four-fermion interactions via the exchange of superheavy particles which cannot be ascribed a well-defined baryon or lepton number. The effective coupling constant of these four-fermion interactions might be large enough to make the proton decay detectable by the present generation of experiments. In this review the basic concepts of conventional as well as supersymmetric GUTs relevant for proton decay are sketched. The baryon number violating sector of grand unified theories is discussed in more detail. Special emphasis is laid on the various selection rules arising as consequences of low-energy gauge invariance and supersymmetry for proton decay. These selection rules already determine the coarse pattern of the resulting decay modes and branching ratios without any reference to or detailed knowledge of the underlying grand unified theory. Finally the numerous theoretical predictions are summarized and confronted with experiment. (Author)

  6. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    Ponton, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  7. Sodium fire suppression

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)


    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  8. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe


    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  9. Sodium fire suppression

    Malet, J.C.


    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  10. Fire characteristics charts for fire behavior and U.S. fire danger rating

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Pat Andrews


    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating indices or primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. A desktop computer application has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and presentations. Many options include change of scales, colors,...

  11. Community participation in fire management planning: The Trinity county fire safe council's fire plan

    Yvonne Everett


    In 1999, Trinity County CA, initiated a participatory fire management planning effort. Since that time, the Trinity County Fire Safe Council has completed critical portions of a fire safe plan and has begun to implement projects defined in the plan. Completion of a GIS based, landscape scale fuels reduction element in the plan defined by volunteer fire fighters, agency...

  12. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua Images

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cinder cone in western Nicaragua has a name that means "black hill." It has erupted more than 20 times since its birth in 1850. Explosive eruptions from the...


    Aristov Denis Ivanovich


    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  14. Fire protection and fire fighting in nuclear installations


    Fires are a threat to all technical installations. While fire protection has long been a well established conventional discipline, its application to nuclear facilities requires special considerations. Nevertheless, for a long time fire engineering has been somewhat neglected in the design and operation of nuclear installations. In the nuclear industry, the Browns Ferry fire in 1975 brought about an essential change in the attention paid to fire problems. Designers and plant operators, as well as insurance companies and regulators, increased their efforts to develop concepts and methods for reducing fire risks, not only to protect the capital investment in nuclear plants but also to consider the potential secondary effects which could lead to nuclear accidents. Although the number of fires in nuclear installations is still relatively large, their overall importance to the safety of nuclear power plants was not considered to be very high. Only more recently have probabilistic analyses changed this picture. The results may well have to be taken into account more carefully. Various aspects of fire fighting and fire protection were discussed during the Symposium, the first of its kind to be organized by the IAEA. It was convened in co-operation with several organizations working in the nuclear or fire protection fields. The intention was to gather experts from nuclear engineering areas and the conventional fire protection field at one meeting with a view to enhancing the exchange of information and experience and to presenting current knowledge on the various disciplines involved. The presentations at the meeting were subdivided into eight sessions: standards and licensing (6 papers); national fire safety practices (7 papers); fire safety by design (11 papers); fire fighting (2 papers); computer fire modeling (7 papers); fire safety in fuel center facilities (7 papers); fire testing of materials (3 papers); fire risk assessment (5 papers). A separate abstract was

  15. Fire propagation equation for the explicit identification of fire scenarios in a fire PSA

    Lim, Ho Gon; Han, Sang Hoon; Moon, Joo Hyun


    When performing fire PSA in a nuclear power plant, an event mapping method, using an internal event PSA model, is widely used to reduce the resources used by fire PSA model development. Feasible initiating events and component failure events due to fire are identified to transform the fault tree (FT) for an internal event PSA into one for a fire PSA using the event mapping method. A surrogate event or damage term method is used to condition the FT of the internal PSA. The surrogate event or the damage term plays the role of flagging whether the system/component in a fire compartment is damaged or not, depending on the fire being initiated from a specified compartment. These methods usually require explicit states of all compartments to be modeled in a fire area. Fire event scenarios, when using explicit identification, such as surrogate or damage terms, have two problems: there is no consideration of multiple fire propagation beyond a single propagation to an adjacent compartment, and there is no consideration of simultaneous fire propagations in which an initiating fire event is propagated to multiple paths simultaneously. The present paper suggests a fire propagation equation to identify all possible fire event scenarios for an explicitly treated fire event scenario in the fire PSA. Also, a method for separating fire events was developed to make all fire events a set of mutually exclusive events, which can facilitate arithmetic summation in fire risk quantification. A simple example is given to confirm the applicability of the present method for a 2x3 rectangular fire area. Also, a feasible asymptotic approach is discussed to reduce the computational burden for fire risk quantification

  16. Subsurface imaging in a sector of Cerro Prieto transform fault near to pull-apart basin, Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico, based on crooked lines 2D seismic reflection.

    Mares-Agüero, M. A.; González-Escobar, M.; Arregui, S.


    In the transition zone between San Andres continental transformation system and the coupled transform faults system and rifting of Gulf of California is located the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin delimitated by Imperial fault (northeast) and Cerro Prieto fault (CPF) (southwest), this last, is the limit west of Cerro Prieto geothermic field (CPGF). Crooked lines 2D seismic reflection, covering a portion near the intersection of CPF and CPGF are processed and interpreted. The seismic data were obtained in the early 80's by Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). By decades, technical and investigation works in Cerro Prieto geothermic field and its vicinity had mapped faults at several depths but do not stablish a clear limit where this faults and CPF interact due the complex hydrothermal effects imaging the subsurface. The profiles showing the presence of a zone of uplift effect due to CPF. Considering the proximity of the profiles to CPF, it is surprising almost total absence of faults. A strong reflector around 2 km of depth, it is present in all profiles. This seismic reflector is considered a layer of shale, result of the correlation with a well located in the same region.

  17. Cinema Fire Modelling by FDS

    Glasa, J; Valasek, L; Weisenpacher, P; Halada, L


    Recent advances in computer fluid dynamics (CFD) and rapid increase of computational power of current computers have led to the development of CFD models capable to describe fire in complex geometries incorporating a wide variety of physical phenomena related to fire. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for cinema fire modelling. FDS is an advanced CFD system intended for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal flows, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. The course of fire in a cinema hall is described focusing on related safety risks. Fire properties of flammable materials used in the simulation were determined by laboratory measurements and validated by fire tests and computer simulations

  18. Cinema Fire Modelling by FDS

    Glasa, J.; Valasek, L.; Weisenpacher, P.; Halada, L.


    Recent advances in computer fluid dynamics (CFD) and rapid increase of computational power of current computers have led to the development of CFD models capable to describe fire in complex geometries incorporating a wide variety of physical phenomena related to fire. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for cinema fire modelling. FDS is an advanced CFD system intended for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal flows, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. The course of fire in a cinema hall is described focusing on related safety risks. Fire properties of flammable materials used in the simulation were determined by laboratory measurements and validated by fire tests and computer simulations

  19. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    Hays, Lance G. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)


    A full scale, wellhead Biphase turbine was manufactured and installed with the balance of plant at Well 103 of the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Baja, California. The Biphase turbine was first synchronized with the electrical grid of Comision Federal de Electricidad on August 20, 1997. The Biphase power plant was operated from that time until May 23, 2000, a period of 2 years and 9 months. A total of 77,549 kWh were delivered to the grid. The power plant was subsequently placed in a standby condition pending replacement of the rotor with a newly designed, higher power rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals. The maximum measured power output of the Biphase turbine, 808 kWe at 640 psig wellhead pressure, agreed closely with the predicted output, 840 kWe. When combined with the backpressure steam turbine the total output power from that flow would be increased by 40% above the power derived only from the flow by the present flash steam plant. The design relations used to predict performance and design the turbine were verified by these tests. The performance and durability of the Biphase turbine support the conclusion of the Economics and Application Report previously published, (Appendix A). The newly designed rotor (the Dual Pressure Rotor) was analyzed for the above power condition. The Dual Pressure Rotor would increase the power output to 2064 kWe by incorporating two pressure letdown stages in the Biphase rotor, eliminating the requirement for a backpressure steam turbine. The power plant availability was low due to deposition of solids from the well on the Biphase rotor and balance of plant problems. A great deal of plant down time resulted from the requirement to develop methods to handle the solids and from testing the apparatus in the Biphase turbine. Finally an online, washing method using the high pressure two-phase flow was developed which completely eliminated the solids problem. The availability of the Biphase turbine itself was 100

  20. Fire blight in Georgia

    Dali L. Gaganidze


    Full Text Available Fire blight is distinguished among the fruit tree diseases by harmfulness. Fire blight damages about 180 cultural and wild plants belonging to the Rosaceae family. Quince, apple and pear are the most susceptible to the disease. At present, the disease occurs in over 40 countries of Europe and Asia. Economic damage caused by fire blight is expressed not only in crop losses, but also, it poses threat of eradication to entire fruit tree gardens. Erwinia amylovora, causative bacteria of fire blight in fruit trees, is included in the A2 list of quarantine organisms. In 2016, the employees of the Plant Pest Diagnostic Department of the Laboratory of the Georgian Ministry of Agriculture have detected Erwinia amylovora in apple seedlings from Mtskheta district. National Food Agency, Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia informed FAO on pathogen detection. The aim of the study is detection of the bacterium Erwinia amylovora by molecular method (PCR in the samples of fruit trees, suspicious on fire blight collected in the regions of Eastern (Kvemo Kartli, Shida Kartli and Kakheti and Western Georgia (Imereti.The bacterium Erwinia amylovora was detected by real time and conventional PCR methods using specific primers and thus the fire blight disease confirmed in 23 samples of plant material from Shida Kartli (11 apples, 6 pear and 6 quince samples, in 5 samples from Kvemo Kartli (1 quince and 4 apple samples, in 2 samples of apples from Kakheti region and 1 sample of pear collected in Imereti (Zestafoni. Keywords: Fire blight, Erwinia amylovora, Conventional PCR, Real time PCR, DNA, Bacterium

  1. LA ARQUITECTURA DE TIERRA Y LAS OCUPACIONES HUMANAS EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO CERRO PUÑAY, CANTÓN CHUNCHI, PROVINCIA DE CHIMBORAZO, ECUADOR (Earth Architecture and Human Occupations at Cerro Puñay Archaeological Site, Chunchi Canton, Chimborazo Province, Ecuador

    Mary Jadán V.


    Full Text Available Este artículo se refiere a la arquitectura de tierra del sitio arqueológico Cerro Puñay, ubicado al sur de la provincia de Chimborazo. Algunos perfiles estratigráficos de diferentes partes del cerro demuestran que existen cambios relacionados con la estructura del sitio: un reforzamiento de talud en la cima central, arqueosedimentos en ciertos sectores, nivelación de las cimas, construcción de terrazas, entre otras modificaciones. Aunque hay evidencias de ocupación desde el Formativo Tardío con la cultura narrío (2000-1600 a. C., las edificaciones se iniciaron con la sociedad cañari (500-1460 d. C.. Por otra parte, el sitio evidencia una reconstrucción y utilización por parte de la sociedad inca (1460-1533 d. C.. ENGLISH: This article refers to the land architecture of the Cerro Puñay archaeological site, located to the south of the province of Chimborazo. Some stratigraphic profiles, from different parts of the hill, show that there are changes related to the structure of the site: a reinforcement of slope in the central summit, archaeological sediments in certain sectors, leveling of the tops, and construction of terraces, among other modifications. Although there is evidence of occupation from the Late Formative with the Narrío culture (2000–1600 BC, the construction started with the Cañari society (500–1460 AD. On the other hand, the site shows evidence of a reconstruction and use by the Inca society (1460–1533 AD.

  2. LEP constraints on grand unified theories

    Sarkar, Utpal


    Recent developments on grand unified theories (GUTs) in the context of the LEP measurements of the coupling constants are reviewed. The three coupling constants at the electroweak scale have been measured at LEP quite precisely. One can allow these couplings to evolve with energy following the renormalization group equations for the various groups and find out whether all the coupling constants meet at any energy. It was pointed out that the minimal SU(5) grand unified theory fails to satisfy this test. However, various extensions of the theory are still allowed. These extensions include (i) supersymmetric SU(5) GUT, with some arbitrariness in the susy breaking scale arising from the threshold corrections, (ii) non-susy SU(5) GUTs with additional fermions as well as Higgs multiplets, which has masses of the order of TeV, and (iii) non-renormalizable effect of gravity with a fine tuned relation among the coupling constants at the unification energy. The LEP results also constrain GUTs with an intermediate symmetry breaking scale. By adjusting the intermediate symmetry breaking scale, one usually can have unification, but these theories get constrained. For example, the left-right symmetric theories coming from GUTs can be broken only at energies higher than about ∼10 10 GeV. This implies that if right handed gauge bosons are found at energies lower than this scale, then that will rule out the possibility of grand unification. Another recent interesting development on the subject, namely, low energy unification, is discussed in this context. All the coupling constants are unified at energies of the order of ∼10 8 GeV when they are embedded in an SU(15)GUT, with some particular symmetry breaking pattern. But even in this case the results of the intermediate symmetry breaking scale remain unchanged. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

  3. Maternal and fetal outcome in grand multipara

    Qamar, A.; Qamar, S.


    Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynecology and Obstetric Unit-I of the Jinnah Post Graduate and Medical Centre Karachi, from February 2009 to January 2010. Patients and Methods: One hundred (100) patients of grand multipara (GMP), (parity = 5) and 100 patients of multipara (MP) (parity 2-4) were included in the study. Pregnant women with known medical conditions including essential hypertension, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, primigravidas, women with previous caesarean section and twin pregnancies were excluded. Patients were admitted through antenatal clinic and emergency. A detailed history was taken and a physical examination was done with special emphasis on obstetrical examination. Investigations like blood CP, Urine D/R, blood grouping and sonogram were done. During labour, mother and neonates were managed according to ward protocols. Maternal and fetal outcomes were compared among GMPs and MPs. Results: A high frequency of anaemia (81% vs 20%), pregnancy induced hypertension (45%, vs. 26%) and gestational diabetes (9%, vs1%) were seen in GMP as compared to MP group. Frequency of malpresentations (26% vs 15%), postpartum hemorrhage (15%, vs 10%) and intrauterine deaths (26%, vs 13%) were higher in GMP group along with a high caesarean delivery rate (GMP 21%, MP 14%). A higher maternal mortality (GMP 4%, MP 1%) and low APGAR score (GMP 12%, MP 4%) were observed among babies born to grand multipara group. Conclusion: Grand multiparity is associated with adverse outcome for both mother and fetus. Effort should be directed to reduce high parity in the community through effective family planning initiatives. Specialized antenatal and obstetrical care facilities should be available. (author)

  4. Lie groups and grand unified theories

    Gubitoso, M.D.


    This work presents some concepts in group theory and Lie algebras and, at same time, shows a method to study and work with semisimple Lie groups, based on Dynkin diagrams. The aproach taken is not completely formal, but it presents the main points of the elaboration of the method, so its mathematical basis is designed with the purpose of making the reading not so cumbersome to those who are interested only in a general picture of the method and its usefulness. At the end it is shown a brief review of gauge theories and two grand-unification models based on SO(13) and E 7 gauge groups. (author) [pt

  5. Grand Canonical Ensembles in General Relativity

    Klein, David; Yang, Wei-Shih


    We develop a formalism for general relativistic, grand canonical ensembles in space-times with timelike Killing fields. Using that, we derive ideal gas laws, and show how they depend on the geometry of the particular space-times. A systematic method for calculating Newtonian limits is given for a class of these space-times, which is illustrated for Kerr space-time. In addition, we prove uniqueness of the infinite volume Gibbs measure, and absence of phase transitions for a class of interaction potentials in anti-de Sitter space.

  6. Produccion de plantas grandes usando minicontenedores

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis


    En América del Norte hay cada vez más interés por la producción híbrida o mixta. La misma consiste en cultivar plantines en contenedores de pequeño volumen y luego trasplantarlos; el trasplante se puede realizar a canteros en el suelo como en la producción a raíz desnuda o bien a contenedores más grandes. Originalmente se llamaban plantines "plug+", "...

  7. The importance of fire simulation in fire prediction

    Jevtić Radoje B.


    Full Text Available The appearance of fire in objects with lot of humans inside represents very possible real situation that could be very danger and could cause destructive consequences on human lives and material properties. Very important influence in fire prediction, fire protection, human and material properties safety could be a fire simulation in object. This simulation could give many useful information of possible fire propagation; possible and existed evacuation routes; possible and exited placing of fire, smoke, temperature conditions in object and many other information of crucial importance for human lives and material properties, such as the best places for sensors position, optimal number of sensors, projection of possible evacuation routes etc. There are many different programs for fire simulation. This paper presents complete fire simulation in Electrotechnical school Nikola Tesla in Niš in FDS.

  8. Procesos históricos y ambientales en Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí, México, 1948-1997

    Paula Andrea Martínez Chaves


    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre el municipio Cerro de San Pedro enfatizan la continuidad ambiental aparente que estimula la minería; sin embargo, esta lectura subvalora otras dinámicas que ocurren en la zona. Con base en observaciones directas de trabajo en campo, para realizar análisis de coberturas vegetales, entrevistas con los habitantes de la zona, revisión de cartografía e investigación de archivo, el presente trabajo muestra procesos como la explotación de recursos vegetales y el pastoreo, como actividades económicas paralelas a las labores mineras, y que no habían sido tratados hasta ahora.

  9. Construcciones y cementerios del período Intermedio Tardío en el cerro Ñañañique (departamento de Piura


    Full Text Available Après un abandon de plus d'un millénaire, le site de Cerro Ñañañique est réoccupé sans doute à partir du Xème siècle de notre ère. Les fouilles réalisées ont permis de reconnaître l'existence d'un ensemble monumental, composé de terrasses artificielles, et d'un complexe de bâtiments et structures couvrant tout le sommet du cerro. De petites constructions furent édifiées sur le bas versant Est et au moins cinq cimetières sont connus dans les environs immédiats. L'ensemble de ces vestiges prouve le maintien d'une occupation du secteur jusqu'à la fin de la période préhispanique. L'article est centré sur l'analyse de quatorze contextes funéraires provenant d'un des cimetières de cette époque. Y sont décrits les positions, orientations et associations des différents corps exhumés ainsi que le mobilier funéraire associé. Une comparaison avec les traditions voisines connues permet de confirmer certaines similitudes et en particulier les relations étroites avec les zones méridionales. Después de un abandono de más de un milenio, el sitio de Cerro Ñañañique se reocupó, posiblemente desde el siglo X d.c. Las excavaciones realizadas permitieron reconocer la existencia de un conjunto monumental compuesto de terrazas artificiales y de un complejo de edificios y estructuras que cubre toda la cumbre del cerro. Pequeñas construcciones fueron también edificadas en la parte baja de la vertiente este y hubo, por lo menos, cinco cementerios a proximidad. El conjunto de estos vestigios comprueba la permanencia de una ocupación del sector hasta el final de la época prehispánica. El artículo está centrado en el análisis de catorce contextos funerarios de aquella época. Se describen la posición, la orientación y las asociaciones de los varios cuerpos exhumados, así como el material funerario asociado. Una comparación con las tradiciones vecinas permite confirmar ciertas semejanzas y particularmente las relaciones

  10. Aerosol generation from Kerosene fires

    Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.


    The course of solvent surface fires is dependent on the surface area on fire; depth of pool and solvent composition do not influence the fire rate. But the fire rate increases rapidly with the burning area. The residual oxygen concentration after a fire in a closed container is dependent on the violence of the fire, i.e. on the burning surface. Moreover the ending of the fire is influenced by the TBP-concentration of the solvent. With sufficient supply of solvent the TBP-concentration changes only slightly during the fire, so that a fire at 14% O 2 -concentration is extinguished within the container. With the TBP-concentration changing considerably, i.e. little mass, a fire with a similar burning surface is already extinguished at an O 2 -content of 18%. The aerosol generation depends on the fire rate, and so it is higher in free atmosphere than in closed containers. The soot production in the mixture fire (kerosene /TBP 70/30) is higher by a factor 7 than in the pure kerosene fire. Primary soot-particles have a diameter of approximately 0,05 μm and agglomerate rapidly into aggregates of 0,2-0,4 μm. (orig.) [de

  11. Nuclear insurance fire risk

    Dressler, E.G.


    Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)

  12. Learning by Erring: fire!

    Bjugn, Roger; Hansen, Jarle


    Biorepositories may be affected by a number of emergencies ranging from bad publicity to natural disasters, and biorepositories should have plans for handling such situations. The emergency management process includes all phases from mitigation to recovery. Fire is one disaster that may cause extensive damage to both physical structures and humans. In this article, we analyze events related to a fire in a storage facility for mechanical freezers. The analysis covers both the pre-crisis stage, the fire itself, and the post-crisis stage. Even the best intended planning cannot stop a crisis from happening. However, an open-minded analysis of the crisis with focus on learning and quality improvement can improve an organization's ability to handle the next emergency situation.

  13. The Grand Duchy on the Grand Tour: A Historical Study of Student Migration in Luxembourg

    Rohstock, Anne; Schreiber, Catherina


    Since Luxembourg became independent in 1839, practically the entire political, economic and intellectual elite of the country has been socialised abroad. It was only in 2003 that the Grand Duchy set up its own university; before then, young Luxembourgers had to study in foreign countries. Over the past 150 years, Luxembourg has thus experienced…

  14. Cambio del uso de la tierra y pérdida de la cobertura boscosa, comunidades agrarias Sechina, La Ensenada y Cerro San Gil, Izabal Guatemala

    Eddi Alejandro Vanegas Chacón


    Full Text Available En Guatemala, pocas temáticas son abordadas con tanta pasión como el acceso a la tierra y sus relaciones de productividad. Ante el juicio histórico y la evidencia de las estadísticas se deslumbra que las políticas agrarias de los últimos cincuenta años, si bien mitigaron la pobreza en el agro rural conllevaron con ellas daños ambientales irreversibles y deudas agrarias millonarias. Se estudió la dinámica del cambio de uso de la tierra y la pérdida de la cobertura boscosa en las comunidades agrarias beneficiadas por la Ley de Transformación Agraria, Sechina, La Ensenada y Cerro San Gil ubicadas en el departamento de Izabal. Se utilizó fotointerpretación y se realizaron estudios semidetallados de la intensidad de la tierra para el periodo 1958 a 2010. Se concluyó que bajo las premisas de “mejora a la tierra” de la Ley de Transformación Agraria ocurrió cambio de uso y cobertura de la tierra, de forestal a agropecuaria, en las comunidades agrarias Sechina 42%, La Ensenada 46,2% y Cerro San Gil 48,6%, donde se promovieron sistemas de aprovechamiento agrícola que conllevaron al sobre-uso de las tierras en 42%, 78% y 30%, respectivamente. Esto sugiere, que la adquisición de la tierra no es el fin, más bien es el medio, para promover desarrollo rural sostenible, a través de acompañamiento técnico agropecuario, monitoreo y evaluación tanto económica como ambiental.

  15. El Cerro de los Santos: paisaje, negociación social y ritualidad entre el mundo ibérico y el hispano

    García Cardiel, Jorge


    Full Text Available The Iberian shrine of Cerro de los Santos is located next to one of the main roads in the Southeast of the Meseta, in the middle of an area without any town of some entity. This paper aims to highlight its status as a shrine of passage, i.e. as a sacred, safe point where voyagers could rest overnight under the protection of the god. The creation of a statio by the Romans in such a place and its dedication to the goddess Pales provide more circumstantial evidence for this theory. Furthermore, some domestic material contexts can be defined, probably connected with this activity, and clearly different from the well-known ritual contexts of the shrine.La ubicación del santuario ibérico del Cerro de los Santos junto a una de las principales vías de comunicación del sureste meseteño y en el centro de una comarca desprovista de núcleos urbanos de cierta entidad permite subrayar en este artículo su uso continuado como santuario de paso, lugar sacro y seguro al que los caminantes podrían acogerse para pernoctar bajo la protección de la divinidad. La creación de una statio en el enclave en época romana y su dedicación a la diosa Pales no son sino argumentos ulteriores en este sentido. Se identifican además contextos materiales domésticos, distintos de los espacios de culto bien conocidos del santuario, relacionables con esta otra actividad.

  16. Entre el sueño del proyecto y la lógica del lugar. La arquitectura imposible de los cerros de Valparaíso

    Pablo M. Millán-Millán


    Full Text Available Valparaíso es el resultado de la unión de dos ciudades en una: la ciudad vertical de los cerros y la ciudad horizontal del Plan –parte plana–. Esta doble naturaleza ha ido configurando una dualidad obligada a convivir y a establecer un continuo diálogo, acabando en la mayoría de los casos en conflicto. Si por un lado está la ciudad global y ortogonal como resultado de la ocupación europea, por otro lado estará la ciudad onírica agarrada a los acantilados ajena a cualquier orden preestablecido. Cada una de estas dos ciudades irá materializando su propia arquitectura: una real y estandarizada, propia de cualquier periferia de ciudad, y otra imposible. Será esta segunda la que vaya evolucionando en un intento continuo de adaptación y será el propio lugar el encargado de rechazar cualquier construcción que no le sea propia. Esta dicotomía quedará plasmada en numerosos proyectos que nunca verán la luz. El objetivo del artículo será mostrar, a partir de numerosos proyectos inéditos descubiertos en Valparaíso, cómo la arquitectura pensada para los cerros nunca llegó a construirse y fue dando paso a unas construcciones a medio camino entre lo real y lo imaginario, entre la lógica y el sueño.

  17. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  18. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on fauna

    Jane Kapler Smith


    VOLUME 1: Fires affect animals mainly through effects on their habitat. Fires often cause short-term increases in wildlife foods that contribute to increases in populations of some animals. These increases are moderated by the animals' ability to thrive in the altered, often simplified, structure of the postfire environment. The extent of fire effects on animal...

  19. Quantitative comparison of fire danger index performance using fire activity

    Steenkamp, KC


    Full Text Available parameters such as flame length or rate of spread can be physically measured or modeled. Fire danger indices are not designed to describe the characteristics of a fire but rather the potential of a fire taking place in an area of interest [5]. Several...

  20. Rx fire laws: tools to protect fire: the `ecological imperative?

    Dale Wade; Steven Miller; Johnny Stowe; James Brenner


    The South is the birthplace of statutes and ordinances that both advocate and protect the cultural heritage of woods burning, which has been practiced in this region uninterrupted for more than 10,000 years. We present a brief overview of fire use in the South and discuss why most southern states recognized early on that periodic fire was necessary to sustain fire...

  1. 28 milliards d’euros, c’est grand comment ?

    Ozer, Pierre; Salmon, Marc; Theunissen, Yannick


    J’ouvre mon quotidien. Fortis : 28 milliards d’euros de pertes en 2008. Ma fille de sept ans qui commence à lire et pose sans cesse des questions sur tout me lance : « Dis-moi, papa : 28 milliards d’euros, c’est grand comment ? ». Grande question… Je réfléchis et tente de trouver une parade parlante pour un enfant qui, in fine, se pose les mêmes questions que les grandes personnes.

  2. Gamma ray and neutrino detector facility (GRANDE), Task C

    Sobel, H.W.; Yodh, G.B.


    GRANDE is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. We proposed that the detector be constructed in phases, beginning with an active detector area of 31,000 m 2 (GRANDE-I) 2 and expanding to a final size of 100,000--150,00 m 2 . Some of the characteristics of GRANDE-I are discussed in this paper

  3. Fire Protection Informational Exchange


    durable and launderable. A summary of contractor lead efforts to achieve these goals was presented. 3.19 US Naval Air Systems Command The NAVAIR fire... contractors spoke next concerning their companies’ technologies for fuel fire mitigation. Randy Fontinakes from Meggitt summarized his company’s products...decomprHalon FUS~ ht Surgeon’a Manual, USN: 0 Mdentlry, rapid d.eC)mpt"tMion • moct.rate .ctfvtty, rapkl decomprualon c: 0 Ill 5 1000 +- ph~lo4oglcal

  4. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Fewell, L. A.


    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  5. National Fire News- Current Wildfires

    ... 1 to 5) Current hours for the National Fire Information Center are (MST) 8:00 am - 4: ... for more information. June 15, 2018 Nationally, wildland fire activity remains about average for this time of ...

  6. Wilderness fire management planning guide

    William C. Fischer


    Outlines a procedure for fire management planning for parks; wilderness areas; and other wild, natural, or essentially undeveloped areas. Discusses background and philosophy of wilderness fire management, planning concepts, planning elements, and planning methods.

  7. SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified theories

    Dermisek, Radovan

    The origin of the fermion mass hierarchy is one of the most challenging problems in elementary particle physics. In the standard model fermion masses and mixing angles are free parameters. Supersymmetric grand unified theories provide a beautiful framework for physics beyond the standard model. In addition to gauge coupling unification these theories provide relations between quark and lepton masses within families, and with additional family symmetry the hierarchy between families can be generated. We present a predictive SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified model with D 3 x U(1) family symmetry. The hierarchy in fermion masses is generated by the family symmetry breaking D 3 x U(1) → ZN → nothing. This model fits the low energy data in the charged fermion sector quite well. We discuss the prediction of this model for the proton lifetime in light of recent SuperKamiokande results and present a clear picture of the allowed spectra of supersymmetric particles. Finally, the detailed discussion of the Yukawa coupling unification of the third generation particles is provided. We find a narrow region is consistent with t, b, tau Yukawa unification for mu > 0 (suggested by b → sgamma and the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon) with A0 ˜ -1.9m16, m10 ˜ 1.4m16, m16 ≳ 1200 GeV and mu, M1/2 ˜ 100--500 GeV. Demanding Yukawa unification thus makes definite predictions for Higgs and sparticle masses.

  8. O conservadorismo patronal da grande imprensa brasileira

    Fonseca Francisco


    Full Text Available Através da análise da opinião dos editoriais dos quatro principais periódicos diários da grande imprensa, isto é, o Jornal do Brasil, O Globo, a Folha de S. Paulo e O Estado de S. Paulo - aqui considerados "aparelhos privados de hegemonia" -, este artigo procura desvendar os posicionamentos adotados perante a ordem social na Constituinte de 1987/1988, que também contribuem para compreender a reação à Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho. Observa-se, além do mais, as estratégias utilizadas para sua consecução. Conclui-se que, por mecanismos diversos, a grande imprensa contribuiu decisivamente para a introdução da agenda ideológica neoliberal no país, pois atuou de forma a "divulgar e vulgarizar" as idéias pertinentes a este ideário e de forma militantemente conservadora e patronal.

  9. Aprovechamiento de Salto Grande Argentina – Uruguay

    Bongiovanni, M.


    Full Text Available The power harnessing of Salto Grande will be the first common project carried out by two South American Countries and this will foster greater integration of both countries. The project involves the following: — One 39 m-high dam — Two hydroelectric power plants — One international bridge — One shipping canal The benefits to be obtained from the project include: increase and improvement of the waterway network; increase of electricity production; railways and highway tie-ups between both countries; industrial development; increased availability of irrigation water; new tourist resorts; increase of fishing resources.

    El aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico de Salto Grande será el primer aprovechamiento común a dos países sudamericanos, lo que permitirá una mayor integración entre ellos. Consta de las siguientes obras: _ una presa de 39 m de altura; _ dos centrales hidroeléctricas; _ un puente internacional; _ un canal de navegación, etc. Entre los beneficios que se obtendrán destacan: aumento y mejora de la red de navegación; aumento de la producción eléctrica; enlace de las vías de ferrocarril y carreteras entre los dos países; desarrollo industrial; aumento de la disponibilidad de agua de riego; creación de zonas de turismo, e incremento de la riqueza piscícola.

  10. Back to Basics: Preventing Surgical Fires.

    Spruce, Lisa


    When fires occur in the OR, they are devastating and potentially fatal to both patients and health care workers. Fires can be prevented by understanding the fire triangle and methods of reducing fire risk, conducting fire risk assessments, and knowing how to respond if a fire occurs. This Back to Basics article addresses the basics of fire prevention and the steps that can be taken to prevent fires from occurring. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Automatic fire hydrant valve development

    Drumheller, K.


    The development of a remotely-controlled valve to operate a fire hydrant is described. Assembled from off-the-shelf components, the prototype illustrates that a valve light enough to be handled by one man is possible. However, it does not have the ruggedness or reliability needed for actual fire-fighting operations. Preliminary testing by City of Tacoma fire department personnel indicates that the valve may indeed contribute significantly to fire-fighting efficiency

  12. 2013 Annual Report: Fire Modeling Institute

    Robin J. Innes; Faith Ann Heinsch; Kristine M. Lee


    The Fire Modeling Institute (FMI) of the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS), is a national and international resource for fire managers. Located within the Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (Fire Lab) in Montana, FMI helps managers utilize fire and fuel science and technology developed throughout the...

  13. Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Jeff Eidenshink; Stephen Howard; Robert E. Burgan


    Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the...

  14. Fire in the Earth System

    Bowman, D.M.J.S.; Balch, J.K.; Artaxo, P.; Bond, W.J.; Carlson, J.M.; Cochrane, M.A.; D'Antonio, C.M.; DeFries, R.S.; Doyle, J.C.; Harrison, S.P.; Johnston, F.H.; Keeley, J.E.; Krawchuk, M.A.; Kull, C.A.; Marston, J.B.; Moritz, M.A.; Prentice, I.C.; Roos, C.I.; Scott, A.C.; Swetnam, T.W.; van der Werf, G.R.; Pyne, S.J.


    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always

  15. Prescribed fire research in Pennsylvania

    Patrick Brose


    Prescribed fire in Pennsylvania is a relatively new forestry practice because of the State's adverse experience with highly destructive wildfires in the early 1900s. The recent introduction of prescribed fire raises a myriad of questions regarding its correct and safe use. This poster briefly describes the prescribed fire research projects of the Forestry Sciences...

  16. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    Menzenhauer, P.


    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  17. Estimates of wildland fire emissions

    Yongqiang Liu; John J. Qu; Wanting Wang; Xianjun Hao


    Wildland fire missions can significantly affect regional and global air quality, radiation, climate, and the carbon cycle. A fundamental and yet challenging prerequisite to understanding the environmental effects is to accurately estimate fire emissions. This chapter describes and analyzes fire emission calculations. Various techniques (field measurements, empirical...

  18. Fire effects on noxious weeds

    Robin Innes


    The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS, has been providing reviews of scientific knowledge about fire effects since 1986. FEIS is an online collection of literature reviews on more than 1,100 species and their relationships with fire. Reviews cover plants and animals throughout the United States, providing a wealth of information for...

  19. Fire regimes, past and present

    Carl N. Skinner; Chiru Chang


    Fire has been an important ecosystem process in the Sierra Nevada for thousands of years. Before the area was settled in the 1850s, fires were generally frequent throughout much of the range. The frequency and severity of these fires varied spatially and temporally depending upon climate, elevation, topography, vegetation, edaphic conditions, and human cultural...

  20. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui


    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  1. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.


    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  2. Fire models for assessment of nuclear power plant fires

    Nicolette, V.F.; Nowlen, S.P.


    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in available fire models for the assessment of nuclear power plants fires. The advantages and disadvantages of three basic types of fire models (zone, field, and control volume) and Sandia's experience with these models will be discussed. It is shown that the type of fire model selected to solve a particular problem should be based on the information that is required. Areas of concern which relate to all nuclear power plant fire models are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs

  3. Analysis of the automation and control of the well production conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Analisis de la automatizacion y del control de las condiciones de produccion de los pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, Mexico

    Murillo Zamora, Isaac [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); Ocampo Diaz, Juan de Dios [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); De la Pena Reyna, Gilberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)


    Through 31 years of development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, the number of wells in operation and the distances between them has been increasing. Now there are 150 wells producing a mixture of water and steam at different ratios, depending on the reservoir characteristics (pressure, temperature, depth, etc.) and the operation conditions in the superficial installations (obstructions in the orifice plates diameter, separator pressures, etc.). Therefore, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has started a pilot plan to handle the automation and control of the operating conditions of production wells, and to install a data production acquisition system. The initial results of the system are in this paper. [Spanish] A traves de los 31 anos de desarrollo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto el numero de pozos en operacion asi como la distancia entre ellos se ha estado incrementando. Ahora hay mas de 150 pozos produciendo una cantidad de mezcla de agua y vapor a diferentes rangos, dependiendo de las caracteristicas del yacimiento (presion, temperatura, profundidad, etc.) y de las condiciones de operacion de las instalaciones superficiales (diametros de placas de orificio obstruidos, presion de los separadores, etc.). Como resultado la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) ha dado inicio a un plan de pruebas para llevar a cabo la automatizacion y control de las condiciones de operacion de los pozos productores, e instalar un sistema con equipos para recoleccion de datos del campo, cuyos primeros resultados se presentan en este articulo.

  4. Motorcoach Fire Safety Analysis.


    This purpose of this study was to collect and analyze information from Government, industry, and media sources on the causes, frequency, and severity of motorcoach fires in the U.S., and to identify potential risk reduction measures. The Volpe Center...

  5. Hiring without Firing.

    Fernandez-Araoz, Claudio


    Describes the problems related to the hiring of senior-level positions. Suggests that regardless of the hiring process used, between 30% and 50% of executive-level appointments end in firing or resignation. Discusses the most common mistakes used in hiring. (JOW)

  6. De fire dimensioner

    Larsen, Mihail

    De fire dimensioner er en humanistisk håndbog beregnet især på studerende og vejledere inden for humaniora, men kan også læses af andre med interesse for, hvad humanistisk forskning er og kan. Den er blevet til over et langt livs engageret forskning, uddannelse og formidling på Roskilde Universitet...... og udgør på den måde også et bidrag til universitetets historie, som jeg var med til at grundlægge. De fire dimensioner sætter mennesket i centrum. Men det er et centrum, der peger ud over sig selv; et centrum, hvorfra verden anskues, erfares og forstås. Alle mennesker har en forhistorie og en...... fremtid, og udstrakt mellem disse punkter i tiden tænker og handler de i rummet. Den menneskelige tilværelse omfatter alle fire dimensioner. De fire dimensioner udgør derfor også et forsvar for en almen dannelse, der gennemtrænger og kommer kulturelt til udtryk i vores historie, viden, praksis og kunst....

  7. Indonesia's Fires and Haze

    WWF Malaysia provided information and advice about fires and haze impacts to the government and ..... Forest management and land-use practices in Sumatra and Kalimantan have evolved very ..... In principle, the study should compare the situation with and without haze. ...... Profit before taxation is 5 per cent of turnover.

  8. Boerhaave on Fire

    Diemente, Damon


    In 1741 an English translation of Herman Boerhaave's celebrated textbook Elementa Chemic was published under the title A New Method of Chemistry. True to its time, this book included elaborate discussions of the elements earth, water, air, and fire. This article offers to teachers for classroom use a selection of passages from Boerhaave's chapter on fire. Now, today's teacher of chemistry is apt to feel that little of significance to the modern classroom can be gleaned from a two-and-a-half-centuries-old text, and especially from a topic as old-fashioned as fire. But this view is decidedly shortsighted. Boerhaave offers demonstrations and experiments that can be instructively performed today, quantitative data that can be checked against modern equations, and much theory and hypothesis that can be assessed in light of modern chemical ideas. In the readings presented here I have found material for discussion in class, for investigation in the laboratory, and for a few homework assignments. Modern students are well able to comprehend and paraphrase Boerhaave, to check his results, appreciate his insights, and identify his shortfalls. From him they learn firsthand how painstaking and difficult it was to imagine and develop the concepts of thermochemistry. To read from his chapter on fire is to stand witness to the birth and infancy of thermodynamics as conceived in the mind of a great chemist from the age when coherent chemical theory was just beginning to emerge.

  9. Fire on Stage

    Nicholas Daly


    Full Text Available The nineteenth century theatre was fire-prone, to say the least. Across the century there were more than 1,100 major conflagrations in the world’s theatres, and countless smaller fires. In Great Britain almost every theatre seems to have burned down at some point. And yet, despite, or perhaps in part because of, this appalling record, fires were a staple feature of stage spectacle. Some plays placed them at the very centre of the entertainment, and as the century went on stage fires became more and more elaborate. Actual or simulated conflagrations were conjured up using a diverse array of technologies, some of them very simple, some depending on the most recent scientific discoveries. Here, I give a short tour of these technologies and their use in the plays of the period, and suggest some of the pleasures that they offered. While onstage flames could draw people in, offering an experience of immersive suspense, for instance, they also interrupted the dramatic flow, reminding audiences that they were seeing a performance, getting something for their money. To this extent, we are reminded that nineteenth-century drama provided something of a mixed and spectacular ‘theatre of attractions’, closer at times to the circus than to the novel.

  10. New fire detection technology

    Caceres Vinagre, F.J.


    Fire detection methods and systems have advanced rapidly in recent years. In practice, there are two categories of fire detection system: conventional, collective identification, and addressable, individual identification. Hybrid systems are also used. Most Spanish nuclear power plants are equipped with the first type, as they were the only types available when the plants were built. Individual identification systems have been a radical change and have opened up new possibilities for nuclear power plants not available using conventional systems. Conventional systems provide no indication of the exact provenance of the fire-alarm signal, which could even come from different rooms. When a new generation detector initiates an alarm, it identifies itself, and the location of the fire, explicity. Faculty detectors can be located and counted, for fast, efficient replacement, or recording if replacement is not necessary immediately. In the past HALON was used in situations that required an extinguishing agent that was clean for people and equipment such as electrical panels, and in control rooms. Now that it is no longer available, faster detection techniques have had to be developed, to avoid the need for generalized extinction or inadequate extinguishing agents. This presentation analyses the new detection technology, and the ways it is being applied to typical cases in nuclear power plants. (Author)

  11. Origin of Fire.

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    Intended for use with college students, this booklet contains a traditional Hupa story (in Hupa and English) followed by information to aid in a critical literary analysis of the story and topics for student discussion. The introduction explains that "Origin of Fire"--first written down by P.E. Goddard in 1902 and still told by…

  12. Fire Ant Allergy

    ... venom in a fire ant sting will kill bacteria and some of your skin cells. This results in the formation of a blister that fills with a cloudy white material in about 24 hours. While this looks like a pus-filled lesion that should be drained, ...

  13. Enhanced Fire Events Database to Support Fire PRA

    Baranowsky, Patrick; Canavan, Ken; St. Germain, Shawn


    This paper provides a description of the updated and enhanced Fire Events Data Base (FEDB) developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in cooperation with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The FEDB is the principal source of fire incident operational data for use in fire PRAs. It provides a comprehensive and consolidated source of fire incident information for nuclear power plants operating in the U.S. The database classification scheme identifies important attributes of fire incidents to characterize their nature, causal factors, and severity consistent with available data. The database provides sufficient detail to delineate important plant specific attributes of the incidents to the extent practical. A significant enhancement to the updated FEDB is the reorganization and refinement of the database structure and data fields and fire characterization details added to more rigorously capture the nature and magnitude of the fire and damage to the ignition source and nearby equipment and structures.

  14. Evidence of fuels management and fire weather influencing fire severity in an extreme fire event.

    Lydersen, Jamie M; Collins, Brandon M; Brooks, Matthew L; Matchett, John R; Shive, Kristen L; Povak, Nicholas A; Kane, Van R; Smith, Douglas F


    Following changes in vegetation structure and pattern, along with a changing climate, large wildfire incidence has increased in forests throughout the western United States. Given this increase, there is great interest in whether fuels treatments and previous wildfire can alter fire severity patterns in large wildfires. We assessed the relative influence of previous fuels treatments (including wildfire), fire weather, vegetation, and water balance on fire-severity in the Rim Fire of 2013. We did this at three different spatial scales to investigate whether the influences on fire severity changed across scales. Both fuels treatments and previous low to moderate-severity wildfire reduced the prevalence of high-severity fire. In general, areas without recent fuels treatments and areas that previously burned at high severity tended to have a greater proportion of high-severity fire in the Rim Fire. Areas treated with prescribed fire, especially when combined with thinning, had the lowest proportions of high severity. The proportion of the landscape burned at high severity was most strongly influenced by fire weather and proportional area previously treated for fuels or burned by low to moderate severity wildfire. The proportion treated needed to effectively reduce the amount of high severity fire varied by spatial scale of analysis, with smaller spatial scales requiring a greater proportion treated to see an effect on fire severity. When moderate and high-severity fire encountered a previously treated area, fire severity was significantly reduced in the treated area relative to the adjacent untreated area. Our results show that fuels treatments and low to moderate-severity wildfire can reduce fire severity in a subsequent wildfire, even when burning under fire growth conditions. These results serve as further evidence that both fuels treatments and lower severity wildfire can increase forest resilience. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. La masa de los grandes impactores

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Los planetas han sido formados fundamentalmente acretando masa a través de colisiones con planetesimales sólidos. La masa más grande de la distribución de planetesimales y las masas máxima y mínima de los impactores, han sido calculadas usando los valores actuales del período y de la inclinación de los planetas (Lissauer & Safronov 1991; Parisi & Brunini 1996). Recientes investigaciones han mostrado, que las órbitas de los planetas gigantes no han sufrido variaciones con el tiempo, siendo su movimiento regular durante su evolución a partir de la finalización de la etapa de acreción (Laskar 1990, 1994). Por lo tanto, la eccentricidad actual de los planetas gigantes se puede utilizar para imponer una cota máxima a las masas y velocidades orbitales de los grandes impactores. Mediante un simple modelo dinámico, y considerando lo arriba mencionado, obtenemos la cota superior para la masa del planetesimal más grande que impactó a cada planeta gigante al final de su etapa de acreción. El resultado más importante de este trabajo es la estimación de la masa máxima permitida para impactar a Júpiter, la cúal es ~ 1.136 × 10 -1, siendo en el caso de Neptuno ~ 3.99 × 10 -2 (expresada en unidades de la masa final de cada planeta). Además, fue posible obtener la velocidad orbital máxima permitida para los impactores como una función de su masa, para cada planeta. Las cotas obtenidas para la masa y velocidad de los impactores de Saturno y Urano (en unidades de la masa y velocidad final de cada planeta respectivamente) son casi las mismas que las obtenidas para Júpiter debido a que estos tres planetas poseen similar eccentricidad actual. Nuestros resultados están en buen acuerdo con los obtenidos por Lissauer & Safronov (1991). Estas cotas podrían ser utilizadas para obtener la distribución de planetesimales en el Sistema Solar primitivo.


    Waterfall, K.W.


    Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V. (SIPM), is a service company in the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies who provides services worldwide (outside of the USA) to Shell Operating Companies. It has defined and recommended for implementation by Shell Companies a policy on safety (Enhanced Safety Management policy) to manage the total safety aspects of all they do, including the design, engineering, installation and operation of their facilities worldwide. This policy affects all activities in such a way as to avoid harm to health of, or injury to employees and others as well as avoiding damage to property. This in turn reflects through specific policies and standards for investment strategy, engineering and operations of facilities. With average Group losses due to major fires and explosion (for each incident over Brit-pounds 100,000) between 1988 and 1990 being of the order of Brit-pounds 28 million, there is an obvious potential to effectively employ fire protection criteria in design. However, Shell need to ensure the cost-effective application of protective measures, but first and foremost it is essential not to jeopardize life or risk damage to the environment. FIRE-PRAN has the possibility to do this efficiently as it is A systematic team approach for identification of all potential fire and explosion hazards and consequences, and a means for developing optimal means of protection for all types of facilities. It should thus be considered as an auditing technique, but one that fits into the overall safe management of activities. This paper discusses the status of development of the FIRE-PRAN technique following its successful application over a number of years to a variety of equipment and installations

  17. A hierarchical fire frequency model to simulate temporal patterns of fire regimes in LANDIS

    Jian Yang; Hong S. He; Eric J. Gustafson


    Fire disturbance has important ecological effects in many forest landscapes. Existing statistically based approaches can be used to examine the effects of a fire regime on forest landscape dynamics. Most examples of statistically based fire models divide a fire occurrence into two stages--fire ignition and fire initiation. However, the exponential and Weibull fire-...

  18. Stochastic representation of fire behavior in a wildland fire protection planning model for California.

    J. Keith Gilless; Jeremy S. Fried


    A fire behavior module was developed for the California Fire Economics Simulator version 2 (CFES2), a stochastic simulation model of initial attack on wildland fire used by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Fire rate of spread (ROS) and fire dispatch level (FDL) for simulated fires "occurring" on the same day are determined by making...

  19. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis


    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  20. Un proyecto educativo-cultural socialista: la Fundación Cesáreo del Cerro

    Francisco de LUIS MARTÍN


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Desde un principio, los trabajos de investigación sobre el socialismo español se han centrado preferentemente en aspectos como su historia política o los grandes debates ideológicos en que se vieron envueltas sus organizaciones. Como acertadamente señala Santos Julia, razones de afición y, sobre todo, de documentación explicarían esta preferencia. Sin embargo, desde hace unos años, la ampliación del elenco de temas de estudio, por una parte, y la aparición de análisis regionales y locales, por otra, ha contribuido, cuantitativa y cualitativamente, a profundizar y clarificar las claves del socialismo en nuestro país. En este esfuerzo de clarificación de capítulos hasta hace poco olvidados merece destacarse el relativo al universo educativo-cultural de nuestro socialismo. Aunque los problemas que enfrenta este campo son abundantes y la desaparición, escasez o dispersión de fuentes no es el menor, a los trabajos ya clásicos de un buen puñado de estudiosos se suma hoy un grupo escogido de jóvenes investigadores que tratan de sistematizar los planteamientos educativos del socialismo.

  1. Teach yourself visually Fire tablets

    Marmel, Elaine


    Expert visual guidance to getting the most out of your Fire tablet Teach Yourself VISUALLY Fire Tablets is the comprehensive guide to getting the most out of your new Fire tablet. Learn to find and read new bestsellers through the Kindle app, browse the app store to find top games, surf the web, send e-mail, shop online, and much more! With expert guidance laid out in a highly visual style, this book is perfect for those new to the Fire tablet, providing all the information you need to get the most out of your device. Abundant screenshots of the Fire tablet graphically rich, touch-based Androi

  2. Fighting fires in nuclear plants

    Fantom, L.F.; Weldon, G.E.


    Since the Browns Ferry incident, the specter of fires at nuclear plants has been the focus of attention by NRC, the utilities, and the public. There are sophisticated hardware and software available - in the form of fire-protection systems and equipment and training and fire-protection programs. Potential fire losses at nuclear faclities can be staggering. Thus, it behooves all those involved to maximize fire-protection security while simultaneously minimizing the chance of human error, which cancels out the effectiveness of the most up-to-date protective systems and devices


    TIS General Safety Group or


    The electronic version of the Fire Permit form is now active. The aim of the Fire Permit procedure is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. It is mandatory when performing 'hot work' (mainly activities which involve the use of naked flames or other heat sources - e.g. welding, brazing, cutting, grinding, etc.). Its use is explained in the CERN Fire Protection Code E. (Fire Protection) The new electronic form, which is substantially unchanged from the previous authorizing procedure, will be available on the Electronic Document Handling system ( as of 1st September 2001. From this date use of the paper version should be discontinued.

  4. Fire detection in warehouse facilities

    Dinaburg, Joshua


    Automatic sprinklers systems are the primary fire protection system in warehouse and storage facilities. The effectiveness of this strategy has come into question due to the challenges presented by modern warehouse facilities, including increased storage heights and areas, automated storage retrieval systems (ASRS), limitations on water supplies, and changes in firefighting strategies. The application of fire detection devices used to provide early warning and notification of incipient warehouse fire events is being considered as a component of modern warehouse fire protection.Fire Detection i

  5. Local grand unification and string theory

    Nilles, Hans Peter; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S.


    The low energy effective action of string theory depends strongly on the process of compactification and the localization of fields in extra dimensions. Explicit string constructions towards the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) reveal interesting results leading to the concept of local grand unification. Properties of the MSSM indicate that we might live at a special location close to an orbifold fixed point rather than a generic point in Calabi-Yau moduli space. We observe an enhancement of (discrete) symmetries that have various implications for the properties of the MSSM such as proton stability as well as solutions to the flavor problem, the m-problem and the strong CP-problem. (orig.)

  6. A unified grand tour of theoretical physics

    Lawrie, Ian D


    A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics invites its readers to a guided exploration of the theoretical ideas that shape our contemporary understanding of the physical world at the fundamental level. Its central themes, comprising space-time geometry and the general relativistic account of gravity, quantum field theory and the gauge theories of fundamental forces, and statistical mechanics and the theory of phase transitions, are developed in explicit mathematical detail, with an emphasis on conceptual understanding. Straightforward treatments of the standard models of particle physics and cosmology are supplemented with introductory accounts of more speculative theories, including supersymmetry and string theory. This third edition of the Tour includes a new chapter on quantum gravity, focusing on the approach known as Loop Quantum Gravity, while new sections provide extended discussions of topics that have become prominent in recent years, such as the Higgs boson, massive neutrinos, cosmological perturba...

  7. Introduction to Grand Unified Theories. 12

    Wali, K.C.


    This chapter presents an introduction into Grand Unified Theories. After a discussion of the general features to be expected in any such theory, and of the motivations for them, a detailed presentation of SU(5) theory is given. The group structures, particle multiplets, gauge and Higgs bosons are explained. The two stages of spontaneous symmetry breaking via the Higgs model, are calculated individually and in combination. Fermion mass matrices and relations between quark and lepton masses are derived. predictions of SU(5) theory, calculated using renormalization group methods, are derived. The chapter ends with discussions that bring together particle physics and cosmology, including the baryon asymmetry problem, phase transitions in the very early universe, and singularities like domain walls, vortex lines and monopoles. (author). 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  8. Supersymmetric grand unified theories and cosmology

    Lazarides, G.; Shafi, Q.


    By examining the behavior of supersymmetric grand unified theories (GUT's) in the very early universe we find two classes of realistic models. In one of them supersymmetry is broken at or near superheavy GUT scale. The cosmological implications of such models are expected to be similar to those of nonsupersymmetric GUT's. In the second class of models, the superheavy GUT scale is related to the supersymmetry-breaking scale in the manner of Witten. Two types of cosmological scenarios appear possible in this case, either with or without an intermediate (new) inflationary phase. They can be experimentally distinguished, since the former predicts an absence and the latter an observable number density of superheavy monopoles. A mechanism for generating baryon asymmetry in such models is pointed out

  9. Pitié pour les grandes villes !

    Jérôme Monnet


    Full Text Available Roger Caillois disait, en 1938, qu´il existe "une représentation de la grande ville, assez puissante sur les imaginations pour que jamais en pratique ne soit posée la question de son exactitude, créée de toute pièce par le livre, assez répandue néanmoins pour faire partie de l´atmosphère mentale collective et posséder par suite une certaine force de contrainte"(Le mythe et l´homme, p.156 [c´est lui qui souligne]. En 1996, la presse française a consacré dossiers et articles à "Habitat II...

  10. Preface to a GUT (Grand Unified Theory)

    Honig, W.


    A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is proposed exhibiting relativistic invariance and based on a physical model for vacuum space consisting of the superposition of oppositely charged continuous fluids. Models for the photon, electron, neutrino, proton, etc., consist of separate unique variations in the relative densities of the fluids and their flow patterns. This GUT is also based on the use of transfinite axiomatic number forms and on a concept of metrical relativity which hopefully reconciles the many logical dichotomies in and between Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. These ideas result in a number of experimental proposals and predicted results which appear to be underivable from present paradigms, first among which is a physical model for the hidden variable of Quantum Mechanics. It is on these features that attention should rest. (Auth.)

  11. Higgsless grand unified theory breaking and trinification

    Carone, Christopher D.; Conroy, Justin M.


    Boundary conditions on an extra dimensional interval can be chosen to break bulk gauge symmetries and to reduce the rank of the gauge group. We consider this mechanism in models with gauge trinification. We determine the boundary conditions necessary to break the trinified gauge group directly down to that of the standard model. Working in an effective theory for the gauge-symmetry-breaking parameters on a boundary, we examine the limit in which the grand-unified theory-breaking-sector is Higgsless and show how one may obtain the low-energy particle content of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We find that gauge unification is preserved in this scenario, and that the differential gauge coupling running is logarithmic above the scale of compactification. We compare the phenomenology of our model to that of four dimensional 'trinified' theories

  12. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    Li Tiezhong


    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  13. Large-scale pool fires

    Steinhaus Thomas


    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  14. Review of freeboard: Grand Rapids Generating Station

    Groeneveld, J.L.; Harding, W.B.; Bonin, D.V.; Fuchs, D.M. [Acres Manitoba Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Warner, B.J. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)


    Constructed during the period 1960-1965, the Grand Rapids Generating Station is a 472 MW hydroelectric station located approximately 400 kilometres northwest of Winnipeg, Manitoba, on the Saskatchewan River. An intake structure, four penstocks, a four-unit plus house unit powerhouse, wing walls, extensive dyke structures and a four-bay spillway are the components of the generating station. A little over ten years ago, the Manitoba Hydro Dam Safety Program was initiated. The program included a detailed dam safety review of the Grand rapids Generating Station. A potential deficiency in the freeboard allowance for several of the earthen dykes was revealed by the review process. The dam safety guidelines sponsored by the Canadian Dam Association were not met. The occurrence of a 1:1000 year wind event from the critical direction when the reservoir was at or near its full supply level was compounded by the analysis. The establishment of a wind and wave monitoring program was included in the deficiency studies commissioned. The objective was to confirm the empirical estimates concerning wave height, the development and usage of a two dimensional numerical wave model, and additional freeboard analyses to refine estimates of the recurrence interval of the current level of protection. A statistical Monte Carlo analysis was performed in the case of the estimates of the recurrence interval to determine the joint probabilities of seasonal variations in wind direction, wind speed, and reservoir level. The estimate of the actual risk of overtopping was therefore refined, and the details pertaining to the methodology and the conclusions of the analysis are all included in the paper. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  15. Phase transitions at finite chemical potential in grand unified theories

    Bailin, D.; Love, A.


    We discuss the circumstances in which non-zero chemical potentials might prevent symmetry restoration in phase transitions in the early universe at grand unification or partial unification scales. The general arguments are illustrated by consideration of SO(10) and SU(5) grand unified theories. (orig.)

  16. Fetal Outcomes among Grand Multiparous and Multiparous Women ...

    Objective: To compare fetal outcomes among grand multiparous (para 5-9) and multiparous (para 2-4) delivering in Mulago hospital, Uganda. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Mulago hospital, Uganda. Subjects: One hundred and fifty six grand multiparous and multiparous women were recruited on admission in ...

  17. First report of Phytophthora ramorum infecting grand fir in California

    K.L. Riley; G.A. Chastagner


    Phytophthora ramorum was detected on grand fir in 2003 and 2005 in a Christmas tree plantation near Los Gatos, CA, in association with infected California bay laurel. Isolates derived from stem lesions were used to inoculate grand fir seedlings in two tests. Isolations from lesions on inoculated plants were positive for P. ramorum...

  18. Plants, arthropods, and birds of the Rio Grande [chapter 7

    Deborah M. Finch; Gale L. Wolters; Wang Yong; Mary Jean Mund


    Human populations have increased dramatically along the Rio Grande since European settlement. Human use of water for irrigation and consumption, and human use of land for agriculture, urban centers, livestock grazing, and recreation have changed Rio Grande ecosystems by altering flood cycles, channel geomorphology, upslope processes, and water quality and quantity....

  19. Research of the Rio Grande Ecosystem Management Program

    Deborah M. Finch


    This paper describes the mission, objectives, and preliminary results of the Middle Rio Grande Ecosystem Management Research Program managed at the Rocky Mountain Research Station's Albuquerque laboratory. This program was initiated in 1994 to address growing pressures to effectively manage the limited resources of the middle Rio Grande Basin. The program is...

  20. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos numericos que simulen el comportamiento del material bajo estas condiciones en el contexto de programas de elementos finitos, dando como resultado predicciones mas precisas de los procesos de conformado y deformacion plastica en general. Para lograr este objetivo se han desarrollado diversas tareas destinadas a mejorar las predicciones en tres aspectos fundamentales. El primer aspecto consiste en la mejora de la descripcion del endurecimiento cinematico anisotropo en pequenas deformaciones, lo cual se ha realizado a traves de modelos y algoritmos implicitos de superficies multiples. Ha sido estudiada la consistencia de este tipo de modelos tanto si estan basados en una regla implicita similar a la de Mroz o en la regla de Prager. Ademas se han simulado los ensayos de Lamba y Sidebottom, obteniendo, en contra de la creencia general, muy buenas predicciones con la regla de Prager. Dichos modelos podrian ser extendidos de forma relativamente facil para considerar grandes deformaciones a traves de procedimientos en deformaciones logaritmicas, similares a los desarrollados en esta tesis y detallados a continuacion. El segundo aspecto consiste en la descripcion de la anisotropia elastoplastica inicial. Esto se ha conseguido mediante el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos para plasticidad anisotropa en grandes deformaciones, bien ignorando la posible anisotropia elastica, bien considerandola simultaneamente con la anisotropia plastica. Para ello ha sido necesario desarrollar primero un nuevo algoritmo de elastoplasticidad anisotropa en pequenas deformaciones consistentemente linealizado y sin despreciar ningun termino, de tal forma que se conserve la convergencia cuadratica de los metodos de Newton. Este algoritmo en pequenas deformaciones ha servido para realizar la correccion plastica de dos algoritmos en grandes deformaciones. El primero de estos algoritmos es una variacion del clasico algoritmo de