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Sample records for cerro bandera mioceno

  1. Los marsupiales (Mammalia del Mioceno Superior de la Formación Cerro Azul (Provincia de La Pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visconti, G.

    2000-04-01

    first lower molar. Microtragulus rusconii (Argirolagida, Argirolagidae is generalized with respect to the other species of this genus in having a less reduced talonid in the m4, and shows closer affinities with M. catamarcensis than with M. reigi. Hyperdidelphys, Lutreolina, Thylatheridium, Achlysictis, and, probably Microtragulus, are common taxa with those of the Valle de Santa María and Puerta de Corral Quemado, in Catamarca province (northwestern Argentina. On the contrary, Pliolestes and Zygolestes constitute exclusive taxa of Cerro Azul Fm. for central Argentina during the Huayquerian Age. The marsupial association recovered from levels of Cerro Azul Fm. is the most abundantly recorded from Upper Miocene levels in South America. Its taxonomic composition confirms previous hypotheses on the important faunal turnover that happened in this continent, as a consequence of the environmental changes occurred since the medial Miocene.Se describe la asociación de marsupiales sudamericanos fósiles de edad Huayqueriense (Mioceno tardío más completa hasta ahora conocida. Los ejemplares fueron exhumados de varias localidades fosilíferas nuevas del centro y norte de la provincia de La Pampa (Argentina central, en sedimentos asignables a la Formación Cerro Azul: Bajo Giuliani, Quehué, Telén, El Guanaco y Laguna Chillhué. El conjunto de las sedimentitas loessoides analizadas en los diferentes afloramientos de esta formación indica la existencia de depósitos lacustres en la base, a los que suprayacen niveles eólicos, ambos con evidencias pedogenéticas. El análisis de estas sedimentitas en cada una de las localidades estudiadas, permitió correlacionarlas en un perfil integrado de la Formación Cerro Azul. Esta formación es correlacionable con la «Formación Epecuén», al menos en la localidad Salinas Grandes de Hidalgo y, probablemente, con los términos superiores de la Formación Arroyo Chasicó. Los marsupiales fósiles exhumados representan la casi

  2. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR, PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

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    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior, procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable al género de colubroideos actualesPhilodryas. Tanto los registros terciarios previos de géneros actuales de anfibios y reptiles en América del Sur, como así también la asociación recuperada en el Mioceno Superior de La Pampa sugieren que la mayoría de los géneros que componen la herpetofauna Neotropical estaban presentes en el Mioceno, patrón similar al observado en otras regiones del mundo.

  3. El sistema de yacimientos de mamíferos miocenos del Cerro de los Batallones, Cuenca de Madrid: estado actual y perspectivas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, J.; Pozo, M.; Silva, P.G.; Domingo, M.S.; López-Antoñanzas, R.; Álvarez Sierra, A.; Antón, M.; Martín Escorza, C.; Quiralte, V.; Salesa, M.J.; Sánchez, I.M.; Azanza, B.; Calvo, J.P.; Carrasco, P.; García-Paredes, I.; Knoll, F.; Hernández Fernández, M.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Merino, L.; Meulen, van der A.J.; Montoya, P.; Peigné, S.; Peláez-Campomanes, P.; Sánchez-Marco, A.; Turner, A.; Abella, J.; Alcalde, G.M.; Andrés, M.; DeMiguel, D.; Cantalapiedra, J.L.; Fraile, S.; García Yelo, B.A.; Gómez Cano, A.R.; López Guerrero, P.; Oliver Pérez, A.; Siliceo, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Cerro de los Batallones (Los Batallones Butte) is located in the central-northern area of the Madrid Basin, central Spain. Nine vertebrates localities containing a large variety of mammals of Upper Vallesian Age (Late Miocene) have been found associated with the sediments forming the butte. From

  4. Submarine topography and faulting in Bahia de Banderas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Roman [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    arrastre inverso, que se origina en una cuenca de extension en la direccion N-S. El canon se divide en dos secciones orientadas en direcciones diferentes. La seccion mas antigua del canon, orientada E-O pertenece probablemente al Mioceno Tardio y es la que corresponde al semi-graben; no obstante se presentan evidencias que sugieren que la traza de la falla podria extenderse hacia el oeste a lo largo de un tramo adicional al del semi-graben, hasta la Trinchera Mesoamericana. La seccion del Canon de Banderas orientada al NE, que continua en el Valle de Banderas, se identifica como una seccion mas joven de la estructura. La porcion antigua y la joven del canon parecen estar activas actualmente en forma simultanea. Un grupo de fallas con rumbo NE parece estar tambien asociado al cambio de direccion del canon. Estos resultados apoyan la hipotesis de que el Canon de Banderas tiene estructura de semi-graben, y refuerzan la idea de que es el limite entre la region al norte del canon, la que experimento una extension en el Mioceno, y la region al sur, la que no sufrio dicha extension.

  5. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  6. La bandera de la cienc;a y del arte

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    Manuel José Luque

    1947-01-01

    Full Text Available El Dr. Miguel Becerro de Bengoa, prestigioso cancerólogo y Director del "Boletín de lucha contra el cáncer", de Montevideo, a poco de fallecer el profesor americano Howard Kelly publicó estas palabras : "Nos inclinamos reverentes ante su desaparición y ponemos en nuestra casa, a media asta, la bandera universal de la ciencia".

  7. Scraping the Monumental: Stepan Bandera through the Lens of Quantitative Memory Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredheim, R.; Howanitz, G.; Makhortykh, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay we use the example of Stepan Bandera to demonstrate the effectiveness of web-scraping methods as a tool to explore how people interact with memory content online. Using data from Wikipedia, Twitter and YouTube, we analyse the traces left by users interested in Stepan Bandera and assess

  8. Overview of Cerro Prieto studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The studies performed on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico, since the late 1950's are summarized. Emphasis is given to those activities leading to the identification of the sources of heat and mass, the fluid flow paths, and the phenomena occurring in the field in its natural state and under exploitation.

  9. The Half-Graben Structure of Bahia de Banderas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R.

    2007-05-01

    Bahia de Banderas contains important records of the detachment and initial separation of Baja California from mainland Mexico; however, its relief and structure are poorly known. The structure has been identified with a canyon associated with a fault striking E-W, named Banderas fault; it has also been proposed that the canyon may be a graben but no structural model was presented. To help in the description of its relief, a digital elevation model of the bay is constructed with individual soundings, ships soundings from 1970 to date, and satellite- derived depths, which shows an irregular topography of the canyon along the fault. The deepest portion of the bay reaches 1600 m; the south flank of the canyon dips at angles ranging from 15° to 22°, while the north flank ranges from 5° to 9°. This asymmetry between the flanks first suggested that the structure of the canyon might be that of a half-graben. A model is presented based on previous developments for half-graben structures of the fault growth type with reverse drag geometry; the model is based on the lengthening of the fault through seismically induced slip events; a seismic study of the area reported elsewhere complements the model and shows that the region is active. For Banderas canyon the footwall corresponds to the south flank, and the hanging wall corresponds to the north flank, including the shallow platform to the north of the bay. A fault length of 63 km is inferred and pertinent parameters are derived for the model calculations. Theoretical profiles are superposed and compared to actual topographic profiles of the canyon, concluding that the model describes well the central part of the structure, within 14 km of its mid-point in either direction, reproducing with less accuracy the geometries at the ends of the active portion of the fault, which is attributed to the perturbing effects of additional faults acting on those regions. The model allows for calculations of the age of the half

  10. Mamíferos del Mioceno medio de Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria)

    OpenAIRE

    Sesé, Carmen

    1980-01-01

    Se realiza el estudio sistemático, tafonómico, paleoecológico, paleobiogeográfico y biostratigráfico de los mamíferos (insectívoros, quirópteros, carnívoros, roedores, lagomorfos, y artiodáctilos) del yacimiento kárstico del Mioceno medio (zonas 7-8 MN de Mein, 1975) de Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria). -- Tesis Doctoral, 388 pp., 10 Láms

  11. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  12. Antonio Banderas: Hispanic Gay Masculinities and the Global Mirror Stage (1991-2001

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    Joseba Gabilondo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Here I map out the Atlantic intertwining between neo-liberal/neo-imperial Spain and cinema by analyzing Antonio Banderas's body politics as the postmodern (post- or neoimperialist Don Juan. Banderas's career trajectory from 1991 to 2001 coincides with larger political and historical developments. He arrived in Hollywood in the early 1990s, a moment when different but interconnected historical events came together— the end of the Cold War and the neo-liberal globalization of the United States with treaties such as NAFTA and GATT; the growing public profile of the fundamentalist religious right and gays; and the mainstream population's (unwilling acceptance of Latinos as a differentiated community. Hollywood needed a new kind of masculinity that gathered in all these new dimensions of United States identity while not completely shedding traditional Hollywood male typology, and Banderas fulfilled all the requirements. At the same time in Banderas Spain acquired a global card of presentation for its new neoimperialist and Atlantic pursuits in Latin America.

  13. Late-Glacial History of Lago Argentino, Argentina, and Age of the Puerto Bandera Moraines

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    Strelin, Jorge A.; Malagnino, Eduardo C.

    2000-11-01

    In the west-central part of Lago Argentino, the Puerto Bandera moraines are clearly detached from longer, more prominent moraines of the last glaciation and from shorter and smaller Neoglacial moraines. Scientists have long speculated about the age of the Puerto Bandera moraines. Detailed geomorphologic studies in the western area of Lago Argentino, including stratigraphic profiles at Bahı´a del Quemado in the northern branch (Brazo Norte), indicate that the Puerto Bandera moraines were deposited by three pulses of ice. Each of the three pulses is represented by single moraine ridges and belts of tightly arranged ridges. The timing of the three glacier advances was established by radiocarbon dating, including data published by John Mercer. The oldest moraine system, formed during the Puerto Bandera I substade, was deposited ca. 13,000 14C yr B.P. Moraines of the Puerto Bandera II substade were deposited ca. 11,000 14C yr B.P. The youngest moraine system was deposited during a minor readvance, shortly before 10,390 C14 yr B.P., and thus appears to have occurred some time during the European Younger Dryas interval. After this third substade, the ice tongues retreated into the interior branches of Lago Argentino and have remained there since. Evidence found at Bahı´a del Quemado, together with data provided by other authors, attests to a significant climatic change by the middle Holocene, which we believe occurred during the Herminita advance, the first Holocene glacial readvance recognized within the area.

  14. Geohydrology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez R, J.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent information on the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer is summarized, with special emphasis on the initial production zone where the wells completed in the Alpha aquifer are located. These wells produce steam for power plant units 1 and 2. Brief comments also are made on the Beta aquifer, which underlies the Alpha aquifer in the Cerro Prieto I area and which extends to the east to what is known as the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas. The location of the area studied is shown. The Alpha and Beta aquifers differ in their mineralogy and cementing mineral composition, temperatures, and piezometric levels. The difference in piezometric levels indicates that there is no local communication between the two aquifers. This situation has been verified by a well interference test, using well E-1 as a producer in the Beta aquifer and well M-46 as the observation well in the Alpha aquifer. No interference between them was observed. Information on the geology, geohydrology, and geochemistry of Cerro Prieto is presented.

  15. Bahía de Banderas, Mexico: Morphology, Magnetic Anomalies and Shallow Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortera Gutiérrez, Carlos A.; Bandy, William L.; Ponce Núñez, Francisco; Pérez Calderón, Daniel A.

    2016-10-01

    The Bahía de Banderas lies within a tectonically complex area at the northern end of the Middle America Trench. The structure, morphology, subsurface geology and tectonic history of the bay are essential for unraveling the complex tectonic processes occurring in this area. With this focus, marine geophysical data (multi-beam bathymetry, high resolution seismic reflection and total field magnetic data) were collected within the bay and adjacent areas during four campaigns aboard the B.O. EL PUMA conducted in 2006 and 2009. These data image the detailed morphology of, and sedimentation patterns within, the Banderas Canyon (a prominent submarine canyon situated on the south side of the bay) as well as the shallow subsurface structure of the northern part of the bay and the submarine Marietas Ridge, which bounds the bay to the west. We find that the Marietas Ridge is presently a transtensional feature; the course of the Banderas Canyon is controlled by extensive turbidite fan sedimentation in its eastern extremity and by structural lineaments to the west; the canyon floor is filled by sediments and exhibits almost no evidence for recent tectonic movements; the southern canyon wall is quite steep and a few sediments are deposited as submarine fans at the base of the southern wall; and extensive turbidite fans form the lower part of the northern canyon wall, producing a gently sloping lower northern wall. We find no evidence for a regional east-west striking lineament between the bay and the Middle America Trench, which casts doubts on the previous assertion that the Banderas Canyon is unequivocally related to the presence of a regional half-graben. Finally, a N71°E oriented normal fault offsets the seafloor reflector by 15 m within the central part of the bay, suggesting that the bay is currently being subjected to NNW-SSE extension.

  16. Analysis of temperature field in the Banderas Bay Region between June 2009 to June 2012

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    Carrillo-Gonzalez, F. M.; Cornejo-Lopez, V. M.; Morales-Hernández, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    We present the spatial and temporary analysis of temperature fields monitored hourly and monthly throughout the year in the Banderas Bay region between the period June 2009 to June 2011. The study area is the atmospheric basin of Banderas Bay, between of Puerto Vallarta Jal. and Puerto Vallarta New Nay., in 20.66381 N,-105.20574W. The data used was obtained from the Atmospheric Monitoring Network in the Banderas Bay region, which comprises of at least 10 automatic weather stations distributed heterogeneously throughout the study area, which provide data on major meteorological variables at 10 minute intervals. It has been observed that the behavior throughout the year of major weather variables are determined by local processes (valley and breeze circulation) primarily and macro-scale phenomena (presence of the North Pacific anticyclone and trade winds). Greater thermal amplitude in the mountain regions of the River Ameca Valley, compared to coastal zones, with the latter influenced by the sea surface temperature. We registered small heat islands in urbane areas, which gives background information for future studies on pollution, health, prevention of natural disasters etc.

  17. The Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field, NM: An Analog for Exploring Planetary Volcanic Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Crumpler, L. S.; Aubele, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, near Grants, New Mexico, is comprised of volcanic deposits from several basaltic eruptions during the last million years. This vent field exhibits a diverse group of coalesced lava flows and displays well-preserved volcanic features including a’a and pahoehoe flows, collapsed lava tubes, cinder cones and low shields. The McCartys flow is a 48-km long inflated basalt flow and is the youngest in the field at around 3000 years old. Over the last three years we have used the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, and the McCartys flow in particular, as a terrestrial analog for exploring planetary volcanic fields, and understanding the role of lava sheet inflation in flow field development. We have conducted three different styles of analog tests, 1) basic field science focused on understanding lava sheet inflation, 2) mission operations tests related to EVA design and real-time modification of traverse plans, and 3) science enabling technology tests. The Zuni-Bandera field is an ideal location for each style of analog test because it provides easy access to a diverse set of volcanic features with variable quality of preservation. However, many limitations must also be considered in order to maximize lessons learned. The McCartys flow displays well-preserved inflation plateaus that rise up to 15 m above the surrounding field. The preservation state enables textures and morphologies indicative of this process to be characterized. However, the pristine nature of the flow does not compare well with the much older and heavily modified inflated flows of Mars and the Moon. Older flows west of McCartys add value to this aspect of analog work because of their degraded surfaces, development of soil horizons, loose float, and limited exposure of outcrops, similar to what might be observed on the Moon or Mars. EVA design tests and science enabling technology tests at the Zuni-Bandera field provide the opportunity to document and interpret the relationships

  18. Paleontologia y bioestratigrafia del mioceno continental de la Cuenca de Calatayud (Zaragoza: nuevos yacimientos de micromamiferos

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    Sesé, C.

    2003-08-01

    characteristic of a humid climate, and there are no terrestrial squirrels. This is in agreement with the suggestion made by Daams et al. (op.cit. that this age was relatively wetter than the former one. There is a fauna1 micromammal change between the Middle and the Upper Miocene, evident in the fauna1 association of the Upper Vallesian site of Belmonte in which there are no anyone of the cricetidae that were characteristic of the Middle Miocene but it appears the first muridae represented by the genus Progonomys. This has been interpreted as a climatic change towards relatively drier conditions, that went on during al1 the Upper Miocene, and also relatively colder, according to Daams et al. (op. cit..Se dan a conocer cinco nuevos yacimientos de micromamíferos de la cuenca de Calatayud: Vilueña, Torralba de Ribota 8, Montón, Armantes 14 y Belmonte, que abarcan un período comprendido entre el Mioceno inferior y el superior. En las asociaciones faunísticas de micromamíferos de los cuatro primeros yacimientos, hemos determinado la línea evolutiva de las especies: Megacricetodon primitivus-collongensis- crusafonti del Mioceno medio, lo que nos ha permitido situarlas con gran precisión bioestratigráfica. El yacimiento bioestratigráficamente más antiguo es el de Vilueña, en el que está presente la especie Megacricetodon primitivus que es característica de las zonas C y D1 correspondientes, respectivamente, al Aragoniense inferior y medio. En Torralba de Ribota 8, la asociación de Megacriceton primitivus-collongensis y Fahlbuschia koenigswaldi es característica de la zona D del Aragoniense medio. En Montón se encuentra la forma de transición Megacricetodon collongensis-crusafonti, característica de las zonas F y G1 del Aragoniense superior. En Armantes 14 está la especie Megacricetodon crusafonti que es característica de la zona G2 del Aragoniense superior. Finalmente en el yacimiento de Belmonte, la presencia del múrido Progonomys hispanicus indica su edad del

  19. Geologic and geophysical investigations of the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ander, M. E.; Heiken, G.; Eichelberger, J.; Laughlin, A. W.; Huestis, S.

    1981-05-01

    A positive, northeast-trending gravity anomaly, 90 km long and 30 km wide, extends southwest from the Zuni uplift, New Mexico. The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, an alignment of 74 basaltic vents, is parallel to the eastern edge of the anomaly. Lavas display a bimodal distribution of tholeiitic and alkalic compositions, and were erupted over a period from 4 Myr to present. A residual gravity profile taken perpendicular to the major axis of the anomaly was analyzed using linear programming and ideal body theory to obtain bounds on the density contrast, depth, and minimum thickness of the gravity body.

  20. Estratigrafía del Mioceno en el sector suroriental de la Cuenca de Almazán (Zaragoza)

    OpenAIRE

    Varas Muriel, María José; Barba, P.; I. Armenteros

    1999-01-01

    El relleno sedimentario Mioceno (Ageniense inferior-Vallesiense?) del sector suroriental de la Cuenca de Almazán está formado por dos secuencias deposicionales, definidas a partir de sendas discontinuidades basales y por cambios paleogeográficos mayores que dan lugar a una distribución variable de los sistemas aluviales y lacustres en la región. La discontinuidad inferior representa un evento diastrófico al final del Oligoceno (Ageniense inferior) mientras que la discontinuidad que separa ...

  1. El Paleoceno-Mioceno de Península Mitre: antefosa y depocentro de techo de cuña de la cuenca Austral, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina The Paleocene-Miocene of Peninsula Mitre: foredeep and wedge-top of the Austral Basin, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J Torres Carbonell

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de cuenca de antepaís Austral-Malvinas adyacente al orógeno Fueguino comprende sedimen-titas marinas expuestas en el norte de Península Mitre, incluyendo 550 m de la antefosa del Paleoceno tardío-Eoceno temprano, y más de 2.900 m de la subcuenca María Luisa, depocentro de techo de cuña ('wedge-top' del Eoceno medio tardío-?Mioceno. La columna se subdivide en las formaciones La Barca (100 m, Paleoceno superior, Punta Noguera (450 m, Eoceno inferior, Leticia (30 m, Eoceno medio superior, Cerro Colorado (935 m, Eoceno medio superior-Eoceno superior, Puesto José (nom. nov., 1.600 m, Oligoceno y Malengüena (nom. nov., 216 m, ?Mioceno. La microfauna de la Formación Malengüena se distingue por el dominio de Globocassidulina cf brocha, y por su peculiar preservación, ambas características no reconocidas previamente en la porción argentina de la cuenca Austral. Se verifican discordancias sintectónicas entre el límite Paleoceno-Eoceno y el Eoceno medio, asociadas a una etapa de orogénesis regional: en el Eoceno más alto-Oligoceno basal, relacionada localmente con el anticlinal Campo del Medio; en el Oligoceno 'medio', asociada al retrocorrimiento Malengüena; y en el Mioceno ?inferior, relacionada con estructuras profundas de la faja corrida y plegada.The orogenic margin of the Austral-Malvinas foreland basin system is formed by a marine succession exposed at northern Península Mitre, composed of 550 m of the late Paleocene-early Eocene foredeep, and more than 2,900 m of the late middle Eocene-?Miocene María Luisa wedge-top sub-basin. The succession is subdivided in the following formations: La Barca (100 m, upper Paleocene, Punta Noguera (450 m, lower Eocene, Leticia (30 m, upper middle Eocene, Cerro Colorado (935 m, upper middle Eocene-upper Eocene, Puesto José (nom. nov, 1,600 m, Oligocene and Malengüena (nom. nov, 216 m, ?Miocene. The foraminiferal content of the Malengüena Formation is distinguished by the dominance

  2. Registro fósil y distribución de Anadenathera en Argentina desde el Mioceno hasta la actualidad

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    Fernández-Pacella, L.

    2015-06-01

    . Finally it`s noteworthy that the spatial and temporal succession of Anadenanthera in Argentina, would have been intimately associated with tectonic and climatic events occurred during the Neogene and Quaternary.En la actualidad Fabaceae, es una de las familias dominantes de los Bosques Tropicales Estacionalmente Secos (Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests, SDNF o Bosques Secos Estacionales Neotropicales, BSEN. El género Anadenanthera, que integra dicha familia, tiene amplia distribución geográfica en el continente sudamericano y las Antillas, pero en Argentina sólo está presente Anadenantera colubrina var. cebil en el norte del país y sus registros están representados a partir del Mioceno Inferior hasta la actualidad por medio de palinomorfos y leños pemineralizados. El objetivo central de este trabajo es contribuir a la comprensión en el marco de la historia del género Anadenanthera durante el Neógeno y Cuaternario en Argentina, sobre la base de la revisión e integración de los antecedentes paleobotánicos, geológicos y climáticos disponibles que han afectado al género en el país. Los materiales fósiles estudiados provienen de diversas formaciones geológicas de Argentina: Formación Chenque (Mioceno Inferior, Formación Paraná (Mioceno Medio, Formación San José (Mioceno Medio, Formación Ituzaingó (Plioceno y Esteros de Iberá (Holoceno. El material encontrado en la Formación Chenque es referido a Polyadopollenites coincide con el material descripto para el Mioceno Medio del centro-este de Argentina y para el Plioceno del noreste de Argentina. Por otra parte en la Formación Paraná e Ituzaingó se estudiaron ejemplares de leños permineralizados correspondientes a Anadenantheroxylon villaurquisense, por último, el ejemplar hallado en el Holoceno de los Esteros de Iberá en la provincia de Corrientes corresponde a Anadenanthera colubrina var. macrocarpa. Con estos datos se puede concluir que Anadenathera tuvo un registro geográfico amplio entre el

  3. Influence of Tropical Cyclones Period 1970 TO 2010 IN the Region of Bahia de Banderas, Nayarit-Jalisco Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluates the impacts of tropical cyclones (TC) that made landfall in populated areas along the Pacific coast of Mexico, especially in the region of Bahia de Banderas. During the period of 1970-2010 and used a database of international natural disasters to identify impacts. Were more than 13 events during the reporting period, of which 10 are examined more precipitation accumulated and 6 that caused further damage to the affected population in these cases ranged from 5000 to more than 15 000 inhabitants. Strong winds and heavy rainfall in periods of one to three days were associated with property damage and loss of life. The results of the study indicate that excessive accumulations of rain and daily intensity are important factors connected with the occurrence of disasters in densely populated areas. Six of the first 10 Tropical Cyclone associated with major disasters occurred in conditions of El Niño and four neutral conditions. With the analysis of satellite images using GOES-10 in the IDV software maps were obtained in the coastal impacts of Banderas Bay and describes the main features of each meteorological phenomena. In which concludes that no tropical cyclone entered directly to the Banderas Bay region, but its effects were very relevant, taking into account the topography, land use change and the vulnerability of the region. Tropical Cyclones that have affected the region of Bay of Banderas

  4. Sedimentation Dynamics in Bahia de Banderas Nayarit, from Ameca River to Bucerias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza Ruciles, S.; Cupul Magaña, A.; Escudero Ayala, C.

    2013-05-01

    At last years different actions had made it on the coast in Banderas Bay modifying its dynamics, sand process extractions in Ameca River, deforestation in the zone of estuary and extensions in urban zone affects the beach and coastal dunes. Keeping a lot of sand in circulation which has made changes in erosion process and triggering retrocession in coastline as hazard because an increment of sea level affects edifications near to the beach and estuaries. We present analysis of sedimentation dynamics in an extension approximately, 10 km from the north of the end in Ameca River until Bucerias, Nayarit. For that reason we have made topographic and bathymetric studies with total station and GPS in four zones using technics at the edge of the beach every 109.3613 yards and transversals transect and longitudinal, every 3 months starting in august 2012 and ending in march 2013;

  5. An approach to the tourism situation in the Bahía de Banderas region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Trinidad Medina Esparza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the current tourism situation presented by the region of Bahía de Banderas, which comprises two municipalities in the state of Jalisco and one from the state of Nayarit, Mexico. The objective was to observe its context to determine the possible scenario in the future of tourism in the region mentioned. The results indicate that no attempt had been made to a futuristic vision, since its natural and cultural resources have had improper handling. Such is the case of Puerto Vallarta, a destination considered mature that desperately needs a renovation if wants to continue positioned between the three main beach destinations in Mexico. The proposal consists in the creation of theme parks and the stroke of complementary routes taking advantage of the potential for other municipalities that make up the region, in order to develop diversified strategies and customized to solve some problems of tourism competitiveness.

  6. Radiocarbon chronology of the late-glacial Puerto Bandera moraines, Southern Patagonian Icefield, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelin, J. A.; Denton, G. H.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Ninnemann, U. S.; Putnam, A. E.

    2011-09-01

    We report radiocarbon dates that constrain the timing of the deposition of the late-glacial Puerto Bandera moraine system alongside the western reaches of Lago Argentino adjacent to the Southern Patagonian Icefield. Close maximum-limiting radiocarbon ages ( n = 11) for glacier advance into the outer moraines, with a mean value of 11,100 ± 60 14C yrs BP (12,990 ± 80 cal yrs BP), were obtained from wood in deformation (soft) till exposed beneath flow and lodgment till in Bahía del Quemado on the northeast side of Brazo Norte (North Branch) of western Lago Argentino. Other exposures of this basal deformation till in Bahía del Quemado reveal incorporated clasts of peat, along with larger inclusions of deformed glaciofluvial and lacustrine deposits. Radiocarbon dates of wood included in these reworked peat clasts range from 11,450 ± 45 14C yrs BP to 13,450 ± 150 14C yrs BP (13,315 ± 60 to 16,440 ± 340 cal yrs BP). The implication is that, during this interval, glacier fronts were situated inboard of the Puerto Bandera moraines, with the peat clasts and larger proglacial deposits being eroded and then included in the basal till during the Puerto Bandera advance. Minimum-limiting radiocarbon ages for ice retreat come from basal peat in cores sampled in spillways and depressions generated during abandonment of the Puerto Bandera moraines. Glacier recession and subsequent plant colonization were initiated close behind different frontal sectors of these moraines prior to: 10,750 ± 75 14C yrs BP (12,660 ± 70 cal yrs BP) east of Brazo Rico, 10,550 ± 55 14C yrs BP (12,490 ± 80 cal yrs BP) in Peninsula Avellaneda, and 10,400 ± 50 14C yrs BP (12,280 ± 110 cal yrs BP) in Bahía Catalana. In addition, a radiocarbon date indicates that by 10,350 ± 45 14C yrs BP (12,220 ± 110 cal yrs BP), the Brazo Norte lobe (or former Upsala Glacier) had receded well up the northern branch of Lago Argentino, to a position behind the Herminita moraines. Furthermore, glacier termini

  7. Generation and evolution of internal waves in Banderas Bay, Jalisco-Nayarit, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, L. J.; Anatoliy, F.; Iryna, T.; Carlos, V.; Liza, K.; César, M.

    2007-05-01

    The characteristics of internal waves in Banderas Bay (Mexico) were determined by means of data from oceanographical measurements carried on spring and winter during the years 2001 and 2003. The intense fluctuations in the fields of temperature and salinity obtained from a fast oceanographical survey with an undulating CTD on April, 2001, give evidence of the presence and propagation of an internal waves' field. With the help of a bathymetric chart elaborated from a survey carried on in March and May, 2002, we found that the submarine canyon close to the southern coast of the bay, from Cabo Corrientes to Mismaloya, acts like a filter that reflects the diurnal internal tide and allows only the entrance of semidiurnal internal tide. The results of a special experiment measuring the spatiotemporal parameters of internal waves on the wide continental shelf of northwestern Banderas Bay are discussed. The oceanographical measurements consisted of: a) a fast survey with an undulating CTD along a transect perpendicular to the coast, (b) the towing of an array of temperature and depth sensors several times over the continental shelf along transects perpendicular to the coast, and (c) time series of velocity components registered by an acoustic Doppler current profiler placed on the seabed of the bay at 28 m depth. The presence of internal waves generated by semidiurnal tide and corresponding to the second normal oscillation mode (according to the linear theory of internal waves) was determined. Analysis of the data showed that, in the study area, the internal waves generated over the continental slope by the barotropic tide have the shape of an oscillatory bore, which quickly disintegrates during their propagation shoreward, producing short nonlinear waves that dissipate close to the coast, and intense vertical mixing of the whole water column. The interpretation of the results was based on the linear and nonlinear (Korteweg-de Vries equation) theories of internal waves.

  8. Geologic and geophysical investigations of the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ander, M.E.; Heiken, G.; Eichelberger, J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Huestis, S.

    1981-05-01

    A positive, northeast-trending gravity anomaly, 90 km long and 30 km wide, extends southwest from the Zuni uplift, New Mexico. The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, an alignment of 74 basaltic vents, is parallel to the eastern edge of the anomaly. Lavas display a bimodal distribution of tholeiitic and alkalic compositions, and were erupted over a period from 4 Myr to present. A residual gravity profile taken perpendicular to the major axis of the anomaly was analyzed using linear programming and ideal body theory to obtain bounds on the density contrast, depth, and minimum thickness of the gravity body. Two-dimensionality was assumed. The limiting case where the anomalous body reaches the surface gives 0.1 g/cm/sup 3/ as the greatest lower bound on the maximum density contrast. If 0.4 g/cm/sup 3/ is taken as the geologically reasonable upper limit on the maximum density contrast, the least upper bound on the depth of burial is 3.5 km and minimum thickness is 2 km. A shallow mafic intrusion, emplaced sometime before Laramide deformation, is proposed to account for the positive gravity anomaly. Analysis of a magnetotelluric survey suggests that the intrusion is not due to recent basaltic magma associated with the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field. This large basement structure has controlled the development of the volcanic field; vent orientations have changed somewhat through time, but the trend of the volcanic chain followed the edge of the basement structure. It has also exhibited some control on deformation of the sedimentary section.

  9. Lista sistemática de la ictiofauna de Bahía de Banderas, México A fish checklist for the ichthyofauna of Bahía de Banderas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Moncayo-Estrada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La Bahía de Banderas ubicada en el Pacífico central mexicano alberga una gran riqueza íctica la cual se menciona por primera vez en este elenco sistemático, donde se incluyen 210 especies, 145 géneros y 74 familias. La lista se integra con representantes de 205 especies capturados durante recolectas realizadas entre 1997 a 1998, así como de otras cinco observadas e identificadas de modo positivo, aunque no recolectadas. Los resultados indican un número bastante alto con afinidad tropical (117 respecto a las templadas (7, y el resto (76 manifiestan una distribución muy amplia en el océano Pacífico oriental. Las familias mejor representadas, por su número de especies, son: Carangidae (19, Haemulidae (16, Sciaenidae (13, Serranidae (11 y Paralichthyidae (8. De acuerdo con el análisis de bibliografía actualizada, 11 amplían su ámbito de distribución conocida a Bahía de Banderas.The Bahía de Banderas located in the Central Mexican Pacific, contains an important ichthyological richness, which is described for the first time in the present systematic checklist, which includes a total of 210 species, belonging to 145 genera and 74 families. In the inventory 205 species were collected between 1997 and 1998, and the remainder five were observed and positively identified but not captured. The results had shown an important tropical component (117 over the temperate one (7, and the rest of the species (76 with a wider distribution along the Eastern Pacific ocean. The best represented families by number of species were: Carangidae (19, Haemulidae (16, Sciaenidae (13, Serranidae (11 and Paralichthyidae (8. Accordingly to revision of recent bibliographic records, eleven species reported here have extended their known distribution range to Bahía de Banderas.

  10. Cambio de cobertura vegetal en la región de Bahía de Banderas, México

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Hernández, Julio Cesar; Carrillo-González, Fátima Maciel; Farfán-Molina Luis Manuel; Cornejo-López Víctor Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Historically there have been adverse natural events such as tropical cyclones and forest fires, which have led to important changes in the coverage of natural vegetation. Moreover, in recent decades human activities have become the main trigger of the transformation of ecosystems, modifying or destroying them with the development of excessive in relation to the capacity of natural systems and resources economic activities. This has intensified in recent years in the region of Banderas Bay, wh...

  11. Primer registro de aves fósiles (Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae y un probable Odontopterygiformes: Pelagornithidae) para el Mioceno Superior de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio, Ana L.; Laurito, César A.

    2013-01-01

    Se registran por primera vez para Costa Rica restos de dos aves marinas fósiles (Aves: Pelecaniformes y Odontopterygiformes) procedentes de la Formación Curré de edad Mioceno Superior. Estos hallazgos están asociados a sedimentos marino someros y concuerdan con otros vertebrados fósiles marinos asociados como cetáceos, tiburones y rayas.

  12. Analysis of Cerro Prieto production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K.P.; Miller, C.W.; Lippmann, M.J.; Vonder Haar, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Heat and mass production data from the Cerro Prieto field are analyzed in order to provide a basis for a detailed quantitative model of the system. It is found, in general, that the production from the individual wells decreased with time. This can be due to a reduction in permeability by silica deposition in the aquifer pores, relative permeability effects in a two-phase flow, and/or a reduced pressure gradient over years of production. Specific increases in the total mass production rate of the field are associated with the increased number of producing wells. Average enthalpy of the produced fluid varied over the years. It first increased, then decreased, and again increased. An increase in enthalpy was usually the result of adding higher enthalpy wells to those already in the field. The decrease in the enthalpy is thought to be mostly due to the mixing of relatively cold water with the geothermal aquifer fluid. Downhole pressures, temperatures and saturations in the flowing wells were calculated from the known wellhead data. Between 1973 and 1980, the pressures and temperatures have decreased by about 15 bars and 20/sup 0/C respectively, and the steam saturations have slightly increased in the near-well regions.

  13. Evaluation of geologic characteristics at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Halfman, S.E.; Vonder Haar, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Computerized well-log analysis of Cerro Prieto has led to the identification of a relatively large and irregular low-density volume extending from near the surface in the vicinity of Laguna Volcano to greater depths toward the northeast. This low-density volume is located about a plane of symmetry of a self-potential anomaly and a group of northeast trending active faults. The presence of a volume of relatively high-density rock has been recognized at shallow depths in the initially developed part of the resource. It is believed to be due to minerals deposited by cooled, rising geothermal brine. Storativity calculated from well logs at the south end of the western part of the field shows acceptable comparison with storativity calculated from well tests. The amount of fluid produced from the field during the period 1973-1977 is greater than the amount in situ calculated from the completed interval thicknesses. Because this part of the field is still producing today, fluid must be recharging this part of the field.

  14. El inconveniente de las banderas de conveniencia a la luz de los Derechos Humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Sarmento Pimenta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establecido un momento histórico mundial, la práctica de la bandera de convenien- cia surgió como una solución económica para el abaratamiento de los fletes marítimos, fomentando así el tráfico y el tráfico marítimo. Con el tiempo, sin embargo, se dio cuenta de que esto traería gran idea, y un gran beneficio económico, la pérdida para la humani- dad, tanto colectiva como individualmente. La adopción de la utilización de pabellones de conveniencia se reproduce cuando se observa con más fuerza, a los trabajadores maríti- mos y el medio ambiente. Ofende la dignidad de la persona humana hacia un capitalismo voraz. El mundo no dejó de reunirse y discutir cuántos marineros embarcaron en los bu- ques que conduzem pabellón de conveniencia son tratados. Sin embargo, muy poco se ha hecho para frenar esta práctica, y se necesita con urgencia la intervención de organismos nacionales e internacionales que tienen como objetivo la protección de la humanidad para que esta práctica seja prohibida de nuestros mares.

  15. LA EVALUACIÓN DEL PAISAJE EN BAHÍA DE BANDERAS, PUERTO VALLARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arias Orozco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En Bahía de Banderas se ha manifestado en años rcciemes un deterio- ro ambiemal, como consecuencia principal de la inadecuada ocupación territorial por parte de los sectores rurÍ5üco e inmobiliario, así mismo una planeación regional y local ineficiente por parte del sector oficial y los cJjferentes desarrolladores rurísticos que intervienen en el proceso, que además de no haber contemplado planteamientos en los que se incluyan desarroUos sustentables acordes con la biodiversidad existente en la rona. Al analizar las caracrerísticas particulares de las actividades rurísticas, es importante reconocer el impacro que c:stas tienen sobre el ámbito territorial, económico y social. Mediante la evaluación de las rransformaciones en el terrimrio correspondiemes al paisaje costero; así como la introducción de usos y costumbres por pane de los visitantes, que producen implicaciones sociales manifestadas en la pérdida de la identidad regional.

  16. Determinación del límite Mioceno-Plioceno y reconocimiento del Plioceno Inferior en Tomares (Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra, A.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic foraminifera from 53 samples coming from Tomares (El Aljarafe, Sevilla were investigated, allowing the identification of three biozones: GloborotaJúl margaritse-Globoquadrina dehiscens Zone, Globorotalia puncticuJats s.l. Zone and Globorotalia crassaiormis Zone. The first one is assigned to the Upper Messinian and otbers to tbe Zanclian. The first evolutionary appearance of Globorotalia puncticulata sphericomiozea is virtually syncbronous with the extinction of Globoquadrina debiscens and the last event may serve as useful criteria in determining the position of the Miocene-Pliocene boundary.El estudio de los foraminíferos planctónicos contenidos en 53 muestras recogidas en Tomares (región de El Aljarafe, Sevilla, ha permitido reconocer tres biozonas: zona de Globorotalia margaritse-Globoquadrina debiscens, zona de Globorotalia puncticulata s.l. y zona de Globorotalia crassaformis. La primera biozona citada se asigna al Messinense superior y las restantes al Zanclense. La primera aparición de Globorotalia sphericomiozea coincide en estos materiales con la extinción de Globoquadrina debiscens. Este último dato ha sido utilizado en el presente trabajo para marcar el límite Mioceno-Plioceno.

  17. «Mud-mounds» en sedimentos lacustres someros del Mioceno medio de la cuenca de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo, J. P.

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Several non-tuffaceous carbonate buildups have been recognized in middle Miocene sediments of the Madrid Basin. Facies associations lead to conclude that carbonate buildups developed in shallow lacustrine areas, Detailed morphology and internal structure of the buildups are shown. A dense, sometimes discontinuous, rhizolith network is displayed in the mud-mound cores whereas surficial dessicated crusts are commonly observed in the outer parto Small wedge-c1astic breccias from eroded flanks of the buildups have been locally distinguished as well. Mud-mound growth took place through successive stages controlled by lake level oscillations.

    Diversos edificios carbonáticos de carácter no tobáceo han sido reconocidos en sucesiones continentales correspondientes al Mioceno medio de la cuenca de Madrid. La asociación de facies en todos los casos observados conduce a caracterizar dichos edificios como propios de ambientes palustres o lacustres muy someros. Se describe en detalle la morfología y estructura interna de estos cuerpos cuyo núcleo aparece constituido por un espeso entramado de raíces con ciertas peculiaridades en sus rellenos. Distintas subfacies: núcleo, discontinuidades internas, corteza externa, brechas locales en los flancos , han sido distinguidas, sirviendo de base para la propuesta de un modelo de desarrollo en estadios sucesivos de los edificios, integrables bajo el término de "mud-mounds" en ambiente continental.

  18. Navajo minettes in the Cerros de las Mujeres, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D.; Laughlin, A. W.; Gladney, E. S.

    1985-06-01

    The Cerros de las Mujeres in west-central New Mexico are three mafic minette plugs that should be considered part of the Navajo volcanic fields on the central Colorado Plateau. This newly recognized occurrence extends the Navajo volcanic fields to the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau, within 45 km of the extensional tectonic setting in which the Mogollon ash-flow tuff cauldrons occur. The Cerros de las Mujeres provide additional evidence for contemporaneous sodic and potassic volcanism within the Navajo volcanic fields.

  19. Del valle al cerro: el sitio del Cerro Zapotecas durante el Epiclásico

    OpenAIRE

    Salomón Salazar, María Teresa

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis es definir qué tipo de asentamiento era el Cerro Zapotecas durante el periodo Epiclásico (600-900 d.C.), ubicado a escasos tres kilómetros de Cholula. Los antecedentes de investigación en este sitio lo señalan como un centro focal de las actividades del valle de Puebla-Tlaxcala durante la transición del Clásico al Posclásico. Esta investigación llevó a cabo un nuevo recorrido de superficie con el cual se documentó la composición arquitectónica y ...

  20. IDENTIDAD DEL SUJETO POPULAR Y EL IMPACTO DE LOS MEDIOS DE COMUNICACION EN LA POBLACION LA BANDERA

    OpenAIRE

    CABALIN QUIJADA, CRISTIAN

    2008-01-01

    Esta investigación describe el impacto de los medios masivos de comunicación en las configuraciones de identidad y comunidad de los habitantes de la población La Bandera de Santiago. Define además las características que han dado vida a un concepto de sujeto popular, vinculado a la tradición político-histórica, y analiza cuáles son hoy sus principales categorías de análisis. Esta investigación describe el impacto de los medios masivos de comunicación en las configuraciones de identidad ...

  1. Study of Seismic Clusters at Bahía de Banderas Region, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz-Lopez, M.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Trejo-Gomez, E.

    2010-12-01

    Given that the coast in the states of Jalisco and south of the state of Nayarit is located within a region of high seismic potential and also because population is increasing, perhaps motivated by the development of tourism, the Civil Defense authorities of Jalisco and the Centro de Sismología y Volcanología de Occidente-SisVOc of Universidad de Guadalajara started in the year 2000 a joint project to study the seismic risk of the region, including the seismic monitoring of Colima volcano (located between the states of Jalisco and Colima). This work focuses on the study of seismicity in the area of Bahía de Banderas and northern coast of Jalisco. To this end, we perform an analysis of available seismograms to characterize active structures, their relationship to surface morphology, and possible reach of these structures into the shallow parts of the bay. The data used in this work are waveforms recorded during the year 2003 during which the seismograph network spanned the region of study. Our method is based on the identification of seismic clusters or families using cross-correlation of waveforms, earthquake relocation and modeling of fault planes. From an initial data set of 404 earthquakes located during 2003, 96 earthquakes could be related to 17 potentially active continental structures. A modeling of fault planes was possible for 11 of these structures. Subgroups of 7 structures are aligned parallel to the Middle America Trench, a possible consequence of oblique subduction. The magnitudes of earthquakes grouped into families is less than 3.6 (Ml), corresponding to fault dimensions of hundreds of meters.

  2. Gas chemistry and thermometry of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehring, N.L. (US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA); D' Amore, F.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal gases at Cerro Prieto are derived from high temperature reactions within the reservoir or are introduced with recharge water. Gases collected from geothermal wells should, therefore, reflect reservoir conditions. Interpretation of gas compositions of wells indicates reservoir temperatures, controls of oxygen and sulfur fugacities, and recharge source and direction.

  3. Estudio paleopatológico de una hemimandíbula de Tethytragus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) del Mioceno Medio de Somosaguas (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid)

    OpenAIRE

    Sala Burgos, Nohemi; Cuevas González, Jaime; López Martínez, Nieves

    2007-01-01

    En este artículo se estudia el origen paleopatológico de una cavidad situada en el talónido del primer molar inferior en una hemimandíbula de Tethytragus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) hallada en el yacimiento paleontológico del Mioceno Medio (Aragoniense) de Somosaguas Norte (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid). El molar afectado muestra un desgaste anómalo con una fuerte reducción de la altura del talónido y una gran cavidad, que conecta la superficie oclusal con la cámara pulpar, bordeada de dentina ...

  4. Estudio paleopatológico de una hemimandíbula de Tethytragus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) del Mioceno Medio de Somosaguas (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid)

    OpenAIRE

    Sala-Burgos, N.; Cuevas-González, Jaime; López Martínez, Nieves

    2007-01-01

    [ES] En este artículo se estudia el origen paleopatológico de una cavidad situada en el talónido del primer molar inferior en una hemimandíbula de Tethytragus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) hallada en el yacimiento paleontológico del Mioceno Medio (Aragoniense) de Somosaguas Norte (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid). El molar afectado muestra un desgaste anómalo con una fuerte reducción de la altura del talónido y una gran cavidad, que conecta la superficie oclusal con la cámara pulpar, bordeada ...

  5. Rasgos morfologicos y petrologicos del paleokarst de la unidad superior del mioceno de la cuenca de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañaveras, J. C.

    2003-08-01

    discontinuidad estratigráfica que define el límite Mioceno-Plioceno está representada por una superficie paleokárstica desarrollada sobre las calizas de la Unidad Superior del Mioceno. El paleokarst sufrió una evolución polifásica dentro de la cual se han destacado tres episodios principales. El primero, que afectó por igual a todo el conjunto carbonático, se inició con la desecación de los sistemas lacustres instalados en el área durante el Turoliense. El nivel freático se mantuvo próximo a la superficie del terreno, como se constata por la situación de cuevas horizontales en las calizas. La superficialidad de la tabla de agua, junto a la falta de litificación del sedimento, propició una extensiva colonización vegetal. Asociado a las raíces de las plantas, se originó un conjunto de tubos que, junto con las cuevas horizontales, configuran un modelado característico del tipo de perfiles kársticos denominados «descubiertos». La evolución posterior del karst tuvo lugar tras el plegamiento de las calizas. Esta segunda etapa se caracterizó por la formación local de calcretas con sus fábricas características (laminar, pisolítica, etc. sobre los perfiles anteriores, lo que evidencia un régimen climático árido. Más tarde, la tipología de perfiles «cubiertos por calcretas» resultante fue enterrada por el sistema fluvial plioceno que se instaló en el NE de la Mesa de Ocaña. En la zona sur, más alejada de los depocentros deposicionales, se constata un tercer episodio evolutivo definido por la acumulación de suelos, fundamentalmente en los sinclinales. Bajo esta cubierta edáfica tuvo lugar una intensa disolución y brechificación del sustrato que se ha reflejado en un tercer tipo de perfiles, denominados «brechoides» y que indican'an condiciones climáticas húmedas. Finalmente, todo el conjunto fue fosilizado por las costras calcáreas que se formaron a finales del Plioceno. El estudio de este paleokarst permite, por un lado

  6. Criteria for determining casing depth in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivas M., H.M.; Vaca S., J.M.E.

    1982-08-10

    On the basis of geological data obtained during drilling and its relation to electric logs, together with the problems that arose when drilling through formations until the production zone was reached, it is possible to establish the most suitable manner to line a well and thus formulate an optimum casings program. The main criteria to be taken into consideration in preparing such a program and its application in the drilling of wells programmed in Cerro Prieto to optimize and economize such drilling and achieve suitable techniques for well completion are presented. The criteria are based on the characteristics of the Cerro Prieto field and on casing design factors, as well as a experience gained during drilling in such a field.

  7. Open file data on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippman, M.J.; Aguirre, B.D.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1977-04-01

    Some of the unpublished data presently available on open file at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are listed and described. In addition, in the files are a number of internal memoranda of the Commission Federal de Electricidad of Mexico (CFE) on chemical characteristics of the produced fluids and incrustations; published papers on Cerro Prieto and the geologic setting of the Salton Trough; and data on the hydrogeology of the Mexicali Valley. (MHR)

  8. Dating thermal events at Cerro Prieto using fission track annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, S.J.; Elders, W..

    1981-01-01

    Data from laboratory experiments and geologic fading studies were compiled from published sources to produce lines of iso-annealing for apatite in time-temperature space. Fission track ages were calculated for samples from two wells at Cerro Prieto, one with an apparently simple and one with an apparently complex thermal history. Temperatures were estimated by empirical vitrinite reflectance geothermometry, fluid inclusion homogenization and oxygen isotope equilibrium. These estimates were compared with logs of measured borehole temperatures.

  9. Polygenetic Nature of a Rhyolitic Dome: Cerro Pizarro, Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Nuñez, G.; Riggs, N.

    2006-12-01

    Rhyolitic domes are commonly regarded as monogenetic volcanoes associated with single, brief eruptions, such as those forming basaltic scoria cones; this contrasts with domes of andesitic or dacitic composition that usually show a complex evolution. Rhyolitic domes are characterized by short-lived successions of pyroclastic and effusive activity associated with a series of discrete eruptive events that commonly last on the order of years to decades or perhaps centuries. Cerro Pizarro is an isolated rhyolitic dome with a volume of ~1.1 km3, located in the eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt, in the intermontane Serdán-Oriental basin. Cerro Pizarro has an eruptive history similar to a polygenetic volcano, including a complex evolution of alternating explosive and effusive eruptions, a cryptodome phase, and sector collapse, marked chemical variations with time, and long-term repose periods (~ 50-80 ky) between eruptions that reveals intermittent injection of magmas. Whereas major element chemistry does not show significant changes, trace and rare-earth elements show marked differences between the last eruptive episode and the initial and intermediate stages of activity. Other rhyolitic domes such as Glass Mountain, CA, Taylor Creek, NM, South Sister domes, OR, and the Mono Inyo complex, CA, show moderate to strong chemical variations. These domes, however, are related to larger volcanic fields or are dome complexes formed by numerous vents, in contrast with Cerro Pizarro, which is an isolated volcano with no apparent relation to nearby larger volcanic systems (e.g., Los Humeros caldera). This eruptive behavior provides new insights into how rhyolite domes may evolve. A protracted, complex evolution bears important implications for hazard assessment. Activity at Cerro Pizarro leads us to speculate that isolated rhyolitic systems may become reactivated, potentially after tens of thousands of years.

  10. Microfossils from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, M.L.; Vonder Haar, S.

    1980-01-01

    To aid in a paleoenvironmental and age reconstruction of the Cerro Prieto reservoir system, 59 samples of well cuttings were analyzed for microfossils. The cuttings were obtained at depths from 351 to 3495 m in 14 geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field, Baja California, Mexico. We found foraminifera in 6 samples, ostracodes in 19 samples, and nannoplankton as coccoliths in 24 samples. Other groups, such as molluscs, insects, fish skeletal parts, and plant material were occasionally present. Detailed interpretations are not possible at this time because of poor preservation of samples. This is primarily due to causes: dissolution by geothermal fluids that reach 350{sup 0}C, and the extensive mixing of filled Cretaceous forms (reworked from the Colorado Plateau region) with Tertiary species during drilling. Further studies of ostracodes and foraminifera from colder portions of the wells are needed. The abundant and well-preserved ostracodes indicate marine to brackish water environments that correspond, in part, to lagoonal or estuarine facies. The presence of the mid-Tertiary (15-My-old) marine foraminifera, Cassigerinela chipolensis, in wells M-11 and M-38, 350 to 500 m deep, is perplexing. These are not laboratory contaminates and, as yet, have not been found in the drilling mud. If further studies confirm their presence at Cerro Prieto, established ideas about the opening of the Gulf of California and about Pacific Coast mid-Tertiary history will need to be rewritten.

  11. Current state of the hydrothermal geochemistry studies at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausto L, J.J.; Jimenez S, M.E.; Esquer P, I.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of hydrothermal geochemistry studies being carried out at the field are reported. These studies are based on the results of chemical analysis of water samples collected during 1979 and 1980 at the geothermal wells of the area known as Cerro Prieto I, as well as from those located in the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas, some of which have only recently started flowing. Data are presented on the chemical variations of the main chemical constituents dissolved in the waters, as well as on the Na/K and Na-K-Ca chemical relations and the temperatures calculated from them and from SiO/sub 2/. Fluid recharge into the reservoir and its direction of flow are interpreted from isotherm contour maps of the field prepared from Na/K and Na-K-Ca geothermometry and from concentration contour maps of some of the main chemical constituents. Well M-43 is discussed as an example of a well affected by well completion problems in its production casing. Its behavior is explained on the basis of the chemical characteristics of the produced water. The chemical changes that have taken place in some of the wells during production are explained by correlating the chemistry with the production mechanisms of the well (steam-water production rates).

  12. Microfossils from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, M.L.; Haar, S.V.

    1982-08-10

    To aid in a paleonenvironmental and age reconstruction of the Cerro Prieto reservoir system, 59 samples of well cuttings were analyzed for microfossils. The cuttings were obtained at depths from 351 to 3495m in 14 geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field, Baja California, Mexico. Foraminifera was found in 6 samples, ostracodes in 19 samples and mannoplankton as coccoliths in 24 samples. Other groups, such as molluscus, insects, fish skeletal parts, and plant material were occasionally present. Detailed interpretations at this time cannot be made because of poor preservation of samples. This is primarily due to causes: dissolution by geothermal fluids that reach 350/sup 0/C, and the extensive mixing of filled Cretaceous forms (reworked from the Colorado Plateau region) with Tertiary species during drilling. Further studies of ostracodes and foraminifera from colder portions of the wells are needed. The abundant and well-preserved ostracodes indicate marine to backish water inviroments that correspond in part, to lagoonal or estuarine facies. The presence of the mid-Tertiary (15-m.y.-old) marine foraminifera, Cassigerinela chipolensis, in wells M-11 and M-38, 350 to 500m deep, is perplexing. These are not laboratory contaminates and, as yet have not been found in the drilling mud. If further studies confirm their presence at Cerro Prieto, established ideas about the opening of the Gulf of California and about Pacific Coast mid-Tertiary history will need to be rewritten.

  13. [Algal blooms at Banderas Bay, México (2000-2001), from SeaWiFS-sensor-data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Villarreal, María C; Martínez-Gaxiola, Marcos D; Peña-Manjarrez, José L

    2008-12-01

    Algal blooms for the period of 2000 and 2001 at Banderas Bay, México, were analyzed from SeaWiFS-ocean-color-sensor derived information. These events were related with the maximum chlorophyll week anomalies (ASi; a proxy variable constructed for the analysis of chlorophyll temporal variation in the bay). The winter-spring blooms were multispecific, while the summer-fall blooms were monospecific. Two proposals are made: (1) Winter-spring blooms are strongly related with mesoescale processes, due to their apparent temporal synchrony with the high chlorophyll levels in the coastal region from Sinaloa to Jalisco states; (2) Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Margalef 1961) blooms during the summer-fall periods could be induced by local conditions and the influence of previous events on the ecosystem.

  14. [Presence of Cochlodinium catenatum (Gymnodiniales: Gymnodiniaceae) in red tides of Bahía de Banderas, Mexican Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Lara, María de Carmen; Cortés Altamirano, Roberto; Sierra-Beltrán, Arturo P

    2004-09-01

    The evolution of an ichthiotoxic algal bloom caused by the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium catenatum was studied from July to December 2000. The abnormal multiplication of this dinoflagellate occurred in the form of a discoloration spreading between a temperature and salinity interval of 25-32 degrees C and 33-35 ups, respectively. The density of C. catenatum reached 10 841 cells ml(-1). The event was observed in large areas of Banderas Bay affecting 13 fish species, whose massive killing was due to suffocation (gill obstruction and excessive mucus production). The human population around the area did not present respiratory affections or skin irritation. The C. catenatum measurements suggest a hologamic and heterothalic reproduction. Their morphological characteristics suggest that C. polykrikoides, C. heterolobatum and C. catenatum are the same species. It is estimated that the species could be a recent introduction in the Mexican Pacific.

  15. Shatter Complex Formation in the Twin Craters Lava Flow, Zuni-Bandera Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Meerscheidt, H. C.; Bleacher, J. E.; Brand, B. D.; deWet, A.; Samuels, R.; Hamilton, C.; Garry, W. B.; Bandfield, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Lava channels, tubes and sheets are transport structures that deliver flowing lava to a flow front. The type of structure can vary within a flow field and evolve throughout an eruption. The 18.0 × 1.0 ka Twin Craters lava flow in the Zuni-Bandera lava field provides a unique opportunity to study morphological changes of a lava flow partly attributable to interaction with a topographic obstacle. Facies mapping and airborne image analysis were performed on an area of the Twin Craters flow that includes a network of channels, lava tubes, shatter features, and disrupted pahoehoe flows surrounding a 45 m tall limestone bluff. The bluff is 1000 m long (oriented perpendicular to flow.) The general flow characteristics upstream from the bluff include smooth, lobate pahoehoe flows and a >2.5 km long lava tube (see Samuels et al., this meeting.) Emplacement characteristics change abruptly where the flow encountered the bluff, to include many localized areas of disrupted pahoehoe and several pahoehoe-floored depressions. Each depression is fully or partly surrounded by a raised rim of blocky material up to 4 m higher than the surrounding terrain. The rim is composed of 0.05 - 4 m diameter blocks, some of which form a breccia that is welded by lava, and some of which exhibit original flow textures. The rim-depression features are interpreted as shatter rings based on morphological similarity to those described by Orr (2011.Bul Volcanol.73.335-346) in Hawai';i. Orr suggests that shatter rings develop when fluctuations in the lava supply rate over-pressurize the tube, causing the tube roof to repeatedly uplift and subside. A rim of shattered blocks and breccias remains surrounding the sunken tube roof after the final lava withdraws from the system. One of these depressions in the Twin Craters flow is 240 m wide and includes six mounds of shattered material equal in height to the surrounding undisturbed terrain. Several mounds have depressed centers floored with rubbly pahoehoe

  16. Nueva especie del género Lestes Leach, 1815 (Insecta, Odonata del Mioceno de Bellver de Cerdanya (Lérida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Compte-Sart, Arturo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new fossil species of insect, Lestes dianacompteae n. sp. of the order Odonata, belonging to the genus Lestes Leach, 1815, is described based on wing from the Vallesian (Miocene, of Coll de Saig, in Bellver de Cerdanya (Lérida, Spain. It is compared with all fossil species of the genus and with the nearest extant species, from the paleartic and ethiopian regions.Se describe la nueva especie fósil de insecto Lestes dianacompteae n. sp. del orden Odonata, perteneciente al género Lestes Leach, 1815, sobre un ala procedente del yacimiento de Coll de Saig, en Bellver de Cerdanya (Lérida, España, del piso Vallesiense (Mioceno. La especie es comparada con todas las fósiles del género Lestes y las actuales más parecidas de las regiones Paleártica y Etiópica.

  17. Climatic characterization of the Banderas Bay Region using Köppen’s system modified by García and Geographic Information Systems techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Velázquez Ruiz; Luis Manuel Martínez R.; Fátima Maciel Carrillo González

    2012-01-01

    The identification of different climatic zones can be an important factor for decision-makers in various fields such as urban planning and agricultural alternatives. In order to characterize the climates of the region of Bahía de Banderas (BB) Mexico, we adopted a methodology that combines the use of the Köppen climate classification modified by Garc.a for Mexico and methods of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). We used simple regression between temperature (dependent variable) and height ...

  18. Atmospheric conditions at Cerro Armazones derived from astronomical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakićević, Maša; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Noll, Stefan; Kausch, Wolfgang; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Kerber, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We studied the precipitable water vapour (PWV) content near Cerro Armazones and discuss the potential use of our technique of modelling the telluric absorbtion lines for the investigation of other molecular layers. The site is designated for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) and the nearby planned site for the Čerenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Methods: Spectroscopic data from the Bochum Echelle Spectroscopic Observer (BESO) instrument were investigated by using a line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) for the Earth's atmosphere with the telluric absorption correction tool molecfit. All observations from the archive in the period from December 2008 to the end of 2014 were investigated. The dataset completely covers the El Niño event registered in the period 2009-2010. Models of the 3D Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) were used for further comparison. Moreover, we present a direct comparison for those days for which data from a similar study with VLT/X-Shooter and microwave radiometer LHATPRO at Cerro Paranal are available. Results: This analysis shows that the site has systematically lower PWV values, even after accounting for the decrease in PWV expected from the higher altitude of the site with respect to Cerro Paranal, using the average atmosphere found with radiosondes. We found that GDAS data are not a suitable basis for predicting local atmospheric conditions - they usually systematically overestimate the PWV values. The large sample furthermore enabled us to characterize the site with respect to symmetry across the sky and variation with the years and within the seasons. This technique of studying the atmospheric conditions is shown to be a promising step into a possible monitoring equipment for the CTA. Based on archival observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile and of the Cerro Armazones Observatory facilities of the Ruhr Universität Bochum.Full Table 1

  19. Hallazgo de gasterópodos en la formación Sijes (Mioceno superior Salta, República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne, W. J.

    1992-08-01

    this lake on the feet or feathers of birds. The genus is dioecious, but a fertilized female of another genus in the family (Amnicola is capable of depositing viable eggs throughout the year, as long as the water remains at an appropriate temperature.Se da a conocer el hallazgo de gasterópodos en una secuencia sedimentaria continental rica en evaporistas y muy pobre en fósiles. Los gasterópodos fueron descubiertos en capas tufáceas, diatomíticas, del Miembro Esperanza de la Formación Sijes, de edad Mioceno superior. El análisis taxonómico permitió ubicarlos como pertenecientes a una nueva especie del género Littoridina. La sección sedimentaria, de origen lacustre tipo playa-lake, contiene mineralizaciones económicas de boratos que son minadas actualmente. La presencia de estos gasterópodos fósiles tiene importancia desde el punto de vista ambiental y son aquí utilizados en la interpretación sobre la génesis de los boratos.

  20. La infertilidad en un área de salud del municipio Cerro Infertility in a health area of Cerro municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Amaylid Arteaga García; Ana Margarita Toledo Fernández; Cristina Villalón Aldana

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: caracterizar el comportamiento de la infertilidad en 11 consultorios del Policlínico "Héroes de Girón" del municipio Cerro. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. La selección de los consultorios fue por muestreo por criterios, y los de selección fueron: que tuvieran una distribución equitativa en los Grupos Básicos de Trabajo, así como la estabilidad y conocimiento profundo del área por el personal de enfermería (quien ejecutó la investigación, previa cap...

  1. Hydrocarbons emissions from Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Karina; Navarro-González, Rafael; de la Rosa, José; Peralta, Oscar; Castro, Telma; Imaz, Mireya

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important environmental issues related to the use of geothermal fluids to generate electricity is the emission of non-condensable gases to the atmosphere. Mexico has one of the largest geothermal plants in the world. The facility is located at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, roughly 30 km south of Mexicali and the international boundary between Mexico and United States. The Cerro Prieto power plant has 13 units grouped on four individual powerhouses. Gas samples from 9 units of the four powerhouses were collected during 4 campaigns conducted in May-July, 2010, February, 2012, December, 2012, and May, 2013. Gas samples from the stacks were collected in 1000 ml Pyrex round flasks with Teflon stopcocks, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methane was the most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon, with a concentration that ranged from less than 1% up to 3.5% of the total gas mixture. Normal alkanes represented the second most abundant species, and displayed a decreasing abundance with increasing carbon number in the homologous series. Isoalkanes were also present as isobutane and isopentane. Cycloalkanes occurring as cyclopentane and cyclohexane, were detected only at trace level. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes) were not detected. Benzene was detected at levels ranging from less than 1% up to 3.4% of the total gas mixture. Other aromatic hydrocarbons detected were toluene, and xylenes, and were present at lower concentrations (

  2. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  3. Characterization of pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas, Zacatecas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-del-Rio, H.; Mireles-Garcia, F. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, UAZ, Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez-Cardona, R.Y. [Unidad Academica de Antropologia, UAZ, Zacatecas (Mexico); Nicolas-Caretta, M. [INAH Delegacion Zacatecas (Mexico); Coordinacion de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, UASLP, Fracc. Talleres, SLP (Mexico); Speakman, R.J. [Museum Conservation Inst., Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD (United States); Glascock, M.D. [Research Reactor Center, Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2009-09-15

    With the aim of classifying prehispanic pottery from Cerro de Las Ventanas site, Juchipila, Zacatecas, Mexico, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to analyze ceramic samples at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center. Thirty-two chemical elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Two multivariate statistical methods, cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Mesoamerican ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Malpaso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de Las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (orig.)

  4. Sedimentología química de los sedimentos miocenos con diatomeas de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López García, M. J.

    1995-12-01

    ísticas composicionales y sedimentológicas en 24 afloramientos de sedimentos miocenos con diatomeas de la Cuenca del Guadalquivir. En función de las biozonas de diatomeas, se consideran tres episodios de sedimentación diatomítica (Inferior, Medio y Superior que reflejan un medio de sedimentación de alta productividad biogénica ocasionada por corrientes ascensionales costeras («coastal upwelling». Los grandes márgenes de variación de los tres óxidos más importantes SiO2 (12,1878,00, CaO (1,60-43,73 y Al2O3 (2,76-10,32 definen la gran variación que presentan los tres componentes mayoritarios de estos sedimentos: Opalo A, calcita y minerales de la arcilla-terrígenos. A través de cálculos normativos en función de la composición mineralógica de las muestras y de los análisis de difracción de RX, se ha definido el porcentaje de sílice biogénica. El estudio de los máximos y mínimos de sílice biogénica ha puesto de manifiesto su relación con tipos dominantes de diatomeas, la estructura de la roca y la posición geográfica dentro de la Cuenca. La proyección de las muestras en los diagramas triangulares SiO2 biogénica- Al2O3-CaO ha revelado que el Episodio Superior es el que manifiesta mayor proporción relativa de Al2O3 (arcillas-componentes terrígenos. Los diagramas SiO2 biogénicalCaO versus Al2O3 han demostrado que existe frecuentemente una asociación preferente entre el plancton calcáreo y los minerales de arcilla-terrígenos. La proyección de las muestras en el diagrama Fe2O3/TiO2 versus Al2O3/ Al2O3+FeO, junto con la pendiente de la recta de regresión Fe (y - Al (x indican que todas las series se pueden considerar de plataforma continental existiendo zonas con mayor o menor influencia del continente. La relación MnO/ Al2O3, se ha utilizado para medir la tasa sedimentación; los valores obtenidos (entre 1,7 y 180 mm/103 años concuerdan con los hallados en otras zonas de corrientes ascensionales costeras, encontrándose diferencias en función de las

  5. A review of progress in understanding the fluid geochemistry of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Nehring, N.L.; Thompson, J.M.; Janik, C.J.; Coplen, T.B.

    1984-01-01

    Fluid geochemistry has played a major role in our present understanding of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have been used to indicate the origin of water, salts and gases, original subsurface temperature and fluid flow, fluid-production mechanisms, and production-induced aquifer boiling and cold-water entry. The extensive geochemical data and interpretations for Cerro Prieto published from 1964 to 1981 are reviewed and discussed. Fluid geochemistry must continue to play an important role in the further development of the Cerro Prieto field. ?? 1984.

  6. Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, K. P.; Lippmann, M. J.; Tsang, C. F.

    1982-09-01

    Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field began in 1978 under a five-year cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and the Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico, with the ultimate objective of simulating the reservoir to forecast its production capacity, energy longevity, and recharge capability under various production and injection scenarios. During the fiscal year 1981, attempts were made to collect information on the evolution history of the field since exploitation began; the information is to be used later to validate the reservoir model. To this end, wellhead production data were analyzed for heat and mass flow and also for changes in reservoir pressures, temperatures, and saturations for the period from March 1973 to November 1980.

  7. Geothermal emissions data base: Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.R. (comp.)

    1978-04-01

    A new database subset on the gaseous emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. Properties and states of the reservoir fluid such as flow rates, wellhead pressure, and enthalpy are included in the file along with the well name and constituent measurement. This subset is the result of an initial screening of the data covering 1967 to 1969, and new additions will be appended periodically to the file. The data are accessed by a database management system as are all other subsets in the file. Thereby, one may search the database for specific data requirements and print selective output. For example, one may wish to locate reservoir conditions for cases only when the level of the constituent exceeded a designated value. Data output is available in the form of numerical compilations such as the attached, or graphical displays disposed to paper, film, or magnetic tape.

  8. Geochemical evidence of drawdown in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, M.A.; Jimenez, S.M.E.; Sanchez, A.A.; Fausto, L.J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Some wells of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field have undergone changes in the chemistry of fluids produced which reflect reservoir processes. Pressure decreases due to production in the southeastern part of the field have produced both drawdown of lower chloride fluids from an overlying aquifer and boiling in the aquifer with excess steam reaching the wells. These reservoir changes are indicated by changes in fluid chloride concentrations, Na/K ratios and measured enthalpies and by comparisons of aquifer fluid temperatures and chloride concentrations calculated from enthalpy and chemical measurements. Fluid temperatures have not been greatly affected by this drawdown because heat contained in the rock was transferred to the fluid. When this heat is exhausted, fluid temperatures may drop rapidly. ?? 1979.

  9. The origin of the Cerro Prieto geothermal brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Thompson, J.M.; Coplen, T.B.; Nehring, N.L.; Janik, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal brine may have originated from mixing of Colorado River water with seawater evaporated to about six times its normal salinity. This mixture circulated deeply and was heated by magmatic processes. During deep circulation, Li, K, Ca, B, SiO2 and rare alkalis were transferred from rock minerals to the water, and Mg, SO4, and a minor quantity of Na were transferred to the rock. Similar alteration of seawater salt chemistry has been observed in coastal geothermal systems and produced in laboratory experiments. After heating and alteration the brine was further diluted to its present range of composition. Oxygen isotopes in the fluid are in equilibrium with reservoir calcite and have been affected by exploitation-induced boiling and dilution. ?? 1981.

  10. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  11. Los Andes Fueguinos: el registro micropaleontológico de los mayores acontecimientos paleooceanográfícos australes del Campaniano al Mioceno The Fuegian Andes: the micropaleontological record of the major Campanian-Miocene paleocea-nographic austral events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Malumián

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La sucesión de las asociaciones de microfósiles de la casi completa columna estratigráfica marina del Cretácico Tardío-Mioceno de los Andes Fueguinos, en el margen orogénico de la Cuenca Austral, revela una estrecha relación con los acontecimientos tectónicos locales, las transgresiones-regresiones atlánticas sobre la Plataforma Patagónica y los mayores acontecimientos paleooceanográfícos globales. La secuencia fueguina campaniana tardía-eocena temprana, dominada por asociaciones de foraminiferos aglutinados tipo 'flysch' y ambientes deficientes en oxígeno de acotada profundidad, es coherente con cuencas aportilladas en un período de estiramiento cortical. El Maastrichtiano (Formación Policarpo con foraminiferos aglutinados cosmopolitas contrasta con la asociación calcárea endémica Austral de la primera transgresión atlántica patagónica. En la transición Paleoceno/Eoceno, las estratigráficamente restringidas asociaciones de microfósiles calcáreos exhiben el mayor recambio del Cenozoico, con el pasaje de una asociación cosmopolita tipo 'Midway' (Formación La Barca a otra fuertemente endémica (Formación Punta Noguera, donde aparecen los géneros cenozoicos patagónicos-fueguinos característicos. El Paleógeno temprano no registra taxones filotérmicos, y sólo un episodio fugaz de calizas briozoales (Formación Río Bueno y el bajo porcentaje de ostrácodos de la Familia Hemicytheridae insinúa un período cálido. La secuencia eocena media tardía (Grupo La Despedida se inicia con una transgresión distribuida en la Cuenca Austral (Formaciones Leticia, Man Aike, Río Turbio, capas con Boltovskoyella coeva con un pico de temperatura en 42 Ma, que porta una fauna fueguina retrógrada y nodosáridos de gran porte, los cuales fueron reemplazados a través del Eoceno Tardío (Formación Cerro Colorado por típicos géneros antarticos, reflejando la decreciente temperatura que culmina en la Zona de Tenuitella ins

  12. El Rombohorst mineralizado de Las Herrerias: un caso de «doming» e hidrotermalismo submarino mioceno en el SE ibérico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Gutiérrez, J.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution offers new data on the Miocene, seafloor, hydrothermal deposit of Herrerías, in relation with its geotectonic setting. This deposit consists of a simple paragenesis of Fe-Mn oxides, base metal sulphides, native silver, barite, siderite, jasper, calcedony and gypsum (scarce; these minerals are forming part of: 1 beds of mineralized exhalites, 2 veins and pipes, 3 Fe-Mn crusts and 4 dissemination zones. The main mineralized outcrops are controlled by three fracturation systems: a sinistral, wreoch faults NNE-SSW, b inverse faults WNW-ESE and c normal faults N-S, N190E and N150E. Basically, its geotectonic setting corresponds to a positive «flower structure», of Upper Miocene age, within which the N-S and N150E faults were the main channels for the emplacement of the ore fluids. This mineralized structure has been formed according to a subvolcanic doming in a shear zone.En este trabajo, se ofrecen nuevos datos sobre el encuadre geotectónico del yacimiento hidrotermal submarino, mioceno de Herrerías. Este depósito posee una paragénesis simple de óxidos e hidróxidos de Fe-Mn, sulfuros de metales base, plata nativa, barita, siderita, jasperoides, calcedonia y yeso (escaso; la investigación detallada de las secuencias deposicionales indica que estos minerales se encuentran, invariablemente, formando parte de: 1 lechos de exhalitas mineralizadas, 2 filones y chimeneas; 3 costras ferromanganesíferas y 4 zonas diseminadas. Los principales afloramientos mineralizados están controlados por tres sistemas de fracturación: a desgarres senestrales NNE-SSO, b fallas inversas aNO-ESE y c fallas normales N-S, N190E YN150E. De acuerdo con esta estructuración, el encuadre de la mineralización corresponde a una estructura en flor positiva, de edad Mioceno superior, dentro de la cual las fallas correspondientes al tercer sistema habrían servido como las vías principales de emplazamiento de los fluidos mineralizadores. La

  13. Results from two years of resistivity monitoring at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    Dipole-dipole resistivity measurements for the combined purposes of reservoir delineation and resistivity monitoring were first made at Cerro Prieto in 1978 and have continued on an annual basis since then. Two 20 km long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electrodes at one kilometer spacings were established over the field area; one of these lines is remeasured annually. Resistivity measurements are taken using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor controlled signal averaging receiver; this high power-low noise system is capable of highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter-receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points, but 95% confidence intervals show error limits about 2 to 4 times higher. Analysis of collected data indicate little change in the apparent resistivity of the upper 300 m over the field production zone and that in this section measurements are relatively insensitive to the annual rainfall cycle. Apparent resistivity increases were observed over the older producing zone at Cerro Prieto at depths of 1 km and greater. Large zones of decreasing apparent resistivity were observed flanking the zone of increases on both sides. The increase in apparent resistivity in the production region may be due to an increasing fraction of steam in the reservoir resulting from a production related decline in reservoir pressure. Alternatively the increases may be the result of fresh water influx from the Colorado River. The zone of declining resistivity flanking the area of increase may be due to the movement of saline waters into the reservoir region as a result of the pressure decline. Quantitative modeling of observed changes is impractical owing to the high uncertainty in estimating apparent resistivity changes and the nonuniqueness of models.

  14. Proliferaciones algales 2000-2001 en Bahía de Banderas, México según el sensor SeaWiFS

    OpenAIRE

    María C Gómez-Villarreal; Marcos D Martínez-Gaxiola; José L Peña-Manjarrez

    2008-01-01

    Se analizaron las proliferaciones algales ocurridas en Bahía de Banderas, México, durante los años 2000 y 2001 a partir de información derivada del sensor de color del océano SeaWiFS. Estos eventos estuvieron relacionados con los máximos niveles de Anomalías Semanales de Clorofila’ (As i; variable construida para analizar la variación temporal de la clorofila dentro de la bahía). Las proliferaciones ocurridas en los periodos invierno-primavera fueron multiespecíficos, mientras que en verano-o...

  15. Modeling the marine magnetic field of Bahía de Banderas, Mexico, confirms the half-graben structure of the bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Román; López-Loera, Héctor; Arzate, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    An existing aeromagnetic survey flown on the central, western portion of Mexico did not include an important tectonic structure: Bahía de Banderas. The bay has an extension of approximately 1400 km 2 and is located within the Puerto Vallarta batholith, a granitic structure of Cretaceous origin. We report here the additional gathering of 5523 magnetic values on the bay, in order to complement the existing land aeromagnetic information; this allowed modeling the structure of the bay from the magnetic viewpoint. A late Miocene age has been proposed for the bay making it roughly contemporaneous with the first stages of separation of Baja California from mainland Mexico. Initially proposed as a graben, it was subsequently shown that its structure actually corresponds to a half-graben of the fault growth type, with reverse drag geometry; it appears to have been developed in response to an extensional process in the ˜ N-S direction. Valle de Banderas neighbors the bay constituting its eastern land continuation; it has also been proposed as a graben and it is also likely the result of an extensional process. However, it seems to be a structure more recently formed, probably around 5 Ma. The different time origin of the bay and of the valley is strengthened by the different alignment of the valley axis, where Ameca River flows and discharges into the bay, of around 30° from the trace of Banderas fault. The magnetic responses of the valley, aeromagnetic and terrestrial, support the existence of an extensional process. Upward and downward continuations of the magnetic fields show that Sierra de Vallejo and Sierra de Zapotán, to the NW of the valley, are deeply rooted structures and their magnetic responses are similar to those obtained in the Puerto Vallarta batholith; these characteristics support a common origin for them. Three magnetic profiles trending NNW are modeled across Bahía de Banderas. The models identify the structure as a half-graben with a listric main

  16. Espacio público e identidad en la ciudad turística de litoral: caso Puerto Vallarta–Bahía de Banderas, México

    OpenAIRE

    Chavoya Gama, Jorge Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se analizan cuatro factores o sentidos, sentido de reconocimiento, sentido de pertenencia, sentido de permanencia y sentido de apropiación, (Tamayo, 2005), que relacionados al espacio público, integran la identidad urbana de los habitantes de los barrios y colonias de la ciudad turística hoy reconocida como zona metropolitana turística Puerto Vallarta-Bahía de Banderas y se retoma el valor de la calidad del espacio público. En los últimos años, de la mano de nuevos procesos e...

  17. Presencia de Cochlodinium catenatum (Gymnodiniales: Gymnodiniaceae) en mareas rojas de Bahía de Banderas, Pacífico mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Lara, María del Carmen; Cortés Altamirano, Roberto; Arturo P Sierra-Beltrán

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of an ichthiotoxic algal bloom caused by the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium catenatum was studied from July to December 2000. The abnormal multiplication of this dinoflagellate occurred in the form of a discoloration spreading between a temperature and salinity interval of 25-32°C and 33-35 ups, respectively. The density of C. catenatum reached 10 841 cells ml-1. The event was observed in large areas of Banderas Bay affecting 13 fish species, whose massive killing was due to suffoc...

  18. Presencia de Cochlodinium catenatum (Gymnodiniales: Gymnodiniaceae) en mareas rojas de Bahía de Banderas, Pacífico mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    María del Carmen Cortés Lara; Roberto Cortés Altamirano; Arturo P Sierra-Beltrán

    2004-01-01

    Se describe la evolución de una proliferación algal ictiotóxica (julio a diciembre del 2000) causada por el dinoflagelado Cochlodinium catenatum. La multiplicación anormal de este dinoflagelado se presentó a manera de decoloraciones dispersas dentro de un intervalo de temperatura de 25-32 º C y salinidades de 33-35 ups. La densidad de C. catenatum fue desde no detectable hasta 10 841 éls ml-1 . El evento se presentó en grandes extensiones en la Bahía de Banderas, afectando a 13 especies de pe...

  19. Los orígenes de la estrategia mancomunada en el republicanismo español : la democracia por bandera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sánchez Collantes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo rescata del olvido los primeros esfuerzos realizados por los republicanos españoles para conseguir unirse bajo una misma bandera. La primera Unión Republicana de la historia de España parece haberse forjado en Oviedo hacia 1876-1877, pero la reciente ilegalidad del republicanismo impidió el segundo calificativo del binomio, por lo que transitoriamente se empleó el eufemismo Unión Democrática. Los núcleos democráticos ovetenses se esforzaron en difundir su proyecto, por ejemplo dirigiendo una carta a los principales jefes de la democracia en la que argumentaban la necesidad de una coordinación de fuerzas. Aunque la estrategia mancomunada obtuvo un amplio respaldo en la totalidad de las provincias, no tardó en aflorar la discordia, lo que impidió que la Unión Democrática se convirtiera en un proyecto nacional amplio, sólido y efectivo.This article saves from falling into oblivion the first efforts made by Spanish republicans in order to join together under the same flag. The first Unión Republicana in spanish history seems to have been formed in Oviedo towards 1876-1877, but the recent illegal situation of republicanism banned the second adjective of the binomial to be used. For that reason, the euphemism Unión Democrática was the one they used temporary. Democratic centers from Oviedo made several efforts to spread their project, for instance by sending a letter to the main leaders of democratic movement on which they argued the need for a coordination of forces. Although the unitarian strategy obtained a huge support in all provinces, discord didn’t take a long time to appear, obstructing the Unión Democrática from becoming a wide, well built and effective national project.

  20. Geology of the Cerro Summit quadrangle, Montrose County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Robert G.

    1966-01-01

    The Cerro Summit quadrangle covers 58 square miles of dissected plateau on the south flank of the Gunnison uplift in southwestern Colorado. It lies east of the Uncompahgre River valley and south of the Black Canyon of the Gunnison River. Rocks dip gently in most of the quadrangle, but they are locally upturned and faulted on the margin of the Gunnison uplift and are intensely deformed in the core of the uplift. The rocks exposed are of Precambrian, late Mesozoic, and Cenozoic age. Precambrian rocks include metasedimentary schist and gneiss, granitic pegmatite, and olivine gabbro. The oldest Mesozoic rocks exposed are continental, fresh-water, and lagoonal deposits in the Late Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, Wanakah Formation, and Morrison Formation. Channel-fill deposits that unconformably overlie the Jurassic rocks are possibly the Burro Canyon Formation of Early Cretaceous age. Upper Cretaceous rocks include marine and nearshore deposits of the Dakota Sandstone, Mancos Shale, and Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, and the fresh- and brackish-water sandstone, shale, and coal of the Fruitland Formation. Rocks of Late Cretaceous age that crop out in the adjacent Cimarron Ridge area may also have been deposited in this quadrangle but are now eroded; these rocks include the nonmarine Kirtland Shale and an unnamed volcanic conglomerate and tuff breccia. Nine faunal zones in the Mancos Shale help to establish the correct correlation of units in the Upper Cretaceous. The Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, Fruitland Formation, and Kirtland Shale of the Cerro Summit area have been mapped by some geologists as the Mesaverde Formation. Fossils indicate that the rocks are younger than the type Mesaverde. The unnamed volcanic rocks represent major volcanism in nearby areas. A Late Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) age for the volcanism is indicated by palynological evidence and an isotopic age of approximately 66 million years. Middle Tertiary rocks are conglomerate and tuff breccia. Upper Tertiary or

  1. Hydrogeophysics and Water Balance of Cerro Prieto Dam, NE Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutsis, V.; de León Gómez, H.; Masuch Oesterreich, D.; Izaguirre, F.

    2007-05-01

    The geographical location of the State of Nuevo Leon, due to its physiographic features, has temperate and arid climate; undeveloped drainage, low precipitations, and high evapotranspiration rates, as well as rapid demographic growth. The hydrological data of the Pablillo basin, registered in the hydrometric station Cerro Prieto, showed an annual precipitation from 415 up to 1130 mm/a , the mean evaporation of 705 mm/a (up to 2460 mm/a in 1996). The maximum water storage of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is 395 millions m3 which corresponds to a water level of 295 meters. However, this level was reached only three times after the dam's construction. By the end of June 2006 the water level was at 276.2 m which corresponds to a water volume of about 127,806,300 m3 which is less than a third of maximum storage. Analysis of hydrological data showed sufficient misbalance between water recharge (by rain, river flow) and loss due to evaporation, filtration, extraction, discharge, etc. 160 gravity reading points, 400 onshore magnetic field readings as well as about 250 offshore magnetic points were carried out. The standard corrections as instrumental drift, latitude, elevation, IGRF, etc. were applied to obtained data. Data procession includes Fourier transformation, wavelength filters, upward continuation, vertical and horizontal derivates, etc. As a result a 2D geological-geophysical models and 3D maps were elaborated. The general trend of the magnetic field reduced to a pole is NW - SE on which background anomalies of northeast trend are obviously traced. The general trend of the gravity field received as a result of our works is the same. However, local magnetic and residual gravity anomalies have mosaic character and, being morphologically extended in a NE direction, grouped in chains of northwest trend. Potential data interpretation allows assuming a series of the superficial fractures focused in a NE direction, perpendicular (NW-SE) to the general deep fault. The

  2. A new species of Asterocheres (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) with a redescription of A. complexus Stock, 1960 and A. sarsi Bandera & Conradi, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Eugenia; Conradi, Mercedes

    2014-07-07

    The present paper reviews the material of three species of Asterocheres Boeck 1859 deposited in four different Zoological European museums as part of the ongoing taxonomical revision of this genus. Asterocheres sarsi Bandera & Conradi 2009, the species described by Sars in 1915 as Ascomyzon latum (Brady 1880) and lately recognized as a distinct species by Bandera and Conradi in 2009 is fully described in this paper from material collected by Sars in Norway in 1915 and deposited in The Natural History Museum of the University of Oslo. Asterocheres complexus Stock, 1960 which has been sometimes confused with A. sarsi is redescribed from material collected by Stock in France in 1959 and deposited in the Zoological Museum of the University of Amsterdam. Furthermore, a new species, previously misidentified as A. suberitis Gieisbrecht 1897, from the Norman`s collection of The Natural History Museum of London, is described as A. eugenioi, new species. These three species, A. complexus, A. eugenioi, and A. sarsi share the general appearance of body thanks to the pointed posterolateral angle of the epimeral area of somite bearing leg 3, sometimes slightly produced into backwardly directed processes, and somite bearing leg 4 largely concealed under somite bearing leg 3.

  3. Evolution of the Cerro Prieto reservoirs under exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Puente, H.G. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal field of Baja California (Mexico) has been under commercial production to generate electricity since 1973. Over the years, the large amount of Geothermal fluids extracted (at present about 12,000 tons per hour) to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in a reduction of pressures, changes in reservoir processes, and increased flow of cooler groundwater into the geothermal system. The groundwater recharging the reservoir moves horizontally through permeable layers, as well as vertically through permeable fault zones. In addition, the supply of deep hot waters has continued unabated, and perhaps has increased as reservoir pressure decreased. Since 1989, this natural fluid recharge has been supplemented by injection which presently amounts to about 20% of the fluid produced. Changes in the chemical and physical characteristics of the reservoir fluids due to the drop in pressures and the inflow of cooler groundwaters and injectate have been detected on the basis of wellhead data. These changes point to reservoir processes like local boiling, phase segregation, steam condensation, mixing and dilution. Finally, the study identified areas where fluids are entering the reservoir, as well as indicated their source (i.e. natural Groundwater recharge versus injectate) and established the controlling geologic structures.

  4. Radon and ammonia transects across the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semprini, L.; Kruger, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radon and ammonia transects, conducted at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, involve measurement of concentration gradients at wells along lines of structural significance in the reservoir. Analysis of four transects showed radon concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 3.60 nCi/kg and ammonia concentrations from 17.6 to 59.3 mg/l. The data showed the lower concentrations in wells of lowest enthalpy fluid and the higher concentrations in wells of highest enthalpy fluid. Linear correlation analysis of the radon-enthalpy data indicated a strong relationship, with a marked influence by the two-phase conditions of the produced fluid. It appears that after phase separation in the reservoir, radon achieves radioactive equilibrium between fluid and rock, suggesting that the phase separation occurs well within the reservoir. A two-phase mixing model based on radon-enthalpy relations allows estimation of the fluid phase temperatures in the reservoir. Correlations of ammonia concentration with fluid enthalpy suggests an equilibrium partitioning model in which enrichment of ammonia correlates with higher enthalpy vapor.

  5. Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

    1999-07-01

    The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

  6. Performance of casings in Cerro Prieto production wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A, B.; Vital B, F.; Bermejo M, F.; Sanchez G, G.

    1981-01-01

    A careful evaluation of different production casings used at Cerro Prieto from 1964 to date has shown that the following casings have yielded particularly impressive results: 7 5/8-in. diameter, J-55, 26 lb/ft; 7 5/8-in. diameter, K-55, 45.3 lb/ft; and 5-in. diameter, K-55, 23.2 lb/ft. These casings differ from others of the same diameter but lighter weight which were also used at the field. The results are favorable in spite of severe construction problems, especially the loss of circulation during cementing operations, which we encountered in some of the wells where these casings were used. The use of gravity-fed fine sand as packing material and the arrangement of the production and intermediate casings were important in avoiding damage due to tension-compression stresses and, above all, damage due to internal or external corrosion over time. This situation is clearly evidenced if we compare the damage to the above casings with that experienced by grade N-80 production casings, especially in a corrosive environment.

  7. Detailed microearthquake studies at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA); McEvilly, T.V.

    1981-01-01

    There appears to be an increase in seismic activity within the Cerro Prieto production zone since early 1978. The microearthquake activity is now more or less constant at a rate of 2 to 3 events per day. The b-values within the field are significantly higher inside the production zone than are those for events on faults outside of the production region. The earthquakes seem to be controlled by the Hidalgo fault, although slight clustering was observed in the center of the main production region. The earthquakes within the production zone may reflect the reservoir dynamics associated with heat and mass withdrawal. Mechanisms such as volume change, thermal stresses and weakening of materials associated with boiling (i.e., phase changes, dissolution) may all be responsible for the increased seismic activity. Although a small reinjection program has started, the pressure drawdown conditions existing within the field would imply that increased pore pressure resulting from the injection activities is not responsible for the increased seismic activity.

  8. Quaternary volcanism in the Colorado Plateau-Basin and Range transition zone: Zuni-Bandera and nearby volcanic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascadden, Tracey Elaine

    Early (ca. 700 ka) voluminous tholeiites in the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field (ZBVF) were followed by smaller volume alkalic, transitional and tholeiitic basalts, intermittently erupted from ca. 200 ka through 3 ka. In some cases, lavas of different chemical characteristics were erupted from the same vent, or from contemporaneous clusters of vents. El Calderon cinder cone erupted magmas derived from two different sources. Early alkalic eruptions, derived from a depleted (asthenospheric) source, were followed by more voluminous tholeiitic flows derived from an enriched (lithospheric) source. The tholeiite flow erupted at ca. 80 ka during a high-amplitude excursion (possibly an aborted reversal) of the geomagnetic field, as indicated by a paleomagnetic direction with declination = 271sp° , inclination = -17sp° (N = 10, alphasb{95}=4.4sp° ,\\ kappa = 124). This tholeiite has higher Ksb2O, TiOsb2, MgO, Co, Nb, Sr, Zr and LREE contents than other ZBVF tholeiites. The Candelaria Cluster comprises four volcanoes, within a four kmsp2 area, that erupted alkalic and transitional lavas from an asthenospheric source and tholeiitic lavas from a lithospheric source. Lavas from all four vents record moderate-amplitude paleomagnetic secular variation (declination = 32sp° , inclination = 56sp° , N = 17, alphasb{95}=2.8sp° ,\\ kappa = 189) indicating eruption within a very short time span, conceivably less than 100 years. The ZBVF is located within the Basin and Range/Rio Grande rift - Colorado Plateau transition zone, where extension has thinned the crust and lithosphere with respect to the Colorado Plateau but not as much as in the more highly-extended Basin and Range. Contemporaneous eruption of magmas from different mantle sources is consistent with a model in which transition zone alkalic magmas are generated at the boundary between upwelling depleted asthenosphere and residual enriched lithosphere, and tholeiitic magmas are derived from the lithosphere. The lack of

  9. Update of the conceptual geological model for the geothermal reservoir in Cerro Prieto, BC; Actualizacion del modelo geologico conceptual del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira Herrera, Hector [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, B.C., (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    An updated, conceptual geologic model is presented for the geothermal reservoir in Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The tectonic extension that formed the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States and Northwestern Mexico during Upper Tertiary in the Cerro Prieto area resulted in the formation of a half graben tectonic basin between the Cerro Prieto and Imperial faults. Called the Cerro Prieto basin, it includes listric faults, predominately northwest-southwest trending, stepped generally to the northeast. The zone of cortical weakness, formed during the Tertiary, allowed an intrusion of basic rock associated with the magnetic anomaly know as Nuevo Leon. The intrusive rock has been fed by new magmatic intrusions originated by the present tectonic extension of the Gulf of California. The oldest rocks identified in the area are gneiss and biotite-schists of Permian-Jurassic age and tonalities of Jurassic-Cretaceous age in contact with Cretaceous granites, all representing the regional basement. The lithologic column in the subsurface of the Cerro Prieto basin in formed by a basement of Cretaceous granites; an argillaceous package resting on the basement composed of gray shales with interleaves of sandstone, Tertiary brown-shales and mudstone, with an average thickness of 2700 m; clastic sediments of the Quaternary age deposited mainly by the Colorado River and alluvial fans of the Cucapa Range, comprised of gravel, sands and clays with an average thickness of 2500 m, covering the shales. The fluids feeding the geothermal reservoir heat as they pass though the zone where the basic intrusive is located (the heat source) and migrate through the listric faults toward the permeable layers of sandstone located within the gray shales. [Spanish] Se presenta el modelo geologico conceptual actualizado del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto. La tectonica extensional que origino la Provincia de Cuencas y Cordilleras (Basin and Range) del oeste de Estados Unidos y

  10. Fábricas diagenéticas asociadas al paleokarst del techo de la Unidad Intermedia del Mioceno de la cuenca de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo, J. P.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbonates and evaporites from the top of the Miocene Intermediate Unit of the Madrid Basin have set as host-rock for early karstification phenomena. The development of these karstic processes imply an important change in the depositional evolution of the basin. In these materials, complex diagenetic fabrics formed as a result of shallow meteoric diagenetic processes have been recognized, being dedolomitization and calcitization of gypsums the main diagenetic processes that affected the top of the Miocene Intermediate Unit. The high variability of diagenetic fabrics is thought to be mainly influenced by the original composition of sediments, the activity of microorganisms and the chemistry of diagenetic waters.Los materiales carbonáticos y evaporíticos del techo de la Unidad Intermedia del Mioceno de la Cuenca de Madrid han actuado como soporte de fenómenos de karstificación temprana, cuyo desarrollo ha supuesto un cambio significativo en la evolución del relleno de la cuenca. Dentro de estos materiales se han reconocido carbonatos con fábricas diagenéticas complejas resultado de procesos de diagénesis meteórica superficial. Los procesos predominantes en la evolución diagenética del encajante de la paleokarstificación del techo de la Unidad Intermedia son la dedolomitización y la calcitización/pseudomorfización de yesos. Factores como la composición original del sedimento, la influencia de microorganismos y la hidroquímica de los fluidos diagenéticos han determinado la gran variabilidad de las fábricas diagenéticas reconocidas.

  11. Measured ground-surface movements, Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley, 30 kilometers southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, incurred slight deformation because of the extraction of hot water and steam, and probably, active tectonism. During 1977 to 1978, the US Geological Survey established and measured two networks of horizontal control in an effort to define both types of movement. These networks consisted of: (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from stations on an existing US Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border; and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the present and planned geothermal production area. Electronic distance measuring instruments were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks in 1978, 1979 and 1981. Lines in the regional net averaged 25 km. in length and the standard deviation of an individual measurement is estimated to be approx. 0.3 part per million of line length. The local network was measured using different instrumentation and techniques. The average line length was about 5 km. and the standard deviation of an individual measurement approached 3 parts per million per line length. Ground-surface movements in the regional net, as measured by both the 1979 and 1981 resurveys, were small and did not exceed the noise level. The 1979 resurvey of the local net showed an apparent movement of 2 to 3 centimeters inward toward the center of the production area. This apparent movement was restricted to the general limits of the production area. The 1981 resurvey of the local net did not show increased movement attributable to fluid extraction.

  12. Proliferaciones algales 2000-2001 en Bahía de Banderas, México según el sensor SeaWiFS

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    María C Gómez-Villarreal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las proliferaciones algales ocurridas en Bahía de Banderas, México, durante los años 2000 y 2001 a partir de información derivada del sensor de color del océano SeaWiFS. Estos eventos estuvieron relacionados con los máximos niveles de Anomalías Semanales de Clorofila’ (As i; variable construida para analizar la variación temporal de la clorofila dentro de la bahía. Las proliferaciones ocurridas en los periodos invierno-primavera fueron multiespecíficos, mientras que en verano-otoño fueron dominadas por una sola especie. Se plantean dos propuestas: 1 las proliferaciones algales de invierno-primavera están fuertemente relacionadas a procesos de mesoescala dada su aparente sincronía temporal con altos niveles de clorofila en las costas de Sinaloa a Jalisco; 2 mientras que las proliferaciones de Cochlodinium polykrikoides durante los periodos verano-otoño son favorecidas por el efecto de otras proliferaciones algales previas sobre el ecosistema y por condiciones predominantemente locales en la bahía.Algal blooms at Banderas Bay, México (2000-2001, from SeaWiFS-sensor-data. Algal blooms for the period of 2000 and 2001 at Banderas Bay, México, were analyzed from SeaWiFS-ocean-color-sensor derived information. These events were related with the maximum chlorophyll week anomalies (ASi; a proxy variable constructed for the analysis of chlorophyll temporal variation in the bay. The winter-spring blooms were multispecific, while the summer-fall blooms were monospecific. Two proposals are made: 1 Winter-spring blooms are strongly related with mesoescale processes, due to their apparent temporal synchrony with the high chlorophyll levels in the coastal region from Sinaloa to Jalisco states; 2 Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Margalef 1961 blooms during the summer-fall periods could be induced by local conditions and the influence of previous events on the ecosystem. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1653-1664. Epub 2008 December 12.

  13. Geology and geochemistry of Pelagatos, Cerro del Agua, and Dos Cerros monogenetic volcanoes in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, south of México City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Siebe, Claus; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-04-01

    This study focuses on the geology and geochemistry of three closely-spaced monogenetic volcanoes that are located in the NE sector of the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field near México City. Pelagatos (3020 m.a.s.l.) is a small scoria cone (0.0017 km 3) with lava flows (0.036 km 3) that covered an area of 4.9 km 2. Cerro del Agua scoria cone (3480 m.a.s.l., 0.028 km 3) produced several lava flows (0.24 km 3) covering an area of 17.6 km 2. Dos Cerros is a lava shield which covers an area of 80.3 km 2 and is crowned by two scoria cones: Tezpomayo (3080 m.a.s.l., 0.022 km 3) and La Ninfa (3000 m.a.s.l., 0.032 km 3). The eruptions of Cerro del Agua and Pelagatos occurred between 2500 and 14,000 yr BP. The Dos Cerros eruption took place close to 14,000 yr BP as constrained by radiocarbon dating. Rocks from these three volcanoes are olivine-hypersthene normative basaltic andesites and andesites with porphyritic, aphanitic, and glomeroporphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblages include olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene phenocrysts (≤ 10 vol.%) embedded in a trachytic groundmass which consists mainly of plagioclase microlites and glass. Pelagatos rocks also present quartz xenocrysts. Due to their high Cr and Ni contents, and high Mg#s, Pelagatos rocks are considered to be derived from primitive magmas, hence the importance of this volcano for understanding petrogenetic processes in this region. Major and trace element abundances and petrography of products from these volcanoes indicate a certain degree of crystal fractionation during ascent to the surface. However, the magmas that formed the volcanoes evolved independently from each other and are not cogenetically related. REE, HFSE, LILE, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions point towards a heterogeneous mantle source that has been metasomatized by aqueous/melt phases from the subducted Cocos slab. There is no clear evidence of important crustal contributions in the compositions of Pelagatos and

  14. BASEMAP, BANDERA, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  15. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING, Bandera, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  16. Metagenomic analysis of the bovine hindgut from Salmonella Kentucky and Cerro-shedding dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Kentucky and Cerro are frequently isolated from dairy cows that appear asymptomatic. Although they are not major contributors to the salmonellosis burden, these serovars have been implicated in human clinical cases in recent years. To...

  17. Gravity Modeling of the Cerro Goden fault zone, NW Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, G. A.; Keranen, K. M.; Asencio, E.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake served as a reminder of potential earthquake hazards on upper-crustal fault systems along the northern boundary of the Carribean plate. In this study we modeled the structure of the Cerro Goden and subparallel fault zones in northwestern Puerto Rico, which cross through densely populated areas, using existing and newly collected gravity data. The fault zone had previously been mapped at the surface, but the details of the fault zone in the subsurface and the detailed structure remain poorly constrained. We used our gravity data to extend surface geologic models to greater depth. Specifically, we modeled and interpreted a north-to-south 2-D model perpendicular to the Cerro Goden fault zone. We used horizontal derivative and residual anomaly maps to emphasize edges of subsurface bodies and shallow structures of interest. Our preliminary 2D model constrains the width and depth extent of serpentinite bodies along the fault zones, the relationship of the faults with the Cerro Goden anticline in central Puerto Rico, and confirms the steep NE dip of the faults extrapolated from surface data. Additional data will be collected in the future across the Cerro Goden fault zone to laterally extend our models of subsurface structural features.

  18. La infertilidad en un área de salud del municipio Cerro Infertility in a health area of Cerro municipality

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    Amaylid Arteaga García

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar el comportamiento de la infertilidad en 11 consultorios del Policlínico "Héroes de Girón" del municipio Cerro. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. La selección de los consultorios fue por muestreo por criterios, y los de selección fueron: que tuvieran una distribución equitativa en los Grupos Básicos de Trabajo, así como la estabilidad y conocimiento profundo del área por el personal de enfermería (quien ejecutó la investigación, previa capacitación en el tema. Se aplicaron 2 instrumentos: un formulario a nivel del consultorio y una encuesta a las parejas con problemas por infertilidad. Como medida de resumen se utilizó el porcentaje. RESULTADOS: de un total de 700 parejas en edad fértil que se encontraron, 40 tenían problemas de infertilidad, para un 5,7 %, y de ellas fueron entrevistadas 35. Existió predominio de los factores femeninos, principalmente el tubárico. La mayoría de las parejas estaban en edades óptimas para procrear, con relaciones matrimoniales estables y más de 2 años intentando tener descendencia. Predominó la infertilidad primaria. Más de la mitad de las parejas no tenían seguimiento por esta causa, y las que lo tuvieron, a pesar de ser por más de 3 años, conocen poco la causa de la infertilidad. CONCLUSIONES: la infertilidad en la población estudiada alcanza una mayor magnitud por los problemas de atención, que por la proporción numérica que representa. Se encontró fundamentalmente en edades óptimas para la reproducción, en relaciones estables, con una espera prolongada y con predominio de infertilidad primaria de causa tubárica. Las dificultades diagnósticas y terapéuticas y lo largo del proceso hacen que la mayor parte de las parejas se encuentren insatisfechas con el seguimiento que reciben.OBJECTIVE: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to characterize the behavior of infertility in 11 family physician's offices of "H

  19. Los sedimentos con diatomeas del Mioceno en la Cuenca del Guadalquivir: edad y composición litológica

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    Bustillo, M. A.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The lithological composition and biostratigraphy of diatomaceous marls have been defined in 93 outcrops of the Guadalquivir Basin. The diatomaceous marls display a wide variety of lithological types, mainly comprised of opal A (10-85 % (mainly diatoms and to a lesser extent silicoflagellates, spicules and radiolarians, calcite (5-80 % (principally foraminifers, nannoplankton, sparite, micrite and microspar, c1ay minerals (5-40 % (smectite in greater quantities than illite; and kaolinite in small quantities and terrigenous quartz (Thalassiosira nitzshoides, Thalassiotrix longuissima and Thalassionema baci//aris. Benthic diatoms are scarce but they have great species diversity. However, in sorne outcrops the genus Delphineis is more frequent thus indicating environments c10ser to shore areas. Three episodes based on Barron's (1985 low latitude zonation have been defined. The Lower Episode includes Cestodiscus peplum and Coscinodiscus lewisianus Zone and is assigned to the upper Langhian- lower Serravalian. After a period of no diatom occurrence (e. gigas var. diorama Zone is missing, the Middle Episode is defined by Craspedodiscus coscinodiscus and Actinocyclus moronensis Zones and covers the latest Serravalian-early Tortonian. The Upper Episode corresponds to Thalassiosira yabei Zone and it is assigned to middle Tortonian. The fundamental types of dilutants in diatomic sedimentation (biogenic calcareous, terrigenous and c1ay minerals, do not vary throughout the three episodes but there are great variations in the proportions. The coastal upwelling regime produces tongue-like patterns of sedimentation and the sedimentary record displays different changes of facies. The Upper Episode, where the c1ay-terrigenous dilutants predominate over calcareous dilutants and Delphineis appear in greater quantities, is interpreted as having been formed in an environment closer to the shore than other episodes.El estudio de 93 puntos en el Mioceno de la cuenca

  20. Presencia de Cochlodinium catenatum (Gymnodiniales: Gymnodiniaceae en mareas rojas de Bahía de Banderas, Pacífico mexicano

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    María del Carmen Cortés Lara

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la evolución de una proliferación algal ictiotóxica (julio a diciembre del 2000 causada por el dinoflagelado Cochlodinium catenatum. La multiplicación anormal de este dinoflagelado se presentó a manera de decoloraciones dispersas dentro de un intervalo de temperatura de 25-32 º C y salinidades de 33-35 ups. La densidad de C. catenatum fue desde no detectable hasta 10 841 éls ml-1 . El evento se presentó en grandes extensiones en la Bahía de Banderas, afectando a 13 especies de peces, cuya muerte masiva se debió a sofocación por la obstrucción en las agallas y por excesiva producción de mucus. La población humana aledaña no presentó afecciones respiratorias ni irritaciones en la piel. Las dimensiones de C. catenatum sugieren que pueda presentar una reproducción hologámica y heterotálica. Por sus características morfológicas se sugiere que C. polykrikoides, C. heterolobatum y C. catenatum son una única especie. Esta última parece de reciente introducción en el Pacífico mexicanoThe evolution of an ichthiotoxic algal bloom caused by the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium catenatum was studied from July to December 2000. The abnormal multiplication of this dinoflagellate occurred in the form of a discoloration spreading between a temperature and salinity interval of 25-32°C and 33-35 ups, respectively. The density of C. catenatum reached 10 841 cells ml-1 . The event was observed in large areas of Banderas Bay affecting 13 fish species, whose massive killing was due to suffocation (gill obstruction and excessive mucus production. The human population around the area did not present respiratory affections or skin irritation. The C. catenatum measurements suggest a hologamic and heterothalic reproduction. Their morphological characteristics suggest that C. polykrikoides, C. heterolobatum and C. catenatum are the same species. It is estimated that the species could be a recent introduction in the Mexican Pacific

  1. Genesis and evolution of the Cerro Prieto Volcanic Complex, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, L.; Macías, J. L.; Sosa-Ceballos, G.; Arce, J. L.; Garduño-Monroy, V. H.; Saucedo, R.; Avellán, D. R.; Rangel, E.; Layer, P. W.; López-Loera, H.; Rocha, V. S.; Cisneros, G.; Reyes-Agustín, G.; Jiménez, A.; Benowitz, J. A.

    2017-06-01

    The Cerro Prieto Volcanic Complex (CPVC), located in northwestern Mexico, is the only surface manifestation of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, the third largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. This geothermal field and the Salton Sea in the USA sit in a pull-apart basin that belongs to the trans-tensional tectonic zone that includes the San Andreas Fault system and the Salton Trough basin to the NW and the East Pacific Rise to the SE. In spite of its strategic importance in the generation of geothermal energy, the origin of Cerro Prieto and its relationship with the geothermal reservoir were unknown. In this contribution, we discuss the origin, evolution, and mechanisms of formation of this small monogenetic volcano and the magmas that fed the system. The volcanic complex is located on top of the Cerro Prieto left lateral fault to the northwest of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The complex consists of a lava cone and a series of domes (˜0.15 km3) protruding from Tertiary sandstones and recent unconsolidated sediments of the alluvial plain of the Colorado River. The Cerro Prieto Volcanic Complex consists of seven stratigraphic units emplaced in a brief time span around 78-81 ka. Its activity began with the extrusion of a dacitic lava that came into contact with water-saturated sediments, causing brecciation of the lava. The activity continued with the emplacement of dacitic domes and a dyke that were destroyed by a phreatic explosion emplacing a lithic-rich breccia. This phreatic explosion formed a 300-m-wide and 40-m-deep circular crater. The activity then migrated ˜650 m to the SW where three dacitic lava domes were extruded and ended with the emplacement of a fissure-fed lava flow. Subsequent remobilization of the rocks in the complex has generated debris and hyperconcentrated flow deposits interbedded with fluviatile sediments in the surrounding terrain. All rocks of the CPVC are dacites with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and Fe

  2. Evolution of a complex isolated dome system, Cerro Pizarro, central México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nancy; Carrasco-Nunez, Gerardo

    Cerro Pizarro is an isolated rhyolitic dome in the intermontane Serdán-Oriental basin, located in the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Cerro Pizarro erupted 1.1 km3 of magma at about 220 ka. Activity of Cerro Pizarro started with vent-clearing explosions at some depth; the resultant deposits contain clasts of local basement rocks, including Cretaceous limestone, 0.46-Ma welded tuff, and basaltic lava. Subsequent explosive eruptions during earliest dome growth produced an alternating sequence of surge and fallout layers from an inferred small dome. As the dome grew both vertically and laterally, it developed an external glassy carapace due to rapid chilling. Instability of the dome during emplacement caused the partial gravitational collapse of its flanks producing various block-and-ash-flow deposits. After a brief period of repose, re-injection of magma caused formation of a cryptodome with pronounced deformation of the vitrophyric dome and the underlying units to orientations as steep as near vertical. This stage began apparently as a gas-poor eruption and no explosive phases accompanied the emplacement of the cryptodome. Soon after emplacement of the cryptodome, however, the western flank of the edifice catastrophically collapsed, causing a debris avalanche. A hiatus in eruptive activity was marked by erosion of the cone and emplacement of ignimbrite derived from a caldera to the north of Cerro Pizarro. The final growth of the dome growth produced its present shape; this growth was accompanied by multiple eruptions producing surge and fallout deposits that mantle the topography around Cerro Pizarro. The evolution of the Cerro Pizarro dome holds aspects in common with classic dome models and with larger stratovolcano systems. We suggest that models that predict a simple evolution for domes fail to account for possibilities in evolutionary paths. Specifically, the formation of a cryptodome in the early stages of dome formation may be far more common than

  3. Génesis y evolución de los caliches miocenos del sureste de la depresión del Duero

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    Armenteros, I.

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe and to study the genesis of the fossil calcretes (caliches interbedded in Miocene alluvial-fan sediments bordering the pre-Tertiary basament in the North of Segovia Province. Four types of crusts have been distinguished: brechic, massive, vertically laminated and horizontally laminated, the two later types being differentiated by their position relative to the bedding surfaces. Massive crusts show a variety of discrete carbonate components (pisoids, ooids and peloids embedded in a fine-grained matrix. Erosion of crusts and incorporation of the newly-formed fragments into a different horizon undergoing caliche-forming processes are common. "In situ" rosette like colonies and disengaged prisms of MICROCODIUM have been found. Many features, including basal elongation of the accretion laminae of pisoids and existence vadose cements, suggest that calcretes formed in vadose zones of calcimorph soil profiles under a warm climate with well-marked dry season, X-ray analysis show the existence of diagenetic pali,gorskite that, presumibly, formed before the intense precipitation of calcite in the soil profile that resulted in mature crusts, Afterwards, partial silicification as well as dolomitization to pseudosparite took place.

    El objeto de este trabajo es el estudio descriptivo y genético de los caliches fósiles situados en sedimentos de abanicos aluviales miocenos que orlan el zócalo preterciario de Honrubia Pradales (norte de la provincia de Segovia. Se reconocen cuatro tipos de costras: bréchica, masiva, laminada vertical y laminada horizontal, y las dos últimas se diferencian por su posición respecto al plano de estratificación. La costra masiva presenta una serie de elementos formados "in situ" (pisoides, ooides y peloides destacados en una matriz. Es frecuente la erosión de una costra y la inclusión de los fragmentos resultantes a un nuevo nivel que va a sufrir el proceso de costrificación, Se

  4. Resultados paleoceanográficos deducidos a partir del contenido en diatomeas de los sedimentos siliceos miocenos («moronitas» en la Cuenca del Guadalquivir

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    López García, Mª J.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available During a part of the Miocene (Langhian middle-middle Tortonian diatom bearing sediments, named «moronitas», were deposited in the Guadalquivir Basin. This sedimentation was the result of a highly productive coastal upwelling regime in the area. At this time, the oceanic circulation in the «nord-betic strait» was under stuarine conditions and the nutrients carne from deep Atlantic currents. The intensity of the circulation of deep water in oceans is usually related to global climatic changes. Coastal upwelling is not an effective process to bring up nutrient-rich deep waters to the surface. A complex hidrological process must occur to bring up deep water firstly to intermediate leveIs and then the nutrients may be upwelled from subsurface waters. It is necessary to take into account local factors related to the basin morphology and the changes that it has gone through in arder to place the ancient upwelling centers in the basin. The percentajes of the most common species (Crucidenticula nicobarica + Crucidenticula punctata, Denticulopsis hustedtii, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Thalassionema nitzschioides var. parva, Thalassiothrix longissima + Thalassionema bacillaris and the biosilicic global content of the rocks has made possible the recognition of a change in the temperature of superficial waters and upwelling intensity in time. The interpretation of the A..P.C. graphics gives a paleoecological significance to the A.P.C. first two factors. In this way different productivity situations in response to different locations and intensity of the ancient upwelling centers in time have been identified.Durante una parte del Mioceno (Langhiense medio-Tortoniense medio tuvo lugar en actual Cuenca del Guadalquivir la formación de sedimentos con diatomeas («moronitas». Esta sedimentación fue consecuencia de la formación de un área de alta productividad biogénica ocasionada por corrientes ascensionales costeras (coastal upwelling. La

  5. The last glacial cycle and palaeolake synchrony in the southern bolivian Altiplano: Cerro Azanaques case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available SYNCHRONISME ENTRE LE DERNIER CYCLE GLACIAIRE ET L'EXTENSION DES PALÉOLACS DANS LE SUD DE L'ALTIPLANO BOLIVIEN : EXEMPLE DU CERRO AZANAQUES. Dans la Cordillère Orientale, au niveau du Cerro Azanaques (18°S, Bolivie, des moraines, des sédiments glaciaires, des rivages paléolacustres, des deltas et des stromatolites qui se sont préservés, révèlent des conditions climatiques fortement différentes dans le passé. La culmination de la dernière avancée du glacier Lijunimani a été datée par la méthode du radiocarbone à 13 000 ans BP à partir de sédiments glaciaires ayant remanié un horizon organique de tourbe. La cartographie de cette diacmitite argileuse particulière révèle un delta en forme de cône bordé par un glacier cela montre que les glaciers et les anciens systèmes lacustres font partie d'un processus d'expansion simultanée. L'étude stratigraphique détaillée réalisée au Cerro Azanaques fournit de fortes évidences allant dans le sens d'une réponse commune des glaciers et des lacs à un signal piloté par un changement climatique les lacs ne sont donc pas le simple résultat de la fonte des glaciers des cordillères. SINCRONISMO ENTRE EL ÚLTIMO CICLO GLACIAL Y LA EXTENSIÓN DE LOS PALEOLAGOS EN EL SUR DEL ALTIPLANO BOLIVIANO: CASO DEL CERRO AZANAQUES. En la Cordillera Oriental, a la altura del Cerro Azanaques (18º S, Bolivia aparecen preservadas morrenas y sedimentos glaciares, líneas de costa paleolacustres, deltas y estromatolitos, lo que revela condiciones climáticas pasadas significativamente diferentes. La culminación del último avance del glaciar Lijunimani ha sido fechada mediante radiocarbono a 13 000 años BP a partir de sedimentos glaciares que han desplazado un horizonte orgánico de turba. La cartografía de esta particular diamictita arcillosa revela un delta en forma de abanico con hielo en sus márgenes lo que indica que los glaciares y los sistemas paleolacustres sufrieron un proceso

  6. Progress report on LBL's numerical modeling studies on Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman-Dooley, S.E.; Lippman, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1989-04-01

    An exploitation model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system is needed to assess the energy capacity of the field, estimate its productive lifetime and develop an optimal reservoir management plan. The model must consider the natural state (i.e., pre-exploitation) conditions of the system and be able to predict changes in the reservoir thermodynamic conditions (and fluid chemistry) in response to fluid production (and injection). This paper discusses the results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the natural state conditions of the Cerro Prieto field and compares computed and observed pressure and temperature/enthalpy changes for the 1973--1987 production period. 16 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Extensive geochemical studies in the geothermal field of Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manon, A.; Mazor, E.; Jimenez, M.; Sanchez, A.; Fausto, J.; Zenizo, C.

    1977-12-01

    Data collected during 12 years of operation of the chemical laboratory at Cerro Prieto are presented. These data include analyses of dissolved ions and gases in exploration and production wells and in thermal springs, as observed in repeatedly collected samples and measurements of wellhead and separator pressures, flow of steam and water and size of orifice, condition of well, etc., at the time of chemical sampling. The discussion in Part I is intended to illustrate graphically the geochemical pattern of the Cerro Prieto fluids, to search for ion correlations, and to provide a preliminary discussion of a small number of topics. The figures and tables in Part II provide the bulk of information in the report. (JGB)

  8. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-10

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  9. El bronce final y la Edad del Hierro en "Cerro del Berrueco" (Ávila-Salamanca

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    J. Francisco FABIÁN GARCÍA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El Cerro del Berrueco es un monte-isla enclavado en las inmediaciones del Sistema Central y, más concretamente, de las Sierras de Gredos y Béjar, en el sector Sur-Occidental de la Meseta Norte. Corresponde una parte de él a la provincia de Avila y otra, más extensa, a la de Salamanca.

  10. Climatic characterization of the Banderas Bay Region using Köppen’s system modified by García and Geographic Information Systems techniques

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    Antonio Velázquez Ruiz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of different climatic zones can be an important factor for decision-makers in various fields such as urban planning and agricultural alternatives. In order to characterize the climates of the region of Bahía de Banderas (BB Mexico, we adopted a methodology that combines the use of the Köppen climate classification modified by Garc.a for Mexico and methods of Geographic Information Systems (GIS. We used simple regression between temperature (dependent variable and height as independent variable. Multiple regressions were applied for rainfall (dependent variable and geographical data as independent variables (thermal continentality, thermopluviometric index and slope. The temperature and precipitation data were obtained from the Comisión Nacional del Agua, and ERIC III, 2006 database. Information from geographical variables was obtained from a Digital Elevation Model and Gorzynski’s Index of Continentality. The coefficients of simple and multiple regressions were used to construct digital maps of annual temperature and precipitation via GIS. With these maps and using the CCK-EG tool, we generated the final map of climatic characterization. The result was highly representative. The determination coefficients were 0.82 and 0.39 for temperature and precipitation respectively. The resulting classification for each of the stations was located in their corresponding climate zone on the final map. Zones and climatic limits were identified for this study region.

  11. Evolution of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system as interpreted from vitrinite reflectance under isothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, C.E. (US Geological Survey, Denver, CO); Pawlewicz, M.J.; Bostick, N.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Temperature estimates from reflectance data in the Cerro Prieto system correlate with modern temperature logs and temperature estimates from fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope geothermometry indicating that the temperature in the central portion of the Cerro Prieto System is now at its historical maximum. Isoreflectance lines formed by contouring vitrinite reflectance data for a given isothermal surface define an imaginary surface that indicates an apparent duration of heating in the system. The 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface has a complex dome-like form suggesting a localized heat source that has caused shallow heating in the central portion of this system. Isoreflectance lines relative to this 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface define a zone of low reflectance roughly corresponding to the crest of the isothermal surface. Comparison of these two surfaces suggest that the shallow heating in the central portion of Cerro Prieto is young relative to the heating (to 250/sup 0/C) on the system margins. Laboratory and theoretical models of hydrothermal convection cells suggest that the form of the observed 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface and the reflectance surface derived relative to it results from the convective rise of thermal fluids under the influence of a regional hydrodynamic gradient that induces a shift of the hydrothermal heating effects to the southwest.

  12. A review of the hydrogeologic-geochemical model for Cerro Prieto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Truesdell, A.H.; Halfman-Dooley, S. E.; Mañónm, A.

    1991-01-01

    With continued exploitation of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field, there is increasing evidence that the hydrogeologic model developed by Halfman and co-workers presents the basic features controlling the movement of geothermal fluids in the system. In mid-1987 the total installed capacity at Cerro Prieto reached 620 MWc, requiring a large rate of fluid production (more than 10,500 tonnes/hr of a brine-steam mixture; August 1988). This significant mass extraction has led to changes in reservoir thermodynamic conditions and in the chemistry of the produced fluids. Pressure drawdown has caused an increase in cold water recharge in the southern and western edges of the field, and local and general reservoir boiling in parts of the geothermal system. After reviewing the hydrogeologic and geochemical models of Cerro Prieto, the exploitation-induced cold water recharge and reservoir boiling (and plugging) observed in different areas of the field, are discussed and interpreted on the basis of these models and schematic flow models that describe the hydrogeology. ?? 1991.

  13. Relationship between water chemistry and sediment mineralogy in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette-Silver, J.N. (Univ. de Perpignan, France); Thompson, J.M.; Ball, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical compositions of waters collected from the Cerro Prieto geothermal production wells and hydrothermal emanations are different. Compared to the Cerro Prieto well waters, the surficial waters generally contain significantly less potassium, slightly less calcium and chloride, and significantly more magnesium and sulfate. In comparison to the unaltered sediments, the changes in the mineralogy of the altered sediments appear to be controlled by the type of emanation (well, spring, mud pot, geyser, fumarole, or cold pool). However, an increase in quartz and potassium feldspar percentages seems to be characteristic of the majority of the sediments in contact with geothermal fluids. Preliminary attempts to model the chemical processes occurring in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field using chemical equilibrium calculations are reported. For this purpose the chemical compositions of thermal waters (well and surficial emanation) were used as input data to make calculations with SOLMNEQ and WATEQ2 computer programs. Then the theoretical mineral composition of altered sediments was predicted and compared to the mineralogy actually observed in the solid samples.

  14. Registro de Moridae (Teleostei: Gadiformes en la Formación Chenque (Oligoceno Tardío-Mioceno Temprano de la provincia de Chubut, Argentina Record of Moridae (Teleostei: Gadiformes from the Chenque Formation (Late Oligocene - Early Miocene from the Chubut province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bogan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describen restos de un especimen relativamente completo perteneciente a la familia Moridae. Dicho ejemplar ha sido colectado en sedimentos referibles a la Formación Chenque (Oligoceno-Mioceno de la provincia de Chubut, Argentina. Este material constituye el primer registro fósil concreto de un Gadiformes para Argentina y los primeros materiales óseos fósiles registrados para Moridae. La morfología de los ejemplares sugiere afinidades con los géneros Physiculus y Salilota. La presencia de Moridae en el Mioceno Temprano de Patagonia y Nueva Zelanda se encuentra de acuerdo con hipótesis previas que indican conexiones marítimas transantárticas entre ambas regiones geográficas durante el Oligoceno Tardío - Mioceno Temprano.A nearly complete specimen belonging to the family Moridae is described in this paper. The material has been collected in outcrops referable to the Chenque Formation (Oligocene-Miocene from the Chubut province, Argentina. The specimen constitutes the first fossil record for the Gadiformes in Argentina and one of the first osteological occurrences for Moridae. The morphology of the specimen suggests affinities with the genera Physiculus and Salilota. The presence of Moridae in the Early Miocene of Patagonia and New Zealand is in agreement with previous hypotheses suggesting marine transantarctic connections between both landmasses during Late Oligocene - Early Miocene times.

  15. Sedimentación lacustre-palustre, formación de ópalos y otras silicificaciones en el Mioceno medio al sur de Villaluenga

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    Bustillo, Mª Angeles

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available The petrological and sedimentological analysis of Middle Miocene carbonate sediments and siliceous rocks , outcropping North Toledo, provides new ideas on the interpretation of these lacustrine and paludine sedimentation. The main lithofacies found are: 1 micrite with crytalgal (? laminite, caleite gypsum pseudomorphs, and trace of diatoms; 2 biomicrite with varying amount of lacustrine mollusks, ostracodes and charophytes, which form laminar structure; 3 biomicrite with the same skeletal components (charopytes, ostracodes, etc . and sometimes diatoms but disorganized, 4 pseudospar and microspar calcite with lenticular gypsum pseudomorphs; 5 sepiolitic marls. The sedimentation environment was very shallow, with low salinity, calcareous, highly productive with abundant vegetation (sometimes diatoms and periodic subaerial exposures. All type of sediments (paludine or lacustrine have silicifications although they are different. An early discontinuos diagenetic silicification process, which forms only silica minerals (mainly opal C-T and where the silica probably comes from the diatoms dissolution, has been observed. Also early in the diagenesis, but later than the former, a silicification process takes place, originating the continuous opal C-T and clay minerals (mainly sepiolite horizonts, which can be homogeneous or present Liesegang bands (rings and laminations. This second silicification seems to happen in the interface water-sediment, during periods of evaporation, when the sha1low lake is near disecation. The silica cements in the different porosities of the rock (fenestral karst dissolution,…etc. indicate that after the second silification, there is a remobilization of the primary silica, which sometimes produce other silicifications of quartz and silica cementations.

    El análisis sedimentológico y petrológico del conjunto de los sedimentos calcáreos y las rocas silíceas continentales del Mioceno medio, al sur de Villaluenga, da

  16. Multibeam bathymetric survey of the Ipala Submarine Canyon, Jalisco, Mexico (20°N): The southern boundary of the Banderas Forearc Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urías Espinosa, J.; Bandy, W. L.; Mortera Gutiérrez, C. A.; Núñez Cornú, Fco. J.; Mitchell, N. C.

    2016-03-01

    The Middle America Trench bends sharply northward at 20°N. This, along with the close proximity of the Rivera-North America Euler pole to the northern end of this trench, sharply increases the obliquity of subduction at 20°N. By analogy with other subduction zones with similar sharply changing obliquity, significant trench parallel extension is expected to exist in the forearc region near the bend. To evaluate this possibility, multibeam bathymetric, seafloor backscatter and sub-bottom seismic reflection data were collected in this area during the MORTIC08 campaign of the B.O. El Puma. These data image in detail a large submarine canyon (the Ipala Canyon) extending from the coast at 20°05‧N to the Middle America Trench at 19°50‧N. This canyon is 114 km long and is fed by sediments originating from two, possibly three, small rivers: the Ipala, Tecolotlán and Maria Garza. This canyon deeply incises (up to 600 m) the entire continental slope and at least the outer part of the shelf. Within the canyon, we observe meanders and narrow channels produced by turbidity flows indicating that the canyon is active. In the marginal areas of the canyon slumps, rills, and uplifts suggest that mass movements and fluid flow have had a major impact on the seafloor morphology. The seafloor bathymetry, backscatter images and sub-bottom reflection profiles evidence the tectonic processes occurring in this area. Of particular interest, the canyon is deflected by almost 90° at three locations, the deflections all having a similar azimuth of between 125° and 130°. Given the prominence and geometry of this canyon, along with its tectonic setting, we propose that the presence of the canyon is related to extension produced by the sharp change in the plate convergence. If so, the canyon may lie along the southeast boundary of a major forearc block (the Banderas Forearc Block).

  17. Areas to explore surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Areas para exploracion en los alrededores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: alvaro.aguilar@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Exploration plays an important role in tapping underground natural resources-whether water, oil, natural gas or minerals. Exploratory data allow us to learn reservoir conditions, increasing probable reserves and reservoir life span. Around the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, and in the Mexicali Valley in general, exploration had almost stopped but recently was resumed by the Studies Division of Comision Federal de ELectricidad (CFE)'s Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos. The division sent technical personnel to structurally map the northern and eastern portions of Laguna Salada. The paper offers a general outline of the main zones undergoing exploratory studies-studies perhaps culminating in siting exploratory wells to locate more geothermal resources (and ultimately producing them using binary power plants). CFE also wants to site injection wells west of the current production zone, and this is covered, as well. All activities are meant to increase the productive lifespan of the geothermal reservoir. [Spanish] Cuando se trata de la explotacion de recursos naturales del subsuelo, sea agua, gas, petroleo o minerales, la exploracion juega un papel muy importante, ya que permite conocer las condiciones del yacimiento que pudieran llevar a incrementar las reservas de los recursos explotados y extender su vida util. En las zonas aledanas al campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, y en general en el Valle de Mexicali, la exploracion estaba practicamente detenida habiendose reactivado a raiz de que la Subgerencia de Estudios de la Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) envio personal para realizar mapeos estructurales en las porciones norte y oriente de la Laguna Salada. Este trabajo presenta un panorama general de las areas prioritarias para realizar estudios exploratorios y poder programar, con mas bases, pozos exploratorios enfocados a localizar mas recursos geotermicos, inclusive para generar energia por medio

  18. Basic aspects of the Cerro Prieto reservoir water recharge; Aspectos basicos de la recarga de agua al reservorio de Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field, located 30 km South of Mexicali City, Baja California, has at present an installed capacity of 620 MW in geothermal power plants, that operating with endogenous steam, make use of the underground energy by means of deep wells, from which about 80 million cubic meters per year of high enthalpy water and steam mixture are extracted. During the exploitation physical an chemical changes in the hydrothermal fluids discharged by the wells have been detected, which shows, among other things, an elevated water recharge, located towards the West area of the field and a low recharge in the part of the east zone area. For this reason the hot brine waste re-injection is recommended, (previously treated to eliminate the silica excess) to thermally an hydraulically recharge the reservoir in that part of the field. [Espanol] El campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, situado a 30 km al sur de la ciudad de Mexicali, Baja California, cuenta actualmente, despues de 18 anos en explotacion, con 620 MW de capacidad instalada en plantas geotermoelectricas que, operando con vapor endogeno, aprovechan la energia del subsuelo mediante pozos profundos de los que se extraen alrededor de 80 millones de metros cubicos por ano de una mezcla de agua vapor de elevada entalpia. Durante la explotacion se han percibido cambios fisicos y quimicos en los fluidos hidrotermales descargados por los pozos, lo que indica, entre otras cosas, una recarga elevada de agua localizada hacia el poniente del campo y una recarga baja en una zona de la parte oriental. Por ello se recomienda la reinyeccion de salmuera geotermica caliente de desecho (previamente tratada para eliminar el exceso de silice) para recargar termica e hidraulicamente el reservorio en esa parte del campo.

  19. Archaeological fieldwork in the Bronze Age site of Cerro de la Encina (Monachil, Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda Jiménez, Gonzalo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available New archaeological fieldwork has been carried out from November 2003 to May 2004 in the Bronze Age site of Cerro de la Encina, due to the interest of the regional government of Andalusia in displaying the settlement for visitors. The aim of this fieldwork has been the systematic excavation of a large settlement area partially known thanks to the excavations developed at the beginning of 1980s. A first toccupation period belonging to the Argaric Culture has been documented, highlighting specially the funerary ritual characterized by individual inhumations located below dwellings. After a gap in the occupation of the settlement a new social group belonging to the Late Bronze Age Culture of Southeast of Spain inhabits the Cerro de la Encina.

    El interés de la Consejería de Cultura de la Junta de Andalucía por la musealización del yacimiento del Cerro de la Encina ha motivado el desarrollo de nuevas investigaciones arqueológicas cuya primera fase se ha desarrollado entre Noviembre de 2003 y Mayo de 2004. Los trabajos han consistido en la excavación sistemática de un área de poblado de grandes dimensiones parcialmente conocida por las investigaciones realizadas a principios de los años 80. Los resultados han sido del máximo interés documentándose un primer momento de ocupación perteneciente a la Cultura de El Argar en el que destaca su espectacular registro funerario integrado dentro de las áreas de habitación. Tras un periodo de abandono del yacimiento se produce una nueva ocupación correspondiente a una comunidad del Bronce Final del Sureste.

  20. Vitrinite reflectance geothermometry and apparent heating duration in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, C.E.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measured in immersion oil (Ro) on kerogen extracted from hydrothermally altered mudstones in borehole M-84 at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field exhibit an increase in mean reflectance (Ro) from 0.12 per cent at 0.24 km depth to 4.1 per cent at 1.7 km depth. Downhole temperatures measured over this interval increase from about 60?? to 340??C. These Ro data plotted against temperature fall along an exponential curve with a coefficient of determination of about 0.8. Other boreholes sampled in the field show similar relationships. A regression curve calculated for temperature and Ro in borehole M-105 correctly predicts temperatures in other boreholes within the central portion of the geothermal system. The correlation between the reflectance values and logged temperature, together with consistent temperature estimates from fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope geothermometry, indicates that changes in Ro are an accurate and sensitive recorder of the maximum temperature attained. Therefore, vitrinite reflectance can be used in this geothermal system to predict the undisturbed temperature in a geothermal borehole during drilling before it regains thermal equilibrium. Although existing theoretical functions which relate Ro to temperature and duration of heating are inaccurate, empirical temperature-Ro curves are still useful for geothermometry. A comparison of temperature-Ro regression curves derived from nine boreholes within the Cerro Prieto system suggests that heating across the central portion of the field occurred penecontemporaneously, but varies near margins. Boreholes M-93 and M-94 appear to have cooled from their maximum temperatures, whereas M-3 and Prian-1 have only recently been heated. Comparison of the temperature-Ro data from the Salton Sea, California, geothermal system indicates that the duration of heating has been longer there than at the Cerro Prieto field. ?? 1981.

  1. Cerro Papayo: an astronomical, calendrical and traditional landmark in Ancient Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Trejo, J.; Aguilera, T.; Montero García, I. A.

    Cerro Papayo is a peculiar formed hill (almost perfect semisphere, 3,630 m) situated at the east side of the Valley of Mexico. According to surface reconnaissance there is on its cusp a prehispanic site and a modern shrine dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe. Its striking appearance and its unobstructed visibility from anyplace in the Valley were used, since preclassic up to postclassic periods, to mark at sunrise the moment of precise astronomical, calendrical and traditional events. The present work shows observational evidence from Cuicuilco, the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan and Tepeyacac.

  2. Procesos de karstificacion actual en el area del Cerro de la Oliva (Patones, Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuezva, S.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cerro de la Oliva karst is one of the best examples in this type of morphodynamic systems located in the Sistema Central Mountains. The study of the processes of current karstification evidences new data on the beginning of the karst in this area and the mechanisms of its recent reactivation, providing with data on the genesis and development of singular endokarstic processes both in the northwest and southeast sides of the Sistema Central. We have observed that karstification affects specifically to dolomitic materials taking place by means of dedolomitization processes favoured by the dissolution of overlaying gypsiferous materials. This mechanism, at the moment active, is very similar to the one that gave origin to the karstic systems developed to both sides of the Sistema Central, implying that the first stages of cretacic limestones karstification of Cerro de la Oliva took place at the end of early Pleistocene, being these materials still covered for palaeogene gypsum and clays.El karst del Cerro de la Oliva constituye uno de los mejores ejemplos de este tipo de sistemas morfodinámicos en el Sistema Central. El estudio de los procesos de karstificación actuales evidencia nuevos datos sobre el inicio de la karstificación en esta zona y los mecanismos de su reciente reactivación, aportando datos sobre la génesis y desarrollo de procesos endokársticos singulares en las vertientes noroeste y sureste del Sistema Central. Se ha observado que la karstificación afecta preferentemente a los materiales dolomíticos y se produce por un proceso de dedolomitización favorecido por la disolución de materiales yesíferos suprayacentes. Este mecanismo, actualmente activo, es muy similar al que dio origen a los sistemas kársticos desarrollados a uno y otro lado del Sistema Central, implicando que el desarrollo de las primeras etapas de karstificación de los materiales cretácicos del Cerro de la Oliva se produjo estando estos materiales

  3. Cestodos de quirópteros del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En septiembre 2006, en el Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, departamento de Tumbes, Perú; 39 individuos de murciélagos, pertenecientes a 16 especies fueron capturados. El análisis parasitológico determino que solo dos individuos de las especies Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostomidae y Noctilio leporinus (Noctilionidae estaban parasitados. Los cestodos fueron colectados del intestino delgado e identificados como Atriotaenia hastati Vaucher, 1982 (Anoplocephalidae y Vampirolepis sp. (Hymenolepididae. Atriotaenia hastati es un nuevo registro para el Perú y Vampirolepis sp. es registrado por primera vez en Tumbes y en un nuevo huésped, Noctilio leporinus.

  4. Two-dimensional modeling of apparent resistivity pseudosections in the Cerro Prieto region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, R.; Martinez, M.

    1981-01-01

    Using a finite-difference program (Dey, 1976) for two-dimensional modeling of apparent resistivity pseudosections obtained by different measuring arrays, four apparent resistivity pseudosections obtained at Cerro Prieto with a Schlumberger array by CFE personnel were modeled (Razo, 1978). Using geologic (Puente and de la Pena, 1978) and lithologic (Diaz, et al., 1981) data from the geothermal region, models were obtained which show clearly that, for the actual resistivity present in the zone, the information contained in the measured pseudosections is primarily due to the near-surface structure and does not show either the presence of the geothermal reservoir or the granitic basement which underlies it.

  5. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  6. La estratigrafía del Cerro de la Campana (Yecla, Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Sánchez Meseguer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucha es la información existente sobre la Edad del Bronce peninsular, especialmente la que se refiere al sureste. Sin embargo, el altiplano murciano ofrece un escaso número de yacimientos excavados y estudiados, y que, en nuestra opinión y la de otros investigadores, no pueden ser considerados sensu stricto integrados en la cultura de El Argar. Con este trabajo intentamos rellenar —al menos en parte— esa laguna informativa, aportando una exposición de las características generales del Cerro de la Campana (Yecla,Murcia, especialmente de su arquitectura y su estratigrafía, así como cuestiones relativas a la cronología del yacimiento que abarca, al menos, gran parte del II milenio a. C.There is abundant information concerning the Bronze Age in Iberian Peninsula,mainly focused on the southeastern region. However, the murcian high plateau gives an scarce number of excavated and studied sites which, moreover, can not be considered sensu stricto integrated in the culture of Algar. This paper tries to fill, at least partially, that informative gap, by providing an exposition of the general features of Cerro de la Campana (Yecla,Murcia, especially centering on its architecture and stratigraphy, aswell as issues related to the chronology of the site (it dates fromthe IImillenium B.C.

  7. Elemental analysis of pottery from Cerro de las Ventanas, Zacatecas, by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles G, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Mendez C, R. Y. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Antropologia, Apdo. Postal 555 Suc. C, Zacatecas (Mexico); Nicolas C, M. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Coordinacion de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Av. Industrias 101-A, Fracc. Talleres, 78494 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Speakman, R. J. [Museum Conservation Institute, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, 20746 Maryland (United States); Glascock, M. D. [Reactor Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, 65211 Missouri (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Fifteen ceramic fragments samples from Cerro de las Ventanas site, Zacatecas, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Thirty-two elements were measured: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed on the dataset to examine similarities between samples and to establish compositional groups. The statistical analyses of the dataset suggest that the pottery samples form a unique chemically homogeneous group, with the exception of one pottery sample. The compositional data were compared to an existing Meso american ceramic database. It was found that the newly generated data fit best with data from a previous chemical analysis of pottery from the Mal paso Valley. However, despite the apparent similarity, pottery samples from the site of Cerro de las Ventanas represent a new and unique chemical fingerprint in the region. (Author)

  8. Reservoir Simulation on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field: A Continuing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, M.; Marquez, R.; Arellano, V.; Esquer, C.A.

    1983-12-15

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of complex geological and hydrological structure. It is located at the southern end of the Salton-Mexicali trough which includes other geothermal anomalies as Heber and East Mesa. Although in 1973, the initial power plant installed capacity was 75 MW of electrical power, this amount increased to 180 MW in 1981 as field development continued. It is expected to have a generating capacity of 620 MW by the end of 1985, when two new plants will be completely in operation. Questions about field deliverability, reservoir life and ultimate recovery related to planned installations are being presently asked. Numerical modeling studies can give very valuable answers to these questions, even at the early stages in the development of a field. An effort to simulate the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir has been undergoing for almost two years. A joint project among Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Intercomp of Houstin, Texas, was created to perform reservoir engineering and simulation studies on this field. The final project objective is tosimulate the behavior of the old field region when production from additional wells located in the undeveloped field zones will be used for feeding the new power plants.

  9. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt. The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degrees} C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3--5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  10. Geohydrologic conditions of the shallow aquifer in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field zone; Condiciones geohidrologicas del acuifero somero en la zona del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Gonzalez, Rogelio [CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    1999-04-01

    Based on geohydrologic information reported by Comision Nacional del Agua, Comision Federal de Electricidad and several academic institutions, we have performed an analysis to establish in general terms, the past and present behavior of the shallow aquifer in the Cerro Prieto geothermal zone (CPGZ). The main features of the aquifer, derived from the interpretation of the results obtained with several disciplines, are as follows: The shallow aquifer in CPGZ is part of the regional hydrologic system of the Mexicali valley basin. The basin is filled with unconsolidated delta deposits interbedded with alluvial sediments from the Sierra Cucapa, which forms an impervious boundary. Because the lack of information about the hydraulic properties of the sediments, just possible ranges of values were obtained for the hydraulic conductivity and storativity corresponding to three deposit environments: a) delta flood plain facies, b) estuarine or lagoon environment facies, c) distal alluvial fan facies. [Spanish] Con base en la informacion geohidrologica de la Comision Nacional del Agua, la Comision Federal de Electricidad e instituciones academicas, se realizo un analisis para establecer las condiciones geohidrologicas y el panorama general del comportamiento historico y actual del acuifero somero en la zona del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP). De la interpretacion e integracion de los resultados obtenidos de las diferentes disciplinas utilizadas en el desarrollo del estudio, se derivan las siguientes conclusiones: El acuifero somero en la zona del CGCP forma parte del acuifero regional del valle de Mexicali. La secuencia litologica en el area de estudio esta constituida por sedimentos no consolidados de origen deltaico interdigitados con sedimentos aluviales provenientes de la Sierra Cucapa, que sirve como frontera impermeable. La informacion sobre las propiedades hidraulicas de los materiales en el area de interes es limitada, por lo cual solo se determinan los

  11. Presence of cross flow in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Presencia de flujo cruzado en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-01-15

    During the development of Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, exploitation has increased gradually, causing a continuous drop in pressure to almost 100 bars in the central and eastern parts of the field. This has occurred despite the high natural recharge induced by the reservoir exploitation and helped by the high permeability of the reservoir and the wide availability of natural recharge of low-temperature water in the vicinity. The strata above the production zones have significantly lower temperatures than these zones, but due to the particular characteristics of the reservoir, do not have pressure drops. As the pressure of producing strata declines, the hydraulic pressure differential between them and the overlying strata increases. Thus in recent years the phenomenon of cross flow occurs with greater frequency and severity. In this paper, this phenomenon is analyzed, detailing the specific mechanisms favoring it and identifying the stage (drilling or workover) in which it commonly occurs. Rigorous supervision during these stages is crucial to identifying cross flow and to taking necessary measures to save the well. Cross flow cases are presented at different stages in the history of a well: during drilling, repair, before and during the stimulation, and during production. [Spanish] Durante el desarrollo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, la explotacion se ha incrementado en forma gradual provocando una continua caida de presion, que en las porciones central y oriente ha sido de casi 100 bars. Esto ha ocurrido a pesar de la enorme recarga natural inducida por la explotacion, favorecida por la alta permeabilidad del yacimiento y la gran disponibilidad de recarga natural de agua de baja temperatura en los alrededores del mismo. Los estratos ubicados encima de las zonas productoras presentan temperaturas significativamente menores que estos, pero debido a las caracteristicas particulares del yacimiento, no han presentado abatimiento en su presion. En la

  12. Channel and tube flow features associated with the Twin Craters Lava Flow, Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field, NM: Insights into similar features on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, R.; deWet, A.; Bleacher, J. E.; von Meerscheidt, H. C.; Hamilton, C.; Garry, W. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field lies near the center of the Jemez lineament that extends from central Arizona to northeastern New Mexico. The Jemez lineament is a result of rifting in the Earth's crust and is associated with volcanic activity that spans the last 16 Ma. The youngest volcanic activity associated with the lineament includes basaltic lava that was erupted 3 ka ago to form the McCartys Flow. The Twin Craters flow is moderately older (18.0 ka), but it also well-preserved and provides an ideal location to investigate volcanic processes and landforms. In this study, we combined detailed field observations and mapping with remote sensing to better understand variations in morphology along the transport system of the flow . The Twin Craters flow is characterized as an aā and tube-fed pāhoehoe flow with braided or branching tubes and channels; and associated aā and pāhoehoe break-outs. It is possible that the variations in morphology along the same transport structure might be related to pre-flow slope, which might have also been variable along flow. Shatter ring features are thought to be related to changes in eruption rate, and therefore, local flux through the system. However, over-pressurization of the tube might also be related to changes in local discharge rate associated with the ponding and release of lava within the transport system that may be due to interactions between the lava and obstacles along the flow's path (see Mallonee et al., this meeting). Many of these features are similar to features present in the Tharsis Montes region of Mars and particularly on the southern apron of Ascraeus Mons. The detailed description of the morphology of the Twin Craters Lava Flow and the understanding of the emplacement mechanisms will be crucial in identifying the processes that formed the Ascraeus flows and channels. This will aid in determining if the lava surface textures are directly related to eruption conditions or if they have been significantly

  13. Enriched and depleted source components for tholeiitic and alkaline lavas from Zuni-Bandera, New Mexico: Inferences about intraplate processes and stratified lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Martin A.; Kyle, Philip R.; Jones, Michael; Ingram, Gerry

    1991-07-01

    During the Pleistocene and Holocene, alkaline and tholeiitic magmas were erupted in the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field (ZBVF) on the western flanks of the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico. While most of the alkaline basalts are magnesian (i.e., >8.0% MgO), the tholeiitic basalts show evidence of fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene. The ZBVF lavas have intraplate chemistry similar to that of alkaline and tholeiitic basalts in other continental and oceanic environments, and Sr and Nd isotopes range from depleted compositions similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts to enriched compositions similar to ocean islands like Kerguelen. Slightly higher Th/Ta and Ba/Nb ratios in some of the ZBVF tholeiitic basalts correlate with isotopic ratios, and this may indicate minor involvement of a Th rich component (i.e., crust). Alternatively, such characteristics may merely reflect intraplate processes if one considers that the isotopic variation observed in the ZBVF is not that different from what is observed in Hawaiian basalts. Systematic changes in elemental and isotopic ratios with the degree of partial melting (Zr/Y) reveal that the geochemistry of the ZBVF magmas is dominated by two components: (1) a depleted mantle component which produced an enriched alkaline magma as a small degree melt (e.g., Ta/Yb=6.0; {La/Yb}N=60; Zr/Y=19; 87Sr/86Sr=0.703); and (2) an enriched mantle component which produced tholeiitic magmas as a larger degree melt (e.g., Ta/Yb <0.5{La/Yb}N < 15.0; Zr/Y=3-4; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.706). While the depleted component is interpreted to be MORB asthenosphere the enriched component is more problematical and may reside in plume-contaminated asthenosphere or stratified lithosphere. The lower lithosphere beneath the Proterozoic crust of the western USA appears to be chemically stratified and comprises a depleted peridotite protolith stabilized in the Proterozoic that may have been subsequently enriched due to interaction with fluids related to (1) suprasubduction processes

  14. Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the reservoir to produce steam at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento para producir vapor en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez; Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-01-15

    Minimal thermodynamic conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir for steam production are defined, taking into account the minimal acceptable steam production at the surface, considering a rank of mixed-enthalpies for different well-depths, and allowing proper assessments for the impacts of the changes in fluid reservoir pressure and enthalpy. Factors able to influence steam production are discussed. They have to be considered when deciding whether or not to drill or repair a well in a particular area of the reservoir. These evaluations become much more relevant by considering the huge thermodynamic changes that have occurred at the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir from its development, starting in 1973, which has lead to abandoning some steam producing areas in the field. [Spanish] Las condiciones termodinamicas minimas del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, para producir vapor se determinan tomando en cuenta la minima produccion de vapor aceptable en superficie, considerando un rango de entalpias de la mezcla y para diferentes profundidades de pozos, lo que permite valorar adecuadamente el impacto de la evolucion de la presion y entalpia del fluido en el yacimiento. Se discuten los factores que pueden afectar la produccion de vapor, los cuales se deben tomar en cuenta para determinar la conveniencia o no de perforar o reparar un pozo en determinada zona del yacimiento. Estas evaluaciones adquieren gran relevancia al considerar los enormes cambios termodinamicos que ha presentado el yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, como resultado de su explotacion iniciada en 1973, lo que ha llevado a abandonar algunas zonas del campo para la produccion de vapor. Palabras Clave: Cerro Prieto, entalpia, evaluacion de yacimientos, politicas de explotacion, presion, produccion de vapor.

  15. Educación ambiental y desarrollo sostenible. El caso de los cerros Orientales de Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alberto Garzón Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo evidenciar la problemática de los cerros Orientales de Bogotá como una red de problemas ecológicos, sociales, económicos, políticos y culturales que imposibilitan la puesta en marcha de programas de conservación que permitan garantizar la vida en todas sus manifestaciones. Para ello, se utilizará una metodología sintética mediante la cual se relacionan hechos aparentemente aislados y se formula una teoría que unifica los diversos elementos. Se recomienda para la conservación de los dichos cerros implementar un tipo de gobierno que genere un desarrollo sostenible con justicia social, que tenga en cuenta el desconocimiento ambiental, social y cultural de los cerros y que implemente un modelo de conservación que integre a los ciudadanos en la generación de alternativas de vida y desarrollo en torno a la recuperación de los cerros Orientales y su uso sostenible.

  16. Extension of the Cerro Prieto field and zones in the Mexicali Valley with geothermal possibilities in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca L, H.L.; de la Pena L, A.; Puente C, I.; Diaz C, E.

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns the possible extension of the Cerro Prieto field and identification of other zones in the Mexicali Valley with geothermal development potential by assessing the structural geologic conditions in relation to the regional tectonic framework and the integration of geologic and geophysical surveys carried out at Cerro Prieto. This study is based on data obtained from the wells drilled to date and the available geological and geophysical information. With this information, a geologic model of the field is developed as a general description of the geometry of what might be the geothermal reservoir of the Cerro Prieto field. In areas with geothermal potential within the Mexicali Valley, the location of irrigation wells with anomalous temperatures was taken as a point of departure for subsequent studies. Based on this initial information, gravity and magnetic surveys were made, followed by seismic reflection and refraction surveys and the drilling of 1200-m-deep multiple-use wells. Based on the results of the final integration of these studies with the geology of the region, it is suggested that the following areas should be explored further: east of Cerro Prieto, Tulecheck, Riito, Aeropuerto-Algodones, and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora.

  17. Primer registro de cráneos asignados a Palaeospheniscus (Aves, Spheniscidae procedentes de la Formación Bahía Inglesa (Mioceno Medio-tardío, Chile First record of skulls assigned to Palaeospheniscus (Aves, Spheniscidae from the Bahía Inglesa formation (middle-late Miocene, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Los cráneos de los Spheniscidae (como los de todas las aves, aunque escasos en el registro paleontológico, muestran importantes caracteres a nivel taxonómico. Hasta el momento se conocían solo seis cráneos en todo el mundo: Paraptenodytes antarctica y una nueva especie de Spheniscidae procedentes de las formaciones Gaiman (Mioceno temprano y Puerto Madryn (Mioceno tardío de Argentina, respectivamente; Spheniscus megaramphus y 3S. urbinai de la formación Pisco (Mioceno tardío de Perú, Marplesornis novaezealandiae del Plioceno de Nueva Zelanda y un resto de Sphenicidae cf Spheniscus procedente de la formación Bahía Inglesa (Mioceno medio-tardío. De esta última unidad provienen cinco restos craneanos recientemente descubiertos en la localidad de Caldera (Región de Atacama, Chile, los cuales fueron descritos y asignados preliminarmente a Palaeospheniscus. Estos materiales constituyen el primer registro de cráneos para la especie y significan un importante aporte al conocimiento de la avifauna fósil de Chile y en particular de la formación Bahía InglesaAlthough the skulls of the Spheniscidae are unusual in the paleontologic record, they show important features useful in the systematics of the group, as well as in the rest of the birds. Until now, fossil occurrences were restricted to six skulls: Paraptenodytes antarctica and one new species from the Gaiman formation (Early Miocene and Puerto Madryn formation (late Miocene of Argentina, respectively; Spheniscus megaramphus and S. urbinai from the Pisco Formation (Late Miocene, Perú; Marplesornis novaezealandiae from New Zealand (Pliocene; and Spheniscidae cf. Spheniscus from the Bahía Inglesa Formation (Middle-Late Miocene, Chile. Five new materials have been exhumed from this last unit. These skulls, which come from the Caldera locality (Region of Atacama, Chile, have been preliminarily assigned to Palaeospheniscus (Aves, Spheniscidae, constituting the first skulls described for

  18. Microfaunal evidence of age and depositional environments of the Cerro Prieto section (Plio-Pleistocene), Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingle, J.C. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Microfossils including benthic and planktic foraminifera, ostracodes, calcareous algae, fish skeletal material, and fragments of pelecypods were found in 14 core samples from depths of 185 to 1952 m in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, providing evidence of both the age and depositional history of sediments comprising the 3000-m-thick Pliocene and Pleistocene section in this area. Ostracodes of brackish water and marine origin constitute the most common microfossils present in this sequence occurring in 8 samples; in situ littoral and neritic species of benthic foraminifera occur in 5 samples with planktic species present in 2 samples. Distributional patterns of ostracodes and foraminifera together with previously analyzed lithofacies (Lyons and van de Kamp, 1980) indicate that the Cerro Prieto section represents an intertonguing complex of alluvial, deltaic, estuarine, and shallow marine environments deposited along the front of the Colorado River delta as it prograded across the Salton Trough during Pliocene and Pleistocene time. Foraminiferal evidence indicates that a sand and shale unit commonly present at depths between 700 and 1100 m represents a significant mid-Pleistocene marine incursion in the Cerro Prieto area. Tentative correlation of the Cerro Prieto section with the well dated Palm Springs Formation of the Imperial Valley, California area suggests that the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary occurs at a depth of approximately 2000 m in the area of well M-93. Reworked specimens of Cretaceous foraminifera and fragments of the Cretaceous pelecypod Inoceramus were found in five samples further substantiating the Colorado Plateau provenance of a significant portion of the Colorado River deltaic sediments in the Cerro Prieto area.

  19. Results of the latest transient well pressure tests at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril G, A.; Vargas G, C.

    1981-01-01

    The equipment used in the interference and two-rate flow tests carried out at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field during 1980 are described. The results of two interference tests are presented, one between wells M-110 and M-104, and the other between wells M-7 and Q-757. The data was interpreted using type curve matching analysis. Results of two-rate flow tests carried out in wells M-102 and M-7 are also discussed. A technique for making two-rate flow tests is proposed. This approach, which attempts to avoid the uncertainty of present flow-rate measurements, makes use of devices for direct measurements of separated water and steam. Conclusions based on the above interpretations and recommendations for future tests are presented.

  20. Changing fluvial styles in volcaniclastic successions: A cretaceous example from the Cerro Barcino Formation, Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umazano, A. Martín; Krause, J. Marcelo; Bellosi, Eduardo S.; Perez, Mariano; Visconti, Graciela; Melchor, Ricardo N.

    2017-08-01

    The Cretaceous Puesto La Paloma (PLPM) and Cerro Castaño (CCM) members (Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut Group) are pyroclastic-rich, alluvial successions deposited in the Somuncurá-Cañadón Asfalto Basin during sag and endorheic conditions. The PLPM comprises sheet-like tuffaceous sandstone strata, whereas the overlying CCM includes sheet-to ribbon-channel sandstone bodies intercalated within tuffaceous and fine-grained sediments. In this context, the goals of this contribution were: i) to make a detailed documentation of the contrasting sedimentary palaeonvironments; and ii) to infer the allocyclic controls that governed the sedimentation of both units. The study area is located in the western sector of the basin, where six localities, which were studied. Six facies associations were defined including ash-falls, sheet-floods, shallow lakes, aeolian, fluvial channel-belts, and reworked debris-flows. We defined four stratigraphic intervals for the studied sections, denominated 1 to 4 in chronological order of deposition, which increase their thicknesses toward the Puesto Mesa-Cerro León site. The interval 1 (18-42 m thick) corresponds to the PLPM and includes numerous pedogenized sheet-flood deposits, carbonate-rich lacustrine, aeolian sandy facies, and ash-fall beds. The interval 1 is interpreted as an ephemeral and unconfined alluvial system that interacted with aeolian dunes and dry interdune zones. The interval 2 (20-47 m thick) represents the lower part of the CCM. It shows an alternation of fluvial channel-belt deposits and vegetated floodplain facies with sediments originated from sheet-floods, lakes, and few ash-falls and debris-flows. The mean palaeoflow was toward E-SE, except in the northernmost locality where the drainage was towards SW. Proportion of channel-belt bodies ranges from 10 to 36%, reaching higher values in the northern part of the study area, where they are also thicker. The interval 2 represents a permanent, meandering or locally low

  1. Burn Severities, Fire Intensities, and Impacts to Major Vegetation Types from the Cerro Grande Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balice, Randy G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wright, Marjorie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2004-12-15

    The Cerro Grande Fire resulted in major impacts and changes to the ecosystems that were burned. To partially document these effects, we estimated the acreage of major vegetation types that were burned at selected burn severity levels and fire intensity levels. To accomplish this, we adopted independently developed burn severity and fire intensity maps, in combination with a land cover map developed for habitat management purposes, as a basis for the analysis. To provide a measure of confidence in the acreage estimates, the accuracies of these maps were also assessed. In addition, two other maps of comparable quality were assessed for accuracy: one that was developed for mapping fuel risk and a second map that resulted from a preliminary application of an evolutionary computation software system, called GENIE.

  2. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTMANN LÉO A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  3. BESO échelle spectroscopy of solar-type stars at Cerro Armazones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V. H.; Lemke, R.; Murphy, M.; Seifert, W.; Stahl, O.

    2011-03-01

    The Bochum Échelle Spectroscopic Observer BESO is a fibre-fed high-resolution spectrograph for the 1.5-m Hexapod Telescope at the Cerro Armazones Observatory in the Atacama desert in Chile. Here we report on the first BESO observations and model atmosphere analyses of solar-type stars secured in 2010 April. The quality of the data is first tested with a reflected sunlight spectrum as well as the standard G-type subgiant 70 Vir. We then investigate the bright and supposedly single F-type star ξ Gem and present the spectroscopic evidence that instead favours an equal-mass binary. We present also the first composite synthetic modelling of the G-type visual binary HR 3430 and discuss the spectroscopic observations that identify this as a triple system. We conclude with another triple, the famous and very nearby α Cen, and the basic stellar parameters of its inner, solar-type visual binary.

  4. MOVIMIENTOS DE LADERA Y PLANEAMIENTO URBANÍSTICO: EL CONFLICTO DEL CERRO DEL OPE, ARCHENA (MURCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Gómez Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los desprendimientos son un proceso natural que afecta, de forma generalizada en el Valle de Ricote, a las laderas del tipo cantil-talud. Su peligrosidad radica en que los bloques desprendidos del escarpe ruedan con facilidad, talud abajo, cuando son descalzados por efecto de la escorrentía superfi cial o desestabilizados por movimientos sísmicos. El planeamiento urbanístico se convierte en factor inductor del riesgo al clasifi car como urbanizables y urbanos suelos que, por su ubicación en pie de ladera, deberían excluirse de cualquier proceso urbanizador. Este es el caso de Archena en el entorno inmediato del cerro del Ope.

  5. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, E.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He and 40Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water that penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic He and 40Ar formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 - 30%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 - 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 - 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as C1 or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range. ?? 1984.

  6. Hydrothermal alteration of sediments associated with surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Esquer P., I.; Elders, W.A.; Collier, P.C.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the mineralogical changes associated with these hydrothermal vents was initiated with the aim of developing possible exploration tools for geothermal resources. The Cerro Prieto reservoir has already been explored by extensive deep drilling so that relationships between surface manifestations and deeper hydrothermal processes could be established directly. Approximately 120 samples of surface sediments were collected both inside and outside of the vents. The mineralogy of the altered sediments studied appears to be controlled by the type of emission. A comparison between the changes in mineralogy due to low temperature hydrothermal activity in the reservoir, seen in samples from boreholes, and mineralogical changes in the surface emission samples shows similar general trends below 180 C: increase of quartz, feldspar and illite, with subsequent disappearance of kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite and dolomite. These mineral assemblages seem to be characteristic products of the discharge from high intensity geothermal fields.

  7. Comments on some of the drilling and completion problems in Cerro Prieto geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A, B.; Sanchez G, G.

    1981-01-01

    From 1960 to the present, 85 wells with a total drilling length exceeding 160,000 m have been constructed at Cerro Prieto, a modest figure compared to an oil field. This activity took place in five stages, each characterized by changes and modifications required by various drilling and well-completion problems. Initially, the technical procedures followed were similar to those used in the oil industry. However, several problems emerged as a result of the relatively high temperatures found in the geothermal reservoir. The various problems that have been encountered can be considered to be related to drilling fluids, cements and cementing operations, lithology, geothermal fluid characteristics, and casings and their accessories. As the importance of high temperatures and the characteristics of the geothermal reservoir fluids were better understood, the criteria were modified to optimize well-completion operations, and satisfactory results have been achieved to date.

  8. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazor, E. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Truesdell, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He, /sup 40/Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar, and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic helium and argon-40 formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 to 3%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 to 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 to 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as Cl or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range.

  9. Simultaneous observations of the phase-locked 2 day wave at Adelaide, Cerro Pachon, and Darwin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Gelinas, L. J.; MacKinnon, A.; Vincent, R. A.; Reid, I. M.; Franke, S. J.; Zhao, Y.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.

    2015-03-01

    The Southern Hemisphere summer 2 day wave (TDW) is the most dramatic large-scale event of the upper mesosphere. The winds accelerate over ~1 week, may attain > 70 m/s, and are often accompanied by a near disappearance of the diurnal tide and stabilization of the period close to 48 h. We denote this as the phase-locked 2 day wave (PL/TDW). We have examined airglow and meteor radar (MR) wind data from the Andes Lidar Observatory (Cerro Pachon, Chile:30°S, 289.3°E), MR data from Darwin (12.5°S, 131°E) and airglow and medium frequency radar data from the University of Adelaide (34.7°S, 138.6°E) for the behavior of the TDW during the austral summers of 2010, 2012, and 2013. The Cerro Pachon and Adelaide sites are located at similar latitudes separated in longitude by about 120°. We find a remarkable coincidence between the TDW oscillations at Chile and Adelaide for the period January-February 2010. The oscillations are nearly in phase in terms of local time and the minima and maxima repeat at nearly the same local time from cycle to cycle consistent with a phase-locked wave number 3 TDW. Data for this and other years (including Darwin) show that the amplitude of the diurnal tide decreases when the TDW is largest and that this occurs when the period is close to 48 h. These observations support the proposal that the PL/TDW is a subharmonic parametric instability wherein the diurnal tide transfers energy to a TDW that is resonant at nearly 48 h.

  10. La necrópolis medieval del Cerro de la Horca de Toledo

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    Ruiz Taboada, Arturo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological excavation of part of a medieval necropolis at the Cerro de la Horca (Toledo has provided new information regarding burial traditions in Toledo. One formal aspect is common to the broad range of graves that have been brought to light, namely the pit that was dug for the burial, being of considerable depth in a number of cases. Because little is known of the funerary practices in Toledo during the Middle Ages and hardly any objects have been recovered in the excavation, it is difficult to identify the religious community to which it belonged. Whereas the location of Muslim and Christian cemeteries have been known through documentary and archaeological sources, only popular traditions quoted so far the Jewish necropolis, its location remaining thus a mystery.

    La excavación arqueológica desarrollada en un sector del Cerro de La Horca ha permitido conocer aspectos inéditos del ritual de enterramiento medieval en Toledo. Se ha documentado una amplia tipología de tumbas con un único elemento constructivo común para todas ellas, la excavación previa de una fosa que, en numerosos casos, alcanza gran profundidad. El desconocimiento sobre el mundo funerario medieval toledano y la falta de materiales arqueológicos representativos en esta necrópolis han obligado a reflexionar sobre la comunidad religiosa a la que pertenecen estos enterramientos. Por fuentes históricas y excavaciones previas, conocemos la localización de necrópolis musulmanas y cristianas. La localización de la(s judía(s había sido, al menos hasta ahora, una incógnita.

  11. Interpretación paleoclimática de tas faunas de micromamíferos del Mioceno, Plioceno y Pleistoceno de la cuenca de Guadix-Baza (Granada, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesé, C.

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative and qualitative composition, and the general diversity of the micromammalian faunas (Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Insectivora and Chiroptera from 16 sedimentary fluvial-lacustrine sites from the Guadix-Baza basin, of ages extending from the Late Miocene until the Middle Pleistocene, is analised. The paleoecological and paleoclimatic interpretation of the data obtained in this analysis is the following: The high quantitative and qualitative change, and the relative decrease of the diversity that can be observed in the micromammal faunas from Granada at the beginning of the Villafranchian, seems to be related with an increase of the relative humidity and climatic cooling as regards to the Ruscinian. The relative increase of the diversity in the Middle Pleistocene, indicates a relative more temperate climate than that of the Lower Pleistocene.Se analiza la composición cuantitativa, cualitativa y la diversidad general de las faunas de micromamíferos (roedores, lagomorfos, insectívoros y quirópteros de 16 yacimientos sedimentarios fluviolacustres de la cuenca de Guadix-Baza, de edades comprendidas entre el final del Mioceno y el Pleistoceno medio. La interpretación paleoecológica y paleoclimática de los datos obtenidos en dicho análisis es la siguiente: El notable cambio cuantitativo y cualitativo, y la disminución de la diversidad que se aprecia en las faunas de micromamíferos granadinas al comienzo del Villafranquiense parece estar relacionado con un aumento de la humedad relativa y un enfriamiento del clima con respecto al Rusciniense. En el Pleistoceno medio, el aumento relativo de la diversidad y la composición de las faunas granadinas indican unas condiciones climáticas relativamente más benignas que las del Pleistoceno inferior.

  12. Seismic activity at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Area (Mexico) from August 1994 to December 1995, and its relationship with tectonics and fluid exploitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabriol, H; Munguía, L

    1997-01-01

    A continuous monitoring of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was carried out from August 1994 to December 1995 to investigate the seismicity of tectonic origin and the seismicity triggered by exploitation activities...

  13. Corrosion in pipelines and well casings at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Corrosion en tuberias de linea y de revestimiento de pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda Herrera, Carlos A.; Canchola Felix, Ismael; Raygoza Flores, Joaquin; Mora Perez, Othon [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: carlos.miranda02@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    In the area called Poligono Hidalgo, inside the Cerro Prieto IV zone in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, corrosion has occurred in the last few years on well casings and pipelines used for geothermal fluids. Corrosion test results are presented here for pipes, type API L-80 and ASTM A-53 grade B, which were subjected to condensate from wells 403 and 424. These wells have thrown corroded material from their respective casings. With these data we pinpoint corrosive conditions in this field area and determine which pipes are adequate to case wells in similar chemical, production conditions to minimize adverse effects and extend the life of the well, allowing more efficient exploitation of the deepest production zones in the reservoir. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, dentro del area del Poligono Hidalgo en el sector conocido como Cerro Prieto IV, algunos pozos han presentado en los ultimos anos desgastes en sus tuberias de revestimiento y en las tuberias de linea para el transporte del fluido geotermico. Se presentan resultados de pruebas de corrosion con tuberias tipo API L-80 y ASTM A-53 grado B al ser sometidas al condensado de los pozos 403 y 424, los cuales han estado arrojando material de sus respectivas tuberias de revestimiento. Con estos datos se pretende conocer las condiciones corrosivas de esa zona del campo y determinar cual seria la tuberia ideal a utilizar en pozos con condiciones quimicas de produccion semejantes a fin de minimizar este efecto adverso y prolongar la vida de los pozos, a la vez que se permita la explotacion eficiente de las zonas productoras mas profundas del yacimiento.

  14. Late-stage magmatic to deuteric/metasomatic accessory minerals from the Cerro Boggiani agpaitic complex (Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; Renzulli, Alberto; Ridolfi, Filippo; Enrich, Gaston E. R.; Gomes, Celso B.; De Min, Angelo; Azzone, Rogério G.; Ruberti, Excelso

    2016-11-01

    This work describes rare accessory minerals in volcanic and subvolcanic silica-undersaturated peralkaline and agpaitic rocks from the Permo-Triassic Cerro Boggiani complex (Eastern Paraguay) in the Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province. These accessory phases consist of various minerals including Th-U oxides/silicates, Nb-oxide, REE-Sr-Ba bearing carbonates-fluorcarbonates-phosphates-silicates and Zr-Na rich silicates. They form a late-stage magmatic to deuteric/metasomatic assemblage in agpaitic nepheline syenites and phonolite dykes/lava flows made of sodalite, analcime, albite, fluorite, calcite, ilmenite-pyrophanite, titanite and zircon. It is inferred that carbonatitic fluids rich in F, Na and REE percolated into the subvolcanic system and metasomatically interacted with the Cerro Boggiani peralkaline and agpaitic silicate melts at the thermal boundary layers of the magma chamber, during and shortly after their late-stage magmatic crystallization and hydrothermal deuteric alteration.

  15. Relationshipe Between Self-potential Anomalies and Hydraulic Flow In A Geothermal System: Application To Cerro-prieto, Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, G.; Revil, A.; Pessel, M.

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is located in the alluvial plain of the Mexicali Valley, northern Baja California, Mexico, at about 35 km southeast of the city of Mexicali. The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is one of several high temperature water-dominated geothermal fields within the Salton Trough. We analyze here the self-potential distri- bution at the ground surface in order to determine the pattern of fluid flow in te sub- surface of this geothermal field. Various methods of analysis of self-potential anoma- lies are employed to reach this purpose. We use density probability tomography of monopolar and dipolar electrical sources and an Euler-type analysis. The hydraulic flow pattern found in this geothermal field is in agreement with that detemined from the heat flux inside the structure.

  16. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae) from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakakis, Nikos; Edwards, Danielle L; Chiari, Ylenia; Garrick, Ryan C; Russello, Michael A; Benavides, Edgar; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J; Glaberman, Scott; Tapia, Washington; Gibbs, James P; Cayot, Linda J; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises.

  17. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Poulakakis

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp. is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises.

  18. Oxygen isotope exchange in rocks and minerals from the Cerro Prieto geothermal system: Indicators of temperature distribution and fluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.E.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic compositions have been measured in drill cuttings and core samples from more than 40 wells ranging in depth to more than 3.5 km in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Profiles of isotopic ratios versus sampling depths provide information on the three-dimensional distribution of temperature and fluid flow. These parameters also indicate variations in the history of hydrothermal processes in different areas of the geothermal field.

  19. ANALYSIS OF RECHARGE COOLDOWN AT THE WESTERN BOUNDARY OF CERRO PRIETO I GEOTHERMAL FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.; Lam, S.; Hunsbedt, A.; Esquer, C.; Marquez, R.; Hernandez, L. Cobo, J.

    1985-01-22

    Extensive study of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field has provided much geologic and thermodynamic data of its structurally-complex, liquid-dominated reservoir. Several of the studies investigated the resource characteristics of fluid and energy flow. An early report by Mercado (1975) showed that the heat source for the part of the reservoir under development, now called Cerro Prieto I (CPI), originated in the eastern part of the field. Subsequent studies confirmed the flow of hot water from the east. A summary of several experimental and numerical studies of fluid and energy transport in the field was given by Lippmann and Bodvarsson (1983). The hydrogeologic model of Halfman et al. (1982) shows hot-water flow from the east divided into a shallow (alpha) aquifer at about 120Om and a deeper (beta) aquifer at about 170Om depth. A cross section along an east-west direction shows a central upflow to the two aquifers and uncertain geology beyond the western border of the field near well M-9. It also shows a fault dividing the line of border wells at M-29 from the inner wells at M-25 to the east. The hydrogeology of the field was described by Sanchez and de la Pena (1981) as an alluvial unit from the surface to about 700 m over the production zone and a shale-sandstone unit comprising an upper, shallow (alpha) aquifer bounded below by a basement horst overlying a deeper (beta) aquifer. To date, much of the cumulative production at Cerro Prieto I has been from the alpha aquifer. Piezometric level measurements over the first 5 years of operation showed a decline in the western zone beyond the production wells. Over the 10-year period of continuous production, a significant temperature decline has been observed along the westernmost line of wells. Several investigations of the recharge characteristics of the field have been reported. Mercado (1975) and Elders et al. (1984) indicated a flow of cold groundwater from the east. Mercado also noted that cold water was entering

  20. Dimensión sociopolítica y religiosa de la Capacocha del Cerro Aconcagua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available DIMENTION SOCIO-POLITIQUE ET RELIGIEUSE DE LA CAPACOCHA DE L'ACONCAGUA. Sur un contrefort de l’Aconcagua un groupe d’andinistes a trouvé une sépulture ayant les caractéristiques d’une capacocha. Dans cet essai nous étudierons et commenterons quelques éléments qui la composent, spécialement des petites figures en métal et mullu avec leurs tenues, en prenant comme référence les informations coloniales et les données de l’archéologie. Parmi les sujets traités nous trouverons : la présence de Huayna Capac au Chili, l’alliance entre Chinchaysuyu et Collasuyu sous la domination inca, les chemins rituels, l’oracle et le maintien du souvenir de l’ancien dieu Con. En un contrafuerte del cerro Aconcagua, un grupo de andinistas encontró un entierro que reúne las condiciones que lo definen como una capacocha. En este ensayo se estudian y comentan algunos de los elementos que la componen -especialmente las figuritas de metal y mullu con sus atuendos- tomando como referencia las noticias coloniales y los datos arqueológicos. Entre los temas tratados tenemos: la presencia de Huayna Capac en Chile la alianza entre Chinchaysuyu y Collasuyu bajo el dominio incaico los caminos rituales el oráculo y la supervivencia del recuerdo del antiguo dios Con. SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS DIMENSION OF THE CAPACOCHA OF THE CERRO ACONCAGUA. In a secondary mountain range of the Aconcagua Mt., a group of mountain-climbers found an interment possessing the attributes of a capacocha. In this essay some of the elements composing it namely the small metal and mullu figures with their garments, drawing on colonial documents and archaeological data, are studied and commented upon. Among the subjects considered the following: the presence of Huayna Capac in Chile, the coalition between Chinchaysuyu and Collasuyu under the Inca empire, the ritual roads, the oracle and the survival of the memories of the ancient god Con.

  1. New mammalian records in the Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, northwestern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy M. Hurtado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Tropical Rainforest and Equatorial Dry Forest are found only in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and are among the most poorly known ecosystems of South America. Even though these forests are protected in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (PNCA, they are threatened by fragmentation because of farming and agriculture. The aim of this study was to determine the medium and large mammalian species richness, using transect census, camera trapping, and specimen bone collection. Nine transects were established and 21 camera trap stations were placed along 16 km2 in three localities of PNCA, from August 2012 to April 2013. Total sampling effort was 215 km of transects and 4077 camera-days. We documented 22 species; including 17 with camera trapping, 11 with transect census, and 10 with specimen collection.  Camera traps were the most effective method, and four species (Dasyprocta punctata, Cuniculus paca, Leopardus wiedii and Puma concolor were documented only with this method. This comprised the first Peruvian record for Dasyprocta punctata, and the first record for the western slope of the Peruvian Andes for Cuniculus paca. Also, both specimen collections and sightings confirm the presence of Potos flavus, first record in the western slope of the Peruvian Andes. Panthera onca, Tremarctos ornatus and Saimiri sciureus are considered locally extinct, while several species are in need of further research. We highlight the importance of the high diversity of this rainforests and encourage local authorities to give the area the highest priority in conservation.

  2. Numerical Studies of the Heat and Mass Transport in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, M. J.; Bodavarsson, G. S.

    1983-06-01

    Numerical simulation techniques are employed in studies of the natural flow of heat and mass through the Cerro Prieto reservoir, Mexico and of the effects of exploitation on the field's behavior. The reservoir model is a two-dimensional vertical east to west-southwest cross section, which is based on a recent hydrogeologic model of this geothermal system. The numerical code MULKOM is used in the simulation studies. The steady state pressure and temperature distributions are computed and compared against observed preproduction pressures and temperatures; a reasonable match is obtained. A natural hot water recharge rate of about 1×10-2 kg/s per meter of field length (measured in a north-south direction) is obtained. The model is then used to simulate the behavior of the field during the 1973-1978 production period. The response of the model to fluid extraction agrees to what has been observed in the field or postulated by other authors. There is a decrease in temperatures and pressures in the produced region. No extensive two-phase zone develops in the reservoir because of the strong fluid recharge. Most of the fluid recharging the system comes from colder regions located above and west of the produced reservoir.

  3. Intersecting faults and sandstone stratigraphy at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonder Haar, S.; Howard, J.H.

    1980-02-01

    The northwest-southeast trending Cerro Prieto fault is part of a major regional lineament that extends into Sonaro and has characteristics of both a wrench fault and an oceanic transform fault. The distribution of lithologies and temperature within the field was studied by comparing data from well cuttings, cores, well logs, and geochemical analyses. Across the earliest developed portion of the field, in particular along a 1.25-km northeast-southwest section from well M-9 to M-10, interesting correlations emerge that indicate a relationship among lithology, microfracturing, and temperature distribution. In the upper portion of Reservoir A of this stratigraphic section, between 1200 and 1400 m, the percentage of sandstones ranges from 20 to 55. Temperatures are 225/sup 0/ to 275/sup 0/C based on well logs, calcite isotope maxima, and Na-K-Ca indices. The study shows that an isothermal high in this vicinity corresponds to the lowest total percentage of sandstones. Scanning electron microphotographs of well cores and cuttings from sandstone and shale units reveal clogging, mineral dissolution, and mineral precipitation along microfractures. The working hypothesis is that these sandy shale and siltstone facies are most amenable to increased microfracturing and, in turn, such microfracturing allows for higher temperature fluid to rise to shallower depths in the reservoir.

  4. Measurements of air contaminants during the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhart, Craig

    2010-08-01

    Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants was continued throughout the Cerro Grande fire that burned part of Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the fire, samples were collected more frequently than normal because buildup of smoke particles on the filters was decreasing the air flow. Overall, actual sampling time was 96% of the total possible sampling time for the May 2000 samples. To evaluate potential human exposure to air contaminants, the samples were analyzed as soon as possible and for additional specific radionuclides. Analyses showed that the smoke from the fire included resuspended radon decay products that had been accumulating for many years on the vegetation and the forest floor that burned. Concentrations of plutonium, americium, and depleted uranium were also measurable, but at locations and concentrations comparable to non-fire periods. A continuous particulate matter sampler measured concentrations that exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-10 (particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter). These high concentrations were caused by smoke from the fire when it was close to the sampler.

  5. Statistics of atmospheric turbulence at Cerro Pachon using the GeMS profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Neichel, Benoit; Béchet, Clémentine; Guzmán, Dani; Guesalaga, Andrés.

    2014-08-01

    The knowledge of the atmospheric turbulence profile directly above the telescope using the telemetry from wide-field Adaptive Optics (AO) measurements can be extremely useful for the optimization of the correction in the new generation of AO systems. For this purpose, two techniques have been recently implemented at the Gemini South MCAO System (GeMS); both based on the SLODAR method. The first technique uses a matrix inversion approach of the slopes covariance matrices and the second deconvolves the cross-correlation functions between all combinations of slopes using the auto-correlation responses. The deconvolution approach has proved to be more reliable that the one based on matrices inversion, so we use it for estimating the profiles from on-sky telemetry gathered over three years (2012 - 2014), obtaining statistical parameters of the turbulence at Cerro Pachón. These results are summarized in this article. Particular attention is paid to the occurrence of turbulence in the dome of the Gemini South telescope.

  6. Application of oil-field well log interpretation techniques to the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershaghi, I.; Phillips, L.B.; Dougherty, E.L.; Handy, L.L.

    1979-10-01

    An example is presented of the application of oil-field techniques to the Cerro Prieto Field, Mexico. The lithology in this field (sand-shale lithology) is relatively similar to oil-field systems. The study was undertaken as a part of the first series of case studies supported by the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program (GLIP) of the US Department of Energy. The suites of logs for individual wells were far from complete. This was partly because of adverse borehole conditions but mostly because of unavailability of high-temperature tools. The most complete set of logs was a combination of Dual Induction Laterolog, Compensated Formation Density Gamma Ray, Compensated Neutron Log, and Saraband. Temperature data about the wells were sketchy, and the logs had been run under pre-cooled mud condition. A system of interpretation consisting of a combination of graphic and numerical studies was used to study the logs. From graphical studies, evidence of hydrothermal alteration may be established from the trend analysis of SP (self potential) and ILD (deep induction log). Furthermore, the cross plot techniques using data from density and neutron logs may help in establishing compaction as well as rock density profile with depth. In the numerical method, R/sub wa/ values from three different resistivity logs were computed and brought into agreement. From this approach, values of formation temperature and mud filtrate resistivity effective at the time of logging were established.

  7. Model for the heat source of the Cerro Prieto magma-hydrothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Williams, A.E.; Schiffman, P.; Cox, B.

    1981-01-01

    Earlier studies at Cerro Prieto led to the development of a qualitative model for fluid flow in the geothermal system before it was drilled and perturbed by production. Current efforts are directed towards numerical modeling of heat and mass transfer in the system in this undisturbed state. This one-dimensional model assumes that the heat source was a single basalt/gabbro intrusion which provided heat to the system as it cooled. After compilation of various information of the physical properties of the reservoir, the enthalpy contained in two 1 cm thick sections across the reservoir orthogonal to each other was calculated. Various shapes, sizes and depths for the intrusion were considered as initial conditions and boundary conditions for the calculations of heat transfer. A family of numerical models which so far gives the best matches to the conditions observed in the field today have in common a funnel-shaped intrusion with a top 4 km wide emplaced at a depth of 5 km some 30,000 to 50,000 years ago, providing heat to the geothermal system.

  8. The Final Days of Paracas in Cerro del Gentil, Chincha Valley, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes a highly significant archaeological context discovered in a late Paracas (400–200 BCE) sunken patio in the monumental platform mound of Cerro Gentil, located in the Chincha Valley, Peru. This patio area was used for several centuries for ritual activities, including large-scale feasting and other public gatherings. At one point late in this historical sequence people deposited a great deal of objects in what is demonstrably a single historical event. This was quickly followed by a series of minor events stratigraphically immediately above this larger event. This entire ritual process included the consumption of liquids and food, and involved the offering of whole pottery, pottery fragments, botanical remains, bone, lithics, baskets, pyro-engraved gourds, mummies, and other objects. We interpret these events as an “abandonment ceremony” or “termination ritual” during the late Paracas period, one that may have lasted for weeks or even months. The subsequent Topará occupation at the site (ca. 200 BCE- AD 100) involved the architectural enhancement of the mound area, but the pattern of use of the patio itself ended. Such a termination ritual signals a reorganization in the regional political structure of Paracas society. PMID:27144824

  9. Geochemical study of products associated with spontaneous oxidation of coal in the Cerro Pelado Formation, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.; Marquez, G.; Alejandre, F.J.; Del Rio, J.J.; Hurtado, A. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this research work is a geochemical, mineralogical, and textural characterization of spontaneously smouldered coal-derived products in northwestern Venezuela (Cerro Pelado Formation, some 10 km from Pedregal city). Several solid samples were collected from this formation, six of unweathering coal, another six of resulting unmelted rocks forming on a surface coal bed, and the last four of mineralizations found accumulating around gas vents. The fresh coal and the unmelted material were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and proximate techniques. Products such as magnetite and chabazite-K were identified in the alteration rocks. Likewise, both materials were also studied in order to determine the mobilization of 17 elements into the environment; such elements were analysed through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy on extracts obtained by a sequential extraction method. The studied elements are classified as highly mobile (Na, Ni,...), nearly immobile (Ti, P) and partially mobile (Mg, Fe, K, ...). In regards to mineralizations around fumaroles associated with smoldering coal seams, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses have revealed the presence of salammoniac, mascagnite and other solid combustion compounds formed by reaction of gas emitted from coal oxidation, in addition to previously non-reported sulfur-rich by-products associated with gas fissures, particularly ammonium thiosulfate. Relatively high concentrations of several aromatic compounds were detected in the gas collected at the studied coal outcrop, as well as aliphatic hydrocarbons including ethane, propane, butanes, among others.

  10. Gas chemistry and thermometry of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, N.L.; D'Amore, F.

    1984-01-01

    Gas compositions of Cerro Prieto wells in 1977 reflected strong boiling in the reservoir around wells M-20 and M-25. This boiling zone appeared to be collapsing in 1982 when a number of wells in this area of the field were shut-in. In 1977 and 1982, gas compositions also showed boiling zones corresponding to faults H and L postulated by Halfman et al. (1982). Four gas geothermometers were applied, based on reservoir equilibria and calculated fugacities. The Fisher - Tropsch reaction predicted high temperatures and appeared to re-equilibrate slowly, whereas the H2S reaction predicted low temperatures and appeared to re-equilibrate rapidly. Hydrogen and NH3 reactions were intermediate. Like gas compositions, the geothermometers reflected reservoir processes, such as boiling. Surface gas compositions are related to well compositions, but contain large concentrations of N2 originating from air dissolved in groundwater. The groundwater appears to originate in the east and flow over the production field before mixing with reservoir gases near the surface. ?? 1984.

  11. Preliminary isotopic studies of fluids from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Rye, R.O.; Pearson, F.J.; Olson, E.R.; Nehring, N.L.; Whelan, J.F.; Huebner, M.A.; Coplen, T.B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary isotopic studies of Cerro Prieto geothermal fluids and earlier studies of Mexicali Valley ground waters suggest local recharge of the geothermal system from the area immediately to the west. Oxygen isotope exchange of water with reservoir rock minerals at temperatures increasing with depth has produced fluids with oxygen-18 contents increasing with depth, and pressure drawdown in the southeastern part of the field has allowed lower oxygen-18 fluids to invade the production aquifer from above. The contents of tritium and carbon-14 in the fluid suggest only that the age of the fluid is between 50 and 10,000 years. The isotopic compositions of carbon and sulfur are consistent with a magmatic origin of these elements but a mixed sedimentary-organic origin appears more likely for carbon and is also possible for sulfur. Investigations of the isotopic compositions of geothermal and cold ground waters continue and are being expanded as fluids become available and as separation and analysis methods are improved. ?? 1979.

  12. Polygenetic nature of a rhyolitic dome and implications for hazard assessment: Cerro Pizarro volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Núñez, G.; Riggs, N. R.

    2008-04-01

    Rhyolitic domes are commonly regarded as monogenetic volcanoes associated with single, brief eruptions, in contrast to andesitic or dacitic domes that usually show a complex evolution including alternating long periods of growth and explosive destruction. Rhyolitic domes are characterized by short-lived successions of pyroclastic and effusive activity associated with a series of discrete eruptive events that apparently last on the order of years to decades or perhaps up to centuries. Cerro Pizarro, a rhyolitic dome in the eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt, is a relatively small (~ 1.1 km 3), isolated volcano that shows aspects of polygenetic volcanism including long-term repose periods (~ 50-80 ky) between eruptions, chemical variations over time, and a complex evolution of alternating explosive and effusive eruptions, including a cryptodome phase, a sector-collapse event and prolonged erosional processes. This eruptive behavior provides new insights into how rhyolite domes may evolve, in contrast to the traditional models of rhyolitic domes as short-lived, monogenetic systems. A protracted, complex evolution bears important implications for hazard assessment if reactivation of an apparently extinct rhyolitic dome must be seriously considered.

  13. Criteria to determine the depth of the production interval in wells of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Criterios para determinar la profundidad del intervalo productor en pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Vivar, Jesus Saul de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jesus.deleon@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    Ways to select the depth of the production interval or to complete wells in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field have changed during the development of the field. From 1961 when drilling began to the middle of 2005, a total of 325 wells were drilled. The paper compares the approaches used in the past with those of the last ten years. The Cerro Prieto system has been classified as being of liquid-dominated and high-temperature. Today, after 33 years of commercial exploitation, it has experienced a series of thermal and geochemical fluid changes making it necessary to modify the ways to select the depth of the well production intervals, according to the observed behavior of the reservoir. The new criteria include the thermal approach, the geological approach, the geochemical approach and a comparative approach with neighboring wells. If most of these criteria are interpreted correctly, the success of a well is ensured. [Spanish] Los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor o la terminacion de los pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto han cambiado durante el desarrollo del mismo. De 1961, cuando se perforaron los primeros pozos, hasta mediados del 2005 se han perforado un total de 325 pozos. En el presente articulo se hara una breve revision de cuales han sido los criterios usados en el pasado y los que se han venido empleando en los ultimos diez anos. El yacimiento de Cerro Prieto ha sido clasificado como de liquido dominante, de alta temperatura, pero actualmente, despues de 33 anos de explotacion comercial, ha sufrido una serie de cambios termicos y geoquimicos en sus fluidos, por lo que ha sido necesario modificar los criterios para seleccionar la profundidad del intervalo productor de los pozos de acuerdo al comportamiento observado en el yacimiento. Los criterios actuales se dividen en cuatro: 1. Criterio termico, 2. Criterio geologico, 3. Criterio geoquimico y 4. Criterio comparativo de los pozos vecinos. Cuando la mayoria de estos

  14. Update of the basement model of the Cerro Prieto, B. C., geothermal field, Mexico; Actualizacion del modelo del basamento en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lopez, Macario [Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)

    1999-04-01

    With the aim to actualize the basement model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, a gravity interpretation has been held. We modeled in 2.5 D, nine profiles traced over the Bouguer anomaly map. Well data concerning lithology and density changes were used to fit the gravity models. Results of this work confirm that the geometry of the basement of Cerro Prieto, corresponds to a structural sequence. From west to east it starts as a big depression, continues with a strong uplift of the basement in the middle sector and finally deepens eastward in steps. The basement model proposed in the present work, defines a similar trend to that established by Fonseca y Razo (1980), but there are differences in basement depth in some areas. In the present model we interpret basement depths between 200 and 400 m deeper than in previous models to the south and northwest of the actual exploitation zone. [Spanish] Con el fin de actualizar el modelo del basamento en el Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto, se realizo una reinterpretacion gravimetrica, modelando en 2.5 D, 9 perfiles trazados sobre el mapa de anomalia de Bouguer. Utilizando la informacion litologica obtenida a traves de numerosas perforaciones profundas, se hicieron coincidir, dentro de los mofelos gravimetricos, las principales variaciones litologicas con cambios en la densidad. Los resultados de este trabajo reiteran que la geometria del basamento del Campo de Cerro Prieto, vista de W a E, corresponde con una secuencia estructural que se inicia con una gran depresion en el W, continua con un fuerte levantamiento y finalmente se extiende con una tendencia a profundizarse hacia el E de forma escalonada. El modelo de basamento derivado del presente trabajo, define una tendencia muy similar al modelo de basamento establecido (Fonseca y Razo, 1980), pero difiere en cuanto a la profundidad en algunos sectores del campo. En el actual trabajo se interpreta una profundidad entre 200 y 400 m mayor hacia el sur y noroeste de la

  15. Evolution of the CP-I sector of the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir, BC, and exploitation alternatives; Evolucion del sector CP-I del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, y alternativas de explotacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    After 35 years of exploitation of the CP-I (Cerro Prieto I) sector of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, its thermal conditions have been declined substantially; the number of production wells is reduced and exploitation has been abandoned in some zones. However with a binary cycle, it is still possible to generate electricity from the remaining reservoir energy. To do so, one needs to know a detailed reservoir history of the sector, identifying the best potential strata to be assessed. In this paper, the CP-I reservoir evolution is presented and its exploitation and main reservoir characteristics -which play important roles- are identified. The CP-I zones offering the best conditions for binary cycle exploitation are identified. Exploiting partially abandoned reservoir sections is crucial for the future of the field. If such sections can be made to produce, this will help reduce the progressive steam-production decline in the occurring since production began. The production decline had been mitigated by a large area available for drilling replacement production wells, but such an area is limited now, due to the vast number of operating wells. [Spanish] Despues de 35 anos de explotacion del yacimiento en el sector de CP-I (Cerro Prieto I) del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, sus condiciones termicas han declinado considerablemente, por lo que el numero de pozos productores ha disminuido, dejando algunas zonas abandonadas a la explotacion. Sin embargo, aun es posible aprovechar la energia que contiene este sector del yacimiento para la generacion de electricidad mediante ciclo binario. Para ello primeramente se debe conocer en detalle cual ha sido la evolucion del yacimiento en este sector, identificando los estratos de mejor potencial para evaluarlos posteriormente. En este estudio se presenta la evolucion del yacimiento de CP-I como respuesta a su explotacion, identificando las principales caracteristicas del yacimiento que determinan su comportamiento. Asi

  16. Subduction and exhumation structures preserved in Cerro del Almirez HP metaserpentinites (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Gómez-Pugnaire, María Teresa; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Garrido, Carlos J.

    2014-05-01

    The Cerro del Almirez massif (Nevado-Filábride Complex, Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) is composed of antigorite serpentinite and chlorite harzburgite separated by a thin reaction front in a paleo-subduction setting. Structural analysis of ultramafic lithologies and metasedimentary host rocks provides information on the tectonic evolution of this massif during prograde metamorphism in a subduction zone and during subsequent exhumation. Here we report for the first time HP structures related to a subduction event underwent by ultramafic rocks of the Nevado-Filábride Complex. The oldest subduction-related structures are preserved in Atg-serpentinites: a penetrative S1 foliation and associated L1 stretching lineation were formed in a non-coaxial regime with a top-to-the-W sense of shearing. This planar linear fabric is crosscut by olivine ± Ti-clinohumite veins formed during the prograde breakdown of brucite and pre-metamorphic clinopyroxene at temperatures ranging from 465 to 500 ºC [1]. Veins occur as a system of decimetric long joints, some of them hybrid open and sheared veins with associated drag folds. They recorded embrittlement processes due to the release of 6% vol. H2O of the rock. S1 foliation can, however, be simultaneous with or be overgrown by olivine and/or tremolite porphyroblasts, product of the prograde reaction Di + Atg → Fo + Tr + H2O, which occurred at T > 600 ºC and P = 1.7-1.9 GPa [1]. Generation of S1/L1 fabric was followed by static annealing at ca. 680 ºC and 1.6-1.9 GPa [2]. The S1/L1 fabric in Atg-serpentinite is crosscut by the Atg-out isograd and overgrown by the Atg-serpentinite dehydration products that gave place to Chl-harzburgite. Peak metamorphic conditions of the Chl-harzburgite assemblage reached 680-710 ºC and 1.6-1.9 GPa [3]. Prograde Chl-harzburgite is crosscut by sets of conjugate zones associated to grain-size reduction of olivine grains [3]. These grain size reduction zones are interpreted as brittle structures

  17. Validating numerical simulations of snow avalanches using dendrochronology: the Cerro Ventana event in Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteller, A.; Christen, M.; Villalba, R.; Martínez, H.; Stöckli, V.; Leiva, J. C.; Bartelt, P.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused by snow avalanches to property and human lives is underestimated in many regions around the world, especially where this natural hazard remains poorly documented. One such region is the Argentinean Andes, where numerous settlements are threatened almost every winter by large snow avalanches. On 1 September 2002, the largest tragedy in the history of Argentinean mountaineering took place at Cerro Ventana, Northern Patagonia: nine persons were killed and seven others injured by a snow avalanche. In this paper, we combine both numerical modeling and dendrochronological investigations to reconstruct this event. Using information released by local governmental authorities and compiled in the field, the avalanche event was numerically simulated using the avalanche dynamics programs AVAL-1D and RAMMS. Avalanche characteristics, such as extent and date were determined using dendrochronological techniques. Model simulation results were compared with documentary and tree-ring evidences for the 2002 event. Our results show a good agreement between the simulated projection of the avalanche and its reconstructed extent using tree-ring records. Differences between the observed and the simulated avalanche, principally related to the snow height deposition in the run-out zone, are mostly attributed to the low resolution of the digital elevation model used to represent the valley topography. The main contributions of this study are (1) to provide the first calibration of numerical avalanche models for the Patagonian Andes and (2) to highlight the potential of textit{Nothofagus pumilio} tree-ring records to reconstruct past snow-avalanche events in time and space. Future research should focus on testing this combined approach in other forested regions of the Andes.

  18. Validating numerical simulations of snow avalanches using dendrochronology: the Cerro Ventana event in Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casteller

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by snow avalanches to property and human lives is underestimated in many regions around the world, especially where this natural hazard remains poorly documented. One such region is the Argentinean Andes, where numerous settlements are threatened almost every winter by large snow avalanches. On 1 September 2002, the largest tragedy in the history of Argentinean mountaineering took place at Cerro Ventana, Northern Patagonia: nine persons were killed and seven others injured by a snow avalanche. In this paper, we combine both numerical modeling and dendrochronological investigations to reconstruct this event. Using information released by local governmental authorities and compiled in the field, the avalanche event was numerically simulated using the avalanche dynamics programs AVAL-1D and RAMMS. Avalanche characteristics, such as extent and date were determined using dendrochronological techniques. Model simulation results were compared with documentary and tree-ring evidences for the 2002 event. Our results show a good agreement between the simulated projection of the avalanche and its reconstructed extent using tree-ring records. Differences between the observed and the simulated avalanche, principally related to the snow height deposition in the run-out zone, are mostly attributed to the low resolution of the digital elevation model used to represent the valley topography. The main contributions of this study are (1 to provide the first calibration of numerical avalanche models for the Patagonian Andes and (2 to highlight the potential of Nothofagus pumilio tree-ring records to reconstruct past snow-avalanche events in time and space. Future research should focus on testing this combined approach in other forested regions of the Andes.

  19. Mexicali aquifer and its relation with the Colorado river and the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Hernandez, J.; Reyes-Lopez, J. A.; Carreon-Diazconti, C.; Lazaro-Mancilla, O.

    2008-05-01

    Until some years ago the Colorado River has been the main recharge source of the Mexicali and the Imperial Valley aquifers. River discharge interruption after the constructions of dams upstream (i.e. Parker, Davis and Hoover) and the creation of great irrigation systems in both Valleys have modified their dynamics. Currently, the distribution of water recharge is the network of irrigation and drainage channels that distribute water to more than 500.000 ha. The chemical quality of the recharge water also has changed because the irrigation run-off water has become more mineralized. On the other hand, the intense steam exploitation of the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir has inverted the flow direction from the Volcano Lagoon area that until the 60s constituted the discharge zone of the aquifer and the geothermal reservoir. In this work, changes in the aquifer water recharge regime, the phreatic level and the water chemical quality are analyzed. It was found that after the reduction of the annual water extraction from aquifer up to 750X106 m3, the static levels have reached a dynamic balance that could be altered if water seepage from the irrigation channels, specially from the All American Channel, is reduced. The total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration has increased from 1000 ppm in 1970 to 1800 ppm in 2005. The water of recent infiltration, the gradual cooling of the shallowest strata of the geothermal reservoir, and the almost total disappearance of the hydrothermal surface manifestations are evidences of groundwater flow inversion. The new source of groundwater recharge due to seepage of evaporation disposal geothermal brine pond is documented. This pond incorporates water with a very different chemical composition to the groundwater system. Therefore, mineralization of the shallow aquifer layers and the soil contamination process are identified. It was concluded that the aquifer hydrodynamics in the Valley of Mexicali depends on the irrigation system more

  20. Regional and local networks of horizontal control, Cerro Prieto geothermal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal area in the Mexicali Valley 30 km southeast of Mexicali, Baja California, is probably deforming due to (1) the extraction of large volumes of steam and hot water, and (2) active tectonism. Two networks of precise horizontal control were established in Mexicali Valley by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1977 - 1978 to measure both types of movement as they occur. These networks consisted of (1) a regional trilateration net brought into the mountain ranges west of the geothermal area from survey stations on an existing U.S. Geological Survey crustal-strain network north of the international border, and (2) a local net tied to stations in the regional net and encompassing the area of present and planned geothermal production. Survey lines in this net were selected to span areas of probable ground-surface movements in and around the geothermal area. Electronic distance measuring (EDM) instruments, operating with a modulated laser beam, were used to measure the distances between stations in both networks. The regional net was run using a highly precise long-range EDM instrument, helicopters for transportation of men and equipment to inaccessible stations on mountain peaks, and a fixed wing airplane flying along the line of sight. Precision of measurements with this complex long-range system approached 0-2 ppm of line length. The local net was measured with a medium-range EDM instrument requiring minimal ancillary equipment. Precision of measurements with this less complex system approached 3 ppm for the shorter line lengths. The detection and analysis of ground-surface movements resulting from tectonic strains or induced by geothermal fluid withdrawal is dependent on subsequent resurveys of these networks. ?? 1979.

  1. Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ginot

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 m long ice core down to bedrock from the Cerro Tapado glacier (5536 m a.s.l, 30°08' S, 69°55' W was analyzed to reconstruct past climatic conditions for Northern Chile. Because of the marked seasonality in the precipitation (short wet winter and extended dry summer periods in this region, major snow ablation and related post-depositional processes occur on the glacier surface during summer periods. They include predominantly sublimation and dry deposition. Assuming that, like measured during the field campaign, the enrichment of chloride was always related to sublimation, the chemical record along the ice core may be applied to reconstruct the history of such secondary processes linked to the past climatic conditions over northern Chile. For the time period 1962–1999, a mean annual net accumulation of 316 mm water equivalent (weq and 327 mm weq loss by sublimation was deduced by this method. This corresponds to an initial total annual accumulation of 539 mm weq. The annual variability of the accumulation and sublimation is related with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI: higher net-accumulation during El-Niño years and more sublimation during La Niña years. The deepest part of the ice record shows a time discontinuity; with an ice body deposited under different climatic conditions: 290 mm higher precipitation but with reduced seasonal distribution (+470 mm in winter and –180 mm in summer and –3°C lower mean annual temperature. Unfortunately, its age is unknown. The comparison with regional proxy data however let us conclude that the glacier buildup did most likely occur after the dry mid-Holocene.

  2. EL QUE NO PAGA NO VA A TENER LAS ESCRITURAS: VECINDAD, MORALIDAD Y POLÍTICA EN COOPERATIVA LAS CUATRO BANDERAS / ‘¿You don´t say hello anymore because you are in debt?’ Neighbors, morality and politics in Cooperative Las Cuatro Banderas (Córdoba city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bartolozzi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Los regímenes morales que ordenan y regulan la vida de los sujetos han sido materia de análisis por parte de la Antropología, como así también los diversos conflictos, antagonismos y negociaciones que estos sistemas normativos suscitan en determinados conjuntos sociales. En este sentido, la necesidad de indagar sobre los procesos sociales que otorgan contenido ético a determinados conceptos, requiere de estudios que, etnográficamente, puedan dar cuenta acerca de cómo se construyen y disputan determinadas valoraciones en cada contexto particular. En el presente artículo, exponemos las formas como son categorizados los vecinos de Cooperativa Las Cuatro Banderas por parte de los miembros de la Comisión Directiva, de acuerdo al pago (o no del terreno, como así también, las repercusiones que esto conlleva hacia otras dimensiones de la vida social. Al mismo tiempo, los discursos y prácticas de quienes presiden la entidad, también son interpeladas por aquellos que, desde afuera, juzgan las formas -individuales o colectivas- de hacer política. Esto nos permitirá ver cómo se motorizan estas distinciones morales en un proceso liminal ante la posible disolución de la cooperativa a partir de la escrituración individual de los lotes, en el marco de un programa provincial de regulación de viviendas sociales.   Abstract The moral regime that manage and regulate the life of the individuals have been subject of analysis of Anthropology, as well as the diverse conflicts, antagonisms, and negotiations that these normative systems provoke in certain social groups. Therefore, the need to investigate the social processes that grant ethical content to certain concepts and practices requires of a study that, from an ethnographical approach, would explain how some specific judgments are made and challenged in each single context. This article exposes the different ways in which the neighbors of the Cooperative “Las Cuatro Banderas” are

  3. Structural control on geothermal circulation in the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Guido; Pinton, Annamaria; Cianfarra, Paola; Baez, Walter; Chiodi, Agostina; Viramonte, José; Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    The reconstruction of the stratigraphical-structural framework and the hydrogeology of geothermal areas is fundamental for understanding the relationships between cap rocks, reservoir and circulation of geothermal fluids and for planning the exploitation of the field. The Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar geothermal volcanic area (Puna plateau, Central Andes, NW Argentina) has a high geothermal potential. It is crossed by the active NW-SE trans-Andean tectonic lineament known as the Calama-Olacapato-Toro (COT) fault system, which favours a high secondary permeability testified by the presence of numerous springs. This study presents new stratigraphic and hydrogeological data on the geothermal field, together with the analysis from remote sensed image analysis of morphostructural evidences associated with the structural framework and active tectonics. Our data suggest that the main geothermal reservoir is located within or below the Pre-Palaeozoic-Ordovician basement units, characterised by unevenly distributed secondary permeability. The reservoir is recharged by infiltration in the ridges above 4500 m a.s.l., where basement rocks are in outcrop. Below 4500 m a.s.l., the reservoir is covered by the low permeable Miocene-Quaternary units that allow a poor circulation of shallow groundwater. Geothermal fluids upwell in areas with more intense fracturing, especially where main regional structures, particularly NW-SE COT-parallel lineaments, intersect with secondary structures, such as at the Tocomar field. Away from the main tectonic features, such as at the Cerro Tuzgle field, the less developed network of faults and fractures allows only a moderate upwelling of geothermal fluids and a mixing between hot and shallow cold waters. The integration of field-based and remote-sensing analyses at the Cerro Tuzgle-Tocomar area proved to be effective in approaching the prospection of remote geothermal fields, and in defining the conceptual model for geothermal circulation.

  4. Production induced boiling and cold water entry in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir indicated by chemical and physical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, M.A. (DSIR, Wellington, New Zealand); Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, A.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical and physical data suggest that the relatively shallow western part of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is bounded below by low permeability rocks, and above and at the sides by an interface with cooler water. There is no continuous permeability barrier around or immediately above the reservoir. Permeability within the reservoir is dominantly intergranular. Mixture with cooler water rather than boiling is the dominant cooling process in the natural state, and production causes displacement of hot water by cooler water, not by vapor. Local boiling occurs near most wells in response to pressure decreases, but no general vapor zone has formed.

  5. Diverse subaerial and sublacustrine hot spring settings of the Cerro Negro epithermal system (Jurassic, Deseado Massif), Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Diego M.; Campbell, Kathleen A.

    2012-06-01

    The Late Jurassic (~ 150 Ma) Cerro Negro volcanic-epithermal-geothermal system (~ 15 km2 area), Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina, includes two inferred volcanic emission centers characterized by rhyolitic domes linked along NW-SE regional faults that are associated with deeper level Au/Ag mineralization to the NW, and with shallow epithermal quartz veins and mainly travertine surface hot spring manifestations to the SE. Some travertines are silica-replaced, and siliceous and mixed silica-carbonate geothermal deposits also are found. Five hot spring-related facies associations were mapped in detail, which show morphological and textural similarities to Pleistocene-Recent geothermal deposits at Yellowstone National Park (U.S.A.), the Kenya Rift Valley, and elsewhere. They are interpreted to represent subaerial travertine fissure ridge/mound deposits (low-flow spring discharge) and apron terraces (high-flow spring discharge), as well as mixed silica-carbonate lake margin and shallow lake terrace vent-conduit tubes, stromatolitic mounds, and volcano-shaped cones. The nearly 200 mapped fossil vent-associated deposits at Cerro Negro are on a geographical and numerical scale comparable with subaerial and sublacustrine hydrothermal vents at Mammoth Hot Springs, and affiliated with Yellowstone Lake, respectively. Overall, the Cerro Negro geothermal system yields paleoenvironmentally significant textural details of variable quality, owing to both the differential preservation potential of particular subaerial versus subaqueous facies, as well as to the timing and extent of carbonate diagenesis and silica replacement of some deposits. For example, the western fault associated with the Eureka epithermal quartz vein facilitated early silicification of the travertine deposits in the SE volcanic emission center, thereby preserving high-quality, microbial macro- and micro-textures of this silica-replaced "pseudosinter." Cerro Negro provides an opportunity to reconstruct

  6. Production induced boiling and cold water entry in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir indicated by chemical and physical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, M.A.; Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical and physical data suggest that the relatively shallow, western part of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is bounded below by low permeability rocks, and above and at the sides by an interface with cooler water. There is no continuous permeability barrier around or immediately above the reservoir. Permeability within the reservoir is dominantly intergranular. Mixture with cooler water rather than boiling is the dominant cooling process in the natural state, and production causes displacement of hot water by cooler water, not by vapour. Local boiling occurs near most wells in response to pressure decreases, but no general vapour zone has formed. ?? 1984.

  7. Changes in steam production due to the reservoir conditions in Cerro Prieto, Baja California; Cambios en la produccion de vapor debido a las condiciones del yacimiento en Cerro Prieto, Baja California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Cardenas, Ramon; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco H. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@gfe.gob.mx

    2011-07-15

    In more than 35 years of exploitation, thermodynamic conditions have changed in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir. The effects are analyzed of the changes to the reservoir and their consequences to steam production in different field zones. For steam production, the most important features of reservoir fluids are enthalpies and pressures. The evolution of these features is presented in an enthalpy-pressure diagram. Here it can be seen that some reservoir zones have almost reached abandonment conditions. [Spanish] En mas de 35 anos de explotacion el yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto ha experimentado cambios en sus condiciones termodinamicas. En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de esos cambios del yacimiento y su repercusion en la produccion de vapor para las diferentes zonas en las que se ha dividido el campo. Las propiedades mas importantes del fluido en el yacimiento para la produccion de vapor son su entalpia y su presion, por lo que se presenta la evolucion de esas propiedades en un diagrama de presion-entalpia, en el que se observa que hay zonas del yacimiento que estan proximas a alcanzar condiciones de abandono.

  8. El adoratorio del cerro El Potro: Arqueología de alta montaña en la cordillera de Copiapó, norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano,Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Se exponen los resultados del reconocimiento arqueológico de las nacientes del río Los Helados y del cerro El Potro, en el valle de Copiapó. El objetivo principal fue constatar evidencias descritas para la zona que dieran cuenta de una huaca prehispánica, como también definir la orientación orográfica de la arquitectura del centro metalúrgico Viña del Cerro. Los resultados sugieren que existieron prácticas culturales vinculadas con la tradición andina de adorar a las montañas, que incluyeron ...

  9. EVALSO, a high-bandwidth communication infrastructure to efficiently connect the ESO Paranal and the Cerro Armazones Observatories to Europe: demonstration activities and start of operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Roland; Comeron, Fernando; Chini, Rolf; Filippi, Giorgio; Emerson, Jim; Kuijken, Konrad; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Wright, Andrew; Zampieri, Stefano; Liello, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    EVALSO (Enabling Virtual Access to Latin-American Southern Observatories) is an international consortium of nine astronomical organizations, and research network operators, part-funded under the European Commission FP7, to create and exploit high-speed bandwidth connections to the observatories of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones in Chile. The communication infrastructure was delivered in November 2010 and this paper reports on the initial results of the project and the demonstrations of its capabilities, including the possibilities that the new infrastructure opens up in the geographically distributed operation of the observatories.

  10. Pinus Culminicola Andresen y Beaman y sus asociaciones en la ladera sur del cerro La Viga, Coahuila

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Sánchez Silva; José López García; José Manuel Espinoza Rdz.

    1990-01-01

    Pinus culminicola was described in 1961 with samples from the Cerro Potosí, State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The species was reported in the Sierras La Marta in 1962, and San Antonio de las Alazanas in 1975, State of Coahuila, indicating that there were not pure associations. In 1979 the species was colected in the Sierra La Viga, Coahuila, at 3 300 m, without data on environmental conditions in which it grows. The distribution of  P. culminicola is restricted to the south slope of the Cerro La V...

  11. Summary of a Gas Transport Tracer Test in the Deep Cerros Del Rio Basalts, Mesita del Buey, Los Alamos NM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ortiz, John Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salazar, Larry Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Snyder, Emily Elisabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Here we describe results from a tracer test in the Cerros del Rio basalt beneath Mesita del Buey, Technical Area 54 (TA-54) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). This report follows from plans outlined in our previous Tracer Test Work Plan (LANL 2016). These activities were conducted by LANL to further characterize subsurface properties of the Cerros del Rio basalts at Material Disposal Area (MDA) L (Figure 1.1-1). The work presented follows from the “Interim Measures Work Plan for Soil-Vapor Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Material Disposal Area L, Technical Area 54, Revision 1,” submitted to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in September 2014 (LANL 2014). Remediation of the MDA L vapor plume by soil-vapor extraction (SVE) is recommended as part of the final remedy in the “Corrective Measures Evaluation Report for Material Disposal Area L, Solid Waste Management Unit 54-006, at Technical Area 54, Revision 2” to meet a remedial action objective of preventing groundwater from being impacted above a regulatory standard by the transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to groundwater through soil vapor (LANL 2011).

  12. ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND ACID MINE DRAINAGE PASSIVE CO-TREATMENT AT CERRO RICO DE POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

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    William H.J. Strosnider

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide environmental problem. The passive co-treatment of AMD with municipal waste water (MWW is a cost effective approach that uses nutrients in MWW in order to treat high concentrations of metals and sulfate found in AMD. Cerro Rico de Potosí in Bolivia is one of the biggest mining cities in the world, and it is constantly facing problems with AMD. The goal of this study was to determine the reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and other metals found in an AMD discharge from Cerro Rico by a three-stage reactor system. The AMD had a pH of 3.58 and acidity of 1080 mg/L as CaCO3 equivalent containing 12, 68, 17 and 550 mg/L of dissolved Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn respectively. The reaction rates of Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn were 1.43, 2.09, 0.01, and 0.10 d-1, respectively.

  13. Gases in steam from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells with a discussion of steam/gas ratio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, N.L.; Fausto, L.J.J.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a joint USGS-CFE geochemical study of Cerro Prieto, steam samples were collected for gas analyses in April, 1977. Analyses of the major gas components of the steam were made by wet chemistry (for H2O,CO2,H2S and NH3) and by gas chromatography (He,H2,Ar,O2,N2 and hydrocarbons). The hydrocarbon gases in Cerro Prieto steam closely resemble hydrocarbons in steam from Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, California which, although they are vapor-dominated rather than hot-water geothermal systems, also have sedimentary aquifer rocks. These sedimentary geothermal hydrocarbons are characterized by the presence of branched C4-6 compounds and a lack of unsaturated compounds other than benzene. Relatively large amounts of benzene may be characteristic of high-temperature geothermal systems. All hydrocarbons in these gases other than methane most probably originate from the thermal metamorphosis of organic matter contained in the sediments. ?? 1979.

  14. Pinus Culminicola Andresen y Beaman y sus asociaciones en la ladera sur del cerro La Viga, Coahuila

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    Rubén Sánchez Silva

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinus culminicola was described in 1961 with samples from the Cerro Potosí, State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The species was reported in the Sierras La Marta in 1962, and San Antonio de las Alazanas in 1975, State of Coahuila, indicating that there were not pure associations. In 1979 the species was colected in the Sierra La Viga, Coahuila, at 3 300 m, without data on environmental conditions in which it grows. The distribution of  P. culminicola is restricted to the south slope of the Cerro La Viga. The associations identified and described in this paper are: (1 Scrub of Quercus rugosa – Quercus durifolia – Cercocarpus montanus with elements of P. culminicola; (2 Pinus montezumae–Pseudotsuga macrolepisy with elements of P. culminicola, Quercus spp. and Arbutus xalapensis (3 P. culminicola– Quercus rugosa (both of them as shrubs; (4 P. montezumac–P. macrolepis–Pinus ayacahuite–P. culminicola; (5 pure scrub of P. culminicola; (6 P. culminicola– Dasylirion tezanum (sometimes with Arctostaphylos pungens and Quercus spp., shrublike; (7 Pinus hartwegii–P. culminicola; (8 P. hartwegii with elements of P. macrolepis and P. culminicola; and (9 induced prairie. There are differences in dominance of the species in accordance to the particular characteristics of each place, with presence of herbaceous from high altitudes. The altitude at which these associations occur, varies from 2 900 m to 3 700 m, although isolated elements of P. culminicola–were found at 2 700 m.

  15. Sulphur-Rich Melt At Upper Crustal Levels At Cerro La Torta, Central Andes: Evidence From Melt Inclusions Assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannatelli, C.; Godoy, B.; Alvear, B.; Moncada, D.

    2016-12-01

    Central Andes present some of the biggest and most important porphyry copper ore deposits in the world. Porphyry copper ore formation is related to precipitation of ore minerals from sulphur and chlorine-rich fluids. Genesis of these deposits occurred 4 km below surface, while mineralized fluids are released by magmatic melts located between 5 and 15 km depth (Sillitoe, 2010). Cerro La Torta is part of a cluster of mineral present. Melt Inclusions size ranges from 10-40 µm, suggesting an intermediate cooling rate (Roedder 1979). Out hypothesis is that during cooling, Group I MIA is trapped as result of a metal sulfur-rich event, leading to the suggestion that sulphide-bearing MIAs from Cerro La Torta are the evidence of mineralized magmas ponding at shallow crustal levels. Furthermore, the presence of MIAs in the mush-type magmas related to the APMB implies that such systems are suitable to porphyry copper ore generation. Roedder, 1979. The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks. 15-57 Sillitoe, 2010. Econ. Geol. 105:3-41 Tierney et al., 2016. Geology 44:683-686. doi:10.1130/G37968.1Ward et al., 2014. Earth Planet Sci Letters 404:43-54

  16. Geochemical study of products associated with spontaneous oxidation of coal in the Cerro Pelado Formation, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M.; Márquez, G.; Alejandre, F. J.; Del Río, J. J.; Hurtado, A.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this research work is a geochemical, mineralogical, and textural characterization of spontaneously smouldered coal-derived products in northwestern Venezuela (Cerro Pelado Formation, some 10 km from Pedregal city). Several solid samples were collected from this formation, six of unweathering coal, an other six of resulting unmelted rocks forming on a surface coal bed, and the last four of mineralizations found accumulating around gas vents. The fresh coal and the unmelted material were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and proximate techniques. Products such as magnetite and chabazite-K were identified in the alteration rocks. Likewise, both materials were also studied in order to determine the mobilization of 17 elements into the environment; such elements were analysed through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy on extracts obtained by a sequential extraction method: each sample was firstly extracted with MilliQ water and then the resultant residue was washed. This and the subsequently resulting residues are extracted according to the mentioned procedure by using, respectively, ammonium acetate, chlorhydric acid, peroxide and chlorhydric acid, nitric acid and fluorhydric acid, and nitric acid. The studied elements are classified as highly mobile (Na, Ni, ...), nearly immobile (Ti, P) and partially mobile (Mg, Fe, K, ...). In regards to mineralizations around fumaroles associated with smoldering coal seams, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses have revealed the presence of salammoniac, mascagnite and other solid combustion compounds formed by reaction of gas emitted from coal oxidation, in addition to previously non-reported sulfur-rich by-products associated with gas fissures, particularly ammonium thiosulfate, a phase first obtained only synthetically in the laboratory. Another objective of the research was to collect and analyse gases escaping from surficial vents

  17. Analysis and simulatin of rock avalanche sequence in the Cerro Caquilluco landslide (Tacna, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Valbuzzi, Elena; Hermanns, Reginald L.

    2014-05-01

    The Cerro Caquilluco (Tacna, Peru) rock avalanche complex has a total volume of about 15 km3 and a length of 43 km, extending from 3900 m a.s.l to 530 m a.s.l.. Based on geomorphological interpretation and lithological evidences, we reconstructed a possible rock-avalanches sequence consisting of at least nine major events. For each event, we calculated the mobilized volumes through the comparison of pre- and post-failure morphology. We argue that the first rock avalanche event corresponds to the Cerrillos Negros rock avalanche, characterized by a distal tongue shaped lobe, 11 km long, 3 km wide and 25 to 60 m thick (rough volume estimate 1.15 km3), deposited along the piedmont surface (average slope: 2° ). The reconstruction of pristine pre-failure morphology was accomplished by mimicking the preserved morphology close to the source area, and by removing the deposited volumes from the rock avalanche path. For this, we made the hypothesis that the old paleosurface was already eroded by valleys progressively moving upstream during a wetter climate, as suggested by Hoke et al (2007) for similar conditions in northern Chile. The reconstruction of the pre-event morphology required several attempts to fit the eroded and the deposited volumes. Finally, a total mobilized volume of about 10.2 km2 was obtained for this event. For the successive scenarios of slide retrogression, we used the morphologies obtained by previous scenarios as pre-failure morphologies, and we calculated, by difference with current topography, the lobe volumes. The volumes of single rock avalanche episodes decrease from the first to the last event, roughly following a power-law decay. This behavior is comparable to that described by Utili and Crosta (2011) for retrogressive instabilities in rocky cliffs. The rock-avalanche events have been simulated, to verify the different scenarios in terms of spreading area and maximum runout, by using SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) and Finite Element codes

  18. Land subsidence in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, 1 Baja California, Mexico, from 1994 to 2005. An integrated analysis of DInSAR, levelingand geological data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarychikhina, O; Glowacka, E; Mellors, R; Vidal, F S

    2011-03-03

    Cerro Prieto is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field. The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. In this paper, the technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is applied using C-band ENVISAR ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2006 to determine the extent and amount of land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The DInSAR results were compared with published data from precise leveling surveys (1994- 1997 and 1997-2006) and detailed geological information in order to improve the understanding of temporal and spatial distributions of anthropogenic subsidence in the Mexicali Valley. The leveling and DInSAR data were modeled to characterize the observed deformation in terms of fluid extraction. The results confirm that the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. These faults likely act as groundwater flow barriers for aquifers and reservoirs. The shape of the subsiding area coincides with the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin. In addition, the spatial pattern of the subsidence as well as changes in rate are highly correlated with the development of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  19. An integrated model for the natural flow regime in the Cerro Prieto hydrothermal system based upon petrological and isotope geochemical criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; Hoagland, J..

    1981-01-01

    Studies of cuttings and cores at Cerro Prieto have now been extended to more than 50 boreholes. The aims of this petrological and isotopic work are to determine the shape of the reservoir, its physical properties, and its temperature distribution and flow regime before the steam field was produced.

  20. Los granitos peraluminosos de las Sierras de Vinquis, Cerro Negro y Zapata (Sierras Pampeanas, provincia de Catamarca, Argentina

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    Medina, M. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The studied plutons are close to several batholiths of this region, as Sierra de Mazán and other, but with some mineralogical peculiarities. The magmatic cordierite, common in proximate places, is scarce, as sillimanite, while the andalusite is very rare, with few tourmaline. Fluorite and allanite are also typical accasories only in the granites of the Sierra de Zapata. All plutons are peraluminous of potassic tendency, with cortical affinity.The interpretation of the geochemical values distinguishes between granites of different maturity, emplaced under a predominant influence of active margin for Cerro Negro and Vinquis, while the batholith of Zapata has, below these concepts, a marked feature of within plate.The mineralogical associations suggest that the granites of Cerro Negro and Vinquis were emplaced to pressures of 2 kb or less and temperature of 650º C, while the granites of Zapata had done under conditions of lesser pressure, between 1.5 and 2.0 kb and lower temperature, 600-650º C.A grandes rasgos, los plutones estudiados tienen semejanzas con otros del entorno regional, tal como los de la Sierra de Mazán, pero con peculiaridades mineralógicas. La cordierita magmática, que en lugares próximos es muy abundante, es aquí escasa, al igual que la sillimanita, mientras que la andalucita es muy rara y la turmalina poco frecuente. La fluorita y allanita son accesorios comunes y de cierta abundancia sólo en los granitos de la Sierra de Zapata.Todos los plutones son peralumínicos y de tendencia potásica, con neta afinidad cortical. El estudio estadístico de datos geoquímicos seleccionados, permite diferenciar agrupaciones que tienen un reflejo satisfactorio en los plutones caracterizados, por encima de las variaciones de facies. La interpretación de los valores geoquímicos distingue granitos de desigual madurez, emplazados bajo una influencia predominante de margen activo o intraplaca de características continentales, en

  1. DIAGNOSTICO AMBIENTAL Y VALORACIÓN DE LOS RECURSOS PARA FINES TURÍSTICOS DE LOS ECOSISTEMAS DE MANGLAR EN LA BAHÍA DE BANDERAS, MÉXICO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Romero Bartolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante una “Lista de chequeo” se establece el diagnóstico ambiental de los sistemas estuarinos de la Bahía de Banderas: El Salado, Boca Negra – Boca de Tomates y El Quelele; y se identifican los principales factores de presión ambiental en cada sistema. Los elementos ambientales considerados fueron el suelo, agua, aire, flora, fauna y paisaje. Los resultados indican que el paisaje de estos sistemas, ha perdido su calidad original y las principales causas han sido el cambio de uso de suelo y el desarrollo urbano y turístico mal planeado. Respecto a la valoración de los recursos (naturales y artificiales, con potencial turístico para cada sistema, se determinó bajo la metodología de “Inventario de recursos”; propuesta por Leno (1993. La valoración de recursos en los tres sistemas estuarinos El Salado, Boca Negra – Boca de Tomates y El Quelele; nos muestra que todos los recursos potenciales se encuentran en conjunto lo cual les otorga un valor más elevado respecto a la metodología utilizada, esto no limita las áreas solo al avistamiento y visita de los recursos con mayor jerarquía como las aves, cangrejos, flora, canales navegables, torres de observación y senderos elevados. Al contrario, se considera que el conjunto de todos los recursos con potencial turístico son susceptibles de aprovechamiento bajo esquemas de sustentabilidad mediante programas de turismo asociado a la naturaleza.

  2. Hydraulic model of the steam-lines network of the Cerro Prieto, B.C., geothermal field; Modelo hidraulico de la red de vaporductos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaices, E; Garcia, A; Martinez J I; Ovando, R; Cecenas, M; Hernandez A F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: salaices@iie.org.mx; Canchola, I; Mora, O; Miranda, C; Herandez, M; Lopez, S; Murillo, I [Comision Federal de Electricidad, B.C (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    The steam-line network of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is composed of 184 wells, and 162 of the wells are integrated and connected by pipes. Thirteen power units, with an installed electrical capacity of 720 MW, are fed by that network. The network length is 120 km, including pipes of several diameters with branches and interconnections. The extension and complexity of the steam-line system make it difficult to analyze the transport and supply of steam to the power plants. For that it was necessary to have a tool capable of analyzing the system and the performance of the network as a whole, as well as the direction and flow volumes in each part of the system. In this paper, a hydraulic model of the Cerro Prieto steam-line network is presented. The model can determine the performance of the whole network by quantifying the pressure drops, flows and heat losses of the components. The model analyses the consequences of changes in operating conditions, steam production, maintenance activities and design (such as the integration of new wells). The model was developed using PIPEPHASE 9.0, a numeric simulator of multi-phase flow in steady state with heat transfer. It is used to model systems and pipe networks for steam- and condensate-transport. [Spanish] La red de vaporductos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto esta compuesta por un conjunto de 184 pozos, de los cuales 162 son pozos integrados, interconectados entre si a traves de una red de tuberias. Por medio de esta red se alimentan 13 unidades generadoras de electricidad con una capacidad total instalada de 720 MWe. La red tiene una longitud aproximada de 120 kilometros y esta compuesta por tuberias de diferentes diametros, ramales, interconexiones, etc. La complejidad y extension del sistema de vaporductos hace muy dificil el analisis del transporte y suministro de vapor a las plantas generadoras. Lo anterior creo la necesidad de contar con una herramienta que ayudara en el analisis del sistema con el fin de

  3. Noise reduction in steam-vent points at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Reduccion del ruido en puntos de desfogue en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda Herrera, Carlos A [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail: carlos.miranda02@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    Steam silencers have been placed on the power units regulation system of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, but not where the steam-pipes vent high-pressure steam (rupture disks). Moreover, the power-unit silencers are large and their abilities to reduce noise depend on an external, uncontrollable factor: pores sizes in the volcanic rocks they are made of. Thus a compact, economic and relatively easy to construct metallic silencer was designed to be used at several points of dry-steam venting to minimize the noise. The design was based on orifice-plate equations and a prototype was constructed and tested. It proved capable of reducing noise by 30 decibels for atmospheric discharges of primary steam at operating pressures. The size of the silencer can be adjusted to the particular needs of each vent case. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto solo existen silenciadores de vapor en el sistema de regulacion de las plantas generadoras, pero no en los sitios de desfogue de vapor a alta presion en los vaporductos (discos de ruptura). Ademas, los silenciadores de las plantas son muy robustos y su capacidad de reduccion del ruido depende de un factor externo no controlable, como es el tamano del poro de la roca volcanica con el que estan construidos. Por lo tanto, se diseno un silenciador metalico compacto, economico y relativamente facil de fabricar, para utilizarse en diversos puntos de descarga de vapor seco a fin de minimizar el ruido. El diseno se realizo con base en las ecuaciones de la placa de orificio. Se construyo un prototipo cuyas pruebas demostraron que es capaz de reducir el ruido hasta en 30 decibeles, al descargar desde la presion de operacion de vapor primario hacia la presion atmosferica. Las dimensiones del silenciador pueden ajustarse a las necesidades particulares de cada caso de desfogue.

  4. Cost model for geothermal wells applied to the Cerro Prieto geothermal field case, BC Abstract; Modelo de costeo de pozos geotermicos aplicado para el caso del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaca Serrano, Jaime M.E [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: jaime.vaca@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    A project for drilling geothermal wells to produce electrical energy can be defined as a sequence of plans to get steam or geothermal fluids to satisfy a previously known demand, and, under the best possible conditions, to obtain payment. This paper presents a cost model for nine wells drilled at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in 2005 and 2006 to supply steam to the power plants operating in the field. The cost model is based on the well cost, the initial steam production, the annual decline of steam, the drilling schedule and the break-even point for each well. The model shows the cost of steam by the ton and the sale price needed to determine the discount rate and the investment return time. [Spanish] Un proyecto de perforacion de pozos geotermicos puede definirse como una secuencia o sucesion de planes para obtener vapor o fluidos geotermicos destinados a satisfacer una demanda previamente determinada, que se emplearan principalmente para generar energia electrica, bajo las mejores condiciones para obtener un pago. Este trabajo presenta un modelo de costeo para nueve pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, que fueron perforados entre 2005 y 2006 como parte del suministro de vapor para las plantas generadoras que operan en este campo. El modelo de costeo se basa en el costo por pozo, la produccion inicial de vapor, la declinacion anual de vapor, los intereses de las obras de perforacion y el punto de equilibrio para cada pozo. Los resultados permiten conocer el costo de la tonelada de vapor y el precio de venta para determinar la tasa de descuento y el tiempo de retorno de la inversion.

  5. Tornos de alfarero protohistóricos del Cerro de las Cabezas (Valdepeñas, Ciudad Real = Protohistoric potter’s wheels in the Iberian archaeological site ‘Cerro de las Cabezas’ (Valdepeñas, Ciudad Real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Fernández Maroto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El yacimiento ibérico del “Cerro de las Cabezas” ha proporcionado cuatro piezas líticas que identificamos como pertenecientes a tornos de alfarero. Este oppidum ya ha sido puesto de manifiesto como un centro productor y difusor de cerámica ibérica. A través del análisis e interpretación de estas piezas y de las referencias obtenidas en otros yacimientos de la Península Ibérica y del Próximo Oriente, hemos podido confirmar que dos de estas piezas corresponden a un mismo torno, por lo que podemos considerar esta circunstancia como excepcional, dado que hasta el momento, en la Península Ibérica solo se tienen noticias de hallazgos de piezas descontextualizadas y dispersas. Nos encontramos así, con el primer torno  protohistórico completo adscrito a una cronología en torno al siglo III a.C.The Iberian archaeological site ‘Cerro de las Cabezas’ has provided four stone pieces that we identify as belonging to potter’s wheels. This oppidum has been revealed as a producer and spreading centre of Iberian pottery. Through the analysis and interpretation of these pieces, as well as the references obtained from other sites in the Iberian Peninsula and the Middle East, we are able to confirm that two of these findings correspond to the same potter’s wheel. As a result, we could take into account this fact as an exceptional circumstance, because, so far, we only know about some scattered pieces taken out of context in the Iberian Peninsula. Consequently, we have maybe found the first complete protohistoric slow potter’s wheel dating from around the third century BC.

  6. Results of the first order leveling surveys in the Mexicali Valley and at the Cerro Prieto field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The results obtained from the third leveling survey carried out by the Direccion General de Geografia del Territorio Nacional (previously DETENAL) during November and December 1979 are presented. Calculations of the changes in field elevation and plots showing comparisons of the 1977, 1978, and 1979 surveys are also presented. Results from a second order leveling survey performed to ascertain the extent of ground motion resulting from the 8 June 1980 earthquake are presented. This magnitude ML = 6.7 earthquake with epicenter located 15 km southeast of the Guadalupe Victoria village, caused fissures on the surface, the formation of small sand volcanos, and the ejection of ground water in the vicinity of the Cerro Prieto field. This leveling survey was carried out between benchmark BN-10067 at the intersection of the Solfatara canal and the Sonora-Baja California railroad, and benchmark BN-10055 located at the Delta station.

  7. Curie point depth from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data from Cerro Prieto geothermal area, Baja California, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Cardeña, J. M.; Campos-Enriquez, J. O.

    2008-10-01

    Using aeromagnetic data acquired in the area from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, we estimated the depth to the Curie point isotherm, interpreted as the base of the magnetic sources, following statistical spectral-based techniques. According to our results the Curie point isotherm is located at a depths ranging from 14 to 17 km. Our result is somewhat deeper than that obtained previously based only in 2-D and 3-D forward modeling of previous low-quality data. However, our results are supported by independent information comprising geothermal gradients, seismicity distribution in the crust, and gravity determined crustal thickness. Our results imply a high thermal gradient (ranging between 33 and 38 °C/km) and high heat flow (of about 100 mW/m 2) for the study area. The thermal regime for the area is inferred to be similar to that from the Salton trough.

  8. The ash deposits of the 4200 BP Cerro Blanco eruption: the largest Holocene eruption of the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis; Saavedra, Julio; Perez-Torrado, Francisco-Jose; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Carracedo, Juan-Carlos; Lobo, Agustin; Rejas, Marta; Gallardo, Juan-Fernando; Osterrieth, Margarita; Carrizo, Julieta; Esteban, Graciela; Martinez, Luis-Dante; Gil, Raul-Andres; Ratto, Norma; Baez, Walter

    2015-04-01

    We present new data about a major eruption -spreading approx. 110 km3 ashes over 440.000 km2- long thought to have occurred around 4200 years ago in the Cerro Blanco Volcanic Complex (CBVC) in the Central Andes of NW Argentina (Southern Puna, 26°45' S, 67°45' W). This eruption may be the biggest during the past five millennia in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, and possibly one of the largest Holocene eruptions in the world. Discrimination and correlation of pyroclastic deposits of this eruption of Cerro Blanco was conducted comparing samples of proximal (domes, pyroclastic flow and fall deposits) with distal ash fall deposits (up to 400 km from de vent). They have been characterized using optical and electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, particle-size distribution by laser diffraction and electron microprobe and HR-ICP-MS with laser ablation for major and trace element composition of glass, feldspars and biotite. New and published 14C ages were calibrated using Bayesian statistics. An one-at-a-time inversion method was used to reconstruct the eruption conditions using the Tephra2 code (Bonadonna et al. 2010, https://vhub.org/resources/tephra2). This method allowed setting the main features of the eruption that explains the field observations in terms of thickness and grain size distributions of the ash fall deposit. The main arguments that justify the correlation are four: 1) Compositional coincidence for glass, feldspars, and biotite in proximal and distal materials; 2) Stratigraphic and geomorphological relationships, including structure and thickness variation of the distal deposits; 3) Geochronological consistency, matching proximal and distal ages; and 4) Geographical distribution of correlated outcrops in relation to the eruption centre at the coordinates of Cerro Blanco. With a magnitude of 7.0 and a volcanic explosivity index or VEI 7, this eruption of ~4200 BP at Cerro Blanco is the largest in the last five millennia known in the Central

  9. Notes on the ecology of Phyllodactylus reissi (Phyllodactylidae: Sauria in Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Jordán Arizmendi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Some basics aspects on the ecology of the nocturnal gecko Phyllodactylus reissi from Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape (Tumbes, Peru are described. This species used rock boulders (57,4% and trees (31,9% as microhabitats primarily, exhibiting a nocturnal activity pattern, with a peak between 2100-2200 hours, remaining active until midnight. Body temperature (mean 24,4 ºC was correlated with both air and substrate temperature, with the last variable affecting in higher degree (47% the body temperature of this species. The slightly high body temperature of Phyllodactylus reissi, compared to other Phyllodactylus geckos, could be related to nocturnal microhabitat use and diurnal retreat site selection. More studies on lizard ecology from this endangered ecosystem are needed.

  10. Estudio de la líqueno flora encontrada en el Cerro de Quininí, Tibacuy, Cundinamarca

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    Hormaza Francisco

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se realizó un muestreo de la liquen o flora del cerro de Quininí, Tibacuy, Cundinamarca para estudiar las características morfológicas externas de los géneros de líquenes encontrados en el. A su vez se hizo la revisión bibliográfica acerca de dichos géneros, datando así la riqueza de líquenes en la zona con 8 géneros en total y con respecto al papel de bioindicadores se mostró el grado de intervención para el lugar.

  11. Constraining the Paleogene of South America: Magnetostratigraphy and paleoclimate proxy records from Cerro Bayo (Provincia de Salta, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, E.; Cotton, J. M.; Sheldon, N. D.

    2012-12-01

    Records of rapid climatic and ecological shifts in the past are crucial for understanding global systems and for predicting future impacts of climate change. Transient and broad scale hyperthermal events during the Paleogene, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), have been studied extensively through both marine records and a significant terrestrial record from North America. Despite this, little evidence exists from the climatic and ecological histories of other major landmasses, which limits the effectiveness of global climate response predictions. Here we present an integrated paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the early Paleogene from a site in central South America (Cerro Bayo, Argentina), including a new magnetostratigraphic age model, pedological and sedimentological interpretation, whole rock geochemical climate proxies, isotopic environmental proxies, and microfloral assemblages. Cerro Bayo is a 235-meter terrestrial section that exposes the Tunal, Mealla, and Maiz Gordo Formations, and based on magnetostratigraphic interpolation spans roughly 58—50 Mya, including both the PETM and EECO events. These formations are composed primarily of reddish sandstone and siltstone, much of which exhibits features characteristic of a moderate degree of pedogenesis (i.e., Inceptisols and Alfisols). High-resolution climate proxies derived from paleosol geochemical compositions highlight rapid increases in mean annual temperature (>5°C) and precipitation (>300 mm yr-1) during the PETM, as well as more gradual increasing temperature and precipitation trends leading up to the EECO. Carbon isotope stratigraphy through the section also indicates a sizable negative excursion (~4‰) during the PETM, and generally positive isotopic trends during the early Eocene. Phytolith biostratigraphy also details changes in local vegetation composition during climatic events that corresponds to similar patterns seen in terrestrial

  12. Volcanismo máfico terciario de la Puna jujeña, los Cerros Negros de Jama.

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    Caffe, Pablo, J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary mafic volcanism of the Jujuy Puna, the Cerros Negros de Jama. The Cerros Negros de Jama (23°29’ S – 66°56’ W monogenetic volcanoes belong to a group of eruptive centers that are representative of the most mafic magmatism in the northern Puna during the Cenozoic. They comprise scoria cones and associated lava flows erupted during coeval strombolian and effusive volcanic activity.Aphyric to microporphyritic skeletal textures and microphenocryst assemblages dominated by olivine and/or orthopyroxene suggest inexistent or short residence times in supracrustal magma chambers, as well as magma temperatures higher than 1000º C and near to water saturation conditions. The frequent occurrence of magmatic quartz xenocrysts with different degrees of reaction suggests assimilation of silicic magmas/igneous rocks under variable P-T conditions. A combination of large ascent rates and strong turbulence, together with an overheating of the magmas would have been crucial for this in-route contamination process.The Jama volcanic rocks are basaltic andesites and andesites to trachyandesites which belong to the high-K calcalkaline series. The observed geochemical signature is typical of continental arc magmas, showing negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and P, La/Ta > 30 and Ba/Nb > 25. Two main groups of rocks with different evolution patterns can be distinguished from major and trace element diagrams. Different concentrations of some elements at intermediate degrees of evolution point to variable degrees of incompatibility for them, which in turn may have been caused by magma evolution at different depths from the same or different primary magmas.

  13. Una fosa-vertedero de época vettona en el Cerro de la Mesa (Alcolea de Tajo, Toledo

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    Chapa Brunet, Teresa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of pits filled with earth, ashes, pottery fragments and fauna, usually known as ash pits, rubbish pits or dumps, has been recognized on many Second Iron Age settlements of the Spanish Northern Plateau, generally linked with Vaccean and Vettonian groups. However, its distribution should be extended to the west of the Southern Plateau and eastern Extremadura, as evidenced by the example of the Cerro de la Mesa village and indications coming from other western sites. We offer here a detailed study of part of a rubbish pit where certain domestic remains were withdrawn in connection with a new project of urbanisation of the Vettonian village held on the transition from the 3rd to the 2nd centuries BC.La existencia de fosas rellenas con tierra, cenizas, fragmentos cerámicos y fauna denominadas genéricamente como cenizales, basureros o vertederos, es un hecho bien conocido en la Meseta Norte durante la Segunda Edad del Hierro, vinculándose con los grupos Vacceos y Vettones. Sin embargo, su distribución debe ampliarse al occidente de la Meseta Sur y oriente extremeño, como se evidencia tanto en el Cerro de la Mesa como a través de indicios documentados en otros yacimientos más occidentales. Se presenta aquí un detallado estudio de un sector de la fosa que actuó como vertedero para la retirada de ciertos restos domésticos con ocasión de la reurbanización en profundidad del poblado vettón que tuvo lugar en la transición del siglo III al II a.C.

  14. Compañía Artística entre Juan de Oviedo y de la Bandera y Juan Martínez Montañés. Una aportación inédita a sus respectivas biografías

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    Santos Márquez, Antonio Joaquín

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a heretofore-unknown artistic company formed between the Sevillian sculptors Juan de Oviedo y de la Bandera and Juan Martínez Montañés, established in 1596 and which lasted six years. During this period they worked together on the altarpieces of the parish churches of Cazalla de la Sierra, Villamartín and Aracena, and shared the earnings from their sculptural projects.

    En este artículo se da a conocer una compañía artística hasta el momento inédita entre los escultores sevillanos Juan de Oviedo y de la Bandera y Juan Martínez Montañés. Fue firmada en 1596 y tenía una duración de seis años, durante los cuales labrarían conjuntamente los retablos mayores de las parroquias de Cazalla de la Sierra, Villamartín y Aracena, además de repartirse las ganancias que generaran los encargos escultóricos recibidos durante este periodo.

  15. Configuration of the mudstones, gray- and coffee-colored shale lithologic units, zones of silica and epidote, and their relation to the tectonics of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobo R, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Based on well cuttings, five lithological units have been recognized within the area of what is now the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. These five units are described. Differences in origin, mineralogy, grading, color, compaction, etc., are shown.

  16. Composición, estructura y diversidad del cerro El Águila, Michoacán, México Composition, structure and diversity of the cerro El Águila, Michoacán, Mexico

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    Luis Eduardo Zacarias-Eslava

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la composición, estructura y diversidad de la vegetación presente en el cerro El Águila, Michoacán. Se reconocieron fisonómicamente 5 tipos de vegetación y en cada uno se establecieron 16 parcelas circulares de 400 m² (3.2 ha para censar los individuos leñosos ≥ 10 cm d.a.p., con una parcela anidada de 100 m² (0.8 ha para los individuos entre 2.5 y 9.9 cm d.a.p. El muestreo incluyó 46 especies agrupadas en 33 géneros y 21 familias. Los bosques tropical caducifolio y de Quercus deserticola tuvieron los valores más bajos de altura promedio ( 11 m y área basal (> 40 m²/ha. La diversidad fue mayor en el bosque tropical caducifolio (S=23 y α =5.4 y menor en el de Quercus-Pinus (S= 13 y α= 2.71. En general, los tipos de vegetación mostraron diferentes especies dominantes y una alta diversidad beta. La composición y estructura de estas comunidades puede asociarse a cambios en altitud y a la perturbación por actividades humanas. No obstante, la zona de estudio aún presenta áreas en buen estado de conservación, particularmente los bosques templados hacia las zonas con mayor altitud, por lo que se sugiere que en un futuro cercano sea incluida dentro de alguna categoría de protección estatal.This study describes composition, structure and diversity of vegetation in the Cerro El Águila, Michoacán. Five plant communities were recognized and for each one all woody individuals ≥10 cm DBH were tallied in sixteen 400 m² circular plots, whereas individuals between 2.5 and 9.9 cm DBH were measured in a 100 m² circular sub-plot centered within each larger plot. A total of 46 species, 33 genera and 21 families were recorded. The tropical deciduous forest and Quercus deserticola forest had low values of mean plant height ( 11 m and basal area (> 40 m²/ha. Diversity was greater in the tropical deciduous forest (S= 23 and α= 5.4, respectively and lower in the oak-pine forest (S= 13 and α= 2.71. All communities displayed

  17. Grado de discapacidad en pacientes hemipléjicos del "Policlínico Docente Universitario del Cerro" Evaluation of disability in hemiplegic patients from Cerro university teaching polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Estévez Perera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la hemiplejía como consecuencia de un ictus constituye una importante causa de discapacidad. La continuidad y calidad en el proceso rehabilitador supone mejores perspectivas en el pronóstico de los pacientes. Objetivo: evaluar el grado de discapacidad en los pacientes hemipléjicos del área de salud del Policlínico Docente Universitario del Cerro. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, transversal en los pacientes que acudieron consecutivamente al área de rehabilitación del citado policlínico, desde septiembre de 2009 hasta julio de 2011. La muestra estuvo constituida por 124 hemipléjicos por enfermedad cerebrovascular mayores de 15 años, los cuales fueron evaluados con la Escala de Discapacidad de Rosetón. Se excluyeron los enfermos con afasia sensorial o mixta y aquellos que se negaron a participar. Resultados: en 84 (67,8 % pacientes se encontró independencia para la orientación y predominó la semidependencia para el desplazamiento y las necesidades físicas. Para la higiene personal, 48 (38,7 % pacientes resultaron ser dependientes. La falta de motivación para ocupar el tiempo libre se encontró en 92 (74,2 % pacientes, casi siempre por dificultades en la convivencia y en las relaciones familiares. Conclusiones: el grado de discapacidad de los pacientes hemipléjicos evaluados viene dado por la semidependencia en el desplazamiento y las necesidades físicas y la dependencia para el autocuidado. Las dificultades en la convivencia y las relaciones familiares interfieren en la motivación del paciente para ocupar el tiempo libre.Introduction: hemiplegia is an important cause of disability as a result of a stroke. The persistence and quality of the rehabilitative process lead to better results in the patient prognosis. Objective: to evaluate the extent of disability in hemiplegic patients from the health area under "Cerro" university teaching polyclinics. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in

  18. Mineralogy of the silica-epidote mineralized zone (SEMZ) in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir, B.C., Mexico; Mineralogia de la zona mineralizada de silice-epidota (ZMSE) del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, Georgina; Aragon, Alfonso; Portugal, Enrique; Arellano; Victor M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: gim@iie.org.mx; Leon, Jesus de; Alvarez, Julio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, B.C. (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    The distribution of hydrothermal minerals, mineral assemblages and fluid inclusion data were taken from drill cuttings from the production zone of wells all over the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The production zone has been termed the silica-epidote mineralized zone (SEMZ), and is located in the deep part of the gray shale where thick layers of sandstone are found. Common mineral assemblages show three temperature ranges in the SEMZ: <200 degrees Celsius, 200-250 degrees Celsius and 250-300 degrees Celsius. The first range is characterized by clays, calcite and quartz; the second by quartz, epidote, chlorite and mica, and the third by epidote, amphibole, illite and chlorite. The study of fluid inclusions in authigenic grain quartz has shown two-phase fluid inclusions (liquid + vapor) of different salinities. A wide range exists of homogenization temperatures (Th) and for some wells there is a good agreement between Th and direct temperature measurements. [Spanish] Se determino la distribucion de minerales hidrotermales y las asociaciones parageneticas y se realizo el estudio microtermometrico de inclusiones fluidas a partir de recortes de perforacion de pozos de las distintas areas del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto. Las muestras de recortes y nucleos de perforacion estudiados provienen de la zona de produccion a la que se le ha denominado Zona Mineralizada de Silice-Epidota (ZMSE), que se encuentra en la parte profunda de la lutita gris con importantes horizontes de areniscas. En esta zona las asociaciones parageneticas mas comunes han mostrado tres intervalos de temperatura para la ZMSE: <200 degrees Celsius, 200-250 degrees Celsius, 250-300 degrees Celsius. El primer intervalo esta caracterizado principalmente por arcillas, calcita y cuarzo; el segundo por cuarzo, epidota, clorita y micas, y el tercero por epidota, anfiboles, illita y clorita. El estudio de inclusiones fluidas en fragmentos de cuarzo autigenico mostro la presencia de inclusiones de dos fases

  19. Geological and production analyses focused on exploration of the eastern part of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Analisis geologico-productivo enfocado a la exploracion de la parte oriental del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail: alvaro.aguilar@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    The eastern part of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CGCP), known as Poligono Nuevo Leon, is an area with proven geothermal resources, as confirmed by seven directional wells located toward the east and by vertical well M-200 located inside the polygon. Well M-200 was drilled in 1984 and has produced about 4 million tons of steam to date. It is integrated into the CP-2 sector, producing 68 t/h of steam. Presently the eastern part of CGCP, representing 25% of the total field area, is producing over half of the steam for the entire field. In the last few years, the steam has come only after increasing the number of production wells located in the eastern zone of CGCP (Rodriguez, 2006), where pressure, enthalpy and temperature conditions are better than in other parts of the field. However in the long term it will be necessary to incorporate Poligono Nuevo Leon into the productive area to expand the productive life of CGCP. This paper includes a geological analysis, plus models for steam production, temperature and enthalpy for Poligono Nuevo Leon. [Spanish] La parte oriental del Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP), conocida como Poligono Nuevo Leon, representa una area potencial con recursos geotermicos comprobados, lo que demuestran siete pozos direccionales que se han perforado hacia el este, asi como el pozo vertical M-200, localizado dentro del poligono. El pozo M-200 se perforo en 1984 y ha producido a la fecha alrededor de 4 millones de toneladas de vapor, estando integrado al sector CP-2 una produccion de 68 t/h de vapor. Actualmente la parte oriental del CGCP, que representa el 25% del area total del campo, produce mas de la mitad del total de vapor del campo. El suministro de vapor en los ultimos anos se ha logrado cubrir aumentando el numero de pozos en operacion localizados en la zona oriente del CGCP (Rodriguez, 2006), ya que es aqui donde hay condiciones de presion, entalpia y temperatura del yacimiento que son mejores que en otras areas del campo

  20. Two-phase characteristics of the feeding fluid of Cerro Prieto IV wells (Mexico) obtained by gas equilibrium; Caracteristicas bifasicas del fluido de alimentacion de pozos de Cerro Prieto IV (Mexico), obtenidas por equilibrio gaseoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan-Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano-Gomez, Victor Manuel; Portugal-Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); De Leon-Vivar, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    The gas composition of fluids produced by CP IV geothermal wells from the Cerro Prieto field was studied in order to identify different types of fluids entering the wells by estimating their temperature and excess steam. A method based on the Fischer Tropsch reaction and H2S equilibrium with pyrite-pyrrhotite as mineral buffer (FTHSH3) was used. The results for the reservoir natural state indicated the presence of fluids with heterogeneous reservoir temperature (between 275 and 310 degrees Celsius) and excess steam values, which were found from negative (boiled liquid that has lost steam when flowing to the well) to one (steam phase with zero liquid saturation). The study for individual wells in which boiling processes were identified, showed that through time, the feeding fluids consist of a two-phase mixture with different liquid/steam proportions. Also, the results suggested that a steam phase could occur at CP IV which is added to the feeding fluid, depending on the operation conditions of the wells. The origin of this steam could be the boiling of the deeper liquid due to a pressure drop. [Spanish] Se estudio la composicion gaseosa de los fluidos producidos por pozos geotermicos del sector CP IV del campo de Cerro Prieto para tratar de distinguir aportes de fluidos diferentes mediante la estimacion de su temperatura de yacimiento y del exceso de vapor. Se utilizo un metodo de equilibrio gaseoso basado en la reaccion de Fischer Tropsch y el equilibrio combinado pirita-pirrotita (FT-HSH3). Los resultados obtenidos indican que en el estado inicial del yacimiento existen fluidos que muestran heterogeneidad en los valores de temperatura de yacimiento (entre 275 y 310 grados Celsius), asi como en el exceso de vapor con valores desde negativos (liquido que despues de ebullir ha perdido vapor en su trayecto hacia el pozo) hasta uno (vapor con cero saturacion de liquido). El estudio individual de los pozos con fenomenos de ebullicion muestra que a traves del tiempo

  1. Studies for recovering injection capacity in wells of the Cerro Prieto, BC, geothermal field; Estudios para recuperar la capacidad de aceptacion en pozos inyectores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Rosales, Julio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: julio.alvarez@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    As in geothermal fields around the world, at Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, former exploratory and production wells are used to inject residual brine. Since the 1980s, studies and activities have been carried out to find ways to recharge the reservoir and dispose of brine without harming the environment or underground aquifers. These include infiltration and cold-and-hot injection. Some of the studies are presented here, including analyses of litho-facies; core samples; pressure, temperature and spinner logs; well tests and injection rates-plus some studies on the shallow aquifer. All have been useful in fulfilling requirements made by environmental authorities. Because injection rates constantly decrease due to formation damage, it is proposed an additional technique be used to reduce such damages and prolong the lifetime of cold-and-hot injection wells-while ensuring the environment and shallow aquifers are not affected. [Spanish] Al igual que en diversos campos geotermicos en el mundo, en el de Cerro Prieto, Baja California se han utilizado tanto pozos inyectores perforados ex profeso como antiguos pozos exploratorios y productores para inyectar el fluido residual al subsuelo. Desde la decada de los 80 se han realizado diversos estudios y acciones en ese campo geotermico para recargar al yacimiento y para disponer del fluido residual, sin ocasionar danos al ambiente ni a los cuerpos hidricos del subsuelo, que van desde la infiltracion hasta la inyeccion en frio y en caliente. Este articulo presenta los diferentes estudios realizados con ese objetivo en el campo, incluyendo el analisis de litofacies, de nucleos de formacion, de registros de presion, temperatura y spinner, las pruebas en pozos y analisis de tasas de aceptacion, asi como los efectuados en el acuifero superficial. Todos ellos han sido de utilidad para atender los requerimientos de las autoridades ambientales. Finalmente, y en virtud de que las tasas de aceptacion de los pozos

  2. Cerro Grande Fire Impact to Water Quality and Stream Flow near Los Alamos National Laboratory: Results of Four Years of Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.M. Gallaher; R.J. Koch

    2004-09-15

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande fire burned about 7400 acres of mixed conifer forest on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and much of the 10,000 acres of mountainside draining onto LANL was severely burned. The resulting burned landscapes raised concerns of increased storm runoff and transport of contaminants by runoff in the canyons traversing LANL. The first storms after the fire produced runoff peaks that were more than 200 times greater than prefire levels. Total runoff volume for the year 2000 increased 50% over prefire years, despite a decline in total precipitation of 13% below normal and a general decrease in the number of monsoonal thunderstorms. The majority of runoff in 2000 occurred in the canyons at LANL south of Pueblo Canyon (70%), where the highest runoff volume occurred in Water Canyon and the peak discharge occurred in Pajarito Canyon. This report describes the observed effects of the Cerro Grande fire and related environmental impacts to watersheds at and near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the first four runoff seasons after the fire, from 2000 through 2003. Spatial and temporal trends in radiological and chemical constituents that were identified as being associated with the Cerro Grande fire and those that were identified as being associated with historic LANL discharges are evaluated with regard to impacts to the Rio Grande and area reservoirs downstream of LANL. The results of environmental sampling performed by LANL, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) after the Cerro Grande fire are included in the evaluation. Effects are described for storm runoff, baseflow, stream sediments, and area regional reservoir sediment.

  3. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician - Silurian times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Maja I.; Riller, Ulrich; Hongn, Fernando D.; Glodny, Johannes; Oncken, Onno

    2008-07-01

    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NW-Argentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relationship between individual segments of the shear plane and principal axes of mineral fabric ellipsoids indicates reverse-sense of shear with a minor component of left-lateral displacement. This is compatible with the kinematics of other ductile deformation zones in this area, collectively forming a network, which accomplished orogen-parallel extension in addition to vertical thickening. Using the Rb-Sr isotopic system, an undeformed pegmatite dike of the Cerro Durazno Pluton was dated at 455.8 ± 3.6 Ma and mineral fabrics of the Agua Rosada Shear Zone formed at middle greenschist-facies metamorphism gave deformation ages of 437.0 ± 3.8 Ma and ⩽428.4 ± 4.5 Ma. Thus, tectonic overprint at low metamorphic grade occurred about 20-30 Ma after terminal magmatism in the Cerro Durazno area. Our data from the Cerro Durazno area and regional considerations suggest that the western margin of Gondwana was characterized by orogen-parallel extension in addition to crustal thickening as well as episodes of magmatism and ductile deformation that varied greatly in time and space.

  4. Multiple approaches to understanding the taxonomic status of an enigmatic new scorpion species of the genus Tityus (Buthidae) from the biogeographic island of Paraje Tres Cerros (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilardi, Renzo S.; Cajade, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Martín J.; Ceccarelli, F. Sara; Mola, Liliana M.

    2017-01-01

    Tityus curupi n. sp., belonging to the bolivianus complex, is described from the biogeographically distinct area of Paraje Tres Cerros in north-eastern Argentina. We also present a molecular species delimitation analysis between Tityus curupi n. sp. and its sister species Tityus uruguayensis Borelli 1901 to confirm species integrity. Furthermore, a cytogenetic analysis is presented for these two species which contain different multivalent associations in meiosis, as a consequence of chromosome rearrangements, and the highest chromosome numbers in the genus. PMID:28746406

  5. Evaluación Integral del Riesgo Volcánico del Cerro Machín, Colombia

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    Leonel Vega Mora

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available El volcán Cerro Machín (VCM se encuentra situado en la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Por la composición química, magnitud y extensión de sus erupciones pasadas se reconoce como un volcán explosivo de gran potencial de daño, cuya actividad futura podría afectar intensamente y durante mucho tiempo (meses hasta años una región estratégica para la economía del país, que cubre áreas pertenecientes a los departamentos de Tolima, Quindío, Valle del Cauca y Cundinamarca, en las cuales habitan cerca de un millón de personas (INGEOMINAS, 2002. Este artículo muestra la metodología y resultados del estudio de “Evaluación Integral del Riesgo del Cerro Machín – Colombia”, realizado durante 2009 por el Grupo PIGA de Investigación en Política, Información y Gestión Ambiental de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, tomando como punto de partida el estudio de “Evaluación de la Amenaza Volcánica Potencial del Cerro Machín” adelantado en el 2002 por el Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería – INGEOMINAS. En consecuencia, se genera y ajusta una nueva ecuación para la determinación del riesgo, basada en la valoración de índices de amenaza intrínseca e índices de vulnerabilidad, los primeros en función del grado de intensidad, duración, extensión y acumulación de las amenazas, y los segundos, en función del grado de exposición espacial y temporal de los elementos (sociales, económicos, institucionales y ecosistémicos y de su capacidad de respuesta intrínseca y extrínseca ante las amenazas (Vega, 2005. Con estas ecuaciones y mediante el uso de sistemas de información geográfica (SIG, se realiza para cada escenario de análisis considerado la modelación geoespacial del riesgo a nivel de cada píxel cartográfico del área territorial de estudio. En esta modelación se integra toda la información territorial del área en estudio, lo que permite obtener, de acuerdo con el

  6. Geographic Information System (GIS) Emergency Support for the May 2000 Cerro Grande Wildfire, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R.Mynard; G.N.Keating; P.M.Rich; D.R. Bleakly

    2003-05-01

    In May 2000 the Cerro Grande wildfire swept through Los Alamos, New Mexico, burning approximately 17,400 ha (43,000 acres) and causing evacuation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the communities of Los Alamos and White Rock. An integral part of emergency response during the fire was the use of geographic information system (GIS) technology, which continues to be used in support of post-fire restoration and environmental monitoring. During the fire Laboratory GIS staff and volunteers from other organizations worked to produce maps and provide support for emergency managers, including at an emergency GIS facility in Santa Fe. Subsequent to the fire, Laboratory GIS teams supported the multiagency Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) team to provide GIS data and maps for planning mitigation efforts. The GIS teams continue to help researchers, operations personnel, and managers deal with the tremendous changes caused by the fire. Much of the work is under the auspices of the Cerro Grande Rehabilitation Project (CGRP) to promote recovery from fire damage, improve information exchange, enhance emergency management, and conduct mitigation activities. GIS efforts during the fire provided important lessons about institutional matters, working relationships, and emergency preparedness. These lessons include the importance of (1) an integrated framework for assessing natural and human hazards in a landscape context; (2) a strong GIS capability for emergency response; (3) coordinated emergency plans for GIS operations; (4) a method for employees to report their whereabouts and receive authoritative information during an evacuation; (5) GIS data that are complete, backed-up, and available during an emergency; (6) adaptation of GIS to the circumstances of the emergency; (7) better coordination in the GIS community; (8) better integration of GIS into LANL operations; and (9) a central data warehouse for data and metadata. These lessons are important for planning

  7. Addition of schelita residue from the mine in Cerro Cora Bodo / RN in the composition of ceramic materials; Adicao de residuo de scheelita da mina Bodo em Cerro Cora/RN na composicao de materiais ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.B.D. de; Souza, M. M. de; Farias, D.S.U. de; Lima, T.C. de; Nobrega, L.F.P. de M. [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), RN (Brazil); Mendes, L.B., E-mail: anabeatriz.d.a@outlook.com [Fundacao de Apoio a Pesquisa do Rio Grande do Norte (FAPERN), Natal RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Mining activities produce mineral waste that can degrade the environment. The waste generated by companies is not reused due to the fact they fail to present an application for it that proves to be economically viable. Seeking the reuse of mineral waste and reduce the environmental impacts, this work addresses the chemical characterization by x-ray fluorescence (FRX), of the processing of scheelite reject at Bodo mine in Cerro Cora-RN. For the procedure, the sample was collected, grounded and sieved to #200, and then characterized to evaluate its chemical composition and its potential to be incorporated into materials. Besides the characterization, a water absorption test and also a bending test were performed to analyze the power and tension of the material. The result of the analysis indicated that the sample researched presents a greater concentration of SiO{sub 2} to be used as a structuring element in ceramic mass, but in the traditional formulation, it will only be added 10% of the reject in its formulation, because besides the SiO{sub 2} in the sample analyzed other elements that act with fluxes were found. It was also observed the material has low water absorption, but the reject reached low strength and breakdown voltage. We concluded that the reject of scheelite presents great potential, and therefore, further tests can be conducted to analyze the possibility of being added as raw material for the formulation of other materials like cement. (author)

  8. A preliminary interpretation of gas composition in the CP IV sector wells, Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor M; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx; Perez Hernandez, Alfredo; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio; Leon Vivar, Jesus de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General Cerro Prieto, B.C. (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    To increase the electrical generation capacity of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field from 620 MW to 720 MW, the Cerro Prieto IV (CP IV) sector of the field was developed in the NE portion of the exploited field. Fourteen new wells have been drilled there since 2000. The wells in CP IV zone produce two-phase fluids at wellhead with heterogeneous steam fraction characteristics: at the central zone and towards the NW, the wells are liquid-dominated while those towards the E and S produce a relatively high steam fraction. This work studies the gas compositions of produced fluids to obtain reservoir parameters such as temperature and steam fraction and identify different sources of fluids in the wells. A method was used based on the Fischer Tropsch reaction and H{sub 2}S equilibria with pyrite-pyrrhotite as a mineral buffer (FT-HSH3). The results for the natural state showed the presence of fluids with reservoir temperatures from 275 to 310 degrees Celsius and excess steam values from -1 to 50%. Data are aligned in a FT-HSH3 trend, suggesting that the well discharges consist of a mixture in different proportions of the two end members. One seems to be a liquid with a temperature of over 300 degrees Celsius with negative or negligible excess steam. The other seems to be a two-phase fluid with a temperature of about 275 degrees Celsius and an excess steam fraction of about 0.5. According to the data for single wells and depending on the production conditions of the wells, reservoir fluid mixtures could occur in different proportions of liquid and steam. Data for 2005 that included wells drilled after 2000 suggest the presence of a steam phase in the reservoir. The steam could be generated with the boiling of deep reservoir fluid from a pressure drop. The mixing trend obtained for the natural state was also seen for 2005 data but lower temperatures (from 265 to 295 degrees Celsius) were obtained compared with those for natural conditions. The entry of lower

  9. MUSGOS (BRYOPHYTA DEL PARQUE NACIONAL ÁVILA, SECTORES CERRO EL ÁVILA – LAGUNAZO, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Thalia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan 29 familias, 74 géneros y 111 especies de musgos para los sectores CerroEl Ávila y Lagunazo, Parque Nacional El Ávila en Caracas, Venezuela. Las familiasPottiaceae, Dicranaceae y Fissidentaceae fueron las más ricas en géneros y especies.A lo largo las seis localidades estudiadas la mayor riqueza de musgos se encontró a1700 m de altura. Del total de especies inventariadas el 60 % corresponden al hábitoacrocárpico, el 43% de los taxones se ubicaron en el sustrato terrestre y la forma devida cespitosa corta (Cc fue la más representativa, con él 44.7% de las especies demusgo. Se adicionan cinco especies a la fl ora muscícola de Venezuela: Rhodobryumroseum (Hedw. Limpr., Pilopogon tiquipayae Herzog, Taxiphyllum taxirameum(Mitt. M. Fleisch., Leskea plumaria Mitt., Bryoerythrophyllum campylocarpum(Müll. Hal. H.A. Crum. Se citan también 22 nuevos registros a la briofl ora de laregión de la Cordillera de la Costa.

  10. Babel en la mina. El campamento minero como modelo de asentamiento en el mundo industrializado: Cerro Muriano (Córdoba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano Sanchiz, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El campamento minero contemporáneo es un tipo de asentamiento muy concreto, configurado bajo unos cánones que, con matices, suelen repetirse a escala internacional. Se trata de un lugar de convergencia, de fricción de clases. También, de un espacio heterogéneo desde el punto de vista cultural donde, sin embargo, el grupo humano formado por los obreros suele aparecer cohesionado por unas circunstancias comunes. Estas características se acentúan allí donde la inversión procede de un país distinto al de la mina. Hablamos, muchas veces, de territorios ocupados en el marco de una actividad económica de corte colonialista. Estas páginas recogen un análisis arqueológico del asentamiento surgido en torno a las minas de Cerro Muriano (Córdoba durante su explotación inglesa a principios del siglo XX. El ejemplo seleccionado nos sirve para ilustrar cómo fueron aquellos campamentos, muchos de los cuales sobrevivieron a la desaparición de la actividad minera y evolucionaron hacia núcleos de población consolidados, como es el caso.

  11. Effects of pressure drawdown and recovery on the Cerro Prieto beta reservoir in the CP-III area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H. [Truesdell (Alfred H.), Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lippmann, M.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The production characteristics of wells in the northwestern Cerro Prieto III area changed greatly when the Cp-III power plant went on line in 1986. Fluid extraction in the field more than doubled and reservoir-wide boiling started immediately, greatly increasing the enthalpy of produced fluids. Some well fluids showed a decrease in chloride due to adiabatic steam condensation in the well and separator, and others were enriched in chloride due to boiling. As reservoir drawdown increased, entrance of cooler and more dilute groundwaters into the reservoir became evident (i.e., condensation stopped, and there was a decrease in enthalpy and chloride in produced fluids). Although some groundwater inflow was from the leaky western margin of the reservoir, the majority is in the northeast, inferred to be local and downward, possibly through more permeable zones associated with the normal fault H. This natural recharge and some reinjection have slowed and possibly reversed pressure drawdown throughout CP-III. Enthalpy has decreased and liquid saturation has increased as the steam-rich zone in the upper part of the reservoir has either disappeared or become thinner.

  12. Soft-bottom crustacean assemblages in Mediterranean marine caves: the cave of Cerro Gordo (Granada, Spain) as case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barranco, C.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Sánchez-Tocino, L.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Although marine caves are priority conservation areas according to the Directive 92/43/CEE of the European Community, there is a lack of studies dealing with their soft-bottom communities. For a case study, we selected the Cerro Gordo cave at 15 m depth. Three different zones were defined: a semi-dark 25-m long entrance area, a dark intermediate area of 35 m, and the final zone at 90 m from the entrance. Sediment samples were taken from these zones as well as from outside the cave (control) by SCUBA diving. Six rectangular cores of 10 × 250 cm2 were collected in each site for macrofaunal study, and three more replicates were taken to analyze physico-chemical parameters. The granulometry showed a clear gradient from medium sands outside the cave to silt and clay in the inner zone. Measurements of the crustacean assemblages showed that the number of species and abundance were significantly higher outside the cave (30-40 species, >4,000 ind m-2) than inside (5-10 species, mediterranea and Monoculodes packardi. This is the first description of soft-bottom crustacean communities from submarine caves of southern Spain.

  13. EMPLEO DEL PROGRAMA VOLCFLOW PARA SIMULAR FLUJOS PIROCLÁSTICOS DEL VOLCÁN CERRO MACHÍN, TOLIMA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Adriana Cárdenas Quiroga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de simular futuros flujos piroclásticos que podría producir el Volcán Cerro Machín, ubicado en la Cordillera Central de Colombia. Esta simulación se realizó con el programa VolcFlow desarrollado por el Laboratorio de Magmas y Volcanes de la Universidad Blaise Pascal, Francia, diseñado especialmente para modelar el comportamiento de este tipo de productos volcánicos, ya que está basado en las características reológicas de esos flujos. Se comparan las áreas que serían potencialmente afectadas por una erupción de ese tipo y los espesores del material que se depositaría con resultados obtenidos de simulaciones realizadas con un Model Builder desarrollado en ARC GIS por el Grupo de Investigación Geomática Aplicada de la Universidad Militar Nueva Granada en Colombia, obteniéndose resultados similares.

  14. Analysis of productive evolution of well M-19A, Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Analisis de la evolucion productiva del pozo M-19A del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Marco H; Romero-Rios, Francisco [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, B.C (Mexico)]. E-mail: marco.rodriguez01@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-07-15

    Well M-19A has been the most productive in the Cerro Prieto field, producing around 40 million tons of fluid. The well went on line in February 1975 and was in continuous operation until June 2006. Monthly measurements for over 30 years of operating conditions and chemical and isotopic analyses of the fluids allow identification of the most significant processes occurring in the zone where the well is located. Three dominant recharge types have been identified, each lasting about 10 years. They are a) a recharge of fluids of lower temperature than the production fluids, even though the chemical and isotopic compositions are similar; b) a recharge of lower-temperature fluids with diluted chemical and isotopic compositions; and c) a progressive recharge of reinjected water with a higher chloride concentration and heavy isotopic composition. The production and reinjection rates for over 30 years of production history in the M-19A well zone allow for speculation of a reservoir pressure recovery, which is confirmed with a calculation using production data from well M-19A. The evolution of the reservoir pressure in the zone contrasts with the rest of the reservoir, where a constant pressure drop is observed, particularly toward the central and eastern parts of the field. [Spanish] El pozo M-19A ha sido el mas productivo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, alcanzando una extraccion de mas de 40 millones de toneladas de fluido. Fue integrado a produccion en febrero de 1975 y hasta junio de 2006 ha permanecido en produccion en forma continua. Las mediciones mensuales de sus condiciones operativas y los analisis quimicos e isotopicos del agua producida permiten identificar los procesos mas significativos que han ocurrido a lo largo de esos mas de 30 anos en la zona donde se localiza el pozo. Se han identificado tres tipos de recarga dominantes que se presentan durante un periodo cercano a 10 anos cada uno, los cuales son: a) una recarga de fluidos de menor temperatura

  15. Valores de presión arterial en escolares sanos de una escuela primaria del municipio Cerro Arterial pressure values in healthy students from a primary school of Cerro municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Francisco Corredera Guerra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hipertensión constituye un notable problema de salud en el ámbito mundial que determina una importante causa de morbilidad, en la que están involucrados factores genéticos y ambientales. La presión arterial en la infancia aumenta progresivamente a lo largo de los años, y es una importante variable a considerar. OBJETIVO: caracterizar el comportamiento de algunas variables cardiovasculares y nutricionales en escolares supuestamente sanos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo de cohorte transversal, en el que fueron estudiados escolares supuestamente sanos de una escuela primaria del municipio Cerro, en Ciudad de La Habana, en el período comprendido desde el 1ro. de diciembre de 2006 al 28 de febrero de 2007. El universo estuvo constituido por 358 niños de ambos sexos entre 5 y 11 años de edad. Las variables estudiadas fueron: presión arterial sistólica, presión arterial diastólica, presión arterial media, frecuencia cardiaca, peso, talla e índice de masa corporal. RESULTADOS: los resultados muestran cifras de presión arterial sistólica entre 77 y 104 mmHg, valores de presión arterial diastólica entre 43 a 64 mmHg, mientras que los valores de presión arterial media oscilan en un intervalo de 57 a 72 mmHg. La frecuencia cardiaca fue mayor en escolares de menor edad con respecto a los de mayor edad. El peso, la talla y el índice de masa corporal se incrementan con la edad. CONCLUSIONES: se concluye que los valores de presión arterial sistólica, diastólica y media en escolares de ambos sexos se incrementan con la edad, no así los de frecuencia cardiaca, cuya tendencia es a disminuir a medida que la edad aumenta. Los valores que corresponden al índice de masa corporal se elevan con la edad.INTRODUCTION: hypertension is a marked health problem at world scale determining significant causes of morbidity, in which are involved genetic and environmental factors. Infantile arterial pressure

  16. Valores de peso y talla según la edad. Estudio realizado en niños escolares del municipio Cerro Weight and height significance related to age. Study carried out in school children from Cerro municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Francisco Corredera Guerra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el crecimiento longitudinal del niño es un proceso biológico complejo, resultado de múltiples interacciones entre factores endógenos y exógenos. Es, sin dudas, el resultado de la conjunción de factores genéticos y ambientales que afectan a las primeras edades de la vida, y que acontecen en forma continuada y dinámica desde la concepción a la madurez. OBJETIVOS: caracterizar el crecimiento en escolares de edades comprendidas entre los 5 y los 11 años, de la escuela primaria "Braulio Coroneaux", del municipio Cerro. Para lograrlo se pretenden determinar los valores del peso y de la talla según sexo y grupo etario, así como identificar las escalas de percentiles del peso y la talla correspondientes a cada grupo etario estudiado. MÉTODOS: estudio de tipo descriptivo de cohorte transversal en niños supuestamente sanos en el período comprendido del 1º de diciembre de 2006 al 28 de febrero de 2007. El universo estuvo constituido por 358 niños, de ellos se estudiaron 351. Dimensiones antropométricas utilizadas: peso y talla. Se identificaron teniendo en cuenta los criterios de cada dimensión. RESULTADOS: los valores de peso para la edad y talla para la edad reflejaron promedios superiores, diferentes a los reportados por los niños de igual sexo y edad según las tablas cubanas de crecimiento y desarrollo. Los valores de peso y talla para la edad predominaron en el sexo masculino en ambos grupos etarios. CONCLUSIONES: más del 50 % de la muestra en ambos grupos etarios se correspondió con una talla dentro de límites normales. En ambos grupos y en ambos sexos, las escalas de percentiles identificadas en la población de referencia se orientaron hacia los percentiles superiores.INTRODUCTION: child longitudinal growing is a complex biological process as a result of multiple interactions between endogenous and exogenous factors. Undoubtedly, is result of genetic and environmental factors combination affecting the first

  17. PATRONES DE CONSUMO FINAL DE CÉRVIDOS EN EL PARANÁ MEDIO: EL CASO DEL SITIO CERRO AGUARÁ / Cervids final consumption patterns in middle Paraná River: the case of Cerro Aguará archaeological site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mucciolo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cérvidos fueron amplia y regularmente explotados por los cazadores-recolectores que habitaron la macroregión del Paraná-Plata durante el Holoceno tardío. En la cuenca media del Paraná, sin embargo, muy pocos estudios han enfocado sobre las estrategias empleadas para su obtención, procesamiento y consumo. Teniendo en cuenta esto, el objetivo de este trabajo es explorar dichos aspectos a partir del análisis de los conjuntos de cérvidos provenientes del sitio arqueológico Cerro Aguará, localizado en el departamento General Obligado (provincia de Santa Fe. La perspectiva seleccionada propone al consumo como factor preponderante en la configuración del registro zooarqueológico dentro del continuum de actividades que componen la explotación faunística. Desde esta perspectiva, y tomando en consideración que las carcasas de los cérvidos proveen distintos tipos de recursos alimenticios con diferentes costos de extracción (carne, médula y grasa ósea, se evalúan diferentes indicadores para establecer si existió diferente intensidad en su procesamiento. Los resultados indican que las dos especies de cérvidos identificadas en el sitio, Blastocerus dichotomus y Ozotoceros bezoarticus, ocuparon un rol preponderante en la dieta, aunque las carcasas del primero fueron empleadas más intensivamente probablemente en correlación con su mayor disponibilidad de nutrientes internos, tales como la médula y posiblemente la grasa ósea.  Abstract  Cervids were wide and regularly exploited by several Late Holocene hunter-gatherers inhabiting Paraná Plata macroregion. In the middle Paraná river, however, few research has been made on strategies involving their procurement, processing and consumption. The purpose of this article is to explore those aspects from the analysis of cervid assemblages of Cerro Aguará archaeological site (General Obligado, Santa Fe province. The selected perspective proposes final consumption as one of the most

  18. Comportamiento del asma bronquial en un área de salud del policlínico Cerro Behavior of bronchial asthma in a health area of the "Cerro" polyclinic

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    Marlene Álvarez Carmenate

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el asma bronquial es la enfermedad crónica más frecuente en pediatría y una de las principales causas de consulta. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento del asma bronquial como problema de salud. Métodos: trabajo descriptivo, prospectivo, de corte longitudinal, en 309 niños con edades comprendidas entre 0 y 19 años con el diagnóstico de asma bronquial, atendidos en los 15 consultorios médicos del grupo básico de trabajo A del policlínico universitario "Cerro", en el período comprendido entre el 1º de enero de 2007 y el 31 de diciembre de 2007. Método empírico para la obtención de los datos clínicos epidemiológicos, y como técnica, la encuesta a través de un cuestionario. Resultados: 148 pacientes (48 % se encontraban entre 10 y 14 años, 175 (56,6 % del sexo masculino, 136 (44 % fueron clasificados como persistentes ligeros, 140 (58 % presentaron rinitis y 57 (24 % dermatitis. Había fumadores en las viviendas de 303 pacientes (98 %, hacinamiento en 290 casos (94 % y el polvo en el hogar 284 (92 %. Conclusiones: predominio en el grupo de edades de 10 a 14 años, sexo masculino. En cuanto a la severidad de la enfermedad predominó la forma persistente ligera, las manifestaciones atópicas más frecuentes fueron la rinitis y la dermatitis, los principales factores de riesgo fueron el humo del tabaco, el polvo en el hogar y el hacinamiento, y el tratamiento de elección fue el de la crisis. Se observó la falta de organización y unidad de criterios para el enfoque integral de la política intercrisis o de sostén en la atención de los pacientes.Introduction: bronchial asthma is the more frequent chronic disease in Pediatrics and one of the major causes of consultation. Objective: to describe the behavior of bronchial asthma as a health problem. Methods: a longitudinal, prospective and descriptive study was conducted in 309 children aged between 0 and 19 diagnosed with bronchial asthmas seen in the 15 medical

  19. Bandera ei lase magada / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2010-01-01

    Ukraina presidendi troonilt lahkunud Viktor Juštšenko andis kangelase tiitli 1959. a. Münchenis KGB agendi poolt tapetud rahvuslasele Stepan Banderale. Sammu põhjuseks on pakutud soovi riigi poliitilist maastikku veelgi segamini ajada. Venemaa ja Euroopa Parlamendi reageeringud. Autori hinnangul vajaks Ukraina kangelaste ümber käiva sildistamise saginas hoopis põhjalikke reforme

  20. Las avispas bandera (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae de Colombia

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    Zambrano González Giselle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Evaniidae está representada por un número relativamente pequeño de géneros y especies dentro del orden Hymenoptera. Son avispas de tamaño medio, sin aguijón y solitarias que parasitan ootecas de cucarachas. Se realizó un estudio de reconocimiento genérico de la familia Evaniidae para Colombia y su distribución a partir de colecciones  entomológicas. El primer capítulo, “Sistemática y taxonomía de  Evaniidae”, pretende ser el reflejo de un trabajo realizado por más de un año, de curadoría y determinación de especímenes presentes en colecciones entomológicas, donde se propone una clave taxonómica para la identificación de los seis géneros de evánidos encontrados en Colombia y un análisis de los caracteres utilizados para la misma. El segundo capítulo, “Biología de Evaniidae”, es una recopilación de todos los estudios existentes sobre la biología de la familia, en donde se hace evidente la falta de trabajo sobre el tema y el desconocimiento básico de algunos aspectos que podrían ser muy útiles para la implementación de nuevas estrategias de control biológico. El tercer capítulo, “Distribución geográfica de los géneros de la f amilia Evaniidae”, muestra como los diferentes géneros de la familia se encuentran distribuidos dentro del territorio colombiano y presenta el estado actual del muestreo de la familia dando información para poder definir áreas de concentración de muestras o áreas posteriores de muestreo. Por último, se presentan las conclusiones y recomendaciones finales que permiten dar una idea del trabajo que queda por hacer y los pasos a seguir.

  1. Columnar jointing in vapor-phase-altered, non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite, Paycuqui, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather M.; Lesti, Chiara; Cas, Ray A.F.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Viramonte, Jose G.; Folkes, Christopher B.; Giordano, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Columnar jointing is thought to occur primarily in lavas and welded pyroclastic flow deposits. However, the non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite at Paycuqui, Argentina, contains well-developed columnar joints that are instead due to high-temperature vapor-phase alteration of the deposit, where devitrification and vapor-phase crystallization have increased the density and cohesion of the upper half of the section. Thermal remanent magnetization analyses of entrained lithic clasts indicate high emplacement temperatures, above 630°C, but the lack of welding textures indicates temperatures below the glass transition temperature. In order to remain below the glass transition at 630°C, the minimum cooling rate prior to deposition was 3.0 × 10−3–8.5 × 10−2°C/min (depending on the experimental data used for comparison). Alternatively, if the deposit was emplaced above the glass transition temperature, conductive cooling alone was insufficient to prevent welding. Crack patterns (average, 4.5 sides to each polygon) and column diameters (average, 75 cm) are consistent with relatively rapid cooling, where advective heat loss due to vapor fluxing increases cooling over simple conductive heat transfer. The presence of regularly spaced, complex radiating joint patterns is consistent with fumarolic gas rise, where volatiles originated in the valley-confined drainage system below. Joint spacing is a proxy for cooling rates and is controlled by depositional thickness/valley width. We suggest that the formation of joints in high-temperature, non-welded deposits is aided by the presence of underlying external water, where vapor transfer causes crystallization in pore spaces, densifies the deposit, and helps prevent welding.

  2. The life cycle of instability features measured from the Andes Lidar Observatory over Cerro Pachon on 24 March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, J. H.; Wan, K.; Gelinas, L. J.; Fritts, D. C.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Rudy, R. J.; Liu, A. Z.; Franke, S. J.; Vargas, F. A.; Pautet, P. D.; Taylor, M. J.; Swenson, G. R.

    2014-07-01

    The Aerospace Corporation's Nightglow Imager (ANI) observes nighttime OH emission (near 1.6 μm) every 2 s over an approximate 73° field of view. ANI had previously been used to study instability features seen over Maui. Here we describe observations of instabilities seen from 5 to 8 UT on 24 March 2012 over Cerro Pachon, Chile, and compare them with previous results from Maui, with theory, and with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). The atmosphere had reduced stability because of the large negative temperature gradients measured by a Na lidar. Thus, regions of dynamical and convective instabilities are expected to form, depending on the value of the Richardson number. Bright primary instabilities are formed with a horizontal wavelength near 9 km and showed the subsequent formation of secondary instabilities, rarely seen over Maui, consistent with the primaries being dynamical instabilities. The ratio of the primary to secondary horizontal wavelength was greater over Chile than over Maui. After dissipation of the instabilities, smaller-scale features appeared with sizes in the buoyancy subrange between 1.5 and 6 km. Their size spectra were consistent with the model of Weinstock (1978) if the turbulence is considered to be increasing. The DNS results produce secondary instabilities with sizes comparable to what is seen in the images although their spectra are somewhat steeper than is observed. However, the DNS results also show that after the complete decay of the primary features, scale sizes considerably smaller than 1 km are produced and these cannot be seen by the ANI instrument.

  3. Síndrome de Burnout en estudiantes internos durante su estancia por el Hospital Pediátrico del Cerro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Acosta-Torres

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la presencia del síndrome de Burnout en su orientación unidimensional entre los estudiantes internos del sexto año de la carrera de Medicina durante su rotación por Pediatría. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal y descriptivo mediante la aplicación de la Escala Unidimensional del Burnout Estudiantil de Barraza Macías a una muestra de 230 alumnos del sexto año de la carrera de Medicina, durante su rotación por el Hospital Docente Pediátrico del Cerro, previo consentimiento informado; se indagó la presencia del mismo, sus características y se relacionó la entidad con las variables de la edad y el sexo de los estudiantes. Una vez obtenidos los datos, éstos se almacenaron en una página Excel y se procesaron por el programa XLSTAT 9, mediante la aplicación del método porcentual y el estadígrafo X2, con una significación de p < 0,05. Resultados: Se observó una incidencia del síndrome de Burnout con un nivel leve (83,91% y moderado (13,42% en la población estudiada. Su predominio se identificó en el sexo femenino, con significación estadística e independiente de la edad. Conclusiones: Los alumnos internos en su rotación por la asignatura de Pediatría se encuentran afectados en su mayoría por el síndrome de Burnout en un nivel leve, observándose dependencia del mismo en relación con el sexo femenino.

  4. The evolution of a mid-crustal thermal aureole at Cerro Toro, Sierra de Famatina, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasino, P. H.; Casquet, C.; Larrovere, M. A.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Galindo, C.; Dahlquist, J. A.; Baldo, E. G.; Rapela, C. W.

    2014-03-01

    A more than 12 km wide sheeted tonalite complex in western Sierra de Famatina, NW Argentina, was emplaced at middle crust levels (ca. 5 kbar), coeval with regional metamorphism during an early phase of the Ordovician Famatinian orogeny (ca. 480 Ma). Advective heat from the tonalite complex caused a rise in the host regional temperatures (≤ 700 °C) by a maximum of ca. 100 °C, developing an aureole (~ 3 km wide) parallel to the igneous contact. This was accompanied by significant melting (ca. 40%) of the host rocks that hybridized to a variable extent with the tonalitic magmas. Three metamorphic zones were distinguished in a cross-section through the aureole: (1) an external zone consisting of metatexitic gneisses, amphibolites and minor tonalites, (2) an intermediate zone formed by screens of highly melted gneisses, amphibolites and metagabbros lying between tonalite and newly formed leucogranitoid and hybrid rock sheets, and (3) an internal zone formed almost exclusively of massive tonalite and minor hybrid rocks. Incongruent melting of biotite in gneisses of the intermediate zone produced peritectic cordierite and garnet. Hybrids resulting from variable mixing of anatectic granitoids and tonalite magma developed in the innermost part of the aureole at 750-800 °C. Increased water activity within this zone eventually promoted increased melting of plagioclase + quartz in the gneisses. Leucogranitoid magmas formed in part by extraction from the hybrid magmas led to heterogeneity of the Sr-isotope composition. The Cerro Toro contact aureole shows that assimilation of metasedimentary rocks through partial melting can play an important role during emplacement of tonalitic magmas at mid-crustal levels.

  5. Observations of a Breakdown of a Mountain Wave Near 84 km Altitude Over Cerro Pachon Chile from the Andes Lidar Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, J. H.; Gelinas, L. J.; Rudy, R. J.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, S. M.; Franke, S. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain waves are produced by flow over orography. They propagate almost vertically, and are characterized by nearly zero velocity phase speed. The altitude to which they typically propagate is not well documented. They are thought to mainly dissipate by absorption in a critical layer although large-amplitude wave breakdown is also thought to occur. There have been almost no direct observations of the breakdown of mountain waves in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The region over Cerro Pachon Chile (a 2715 meter mountain in the Andes where large astronomical telescopes are located) is especially favorable to the production of mountain waves. In 2009 Smith and colleagues reported on the first observations of such waves propagating into the mesopause region (85 to 95 km) from El Leoncito Argentina, where waves over Cerro Pachon could be seen using airglow observations. The Aerospace Corporation's Nightglow Imager (ANI) is located at the Andes Lidar Observatory near the crest of Cerro Pachon. ANI observes nighttime OH emission (near 1.6 microns) every 2 seconds over an approximate 73 degree field of view. ANI had previously been used to the breakdown of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability features not associated with a specific gravity wave. Here we present OH airglow observations, originating near 84 km, from 22 UT to 3 UT on 8/9 July 2012 that show the breakdown of a mountain wave into instability features that subsequently dissipate into turbulence. These multi-hour observations provide the most detailed images to date of the breakdown of a mountain wave. The causes for, and the results of, the breakdown of this mountain wave are discussed.

  6. The geological and structural evolution of the Cerro Tuzgle Quaternary stratovolcano in the back-arc region of the Central Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, G.; Cogliati, S.; Baez, W.; Arnosio, M.; Bustos, E.; Viramonte, J.; Groppelli, G.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our paper is to contribute to a better knowledge of the volcanism in the back-arc region of the Central Andes and its relationships with the basement geology, the stress field and the tectonic evolution, by studying in detail the stratigraphy and the structure of the Quaternary Cerro Tuzgle stratovolcano in the Puna Plateau. Field mapping and remote sensing analysis reveal the stratigraphic architecture, the geological evolution and the volcanotectonic interactions in the Cerro Tuzgle area. For the first time in a volcano of the Puna Plateau, synthemic units bounded by unconformity surfaces have been defined, unrevealing the temporal and spatial relationships between constructive and destructive phases of the volcano history. Our study indicates that after the emplacement of a small ignimbrite deposit and of few scattered lava domes, the central Cerro Tuzgle volcano built up throughout three distinct phases of edifice construction. The first of these constructive phases ended with a previously unreported destructive event, consisting of ≈ 0.5 km3, catastrophic sector collapse of the volcanic edifice, whose stratigraphic position and main characteristics have been identified. The study suggests that the regional stress regime and the topography of the substrata are the main non-magmatic factors controlling the constructive and destructive phases of the volcano, including the directions of magmatic intrusions, faulting and gravitational sector failure of the volcano. The integration of synthemic stratigraphy and volcanotectonic analysis in the study of volcanic edifices showed to be an effective methodological approach for the understanding of the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Puna Plateau.

  7. Incidencia de ataque cerebrovascular en el departamento de Cerro Largo, Uruguay. Diagnóstico de situación previo al desarrollo de una Unidad de ACV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ricagni Zabalveytia

    2016-04-01

    La incidencia de ACV, global y por naturaleza, fue similar a otros estudios nacionales e internacionales. Este estudio mostró una realidad epidemiológica y clínica con margen para el impacto de políticas de prevención primaria, y un comportamiento de la población en cuanto a la consulta precoz favorable para la instrumentación y desarrollo de una Unidad de ACV y el uso de trombolíticos en el departamento de Cerro Largo.

  8. Catálogo de la flora vascular del Cerro del Toruño (Comarca de Los Alcores, Alcalá de Guadaíra, Sevilla)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestre Alsina, A.; Martín Bravo, S.; Jiménez Mejías, P.

    2013-01-01

    Situado en la comarca de Los Alcores, el Cerro del Toruño es un cabezo calcarenítico incluido en el área metropolitana de Sevilla. Se encuentra protegido por la normativa provincial por el valor y naturalidad de su vegetación. El objetivo del presente estudio es la catalogación de su flora y su puesta en valor como reducto de vegetación natural en un paisaje fuertemente antropizado. Se han inventariado un total de 351 especies, 324 de ellas autóctonas, de las que tres están recogidas en la li...

  9. Jurassic tetrapods and flora of Cañadón Asfalto Formation in Cerro Cóndor area, Chubut Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio H. Escapa; Juliana Sterli; Diego Pol; Laura Nicoli

    2008-01-01

    The plant and tetrapod fossil record of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Middle to Late Jurassic) found in Cerro Cóndor area (Chubut Province) is summarized here. The flora is dominated by conifers (Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae sensu lato) but also includes ferns and equisetaleans. The tetrapod fauna is composed of dinosaur taxa described in the 70's as well as other remains recently described and other vertebrate groups such as amphibians, turtles, and mammals. The amphibian remains have been i...

  10. FENOLOGÍA DE CUATRO ESPECIES DE CACTÁCEAS DEL CERRO UMARCATA. VALLE DEL RÍO CHILLÓN. CANTA-LIMA. PERÚ

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Bullón, Natali; Jardín Botánico “Octavio Velarde Núñez”. Departamento Académico de Biología, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).; Ceroni-Stuva, Aldo; Jardín Botánico “Octavio Velarde Núñez”. Departamento Académico de Biología, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Av. La Molina s/n, Lima 12, Perú. Apartado postal: 12-056, Perú.; Castro-Cepero, Viviana; Jardín Botánico “Octavio Velarde Núñez”. Departamento Académico de Biología, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Av. La Molina s/n, Lima 12, Perú. Apartado postal: 12-056, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Se estudiaron cuatro especies de cactáceas: Esposta melanostele, Haageocereus pseudomelanostele subsp. aureispinus, Melocactus peruvianus y Neoraimondia arequipensis subsp. roseiflora, presentes en el ecosistema árido Cerro Umarcata, Valle del Río Chillón, Canta- Lima. Se encontraron dos fenofases, floración y fructificación con ocho estadios fenológicos entre Octubre 2006 y Setiembre 2007. Para la fenofase de floración, los estadios fenológicos Flor Marchita y Botón Abortado fueron dominante...

  11. Gaseous equilibrium in sector CP IV of the Cerro Prieto, B.C. Mexico geothermal field; Equilibrio gaseoso en el sector CP IV del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); De Leon Vivar, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Campo Geotermico Cerro Prieto, Cerro Prieto, B. C. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Sector CP IV is located in the NE portion of the Cerrro Prieto geothermal field. The wells of this zone produce two-phase fluids, with different characteristics as far as their steam fraction content; in the central part and towards the NW the fluids are of dominant liquid type whereas towards the E and the S, the fluid contains a relatively higher steam fraction. The results of gaseous equilibrium FT- HSH3 showed that the fluids in the deposit are at temperatures between 275 Celsius degrees and 310 Celsius degrees and contain steam fractions between 0.01 and 0.5. The data found for the natural state are aligned in a tendency defined in the diagram FT- HSH3, that suggest the wells receive different proportions from preexisting steam in the deposit, which are mixed with the liquid phase to produce the observed discharges. The present data, besides showing the presence of deposit steam, also indicates the entrance of lower temperature fluid in the central part of sector CP IV. [Spanish] El sector CP IV se localiza en la porcion NE del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto. Los pozos de esta zona producen fluidos bifasicos, con diferentes caracteristicas en cuanto a su contenido de fraccion de vapor: en la parte central y hacia el NW los fluidos son de tipo liquido dominante mientras que hacia el E y hacia el S, el fluido contiene una fraccion relativamente alta de vapor. Los resultados de equilibrio gaseoso FT-HSH3 mostraron que los fluidos en el yacimiento se encuentran a temperaturas de entre 275 grados Celsius y 310 grados Celsius y contienen fracciones de vapor de entre -.01 y .5. Los datos hallados para el estado natural se alinean en una tendencia definida en el diagrama FT-HSH3, que sugiere que los pozos reciben diferentes proporciones de vapor pre-existente en el yacimiento, que se mezclan con fase liquida para producir las descargas que se observan. Los datos actuales, ademas de mostrar la presencia de vapor de yacimiento, tambien indican la entrada de fluidos de

  12. Anchoring the landscape: human utilization of the Cerro Gavilán 2 rockshelter, Middle Orinoco, from the Early Holocene to the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Scaramelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Initial archaeological investigations at Cerro Gavilán 2, a rockshelter located in the Bolívar State of Venezuela, reveal evidence for human activity that spans the Early Holocene to the present. This report summarizes the information obtained through surface collection, limited excavation, and documentation of the surface features and rock art in the cave. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C analysis established dates from excavated strata that range between 9250 ± 60 BP to 3440 ± 40 BP, and are associated with a unifacial flake technology and charred faunal and floral remains, whereas surface remains span the known ceramic sequence for the area. Rock art corresponds to distinctive superimposed styles that indicate continual repainting of the cave through time, serving to anchor the site to the landscape for multiple societies inhabiting the region. It is suggested that the shelter may have fulfilled different functions over time and a sequence of seasonal residential, ritual, and funerary activities is proposed. The rich cultural context found in Cerro Gavilán 2 contributes to advances in Amazonian archaeology that are redefining our knowledge of early developments and the complexity of human/environmental interactions in tropical America.

  13. TECNOLOGÍA Y SUBSISTENCIA EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO CERRO TAPERA VÁZQUEZ (PARQUE NACIONAL PRE-DELTA, REPÚBLICA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Bonomo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of the studies carried out on ceramic and bone materials recorded at Cerro Tapera Vázquez site (Argentinean Northeast are presented. Taxonomic, anatomic and taphonomic studies of bone assemblages and technological-decorative analysis and refitting of pottery were undertaken. The site is located on a mound next to El Ceibo Creek, where 16 m2 were excavated in 2008. Abundant smooth, incised and modeled pottery (handles and zoomorphic appendages and numerous bones remains of Myocastor coypus (most frequent taxon, Blastocerus dichotomus, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Cavia aperea, Leopardus geoffroyi, Lycalopex gymnocercus, Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, birds and fish (Siluriformes and Characiformes were recorded. Except Cavia aperea rodent and Dusicyon gimnocercus fox, all taxa show evidence of anthropic modification (cut marks, fresh fractures and burning. Two radiocarbon dates were obtained: 650 and 520 yrs. BP. The results reached in this study lead to the conclusion that the pre-Hispanic populations that occupied Cerro Tapera Vázquez by the end of the Late Holocene were riverine canoe peoples, with complex ceramic technology and subsistence based on hunting of coypu, capybara and cervids, fishing and small-scale horticulture.

  14. ANALISIS DEL CO-TRATAMIENTO PASIVO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES MUNICIPALES Y DRENAJE ACIDO DE MINAS EN CERRO RICO DE POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El drenaje acido de minas (DAM es un problema a nivel mundial. El co-tratamiento pasivo de DAM con aguas residuales municipales (ARM es una manera efectiva y de bajo costo que utiliza los nutrientes de ARM para tratar las concentraciones de metales y sulfato en DAM. Cerro Rico de Potosí, Bolivia es una de las grandes ciudades mineras en el mundo que tiene muchos problemas con el DAM. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar velocidades de reacción de Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, y otros metales en DAM provenientes de un flujo de agua en Cerro Rico usando un sistema reactor de tres etapas. El DAM tenía un pH de 3.58, acidez de 1080 mg/L equivalente a CaCO3 conteniendo concentraciones de 12, 68, 17, y 550 mg/L de Al, Fe, Mn y Zn respectivamente. Las velocidades de reacción de Al, Fe, Mn y Zn fueron de 1.43, 2.09, 0.01 y 0.10 d-1, respectivamente.

  15. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de la Muerte, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Gerardo; Soto, Alejandra; Alfaro, Willy

    2012-03-01

    Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant) and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis), dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads), and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon). Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of captured

  16. The ~ 2500 yr B.P. Chicoral non-cohesive debris flow from Cerro Machín Volcano, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, H. F.; Hurtado, B. O.; Cortés, G. P.; Macías, J. L.; Cepeda, H.

    2008-04-01

    Cerro Machín Volcano (CMV) is located in the central part of the Colombian Andes (2750 m asl), 150 km southwest of Bogotá. It is considered the most dangerous active volcano of Colombia. CMV has experienced at least six major explosive eruptions during the last 5000 years. These eruptions have emplaced many types of pyroclastic deposits with associated lahars that have traveled more than 100 km. One of these lahars is called Chicoral Debris Flow Deposit (DFD2). This deposit is exposed as discontinuous terraces (3-20 m thick) along the Coello and Magdalena rivers up to 109 km from the source. The DFD2 covers a minimum area of 62 km 2 and has a minimum volume of 0.57 km 3. It comprises two dacite-rich volcaniclastic units. Grain-size analysis reveals that the matrix content and sorting increase with distance while the average grain size decreases. The clay content of the DFD2 matrix is approximately 1%, thus categorizing it as a non-cohesive debris flow. Radiocarbon dates obtained from underlying and overlying paleosols yielded ages of 2505 + 65 and 1640 + 45 yr B.P., respectively. These dates suggest that DFD2 is related to the ~ 2600 yr B.P. El Guaico eruption of CMV. This eruption produced a block-and-ash flow that filled and blocked the Toche River up to 5 km from the volcano. Subsequent remobilization of this loose material by runoff water generated a massive debris flow that traveled 91 km along the Toche and Coello rivers and continued across the Espinal Alluvial Fan debouching into the Magdalena River where it continued another 18 km prior to its transformation into a sediment-laden flow. Because the last eruption of the volcano occurred ca. 900 years ago, no historic activity of CMV is known among inhabitants of the region. Hence the region has developed without awareness of volcanic hazards. Therefore an assessment of volcanic hazards is essential for understanding and evaluating the vulnerability and risk to which people are exposed in case of a future

  17. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Avalos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  18. Recycling of water, carbon, and sulfur during subduction of serpentinites: A stable isotope study of Cerro del Almirez, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Jeffrey C.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Turchyn, Alexandra; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Gómez Pugnaire, María Teresa; Marchesi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We use the concentrations and isotope compositions of water, carbon, and sulfur in serpentinites and their dehydration products to trace the cycling of volatiles during subduction. Antigorite serpentinites from the Cerro del Almirez complex, Spain, contain 9–12 wt.% H2O and 910 ± 730 ppm sulfur, and have bulk δ18O values of 8.6 ± 0.4‰, δD = − 54 ± 5‰, and δ34S = 5.0‰, consistent with serpentinization at temperatures of ~ 200 °C by seawater hydrothermal fluids in a seafloor setting. The serpentinites were dehydrated to chlorite–harzburgite (olivine + orthopyroxene + chlorite) at 700 °C and 1.6–1.9 GPa during subduction metamorphism, resulting in loss of water, and sulfur. The chlorite–harzburgites contain 5.7 ± 1.9 wt.% H2O, and have bulk δ18O = 8.0 ± 0.9‰, and δD = − 77 ± 11‰. The rocks contain 650 ± 620 ppm sulfur having δ34S = 1.2‰. Dehydration of serpentinite resulted in loss of 5 wt.% H2O having δ18O = 8–10‰ and δD = − 27 to − 65‰, and loss of 260 ppm sulfur as sulfate, having δ34S = 14.5‰. The contents and δ13C of total carbon in the two rock types overlap, with a broad trend of decreasing carbon contents and δ13C from ~ 1300 to 200 ppm and − 9.6 to − 20.2‰. This reflects mixing between reduced carbon in the rocks (210 ppm, δ13C ≈ − 26‰) and seawater-derived carbonate (δ13C ≈ − 1‰). Our results indicate: 1) Serpentinized oceanic peridotites carry significant amounts of isotopically fractionated water, carbon and sulfur into subduction zones; 2) Subduction of serpentinites to high P and T results in loss of water, and sulfur, which can induce melting and contribute to 18O, D, and 34S enrichments and oxidation of the sub-arc mantle wedge; and 3) Isotopically fractionated water, carbon, and sulfur in serpentinite dehydration products are recycled deeper into the mantle where they can contribute to isotope heterogeneities and may be significant for volatile budgets of the deep Earth.

  19. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Avalos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  20. Subsurface imaging in a sector of Cerro Prieto transform fault near to pull-apart basin, Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico, based on crooked lines 2D seismic reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares-Agüero, M. A.; González-Escobar, M.; Arregui, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the transition zone between San Andres continental transformation system and the coupled transform faults system and rifting of Gulf of California is located the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin delimitated by Imperial fault (northeast) and Cerro Prieto fault (CPF) (southwest), this last, is the limit west of Cerro Prieto geothermic field (CPGF). Crooked lines 2D seismic reflection, covering a portion near the intersection of CPF and CPGF are processed and interpreted. The seismic data were obtained in the early 80's by Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). By decades, technical and investigation works in Cerro Prieto geothermic field and its vicinity had mapped faults at several depths but do not stablish a clear limit where this faults and CPF interact due the complex hydrothermal effects imaging the subsurface. The profiles showing the presence of a zone of uplift effect due to CPF. Considering the proximity of the profiles to CPF, it is surprising almost total absence of faults. A strong reflector around 2 km of depth, it is present in all profiles. This seismic reflector is considered a layer of shale, result of the correlation with a well located in the same region.

  1. Analysis of two catalogues of seismicity at the Cerro Prieto geothermal area (Baja California) from 1988 to 1995, relationship with reinjection; Analisis de dos catalogos de sismicidad en el area geotermica de Cerro Prieto (Baja California) de 1988 a 1995, relacion con la reinyeccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabriol, Hubert [Centro de Investigacion y de Ensenanza Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Ensenada (Mexico)

    1996-09-01

    In order to study the effects of fluid reinjection in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, started in 1989, seismicity recorded in this area and included in the USGS-Caltech (California Technology) (US) and the Red Sismologica del Noreste de Mexico (RESNOM) of the Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Ensenanza Superior (CICESE, Mexico) catalogues is reviewed since 1988. The precision of determination of epicenters is compared with the location of moderate events recorded by a local array, setup around Cerro Prieto since August 1994. We note a bias in both catalogues, as events located by USGS-Caltech are shifted between 5 to 10 km towards south and events of RESNOM are shifted between 4 to 8 km towards northeast. That limits the use of these catalogues for precise studies of reinjection effects in the geothermal field. Seismic activity is low until 1991 and increases afterwards, particularly in 1993 and 1995. Comparison of USGS-Caltech catalogue with changes in reinjection flow rates show at beginning of 1995 only one example of short-range effect between reinjection and seismicity (but using the epicenter determination of the local network) and possibly several medium-range effects (between 6 and 8 months). In that case, the flow rate increase corresponding to the beginning of winter, could be followed by one or more events of magnitude ranging from Ml=3 to Ml=4 during midsummer. Taking into account the tectonic context of the area, it is also possible that those event could be associated either to Cerro Prieto fault or to the spreading center source of the thermal anomaly. The continuous monitoring with a local network will allow to precise those preliminary results, obtained with regional networks. [Espanol] Como parte del estudio sobre los efectos de la reinyeccion de fluido en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, iniciado en 1989, se analiza de manera critica la sismicidad registrada en el area y reportada en los catalogos de USGS-Caltech (Tecnologico de

  2. Mapping the edge of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field, New Mexico: a piece of the puzzle to understanding a potential geothermal resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, L.; Gallegos, M.; Goebel, M.; Murphy, B. S.; Smith, J.; Soto, D.; Swiatlowski, J.; Volk, C.; Welch, M.; Feucht, D. W.; Hollingshaus, B.; Bedrosian, P. A.; McPhee, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Cerros del Rio volcanic field located west of Santa Fe, New Mexico spans the southwestern part of the Espanola Basin with the Rio Grande to the west. Underlying the volcanics are the Santa Fe Group sediments, which contain the Ancha Formation, an important aquifer in the region. High temperature gradients in water wells reveal a potential geothermal prospect. In 2012 the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program acquired transient electromagnetic (TEM), audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), gravity and ground magnetic data to determine the buried eastern margin of the volcanic field and the connectivity related to the underlying sediments. The roughly EW 5-km long transect was sited from USGS aeromagnetic data to cross the boundary of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field. TEM data collected at ten stations, at 200-400 m spacing, along the transect employed an in-loop configuration with a square 100 m x 100 m transmitter loop and both a Zonge receiver coil and a 5 m square receiver loop. The 5 m loop allowed for the recovery of early-time data that was saturated when using the Zonge coil. AMT data were acquired at eight stations, at 400-500 m spacing, using the Geometric Stratagem system recording from 92 kHz to 10 Hz; a horizontal magnetic dipole transmitter was used to augment low signal strength at around 1 kHz. Gravity data along the profile were acquired using CG-3 and CG-5 Scintrex gravimeters with a station interval >250 m. Magnetic data were acquired with a Geometrics Cesium vapor G-858 magnetometer for about 3500 m along the profile at a 0.5 second sampling rate. Two volcanic flows interbedded with Ancha Formation and overlying Santa Fe Group sediments were identified in both the TEM and AMT modeling. High surface resistivity zones (>300 ohm-m) with depths ranging from ~100 to 300 m define the volcanic flows and correspond to high densities (2.3 to 2.55 g/cm3), while low resistivity zones (<30 ohm-m) correspond to lower densities (~2.1 g/cm3). High

  3. LA ARQUITECTURA DE TIERRA Y LAS OCUPACIONES HUMANAS EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO CERRO PUÑAY, CANTÓN CHUNCHI, PROVINCIA DE CHIMBORAZO, ECUADOR (Earth Architecture and Human Occupations at Cerro Puñay Archaeological Site, Chunchi Canton, Chimborazo Province, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jadán V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se refiere a la arquitectura de tierra del sitio arqueológico Cerro Puñay, ubicado al sur de la provincia de Chimborazo. Algunos perfiles estratigráficos de diferentes partes del cerro demuestran que existen cambios relacionados con la estructura del sitio: un reforzamiento de talud en la cima central, arqueosedimentos en ciertos sectores, nivelación de las cimas, construcción de terrazas, entre otras modificaciones. Aunque hay evidencias de ocupación desde el Formativo Tardío con la cultura narrío (2000-1600 a. C., las edificaciones se iniciaron con la sociedad cañari (500-1460 d. C.. Por otra parte, el sitio evidencia una reconstrucción y utilización por parte de la sociedad inca (1460-1533 d. C.. ENGLISH: This article refers to the land architecture of the Cerro Puñay archaeological site, located to the south of the province of Chimborazo. Some stratigraphic profiles, from different parts of the hill, show that there are changes related to the structure of the site: a reinforcement of slope in the central summit, archaeological sediments in certain sectors, leveling of the tops, and construction of terraces, among other modifications. Although there is evidence of occupation from the Late Formative with the Narrío culture (2000–1600 BC, the construction started with the Cañari society (500–1460 AD. On the other hand, the site shows evidence of a reconstruction and use by the Inca society (1460–1533 AD.

  4. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    A full scale, wellhead Biphase turbine was manufactured and installed with the balance of plant at Well 103 of the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Baja, California. The Biphase turbine was first synchronized with the electrical grid of Comision Federal de Electricidad on August 20, 1997. The Biphase power plant was operated from that time until May 23, 2000, a period of 2 years and 9 months. A total of 77,549 kWh were delivered to the grid. The power plant was subsequently placed in a standby condition pending replacement of the rotor with a newly designed, higher power rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals. The maximum measured power output of the Biphase turbine, 808 kWe at 640 psig wellhead pressure, agreed closely with the predicted output, 840 kWe. When combined with the backpressure steam turbine the total output power from that flow would be increased by 40% above the power derived only from the flow by the present flash steam plant. The design relations used to predict performance and design the turbine were verified by these tests. The performance and durability of the Biphase turbine support the conclusion of the Economics and Application Report previously published, (Appendix A). The newly designed rotor (the Dual Pressure Rotor) was analyzed for the above power condition. The Dual Pressure Rotor would increase the power output to 2064 kWe by incorporating two pressure letdown stages in the Biphase rotor, eliminating the requirement for a backpressure steam turbine. The power plant availability was low due to deposition of solids from the well on the Biphase rotor and balance of plant problems. A great deal of plant down time resulted from the requirement to develop methods to handle the solids and from testing the apparatus in the Biphase turbine. Finally an online, washing method using the high pressure two-phase flow was developed which completely eliminated the solids problem. The availability of the Biphase turbine itself was 100

  5. Jurassic tetrapods and flora of Cañadón Asfalto Formation in Cerro Cóndor area, Chubut Province Flora y tetrápodos del Jurásico de la Formación Cañadón Asfalto en el área de Cerro Cóndor, provincia de Chubut

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio H. Escapa; Juliana Sterli; Diego Pol; Laura Nicoli

    2008-01-01

    The plant and tetrapod fossil record of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Middle to Late Jurassic) found in Cerro Cóndor area (Chubut Province) is summarized here. The flora is dominated by conifers (Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae sensu lato) but also includes ferns and equisetaleans. The tetrapod fauna is composed of dinosaur taxa described in the 70's as well as other remains recently described and other vertebrate groups such as amphibians, turtles, and mammals. The amphibian remains have been i...

  6. Procesos históricos y ambientales en Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí, México, 1948-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Martínez Chaves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre el municipio Cerro de San Pedro enfatizan la continuidad ambiental aparente que estimula la minería; sin embargo, esta lectura subvalora otras dinámicas que ocurren en la zona. Con base en observaciones directas de trabajo en campo, para realizar análisis de coberturas vegetales, entrevistas con los habitantes de la zona, revisión de cartografía e investigación de archivo, el presente trabajo muestra procesos como la explotación de recursos vegetales y el pastoreo, como actividades económicas paralelas a las labores mineras, y que no habían sido tratados hasta ahora.

  7. Construcciones y cementerios del período Intermedio Tardío en el cerro Ñañañique (departamento de Piura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Après un abandon de plus d'un millénaire, le site de Cerro Ñañañique est réoccupé sans doute à partir du Xème siècle de notre ère. Les fouilles réalisées ont permis de reconnaître l'existence d'un ensemble monumental, composé de terrasses artificielles, et d'un complexe de bâtiments et structures couvrant tout le sommet du cerro. De petites constructions furent édifiées sur le bas versant Est et au moins cinq cimetières sont connus dans les environs immédiats. L'ensemble de ces vestiges prouve le maintien d'une occupation du secteur jusqu'à la fin de la période préhispanique. L'article est centré sur l'analyse de quatorze contextes funéraires provenant d'un des cimetières de cette époque. Y sont décrits les positions, orientations et associations des différents corps exhumés ainsi que le mobilier funéraire associé. Une comparaison avec les traditions voisines connues permet de confirmer certaines similitudes et en particulier les relations étroites avec les zones méridionales. Después de un abandono de más de un milenio, el sitio de Cerro Ñañañique se reocupó, posiblemente desde el siglo X d.c. Las excavaciones realizadas permitieron reconocer la existencia de un conjunto monumental compuesto de terrazas artificiales y de un complejo de edificios y estructuras que cubre toda la cumbre del cerro. Pequeñas construcciones fueron también edificadas en la parte baja de la vertiente este y hubo, por lo menos, cinco cementerios a proximidad. El conjunto de estos vestigios comprueba la permanencia de una ocupación del sector hasta el final de la época prehispánica. El artículo está centrado en el análisis de catorce contextos funerarios de aquella época. Se describen la posición, la orientación y las asociaciones de los varios cuerpos exhumados, así como el material funerario asociado. Una comparación con las tradiciones vecinas permite confirmar ciertas semejanzas y particularmente las relaciones

  8. Approaching viscosity control: electrical heating of extra heavy oil as alternative to diluent injection in down hole in Cerro Negro Field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Manuel [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Electrical heating is a method used to enhance oil recovery in extra heavy oil reservoirs. This method can be used when diluent injection or other methods are not able to reduce oil viscosity sufficiently or when problems of product quality or quantity arise. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of electrical heating, individually and simultaneously with injection of diluents. For this purpose, simulations were undertaken in one well with integrated electrical heating and diluent injection in Cerro Negro Field in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela. Results have shown that the application of both methods together is more profitable than the application of electrical heating alone. This paper demonstrated that the use of electrical heating and diluent injection combined is a valid alternative to diluent injection alone, reducing production loss.

  9. El plutón de cerro azul y su relación con los orígenes del Istmo de Panamá

    OpenAIRE

    De Destro, Tisla

    2004-01-01

    El Plutón de Cerro Azul tiene estrecha relación con los orígenes del Istmo de Panamá y con el "eslabón ístmico" centroamericano. Actualmente el tema es de interés para la comunidad científica internacional y en consecuencia para los interesados en el desarrollo del turismo científico en Panamá. La Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá (U.T.P), en la década de los 80, investigó algunos aspectos de éste cuerpo geológico y con éste ensayo retoma el tema. Se presenta la ubica...

  10. Duration of Gravity Waves in OH Airglow Layer Observed by an All-sky Airglow Imager at Maui and Cerro Pachón

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, B.; Liu, A. Z.; Gardner, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    OH airglow layer has a typical FWHM of ~7 km centered at ~87 km altitude. Observations from airglow imaging have shown that gravity waves exist most of the time in this layer. The duration or lifespan of wave events has important implications for gravity wave parameterization. In this study, persistent wave events are isolated from long-term airglow measurements from Maui, HI(20.7°N, 156.3°W) and Cerro Pachón, Chile(30.2°S, 70.7°W) by restricting the consecutive wave's parameters within certain threshold. The probably distribution of the duration of wave events is found be exponentially distributed and the exponents are different at these two different sites. Explanations for such distributions are proposed based on the wave breaking or wave propagation through the airglow layer.

  11. Geology, geochronology, and geochemistry of basaltic flows of the Cat Hills, Cat Mesa, Wind Mesa, Cerro Verde, and Mesita Negra, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, F.; Budahn, J.R.; Peters, L.; Unruh, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic compositions of basaltic flows erupted from the Cat Hills, Cat Mesa, Wind Mesa, Cerro Verde, and Mesita Negra volcanic centres in central New Mexico indicate that each of these lavas had unique origins and that the predominant mantle involved in their production was an ocean-island basalt type. The basalts from Cat Hills (0.11 Ma) and Cat Mesa (3.0 Ma) are similar in major and trace element composition, but differences in MgO contents and Pb isotopic values are attributed to a small involvement of a lower crustal component in the genesis of the Cat Mesa rocks. The Cerro Verde rock is comparable in age (0.32 Ma) to the Cat Hills lavas, but it is more radiogenic in Sr and Nd, has higher MgO contents, and has a lower La/Yb ratio. This composition is explained by the melting of an enriched mantle source, but the involvement of another crustal component cannot be disregarded. The Wind Mesa rock is characterized by similar age (4.01 Ma) and MgO contents, but it has enriched rare-earth element contents compared with the Cat Mesa samples. These are attributed to a difference in the degree of partial melting of the Cat Mesa source. The Mesita Negra rock (8.11 Ma) has distinctive geochemical and isotopic compositions that suggest a different enriched mantle and that large amounts of a crustal component were involved in generating this magma. These data imply a temporal shift in magma source regions and crustal involvement, and have been previously proposed for Rio Grande rift lavas. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  12. El Cerro de los Santos: paisaje, negociación social y ritualidad entre el mundo ibérico y el hispano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Cardiel, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian shrine of Cerro de los Santos is located next to one of the main roads in the Southeast of the Meseta, in the middle of an area without any town of some entity. This paper aims to highlight its status as a shrine of passage, i.e. as a sacred, safe point where voyagers could rest overnight under the protection of the god. The creation of a statio by the Romans in such a place and its dedication to the goddess Pales provide more circumstantial evidence for this theory. Furthermore, some domestic material contexts can be defined, probably connected with this activity, and clearly different from the well-known ritual contexts of the shrine.La ubicación del santuario ibérico del Cerro de los Santos junto a una de las principales vías de comunicación del sureste meseteño y en el centro de una comarca desprovista de núcleos urbanos de cierta entidad permite subrayar en este artículo su uso continuado como santuario de paso, lugar sacro y seguro al que los caminantes podrían acogerse para pernoctar bajo la protección de la divinidad. La creación de una statio en el enclave en época romana y su dedicación a la diosa Pales no son sino argumentos ulteriores en este sentido. Se identifican además contextos materiales domésticos, distintos de los espacios de culto bien conocidos del santuario, relacionables con esta otra actividad.

  13. Entre el sueño del proyecto y la lógica del lugar. La arquitectura imposible de los cerros de Valparaíso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. Millán-Millán

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Valparaíso es el resultado de la unión de dos ciudades en una: la ciudad vertical de los cerros y la ciudad horizontal del Plan –parte plana–. Esta doble naturaleza ha ido configurando una dualidad obligada a convivir y a establecer un continuo diálogo, acabando en la mayoría de los casos en conflicto. Si por un lado está la ciudad global y ortogonal como resultado de la ocupación europea, por otro lado estará la ciudad onírica agarrada a los acantilados ajena a cualquier orden preestablecido. Cada una de estas dos ciudades irá materializando su propia arquitectura: una real y estandarizada, propia de cualquier periferia de ciudad, y otra imposible. Será esta segunda la que vaya evolucionando en un intento continuo de adaptación y será el propio lugar el encargado de rechazar cualquier construcción que no le sea propia. Esta dicotomía quedará plasmada en numerosos proyectos que nunca verán la luz. El objetivo del artículo será mostrar, a partir de numerosos proyectos inéditos descubiertos en Valparaíso, cómo la arquitectura pensada para los cerros nunca llegó a construirse y fue dando paso a unas construcciones a medio camino entre lo real y lo imaginario, entre la lógica y el sueño.

  14. Analysis of the automation and control of the well production conditions in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico; Analisis de la automatizacion y del control de las condiciones de produccion de los pozos del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo Zamora, Isaac [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); Ocampo Diaz, Juan de Dios [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexicali, BC, (Mexico); De la Pena Reyna, Gilberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2005-12-01

    Through 31 years of development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, the number of wells in operation and the distances between them has been increasing. Now there are 150 wells producing a mixture of water and steam at different ratios, depending on the reservoir characteristics (pressure, temperature, depth, etc.) and the operation conditions in the superficial installations (obstructions in the orifice plates diameter, separator pressures, etc.). Therefore, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has started a pilot plan to handle the automation and control of the operating conditions of production wells, and to install a data production acquisition system. The initial results of the system are in this paper. [Spanish] A traves de los 31 anos de desarrollo del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto el numero de pozos en operacion asi como la distancia entre ellos se ha estado incrementando. Ahora hay mas de 150 pozos produciendo una cantidad de mezcla de agua y vapor a diferentes rangos, dependiendo de las caracteristicas del yacimiento (presion, temperatura, profundidad, etc.) y de las condiciones de operacion de las instalaciones superficiales (diametros de placas de orificio obstruidos, presion de los separadores, etc.). Como resultado la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) ha dado inicio a un plan de pruebas para llevar a cabo la automatizacion y control de las condiciones de operacion de los pozos productores, e instalar un sistema con equipos para recoleccion de datos del campo, cuyos primeros resultados se presentan en este articulo.

  15. Desarrollo de Montelíbano y Unión Matoso a partir de la explotación de Cerro Matoso S.A (2005-2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Rendón Arango, María Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo estudiaremos la explotación minera que realiza Cerro Matoso S.A en el sur del departamento de Córdoba a través del método cualitativo de investigación, basado en revisión de fuentes oficiales, entrevistas estructuradas y no estructuradas, como también en libros y fuentes académicas. Mediante este enfoque se pretende ver de qué manera ha influido la explotación de Cerro Matoso S.A en el desarrollo de los municipios Montelíbano y La Unión Matoso en el departamento de Córdoba, ya...

  16. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician-Silurian times

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Wegmann; U. Riller; F. D. Hongn; Johannes Glodny; Onno Oncken

    2008-01-01

    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NWArgentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relat...

  17. Origin and evolution of mineralizing fluids and exploration of the Cerro Quema Au-Cu deposit (Azuero Peninsula, Panama) from a fluid inclusion and stable isotope perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Isaac; Cardellach, Esteve; Corbella, Merce; Canals, Angels; Griera, Albert; Gomez-Gras, David; Johnson, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Cerro Quema is a high sulfidation epithermal Au-Cu deposit with a measured, indicated and inferred resource of 35.98 Mt. @ 0.77 g/t Au containing 893,600 oz. Au (including 183,930 oz. Au equiv. of Cu ore). It is characterized by a large hydrothermal alteration zone which is interpreted to represent the lithocap of a porphyry system. The innermost zone of the lithocap is constituted by vuggy quartz with advanced argillic alteration locally developed on its margin, enclosed by a well-developed zone of argillic alteration, grading to an external halo of propylitic alteration. The mineralization occurs in the form of disseminations and microveinlets of pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, tennantite, and trace sphalerite, crosscut by quartz, barite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena veins.Microthermometric analyses of two phase (L + V) secondary fluid inclusions in igneous quartz phenocrysts in vuggy quartz and advanced argillically altered samples indicate low temperature (140–216 °C) and low salinity (0.5–4.8 wt% NaCl eq.) fluids, with hotter and more saline fluids identified in the east half of the deposit (Cerro Quema area).Stable isotope analyses (S, O, H) were performed on mineralization and alteration minerals, including pyrite, chalcopyrite, enargite, alunite, barite, kaolinite, dickite and vuggy quartz. The range of δ34S of sulfides is from − 4.8 to − 12.7‰, whereas δ34S of sulfates range from 14.1 to 17.4‰. The estimated δ34SΣS of the hydrothermal fluid is − 0.5‰. Within the advanced argillic altered zone the δ34S values of sulfides and sulfates are interpreted to reflect isotopic equilibrium at temperatures of ~ 240 °C. The δ18O values of vuggy quartz range from 9.0 to 17.5‰, and the δ18O values estimated for the vuggy quartz-forming fluid range from − 2.3 to 3.0‰, indicating that it precipitated from mixing of magmatic fluids with surficial fluids. The δ18O of kaolinite ranges from 12.7 to 18.1‰ and

  18. Mineralized breccia clasts: a window into hidden porphyry-type mineralization underlying the epithermal polymetallic deposit of Cerro de Pasco (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottier, Bertrand; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Casanova, Vincent; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Wälle, Markus; Fontboté, Lluís

    2018-01-01

    Cerro de Pasco (Peru) is known for its large epithermal polymetallic (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Bi) mineralization emplaced at shallow level, a few hundred meters below the paleo-surface, at the border of a large diatreme-dome complex. Porphyry-style veins crosscutting hornfels and magmatic rock clasts are found in the diatreme breccia and in quartz-monzonite porphyry dikes. Such mineralized veins in clasts allow investigation of high-temperature porphyry-style mineralization developed in the deep portions of magmatic-hydrothermal systems. Quartz in porphyry-style veins contains silicate melt inclusions as well as fluid and solid mineral inclusions. Two types of high-temperature (> 600 °C) quartz-molybdenite-(chalcopyrite)-(pyrite) veins are found in the clasts. Early, thin (1-2 mm), and sinuous HT1 veins are crosscut by slightly thicker (up to 2 cm) and more regular HT2 veins. The HT1 vein quartz hosts CO2- and sulfur-rich high-density vapor inclusions. Two subtypes of the HT1 veins have been defined, based on the nature of mineral inclusions hosted in quartz: (i) HT1bt veins with inclusions of K-feldspar, biotite, rutile, and minor titanite and (ii) HT1px veins with inclusions of actinolite, augite, titanite, apatite, and minor rutile. Using an emplacement depth of the veins of between 2 and 3 km (500 to 800 bar), derived from the diatreme breccia architecture and the supposed erosion preceding the diatreme formation, multiple mineral thermobarometers are applied. The data indicate that HT1 veins were formed at temperatures > 700 °C. HT2 veins host assemblages of polyphase brine inclusions, generally coexisting with low-density vapor-rich inclusions, trapped at temperatures around 600 °C. Rhyolitic silicate melt inclusions found in both HT1 and HT2 veins represent melt droplets transported by the ascending hydrothermal fluids. LA-ICP-MS analyses reveal a chemical evolution coherent with the crystallization of an evolved rhyolitic melt. Quartz from both HT1 and HT2 veins

  19. Estudio de los fundentes utilizados en la metalurgia del cobre en Cerro Muriano (Córdoba durante el período Romano Altoimperial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado, A. J.

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available There are no doubts that Hispania was, under the Roman Empire, the most profitable and abundant in resources of all the mining districts exploded by Rome -Hispania, Galia, Danubian Provinces, Dacia, Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and North Africa-. Plinius gives the same data and hands many more in the passages dedicated to the mining and the working of the metals in his Natural History. Of all the many mining places that this author refers, the exploiting in copper at Cerro Muriano presents the main interest; of this he says that it was of an unbeatable quality, used, among other applications, to manufacture the very famous "Copper of Campania". The utilization of fusing agents, adapted to the process of copper obtainment, is fundamental for obtaining this high quality. The addition of these fusing agents was very important for the control of the work parameters and to reach the required temperatures. The high purity of the obtained copper shows a very close knowledge of the phenomena involved in the process.

    Durante el Imperio Romano, de todos los distritos mineros explotados por Roma -Hispania, Galia, las provincias danubianas, Dacia, Grecia, Asia Menor, Siria, Egipto y el Norte de África-, sin duda el más rentable y más abundante en recursos era Hispania. Plinio facilita muchos datos en los pasajes dedicados a la minería y el trabajo de los metales en su Historia Natural. Entre los muchos lugares mineros que este autor cita, nos interesa ahora la explotación de cobre en Cerro Muriano, del cual dice que era de una calidad inmejorable, utilizado, entre otras aplicaciones, para fabricar el famosísimo cobre de Campania. Para poder obtener esta elevada calidad, es fundamental la utilización de fundentes adecuados en el proceso de obtención de cobre. La adición de estos fundentes era vital para controlar los parámetros de trabajo y alcanzar las temperaturas requeridas. La elevada pureza del cobre obtenido demuestra un

  20. Estudio metalográfico de la calidad del cobre producido en las fundiciones de Cerro Muriano (Córdoba durante el Período Romano Altoimperial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calabrés, R.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The copper obtaining process depends on a great quantity of variables and presents complex controlling. The mentioned obtaining process was well known since the Roman Age. The knowledge of copper of the casting process was higher than expected, taking account of the studies with first melting copper samples localized at an archaeological deposit in Cerro Muriano (Córdoba, Spain and dated at the 1st Century B.C. and 1st Century A.C. The existence of a cellular and dendritic-cellular solidification in the studied samples, together with other realized analysis, show a production of copper with high purity. Present work allows to conclude that the three basic processes on copper casting (roasting, smelting, slagging and conversion were well known. This knowledge was due to the experience, although they did not know the chemical and physical phenomena.

    El proceso de obtención de un cobre, más o menos puro, depende de gran cantidad de variables y es difícil de controlar. Antes de la romanización, dicho proceso de obtención ya era conocido. Utilizando cobres de primera fusión localizados en un yacimiento arqueológico sito en Cerro Muriano (Córdoba datados en los siglos I a.C. y I d.C., se ha determinado que sus elaboradores tenían un conocimiento del proceso de fundición de cobre superior al esperado. La existencia de una solidificación celular y celular dendrítica en las muestras estudiadas, así como los análisis realizados, indican una producción de cobre de alta pureza. El estudio permite concluir que, en época romana, ya se conocían los tres procesos básicos de la obtención de cobre: tostación, fusión y escorificación y conversión. Dicho proceso era conocido gracias a la gran experiencia acumulada, aunque estos metalurgistas desconocían las causas que originaban los resultados finales obtenidos.

  1. A Conceptual Model to Link Anomalously High Temperature Gradients in the Cerros del Rio Volcanic Field to Regional Flow in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, E. J.; Keller, S. N.; McCullough, K. R.; Watters, J.; Weitering, B.; Wilce, A. M.; Folsom, M.; Kelley, S.; Pellerin, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature-depth well data along with electromagnetic (EM) data were collected by students of the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE) 2015 field season in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico. The data from this year, in addition to data acquired since 2013, were used to construct a conceptual east-west cross-section of the Espanola Basin and the adjacent highlands in order to evaluate the regional flow system. Vertical geothermal gradients from several monitoring wells were measured using a thermistor. Anomalously warm geothermal gradients were mapped in the Cerros del Rio volcanic field in the basin just east of the Rio Grande. Temperature gradients are up to 70℃/km, while the background geothermal gradients in the Rio Grande rift zone generally show 28℃-35℃/km. This anomaly extends to the Buckman well field, which supplies water to the city of Santa Fe. Overpumping of this well field has led to subsidence in the past. However, discharge temperature plots indicate that the temperature gradients of the Buckman field may be rebounding as pumping is reduced. Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired in the vicinity of three monitoring wells. TEM and AMT methods complement each other with the former having depths of investigation of less than ten to hundreds of meters and AMT having depths of investigation comparable to the wells deeper than 500m. These datasets were used collectively to image the subsurface stratigraphy and, more specifically, the hydrogeology related to shallow aquifers. The EM data collected at these wells showed a trend indicating a shallow aquifer with a shallower resistive layer of approximately 100 ohm-m at 70-100 meters depth. Beneath this resistive layer we resolved a more conductive, clay-rich layer of 10 ohm-m. These resistivity profiles compliment the electrical logs provided by Jet West, which indicate shallower sandstone interbedded with silt on top of more silt-dominant layers. Our

  2. Characterization of post-fire surface cover, soils, and burn severity at the Cerro Grande Fire, New Mexico, using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, R.F.; Rockwell, B.W.; Haire, S.L.; King, T.V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Forest fires leave behind a changed ecosystem with a patchwork of surface cover that includes ash, charred organic matter, soils and soil minerals, and dead, damaged, and living vegetation. The distributions of these materials affect post-fire processes of erosion, nutrient cycling, and vegetation regrowth. We analyzed high spatial resolution (2.4??m pixel size) Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected over the Cerro Grande fire, to map post-fire surface cover into 10 classes, including ash, soil minerals, scorched conifer trees, and green vegetation. The Cerro Grande fire occurred near Los Alamos, New Mexico, in May 2000. The AVIRIS data were collected September 3, 2000. The surface cover map revealed complex patterns of ash, iron oxide minerals, and clay minerals in areas of complete combustion. Scorched conifer trees, which retained dry needles heated by the fire but not fully combusted by the flames, were found to cover much of the post-fire landscape. These scorched trees were found in narrow zones at the edges of completely burned areas. A surface cover map was also made using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) data, collected September 5, 2000, and a maximum likelihood, supervised classification. When compared to AVIRIS, the Landsat classification grossly overestimated cover by dry conifer and ash classes and severely underestimated soil and green vegetation cover. In a comparison of AVIRIS surface cover to the Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) map of burn severity, the BAER high burn severity areas did not capture the variable patterns of post-fire surface cover by ash, soil, and scorched conifer trees seen in the AVIRIS map. The BAER map, derived from air photos, also did not capture the distribution of scorched trees that were observed in the AVIRIS map. Similarly, the moderate severity class of Landsat-derived burn severity maps generated from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) calculation

  3. Mecanismo de inserción del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay en el Parque Tecnológico Industrial del Cerro

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    Laura Márquez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay, LATU, teniendo en cuenta su misión: "Impulsar el desarrollo sustentable del país y su inserción internacional a través de la innovación y transferencia de soluciones de valor, en servicios analíticos, metrológicos, tecnológicos, de gestión y evaluación de la conformidad de a cuerdo a la normativa aplicable", está trabajando en el apoyo a las micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas del país. Como estrategia para contribuir al logro de la misión, se ha iniciado una política de descentralización, eligiendo zonas de actividad con requerimientos similares, en cuanto a las necesidades de mejora de la competitividad de las empresas. En la zona de Montevideo llamada el Cerro, el gobierno municipal gestiona un Parque Tecnológico Industrial, PTIC, apoyando y alojando en su predio, 58 empresas. Este Parque se puede ver como un conglomerado de empresas, en una misma zona, con necesidades similares. El mecanismo de inserción del LATU en el PTIC, ha contado con una herramienta fundamental que es la instalación de una oficina en el propio Parque, cuyo objetivo principal es facilitar y asegurar la contribución del LATU al desarrollo y competitividad de las mipymes allí agrupadas.AbstractAttending to the Technological Laboratory of Uruguay (LATU's mission, to promote the sustainable development of the country and its international insertion through innovation and transfer of valuable solutions, it is working on support for micro, small and medium companies. As a management strategy to achieve the mission, a policy of decentralization, approaching to the enterprises, it's being implemented. In this context, it has been developed a methodology for insertion in the Industrial Technological Park of Cerro, PTIC. This park, which is managed by the municipal government, agglomerates a group of companies, in the same area with similar needs. The LATU's mechanism of insertion in the PTIC, has counted on with a

  4. Distribución de las principales causas de morbilidad por ingresos domiciliarios en el municipio Cerro durante el año 2000

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    Migdalia Rafaela Reyes Sigarreta

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un estudio, aplicando el método descriptivo cualitativo con una muestra representativa de las áreas de salud del municipio Cerro, de los ingresos en el domicilio de los pacientes adultos y niños en el año 2000 para determinar las causas de morbilidad y su distribución por cada área de salud. Para la recogida de información se utilizó como técnica fundamental la recolección de datos en formularios, utilizando como fuentes de información la hoja de trabajo de los médicos de los policlínicos y el registro de ingreso domiciliario. Los datos se analizan utilizando el tanto por ciento como medida de frecuencia y se presentan en tablas estadísticas. Se encontró que el mayor número de ingresos por área de salud correspondió al Policlínico "Antonio Maceo", tanto en adultos como en niños, y los meses de mayor ingreso en las áreas se corresponden con los meses de cambios climáticos, lo que se relaciona con las principales causas de morbilidad (las enfermedades respiratorias, las diarreicas y la hipertensión arterial.A descriptive qualitative study was carried out with a representative sample from the home care services given in the health areas of Cerro municipality to children and adults in the year 2000 to determine the morbidity causes and their distribution by health areas. For gathering information, the fundamental technique used was data collection in questionnaires and the worksheet of physicians working in various polyclinics and the home care service register as sources of information. The data analysis used percentage as a measure of frequency and such information was shown in statistical tables. It was found that the higher number of home care services by health area corresponded to "Antonio Maceo" polyclinics both in children and adults, and the time when more home care services were provided in the health areas was the months of climatic changes, which was related to the main causes of morbidity (respiratory

  5. Las mineralizaciones de barita de Cerro del Hierro (Sevilla. Características mineralógicas y geoquímica

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    Galán Huertos, E.

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Different barite deposits (stratabound, vein and karstic types are occurring in the Lower Cambrian carbonatic materials of the Cerro del Hierro, Sevilla (Ossa-Morena Zone. Calcite, hematite, goethite and minor chalcopyrite are common associated minerals, with limonite and malachite as alterations. The content of barite can be as high as 98 %. There is a close relationship between barite type and Sr content (vein 34S ranges between 32,7 ‰ (stratiform barites and 20,7 ‰ (epigenetic barites. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio for the epigenetic barites oscillates between 0.70873 and 0.71112 which could be the result of the infiuence of different mineralization solutions. A primary origin for the stratabound barites is proposed, in relation with the diagenesis of the limestones occurred during the Lower Cambrian. Epigenetic barites were formed after the Hercynian Orogenesis by remobilization of the stratiform ores, with Ba and Sr supplied from the lixiviation of the host rocks. The last process could be much more important for the karstic barite formation.En los materiales carbonatados del Cámbrico inferior del Cerro del Hierro (Zona de Ossa-Morena existen diversos tipos de mineralizaciones de barita (estratoligadas, filonianas y kársticas. La barita está acompañada de calcita, hematites, goethita, y calcopirita accesoria, y limonitas y malaquita como fases tardías de alteración, y presenta una gran pureza química [ > 98% SO4(Ba,Sr]. Existe una relación entre la tipología de la barita y el contenido en Sr, en el sentido de filonianas 34S en las baritas oscila entre 32,7 ‰ para las estratoligadas y 20,7 ‰ para las epigenéticas. Las razones 87Sr/86Sr determinadas sobre baritas epigenéticas varían entre 0.70873 y 0.71112, lo que puede interpretarse como consecuencia de la participación de diversos tipos de soluciones mineralizantes. Se propone un origen primario de las baritas estratoligadas, en relación con la diagénesis de los

  6. ANÁLISIS DE MACRORRESTOS VEGETALES EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO LOS TRES CERROS 1 (ISLA LAS MORAS, VICTORIA, ENTRE RÍOS / Macroremains plant analysis on the Tres Cerros 1 archaeological site (Las Moras island, Victoria, Entre Ríos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Milagros Colobig

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es la primera aproximación al estudio de macrorrestos botánicos en el sitio Los Tres Cerros 1 (isla Las Moras, Victoria, Entre Ríos. Estos restos fueron recuperados mediante la técnica de flotación manual. A partir del material extraído, se exploró el rol de los recursos vegetales y su importancia en la subsistencia en los grupos humanos que habitaron el Delta Superior del río Paraná durante el Holoceno tardío. Se identificaron cinco familias: Solanaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Poaceae (Maideae y Oryzoideae y Amaranthaceae. Los estudios permitieron estimar que a partir de 700 ARCP hubo un incremento en la abundancia y variabilidad de recursos vegetales utilizados con respecto a períodos anteriores. La presencia de elementos oryzoides, y graminoides (específicamente Maideae evidenció la existencia de vegetales silvestres y domesticados, aportando nuevos registros sobre el aprovechamiento, manejo y cultivo de las plantas en el área de estudio en el Holoceno tardío.   Abstract  This paper entails the first approach to macrobotanical remains obtained from Los Tres Cerros 1 (Isla Las Moras, Victoria, Entre Ríos. The remains were recovered by means of manual flotation technique. The extracted material allowed us to explore the role played by vegetable resources role and their importance to the subsistence of human populations of Upper Paraná Delta during the late Holocene. Five botanical families were recognized: Solanaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Poaceae (Maideae and Ehrhartoideae and Amaranthaceae. Studies estimate that from 700 RCYBP, there was an increase in the abundance and variability of plant resources used, as compared to previous periods. The presence of oryzoides and graminoid elements (specifically Maideae showed the presence of wild and domesticated plants, providing new records on the use of plants in the area studied, in the late Holocene.

  7. Observations of the Breakdown of Mountain Waves Over the Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachon on 8/9 July 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, J. H.; Fritts, D. C.; Wang, L.; Gelinas, L. J.; Rudy, R. J.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.; Smith, S.; Franke, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Although mountain waves (MWs) are thought to be a ubiquitous feature of the wintertime southern Andes stratosphere, it was not known whether these waves propagated up to the mesopause region until Smith et al. (2009) confirmed their presence via airglow observations. The new Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachon in Chile provided the opportunity for a further study of these waves. Since MWs have near-zero phase speed, and zero wind lines often occur in the winter upper mesosphere (80 to 100 km altitude) region due to the reversal of the zonal mean and tidal wind, MW breakdown may routinely occur at these altitudes. Here we report on very high spatial/temporal resolution observations of the initiation of MW breakdown in the mesopause region. Because the waves are nearly stationary, the breakdown process was observed over several hours; a much longer interval than has previously been observed for any gravity wave breakdown. During the breakdown process observations were made of initial horseshoe-shaped vortices, leading to successive vortex rings, as is also commonly seen in Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of idealized and multiscale gravity wave breaking. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) structures were also observed to form. Comparing the structure of observed KHI with the results of existing DNS allowed an estimate of the turbulent kinematic viscosity. This viscosity was found to be around 25 m2/s, a value larger than the nominal viscosity that is used in models.

  8. Estudios bioarqueológicos en el sitio Los Tres Cerros 1 (Delta Superior del río Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina

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    Clara Scabuzzo

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de los estudios bioarqueológicos efectuados en la serie de esqueletos humanos del sitio Los Tres Cerros 1 (departamento de Victoria, Entre Ríos, Argentina, una estructura antropogénica monticular ocupada entre ca. 1227 y 560 años AP por cazadores, recolectores, pescadores y horticultores, asignados a la entidad arqueológica Goya-Malabrigo. Las investigaciones bioarqueológicas se enfocaron en determinar la estructura sexo-etaria de la muestra, estudiar las lesiones óseas y analizar las prácticas mortuorias. De acuerdo a estos estudios, en el sitio se enterraron al menos 16 individuos de distintos grupos etarios y ambos sexos. La variabilidad de modos de disponer a los muertos incluye entierros primarios, secundarios y elementos óseos dispersos. Algunos huesos presentaban termoalteración y ocre sobre la superficie. Se discuten estas evidencias a nivel regional con otros sitios del Delta del Paraná con presencia de esqueletos humanos asignados a la entidad Goya-Malabrigo.

  9. Cambios en la comunidad de Pinus culminicola Andersen & Beaman en el Cerro Potosí, N.L. México

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    Rubén Sánchez Silva

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en la cima del Cerro Potosí, N.L., acerca de Pinus culminicola Andresen & Beaman, especie endémica del norte de la Sierra Madre Oriental, que hasta 1960 cubría 106 ha, mientras que en 1970 esta superficie había disminuido a 70 ha debido a que el resto fue destruido por el fuego. Mediante el análisis de fotografías aéreas y trabajo de campo se determino la distribución y la estructura florística de las asociaciones vegetales del área, caracterizándose sus condiciones ambientales. Aunque se detecto que existe cierta regeneración de P. culminicola, ésta es insuficiente para contrarrestar las alte­raciones causadas por la actual y creciente presión antrópica; de lo anterior se desprende la necesidad de decretar dicha zona como área protegida, de modo que se garantice su efectiva conservación.

  10. SIMULACIÓN DE FLUJOS PIROCLÁSTICOS DEL VOLCÁN CERRO MACHÍN, COLOMBIA, MEDIANTE LA APLICACIÓN DE HERRAMIENTAS DE ARCGIS©

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    Elsa Adriana Cárdenas Quiroga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerro Machín es un volcán activo, caracterizado en el pasado por erupciones explosivas de tipo pliniano y ubicado en un sector de gran importancia económica. Desde la década de los noventa se han desarrollado varios modelos de simulación para determinar el área que podría resultar afectada en una nueva erupción, pero estos modelos se basan en programas con variables predeterminadas que no son fácilmente modificables. Por tanto, se diseñó una aplicación del modelo de simulación Model Builder de las herramientas del software ArcGIS© para facilitar el proceso de análisis de los flujos piroclásticos expulsados por ese volcán en tres eventos eruptivos identificados y modelados previamente, con el objetivo de crear una aplicación fácilmente adaptable a cambios en las variables de simulación y que pudiera ser empleada también para modelar otros volcanes. Los resultados obtenidos resultan compatibles y similares a los obtenidos en simulaciones previas, lo que indica que la aplicación desarrollada es funcional.

  11. Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, Susan P. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2005-10-01

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the

  12. Perfil infectológico de poblaciones mapuche de Cerro Policía y Aguada Guzmán de la provincia de Río Negro

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    Rey, Jorge Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro trabajo analiza la prevalencia de marcadores de algunas infecciones que afectan las poblaciones mapuche de Cerro Policía (CP y Aguada Guzmán (AG en la Prov. de Río Negro. Los estudios incluídos son: determinación de anticuerpos anti-Treponema pallidum, anti-Trypanosoma cruzii, anti-Echinococcus granulosus, antígeno de superficie de la Hepatitis B (HBsAg, anticuerpos contra el core de la Hepatitis B (anti-HBc, anticuerpos contra el virus de la Hepatitis A (anti-HAV. Se estudiaron 160 muestras en CP y 83 en AG. Los resultados muestran alta prevalencia para anti-HAV en CP (89.2% y en AG (77.1% y para hidatidosis (10.6% y 9.6% respectivamente. Se hallaron valores nulos o bajos para sífilis (CP: 0.0 % y AG:2.4%. La prevalencia para Chagas fue del 10% en CP y 0.0% en AG. Los datos para Hepatitis B fueron nulos o bajos: HBsAg (CP:0.0% y AG:1.2% y anti-HBc(CP:0.6% y AG:0.0%. Los resultados indican que, aún estando estas dos poblaciones tan próximas muestran diferencias en los perfiles de los marcadores serológicos estudiados. Al comparar las tasas de prevalencia con las de otras poblaciones de América, cada una presenta un perfil diferente que depende de la población y del agente infeccioso considerado.

  13. LOS “CUERNOS DE LA CONSAGRACIÓN” EN EL CERRO DE LA ENCANTADA: CRONOLOGÍA DE UN SÍMBOLO

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    José Luis Sánchez Meseguer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde su aparición en 1978, el ejemplar de “cuernos de la consagración” de El Cerro de La Encantada (Granátula de Calatrava, Ciudad Real, España es sin duda el elemento de ese yacimiento del Bronce de La Mancha que más incógnitas plantea y que más dificultades presenta al interpretar el significado de su presencia en tierras tan occidentales, y especialmente tan en el interior de la Península Ibérica. Sus características y su semejanza con los ejemplares localizados en El Oficio, yacimiento almeriense correspondiente a la cultura de El Argar, su contexto arqueológico y cultural, sus paralelos y su cronología, testimonian una relación entre la Península Ibérica y el Mediterráneo Oriental durante la Edad del Bronce, concretamente a mediados del II milenio A.C. y en época premicénica, cuyo carácter necesariamente trascendió lo meramente“comercial”; no se trata de un elemento mueble sino arquitectónico, sin antecedentes conocidos en el III Milenio A.C. peninsular, que pone de manifiesto que su existencia no puede ser el resultado de un intercambio/comercio/regalo de materias primas o de objetos, sino de la presencia en tierras manchegas de una ideología que debió llegar hasta aquí en la mente de gentes que la guardaban en la memoria de su bagaje cultural.

  14. Rock magnetic evidence of non-random raw material selection criteria in Cerro Toledo Obsidian Artifacts from Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregovich, A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Steffen, A.; Sternberg, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Stone tools are one of the most enduring forms of ancient human behavior available to anthropologists. The geologic materials that comprise stone tools are a reflection of the rocks that were available locally or through trade, as are the intended use of the tools and the knapping technology needed to produce them. Investigation of the rock magnetic and geochemical characteristics of the artifacts and the geological source materials provides a baseline to explore these past behaviors. This study uses rock magnetic properties to explore the raw material selection criteria involved in the production of obsidian tools in the region around Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Obsidian is locally abundant and was traded by tribes across the central United States. Here we compare the rock magnetic properties of a sample of obsidian projectile points (N =25) that have been geochemically sourced to the Cerro Toledo obsidian flow with geological samples collected from four sites within the same flow (N =135). This collection of archaeological artifacts, albeit small, contains representatives of at least 8 different point styles that were used over 6000 years from the Archaic into the Late Prehistoric. Bulk rock hysteresis parameters (Mr, Ms, Bc, and Bcr) and low-field susceptibility (Χ) measurements show that the projectile points generally contain a lower concentration of magnetic minerals than the geologic samples. For example, the artifacts' median Ms value is 2.9 x 10-3 Am2kg-1, while that of the geological samples is 6.5 x 10-3 Am2kg-1. The concentration of magnetic minerals in obsidian is a proxy for the concentration of microlites in general, and this relationship suggests that although obsidian was locally abundant, toolmakers employed non-random selection criteria resulting in generally lower concentrations of microlites in their obsidian tools.

  15. Evaluación del estado de conservación de las microcuencas pertenecientes a los Cerros Orientales de Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Arévalo Santos Carolina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó en colaboración con la Alcaldía Municipal de Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia, con el fin de
    aproximarnos al estado de conservación de las microcuencas localizadas sobre la cota de altitud 2.600-3.200 msnm, en las veredas de Yerbabuena y Fusca, donde se identificaron cuatro microcuencas de interés: Mana- Yerbabuena, Coseteja, Fusca y Honda-Pan de Azúcar. El documento final se presenta como un instrumento para el conocimiento de los cerros Orientales de Chía a una escala municipal, cuyo enfoque establece los diferentes tipos de cobertura de vegetación existentes como indicador del estado actual de las microcuencas y evidencia situaciones críticas que pueden propiciar su total degradación. Los resultados permiten concluir que los procesos de transformación son bastante intensos, debido básicamente a la acción antrópica que ha hecho de los procesos urbanísticos el factor de amenaza más significativo, que ha conducido a la pérdida acelerada de la vegetación, apertura de vías de acceso, uso inadecuado de las fuentes hídricas etc. El producto principal de este  análisis es la generación de un mapa de áreas de interés ambiental que proponemos deben ser proyectadas ya sea
    para fines de conservación, restauración, recuperación y áreas cuyo manejo de conflictos debe ser prioridad. La
    importancia de establecer el estado de conservación deriva de la necesidad de proporcionar bases para el desarrollo de planes de manejo ambiental.

  16. Large rock avalanches in southern Perù: the Cerro Caquilluco - Cerrillos Negros rock slide - avalanche (Tacna, Tomasiri, Perù)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G.; Hermanns, R. L.; Murillo, P. V.

    2012-04-01

    The Andean bent which coincides with the Peruvian-Chilean border region is characterised by one of the largest relief contrasts on earth with depth of the subduction trench ranging from 5000 to 6000 m below sea level and mountain tops ranging from 5500 to 6300 m a.s.l.. The western flank of the Andes is subdivided in 4 major geologic zones (i.e. Coastal Cordillera, longitudinal Basin or depression, the Precordillera or western escarpment and western Cordillera). Local relief contrasts are also pronounced due to the incision of deep canyons into several million old uplifted surfaces, preserved because of the extremely dry climate with precipitation averaging a few mm and less per year. The Lluta collapse (minimum age of 2.5 Ma; volume 26 km3) is one of the largest non-volcanic non-marine landslides on Earth and has been mapped in that area (Wörner et al., 2002). Systematic mapping in northern Chile and Southern Peru has revealed that this is not the only gigantic landslide in the area but that further landslides of similar size occurred in the area, located both along the canyon slopes and along the western escarpment of the Cordillera. This suggests that landsliding has been a major factor in controlling erosion. This contribution describes first results on mapping a giant landslide complex in southern Perù called the Cerro Caquilluco - Cerrillos Negros Tomasiri rock slide - avalanche complex. The systematic mapping we have carried out in the area is presented in a further contribution to this conference. The Cerro Caquilluco - Cerrillos Negros Tomasiri rock slide - avalanche complex affected the upper part of a SW dipping paleosurface (8° to 9°) cut by a disconnected and regular primitive drainage network organized in a series of SW trending parallel valleys. This network developed within the lower Miocene pinkish tuffaceous deposits of the Huaylillas formation, whereas the main landslide scarp lies within the conglomerates of the Upper Moquegua formation

  17. Influencia de los parámetros climáticos, soportado en tecnología de información y comunicación, determina un microclima apropiado del invernadero - Cerro de Pasco

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa, José

    2016-01-01

    Se analiza la influencia de los parámetros climáticos, como la temperatura y humedad relativa ambiental, soportado en las tecnología de información y comunicación (Tic’s), determina un microclima apropiado, templado seco, dentro del invernadero en la Comunidad Urbana de Champamarca - Cerro de Pasco, año 2012. La información procedió de los equipos tecnológicos instalados en los puntos de monitoreo tanto interno como externo del invernadero. Los resultados muestran la necesidad del empleo de l...

  18. Caracterización geotécnica y análisis de la estabilidad de los macizos rocosos del camino de acceso al Cerro San Bernardo, Ciudad de salta

    OpenAIRE

    Cerusico, Luciana; Marcuzzi, Jorge Juan

    2011-01-01

    p. 29-44 En este trabajo se describe la caracterización geotécnica de los afloramientos rocosos que conforman los taludes del camino de acceso a la cumbre del cerro San Bernardo, y se evalúa su inestabilidad para producir potenciales deslizamientos. El análisis de la estabilidad de un talud rocoso no es una tarea sencilla, y requiere de un cuidadoso análisis de campo, para interpretar y comprender la importancia de los factores geoambientales que pueden favorecer los procesos de inestabili...

  19. Heat losses estimation associated with the physical state of the thermal insulation of pipes vaporductos network in Cerro Prieto geothermal field; Estimacion de perdidas de calor asociadas al estado fisico del aislamiento termico de las tuberias de la red de vaporductos del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovando Castelar, Rosember; Martinez Estrella, Juan Ignacio; Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx; jime@iie.org.mx; aggarcia@iie.org.mx; Canchola Felix, Ismael; Miranda Herrera, Carlos; Jacobo Galvan, Paul [Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF) steam transportation network is constituted by 140 km of pipes with diameters ranging from 8 to 48 inches, which transport the steam of 165 producing wells to 13 power plants which have a total installed capacity of 720 MWe. Originally, the pipes are thermally insulated with a mineral wool or fiber glass layer and an external aluminum or iron cover. Due to the insulation material has been exposed to weather conditions during the field operation it shows nowadays different grades of wear-out, or even it is lacking in some parts of the network, causing higher heat losses from the pipes to the environment. In this work, the magnitude of the heat losses related with the present condition of the thermal insulation throughout the pipeline network is assessed. This involved determining the longitude and diameter, as well as the insulation condition of each single pipeline section, and the calculation of the heat transfer coefficients for the different thermal insulation conditions defined for this study. [Spanish] La red de transporte de vapor del campo geotermico Cerro Prieto (CGCP) esta constituida por aproximadamente 140 km de tuberias de 8 a 48 pulgadas de diametro, las cuales conducen el vapor producido por 165 pozos hacia 13 plantas generadoras, cuya capacidad instalada es de 720 MWe. Originalmente, estas tuberias son aisladas termicamente con una capa de 2 pulgadas de material aislante a base de lana mineral o fibra de vidrio, y una proteccion exterior de aluminio o hierro. Debido principalmente al impacto de las condiciones meteorologicas durante el tiempo de operacion del campo, en algunas porciones de la red el aislante presenta actualmente distintos grados de deterioro, o incluso se encuentra ausente, lo cual se traduce en una mayor perdida de calor desde las tuberias hacia el medio ambiente. En el presente trabajo se evalua la magnitud de las perdidas de calor asociadas al estado fisico del aislamiento termico de las

  20. Hydrothermal alteration zones and present reservoir conditions: an approach to define production zones at the eastern portion of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Zonas de alteracion hidrotermal y condiciones actuales del yacimiento: un enfoque para determinar zonas productoras al oriente del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Hernandez, Juan Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: juan.camacho02@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Geological factors are as essential for locating new wells as they are for defining the production zones of these wells. At the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CGCP), one of the most important geological factors is identification of the hydrothermal alteration zones (ZAH). These are divided into silica and epidote mineralogical zones (ZMSE), without CaCO{sub 3}, and silica and epidote mineralogical transition zones (ZTMSE), with CaCO{sub 3}. It has been observed that the continuous variation of reservoir thermodynamic conditions (temperature, pressure and enthalpy) is due mainly to the exploitation of geothermal resources. The presence of new thermodynamic conditions recorded at the reservoir has led to the re-location of production wells originally located during the drilling campaign of 2004 to 2006. At the geological sections on the eastern part of the CGCP, adjustments made to the well completions lie on the limits between the ZMSE and ZTMSE zones. In turn, this is related to the current, superior, thermodynamic reservoir conditions. Based on this, a new geologic approach is proposed to define possible production zones for new wells, relating the ZAH zones to current thermodynamic reservoir conditions. [Spanish] Los factores geologicos son determinantes, tanto para establecer nuevos sitios de perforacion como para determinar el intervalo productor de un pozo nuevo. En el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP) una de los factores mas importantes es la determinacion de las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal (ZAH) que se dividen en dos: zona mineralogica de silice y epidota (ZMSE), sin presencia de CaCO{sub 3}, y zona de transicion mineralogica de silice y epidota (ZTMSE), con presencia de CaCO{sub 3}. Por otra parte, tambien se ha constatado que la continua variacion de las condiciones termodinamicas del yacimiento (temperatura, presion y entalpia) es originada en buena medida por la explotacion del recurso geotermico. La ocurrencia de nuevas condiciones

  1. El límite sur de la necrópolis medieval judía del Cerro de la Horca (Toledo y el problema del contacto con otros cementerios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Taboada, Arturo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological excavation of a plot on 25 General Villalba St. has allowed for the identification of what could have been part the southern end of the Medieval Jewish Cemetery of the Cerro de la Horca, an area characterized by the presence of three different rite cemeteries: the aforementioned Je-wish cemetery, a Muslim Taifa Period cemetery linked to the Madrid road, and a Christian cemetery associated to the San Eugenio hermitage. In addition, the lack of lucillos (brick half-barrelled vaults and the presence of side covacha (rock-cut and terraced tombs contributes to a more complete knowledge of both the burial typology known for this cemetery, and its evolution and development.La excavación de un solar localizado en el número 25 de la calle General Villalba ha permitido identificar lo que pudo configurar parte del límite sur del cementerio judío medieval del Cerro de la Horca, en una zona caracterizada por la convergencia de cementerios de diferentes religiones: el ya mencionado judío, un segundo musulmán de época Taifa asociado al camino de Madrid y un tercero cristiano, dependiente de la ermita de San Eugenio. Además, la ausencia de lucillos y la presencia de tumbas en covacha lateral y escalonadas vienen a completar tanto la tipología de enterramientos conocida para este cementerio como su evolución y desarrollo.

  2. The flow dynamics of an extremely large volume pyroclastic flow, the 2.08-Ma Cerro Galán Ignimbrite, NW Argentina, and comparison with other flow types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cas, Ray A.F.; Wright, Heather M.; Folkes, Christopher B.; Lesti, Chiara; Porreca, Massimiliano; Giordano, Guido; Viramonte, Jose G.

    2011-01-01

    The 2.08-Ma Cerro Galán Ignimbrite (CGI) represents a >630-km3 dense rock equivalent (VEI 8) eruption from the long-lived Cerro Galán magma system (∼6 Ma). It is a crystal-rich (35–60%), pumice (explain the contemporaneous maintenance of high particle concentration, high sedimentation rate at the depositional boundary layer and a high level of mobility, it is also proposed that the flow(s) was continuously supplied at a high mass feeding rate. It is also proposed that internal gas pressure within the flow, directed downwards onto the substrate over which the flow was passing, reduced the friction between the flow and the substrate and also enhanced its mobility. The pervasive sub-horizontal fabric of aligned pumice, lithic and even biotite crystals indicates a consistent horizontal shear force existed during transport and deposition in the basal granular flow, consistent with the existence of a laminar, shearing, granular flow regime during the final stages of transport and deposition.

  3. Vigilancia de la salud pública después de una erupción volcánica: lecciones aprendidas en Cerro Negro, Nicaragua, 1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malilay Josephine

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La erupción del volcán Cerro Negro cerca de León, Nicaragua, el 9 de abril de 1992 lanzó alrededor de 1,7 millones de toneladas de ceniza en una zona de 200 km². Se efectuó una evaluación inicial de los efectos en la salud de cerca de 300 000 residentes, con los datos normalmente obtenidos mediante el sistema nacional de vigilancia epidemiológica. Se determinó que el número de consultas a los establecimientos de atención de salud por diarrea e infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA aumentó en las dos comunidades estudiadas, una dentro de la zona del desastre y otra en sus cercanías. En particular, las consultas por diarrea aguda fueron casi 6,0 veces más numerosas que antes de la erupción en ambas comunidades y las consultas por IRA, 3,6 veces más frecuentes en Malpaisillo (la comunidad cercana a la zona del desastre y 6,0 veces más frecuentes en Telica (la comunidad situada dentro de esa zona. Casi todas fueron consultas por enfermedad en lactantes y niños menores de 5 años. El aumento de la tasa de morbilidad por diarrea, que frecuentemente se produce después de las erupciones volcánicas, exige que se investiguen detalladamente el tipo y la calidad del abastecimiento de agua después de una acumulación cuantiosa de ceniza. Es preciso examinar con mayor detenimiento los problemas respiratorios asociados con la ceniza para determinar el espectro de esas enfermedades y el momento en que se presentan en lactantes y otros subgrupos especiales de la población. Los datos acopiados por medio de la vigilancia pasiva sobre las condiciones de salud antes y después de una erupción pueden emplearse para detectar la morbilidad relacionada con la erupción. Los sistemas que ya están establecidos, como el sistema nacional de vigilancia epidemiológica de Nicaragua, se pueden modificar o ampliar para mejorar su sensibilidad a nuevos casos y, por ende, su capacidad de ofrecer servicios de notificación apropiados a los organismos de

  4. Emplacement and deformation of the Cerro Durazno Pluton delineates stages of the lower Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution in NW-Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongn, F.; Riller, U.

    2003-04-01

    Regional-scale transpression and transtension are considered to be important in the lower Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution of metamorphic and granitoid basement rocks of the southern central Andes. In order to test whether such kinematic changes affected Paleozoic basement rocks on the local scale, i.e. in the Eastern Cordillera of NW-Argentina, we performed a detailed field-based structural analysis of the 456 Ma granitoid Cerro Durazno pluton (CDP). The results of our analysis point to the following stages in the geodynamic evolution of this area: (1) Metamorphism and deformation of Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic basement rocks occurred at high T and low to medium P prior to emplacement of the CDP. This lead to the formation of schists and migmatites characterized by pervasive planar and linear mineral shape fabrics and the growth of andalusite, cordierite and fibrolite. (2) Magmatic foliation in the CDP is defined by the shape-preferred orientation of euhedral feldspar phenocrysts and microgranitoid enclaves. These fabrics are concordant to the NE-SW striking intrusive contact with migmatitic host rocks. The lack of submagmatic or high-T solid-state fabrics in the CDP may indicate that cooling and solidification of granitoid magma was not accompanied by regional deformation. Alternatively, emplacement of granitoid magma may have been facilitated by the creation of open space at mid-crustal level induced by regional deformation. (3) Ductile deformation under greenschist metamorphic conditions overprinted magmatic fabrics of the CDP. This is evident by NW-SE striking metamorphic foliation surfaces transecting magmatic shape fabrics at high angles. During this deformation, the pluton was thrust on a SW-dipping shear zone toward the NE over low-grade metamorphic host rocks which lead to a condensation of metamorphic isograds in the host rocks. Ages of strained pegmatitic dikes indicate that this deformation occurred at about 430 Ma. In summary, the difference in age

  5. Comportamiento del índice de bajo peso al nacer en el Policlínico Docente Cerro durante los años 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Moraima Torres Zulueta

    Full Text Available Introducción: el bajo peso al nacerconstituye el índice predictivo más importante de la mortalidad infantil y se plantea que es 20 veces mayor que en el recién nacido con peso adecuado. Objetivo: comparar el comportamiento del índice de bajo peso al nacer en recién nacidos de un Policlínico durante los años 2009 y 2010. Método: se realizó un estudio comparativo de tipo descriptivo en el Policlínico Universitario Cerro, en la provincia La Habana, durante los años 2009 y 2010. El Universo estuvo constituido por los 350 recién nacidos vivos en el 2009 y los 318 en el 2010, y la muestra estuvo conformada por 23 niños con bajo peso al nacer en el 2009 y por 21 en el 2010. Se revisaron las historias obstétricas de las madres y se identificaron algunas variables socio-demográficas. Resultados: en ambos años estudiados la edad materna de mayor bajo peso al nacer fue de 20 a 34 años, con 73,9 y 80,9 %. Los factores de riesgo que se asociaron al bajo peso fueron: el hábito de fumar, que predominó en ambos años de estudio, representado por un 60,8 % en 2009 y por un 61,9 % en el 2010; el trastorno hipertensivo, con un 35 % en el año 2010 y un 27,7 % en el año 2009, y en ambos años fue superior en el grupo de gestantes con hipertensión arterial crónica. La anemia aumentó considerablemente en el 2010 en un 80,9 %, comparado con un 69,5 % en el año 2009. Conclusiones: el bajo peso al nacer resultó más frecuente en las gestantes de 20 a 34 años. Los factores de riesgo asociados al bajo peso al nacer con mayor frecuencia fueron: la anemia, el hábito de fumar y los trastornos hipertensivos.

  6. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system: characteristics of a shallow low sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit in the Cerro Negro district, Deseado Massif, Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Conrado Permuy; Guido, Diego M.; Jovic, Sebastián M.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Moncada, Daniel; Melgarejo, Joan Carles; Hames, Willis

    2016-08-01

    The Cerro Negro district, within the Argentinian Deseado Massif province, has become one of the most significant recent epithermal discoveries, with estimated reserves plus resources of ˜6.7 Moz Au equivalent. The Marianas-San Marcos vein system contains about 70 % of the Au-Ag resources in the district. Mineralization consists of Upper Jurassic (155 Ma) epithermal Au- and Ag-rich veins of low to intermediate sulfidation style, hosted in and genetically related to Jurassic intermediate composition volcanic rocks (159-156 Ma). Veins have a complex infill history, represented by ten stages with clear crosscutting relationships that can be summarized in four main episodes: a low volume, metal-rich initial episode (E1), an extended banded quartz episode with minor mineralization (E2), a barren waning stage episode (E3), and a silver-rich late tectonic-hydrothermal episode (E4). The first three episodes are interpreted to have formed at the same time and probably from fluids of similar composition: a 290-230 °C fluid dominated by meteoric and volcanic waters (-3‰ to -0‰ δ18Owater), with sulfur (-1 to -2 ‰ δ34Swater). Metal was mainly precipitated at the beginning of vein formation (episode 1) due to a combination of boiling at ˜600 to 800 m below the paleowater table, and associated mixing/cooling processes, as evidenced by sulfide-rich bands showing crustiform-colloform quartz, adularia, and chlorite-smectite banding. During episodes 2 and 3, metal contents progressively decrease during continuing boiling conditions, and veins were filled by quartz and calcite during waning stages of the hydrothermal system, and the influx of bicarbonate waters (-6 to -8.5 ‰ δ18Owater). Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by proximal illite, adularia, and silica zone with chlorite and minor epidote, intermediate interlayered illite-smectite and a distal chlorite halo. This assemblage is in agreement with measured fluid inclusion temperatures. A striking aspect of the

  7. How Pore-Fluid Pressure due to Heavy Rainfall Influences Volcanic Eruptions, Example of 1998 and 2008 Eruptions of Cerro Azul (Galapagos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, F.; Amelung, F.; Gregg, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    About 30 worldwide seismic studies have shown a strong correlation between rainfall and earthquakes in the past 22 years (e.g. Costain and Bollinger, 2010). Such correlation has been explained by the phenomenon of hydro-seismicity via pore pressure diffusion: an increase of pore-fluid in the upper crust reduces the normal stress on faults, which can trigger shear failure. Although this pore pressure effect is widely known for earthquakes, this phenomenon and more broadly poro-elasticity process are not widely studied on volcanoes. However, we know from our previous works that tensile failures that open to propagate magma through the surface are also pore pressure dependent. We have demonstrated that an increase of pore pressure largely reduces the overpressure required to rupture the magma reservoir. We have shown that the pore pressure has more influence on reservoir stability than other parameters such as the reservoir depth or the edifice loading. Here, we investigate how small pore-fluid changes due to hydrothermal or aquifer refill during heavy rainfall may perturb the conditions of failure around magma reservoirs and, what is more, if these perturbations are enough to trigger magma intrusions. We quantify the pore pressure effect on magmatic system by combining 1) 1D pore pressure diffusion model to quantify how pore pressure changes from surface to depth after heavy rainfall events and 2) 2D poro-elastic numerical model to provide the evolution of failure conditions of the reservoir as a consequence of these pore pressure changes. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to characterize the influence on our results of the poro-elastic parameters (hydraulic diffusivity, permeability and porosity) and the geometry of the magma reservoir and the aquifer (depth, size, shape). Finally, we apply our methodology to Cerro Azul volcano (Galapagos) where both last eruptions (1998 and 2008) occurred just after heavy rainfall events, without any pre-eruptive inflation. In

  8. null Cerro Negro, Nicaragua Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cinder cone in western Nicaragua has a name that means "black hill." It has erupted more than 20 times since its birth in 1850. Explosive eruptions from the...

  9. FLOODPLAIN, CERRO GORDO COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  10. Determination of heat losses in the Cerro Prieto, Baja California, geothermal field steam transportation network based on the thermal insulation condition of the steam pipelines; Determinacion de perdidas de calor en la red de transporte de vapor del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, Baja California, con base en el estado fisico del aislamiento termico de vaporductos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovando Castelar, Rosember; Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Martinez Estrella, Juan Ignacio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx; Canchola Felix, Ismael; Jacobo Galvan, Paul; Miranda Herrera, Carlos; Mora Perez, Othon [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    In Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), the steam from producing wells is transported to power plants through a large and complex system of pipes thermally insulated with a 2 inches thick mineral wool or a fiber glass layer and an external aluminum or iron cover. The insulation material has been exposed to weather conditions during the field operation and has suffered density and thickness changes. In some cases the insulation has been lost completely, increasing heat transfer from the pipes to the environment. This paper analyzes the impact of the conditions of thermal insulation on heat losses in the CPGF steam-pipeline network. The heat losses are calculated by applying an iterative method to determine the surface temperature based on a heat balance calculated from the three basic mechanisms of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Finally, using length and diameter data corresponding to the condition of the thermal insulation of each pipeline-and field operation data, the overall heat losses are quantified for steam lines throughout the pipeline network in the field. The results allow us to evaluate the magnitude of the heat losses in comparison with the overall energy losses occurring during steam transport from wells to the power plants. [Spanish] En el Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto (CGCP), BC, el transporte de vapor desde los pozos hasta las plantas generadoras de electricidad se lleva a cabo mediante un extenso y complejo sistema de tuberias que tipicamente se encuentran aisladas termicamente con una capa de 2 pulgadas de material aislante a base de lana mineral o fibra de vidrio, y una proteccion mecanica de aluminio o hierro galvanizado. Debido a la exposicion a las condiciones meteorologicas a traves del tiempo de operacion del campo, el aislamiento ha experimentado cambios en su densidad y espesor y en ocasiones se ha perdido por completo, lo cual repercute en una mayor transferencia de calor de las tuberias hacia el medio ambiente

  11. Worker flag. Independent Electrical Policy; Bandera Obrera. Politica Electrica Independiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahen, D. [Sindicato Unico de Trabajadores de la Industria Nuclear, Salazar, Estado de Mexico C.P. 52045 (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work analyses the initiative of privatization of the Mexican Electric Industry and also it is showed the incoherence of this mistaken proposal. Along the same line is analysed tthe situation of the National Electric Sector and the working process for the distinct types of electric generation just as the syndical and labor situations. In consequence it is proposed an Independent Electrical Policy, which includes the integration of the Nationalized Electric Industry, the syndical union and the Unique Collective Contract. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the success of the electrical and nuclear struggle always maintaining in rising position the red flag of the proletariat. The author considers that the privatization means mercantilization of the human necessities. The privatization is not inevitable at condition of to exercise consequently the political actions necessary through alternatives includes: the worker control of production, research, and the National Electric strike. (Author)

  12. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, BANDERA COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  13. Estudio de la diversidad florística y características del suelo dentro de un proceso de restauración activa luego de un período de lluvia, en la zona de influencia del "Cerro Puntas" nororiente de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    Chiquin Baños, Mayra Gissela; Velecela Caiza, Diana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The moor is one of the most important ecosystems of Ecuador because it acts as a regulator of water, currently these ecosystems are deteriorating due to anthropological activities such as agriculture and livestock, why FONAG aware of the importance of conservation moorland conducted a program of active restoration with native species in the area of classified Iguiñaro, hinterland of the "Cerro Puntas" northeast of Quito, and this document contains the study of plant diversity and soil charact...

  14. Una sepultura con armas de baja época ibérica (o época romana republicana en la necrópolis del «Cerro de las Balas» (Écija, Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez Pariente de León, Esther

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Iberian Iron-Age weapons are extremely rare in western Andalusia, due mainly to the absence of the normative cremation cemeteries typical of other areas in the Peninsula, cemeteries where nearly all of the approximately six thousand Iron Age weapons that we know have been documented. In this paper we present one of the very few exceptions to this rule: a ‘warrior’ burial found in the Iron Age cemetery cemetery at ‘Cerro de las Balas’ (or «bullets’ hill», so known after the many sling projectiles found in the neighbourhood. This is an important find due to three facts: the type of weapons (among them a sword of the gladius hispaniensis type and a dagger of a very late Celtiberian or very early Roman type; the date, between the Late Iberian period and Early Roman rule; and the closed assemblage of weapons: sword, dagger and two javelins or short spears. It is quite possible that the burial is to be dated to the beginning of the second century BC, and therefore that the sword found in it is the earliest known example of the Roman gladius hispaniensis sword... or the latest version of the Iberian prototype for it. Finally, we discuss the proximity of this burial to the caesarian battlefield of Munda (45 BC to conclude that in all probability these are two completely independent events, the burial being probably much earlier.

    Las armas de época ibérica son rarísimas en Andalucía Occidental, en buena parte debido a la práctica ausencia de necrópolis, que es donde las armas se han documentado en mayor número durante toda la Edad del Hierro peninsular. Se presenta en este trabajo una de las pocas excepciones a esta regla: una sepultura ‘de guerrero’ hallada en la necrópolis del ‘Cerro de las Balas’ (así llamado por los numerosos proyectiles de honda hallados en las cercanías. Es un hallazgo de importancia por el tipo de armas hallado (entre ellas una espada de hoja recta del tipo del

  15. Geomorphology, internal structure, and successive development of a glacier foreland in the semiarid Chilean Andes (Cerro Tapado, upper Elqui Valley, 30°08‧ S., 69°55‧ W.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Sébastien; Kinnard, Christophe; Surazakov, Arzhan; Bossy, William

    2014-02-01

    We use geomorphological analysis, sedimentological survey, remote sensing, and ground penetrating radar (GPR) in order to understand the complex landform assemblage found in front of the Cerro Tapado glacier in the upper Elqui River catchment, semiarid Andes of Chile. The geomorphological analysis highlights prominent boundaries dividing the landform assemblage into (from the upper part to the lower part) an upper latero-frontal moraine complex, an upper debris-covered glacier, a lower debris-covered glacier, two rock glaciers, and a lower morainic complex. The sedimentological survey highlights the rather small size of the surface debris (in general 400 m) receding of the glacier occurred, along with downslope displacements (dm-m·y- 1) of most of the landform units and a significant evolution of the thermokarst features on the debris-covered glaciers. Considerable surface lowering occurred in the upper part of the assemblage, while localized bulging is seen along the morphological boundaries in the lower units. The GPR profiles highlight spectacular internal structure in the upper debris-covered glacier with up to 80 m of buried ice. In the other landform units, the internal structure is less visible and more heterogeneous. The analysis of the radar wave velocity along the GPR profiles reveals the occurrence of air-filled and moist zones in the internal structure. The geomorphological assemblage is fundamentally characterized by its morphological, structural, and dynamical boundaries and defined as a young (probably rock glaciers do not derive from the present debris-covered glacier but preexist to it.

  16. PRIMEROS RESULTADOS SOBRE EL USO PREHISPÁNICO DE LOS VEGETALES EN EL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO LOS TRES CERROS 1 (VICTORIA, ENTRE RÍOS, ARGENTINA: ANÁLISIS DEL REGISTRO BIOSILÍCEO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El registro de microfósiles biosilíceos posee un alto grado de preservación en distintos contextos naturales y culturales. Por esta razón, el estudio de los fitolitos y otros microrrestos biosilíceos puede contribuir a determinar las condiciones ambientales de las comunidades vegetales que rodearon un sitio arqueológico, así como también identificar especies vegetales domesticadas. En esta contribución se rea- lizó el análisis de fitolitos en el marco de otros bioindicadores de los depósitos superiores de la secuencia sedimentaria antrópica del sitio Los Tres Cerros 1 (LTC1, isla Las Moras, Departamento Victoria, Entre Ríos, Argentina. Los análisis desarrollados permitieron identificar morfotipos silíceos relacionados con la presencia de vegetales silvestres que caracterizan a la unidad fitogeográfica actual del área de em- plazamiento, y morfotipos silíceos asignables a recursos vegetales de interés cultural, pertenecientes a las familias Arecaceae, Cucurbitaceae, y Poaceae (subfamilias Maideae y Oryzoideae. El registro de microfósiles biosilíceos del perfil del sitio LTC1 tiene un cambio neto que puede ser correlacionado con diferentes actividades culturales desempeñadas durante el proceso de construcción del montículo, que tuvo lugar durante ca.1000 - 500 años 14C AP.

  17. DESESTABILIZACIÓN DE LADERAS Y PELIGRO DE PROCESOS DE REMOCIÓN EN MASA. CASO DE ESTUDIO: FALDEOS DEL CERRO CURRUHUINCA. SAN MARTÍN DE LOS ANDES. NEUQUÉN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S. Urra Matus

    2012-12-01

    process of urbanization has characterized as very dynamic and spontaneous, being built, thus, a disorderly and dismantled social and spatial city. San Martín de los Andes is not outside of that process from the beginning of the 1980s has experienced a great population growth, due to the arrival of immigrants to the area, which were occupying areas unsuitable for settlement. The slopes of the mountain, in this case those of Cerro Curruhuinca, do not constitute a physical constraint. It is necessary to deepen studies of risk on the slopes of the mountains, build public works and increase environmental monitoring, in such a way of mitigating the damage that may occur to removal processes in mass.

  18. Función pulmonar en niños sanos de 7 y 8 años de las comunas de Cerro Navia y Los Andes expuestos a diferentes niveles de contaminación por MP10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cebulj Navarrete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si difieren los valores espirométricos evaluados en niños sanos de 7- 8 años provenientes de comunas con niveles históricos de alta versus baja contaminación atmosférica en Chile. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, no experimental, exploratorio y transversal y ex post facto causa y efecto. Se realizaron en total 261 encuestas de salud respiratoria y calificaron, según criterios de inclusión, 110 niños sanos de 7 y 8 años (55 niños en cada comuna. Se realizaron exámenes espirométricos: Con espirómetro de turbina SPIROBANK G, considerando variables VEF1, FEF25-75, PEF y CVF. La obesidad, actividad física, contaminación intramuros por calefacción y exposición a humo de tabaco también fueron descritas. Resultados: Las variables espirométricas analizadas VEF1 y FEF25-75 mostraron diferencias significativas (p<0.05 y PEF mostró diferencias altamente significativas (p <0.005 según localidad, es decir, que la media de estas variables en Los Andes, comuna agroindustrial con baja contaminación atmosférica, es mayor que la de Cerro Navia, comuna con altos niveles de contaminación del aire. En la variable PEF se encontró, además, significancia entre género. La CVF no presentó diferencia entre comunas. Conclusiones: Los niños sanos de 7 y 8 años que habitan en comunas donde la exposición a contaminación atmosférica es alta presentan una menor función pulmonar comparada con los niños sanos, de similares características, que habitan en comunas con bajos niveles de contaminación atmosférica. Existen otros factores que podrían influir en el detrimento de la función pulmonar y que en este estudio fueron descritos como factores confundentes.

  19. Arrecifes coralinos del Oligoceno Superior-Mioceno Inferior, de Turrialba, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Teresita; Cortés, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The outcrops at Jesús María (Turrialba, Cartago Province, Costa Rica) present limestone sequences 12 to 30 m thick (packstones: biolithites, biomicrites; and wackstones: biosparites, biomicrosparites), sandstones and conglomerates of Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene age, correlated to the Punta Pelada Formation. The limestones are characterized by patch reefs with an irregular distribution and a reduced lateral extension (50 m), composed of corals (40%), calcareous algae and foraminiferans (30%)...

  20. Detailed chronology of a giant Pleistocene rock-avalanche sequence in the hyperarid southern Peru revealed by jointly applied 10Be and 3He cosmic ray exposure dating : The Study case of the Cerro Caquilluco landslide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Zerathe; Laurence, Audin; Carlos, Benavente; Régis, Braucher; Pierre-Henri, Blard; Didier, Bourlès; Julien, Carcaillet; Fabrizio, Delgado; Pascal, Lacroix; Valderrama Patricio, Murillo; Aster Team

    2015-04-01

    Giant landslides are recognized to be remarkably abundant on the Western Andean front of southern Peru and northern Chile, especially in the Arica Bend region (e.g. Crosta et al., 2014a). This area is characterized by strong topographic gradients and subsequent incision of deep canyons, due to the evolution of the Andean range that provide suitable conditions for the development of such instabilities. The climate is hyper-arid (Atacama Desert), although rare but highly impulsive wet events have been evidenced since the Pleistocene. In parallel, this region is submitted to strong (Mw 8-9) and recurrent (~100 yrs) subduction earthquakes. Previous studies suggest that large landslides represent the main agent of erosion of the Western Cordillera, providing soft material for subsequent fluvial remobilization. However the lack of time constrains on the numerous fossil landslides identified away from major canyons still hamper to assess a real mass balance of sliding material versus the known fluvial erosion and tectonic uplift rates. Finally the role of landslides in the long-term erosion rates of the Andean range on its arid flank remains quantitatively unknown. Recently, two studies gave divergent opinions about the main factor supposed to control the slope failures in that region. Based on cosmogenic nuclides derived erosion rates, McPhillips et al. (2014) argue that the last Holocene climate variation did not have had any effect on the rate of landsliding, suggesting that here landslides are mainly triggered by earthquake. On the other hand, Margirier et al. (2014) have showed a temporal correlation between a failure episode of the giant Chuquibamba landslide and the Ouki wet climatic event identified on the Altiplano ~100 ka ago. In this study we focus on dating the Cerro Caquilluco rock avalanche complex described by Crosta et al. (2014). With a total volume of about 15 km3, a length of 43 km and an internal structure characterized by various depositional lobes

  1. TERRAIN, CERRO GORDO COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  3. Cerro Prieto geothermal field: exploration during exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. The description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field are presented. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development.

  4. ¿Quién está contra quién en los cerros orientales de Bogotá? La perspectiva local desde el barrio la Cecilia = Who is against who in the eastern hills of Bogotá? The local perspective from the neighborhood of la Cecilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María López Ortego

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda las controversias medioambientales, jurídicas y habitacionales que confluyen en el área de reserva medioambiental de los Cerros Orientales de Bogotá. La lógica socio-urbanística de la ciudad -ligada a las urbanizaciones piratas y la invasión-; los movimientos migratorios -acentuados por el conflicto armado- y la falta de definición de una política pública clara en los últimos 30 años, ha desembocado en un conflicto entre pobladores, organizaciones civiles de defensa del medioambiente, empresas privadas e instituciones públicas, mediados casi exclusivamente por resoluciones judiciales puntuales. Este trabajo recoge -a través de fuentes secundarias- las que se consideran principales iniciativas y acciones de gobierno impartidas de arriba a abajo (Top Down e investiga -a través de fuentes primarias recogidas en el barrio La Cecilia-, las percepciones territoriales e iniciativas de acción comunitaria de abajo a arriba (Bottom up, indagando en los estériles procesos de diálogo entre estas dos formas de hacer ciudad.This paper addresses the environmental, legal and housing disputes that converge in the environmental reserve located at the Cerros Orientales (eastern hills of Bogota. The socio-urban logic of the city -linked to pirate developments and invasion-, the migration flows -emphasized by the armed conflict- and the lack of definition of a clear public policy for the last 30 years, has led to a conflict between residents, civil environmental protection organizations, private companies and public institutions in which almost only specific judgments have interceded. This paper duly reflects -through secondary sources- those considered main government initiatives and actions implemented with a top-down approach and it investigates -through primary sources collected in the neighborhood La Cecilia- the bottom-up community action initiatives and territorial perceptions, looking into

  5. La evaluación del paisaje en Bahía de Banderas, Puerto Vallarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Arias Orozco

    2015-04-01

    Al analizar las características particulares de las actividades turísticas, es importante reconocer el impacto que estas tienen sobre el ámbito territorial, económico y social. Mediante la evaluación de las transformaciones en el territorio correspondientes al paisaje costero; así como la introducción de usos y costumbres por parte de los visitantes, que producen implicaciones sociales manifestadas en la pérdida de la identidad regional.

  6. Batir bandera: understanding emotions on gender and clientelism debates in Argentina

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    Constanza TABBUSCH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how emotions are understood, in deeply gendered ways, within gender and clientelism debates in Argentina. By looking at the case study of the voluntary network of neighborhood representatives of Plan Vida, which distributes food aid in the Province of Buenos Aires, I distinguish two ways of conceiving affects in grassroots women’s political participation. While the first one emphasizes the management of the external expression of emotions as part of doing politics, the second one considers affective labour in a given urban territory as fostering connections among actors, creating social capital and allowing the flow of relevant information. The conclusion suggests that the second approach gives greater relevance to the possibilities of agency and transforming relations of domination of these women doing politics at the local level. 

  7. CURRENT STATE OF CONSERVATION, FIRST PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD AND POPULATION ESTIMATION OF THE COASTAL JAGUAR (Panthera onca centralis AND RECORDS OF COMPANION FAUNA OF MEDIUM-SIZED AND HIGHER MAMMALS IN THE PROTECTED FOREST CERRO BLANCO OF THE CHONGÓN COLONCHE MOUNTAIN RANGE, GUAYAQUIL – ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saavedra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chongón-Colonche Mountain Range is important for their goods and environmental services, its high biodiversity, and being one of the few coastal regions of Ecuador, which still houses the coastal Jaguar Panthera onca centralis. In the Forest Protector Cerro Blanco (BPCB, last Southeast extension of the mountain chain, it was developed the field research through the data collection with direct and indirect medium-sized and higher mammals’ records. Besides a Cuddeback Digital camera trap was used, by selecting a sampling point within a probable route of the jaguar. Inspections in a nearby quarry were made to observe traces of major feline registries. The same consolidated past sightings or evidence of witnesses which complemented the study for the determination of the status of the species in the BPCB. The study showed indirect and direct records of white-tailed deer, peccaries, raccoons, agoutis, wild rabbits, howler monkeys, Capuchin white or monkeys, agouti, bears Anteaters and Jaguars from the coast for which it is considered that the BPCB is probably a meeting place between two individuals; however, it is important to note that the results presented are preliminary.

  8. Un corredor verde entre cerros desde 1934, y las posibilidades actuales desde un ejercicio académico de pregrado en Recoleta./ A green corridor between the hills since 1934, and its current possibilities, explored through an undergraduate academic exercise in Recoleta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pavez Reyes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de una investigación FAU –U. Chile, “El antiguo sector de La Chimba: en defensa de sus vestigios patrimoniales, una vida comunitaria de escala barrial y un futuro ambiente sustentable” , y la reconsideración de una proposición de Karl Brunner en Recoleta, un grupo de estudiantes exploran un polígono del pericentro norte de Santiago, presentando las posibilidades y limitaciones actuales para lograr una cierta continuidad verde entre los cerros San Cristóbal y Blanco en la perspectiva de una renovación con mayor sustentabilidad urbana./ This article is part of the research project entitled “The old area of La Chimba: in defense of its heritage traces, a neighborhood scale community life and a sustainable environment for the future” (funded through the Universidad de Chile’s Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism research fund. A group of undergraduate architecture students revisit a proposition made by Karl Brunner for Recoleta, exploring the possibilities and limitations to achieve a continuity of green spaces between the San Cristobal and Blanco hills, from an urban sustainability perspective.

  9. Discussion of 'Geomorphology, internal structure, and successive development of a glacier foreland in the semiarid Chilean Andes (Cerro Tapado, upper Elqui Valley, 30°08‧ S, 69°55‧ W.)', by S. Monnier, C. Kinnard, A. Surazakov and W. Bossy, Geomorphology 207 (2014), 126-140

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, David C.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Monnier et al. (2014, Geomorphology 207, 126-140) suggested that diffraction events with air-wave velocities along profile CD were caused by an air-filled void at depth within one of the glaciers of the Cerro Tapado, Chile. This is not physically possible. The velocity at which radar travels to and from the scattering feature that causes a diffraction is at the velocity that surrounds and overlies the scatterer. Thus, their air-wave velocity features are on the surface of the glacier, not at depth. Their three-layer model for profile CD, therefore, is more appropriately a two-layer model, with a lower density layer, with more air and debris, overlying a denser layer, likely corresponding to the firn-ice transition. In addition, they carried out common mid-point (CMP) velocity profiles. While it is encouraging that they have made such an attempt, the results will be affected significantly by the surface and subsurface topography, truncated beds, unconformities, etc., because CMP profiles inherently assume flat-lying surface and subsurface boundaries. The CMP results, while useful, must therefore be treated with caution and assumed to be highly inaccurate and only be used as general guides to vertical velocity variations.

  10. Caracterización petrográfica y geoquímica del batolito Cerro Aspero-Alpa Corral (32°34'-32°42' LS y 64°43'-64°52' LO, provincia de Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porta, G.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cerro Aspero-Alpa Corral (CA-AC batholith is a 440 km2 granite body present in the Southern edge of the Eastern Pampean Ranges, Córdoba province, central Argentina. The intrusive body of probably paleozoic age shows both post-tectonic and epizonal character. Country rocks include Upper Precambrian-Lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks mainly represented by mica-schists, gneisses and migmatites, locally interrupted by minor amphibolite and marble outcrops.This paper deals with representative petrographic and geochemical data that characterize a 150 km2 central stripe between 32°34'-32°42'S and 64°43'-64°52'W.Three granitic facies have been distinguished based on their distinctive modal mineralogy and texture, and upon well known chemical parameters.A K-feldspar megacryst porphydic-type is the areally prevalent facies, but dykes of micro- leucogranites and biotite-phenocryst bearing granite are also well represented. They are all monzogranites of subalkaline and peraluminous chemistry. Their mineralogy shows variable proportions of QAP constituents and micas, with minor phases represented by Fe-Ti oxides, apatite (Ap, titanite (Tt, allanite (Aln.Microgranular enclaves, abundantly distributed in the porphydic facies, provide valuable information for a better understanding of parental magma evolution.The high-Ca content of the melt makes this body quite distinctive compared to its larger northern neighbour, the Achala batholith.Pegmatite and aplite bodies, as well as fluorite bearing breccias and quartz veins, barren or mineralized, are also present within the CA-AC batholith.El batolito Cerro Aspero-Alpa Corral (CA-AC es un cuerpo granítico que aflora en el extremo sur de las Sierras Pampeanas Orientales, en la provincia de Córdoba, República Argentina, cubriendo una superficie cercana a los 440 km2.Es un cuerpo intrusivo postcinemático de probable edad paleozoica. Las rocas encajantes son metamorfitas correspondientes al Prec

  11. Organismos de un arrecife fósil (Oligoceno Superior-Mioceno Inferior, del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Aguilar Alvarez

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available En la localidad de Jesús María, Turrialba, afloran de 12-30 m de calizas arrecifales, areniscas y conglomerados de edad Oligocena Superior-Miocena Inferior, que se asocian con la Formación Punta Pelada. En ésta localidad se registra una de las primeras comunidades arrecifales de la actual región Caribe de Costa Rica y constituye una de las pocas localidades de arrecifes de ésta edad en el área. Los afloramientos se interpretan como parches arrecifales debido a su distribución irregular y a su poca extensión lateral (50m, los cuales se desarrollaron bajo la influencia de diversos procesos: variación en la energía del medio, cambios en el nivel del mar, plataformas angostas, excesiva sedimentación clástica posiblemente desde islas. Se analizaron 460 ejemplares, los cuales corresponden a más de 36 especies, que permitieron hacer una recosnstrucción de la estructura y de las condiciones ambientales en que se desarrollaron. Los arrecifes constituyeron comunidades de baja diversidad: cuatro especies de corales (tres de constructores, 31 especies de moluscos (21 de Gastrópodos: una especie nueva, 14 de carnívoros, tres de herbívoros, tres de hábitos alimenticios desconocidos; 10 especies de Bivalvos: cinco endobentónicos, cinco epibentónicos, algas (representantes de por lo menos tres grupos, equinodermos, foraminíferos, crustáceos. La equidad también es muy baja, principalmente en lo referente a los corales Scleractinia, con un predominio muy marcado de Antiguastrea celullosa (80% de las formas encontradas. Esto permite inferir que se desarrollaron en un ambiente de poca profundidad (50-80 m, muy variable, con influencia ocasional de corrientes marinas fuertes y aporte de sedimentos terrígenos procedentes de islas cercanas.This paper describes the fossils, materials and paleoenvironmental conditions found in some outcrops near the town of Jesús María, Turrialba, Costa Rica. The rock materials (reefal limestone, sandstones and conglomerates are associated to the Punta Pelada Formation of Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene age. Outcrops are of reduced extent and are unevenly distributed, hence they are considered as patch reefs developed by environmental energy fluctuations, sea level changes and clastic sedimentation from sources on small islands acting together in narrow platforms. The structural and environmental characteristics where fossil communities developed were derived from the analysis of 460 samples containing 36 species. The reefs represent low diversity communities comprising four coral species (three of them reef builders, 31 mollusks species (21 gastropods: a new species, 14 carnivores, three herbivores and three of uncertain feeding habits; 10 bivalves species: five endobenthic and five epibenthic; algae ( at least three groups represented; sea urchins; foraminifers; crabs. The evenness index is low, mainly regarding the Scleractinian corals, where Antiguastrea cellulosa predominates (80% of the recognized forms. The fossil assemblage suggests that the communities developed in shallow marine environments (50-80 m depth, affected by sea level changes, strong marine currents and clastic imput from nearby small islands.

  12. Estudio geoquímico de los yesos miocenos de la zona este de la cuenca de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fort, R.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Some different types of gypsum deposits may be recognized within the Evaporite Facies of the Madrid Basin (Brea de Tajo-Drieves-Almoguera region. Trace elements analysis of these gypsum deposits allow to conclude that fractionation processes took place during their diagenetic evolution. From the set of trace elements that were analyzed, strontium and magnesium are the best to discriminate among diagenetic stages of formation of the evaporite facies, taking in mind these elements show distribution coefficients lesser than the unit (D<1. Thus, the different types of primary gypsum that we have observed possess Sr and Mg mean values of about 3270 p.p.m. and 1100 p.p.m., respectively, whereas secondary gypsum deposits display Sr mean values of 760 p.p.m. and Mg mean values of 410 p.p.m. The remainder elements do not show a so clear tendency, owing to either distribution coefficients near to the unit (K, Li, Fe, Na or to extremely low contents (Mn, Ba.
    From the results of the present study, geochemical behavior of some trace elements, mainly strontium and magnesium, must be considered a good criterion to indicate the diagenetic stage of formation of the gypsum deposits. Probably, ít may be applied to other comparative studies in definite geological settings.

    En las facies evaporíticas de la Cuenca de Madrid (región Brea del Tajo-Driebes-Almoguera aparecen diferentes tipos de yeso, cuyo contenido en elementos traza ponen de manifiesto la existencia de procesos de fraccionamiento durante la evolución diagenética. De los diferentes elementos traza analizados el estroncio y el magnesio son los que mejor reflejan el estadio diagenético de formación al presentar coeficientes de distribución inferiores a la unidad (D<1. De esta forma , los yesos primarios poseen contenidos medios de 3.270 ppm de Sr y 1.100 ppm de Mg, mientras que los secundarios poseen valores medios de 760 ppm y 410 ppm, respectivamente. El resto de los elementos analizados presentan una mayor problemática en la interpretación diagenética, bien por presentar coeficientes de distribución próximos a la unidad (K, Li, Fe y Na, bien por poseer contenidos cercanos a los límites de detección (Mn y Ba.
    En base a los resultados obtenidos, se puede afirmar que algunos elementos traza (Sr y Mg pueden ser utilizados como indicadores del estadio diagenético de formación de los yesos. Probablemente, esta conclusión puede hacerse extensiva a otros depósitos yesíferos, principalmente desde un punto de vista comparativo.

  13. Chilean Astronomers and the Birth of Cerro Tololo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, H.

    1990-11-01

    P# JMEN. Hace treinta afios que se tnict6 en Chile la de n luga adecuado pata establecer observatoro astron6ini- Co, que a en wi ieflector de 1 in de diam'etrr . importante destacar el papel que le corres-pondi6 al Obseiwatorio Nacional de Ia Universidad de `Chile -- re'.-. tarde Departamento de de la inisma Univer- sidad .- en 1 de este proycoto. Los resultados han ido mucho mct5 impoftaftes lo esperado . de tal nodo q. el prc -ama destinado a instalar ui telescopio de tama- f ha I levado al establ ecimiento de iri centro de acti- cientfica de relieve inten-acional. ALb(TRA . Thifty years ago the search for a site adequate for the est 1ishment of an astronomical was fn (Thile. Initially it was planned that the main telescope would be a 1 in i-cf lector. It is importaft to the role played by th O Astm-'n6mioo Nacional de la Unfversidad de Cbf Ic - later 0: Depaftamento de of the same University - in the development of this project. The results have been much more important than was e:-:pected initially: in thiS way the prr gram for a telescope of moderate size was transfo -med in a major project wh i ch 1 cad to the estab 1 ). shinent of an i nt i ona 1 center of scieftific research. AQ/ W : OBSERVATORIES

  14. Magnetotelluric studies at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubau, W.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA); Goldstein, N.E.; Clarke, J.

    1981-01-01

    During three years of magnetotelluric surveying, data were acquired at 26 sites distributed over 190 km/sup 2/ around the production area. A relatively well-defined strike of N27W +- 1.5/sup 0/ (magnetic) was established. The simple model shown suggests a lateral discontinuity in the vicinity of Nueva Leon.

  15. Petrological imaging of an active pluton beneath Cerro Uturuncu, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Duncan D.; Blundy, Jon D.; Hutchinson, Michael C.; Rust, Alison C.

    2014-03-01

    Uturuncu is a dormant volcano in the Altiplano of SW Bolivia. A present day ~70 km diameter interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) anomaly roughly centred on Uturuncu's edifice is believed to be a result of magma intrusion into an active crustal pluton. Past activity at the volcano, spanning 0.89 to 0.27 Ma, is exclusively effusive and almost all lavas and domes are dacitic with phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, biotite, ilmenite and Ti-magnetite plus or minus quartz, and microlites of plagioclase and orthopyroxene set in rhyolitic groundmass glass. Plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions (MI) are rhyolitic with major element compositions that are similar to groundmass glasses. H2O concentrations plotted versus incompatible elements for individual samples describe a trend typical of near-isobaric, volatile-saturated crystallisation. At 870 °C, the average magma temperature calculated from Fe-Ti oxides, the average H2O of 3.2 ± 0.7 wt% and CO2 typically biotite phenocrysts and apatite microlites. That Fe-Ti oxide temperatures vary by ~50-100 °C in a single thin section indicates that magmas were not homogenised effectively prior to eruption. Phenocryst contents do not correlate with calculated magmatic temperatures, consistent with crystal entrainment from the mush during magma ascent and eruption. Microlites grew during ascent from the magma storage region. Variability in the proportion of microlites is attributed to differing ascent and effusion rates with faster rates in general for lavas >0.5 Ma compared to those mineral compositions, and the presence of mafic enclaves in lavas demonstrate that intrusion of more mafic magmas into the evolving, shallow plutonic mush also occurred further amplifying local temperature fluctuations. Crystallisation and resorption of accessory phases, particularly ilmenite and apatite, can be detected in MI and groundmass glass trace element covariation trends, which are oblique to WRs. Marked variability of Ba, Sr and La in MI can be attributed to temperature-controlled, localised crystallisation of plagioclase, orthopyroxene and biotite within the evolving mush.

  16. Temperature distribution in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo B, F.; Bermejo M, F.J.; Domiguez A, B.; Esquer P, C.A.; Navarro O, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    A series of temperature and pressure logs and flow rate measurements was compiled for each of the geothermal wells drilled to different reservoir depths between October 1979 and December 1980. Based on the valuable information obtained, a series of graphs showing the thermal characteristics of the reservoir were prepared. These graphs clearly show the temperature distribution resulting from the movement of fluids from the deep regions toward the higher zones of the reservoir, thus establishing more reliable parameters for locating new wells with better production zones. Updated information based on data from new deep wells drilled in the geothermal field is presented here. This new information does not differ much from earlier estimates and theories. However, the influence of faulting and fracturing on the hydrothermal recharge of the geothermal reservoir is seen more clearly.

  17. Paleoinvertebrados e Paleoambientes da Formação Pirabas (Mioceno Inferior em Aricuru, Município de Maracanã, Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir de Araújo Távora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta os resultados da caracterização sistemática dos paleoinvertebrados da Formação Pirabas na localidade Aricuru, nordeste do Estado do Pará. Foram estudados 203 espécimes agrupados em 25 espécies entre macroforaminíferos, corais, macrobriozoários, moluscos biválvios e gastrópodes, crustáceos decápodes e equinoides, bem como 67 icnofósseis do tipo Thalassinoides, icnitos de habitação e alimentação de crustáceos decápodes e peracarídeos. As características litológicas do afloramento aliadas aos requisitos ambientais e feições preservacionais dos paleoinvertebrados permitiram supor que as flutuações de batimetria e salinidade tiveram um reflexo direto no conjunto biótico, ainda que estas variações não tenham sido tão significativas. Os dados integrados sugerem que a porção da laguna na localidade Aricuru representa a sua parte mais distal, onde era menor a influência da hidrodinâmica deposicional e os episódios de variação do nível do mar tinham maior duração, permitindo a ocupação por uma associação de organismos em perfeita homostasia.

  18. Transformaciones edaficas y diageneticas de los depositos aluviales distales del mioceno de la cuenca de Madrid, area de Paracuellos de Jarama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarza, A. Mª

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The distal aluvial fan and the palustrine deposits of the Paracuellos de Jarama area display a variety of specific pedogenic and diagenetic features. The processes affecting these sediments were controlled by: the sedimentary environment, the lithology and initia1 texture of the sediments and by the pedogenic-diagenetic environment in which the transformations occurred. Thus, in the distal alluvial areas (PEL profile the first processes were the formation of thin carbonate laminae and sepiolite, further, these deposits were silicified and later, a spheroidal dolomite is formed on the opaline chert. In lacustnne environments (UPC profile, drying and root activity led to the formation of palustrine carbonates that were silicified, and the initial texture and structure were preserved. The silicification consisted on a pseudomorphic replacement that produced mainly opal whereas quartz was formed mostly by cementation and ageing of previous opal. In both environments, when the silicification occurs on sepiolite, or micrite with sepiolite, atypical microfibrous opal is produced. This replacement can lead to the release of Mg, favounng a later formation of dolomite on the opaline chert, with evidence of bacteria1 activity. Al1 these processes occurred in a shallow phreatic or even vadose environment.Los depósitos distales de los abanicos aluviales arcósicos y también los carbonatos palustres del área de Paracuellos de Jarama presentan rasgos muy específicos debidos a los procesos edáficos y diagenéticos que han sufrido. Los procesos que han afectado a estos sedimentos, y su intensidad, estuvieron controlados por: el ambiente sedimentario, la litología y textura/estructura inicial del material y también por el ambiente pedogénico- diagenético superficial en el que se han desarrollado las transformaciones. Así, en las lutitas de las zonas distales de los abanicos (perfil PEL se forman inicialmente láminas de carbonato edáfico y sepiolita, posteriormente tiene lugar la silicificación y, a continuación, la formación de dolomías esencialmente esferoidales. En ambientes lacustres (perfil UPC, la intensa desecación y la actividad biológica conducen a la formación de calizas palustres que posteriormente se silicifican conservando la textura y estructura. La silicificación es, en gran parte, un reemplazamiento pseudomórfico que origina principalmente ópalo, mientras que el cuarzo se forma por cementación y también por envejecimiento del ópalo. En ambos ambientes, cuando la silicificación se produce sobre arcillas, probablemente sepiolíticas, o sobre carbonatos muy ricos en sepiolita, se generan ópalos atípicos de microestructura fibrosa. Este proceso puede liberar magnesio, que posteriormente puede ser utilizado para la formación de dolomita de posible origen bacteriano sobre el sílex opalino (perfil PEL. Todos estos procesos tuvieron lugar en ambiente freático somero o incluso vadoso.

  19. Evolución de los Balaenidae (Mammalia, Cetacea, Mysticeti) del Mioceno de Patagonia: sistemática, filogenia y aspectos paleobiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Buono, Mónica Romina

    2014-01-01

    Los Balaenidae (Cetacea: Neoceti) son un grupo de misticetos caracterizados por presentar, en el cráneo y de la mandíbula, una serie de especializaciones vinculadas al sistema de alimentación por filtración, tales como un rostro muy arqueado y angosto, huesos rostrales sin interdigitación con los huesos occipitales, mandíbula con un proceso coronoides y angular reducido y barbas largas. El patrón corporal de los balénidos actuales, especialmente su anatomía esqueletaria, es muy conservador y ...

  20. Paleoambientes lacustres en la sección inferior de la Formación Río Negro, (Mioceno - Plioceno, Río Negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Schillizzi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian paleoambientes lacustres aflorantes en un sector de la plataforma marina ubicadas en la localidad de La Lobería, Provincia de Río Negro. Los medios lagunares son buenos indicadores de las modificaciones climáticas soportadas por el ambiente. La metodología aplicada para la investigación consistió en tamizados por vía seca de las psamítas, análisis con difractometría de rayos "X" de las arcillas y observaciones paleontológicas. En la plataforma intermareal se determino la presencia de tres secciones que componen el miembro inferior de la Formación Río Negro. La sección basal esta formada por areniscas finas, gris verdoso, de origen eólico y depositadas en un medio de dunas con influencia ácuea. La sección media esta constituida por limolitas arcillosas a arenosas finas, color pardo rosado, con estratificación, moldes de bivalvos dulceacuícolas e icnitas de vertebrados. Esta sección se asocia a lagunas someras y restringidas, ambiente que se habría extendido en dirección NE. Este nivel esta cubierto por la sección superior formada por areniscas gris azuladas claras, con estratificación cruzada a horizontal, depositadas en un medio eólico. En la actualidad los ambientes lagunares descriptos soportan una fuerte erosión marina.This paper describes pond paleoenvironments from a marine platform sited in La Lobería, Río Negro Province, Argentina. Ponds are good indicators of paleoenvironmental evolution because they are very sensitive to changes in climatic conditions. The methodology used for this research consisted in dry sieving, X-ray diffractometry analysis and paleontological observations. Three sections belonging to the lower section of the Río Negro formation were determined in the intertidal platform. The lower section is composed of fine-grained greenish gray sandstones deposited in an aeolian dune environment with acueos influence. The middle section consists of stratifield pinkish brown clayey to sandy fine silts with freshwater bivalve remnants and vertebrate footprints. The section is associated to restricted shallow ponds, extending to the NE. This level is overlaid by the upper section made of light bluish gray sandstones with cross to horizontal stratification, being deposited in an aeolian environment. At present the described ponds environment its affected by a strong marine erosion.

  1. Sistemática e Paleobiologia de Microfósseis de Equinodermas da Formação Pirabas (Mioceno Inferior, Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir de Araújo Távora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os dados obtidos a partir da análise de microfósseis calcários presentes em amostras coletadas na Formação Pirabas, Mina B-17 da Cimentos do Brasil S. A., município de Capanema e praia do Atalaia município de Salinópolis, estado do Pará, visando a caracterização sistemática e paleobiológica de novos elementos de equinodermos da Formação Pirabas, pertencentes aos grupos Crinoidea e Ophiuroidea, ainda não reconhecidos nesta unidade litoestratigráfica. Foram recuperados 27 fragmentos de crinoides e 18 fragmentos de ofiuroides, sendo reconhecidos entre os ofiuroides a família Gorgonocephalidae e os gêneros Ophiomusium e Ophiactis (? e entre os crinoides a ordem Comatulida. A composição taxonômica, ambiente de vida e feições bioestratinômicas destes equinodermos e dos demais elementos faunísticos associados, define que é parautóctone a concentração fossilífera de ofiuroides e crinoides coletados nas litofacies tipicamente marinhas plataformais aflorantes na praia do Atalaia, e que os elementos recuperados na litofácies da Mina B-17 caracterizam uma concentração fossilífera alóctone, onde as vértebras foram carreadas para a laguna pelos canais de maré durante as tempestades que assolaram o mar de Pirabas. Os ofiuroides e crinoides estudados guardam afinidade com as equinofaunas miocênicas da Província Biogeográfica Caribeana, corroborando o intercâmbio faunístico entre as regiões Pacífico Leste Tropical (PLT e Atlântico Oeste Tropical (AOT.

  2. Implicaciones paleoambientales deducidas del estudio geoquímico del transito mioceno-plioceno en la Cuenca de Sorbas (Almería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Pardo, E.

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The geochemistry of the Se ha realizado un estudio geoquímico de la fracción arcillosa de los sedimentos miopliocenos y de la muestra total de rocas metamórficas de los relieves adyacentes con el fin de determinar las características geoquímicas del medio de sedimentación y la influencia de las rocas circundantes sobre los sedimentos. Tras relacionar elementos químicos con rocas y minerales mediante un (ACP, se ha realizado una clasificación jerárquica ascendente (CJA, que ha reagrupado las muestras con características geoquímicas similares en 8 clases. La comparación gráfica de su composición geoquímica media pone de manifiesto una clara relación genética entre los sedimentos y las rocas metapelíticas de la Cordillera Bética oriental, siendo la influencia de gneises, rocas carbonatadas metamórficas y metabasitas muy localizada o inexistente. Finalmente, los contenidos de B y Mg nos han permitido distinguir varios tipos de medios de depósito que presentan diferentes grados de confinamiento y que, en relación con los cambios del nivel del mar producidos durante la crisis messiniense, se han visto influenciados sucesivamente por aguas marinas y continentales.

  3. Tectonic evolution of the Lorca sector from the Late Miocene to the Quaternary; Evolucion tectonica del sector de Lorca desde el Mioceno superior al Cuaternario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Garcia-Mondejar, J.; Ferrairo, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    The Alhama de Murcia Fault presents several parallel surfaces, forming a wide fault zone. Even at distances of several km, there are other faults belonging to the same system. These faults created subsidiary structures, some of kilometric lengths, as in the case of the progressive uplift of the Pena Rubia sector, occurring from the end of the Middle Miocene. Later and partially coeval, was the formation of the Castillo anti form. The sinistral displacement of the large Alhama de Murcia Fault and that of smaller dextral conjugated faults was caused by stress from a nearly N-S compression and a related perpendicular extension. At some points in time, the positions of s1 and s2 axes switched, permitting normal movements, particularly in faults with approximately N-S directions, and hence raising the possibility of this type of focal mechanism in some earthquakes.The NE border of Pena Rubia (on the eastern end of Sierra de Las Estancias), also the SE border of the Lorca Basin, is affected by small (compared with the main ones) strike-slip and reverse faults that are also consistent with the palaeostress deduced. Nevertheless, along this border no significant or continuous fault is detected. (Author) 32 refs.

  4. Los mamíferos del Mioceno Inferior de la Cuenca de Ribesalbes-Alcora (Castelló, España)

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Roures, Vicente Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Objetivos El propósito principal de esta tesis es el estudio taxonómico, paleoecológico y bioestratigráfico de los mamíferos fósiles del Neógeno continental de Araia d’Alcora, en la Cuenca de Ribesalbes-Alcora (Castelló, España), a partir de la prospección de diversas secciones y del muestreo de los yacimientos de mayor interés. Los principales objetivos planteados en esta tesis han sido: • La obtención de un registro lo más completo posible de las faunas de mamíferos del área de...

  5. Mamíferos el Mioceno inferior de las Bardenas Reales de Navarra (Cuenca del Ebro, Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Murelaga, H. Astibia, C. Sese, D. Soria, X. Pereda-Suberbiola

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Bardenas Reales de Navarra se encuentran en el borde NW de la cuenca terciaria del Ebro. Los sedimentos que podemos encontrar en la mayor parte del área de estudio pertenecen a facies fluvio-palustres de la Formación Tudela. Las localidades fosilíferas estarían incluidas dentro de la Biozona MN2b-MN· (Biozonas Z-A del Rambliense o Aquitaniense superior-Burdigaliense inforior. En esta área se han encontrado restos fósiles de peces, anfibios, lagartos, anfisbénidos, serpientes, tortugas, cocodrilos, flamencos y los mamíferos que se describen en este trabajo como insectívoros, quirópteros, eomídos, gliridos, esciúridos, cricétidos, lagomorfos, perisodáctilos y artiodáctilos.

  6. 77 FR 47084 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ..., Franklin, TN Suite 125, 37064. Franklin, TN 37064. Texas: Bandera Unincorporated The Honorable Bandera County http://www.rampp- June 28, 2012........ 480020 areas of Bandera Richard Evans, Rural Addressing team.com/lomrs.htm. County (12-06- Bandera County Office, 502 11th 0946P). Judge, 500 Main Street...

  7. Influence Operations: Redefining the Indirect Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The splinter group, PCP- Bandera Roja, favored an agrarian-Maoist style of armed struggle against the state. Bandera Roja (Red Flag) saw the... Bandera Roja was slow to practice political violence, and in practice, looked no different from other leftist groups.215 Thus, PCP- Bandera Roja

  8. 76 FR 1535 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Dennison Street, Muskogee, OK 74402. Unincorporated Areas of Bandera County, Texas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1066... from Bandera River). Bandera County. Just upstream of Harvey Ray Drive +1,213 * National Geodetic... nearest 0.1 meter. ADDRESSES Unincorporated Areas of Bandera County Maps are available for inspection at...

  9. ¿Perjudica Antonio Banderas a Javier Bardem?: La competición semántica en tareas de nombrado de personas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Bajo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este experimento se ha investigado la presencia de competición semántica en el nombrado de fotografías de personas conocidas. Un estudio previo de Vitkovitch, Potton, Bakogianni y Kinch (2006 mostró el efecto contrario de facilitación semántica en el nombrado de la fotografía de una persona conocida tras la recuperación, tres ensayos antes, del nombre de otra persona relacionada categorialmente. En el experimento actual se ha replicado este efecto de facilitación semántica en el nombrado de fotografías de personas relacionadas observado por Vitkovitch et al. Sin embargo, se ha observado que este efecto de facilitación semántica disminuía cuando aumentaba el número de personas nombradas de la misma categoría. Estos resultados sugieren que el nombrado de caras, de igual modo que el nombrado de objetos, está semánticamente mediado y es vulnerable a procesos de interferencia tal y como predicen los modelos de tipo serial.

  10. ENSAYO: “LA BANDERA DE LA PATRIA ES SANTA”: EL PROYECTO TRADICIONISTA Y CENTRALIZADOR DE PATRIA EN MIGUEL ANTONIO CARO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernández García

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquí se tratará de analizar críticamente algunos de los más fundantes elementos constitutivos del discurso político de Miguel Antonio Caro sobre lo político. Plantearemos en este texto algunos elementos centrales de la pretensión de Caro de redefinir un juego de relaciones de poder a partir de ese mismo juego de relaciones de poder, entendiendo la suya como una propuesta que desde la hegemonía -desde la oposición o desde el control del Estado- pretendió y consiguió elaborar una redefinición absoluta del poder/contrapoder: es decir, estatuir una definición "necesaria" de la relación política y su implementación en una estructura institucional Estatal que la materializara; consiguiendo postular en su discurso, y parcialmente en la estructura jurídico-institucional colombiana que contribuyó a diseñar y poner en juego, como perteneciente a “la naturaleza de las cosas”, la propia posición que legitimaba y definía al Estado, en tanto “nacional”, como “naturaleza Donde el contenido de “lo nacional” se identificaba con la noción de “patria”, y "la patria” representaba la puesta en escena de su estrategia de "ontologizar" el orden social.

  11. Un saludo a la bandera : análisis de un Reglamento de Participación Ciudadana en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Gamboa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Derecho, Ambiente y Recursos Naturales–DAR y otras organizaciones de la sociedad civil vienen haciendo seguimiento a las distintas propuestas de reglamentación de participación ciudadana en actividades de hidrocarburos. Así, hemos participado en la segunda reunión de trabajo sobre el “Proyecto de Reglamento de Consulta y Participación Ciudadana en el Desarrollo de las Actividades del Sector Hidrocarburos”, día 23 de octubre de 2007, elaborado por la Oficina General de Gestión Social del Ministerio de Energía y Minas, MINEM.

  12. MOVIMIENTOS DE LADERA Y PLANEAMIENTO URBANÍSTICO: EL CONFLICTO DEL CERRO DEL OPE, ARCHENA (MURCIA)

    OpenAIRE

    María Dolores Gómez Moreno; María del Carmen Granell Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Los desprendimientos son un proceso natural que afecta, de forma generalizada en el Valle de Ricote, a las laderas del tipo cantil-talud. Su peligrosidad radica en que los bloques desprendidos del escarpe ruedan con facilidad, talud abajo, cuando son descalzados por efecto de la escorrentía superfi cial o desestabilizados por movimientos sísmicos. El planeamiento urbanístico se convierte en factor inductor del riesgo al clasifi car como urbanizables y urbanos suelos que, por su ubicación en p...

  13. A Climatology of Ripple Instabilities in the OH Airglow at Cerro Pachon, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, L. J.; Hecht, J. H.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Rudy, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Airglow imaging provides a unique means by which to study many wave-related phenomena in the 80 to 100 km altitude regime. Observations reveal quasi-monochromatic disturbances associated with atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) as well as small-scale instabilities often called ripples. Ripples are wavelike features that resemble AGWs in appearance, but have short horizontal wavelengths (Pachon, Chile. ANI observes nighttime OH emission (near 1.6 microns) every 2 seconds over an approximate 73 degree field of view, which allows the study of AGW and ripple features over very short temporal and spatial scales. An automated wave detection algorithm is used to identify ripple and quasi monochromatic wave features in the ANI data. Ripples are characterized by their wavelength, orientation, drift speed and location in the image. Quasi-monochromatic waves are quantified by wavelength, wave period and propagation direction. We present a climatology of ripple instabilities at Chile, including comparisons to the background quasi-monochromatic wave field. Lidar and radar data are used to determine the background wind and temperatures, which allows comparisons between ripple observations and evanescent regions and potentially unstable regions identified by Richardson number.

  14. Proceedings: third symposium on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    These proceedings include both English and Spanish versions of each paper presented at the symposium. Illustrations and tables, which have been placed between the two versions, include captions in both languages. Forty-one papers are included. Five papers were indexed for EDB previously. Separate abstracts were prepared for thirty-three papers and three were listed by title.

  15. El cerro de la mañana. Diario de campo

    OpenAIRE

    González Mariscal, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    Lo que aquí se presenta es un fragmento del trabajo que realicé en el desierto de Wiricuta con un grupo de danzantes aztecas durante la peregrinación del peyote .. Se trata de un grupo interesado en conservar las tradiciones prehispánicas forma parte de lo que se ha convenido llamar el movimiento de "la nueva mexicanidad"y sobre el que estoy centrando mi trabajo en estos momentos.

  16. Pressure changes and their effects on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo M, F.J.; Navarro O, F.X.; Esquer P, C.A.; Castillo B, F.; de la Cruz D, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    Continuous extraction of the water-steam mixture at the field has been increasing to fulfill the steam requirements of the power plant. As a result, pressure declines have been observed in the producing strata in all of the wells, as well as in the geothermal reservoir as a whole. Anomalous behavior that has been observed in the wells' hydraulic columns in most cases is due to the interconnection of the various strata penetrated by the well. When this occurs, unbalanced hydraulic pressures cause the movement of fluids between the strata. As an example of this hydraulic imbalance causing the flow of fluids from an upper to a lower zone, well Nuevo Leon 1 where this effect occurs between regions 600 m apart was chosen.

  17. Analysis of exploratory wells in the Cerro Prieto Field and the Mexicali Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobo R., J.M.; Bermejo M., F.J.

    1982-08-10

    Agricultural development in the Mexicali Valley and in the high cost of electric power required to operate the irrigation wells in the Valley prompted the Mexican government to investigate the possibility of taking advantage of thermal manifestations in the area located 28 km southeast of the city of Mexicali to generate electric power and thereby partially decrease the flight of foreign exchange. In 1958, a geologic study of the southern and southeastern zone of Mexicali was conducted to identify the possibilities of tapping geothermal resources. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge of the geologic conditions in this area and, if possible, to establish the location of exploratory and production wells and, on the basis of the results of the former, examine the geologic history in order to gain knowledge and understanding of the structural control of the steam. On the basis of this study, it was recommended that 3 exploratory wells should be drilled in order to locate weak zones that would easily allow for steam flow.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Cerro Armazones spectroscopy of F dwarfs (Pribulla+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribulla, T.; Sebastian, D.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Stahl, O.; Berndt, A.; Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V.; Mugrauer, M.; Neuhauser, R.; Vanko, M.

    2015-04-01

    Optical spectroscopy at the OCA was secured using the BESO spectrograph fibre-fed from the focus of the 1.5m Hexapod telescope (see Fuhrmann et al. 2011). 409 spectra of 187 dwarfs were obtained between 2009 April 10 and 2010 March 29. Exposure times ranged between 300 and 1800s. (2 data files).

  19. El mosaico del laberinto de Huete (Cerro de Alvar Fáñez, Cuenca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana TORRECILLA AZNAR

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el yacimiento romano de Huete (Cuenca fue encontrado en una estancia de la que parece ser el área pública de la ciudad un mosaico que representaba un motivo de laberinto enmarcado por muralla. Aunque el emblema central no se ha conservado, suponemos que figuraba la lucha entre Teseo y el Minotauro, que nos transporta al mito cretense. Los paralelos conocidos de laberintos se ubican, sobre todo, en la mitad occidental del Imperio Romano, junto con Chipre, pues representan una seña de romanidad, de aceptación de las modas y costumbres romanas. Sin embargo, aunque no son numerosos los ejemplos conocidos en la Península Ibérica, se han documentado en lugares distantes, mostrando la amplia difusión del motivo. En todos los casos se datan entre mediados del s. II d.C. y mediados del s. III d.C. La función de estos mosaicos era no sólo decorativa, sino que se buscaba proteger el edificio que lo albergaba contra los maleficios, al representar la lucha y triunfo del héroe sobre el mal.Actualmente el mosaico se encuentra desaparecido, pero los escasos restos conservados fueron dibujados en los años 70 del siglo pasado. A partir de esta documentación, se ha reconstruido el laberinto que representa y se ha insertado en la planta de la habitación correspondiente, simulando su colocación original. El resto de imágenes muestran paralelos del laberinto o la iconografía de la lucha de Teseo y el Minotauro en soportes diversos (mosaico, cerámica y numismática.ABSTRACT: A mosaic, representing a labyrinth surrounded by a wall, was found in a room that is part of the supposed public area of the city, in the Roman site of Huete (Cuenca. Although the central motif is not kept, we think that it depicted the fight between Theseus and the Minotaur, which leads us to the Cretan myth. The documented parallels of the labyrinth are, above all, from the western half of the Roman Empire, along with Cyprus, because they display a sign of the Roman Civilization, meaning the acceptance of the Roman fashions and customs. Although there are not many examples known in the Iberian Peninsula, they have been discovered in distant places, what proves the wide spreading of the motif. All of them are dated from the mid-second century to the mid-third century. The role of these mosaics was not only decorative, but its function was also to protect the building against the curses, because they symbolized the heroe fighting and defeating the evil. Nowadays the mosaic is lost, but its scarce remains were drawed in the ‘70s of the 20th century. From that document, as shown in the Figure 3, the labyrinth has been reconstructed (Figure 4 and inserted in the layout of the room where it was, simulating its original positioning. The rest of the figures show parallels for the labyrinth or the iconography of the fight between Theseus and the Minotaur on different materials (mosaic, pottery and numismatic.

  20. WITHDRAWN: The Palaeocene Cerro Munro tonalite intrusion (Chubut Province, Argentina): A plutonic remnant of explosive volcanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C.; Aragón, E.; Castro, A.; Pedreira, R.; Sánchez-Navas, A.; Díaz-Alvarado, J.; D´Eramo, F.; Pinotti, L.; Aguilera, Y.; Cavarozzi, C.; Demartis, M.; Hernando, I. R.; Fuentes, T.

    2017-10-01

    The publisher regrets that an error occurred which led to the premature publication of this paper. This error bears no reflection on the article or its authors. The publisher apologizes to the authors and the readers for this unfortunate error in Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 78C (2017) 30 - 60, 10.1016/j.jsames.2017.06.002. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.

  1. Dipole-dipole resistivity monitoring at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1983-03-01

    Two 20 km-long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electronics at 1-km spacings were established over the field area; one of these lines is remeasured annually. Resistivity measurements are taken using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor-controlled signal-averaging receiver; this high power-low noise system is capable of highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter-receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points, but 95% confidence intervals show error limits about 2 to 4 times higher. Data indicate little change of apparent resistivity within the upper 300 m over the field. However, apparent resistivity increases are observed over the producing zone at depths of 1 km and greater. Large zones of decreasing apparent resistivity are observed flanking the zone of increases on both sides. To explain the resistivity changes observed, simple two-dimensional reservoir simulations were performed in which cooler, less saline recharge water enters the reservoir from above through a leaky caprock and laterally through a more permeable vertical boundary. The calculated magnitude of a resistivity change after 3 years of simulated production fits the observed data, but the anomaly shapes differ. It is concluded that the rapidly moving hydraulic front produces a salinity change large enough to explain the resistivity increase, but that our recharge assumptions were probably oversimplified.

  2. 77 FR 6816 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Partnership, Bandera, TX; PRT-731315 The applicant requests amendment of their captive-bred wildlife... Partnership, Bandera, TX; PRT-828861 The applicant requests amendment of their permit authorizing interstate...

  3. 75 FR 59989 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Approximately 1,250 feet +826 City of San Antonio. downstream of Private Road, at 7581 Bandera Road... inspection at 12951 Bandera Road, Helotes, TX 78023. City of Hill Country Village Maps are available for...

  4. 78 FR 55046 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... than 200 individuals had been documented in Bandera and Kerr Counties, Texas. The Texas Parks and... extant individuals in 8 counties of the Edwards Plateau ] (Bandera, Edwards, Kerr, Kimble, Kinney, Real...

  5. Growdon Gate/Road Relocation and Property Acquisition Environmental Assessment. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Metropolitan San Antonio Interstate AQCR 217, which consists of the counties of Atascosa, Bandera , Bexar, Comal, Dimmitt, Edwards, Frio, Gillespie... Bandera , Bexar, Comal, Guadalupe, Kendall, Medina, and Wilson Counties (Bexar County 2010). The installation generates economic activity in the region

  6. 40 CFR 81.344 - Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Metropolitan San Antonio Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Atascosa County, Bandera County, Bexar County...) Unclassifiable/Attainment Atascosa County, Bandera County, Comal County, Dimmit County, Edwards County, Frio...) Unclassifiable/Attainment Atascosa County Bandera County Dimmit County Edwards County Frio County Gillespie...

  7. La sección de Torrellano (Mioceno Superior – Plioceno, Cuenca del Bajo Segura, Cordillera Bética Oriental): estratigrafía general y bioestratigrafía mediante foraminíferos planctónicos

    OpenAIRE

    Peral Lozano, Juan

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia la sección estratigráfica de Torrellano, ubicada en el sector norte de la cuenca neógena del Bajo Segura. El objetivo del mismo es ilustrar los rasgos estratigráficos de los sintemas Tortoniense-Messiniense I (T-MI), Messiniense II (MII) y Plioceno (P) de la sección estudiada. Además se ha realizado un análisis bioestratigráfico mediante foraminíferos planctónicos del sintema T-MI, que resulta clave para precisar, por un lado las condiciones ambientales que reinaron...

  8. Revisão Sistemática da Família Flabellidae (Scleractinia da Formação Pirabas (Mioceno inferior, Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir de Araújo Távora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata sobre a revisão sistemática dos corais representantes da família Flabellidae na Formação Pirabas. Enquadrados no subgênero Flabellum (F., foram confirmadas as espécies F. (F. lyricum Fernandes, 1981 e F. (F. wailesi Conrad, 1855 e reconhecidos pela primeira vez os táxons F. (F. dens Alcock, 1902 e F. (F. chipolanum Weisbord, 1971. A ocorrência exclusiva destes indivíduos na litofácies biocalcirrudito na área do ambiente lagunar do sistema deposicional estuarino antigo, aliada às feições preservacionais, indicam que estes corais viveram unicamente no ambiente marinho franco, sendo portanto alóctones os espécimens registrados nas camadas da Mina B-17, considerada a maior expressão areal da paleolaguna reconhecida na sequência Pirabas/Barreiras.

  9. Paleoecología y evolución de la fauna de mamíferos de América del Sur durante la «edad de las planicies australes» (Mioceno superior-Plioceno superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Jaureguizar, E.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the paleoecology and evolution of the South American land-mammal fauna during the «Age of the Southern Plains» are studied. Chronologically, the «Age of the Southern Plains» encompasses the Chasicoan, Huayquerian, Montehermosan and Chapadmalalan South American Land-Mammal Ages. Changes on the taxonomic richness, first and last appearance rates, and trophic types were considered, taking as a model the fossil record of the Pampean Region (Argentina. A gradual increase of the taxonomic richness is observed during the «Age of the Southern Plains». Caviomorpha and Cingulata were the most diversified taxonomic groups. First appearance rates are higher that those of the last appearances excepting the Chapadmalalan, in which both rates reach a balance. From a trophic point of view, grazer mammals were predominant. This last characteristic corroborates the hypothesis of an existing similarity between the «Age of the Southern Plains» and the North American Clarendonian Chronofauna.En este trabajo se estudian la paleoecología y la evolución de la fauna de mamíferos de América del Sur durante la denominada «edad de las planicies australes», un período que abarca las «Edades-mamífero» Chasiquense, Huayqueriense, Montehermosense y Chapadmalalense. Para ello se consideran los cambios en la riqueza taxonómica, en las tasas de primera y última aparición y en los tipos tráficos, tomando como modelo el registro de la Región Pampeana de la República Argentina. Durante la «edad de las planicies australes» se observa un paulatino incremento en la riqueza taxonómica, con un predominio de los Caviomorpha y los Cingulata. Las tasas de primera aparición son más altas que las de última aparición con la excepción de la «Edad-mamífero» Chapadmalalense, en la cual ambas tasas alcanzan un equilibrio. Desde un punto de vista trófico, predominan los mamíferos pastadores. Esta última característica corrobora la similitud existente entre la fauna de la «edad de las planicies australes» y la Cronofauna Clarendoniana de América del Norte.

  10. Sedimentology and palaeontology of the Upper Jurassic Puesto Almada Member (Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Fossati sub-basin), Patagonia Argentina: Palaeoenvironmental and climatic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaleri, Nora G.; Benavente, Cecilia A.; Monferran, Mateo D.; Narváez, Paula L.; Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Gallego, Oscar F.; Do Campo, Margarita D.

    2013-10-01

    Six facies associations are described for the Puesto Almada Member at the Cerro Bandera locality (Fossati sub-basin). They correspond to lacustrine, palustrine, and pedogenic deposits (limestones); and subordinated alluvial fan, fluvial, aeolian, and pyroclastic deposits. The lacustrine-palustrine depositional setting consisted of carbonate alkaline shallow lakes surrounded by flooded areas in a low-lying topography. The facies associations constitute four shallowing upward successions defined by local exposure surfaces: 1) a Lacustrine-Palustrine-pedogenic facies association with a 'conchostracan'-ostracod association; 2) a Palustrine facies association representing a wetland subenvironment, and yielding 'conchostracans', body remains of insects, fish scales, ichnofossils, and palynomorphs (cheirolepidiacean species and ferns growing around water bodies, and other gymnosperms in more elevated areas); 3) an Alluvial fan facies association indicating the source of sediment supply; and 4) a Lacustrine facies association representing a second wetland episode, and yielding 'conchostracans', insect ichnofossils, and a palynoflora mainly consisting of planktonic green algae associated with hygrophile elements. The invertebrate fossil assemblage found contains the first record of fossil insect bodies (Insecta-Hemiptera and Coleoptera) for the Cañadón Asfalto Formation. The succession reflects a mainly climatic control over sedimentation. The sedimentary features of the Puesto Almada Member are in accordance with an arid climatic scenario across the Upper Jurassic, and they reflect a strong seasonality with periods of higher humidity represented by wetlands and lacustrine sediments.

  11. Deformación andina en el cordón del Hielo Azul al oeste de El Bolsón: Implicancias en la evolución tectónica de la Cordillera Norpatagónica en Río Negro, Argentina Andean deformation at the Cordón del Hielo Azul, El Bolsón, Río Negro (Argentina: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the North Patagonian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Tobal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios geológicos de campo realizados en el cordón del Hielo Azul, al oeste de la localidad de El Bolsón, a los 42°S en la Cordillera Norpatagónica (provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, permitieron establecer las distintas relaciones de contacto existentes entre las rocas volcanosedimentarias cordilleranas del Jurásico Inferior, las plutonitas del Batolito Patagónico Cordillerano del Jurásico Medio Superior y las volcanitas cenozoicas de la Formación Ventana. El análisis estructural de las unidades aflorantes mencionadas permitió identificar varias estructuras de deformación previamente desconocidas en este sector de los Andes. Se observó que las rocas volcánicas jurásicas que afloran en el cerro Lindo, al oeste de El Bolsón, se encuentran limitadas por un retrocorrimiento al este y un corrimiento fuera de secuencia al oeste; además se hallan afectadas por dos corrimientos, a los que se asocian estructuras plegadas de menor orden. Al norte, en el cerro Hielo Azul, se observó que las volcanitas jurásicas en su sector occidental se encuentran en contacto tectónico con las volcanitas de la Formación Ventana. Las observaciones de campo permiten inferir la existencia de una falla extensional que controló la depositación de las volcanitas cenozoicas, la cual habría sido luego invertida, sobreponiendo estas rocas a las volcanitas jurásicas. Las distintas fallas reconocidas ejercieron un control de primer orden en el proceso de estructuración del frente montañoso y son, por lo tanto, importantes para comprender el marco tectónico y el levantamiento de la Cordillera Norpatagónica. Se interpreta que la deformación tuvo lugar entre en el Eoceno y el Mioceno Tardío. Un pulso contraccional preoligoceno dio lugar al desarrollo de una faja plegada y corrida de piel fina que afectó a las volcanitas jurásicas. Durante el Oligoceno tuvo lugar un evento extensional de escala regional que dio lugar a la formación de depocentros

  12. APORTES PALEOBOTÁNICOS EN LA RECONSTRUCCIÓN DE PALEODIETAS. ANÁLISIS DE COPROLITOS DEL CERRO CASA DE PIEDRA, SANTA CRUZ/Palaeobotany contributions in palaeodiets reconstruction. Coprolites analysis of Cerro Casa de Piedra, Santa Cruz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Martínez Tosto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los coprolitos son heces fósiles deshidratadas o mineralizadas que contienen inclusiones orgánicas e inorgánicas. El estudio de las inclusiones de origen vegetal de los coprolitos permite conocer los ítems vegetales consumidos por los organismos e inferir la estacionalidad en el uso del sitio. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el contenido de polen y de microrrestos vegetales de un coprolito humano del sitio CCP7 relacionado a una capa arqueológica fechada en 8920±200 C14 (UGA 7383 años AP. El sitio CCP7 está ubicado en la provincia de Santa Cruz (Argentina en el ecotono bosque-estepa. Se realizaron los análisis polínicos y microhistológicos de los restos vegetales del coprolito. Se identificaron 13 tipos polínicos, tres de ellos pertenecientes a la vegetación del bosque y el resto a la estepa. Mediante el análisis microhistológico se identificaron las especies Azorella monanthos, Empetrum rubrum y Gaultheria mucronata. El análisis simultáneo de la información extraída de los datos palinológicos y de los microhistológicos mostró coincidencias parciales entre el contenido de polen y de restos vegetales, permitiendo reconstruir la porción vegetal de la paleodieta e inferir la época del año en que el hombre que dio origen al coprolito estuvo ocupando el sitio CCP7.   Abstract Coprolites are dehydrated or mineralized fossil feces containing organic and inorganic inclusions. The study of plant inclusions of coprolites allows knowing the vegetable items consumed by organisms and inferring the seasonality in the use of the site. This work aims at studying pollen and plant remains from a human coprolite in the CCP7 site related to an archaeological layer dated from around 8920±200 14C (UGA 7383 years BP. CCP7 is located in the province of Santa Cruz (Argentina within the forest-steppe ecotone. Pollen and microhistological analyses of coprolite plant remains were conducted. Thirteen pollen types were identified: three from forest vegetation and the rest from the steppe. Azorella monanthos, Empetrum rubrum and Gaultheria mucronata were identified by means of microhistological analysis. Simultaneous microhistological and palynological data analysis showed partial matches between the content of pollen and plant remains, which helped to rebuild the palaeodiet plant portion and infer the time of year that the person who produced the coprolite was occupying the CCP7 site.

  13. Valores de presión arterial en escolares sanos de una escuela primaria del municipio Cerro Arterial pressure values in healthy students from a primary school of Cerro municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Francisco Corredera Guerra; Yanet Villar Badía; Tania Rosa González Rodríguez; Reynaldo Gómez Urbina

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la hipertensión constituye un notable problema de salud en el ámbito mundial que determina una importante causa de morbilidad, en la que están involucrados factores genéticos y ambientales. La presión arterial en la infancia aumenta progresivamente a lo largo de los años, y es una importante variable a considerar. OBJETIVO: caracterizar el comportamiento de algunas variables cardiovasculares y nutricionales en escolares supuestamente sanos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio de tipo...

  14. Nontropospheric excitation of a ring-like gravity wave observed by several instruments operating at Cerro Pachon, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, F.; Swenson, G. R.; Liu, A. Z.; Pautet, P. D.

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of a single ring-like gravity wave event has been observed at the OH and O(1S) nightglow layers. The event is associated with a secondary wave generation source localized at the upper stratosphere-mesosphere altitude range and represents rare case a nontropospheric wave excitation. In this paper we will present data from several instruments that registered the event simultaneously, discuss the secondary wave generation process, and review other nontropospheric gravity wave excitation sources.

  15. Statistical characteristics of gravity waves observed by an all-sky airglow imager at Maui, HI and Cerro Pachon, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bing; Liu, Alan Z.

    2016-07-01

    Many long-term observations, such as airglow imaging, have shown that gravity waves exist in the mesopause region most of the time. These waves deposit momentum and energy into the background atmosphere when dissipating, and thus exert strong influence to the atmosphere. In this study, we focus on (1) the climatology of gravity waves characteristics, (2) the intermittency of gravity wave momentum flux and (3) the duration/lifespan of gravity wave events. These properties have important implications for gravity wave parameterizations. This study is based on multi-year all sky OH airglow observations obtained at Maui, HI (20.7° N, 156.3° W) and the Andes Lidar Observatory in Chile (30.3° S, 70.7° W). The statistical distribution of intrinsic wave parameters and the momentum flux are analyzed. The probability density functions of gravity wave momentum flux and duration can be described by simple functions and are related to the gravity wave intermittency. The probability distributions of the two sites have some similarity but with noticeable differences, indicating different effects of the background flow and wave source on the gravity wave intermittency in the mesopause region.

  16. GIS-Based Detection of Gullies in Terrestrial LiDAR Data of the Cerro Llamoca Peatland (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Forbriger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cushion peatlands are typical features of the high altitude Andes in South America. Due to the adaptation to difficult environmental conditions, they are very fragile ecosystems and therefore vulnerable to environmental and climate changes. Peatland erosion has severe effects on their ecological functions, such as water storage capacity. Thus, erosion monitoring is highly advisable. Erosion quantification and monitoring can be supported by high-resolution terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR. In this study, a novel Geographic Information System (GIS-based method for the automatic delineation and geomorphometric description of gullies in cushion peatlands is presented. The approach is a multi-step workflow based on a gully edge extraction and a sink filling algorithm applied to a conditioned digital terrain model. Our method enables the creation of GIS-ready polygons of the gullies and the derivation of geomorphometric parameters along the entire channel course. Automatically derived boundaries and gully area values correspond to a high degree (93% with manually digitized reference polygons. The set of methods developed in this study offers a suitable tool for the monitoring and scientific analysis of fluvial morphology in cushion peatlands.

  17. Capítulo XXII: Cerro del Camaleón donde fué sitiado el (14)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Hurtado, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    En el mes de julio de 1927 se organizaron nuevamente las tropas Cristeras. Se encontraba la tropa del (14) en un cerrito llamado “El Camaleón” y traia como 300 hombres. Se encontraban reunidos y haciendo por la vida, habian matado algunas reces para saciar el hambre con la carne de aquellos animales. Como 7 u 8 rebeldes se encontraban en el pueblito de Sta. Ma. Del Valle vuscando a su jefe el Catorse para reunirse con él y ahí reciben la noticia en donde se encontraba dicho jefe con su gente,...

  18. Note on the diet of Ameiva edracantha (Squamata, Teiidae in Cerros de Amotape National Park, Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Jordán

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Ameiva edracantha Bocourt 1874, a terrestrial diurnal teiid lizard distributed in northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador is described for the first time. Stomach contents of fifteen individuals collected from quebrada La Angostura were analyzed. Lepidopteran larvae, coleopterans, orthopterans and spiders were the dominant preys in the lizard’s diet. Snout-vent length and head length, width and height were not correlated to prey length, width and volume. Other parameters such as profitability and prey target selection could be involved in prey selection by A. edracantha.

  19. Disputes over land and water rights in gold mining : The case of Cerro de San Pedro, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborg, D.; Boelens, R.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes different visions and positions in a conflict between the developer of an open-pit mine in Mexico and project opponents using the echelons of rights analysis framework, distinguishing four layers of dispute: contested resources; contents of rules and regulations;

  20. Effect of Measured Wellhead Parameters and Well Scaling on the Computed Downhole Conditions in Cerro Prieto Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K.P.; Miller, C.W.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1980-12-16

    This paper is devoted to the discussion of the wellbore model and its describing equations, comparison between the computed and measured pressures and the effect of measured wellhead parameters on the downhole pressures in the well. Finally a wellbore model with multiple inside diameters is discussed and the effect of well scaling on the bottom hole pressures is studied.

  1. Effect of measured wellhead parameters and well scaling on the computed downhole conditions in Cerro Prieto wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K.P.; Miller, C.W.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1980-12-01

    Computing bottomhole pressures from the measured wellhead data by using a wellbore model is discussed. The wellbore model and its describing equations, comparison between the computed and measured pressures and the effect of measured wellhead parameters on the downhole pressures in the well are discussed. Finally a wellbore model with multiple inside diameters is discussed and the effect of well scaling on the bottom hole pressures is studied.

  2. Treatment of the Cerro Prieto I brines for use in reinjection. 2. Results of the pilot plant tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado J, R. (Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Mexicali, Mexico); Mercado G, S.; Rocha C, E.; Gamino O, H.; Garibaldi P, F.

    1981-01-01

    Silica removal experiments have been carried out both in the laboratory and in pilot scale tests. The results obtained to date are presented, with special emphasis on the pilot tests with or without the use of flocculants. Previous studies on brine treatment are described briefly.

  3. Implications of Quaternary volcanism at Cerro Tuzgle for crustal and mantle evolution of the Puna Plateau, Central Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coira, Beatriz; Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg

    1993-01-01

    The high-K Tuzgle volcanic center, (24° S, 66.5° W) along with several small shoshonitic centers, developed along extensional Quaternary faults of the El Toro lineament on the east-central Puna plateau, ≈275 km east of the main front of the Andean Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ). These magmas formed by complex mixing processes in the mantle and thickened crust (>50 km) above a ˜200 km deep scismic zone. Tuzgle magmas are differentiated from shoshonitic series magmas by their more intraplate-like Ti group element characteristics, lower incompatible element concentrations, and lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios at a given ɛNd. Underlying Mio-Pliocene volcanic rocks erupted in a compressional stress regime and have back-arc like calc-alkaline chemical characteristics. The Tuzgle rocks can be divided into two sequences with different mantle precursors: a) an older, more voluminous rhyodacitic (ignimbrite) to mafic andestitic (56% to 71% SiO2) sequence with La/Yb ratios 35. La/Yb ratios are controlled by the mafic components: low ratios result from larger mantle melt percentages than high ratios. Shoshonitic series lavas (52% to 62% SiO2) contain small percentage melts of more isotopically “enriched” arc-like mantle sources. Some young Tuzgle lavas have a shoshonitic-like component. Variable thermal conditions and complex stress system are required to produce the Tuzgle and shoshonitic series magmas in the same vicinity. These conditions are consistent with the underlying mantle being in transition from the thick mantle lithosphere which produced rare shoshonitic flows in the Altiplano to the thinner mantle lithosphere that produced back-are calc-alkaline and intraplate-type flows in the southern Puna. Substantial upper crustal type contamination in Tuzgle lavas is indicated by decreasing ɛNd (-2.5 to-6.7) with increasing 87Sr/86Sr (0.7063 to 0.7099) ratios and SiO2 concentrations, and by negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* <0.78) in lavas that lack plagioclase phenocrysts. Trace element arguments indicate that the bulk contaminant was more silicic than the Tuzgle ignimbrite and left a residue with a high pressure mineralogy. Crustal shortening processes transported upper crustal contaminants to depths where melting occurred. These contaminants mixed with mafic magmas that were fractionating mafic phases at high pressure. Silicic melts formed at depth by these processes accumulated at a mid to upper crustal discontinuity (decollement). The Tuzgle ignimbrite erupted from this level when melting rates were highest. Subsequent lavas are mixtures of contaminated mafic magmas and ponded silicic melts. Feldspar and quartz phenocrysts in the lavas are phenocrysts from the ponded silicic magmas.

  4. Copepod community structure in Bahia de Banderas during the 2008-2009 La Niña and their transition to the 2009-2010 El Niño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Pérez, L.C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the taxonomic copepod community structure and its relations with the climate conditions in the Pacific Ocean, bimonthly samples were made between February 2009 and April 2010. Samples were collected by vertical tows between the surface and the vicinity of the bottom with a 40 cm mouth diameter and 335 µ mesh size standard zooplankton net. At the beginning of the study water temperatures were low indicating that La Niña conditions prevailed in the bay. However, at the end of June, 2 °C warmer waters associated with El Niño 2009-2010 arrival were detected. These conditions persisted at least until February 2010, and by April water temperature returned to normal. 57 copepods species were recorded, being Acartia tonsa, Acartia lilljeborgi, Oithona plumífera, Centropages furcatus and Nannocalanus minor the most representative species. These five populations accounted most of the 90 % of the collected animals. Cluster and Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS methods show two groups that seem to be associated with La Niña and El Niño conditions. The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM indicated that these assemblages were different (r=0.411; p=0.01 %. Simper analysis indicated that A. tonsa was the dominant population (85.4 % at the end of the 2008-2009 La Niña; this population was followed by A. lilljeborgi (7.9 % and Pareucalanus subtenuis (2.5 %. During the El Niño the dominance of A. tonsa disappeared (32 % while Oithona plumífera, Temora discaudata and Undinula darwinii increased. At the end of El Niño, species diversity and richness also changed. At the end of the 2008-2009 La Niña conditions, 40 species were recorded, while during El Niño the species richness increased to 52 species.

  5. Analysis-Based Verification: A Programmer-Oriented Approach to the Assurance of Mechanical Program Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    verifying analyses and allow users to understand how the tool reached its conclusions. Bandera [30] is a system that extracts models from Java source for...verification by a model checker and maps verifier outputs back to the original source code. Bandera represents, simi- lar to drop-sea, an effort to...establish an effective architecture for assurance but is focused on model checking rather than program analysis. Similar to our work, Bandera , and other

  6. Environmental Assessment Addressing the 301st Fighter Wing Managed Airspace, Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    County Bandera County Stonewall County Shackelford County Midland County Kendall County Comanche County Throckmorton County Pecos County Dimmit County La...County Val Verde County Dimmit County La Salle County McMullenCounty Bandera County Edwards County Frio County Kerr County Kinney County Maverick County...Sterling County Val Verde County Bandera County Edwards County Kerr County Kinney County MedinaCounty Real County Uvalde County Coke County Coleman County

  7. The Insurgent Movement in Ukraine During 1940s-1950s: Lessons Learned from the Case Study of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (OUN-UPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Command, headed by Stepan Bandera and his staff, on the other hand, kept the tactic of the revolutionary struggle alive. Most of those young radical...support, for the people trusted OUN. In early January of 1940, Stepan Bandera moved to Rome, where Melnyk and his staff were at that time. Because of the...probable war between Germany and the Soviet Union, Bandera proposed that Melnyk move the headquarters to neutral Switzerland and direct OUN’s

  8. The Open Source Hardening Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Corbett, M. Dwyer, J. Hatcliff, S. Laubach, C. Pasareanu, Robby, and H. Zheng. Bandera : Extracting finite-state models from Java source code. In ICSE 2000...AND ZHENG, H. Bandera : Extracting finite-state models from Java source code. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering

  9. microRNAs: Novel Breast Cancer Susceptibility Factors in Caucasian and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Elisa V. Bandera , Song Liu, Christine B. Ambrosone, Hua Zhao, Carcinogenesis, 2012 CONCLUSION To the best of our knowledge, this is the first...the associations. 21 REFERENCES 1. Ambrosone, C.B., Ciupak, G.L., Bandera , E.V., Jandorf, L., Bovbjerg, D.H., Zirpoli, G., Pawlish, K., Godbold

  10. Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Aggressiveness in African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Ruszczyk, Gregory Ciupak, Warren Davis, Helena Hwang, Susan McCann, Elisa Bandera , Christine Ambrosone Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in...Sucheston, Jyoti Shankar, Michelle Roberts, Melanie Ruszczyk, Gregory Ciupak, Warren Davis, Helena Hwang, Susan McCann, Elisa Bandera , Christine Ambrosone

  11. Mixing Type Checking and Symbolic Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    at different lev- els of abstraction. Bandera [Corbett et al. 2000] is a model check- ing system that uses abstraction-based program specialization...Corbett, Matthew B. Dwyer, John Hatcliff, Shawn Laubach, Corina S. Păsăreanu, Robby, and Hongjun Zheng. Bandera : extracting finite-state models

  12. O Cerro Aconcágua (6959m, Argentina: um destino de turismo de Aventura: um alto lugar mítico e simbólico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Raspaud

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumo

    Este artigo busca compreender o modo de organização e de funcionamento de um destino do turismo de aventura de alta altitude. Após relembrar o conteúdo do conceito de destino turístico, descreve o exemplo histórico de Chamonix. Em seguida, através do método da observação participante, no âmbito de uma expedição amadora, ele análisa a organização concreta in situ do destino de Aconcágua. Em conclusão, para além dos serviços propostos, este artigo sublinha que, para a clientela de turistas alpinistas, o preço de um tal destino reporta-se, ao senso simbólico atribuído a ele, as provas físicas e mentais suportadas, e a sociabilidade própria ao meio cultural do mundo do alpinismo.

    Palavras-chave: destino turístico; turismo de aventura; Aconcágua; valores simbólicos; sociabilidade.

     

    Abstract

    The aim of this article is to understand the organization and working process of a high altitude touristic destination. After the definition of the concept of touristic destination, it describes the historic example of Chamonix. Then, by the way of the observing participation method, realized during an amateur expedition, the concrete organization in situ of the Aconcagua destination is analysed. In conclusion, the author underlines the fact that, more than the services offered, the price of such a destination is, for the mountaineer clients, in the symbolic sense given to the destination, in the physical and mental suffering tried out, and the lived sociability of the cultural mountaineering world.

    Keywords : touristic destination ; adventure tourism ; Aconcagua ; symbolic values ; sociability.

  13. Entre cerros, lagos y ciénega. Sociedad y condiciones de salud en el México prehispánico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Favila Cisneros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las condiciones de vida y salud de tres poblaciones prehispánicas mesoamericanas con ecosistemas similares, que se ubican en el Altiplano Central mexicano, a través de la observación macroscópica de osamentas y del registro de los indicadores de salud: cribra orbitalia, hiperostosis, hipoplasia del esmalte dental, así como la periostitis en estas tres series esqueléticas. Los resultados indican un porcentaje importante de problemas nutricionales en sinergia con infecciones no específicas de los sitios del Altiplano Central, así como también un porcentaje considerable de periostitis en los tres grupos analizados.

  14. Análisis e interpretación de los materiales volcánicos del Cerro de los Frailes (Cabo de Gata. Almería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Soler, J. M.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of Los Frailes volcano had two stages, which produced amphibole andesites (Frailes-I and two-pyroxene andesites (Frailes-II respectively, Iying on the extension of the dacites and andesites of the southernmost Cabo de Gata volcanoes (Revancha-Sabinal. The FRAILES-I stage is discontinuous, and has mainly produced domes and autoclastic breccias, in addition to an intermediate level of pumice-and-ash flow; this unit has some intercalated sedimentary levels. To the NE it is covered by a formation of sedimentary and hydroclastic rocks. The Frailes-II stage is continuous, and has formed some lava flows, the two summit domes, and sorne pyroclastic rocks of scarcely explosive origin. Other volcanic features are some domes and dikes of biotite-amphibole dacites, which affect to the Frailes-I-group; these are the southern continuation of the dacitic volcanic group of Rodalquilar-Rellana-Garbanzal. The generally accepted idea of a succesion in Cabo de Gata of cycles which started very explosively and ended with subvolcanic extrussions (domes does not seem to be very realistic at least in the building of Los Frailes. A review of geochronological data, and the field disposition of the described materials does not discard the hypothesis that the pyroxene andesites of FrailesI-I might have been formed simultaneously or even than later the ignimbritic dacites of the Rodalquilar group.La formación del volcán de Los Frailes se produjo en dos ciclos, de composiciones andesítica anfibólica (Frailes-I y andesitica de dos piroxenos (Frailes-II, apoyadas sobre la prolongación hacia el este de las andesitas y dacitas del extremo sur de Cabo de Gata (edificio de Revancha-Sabinal-Cabo de Gata. El ciclo Frailes-I es discontínuo y ha formado domos y brechas autoclásticas principalmente, mas un nivel intermedio de colada piroclástica pumítica; este ciclo contiene niveles sedimentarios intercalados. Al NE es cubierto por una formación de rocas sedimentarias e hidroclásticas. El ciclo Frailes-II es continuo, y ha producido coladas de lava, los dos domos sumitales, y brechas piroclásticas de formación poco o nada explosiva. Otras manifestaciones volcánicas presentes son diques y domos de composición dacítica (biotítica-anfibólica, que cortan a los materiales del ciclo Frailes-I, y que serían los representantes más meridionales del grupo volcánico dacítico de Rodalquilar-Rellana-Garbanzal. Por tanto la propuesta sucesión generalizada de ciclos que comenzaron siendo muy explosivos para acabar con extrusiones subvolcánicas (domos no es válida esencialmente en la construcción de Los Frailes. Una revisión de los datos geocronológicos, y la disposición en el campo de los materiales permite considerar la hipótesis de que las andesitas piroxénicas del ciclo Frailes-II pudieron ser contemporáneas o posteriores a las dacitas (esencialmente ignimbríticas del grupo de Rodalquilar.

  15. The exploitation of obsidian in the Central Plateau of Santa Cruz, Argentina: Results from La María and Cerro Tres Tetas and a regional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Enrique Cueto

    2016-09-01

    Results from this work strengthen the idea that the groups which lived in the Central Plateau knew about and exploited an obsidian source known as Pampa del Asador. A raise in the use of this raw material throughout time is recorded, reaching its peak in the late Holocene. We identified two different moments in the exploitation of obsidian at the regional level. During the final Pleistocene and early Holocene, obsidian would not have played a relevant role in the organization of technology. Production sequences indicate that tools probably were entered to the sites already manufactured. During the middle and late Holocene nodules and cores could have been brought into the sites. The strategies involved in their reduction are in broad terms similar to those implemented with local raw materials; there is no evidence that obsidian had more value in any way. On the other hand, it is also not possible to state that there was just an eventual exploitation of this raw material. We believe that obsidian was acquired during mobility circuits which enabled the contact between different groups.

  16. Entre cerros, lagos y ciénega. Sociedad y condiciones de salud en el México prehispánico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Héctor Favila Cisneros

    2013-01-01

    Se comparan las condiciones de vida y salud de tres poblaciones prehispánicas mesoamericanas con ecosistemas similares, que se ubican en el Altiplano Central mexicano, a través de la observación...

  17. Las investigaciones del Marqués de Cerralbo en el «Cerro Villar» de Monreal de Ariza : Arcobriga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Jiménez Sanz

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un avance de los trabajos que se están realizando sobre la aportación del xvii Marqués de Cerralbo a la disciplina arqueológica, orientados al conocimiento de la Historia de la Arqueología española en las primeras décadas del siglo xx. Se revisa el caso del yacimiento romano de Arcobriga desde las circunstancias que motivaron su descubrimiento, objetivos de las investigaciones, metodología, desarrollo de los trabajos de campo y gabinete, intervención de otros especialistas, etc., partiendo de una breve introducción a la figura del Marqués de Cerralbo.We introduce an advance ofour work about XVII Marquis of Cerralbo and his contribution to the spanish Archaeology History, in the first decades of this century. Following a brief history about his Ufe, you will find a review of the case of Arcobriga's román site: circumstances that involved its discovery, research objectives, methodology, development of works, contributions of any other specialists and so on.

  18. Efficiency of RAPD, ISSR, AFLP and ISTR markers for the detection of polymorphisms and genetic relationships in camote de cerro (Dioscorea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paulina Velasco-Ramírez

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: This indicates an important level of genetic differences despite the fact that the plant is asexually propagated. Based on the diversity statistics, any marker tested in present work can be recommended for use in large-scale genetic studies of populations. However, the low correlations among different molecular marker systems show the importance of the complementarity of the information that is generated by different markers for genetic studies involving estimation of polymorphism and relationships.

  19. La política pública para los cerros orientales de Bogotá: Una revisión en perspectiva y comentada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Alexandra Bohu00F3rquez Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años setenta diferentes entidades de la administración pública han planteado intervenciones sobre el espacio natural denominado Reserva Forestal Protectora Bosque Oriental de Bogotá, con la intención de preservarlo frente a las alteraciones de las que venía siendo objeto históricamente. Sin embargo, todas estas intervenciones fueron infructuosas debido a que nunca se integró la visión urbana de este problema ambiental. Las nuevas propuestas de política pública, reproducen dicha tendencia, llevando irrefrenablemente al fracaso de la política pública y a perpetuar las tendencias del mercado inmobiliario.

  20. Use of wireline logs at Cerro Prieto in identification of the distribution of hydrothermally altered zones and dike locations, and their correlation with reservoir temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seamount, D.T. Jr.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Downhole electrical and gamma-gamma density logs from nine wells weere studed and these wireline log parameters with petrologic, temperature, and petrophysical data were correlated. Here, wells M-43, T-366, and M-107 are discussed in detail as typical cases. Log data for shales show good correlation with four zones of hydrothermal alteration previously recognized on the basis of characteristic mineral assemblages and temperatures. These zones are the unaltered montmorillonite zone (< 150/sup 0/C), the illite zone (150/sup 0/C to 230/sup 0/C to 245/sup 0/C), the chlorite zone (235/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C, equivalent to the calc-silicate I zone in sands), and the feldspar zone (> 300/sup 0/C, equivalent to the calc-silicate II zone in sands),

  1. Zonificación ecológica del cerro "El Potosí", Galeana, Nuevo León, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. García A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the proposal made in order to declare "El Potosí" mountain as a special biosphere reserve, an ecological zonification map was made considering the nucleus zone, buffer and habitat rehabilitation. Criteria used for zonification the distribution of vegetation and wildlife populations, taken from cartographic interpretation using a satellite image and information of biodiversity. Ten vegetation types and four land-uses were defined, 45 species were found at a special conservation status: 19 of them are plants and 26 are animals.

  2. Cooperación y conflicto entre empresas, comunidades, nuevos movimientos sociales y el papel del gobierno. El caso de cerro de San Pedro (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las relaciones de cooperación y conflicto entre la Compañía Minera (MSX y las comunidades de San Pedro, Soledad y San Luis Potosí, los Nuevos Movimientos Sociales y los tres niveles de gobierno involucrados. La compañía Minera inició operaciones en una mina a cielo abierto de oro y plata con el apoyo de oficiales de los gobiernos locales, estatales y federal. Los habitantes de estas comunidades apoyados por grupos ambientalistas y Organizaciones No Gubernamentales argumentan que el proyecto contamina las fuentes de agua fresca, además de perturbar el medio ambiente y la ecología de la región. En tal sentido el artículo analiza el impacto, la interacción social y de conflicto entre los distintos actores desde una perspectiva local y socio-ambiental, previa contextualización histórica de subregión y el desarrollo de la industria minera.

  3. ¿Ladrones, pequeños empresarios o trabajadores independientes? : K’ajchas, trapiches y plata en el cerro de Potosí en el siglo XVIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barragàn, R.

    2015-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the history of a group of self-employed workers that produced 20 to 35% of Potosí’s silver in the 18th century. The paper begins remembering the contribution of historiography to the study of the k’ajchas. The analysis is centered then, in the property rights to the

  4. Cooperación y conflicto entre empresas, comunidades, nuevos movimientos sociales y el papel del gobierno. El caso de Cerro de San Pedro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las relaciones de cooperación y conflicto entre la Compañía Minera (MSX y las comunidades de San Pedro, Soledad y San Luis Potosí, los Nuevos Movimientos Sociales y los tres niveles de gobierno involucrados. La compañía Minera inició operaciones en una mina a cielo abierto de oro y plata con el apoyo de oficiales de los gobiernos locales, estatales y federal. Los habitantes de estas comunidades apoyados por grupos ambientalistas y Organizaciones No Gubernamentales argumentan que el proyecto contamina las fuentes de agua fresca, además de perturbar el medio ambiente y la ecología de la región. En tal sentido el artículo analiza el impacto, la interacción social y de conflicto entre los distintos actores desde una perspectiva local y socio-ambiental, previa contextualización histórica de subregión y el desarrollo de la industria minera.

  5. FACTORES QUE CONDICIONAN EL CONSUMO DE DROGAS EN ESTUDIANTES DEL 4TO Y 5TO DE SECUNDARIA DEL COLEGIO IGNACIO ALVAREZ THOMAS DE CERRO COLORADO AREQUIPA, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    VILCA CEBALLOS, NURY VANESSA

    2014-01-01

    DROGAS USO, ABUSO Y DEPENDENCIA DE LAS DROGAS CLASIFICACIÓN DE LAS DROGAS TIPOS DE DROGAS DROGAS ILEGALES ENFERMEDADES SOCIALES DROGADICCIÓN TABAQUISMO FACTORES QUE CONDICIONAN EL CONSUMO DE DROGAS FACTORES SOCIALES FACTORES PSICOLÓGICOS

  6. Caracterización del sistema de producción de café (Coffea arabica L.) en la comunidad del Cerro Cuate, Iliatenco, Guerrero.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Torres, Amadeo

    2013-01-01

    En México el cultivo y consumo de café se consideran de gran importancia económica, sociocultural y ambiental. Es un producto de importancia para la exportación, y en las regiones productoras es un elemento fundamental en la economía familiar, por lo cual su cultivo se considera como una actividad estratégica para el país. En este contexto, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo analizar las características del proceso de producción, beneficiado y comercialización del cultivo de café en la ...

  7. El empleo de armamento como elemento de aporte cronológico al arte rupestre postpaleolítico del Cerro de San Isidro (Domingo García, Segovia = The Use of Weapons as an Element of Chronological Contribution the Post-Paleolithic Rock Art in the Cerro...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Pecci Tenrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La dificultad que entraña el establecimiento de una horquilla cronológica, más o menos determinada, para ubicar la estación de arte rupestre postpaleolítico de Domingo García (Segovia en una época concreta, pues hasta el momento las técnicas empleadas para el estudio de los centenares de grabados son infructuosas, ha hecho que se lleve a cabo un análisis interno de las imágenes que se exhiben portando algún tipo de arma, en busca de información que pueda arrojar luz sobre el período aproximado en que fueron esculpidas en los paneles de los afloramientos rocosos.Since it is difficult to establish a precise chronological range, in order to place in a particular period station rock art post-Paleolithic Domingo García (Segovia, Spain, and so far the techniques used to study hundreds of engravings have not borne fruit, it has made it conducted an internal analysis of the images that can carry some sort of weapon, looking for information that could shed light on the approximate period in which were carved panels rocky outcrops.

  8. Environmental Assessment: Installation Development at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    of building space located in portions of Buildings 10800, 10900, and 10902 currently housing tech training classrooms, high bay tech training...Residential Area (South Leon Valley) 67.5 SD08 Residential Area (Huebner and Bandera Roads) 64.5 SD09 Residential Area (South O.P. Schnabel Park) 62.3...Air Quality Control Region (AQCR Number 217), which includes Atascosa, Bandera , Bexar, Comal, Dimmit, Edwards, Frio, Gillespie, Guadalupe, Karnes

  9. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Volume 3. Air Force Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards from FY 1988 SBIR Solicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    NUMBER: CESAR BANDERA TITLE: NEW CONCEPTS AND INNOVA’TIONS FOR AERONAUTICAL SYSTEMS/SUBSYSTEMS: SUPPRESSOR ENVIRONMENT CHARACTERIZER TOPIC# 146...TO ANALYZE THE RF ENVIRONMENT. AMHERST SYSTEMS INC 30 WILSON RD BUFFALO, NY 14221 CONTRACT NUMBER: CESAR BANDERA TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF INTERACTIVE...TECHNIQUES TO THIS RETRIEVAL ALGORITHM WILL ALSO BE GIVEN IN THE PHASE I PERIOD. CAPE COD RESEARCH INC PO BOX 600 BUZZARDS BAY , MA 02532 CONTRACT

  10. Transcurrencia a lo largo de la Falla Sierra de Varas (Sistema de fallas de la Cordillera de Domeyko, norte de Chile Strike-slip along the Sierra de Varas Fault (Cordillera de Domeyko Fault-System, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Niemeyer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Sistema de Fallas de la Cordillera de Domeyko, de rumbo esencialmente norte-sur, es paralelo a la fosa chileno-peruana en el norte de Chile. Se analizaron los desplazamientos en el rumbo y en la vertical de una de sus fallas maestras: la Falla Sierra de Varas (FS V. Ésta se estudió en el segmento entre Aguada del Hornito y Aguada del Cerro Alto de Varas, sobre la base del desplazamiento en el rumbo de dos porciones de la unidad de Granitoides paleozoicos con idéntica petrografía, estructura interna y edad. Se determinó una separación sinistral horizontal de 15,6±1 km con una componente vertical de 4,9±0,1 km, lo cual implica un rechazo neto sinistral-inverso de 16,4±1 km. El alzamiento vertical está de acuerdo con el espesor estratigráfico erosionado del bloque oriental. Se investigó, además, la dinámica y cinemática de la FS V mediante el análisis de mesofallas asociadas a sus desplazamientos. Se determinó así un sistema estructural sinistral-inverso, que tuvo lugar durante el Eoceno medio tardío. Un segundo sistema estructural dextral, con desplazamiento de 0,6 km se sobrepuso sobre el anterior y ocurrió con posterioridad al Mioceno. Los desplazamientos simultáneos, tanto en el rumbo como según fallas inversas, dados por la existencia de una 'flor inversa en el segmento estudiado, indican que éste fue afectado primeramente por una transpresión. El desplazamiento sinistral demostrado paralaFSVy su cambio de rumbo hacia el SE, inmediatamente al sur de Aguada de Alto de Varas, son compatibles con la vergencia hacia el oeste de pliegues y fallas inversas asociadas del cinturón plegado y corrido de El Profeta, el cual también habría resultado de la transpresión.The north-south trending Cordillera de Domeyko Fault System in northern Chile considered herein is parallel to the Peru-Chile trench. The displacement history of the Sierra de Varas Fault, a master fault of the mentioned system, was examined in detall in the

  11. El yacimiento del Aragoniense medio de La Retama (Depresión Intermedia, Provincia de Cuenca, España) : significado de las faunas con Hispanotherium = The middle Miocene locality of La Retama (Cuenca Province, Spain) : significance of the Hisp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, J.; Alcalá, L.; Hoyos, M.; Montoya, P.; Nieto, M.; Pérez, B.; Soria, D.

    1993-01-01

    Se describen y analizan las características sedimentológicas y tafonómicas del yacimiento del Mioceno medio (Aragoniense medio) de La Retama (Cuenca, España). El ambiente sedimentario se interpreta como un "fan delta" formado en un lago somero. Los huesos se acumulaban durante la estación seca en

  12. Geothermal exploration technology. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following programs: electrical and electromagnetic computer modeling techniques; minicomputer for in-field processing of magnetotelluric data; superconducting thin-film gradiometer and magnetometers for geophysical applications; magnetotellurics with SQUID magnetometers; controlled-source electromagnetic system; geothermal seismic field system development; Klamath Basin geothermal resource and exploration technique evaluation; Mt. Hood geothermal resource evaluation; East Mesa seismic study; seismological studies at Cerro Prieto; self-potential studies at Cerro Prieto; resistivity studies at Cerro Prieto; magnetotelluric survey at Cerro Prieto; and precision gravity studies at Cerro Prieto. (MHR)

  13. Ultrastructural preservation of tissues and their reaction to the infection with trichinella in the El Plomo mummy: Muscle fiber ultrastructure and trichinosis/mummy of the Cerro El Plomo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héctor, Rodríguez; Omar, Espinoza-Navarro; González, Mercedes; Mario, Castro

    2017-08-01

    The El Plomo mummy was a pre-Columbian Incan child who was found mummified in the Andes Mountains above an altitude of 17,700 feet. In the environment, natural mummification occurred due to low temperatures and strong winds. Dating measurements (relative dating) by experts from the National Museum of Natural History of Chile established that the mummified body corresponds the Inca period (1,450 to 1,500 AD). In 2003, the body was transferred to the University of Chile Medical School for exhaustive medical examination. Tissue samples from the right quadriceps muscle were extracted and fixed in glutaraldehyde and postfixed in osmium tetroxide to obtain ultrathin sections to be observed by transmission electron microscope. Images were recorded on photographic paper, digitalized and analyzed by experts on morphology. Results showed a preservation of cell boundaries in striated muscle cells, but specific subcellular organelles or contractile sarcomeric units (actin and myosin) were unable to be recognized. However, the classical ultrastructural morphology of the polypeptide collagen type I was preserved intact both in primary and secondary organization. Therefore, we concluded that the process of natural mummification by freezing and strong winds is capable of damaging the ultrastructure of muscle cells and preserving collagen type I intact. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evaluación de compuestos volátiles para estimar poblaciones del picudo de la guayaba Conotrachelus dimidiatus Evaluación de color en suelos del Cerro de Denganthza, municipio de Francisco I. Madero, Hidalgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilio Acevedo Sandoval

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available   Through experiments in Calvillo, Aguascalientes was determined that the populations of the guava weevil Conotrachelus dimidiatus can be estimated with pyramid traps baited with volatile compounds of guava. The attraction tests were conducted on commercial guava orchards for a period of five months during 2008 and 2009. The total catch of adults was higher in June and July of both years, with the beginning of the rainy season, decreasing towards the later months. The dispensers released the chemicals compounds up to 22 days depending on the mixture used. According to the results it is concluded that the strategy of trapping with chemical compounds can be an alternative to sample populations of the guava weevil. Additional compounds of the insect (pheromones should be identified to increase the level of catches.  Existen dos maneras de determinar el color del suelo: a el uso de tablas de color utilizando el Sistema de Notación Munsell y b el uso de analizadores de color, tal como el CieLab. Este último es capaz de medir el color y expresarlo en la notación de Munsell; ambas técnicas permiten la determinación del color del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el color de suelos húmedos y secos usando el sistema Munsell y el CIELab. Estos métodos se proponen para evaluar las diferencias de color en muestras de suelos de la localidad de Denganthza, en el municipio de Tepatepec de Francisco I. Madero, estado de Hidalgo, México durante el 2010. En el Sistema de Notación Munsell los suelos presentan coloraciones desde amarillo pálido a rojizas, para valores de > se encuentra entre 2.5 Y, 5 Y, 2.5 YR, 7.5 YR y 10 YR mostrando coloraciones claras indicando un empobrecimiento de Fe y Mn, llevando a plantear que debido a causas pedogenéticas se ha producido un proceso de podzolización. En CieLab el color de los suelos estudiados se ubican en los cuadrantes +a* y +b* corresponden al color rojo y amarillo, el color de los suelos en húmedo corresponde a un color amarillo-rojizo, con mayor saturación en amarillo presentándose en los suelos 1, 6 y 13, en el resto se observa una tendencia hacia las tonalidades claras; sin embargo, en los suelos secos se presenta la misma coloración amarillo-rojizo sin satu­raciones con tonalidades claras en todas las muestras.

  15. OPORTUNIDADES PARA LA ECONOMÍA ECOLÓGICA Y LA ECOLOGÍA POLÍTICA EN COSTA RICA: La Zona Protectora Cerros de la Carpintera y Otros Parques de Papel en el Valle Central.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Aguilar González

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Por muchos años la llamada exitosa conservación en Costa Rica ha sido impulsada prevalentemente por grupos académico-científicos y se ha basado en modelos públicos verticales, de ONG ambientalista tradicional o de libre mercado. Estos enfoques no han sido insuficientes tratándose del modelo de conservación llamado Zona Protectora (ZP, el cual, sobre todo en áreas urbanas y semi-urbanas, ha sido un fracaso. Sin embargo, abarca el 15% del territorio en protección en el país. Al igual que en otros lugares en América Latina, se observa hoy en Costa Rica una tendencia a la aparición de los que la ecología política llamaría  “ambientalismo de los pobres.” Este trabajo explora la utilidad de los conceptos de esta tendencia ambientalista para la solución de los problemas de las ZP. Específicamente se enfoca en el caso de La Carpintera y reflexiona sobre la posibilidad de usar conceptos como la valoración económico-ecológica alternativa y la deuda ecológica producto de la experiencia del autor con su propia investigación y cursos de campo.   Abstract For many years the so-called successful conservation in Costa Rica has been led mostly by academic and scientific groups and has followed public vertical, traditional environmentalist NGO or market driven models. These perspectives have been insufficient for the conservation model known as the Protective Zone (ZP, which, especially in urban and semi-urban areas has been a failure. Nevertheless, it comprises 15% of the overall land under protection in the country. As in other places in Latin America, Costa Rica is showing today traces of what political ecologists know as “environmentalism of the poor.” This paper explores the usefulness of the concepts of this environmentalism trend to solve the problems of ZP. Specifically, it focuses on the case study of La Carpintera and reflects on the possibility of using concepts such as ecological economic alternative valuation and ecological debt based on the author’s experience with his own research and field courses.

  16. Evaluación de la erosión hídrica del suelo en la finca "Santos García" ubicada en el cerro Las Mesas, Matagalpa, mediante el uso del radionucleido ambiental Cesio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Pérez Matus,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el proceso de erosión hídrica presente en la finca “Santos García”, Ciudad Darío, Matagalpa. Para cuantificar las pérdidas de suelo se empleó la técnica nuclear del 137Cesio (como radioisótopo trazador ambiental. A su vez, se analizó la influencia de factores e indicadores que intervienen en el proceso de pérdida de suelo: pendiente y precipitación, textura (método Bouyoucos, color (tabla Munsell, materia orgánica (digestión húmeda con dicromato de potasio, pH (método Potenciométrico y capacidad de intercambio catiónico (acetato de amonio pH 7 1N. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan grandes pérdidas de suelo asociadas a las características fisicoquímicas de éste. Se manifiesta la urgente necesidad de implementar medidas de conservación de suelo que permitan la sustentabilidad agrícola en el sitio de estudio.

  17. Evaluación de compuestos volátiles para estimar poblaciones del picudo de la guayaba Conotrachelus dimidiatus Evaluación de color en suelos del Cerro de Denganthza, municipio de Francisco I. Madero, Hidalgo

    OpenAIRE

    Otilio Acevedo Sandoval; Francisco Prieto García; Alma Delia Román Gutiérrez; Julia María Domínguez Soto

    2012-01-01

      Through experiments in Calvillo, Aguascalientes was determined that the populations of the guava weevil Conotrachelus dimidiatus can be estimated with pyramid traps baited with volatile compounds of guava. The attraction tests were conducted on commercial guava orchards for a period of five months during 2008 and 2009. The total catch of adults was higher in June and July of both years, with the beginning of the rainy season, decreasing towards the later months. The dispensers released the ...

  18. Dentro de sus casas. Casa Fisac en Cerro del Aire. Casa Cano Lasso en la Florida. Casa Asís Cabrero en Puerta de Hierro. Casa Carvajal en Somosaguas. Casa Corrales en Aravaca

    OpenAIRE

    Cónsul Pascual, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Esta tesis doctoral se especializa en el estudio desde el interior de casas de maestros españoles proyectadas y construidas para ellos y sus familias. Casas proyectadas y construidas para ellos mismos por arquitectos “maestros” de la arquitectura española del siglo XX, que acabaron sus estudios de arquitectura después de la guerra civil y que se habían formado en la Escuela de Madrid. Las cinco casas escogidas están situadas en la provincia de Madrid, en la hoy definida como Comunidad de Ma...

  19. LA TENENCIA DE NIÑOS Y ADOLESCENTES EN EL ÁMBITO PREJUDICIAL, EN LAS COMISARIAS DE ALTO SELVA ALEGRE Y CERRO COLORADO, PROVINCIA DE AREQUIPA, AÑO 2012

    OpenAIRE

    CHÁVEZ PINAZO, ADELA

    2014-01-01

    EL PADRE Y LA MADRE RESPECTO A LA PATRIA POTESTAD LA PATRIA POTESTAD EN EL CÓDIGO CIVIL PERUANO SISTEMA DE POTESTAD CONJUNTA EJERCICIO UNILATERAL DE LA PATRIA POTESTAD LA PATRIA POTESTAD EN EL CASO DE LOS HIJOS MATRIMONIALES LA PATRIA POTESTAD EN EL CASO DE LOS HIJOS EXTRAMATRIMONIALES CONTENIDO DE LA PATRIA POTESTAD EN EL CÓDIGO DE LOS NIÑOS Y ADOLESCENTES SUSPENSIÓN DE LA PATRIA POTESTAD VIGENCIA DE LA PATRIA POTESTAD EXTINCIÓN O PERDIDA DE LA PATRIA POTESTAD PARTICULARIDADES DE LA PATRIA P...

  20. New research results on “La Plaza de Toros” of Cerro de San Pelayo” (Martimor, Salamanca: a tumulus burial with inhumation at the beginning of the Firts Millenium in the Western area of the North Meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Jiménez, Óscar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the latest results obtained from the systematic revision of the materials from this unique site. We present here the burial level in its complete context and the first results of the analyses of this assemblage. We have documented in it human bones, elements of fauna possibly associated with a funerary feast, storage pottery and the well-known geometric painted vessel. The results obtained by analysis of the distribution and post-depositional processes are also very interesting, allowing us to recreate the space in which seem to be represented symbolic and prestige elements that indicate important social changes in these societies. All this, together with the calibration of the radiocarbon dates taken from the tumulus, offers a more complete archaeological documentation of this little known area in the South-western of the Northern Meseta.

    En este trabajo pretendemos adelantar los últimos resultados obtenidos de la revisión sistemática realizada sobre los materiales de este yacimiento de características únicas hasta ahora en la región. Avanzamos aquí la presentación del nivel de enterramiento en su contexto completo y los primeros resultados de los análisis de este conjunto. En él documentamos restos humanos, elementos de fauna posiblemente asociados a un banquete funerario, elementos de almacenaje y el ya conocido vaso pintado con decoración geométrica. Los resultados obtenidos por los análisis de dispersión y procesos postdeposicionales son igualmente de gran interés, permitiéndonos recrear ese espacio en el que parecen estar representados elementos simbólicos y de prestigio que indican importantes cambios en las sociedades de aquel momento. Todo ello, unido a la recalibración de las fechas radiocarbónicas del interior del túmulo, ofrece una completa documentación arqueológica de un momento poco conocido en el área sudoccidental de la Meseta Norte.

  1. Nacjonalizm ukraiński jako czynnik destabilizujący bezpieczeństwo publiczne republiki Ukraina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Mendyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Events of 2014 in Ukraine shown that radical nationalism can be a significant force effecting Euromajdan. Some years ago president Juszczenko put back UPA and Stepan Bandera to national identity and political struggle. In Ukraine grew up a whole generation of people who openly support the influence of nationalist ideas based on the cult of Stepan Bandera, the Ukrainian hero who build a state based on the genocide of Russians and Poles. Polish authorities in the beginning was opposed, later neglect in the end surprisingly support that movement.

  2. Methodology Investigation Characterization of Test Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    Cerro Pelado ) has bew assigned USkM’! for environmental testing and study purposes. 7trefore, it was necessary to establish an environmental data base...of the terrain data sites are shown in Appenix F. c. Meet of the area west of the Cerro Pelado Military Reservation (CIM) has been mapped geologically...STATEMEfr OF THE PFOBLM. A quantitative terrain factor mapping study of a new environmental test area (Cerro Pelado ), using standardized methods and

  3. 78 FR 44602 - Amendment of Statement of Organization and Functions; Restructuring of National Labor Relations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ..., Hillsborough, Indian River, Jefferson, Lafayette, Lake, Lee Leon, Levy, Madison, Manatee, Marion, Martin..., Benton, Black Hawk, Boone, Bremer, Buchanan, Buena Vista, Butler, Calhoun, Carroll, Cass, Cedar, Cerro...

  4. General Aviation Aircraft Utilization in the Construction Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    RAYMOND INTNTIONAL BOX 27456 HOUSTON TX 77227 UTILITIES CONSOLIDATED INC BOX 700 BANDERA TX 78003 DEAN WORK CO BOX 330 NEW BRAUFFELS TX 78131 U...LEASE-CRUTCHER CONST BOX 817 REDMOND WA 98, 52 O.M. HENDRIDISON & CO BOX 9Z8 SEQUIM WA 9882 R.G.LEARY CONST CO 65 BAY ST SEATTLE WA 98121 PASCHfN

  5. The U.S.S. PUEBLO Incident, Warning Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-10

    Corpsman Herman P. Baldridge, Carthage, Missouri Fireman Richard I. Bame, Maybee, Michigan Fireman Peter M. Bandera , Carson City, Nevada Communications...and the Bay of Pigs. The article also details for the reader the construction and mission of the ship. Its main thrust is to give the human interest

  6. Daily Report, Supplement, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-11

    Stefan] Bandera [leader of the Ukrai- nian Insurrection Army after WW II], hoodlums or mad dogs. They were pushed into that ghetto in 1947. Out of...more, Walesa loves to play the game designed to keep others at bay . In addition, there is too much of what I would call "palace politics" in his

  7. Terrorist Approach to Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    government leaders by terrorizing their populace. Albert Bandera suggests “terrorists try to exercise influence over targeted officials or nations...information about prisoners held in Pakistan and Guantanamo Bay , and jihad poetry” (p. 7). 83 A well known example of al Qa’ida auto propaganda

  8. Los pasos cantados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carranza

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available EL documento presenta los siguientes poemas: "Los pasos cantados"; "La patria es como una carta..."; "Preludio para un himno a la bandera de Colombia"; "El extranjero"; "Romanza con unas violetas"; "Nueva Kasida del vino"; "Día lejano"; "Decir amor"; "Hacia la soledad"; "El  capitan siembra una espada" y "El poeta canta desde lo alto de un caballo".

  9. Eventos de Junio (June Events).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on six June events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Nathan Hale, Dia de la Bandera (Flag Day), Francisco Oller, Dia de los Padres (Father's Day), Fiesta de San Juan Bautista, and school graduation. Designed for teachers, the booklet includes a listing of 16 historical events occurring in…

  10. A Bulldog Mobile Is Born

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Suzy

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes great initiatives in education start with just a glimmer of an idea and a belief that building a foundation under that idea can effect change. That glimmer of an idea came to Bandera Independent School District (BISD) from a middle school English teacher who attended an International Reading Association Conference and heard about…

  11. In vitro Evaluation of Benzimidazole Carbamates on Cystic Larvae of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro Evaluation of Benzimidazole Carbamates on Cystic Larvae of Three Cestode Parasite Models. K D Mwambete, F Ponco-Gordo, C Cuesta-Bandera. Abstract. Benzimidazole carbamates are broad-spectrum anthelmintics which have limited solubility and hence poor absorption following oral administration.

  12. DVD. Piret Tamm soovitab : "Rütm kisub kaasa" / Piret Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Piret, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Mängufilm "Rütm kisub kaasa" ("Take the Lead") : režissöör Liz Friedlander : peaosas Antonio Banderas : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Film põhineb tantsuõpetaja Pierre Dulaine'i tantsuteraapia tegevusel

  13. 44 CFR 295.42 - Arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arbitration. 295.42 Section... SECURITY CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE CERRO GRANDE FIRE ASSISTANCE Dispute Resolution § 295.42 Arbitration. (a) Initiating arbitration. A Claimant who is dissatisfied with the outcome of the Administrative...

  14. "Oasis de neblina" en los cerros costeros del sur de Iquique, región de Tarapacá, Chile, durante el evento El Niño 1997-1998 Fog oases during the El Niño Southern Oscillation 1997-1998, in the coastal hills south of Iquique, Tarapacá region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÉLICA MUÑOZ-SCHICK

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la flora de cuatro sitios de "oasis de neblina" del desierto costero del Norte de Chile, entre Iquique y la desembocadura del río Loa, muestreados entre los meses de octubre de 1997 y enero de 1998. No existían muestreos anteriores en tres de los sitios: Alto Patache, Punta Lobos y Alto Chipana. Se registraron en esta ocasión 72 especies de plantas vasculares, lo que amplía notablemente el conocimiento florístico de este sector, que poseía a la fecha apenas una veintena de especies registradas. De las especies recolectadas, tres constituyen nuevos registros para la flora chilena: Nolana adansonii (Roem. et Schult. Johnst., Solanum cfr. montanum L. y Ophryosporus cfr. floribundus (DC. King et Rob., mientras que Alstroemeria lutea (Muñoz 2000 constituye una especie nueva para la ciencia. Esta última, junto a Eulychnia aricensis Ritter, Pyrrhocactus saxifragus Ritter y Nolana intonsa Johnst., son endémicas locales. Del total de especies, un 43 % son endémicas y un 52,8 % son nativas no endémicas, existiendo un bajo porcentaje (4,2 % de especies adventicias; 34 especies (47,2 % comparten su área de distribución con el Perú. Las familias Asteraceae, Nolanaceae y Solanaceae son las mejor representadas en el área con más de siete especies cada una. Las condiciones climáticas derivadas del evento El Niño 1997-1998 han favorecido el desarrollo de la vegetación en los oasis de neblina al sur de Iquique. Aunque no hay un aumento de las precipitaciones durante el período 1997-1998, sí se aprecia un incremento en las temperaturas así como en el contenido líquido de la neblina, lo que favorecería el desarrollo de una vegetación más exuberante y la expansión del área de ocupación de algunos elementos florísticosThe flora of four fog oases in the northern Chilean coastal desert, visited between October 1997 and January 1998, is described. These botanical collections are new for Alto Patache, Punta Lobos and Alto Chipana. A total of 72 vascular plant species were registered, contributing to the area´s floristic knowledge, where till now only about 20 species were registered. Three species are new records for the chilean flora: Nolana adansonii (Roem. et Schult. Johnst., Solanum cfr. montanum L. and Ophryosporus cfr. floribundus (D.C. King et Rob., and another one Alstroemeria lutea (Muñoz 2000 is a new species. This last one, together with Eulychnia aricensis Ritter, Pyrrhocactus saxifragus Ritter (both Cactaceae and Nolana intonsa Johnst. (Nolanaceae are local endemics. Of the total of registered species, 43 % are endemics, 52.7 % are non endemic natives and a low percentage (4.1 % are foreign species; 47.2 % share their distribution with Perú. The families Asteraceae, Nolanaceae and Solanaceae, are the best represented in the area, each one with more than seven species. Information about special climatic conditions due to El Niño 1997-1998 event is discussed in relationship to the development of the flora and vegetation. In spite of a non significant occurrence of rainfall events, an increase in temperature and in the fog's water content is detected. These conditions favor the development of more exuberant vegetation and the expansion of the distribution range of some floristic elements

  15. New documentary data from the Geominero Museum (the Spanish Geological Survey, Madrid) on the archaeocyathan collection from the Ermitas Hill of Cordoba; Nuevos datos documentales sobre la coleccion de arqueociatos del Cerro de las Ermitas de Cordoba del Museo Geominero (Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perejon, A.; Menendez, S.; Rabano, I.; Moreno-Eiris, E.

    2014-06-01

    The archaeocyathan collection of the Ermitas Hill (Cordoba) of the Geominero Museum in Madrid has recently been revised due to the discovery of some documents related to the study by one of this paper's authors of the professional life of Eduardo Hernandez-Pacheco in the National Natural History Museum archives. This documentation shows that the Ermitas Hill archaeocyathan collection now preserved in the Geominero Museum were sent by Eduardo Hernandez-Pacheco to Lucas Mallada before 1902 to be incorporated in the museum's collections and were then studied by Hernandez Sampelayo in 1933 and 1935. This fact implies that this collection is the oldest Spanish archaeocyathan collection deposited in a Spanish museum, besides clearing up the doubts about its origins and when the material was in deposited in the Geominero Museum. (Author)

  16. Hydrocarbon generation by thermal alteration of kerogen from different sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwatari, R.; Rohrback, B.G.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1978-04-01

    Kerogen samples from three recent sediments (Tanner basin, Santa Barbara basin, and Banderas Bay) were heated for 24 hours at temperatures ranging from 150 to 410/sup 0/C. The volatile, liquid, and solid residue products of thermal alteration were then analyzed. A comparison of the hydrocarbon generating potential indicates greatest liquid product yields from the predominantly marine source organic material of Tanner basin and the smallest yields from the terrestrially originating source material of Banderas Bay. The nature of the chemical changes described (atomic ratios of H/C and N/C, electron spin resonance data, volatiles lost, n-alkanes generated, and odd-even preference ratio) may be useful in constructing source and maturation histories.

  17. ANGIOSPERM FLAG SPECIES FOR MANGROVE CONSERVATION IN San AndrÉs Island (colombia ARE HIGHLY VULNERABLE AND locally rare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Andrea Murcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de especies bandera ha sido empleado en proyectos de conservación por 50 años. Se proponen aquí cinco especies nativas de la Isla de San Andrés como especies bandera para la conservación de los pocos remanentes de manglar en esta Isla: Bontia daphnoides (Myoporaceae, Canella winterana (Canellaceae, Eustoma exaltatum (Gentianaceae, Rhabdadenia biflora (Apocynaceae y Selenicereus grandiflorus (Cactaceae. Cuatro de estas especies son documentadas aquí por primera vez para el Archipiélago, y tres representan los primeros reportes para la Flora de Colombia, dos de ellos (Canellaceae y Myoporaceae a nivel de familia.

  18. United States National Strategy and Defense Policy Objectives After Chemical Disarmament

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-19

    Stoessel, p. 14. 26. Charles H. Bay . "An Update on the Other Gas Crisis." Parameters, December 1979, pp. 27-35. 27. NBC Defense and Technology...in the past have conducted assassinations using CB weapons. For example, Stefan Bandera , a Ukranian exile was killed when prussic acid was sprayed in...Weapons Proliferation. Washington, D.C., 21 July 1988. 5. Bay , Charles H. "An Update on the Other Gas Crisis." Parameters. December 1979. 6. Burns

  19. Helminth parasite communities of spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus from the Mexican Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Serna F. N.; García-Vargas F.; Medina-Guerrero R. M.; Fajer-Ávila E. J.

    2017-01-01

    The helminth communities of L. guttatus from Mazatlan Bay (MB) and Banderas Bay (BB), on the Pacific coast of Mexico, were studied during two consecutive years. A total of 536 fish were collected and 19 parasite taxa registered (six digeneans, two cestodes, nine nematodes, and two monogeneans). Infection levels of common helminth species (Helicometrina nimia, Siphodera vinaledwardsii, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp., Pseudoterranova sp., Ancyrocephalidae gen. sp. and Microcotyloides incisa) as well a...

  20. El alga Digenea simplex (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae) en México: variación biogeográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Dreckmann, Kurt M.; Sentíes G, Abel

    2016-01-01

    The alga Digenea simplex (Wulfen) C. Agardh has been reported in forty seven Mexican localities. A detailed description of reproductive and morphological features is given hete for the first time. Its presence in Bahía Banderas, Nayarit (Pacific of Mexico) is a first record. The lack of sexual structures suggests that Mexican populations are monophasic. The only morphological difference observed in distant populations (Nayarit, Tamaulipas and Quintana Roo) is the size of individual plants (no...

  1. Vene tapjaagendid teel laia maailma / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Pärast nelja Vene saatkonna töötaja tapmist Iraagis said Venemaa relvajõud ja eriüksused seadusega õiguse hävitada terroriste väljaspool Venemaa piire. See otsus on tekitanud Venemaal mitmeid teooriaid. NSVL-i saatkonnatöötajate tapmisest Beirutis 1985. aastal, näiteid ajaloost Lev Trotski, Stepan Bandera, samuti Zelimhan Jandarbijevi tapmise kohta

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Breast. doi: 10.1016/j.breast.2013.03.005. 17. Makarem, N., Chandran, U., Bandera, E.V., and Parekh, N. (2013). Dietary Fat in Breast Cancer Survival. Annu Rev Nutr. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-112912-095300. 18. O'toole, S.A., Beith, J.M., Millar, E.K., West, R., Mclean, A., Cazet, A., Swarbrick, A., and Oakes, S.R. (2013).

  3. The Nicaraguan Resistance and U.S. Policy: Report on a May 1987 Conference Held in Santa Monica, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    revolution; a visiting professor of international relations at El Colegio de Mexico , he was serving as a political adviser to the Nicaraguan Resistance... Mexico , Venezuela, Colombia, Panama) and the Support Group (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Peru) has been to appear to be forthcoming on security issues... Educacion Politica, Nicaragua: Bandera de Ia Paz, Managua, 1982; see also Bcrricada, January 29, 1987, editorial, and i3arricada, February 26, 1987, p

  4. 17 años construyendo una idea. Nuestro homenaje al Comandante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Estruch-Rancaño

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En su ensayo “Nuestra América”, José Martí, expresa “Trincheras de ideas, valen más que trincheras de piedras….” Una idea enérgica, flameada a tiempo, ante el mundo, para, como la bandera mística del juicio final, a un escuadrón de acorazados”

  5. Mouse Health Span: Why Lifespan is No Longer Enough

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, Felipe; Austad, Steve; Zheng, Wei; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Hart, Matthew J.; Lechleiter, James D; Fox, Peter T.; Coman, Daniel; Rothman, Douglas; Hyder, Fahmeed; Korde, Sunayana; Jaffe, David; Renter?a, Rene Carlos; Vasalauskaite, A.; Akimov, N.P.

    2012-01-01

    The San Antonio Nathan Shock Center Conferences have attracted international speakers and participants since 1995. This annual conference, held in Bandera, Texas, addresses a different topic in the biology of aging each year. The venue's intimate setting, relatively remote location and common areas are ideal for a small conference (80?100 participants) where informal intellectual interchange supplements that of the formal sessions. The 2012 meeting, part of an annual series sponsored by the N...

  6. The SOAR Telescope Project Southern Observatory for Astronomical Research (SOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-21

    technologies to deliver high-resolution images that are limited only by the excellent seeing conditions of this site on Cerro Pachon in northern Chile. SOAR is...on Cerro Pachon in Chile 2 Figure 2: The SOAR facility during construction 3 Figure 3: The SOAR site from ground level 4 Figure 4: Aerial view of...on Cerro Pachon in northern Chile. It is designed to operate from the near-ultraviolet through the near-infrared (λλ0.33 – 2.5µm). SOAR is a joint

  7. Seismicity of the Jalisco Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz, M.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Trejo-Gomez, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2002-12-01

    In April 2002 began to transmit the stations of the first phase of Jalisco Telemetric Network located at the northwest of Jalisco Block and at the area of Volcan de Fuego (Colima Volcano), in June were deployed four additional MarsLite portable stations in the Bahia de Banderas area, and by the end of August one more portable station at Ceboruco Volcano. The data of these stations jointly with the data from RESCO (Colima Telemetric Network) give us the minimum seismic stations coverage to initiate in a systematic and permanent way the study of the seismicity in this very complex tectonic region. A preliminary analysis of seismicity based on the events registered by the networks using a shutter algorithm, confirms several important features proposed by microseismicity studies carried out between 1996 and 1998. A high level of seismicity inside and below of Rivera plate is observed, this fact suggest a very complex stress pattern acting on this plate. Shallow seismicity at south and east of Bahia de Banderas also suggest a complex stress pattern in this region of the Jalisco Block, events at more than 30 km depth are located under the mouth of the bay and in face of it, a feature denominated Banderas Boundary mark the change of the seismic regime at north of this latitude (20.75°N), however some shallow events were located at the region of Nayarit.

  8. Miophasianus and Palaeoperdix (Galliformes, Aves from three Miocene localities of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Marco, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of two genus of phasianids in some Miocene localities of Spain are reported. The fossil remains from two of the outcrops, Can Mas and Hostalets, were studied long time ago, and it seemed suitable to reconsider their corresponding taxonomical identifications.Este trabajo trata sobre la aparición de dos géneros de Phasianidae en localidades españolas del Mioceno. Los restos fósiles de dos de los yacimientos, Can Mas y Hostalets, fueron estudiados hace mucho tiempo y, en consecuencia, parecía conveniente reconsiderar sus identificaciones taxonómicas.

  9. Procedencia de los depósitos del Grupo Payogastilla (Cenozoico), río Calchaquí, provincia de Salta Provenance of the Payogastilla Group (Cenozoic), Calchaquí river, Salta Province

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Inés Galli; Alba Ramírez; James Reynolds; José G Viramonte; Bruce Idleman; Celia Barrientos

    2011-01-01

    Se realiza el estudio de procedencias de los depósitos cenozoicos expuestos en la zona sur del valle Calchaquí, provincia de Salta que comprenden a sedimentitas fluviales del Grupo Payogastilla (Eoceno medio-Mioceno superior). La sucesión analizada se encuentra muy bien expuesta en ambas márgenes del río Calchaquí y consta de 5.400 metros de depósitos clásticos, integrada, de base a techo, por las formaciones Los Colorados, Angastaco, Palo Pintado y San Felipe. Se describen características mi...

  10. Crustal Structure across Rivera Plate and Jalisco Block (MEXICO): TsuJal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Nunez, D.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Trejo, E.; Escalona, F.; Danobeitia, J.; Gutierrez Pena, Q. J.

    2015-12-01

    Located on the western margin of Mexico, the collision zone between Rivera, Cocos and North American plates is a complex tectonic collage with high seismic hazards and potential tsunamigenic sources. During the spring of 2014, within the framework of TSUJAL project, Spanish and Mexican scientists investigated this region with the main objective of defining the crustal architecture of this active margin and recognizing potential structural sources that can trigger earthquakes and tsunamis at the convergence between Rivera plate-Jalisco block with the North American Plate. To achieve these goals, a wide-ranging of geophysical data was acquired in this region both offshore and onshore. In this paper, we present the preliminary results obtained from this project about bathymetric, structural geology and wide-angle seismic data of the southern coast of Bahía de Banderas. A crustal P-wave velocity model for the southern coast of Bahía de Banderas was obtained using WAS data recorded by OBS and land seismic stations for more than 150 km across Rivera Plate and Jalisco Block. The thickness of the slab in this area is about 10 km and presents a dip angle about 8º. Continental crustal thickness below Puerto Vallarta is about 20 km, no evidence of continental Moho was found in this study. This model support that due to the convergence of Rivera Plate against Jalisco Block, the region of Bahía de Banderas is under strong crustal stresses that generate structural lineaments and have the same trends offshore and inland. Most of the seismicity reported can be associated to the main structural lineaments. The Banderas Canyon apparently is in an opening process from west to east, which seems to continue through the Rio Pitillal river valley. There is no seismic or morphological evidence to consider that the Banderas Canyon is a continuation of Vallarta Graben.South of María Cleofas Island, the SC marks the limit between RP and JB, possibly being the result of the RP against JB

  11. Disease: H00161 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH: D019082 OMIM: 270400 PMID:18285838 Porter FD Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: pathogenesis, diagnosis and man...Opitz syndrome. Clin Genet 68:383-91 (2005) PMID:15670717 Correa-Cerro LS, Porter

  12. The aggressiveness of the geothermal steam controlled; La agresividad del vapor geotermico controlada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    The first two units of Cerro Prieto have generated electric energy since 1973; in 1988 completed 15 years of continuous operation, without corrosion problems in the turbines in spite of the utilization of geothermal steam. The experience and the good results obtained during the first years of operation of these two units of 37.5 MW each, were of great help for the Cerro Prieto extension, having as of this date an installed capacity of 620 MW. [Espanol] Las dos primeras unidades de Cerro Prieto han generado energia electrica desde 1973; cumplieron 15 anos de operacion continua en 1988, sin problemas de corrosion en las turbinas a pesar del uso de vapor geotermico. La experiencia y los buenos resultados obtenidos durante los primeros anos de operacion de estas dos unidades de 37.5 MW cada una fueron de gran apoyo para la aplicacion de Cerro Prieto, teniendose a la fecha 620 MW de capacidad instalada.

  13. Observations of Runoff Generation During the Dry/Wet Seasonal Transition in Panama

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogden, Fred L

    2005-01-01

    .... Instrumentation installed include an eddy-correlation flux system on a 36 m tall tower near Cerro Pelado, and throughfall troughs, soil moisture sensors, rain gages, interflow collector, piezometers...

  14. Eurooplased tahavad ehitada hiigelteleskoobi / Lauri Luht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luht, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa Lõuna Observatooriumi Cerro Paranali uuringujaama direktori sõnul loodavad nad hiigelteleskoobi täieliku kontseptsiooni esitada selle aasta lõpuks. Kommenteerib Tartu observatooriumi direktor Laurits Leedjärv

  15. Las habas en el ajuar funerario de El Rincón de Almendricos (Lorca, Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Manuela AYALA JUAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El yacimiento de El Rincón, situado al N. O. de la población de Almendricos, Lorca, al Sur de la Región Murciana colindando con la Andaluza —desde lo cerros meridionales— de la Sierra de Enmedio próximos al yacimiento, se puede observar perfectamente el cerro de El Oficio-poblado argárico Alménense.

  16. Methodology Investigation. Human Factors Jungle Test Area Relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    analyzed for slope, vegetation, and soil character- istics. The Cerro Pelado area, just north-northwest of Gamboa, was selected as the new location for...The trail starts south of the BOA, passes through streams, marshes, hills, gullies, borders the skirts of Cerro Pelado , and ends north of the BOA. The... Pelado (markers 150-160). (3) The vegetation characteristic which will most influence personnel traversing the course is the occurrence of armed palms

  17. Geothermal Potential of Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona, and the Western Portion of Luke-Williams Gunnery Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Domes in the Northern Part of the Gulf of California," in Symposia on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico, Comision Federal de...Laboratory, August 1979. LA-7953-MS. 22 pp. 10. J. de Boer. "Paleomagnetism of the Quaternary Cerro Prieto , Crater Elegante, and Salton Buttes Volcanic...NWC TP 6827 S Geothermal Potential of Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona, and the Western Portion of Luke-Williams Gunnery Range by Steven C

  18. Hallazgo de sedimentitas sinorogénicas neógenas en los alrededores de Chos Malal, Cuenca Neuquina, Argentina Finding of Neogene synorogenic sedimentites around Chos Malal, Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Cervera

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se propone la Formación Chos Malal nov. para agrupar a un conjunto de 140,50 m de sedimentitas neógenas de naturaleza epiclástica que incluyen areniscas, fangolitas y arcilitas con aporte tobáceo, previamente adjudicadas a la Formación Rayoso del Cretácico inferior. Las mismas se acumularon durante la gestación de un sinclinal de rumbo NNO-SSE, quedando apoyadas en discordancia angular sobre el Miembro Rincón de la Formación Rayoso, y cubiertas de la misma forma por la Formación Rincón Bayo del Mioceno Medio-Plioceno Temprano Por posición estratigráfica y correlaciones con unidades geográficamente cercanas, la nueva unidad es adjudica al Mioceno medio.The Chos Malal Formation nov. is proposed to group a 140,50 m thick neogene succession of epiclastic sedimentites including sandstones, silstones and mudstones with tuffaceous input, which were previously ascribed to the Early Cretaceous Rayoso Formation. They were accumulated during the formation of a syncline elongated in a NNW-SSE direction, being deposited in angular unconformity on the Rincon Member of the Rayoso Formation, and covered in the same way by the Middle Miocene-Early Pliocene Rincón Bayo Formation. According to its stratigraphic position and correlations with near geographically situated units, they are ascribed to the Middle Miocene.

  19. The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koufos, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes a great number of taxa, described in numerous articles since the first decades of the 19th Century. The present article is a revision of all these taxa, providing information about their history, localities, age, as well as their stratigraphic distribution and palaeoenvironment. The Early/Middle Miocene carnivore record of Greece is poor as the available fossiliferous sites and material are rare. However, the Late Miocene one is quite rich, including numerous taxa. The Miocene localities with carnivores and their age are given in a stratigraphic table covering the European Mammal zones from MN 4 to MN 13. The type locality, holotype, and some historical and morphological remarks are given for each taxon. Several carnivore taxa were erected from Greek material and new photos of their holotypes are given. The stratigraphic distribution of the Greek carnivore taxa indicates that they are covering the time span from ~19.0-5.3Ma. The majority of the Miocene taxa (Adcrocuta, Hyaenictitherium, Plioviverrops, Protictitherium, Ictitherium, Indarctos, Dinocrocuta, Promephitis disappeared at the end of Miocene. The composition of the Early/Middle Miocene carnivore assemblage of Greece includes mainly viverrids (Lophocyon, Euboictis, while the hyaenids, percrocutids, felids and mustelids are very few. On the contrary the Late Miocene assemblage is richer, including more subfamilies and species; the hyaenids and mustelids dominate, while the viverrids are absent. The Late Miocene carnivore guild structure is similar to that of the modern Serengeti, indicating a relatively open, savannah-like environment.

    La asociación de carnívoros miocenos de Grecia incluye un gran número de taxones, descritos en numerosos artículos desde las primeras décadas del siglo XIX. El presente artículo supone un esfuerzo de síntesis de todos estos taxones, suministrando información sobre su

  20. THE FOSSIL RECORD OF TURTLES IN COLOMBIA; A REVIEW OF THE DISCOVERIES, RESEARCH AND FUTURE CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWIN A CADENA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo resumo el registro fósil de tortugas de Colombia, incluyendo las tortugas del Cretácico temprano de Zapatoca y Villa de Leyva, las tortugas gigantes del Paleoceno en las minas de carbón de El Cerrejón y Calenturitas, el registro más antiguo de Chelus, proveniente del Mioceno temprano de Pubenza (Cundinamarca, los grandes podocnémidos, chélidos, y testudínidos del Mioceno temprano a tardío de Castilletes en la Alta Guajira y La Venta, y los pequeños kinostérnidos del Pleistoceno tardío de Pubenza, Cundinamarca. En este artículo discuto también los actuales intervalosKeywords: para los cuales no se conocen registro fósil de tortugas en la parte tropical de Suramérica, así como también las investigaciones que se están desarrollando actualmente, c también los futuros proyectos a desarrollar con el fin de entender mejor la historia evolutiva de las tortugas en Colombia.

  1. Structure of the Wagner Basin in the Northern Gulf of California From Interpretation of Seismic Reflexion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M.; Aguilar, C.; Martin, A.

    2007-05-01

    The northern Gulf of California straddles the transition in the style of deformation along the Pacific-North America plate boundary, from distributed deformation in the Upper Delfin and Wagner basins to localized dextral shear along the Cerro Prieto transform fault. Processing and interpretation of industry seismic data adquired by Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) allow us to map the main fault structures and depocenters in the Wagner basin and to unravel the way strain is transferred northward into the Cerro Prieto fault system. Seismic data records from 0.5 to 5 TWTT. Data stacking and time-migration were performed using semblance coefficient method. Subsidence in the Wagner basin is controlled by two large N-S trending sub-parallel faults that intersect the NNW-trending Cerro Prieto transform fault. The Wagner fault bounds the eastern margin of the basin for more than 75 km. This fault dips ~50° to the west (up to 2 seconds) with distinctive reflectors displaced more than 1 km across the fault zone. The strata define a fanning pattern towards the Wagner fault. Northward the Wagner fault intersects the Cerro Prieto fault at 130° on map view and one depocenter of the Wagner basin bends to the NW adjacent to the Cerro Prieto fault zone. The eastern boundary of the modern depocenter is the Consag fault, which extends over 100 km in a N-S direction with an average dip of ~50° (up to 2s) to the east. The northern segment of the Consag fault bends 25° and intersects the Cerro Prieto fault zone at an angle of 110° on map view. The acoustic basement was not imaged in the northwest, but the stratigraphic succession increases its thickness towards the depocenter of the Wagner basin. Another important structure is El Chinero fault, which runs parallel to the Consag fault along 60 km and possibly intersects the Cerro Prieto fault to the north beneath the delta of the Colorado River. El Chinero fault dips at low-angle (~30°) to the east and has a vertical offset of about 0

  2. Un nuevo libro sobre Agualongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Payán Archer

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available Tengo que confesar que no obstante mi condición de nariñense era muy poco lo que sabía del famoso Agualongo, el guerrillero pastuso que les dio tantos dolores de cabeza a las fuerzas patriotas, sobre todo, después de la batalla de Bomboná. Por eso, porque la oportunidad era calva para saciar mi curiosidad, me leí de un tirón el libro que con el título "Banderas solitarias -ida de Agualongo" y bajo el patrocinio del Banco de la República acaba de publicar Alberto Montezuma Hurtado.

  3. Information Systems Security Products and Services Catalogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Division 29947 Avenida de las Banderas Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688-7000 IDOCS; The IDOCS provides intrusion alarm monitoring, detection and...Lockit Security Device Controller, Dual Floppy/Hard Disk (ST-506) Controller, Dual Floppy/Hard Disk (SCSI) Primary Drive Secondary Drive Bay 3 DM...1.2M Floppy 1.4M Floppy 1.2M Floppy 1.4M Floppy Bay 4 1.2 GB Removable HD (SCSI) 80 MB Removable HD (ST-506) Model NO. 8705T 1.4M Floppy 60MB

  4. Remediation of PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) Contamination, Woodbridge Research Facility, Woodbridge, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Bandera , P.-E. Authorized Representative of David Hung the Contracting Officer U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, HUNTSVILLE DISTRICT Contracting Officer...southwest of Washington, D.C. between the Occoqudn and Belmont Bays which drain into the Potomac River (Figure 1-1). The installation comprises approximately...1 -l 2281 -02-05/0049K/FINAL A. . .4 4 . .Now Somom Um o MAYLN LOCAUIOOMA VIRGINI 0.2AL0 0.25 0.50 MILE v. 0.25 0 0.25 0.60KILOMETER BELMONT BAY s AM

  5. Transportation and Travel: Travel Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-20

    FL FT STEWART GA BAKER NSC JACKSONVILLE FL FT STEWART BAY TYNDALL AFB FL FT RUCKER AL BRADFORD NSC JACKSONVILLE FL FT STEWART BREVARD PATRICK AFB FL...ANGB FORT McCOY BAY WURTSMITH AFB MI FORT McCOY BENZIE WURTSMITH AFB MI FORT McCOY BERRIEM USA TARCOM SELFRIDGE ANGB FORT McCOY BRANCH USA TARCOM...CANNON AFB NM FORT BLISS ATASCOSA SAN ANTONIO TX FORT SAM HOUSTON AUSTIN ELLINGTON AFB TX FORT SAM HOUSTON BAILEY CANNON AFB NM FORT BLISS BANDERA SAN

  6. Literature Review for Texas Department of Transportation Research Project 0-4695: Guidance for Design in Areas of Extreme Bed-Load Mobility, Edwards Plateau, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Uvalde County Kerr County Gillespie County Bandera County Mason County Menard County 100°30’W 100°0’W 99°30’W 29°30’N 30°0’N 30°30’N TEXAS So uth Llan o R...the community of Lions Bay , British Columbia, from debris flows in Harvey Creek, a closed debris basin was built in the mid-1980s. The basin can...mitigation and control, San Francisco Bay area, California, in Costa, J.E., and Wieczorek, G.F., eds., Debris flow avalanches, process, recognition and

  7. Autoestima y refuerzo en estudiantes de 5º básico de una escuela de alto riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Peradotto, Pedro; Duarte Vargas, Juan; Muñoz Valdivia, Roxina

    2005-01-01

    Este artículo describe los resultados de una investigación cuasi experimental, de grupo experimental y control con pretest – postest, que tuvo como propósito probar un tratamiento basado en un programa de refuerzo de intervalo variable, cuya finalidad era modificar la autoestima escolar de niños entre 10 y 11 años, definidos como de “alto riesgo” por presentar altos índices de repetición de cursos, ausentismo y deserción, que son alumnos de la escuela La Bandera, E-97,...

  8. ANÁLISIS SOCIOJURÍDICO DEL NARCOTRÁFICO EN MÉXICO EN EL SEXENIO DE FELIPE CALDERÓN HINOJOSA. DEL COMBATE FRONTAL A LA REGULACIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    CAMPUZANO ÁLVAREZ, GUSTAVO ALEJANDRO

    2016-01-01

    El narcotráfico es un problema a nivel internacional que tuvo su origen en políticas prohibicionistas principalmente impulsadas por Estados Unidos desde finales de los años 60’s bajo la dministración de Richard Nixon argumentando un problema de seguridad nacional. Precisamente es bajo la bandera de seguridad nacional que la nación norteamericana ha efectuado diversos esfuerzos fuera de su propio territorio para evitar que las drogas entren en su país, ejemplo de ello lo fue la Operación In...

  9. La idea de justicia en la globalización demandas de justicia global al constitucionalismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ortega, Julio Armando

    2013-01-01

    Este informe de investigación caracteriza el concepto de justicia en la globalización y señala no solo su contexto filosófico, sino la necesidad de incorporar a la teoría de la justicia una idea objetiva de las capacidades de las que dispone por naturaleza cualquier ser humano y cuya realización toda sociedad justa debería posibilitar. De igual manera, el fenómeno de la desigualdad económica mundial, asumido por las Naciones Unidas en las diez metas del Milenio, bajo la bandera de la respo...

  10. Retórica de 'la' libertad contra las libertades: control sobre las libertades, por medio de 'la' Libertad como ideología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pedro Haba

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Generalidades. El término "libertad" como functor triadico. "La" libertad y "las"libertades. Semiótica de "la libertad" en el plano pragmático: sentido ideológico, la función de término-bandera. La libertad como autocontrol y la libertad para controlar. Conclusión: el "cierre del discurso" por medio del lenguaje de "la libertad"; tareas de la filosofía social. Principales tesis

  11. La "santa ciudadanía" del imperio: confesionalidad como fuente restrictiva de derechos en Brasil (1823-1831)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Jairdilson Da Paz

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Los procesos constitucionales de España, Portugal y Brasil estuvieron bastante interconectados tras las revoluciones liberales de España, Oporto y el proceso de independencia de Brasil. La Constitución de Cádiz significó una bandera enarbolada en todas las revoluciones del periodo. En estos tres procesos constitucionales buscamos resaltar la relación entre la ciudadanía definida en los textos constitucionales estudiados y el establecimiento de la confesionalidad del Estado. Buscamos esta...

  12. Lengua del tiempo y de la muerte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carranza

    1965-11-01

    Full Text Available La lírica de nuestra lengua tiene una obsesiva inclinación al tema de la muerte, la nostalgia y el recuerdo. Que se deshojan las mejillas de las muchachas. Que vuela de nuestras manos la súbita mariposa del instante. Que todo nos deja entre los labios un sabor a ceniza. Que en la manzana habita el gusano. Que la rosa también "pierde sus mejillas sobre el césped". Que todo se derrumba: los imperios y las beldades, los sueños, los amores, las banderas y las torres que desprecio al aire fueron".

  13. Sobre el proceso de reislamización en Medio Oriente : Un recorrido por los casos de Hezbolá y Hamás

    OpenAIRE

    Turdera, Guido Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo aborda el resurgimiento y desarrollo de los movimientos que, bajo las banderas del islam en su vertiente política, pugnan por la consolidación de un Estado islámico en tanto alternativa de organización política y social en Medio Oriente. El análisis del recorrido de los movimientos islamistas se extenderá desde la década del 70 hasta su reconfiguracióna fines del siglo XX y principios del XXI, problematizando dimensiones como sus orígenes, sus diferencias, sus estrategi...

  14. Origin of hominids: European or African origin, neither or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senut, B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, some scientists have suggested that the African ape and humans lineages emerged in Europe, a scenario known as the “Back to Africa Hypothesis”. Even though hominoids were widespread in Eurasia during the Middle and Upper Miocene due to the tropical conditions which prevailed in this region, we cannot dismiss the fact that they were present in Africa (contra some authors. Actually, they were highly diverse at that same time (at least 10 lineages represented even if the fossil record is less complete than in Eurasia. Postcranial elements from African species suggest that some features of modern hominoids were already present in the Lower and Middle Miocene of Africa and were not restricted to European ones. Considering the available evidence, it is not possible at this stage to favour a European origin over an African one. Hominoids were living in the tropical areas of Northern Africa and Southern Eurasia and faunal exchanges between the two continents occurred throughout the Middle and Upper Miocene, as the Tethys did not act as an effective barrier to interchanges between Europe and Asia.

    Durante los últimos veinte años, algunos científicos han sugerido que los grandes monos africanos y los linajes humanos surgieron en Europa, un escenario conocido como la “ Hipótesis de la vuelta a Africa”. A pesar de que los homínidos se extendieron en Eurasia durante el Mioceno Medio y Superior debido a las condiciones tropicales que prevalecian en esta region, no podemos descartar el hecho de que ellos estuvieron presentes en Africa (contra algunos autores. En realidad, ellos tuvieron una alta diversidad al mismo tiempo (al menos 10 líneas representadas, incluso si el registro fosil es menos completo que el de Eurasia. Elementos postcraneales de especies africanas sugieren que en algunos carácteres los homínidos modernos estaban ya presentes en el Mioceno Inferior y Medio de Africa, no sólo restringidos a

  15. Site Protection Efforts at the AURA Observatory in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Smith, Malcolm G.

    2016-10-01

    The AURA Observatory site in northern Chile, which includes Cerro Tololo and Cerro Pachon, has been operational for over 50 years now, facing a variety of challenges to its long-term future. The site now hosts over 20 operational telescopes, ranging from small projects with 0.4m telescopes to the Blanco 4m, the SOAR 4.1m, and the 8m Gemini-South telescopes. In addition, we have recently begun the construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) on the summit of Cerro Pachon. We summarize our efforts over the past 20-30 years to highlight the importance of site protection through education and public outreach as well as through more recent promotion of IDA certifications in the region and support for the World Heritage initiatives described by others in this conference.

  16. A DRONE FLIGHT OVER PARANAL, CHILE

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Aerial clip (shot using a drone and a Go pro) describing ESO's astronomical observatory facilities in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile. Locations covered by the drone flight include Cerro Paranal, with the Residencia (external and internal views) and the Very Large Telescope facility on Cerro Paranal, from above and with a peek into Unit Telescope 1 and its 8,2 m diameter mirror; final image on Cerro Armazones, the site chosen for building ESO's next telescope, the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope). With a 39-metre main mirror, it will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world. The Argentinian Codillera with the Llullaillaco volcano are visible in the background.

  17. Fallas de deslizamiento por el rumbo en la región de Moa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Rodríguez-Infante

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available En los estudios tectónicos del Bloque Oriental Cubano y, especialmente, al norte de Cuba oriental, se ha planteado la existencia de movimientos neotectónicos de empuje vertical iniciados en el Mioceno Medio con el levantamiento general del territorio cubano, responsables de la formación de fallas de gravedad que limitan el sistema de horst y grabens que caracteriza la morfología y la tectónica regional. Sin embargo, en investigaciones recientes se han determinado movimientos rumbodeslizantes de gran importancia en la conformación del relieve, que aumentan la complejidad del estilo tectónico. Este artículo demuestra la existencia de estructuras activas de tipo rumbodeslizantes (fallas strike slip que reflejan la existencia de fuerzas compresivas las cuales empujan el bloque Cuba oriental hacia el norte-noreste, y originan complejos movimientos de los bloques rocosos que lo conforman

  18. Geología y aspectos geográficos de la isla de san andrés, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Cuervo, German

    2012-01-01

    La Isla de San Andrés ha sido definida geológicamente por varios autores en dos unidades calcáreas de características bien marcadas: Una unidad de calizas heterogéneas,denominada como Formación San Andrés de edad Mioceno y una unidad de calizas coralinas de edad Pleistoceno, conocida como Formación San Luis. La primera unidad aflora en la parte central de la isla y representa la zona de colinas suaves con alturas máximas de 87 m.s.n.m y la Formación San Luis constituye la región plana a suave...

  19. Cycad diversification and tropical biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rull, V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent unexpected discovery that living Cycadales are not Jurassic-Cretaceous (200– 65 Mya relicts, as all their extant genera began to diversify during the Late Miocene (12 Mya, has challenged a classical evolutionary myth. This brief note shows how this finding may also provide new clues on the shaping of the high tropical biodiversity

    El reciente e inesperado descubrimiento de que las Cycadales actuales no son relictos Jurásico-Cretácicos (200-65 Mya, ya que todos sus géneros iniciaron su diversificación durante el Mioceno Tardío (12 Mya, ha puesto en entredicho un mito evolutivo clásico. En esta nota se expone como este hallazgo puede, además, proporcionar nuevas pistas sobre el origen de la elevada biodiversidad tropical.

  20. Evaluación fisiológica de especies vegetales que crecen en sitios impactados por residuos generadores de drenaje ácido de roca

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Torres, Paola; PAOLA RODRIGUEZ TORRES

    2013-01-01

    n el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto de EPT fitoaccesibles sobre la fisiología de Asphodellus fistulosus L. y Nama sp. que crecen en sitios impactados por residuos generadores de drenaje ácido de roca (DAR), especies vegetales asociadas o no a hongos micorrízico arbusculares (HMA). Las muestras de suelo rizosférico y la biomasa de las plantas se recolectaron en el Distrito Minero Cerro de San Pedro, Cerro de San Pedro, San Luis Potosí, México. La metodología en este estudio se...

  1. Efectos negativos de las plantas exóticas maderables sobre el bosque nativo andino

    OpenAIRE

    Fidel Antonio Gutiérrez

    2011-01-01

    Los abusos que el hombre ha cometido con la naturaleza han provocado que muchas áreas, que debían ser santuarios vegetales, padezcan el deterioro del bosque nativo, con el consiguiente daño ambiental, hídrico, de flora y fauna. No escapa a ello la Escuela Nacional de Carabineros, pues su cerro tutelar fue sometido a una plantación de árboles exóticos maderables, con la consabida tala del bosque nativo. Los daños en dicho cerro han provocado la implementación de una reforestación técnica, que ...

  2. 記憶の都市メキシコ : テペヤクの丘

    OpenAIRE

    柳原, 孝敦

    2013-01-01

    Este pequeño ensayo forma parte de la serie “México en sus memorias”, en la que intentamos describir un modo de ser de las memorias colectivas concernientes a diversos sitios de la Ciudad de México. Esta vez echamos vistazo al Cerro de Tepeyac, es decir, la Basílica de la Virgen de Guadalupe y sus alrededores. En su trayecto de rodaje de Que viva México fue el Cerro de Tepeyac el primer sitio a donde acudió Sergei Eisenstein y filmó. La escena corresponde al quinto capítulo titulado “Fiesta” ...

  3. Famatina: dos siglos de violencia

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Hernán Rolando

    2009-01-01

    El Cerro Nevado de Famatina también conocido como General Belgrano es una montaña de 6.250 metros de altura. Se encuentra en el centro de la provincia argentina de La Rioja. Por su altura podría pertenecer a la Cordillera de los Andes, ya que además su cima permanece nevada siempre, el cerro está dentro de la Precordillera, por eso tiene valles al Este y al Oeste. Es la cima de la denominada Sierra de Famatina, inserta del cordón montañoso de las Sierras Pampeanas. El más elevado de ...

  4. SISTEMAS DE CAPTACIÓN DE AGUA LLUVIA PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN AGROPECUARIA SOSTENIBLE

    OpenAIRE

    MEDINA CARRILLO, RUBÉN; PEÑA CORDERO, WAGNER; OBANDO BRICEÑO, MARÍA FELIX

    2014-01-01

    El presente artículo analiza la factibilidad técnica y financiera al implementar un sistema de capacitación de agua lluvia o reservorio en beneficio de la asociación de agricultores orgánicos de Cerro Verde de Nicoya (antes Cerro Negro), y utilizar esta estructura para la producción agropecuaria sostenible. El estudio se realizó en el segundo semestre de 2010 y primer trimestre de 2011. El Reservorio o Sistema de captación de agua lluvia instalado fue de suma importancia para la producción, y...

  5. Notes on the “Lima orchid” Chloraea undulata and its record in the hills of Asia, Cañete, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lleellish Juscamayta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chloraea undulata is an orchid endemic to Peru. Originally collected by Antonio Raimondi in XIX century, until first half of the last century it has been regarded as a species characteristic of the hills around Lima. The “Lima orchid” Chloraea undulata is considered to be in decline in the hills of Lima province, especially in the type localities of Cerro Amancaes and Cerro El Agustino where urban growth and expansion has been significant. In this paper its presence in the hills of Asia District, 100 km south of Lima, is documented, and we also analyzed the implications of this finding for the species conservation and their habitat.

  6. Geothermal Resource Verification for Air Force Bases,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    680OF (3600 C) in the Salton Sea, California, and the nearby Cerro Prieto region of Mexico. Liquid water can exist underground in nature to a maxi...northwest Mexico’s Cerro Prieto field and southcentral California’s Imperial Valley area [banwell (1970)]. The Baca field in New Mexico’s Jemez Mountains...AO-AIOQ bA SANDI NA IONCAL L AB NURU NNI 1/ GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE VER IFIC A FR AIR FORCE RASES, 1W UCJUN 81 P f GRANT DE-AC04-TAiDOpOos WACLASSIFIED

  7. Ciclos tectónicos, volcánicos y sedimentarios del Cenozoico del sur de Mendoza-Argentina (35°-37°S y 69°30'W Cenozoic tectonic, volcanic and sedimentary cycles in southern Mendoza Province, Argentina (35°-37°S y 69°30'W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Combina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe la estratigrafía sedimentaria y volcánica asociada a los procesos de deformación de las unidades con edades del Cretácico Tardío al Plioceno Tardío aflorantes en el sur de Mendoza, Argentina, entre los ríos Atuel y Barrancas en el ámbito de la Cordillera Principal. Se proponen tres ciclos tectovolcano-sedimentarios, limitados por discordancias regionales generadas por la acción de las Fases Incaica, Quechua, Pehuenche y Diaguita. El primer ciclo comprende las unidades volcánicas y sedimentarias del Cretácico Superior hasta el Oligoceno Superior (Formaciones Roca y Pircala-Coihueco y el Ciclo Eruptivo Molle. El segundo abarca desde el Oligoceno Tardío al Mioceno Tardío (Formación Agua de la Piedra y las Andesitas Huincán. Por último, el tercer ciclo comprende desde el Mioceno Tardío al Plioceno (Formaciones Butaló, Pincheiras, Loma Fiera, Río Diamante y las Andesitas La Brea.This article describes the volcanic and sedimentary stratigraphy and their associated proces-ses with the Andean deformation during the Late Cretaceous to Late Pliocene. The studied área is located between the Atuel and Barrancas rivers and the Main Cordillera, in southern Mendoza, Argentina. Three tectovolcano-sedimentary cycles limited by regional discordances (Inca, Quechua, Pehuenche and Diaguita are proposed. The first comprises Upper Oligocene to Upper Miocene volcanic and sedimentary units (Roca and Pircala-Coihueco formations and the Volcanic Cycle Molle. The second extends from the Late Oligocene to Late Miocene (Agua de la Piedra Formation and the Huincán Andesites volcanic cycle. Finally, the third cycle ranges from the Late Miocene to Pliocene (Butaló, Pincheiras, Loma Fiera and Rio Diamante formations and La Brea Andesites.

  8. Carnivores from the Middle Miocene Ngorora Formation (13-12 Ma, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickford, M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The late Middle Miocene Ngorora Formation has yielded several interesting carnivore fossils. Among these are a huge creodont, Megistotherium osteothlastes, at 12 Ma, possibly the youngest record of the species, an amphicyonid, two species of mustelids (an otter and a honey badger, two kinds of viverrids (one about the size of a civet, one the size of a genet and an extremely small herpestid the size of a dwarf mongoose. It has also yielded remains of a moderate sized percrocutid. Perhaps the most interesting carnivore is a new genus and species of bundont viverrid that is intermediate in size and morphology between Early Miocene Orangictis on the one hand and Plio-Pleistocene Pseudocivetta on the other. This lineage of bundont viverrids appears to have been restricted to Africa.La Formación Mioceno medio final de Ngorora (Kenia ha suministrado carnívoros muy interesantes. Entre los que se encuentran un enorme creodonto, Megistotherium osteothlastes, de 12 Ma, que posiblemente es el registro más moderno de la especie, un amphicyonido, dos especies de mustélidos (una nutria y un melivorino, dos diferentes tipos de vivérridos (uno de la talla de una civeta y el otro de la de una jineta y un herpéstido diminuto de la talla de una mangosta enana. También hay fósiles de un percrocútido de talla moderada. Tal vez el carnívoro más interesante es un nuevo género y especie de vivérrido bunodonto que presenta una talla y morfología intermedia entre Oragictis del Mioceno inferior y Pseudocivetta del Plio-Pleistoceno. Esta línea de vivérridos bunodontos parece estar restringida a Africa.

  9. Sobre la compresión Neógena en la Cordillera Iberica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paricio Cardona, J.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available We argue about micro and macrostructural data published in the paper in question supporting the hypothesis of some compressive regime being present in the Iberian Chain during the Miocene; at the same time, new data from other localities are presented. All these allow us to design a model of stress field characterized by a near N-S horizontal compression axis. After the LowerMiddle Miocene, E to ESE regional extension linked to the rifting of the eastern margin of the Iberian Peninsula is superposed. As a consequence, each point within the resulting stress field can register either compressive or extensive stress states at different times.En este artículo se hacen algunas precisiones acerca de los datos micro y macroestructurales que se aportaron en el trabajo citado en apoyo de la idea de un régimen compresivo vigente durante al menos una parte del Mioceno en la Cordillera Ibérica, al tiempo que se ofrecen datos nuevos procedentes de otras localidades. Todos ellos permiten diseñar un modelo de campo de esfuerzos caracterizado por una dirección de comprensión horizontal próxima a N-S, al que se superpone, a partir del Mioceno inferior-medio, una distensión E a ESE relacionada con el rifting del margen mediterráneo de la Península. La suma de ambos campos puede manifestarse, en cada momento y en cada lugar, por estados de esfuerzo tanto comprensivos como extensivos.

  10. Registro fósil precuaternario de tetrápodos en los Pirineos occidentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Berreteaga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de los niveles fosilíferos continentales y marinos del Cretácico Superior y del Terciario de la Región Vasco-Cantabrica (Sinclinorio Subcantábrico y cuencas surpirenaicas adyacentes (Cuenca de Pamplona, Sector Noroccidental de la Depresión del Ebro ha puesto de manifiesto su potencial paleontológico en restos fósiles de vertebrados. Algunos de estos yacimientos son de gran relevancia en el Cretácico final de Europa, incluyendo nuevas especies de tortugas, escamosos, cocodrilos, dinosaurios y mamíferos. En la misma cantera del yacimiento alavés de Zambrana, compuesta principalmente por reptiles y mamíferos, es de gran interés paleontológico y contribuye a un mejor conocimiento de las faunas del Eoceno superior de la Península Ibérica. En Zambrana se ha reconocido hasta la fecha varias nuevas especies de perisodáctilos ecuoideos. En el Neogeno, se han descubierto nuevas localidades del Mioceno (Rambliense, Aragoniense en las Bardenas Reales de Navarra y otras áreas colindantes de la Cuenca del Ebro, que han proporcionado restos de anfibios, escamosos, tortugas, cocodrilos, aves y varios grupos de mamíferos. Por otro lado, una notable variedad de icnofacies de aves y mamíferos ha sido hallada en diferentes afloramientos de los potentes depósitos marinos litorales (Eoceno superior y continentales (Oligoceno-Mioceno inferior de la Alta Navarra.

  11. THE FOSSIL RECORD OF TURTLES IN COLOMBIA; A REVIEW OF THE DISCOVERIES, RESEARCH AND FUTURE CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Alberto Cadena Rueda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a review article on the fossil record of turtles in Colombia that includes: the early Cretaceous turtles from Zapatocaand Villa de Leyva localities; the giant turtles from the Paleocene Cerrejón and Calenturitas Coal Mines; the early Miocene,earliest record of Chelus from Pubenza, Cundinamarca; the early to late Miocene large podocnemids, chelids and testudinidsfrom Castilletes, Alta Guajira and La Venta; and the small late Pleistocene kinosternids from Pubenza, Cundinamarca. I alsodiscuss here the current gaps in the fossil record of tropical South American turtles, as well as the ongoing research and futureprojects to be developed in order to understand better the evolutionary history of Colombian turtles.El registro fósil de las tortugas en Colombia; una revisión delosdescubrimientos, investigaciones y futuros desafíos.En este artículo resumo el registro fósil de tortugas de Colombia, incluyendo las tortugas del Cretácico temprano de Zapatocay Villa de Leyva, las tortugas gigantes del Paleoceno en las minas de carbón de El Cerrejón y Calenturitas, el registro másantiguo de Chelus, proveniente del Mioceno temprano de Pubenza (Cundinamarca, los grandes podocnémidos, chélidos,y testudínidos del Mioceno temprano a tardío de Castilletes en la Alta Guajira y La Venta, y los pequeños kinostérnidos delPleistoceno tardío de Pubenza, Cundinamarca. En este artículo discuto también los actuales intervalos para los cuales nose conocen registro fósil de tortugas en la parte tropical de Suramérica, así como también las investigaciones que se estándesarrollando actualmente, c también los futuros proyectos a desarrollar con el fin de entender mejor la historia evolutiva delas tortugas en Colombia.

  12. Estado actual del conocimiento de los mamíferos fósiles de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canto, Jhoann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An updated revision is presented regarding fossil mammals of aquatic and terrestrial environments. This update includes up to year 2008. Those registrations of doubtful assignation or that couldn't be confirmed were not considered in this review. These new registrations are classified in four groups of time that extend from the Late Eocene–Early Oligocene to the Pleistocene-Recent. The evidence shows that the greatest quantity of fossils are concentrated from the Early Miocene to the Middle Miocene reaching 37 (41,5% genus of a total of 77 and 54 (49,5% fossil species of a total of 89. It is observed a significant increase in works devoted to paleontology of mammal fossils in Chile between 1981-2008.

    Se presenta una revisión de los mamíferos fósiles de Chile, de ambientes terrestres y acuáticos, conocidos hasta el año 2008; no se consideran aquellos registros de dudosa asignación o que no pudieron ser localizados. Los registros son agrupados en cuatro rangos temporales que se distribuyen a partir del Eoceno tardío–Oligoceno temprano hasta el Pleistoceno–Reciente. Se evidencia que la mayor cantidad de registros fósiles se concentra en el lapso Mioceno inferior a Mioceno medio, llegando a 37 (41,5% géneros de un total de 77 y 54 (49,5% especies fósiles de un total de 89. Se comprueba un aumento significativo de trabajos sobre paleontología en mamíferos fósiles en Chile entre 1981-2008.

  13. Arquitectura sacra de época tardía en Hispalis. Algunas reflexiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Ramos, Isabel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the following pages we try to improve the information about two buildings in Seville assigned to Late Antiquity. Firstly, we show the difficulties found in identifying as a church an apsed structure recovered in the archaeological area of La Encarnación. Secondly, the presence of a baptistery located in the Patio de Banderas of the Reales Alcázares leads us to make some considerations about its primitive architectural context.Pretendemos en las siguientes líneas intentar enriquecer el conocimiento de dos edificios hispalenses adscritos a la Antigu.edad tardía. En primer lugar, es nuestro propósito poner de relieve las dificultades que existen, a nuestro juicio, para identificar como iglesia una estructura absidada recuperada en el área arqueológica de La Encarnación. En segundo lugar, la presencia de una piscina bautismal situada en el Patio de Banderas de los Reales Alcázares nos permitirá realizar algunas consideraciones respecto a su primitivo marco arquitectónico.

  14. Síntesis de la cronoestratigrafía y evolución sedimentaria de los sistemas lacustres evaporíticos y carbonatados neógenos de la cuenca de Calatayud-Montalbán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Darn, J.

    2003-08-01

    por el umbral de Daroca (Cuenca de Calatayud en el sector septentrional y Cuenca de Montalbán en el sector meridional. Estas cuencas presentan una evolución sedimentaria muy similar de los sistemas lacustres neógenos evaporíticos y carbonáticos, que generalmente ocupan los sectores centrales de ambas depresiones. En la Cuenca de Calatayud, se reconocen tradicionalmente en el Neógeno tres unidades sedimentarias mayores denominadas Unidad Inferior, Intermedia y Superior separadas por dos rupturas sedimentarias principales. Las dos primeras tienen carácter evaporítico, mientras que la última tiene un carácter fluviolacustre. En los sectores centrales de la Cuenca de Montalbán, el sondeo Barrachina-1 y las secciones estratigráficas complementarias han permitido apreciar una evolución sedimentaria muy similar para las unidades neógenas, con facies evaporíticas y carbonáticas muy parecidas, aunque con una cronoestratigrafía diferente y la ausencia del registro sedimentario del Mioceno medio a Plioceno. En este trabajo también se describe por vez primera la presencia de un nivel volcanoclástico intercalado entre las facies evaporíticas del Mioceno inferior de la Cuenca de Montalbán. Las asociaciones minerales identificadas en los depósitos lacustres del Mioceno inferiormedio de ambos sectores de la cuenca, muestran una secuencia que evoluciona desde facies lacustres evaporíticas de alto grado de hipersalinidad, hacia facies lacustres evaporíticas de baja-moderada salinidad. Solamente, el registro sedimentario de la Cuenca de Calatayud permite asegurar que esta evolución sedimentaria se completa con la presencia de facies carbonáticas fluviolacustres características de aguas dulces en el Mioceno superior. Esta secuencia de precipitación salina responde a un cambio progresivo en la hidroquímica de los sistemas lacustres relacionado con un cambio gradual de las condiciones climáticas que comenzaría en el Rambliense y se extendería, al menos

  15. Los roedores y lagomorfos del Neógeno de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesé, C.

    2006-12-01

    most part of the Miocene, and their homogeinity at the end of the Miocene and during the Pliocene with the southern France in the so called Ibero-Occitanian province. It has been also indicated the main paleoenvironmental changes inferred from the micromammal faunal changes, mainly those that have been related with global changes.Los estudios realizados desde mediados del siglo pasado en España por muchos autores sobre las faunas de micromamíferos, han dado lugar a que actualmente haya un buen conocimiento del registro fósil del Neógeno español. Trabajos de síntesis anteriores a éste, como los de mamíferos del Neógeno realizados por López et al. (1987 y Calvo et al. (1993, el de roedores por Sesé (1988 y el de lagomorfos por López (1989, muestran la extraordinaria riqueza fosilífera de las diversas áreas geográficas y cuencas españolas (Ebro, Tajo, Calatayud-Teruel, Duero, Vallés Penedés, Levante, Béticas. En el presente trabajo se realiza una síntesis de revisión y actualización del registro fósil de roedores (orden Rodentia y lagomorfos (orden Lagomorpha del Neógeno (Mioceno y Plioceno en España, principalmente de la península que es donde se han realizado más hallazgos, pero también de algunos realizados en las islas. Se han analizado, desde los puntos de vista sistemático y biostratigráfico principalmente, las faunas de los yacimientos neógenos que presentan taxones característicos de la edad que se les asigna. El orden de presentación de este análisis es, en un primer nivel, por pisos o edades de mamíferos, dando las características más importantes de los mismos, y, en un segundo nivel, analizando los aspectos más característicos de las faunas de las biozonas que comprende cada uno. Los pisos a que nos referimos son: en el Mioceno, la base del Mioceno Inferior, Rambliense, Aragoniense, Vallesiense y Turoliense, y, en el Plioceno, el Rusciniense (Alfambriense y Villaniense. En cuanto a las zonas, para el Mioceno seguimos la

  16. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, Number 309

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-08

    that the airplane could have crashed. Inten- sive passes over the regions of Cabo de la Valle, El Pajaro and Cerro de la Teta, however, were...lesions in the nerve cells, causing serious emotional imbalance. Dr Camacho felt that drug addiction is found more 7 frequently in Ciudad

  17. Confirmation of 5 SN in the Kepler/K2 C16 Field with Gemini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheim, S.; Tucker, B. E.; Garnavich, P. M.; Rest, A.; Narayan, G.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S.; Kasen, D.; Shaya, E.; Mushotzky, R.; Olling, R.; Villar, A.; Forster, F.; Zenteno, A.; James, D.; Smith, R. Chris

    2018-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by KEGS of supernova discovered by Pan-STARRS1 during a targeted search of the Kepler/K2 Campaign 16 field using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on both the Gemini North Observatory on Mauna Kea, and the Gemini South Observatory on Cerro Pachon.

  18. The SOAR Telescope Project Southern Observatory for Astronomical Research (SOAR)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, Charles

    2003-01-01

    ... is a 4.2-meter aperture telescope employing state-of-the-art technologies to deliver high-resolution images, which are limited only by the excellent seeing conditions of its site on Cerro Pachon in northern Chile. It is designed to operate from the near-ultraviolet through the.

  19. Special Session on Adaptive Optics in Russia and China. Volume 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Kingdom, Canada, Chile, Brazil and Argentina to built two eight-meter astronomical telescopes, one on Mauna Kea, Hawaii and one on Cerro Pachon , Chile... Pachon instrument will await a second round of instrument construction. The following science requirements and goals have been adopted by the Gemini

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of mCVs and other variable objects (Oliveira+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Cieslinski, D.; Jablonski, F. J.; Silva, K. M. G.; Almeida, L. A.; Rodriguez-Ardila, A.; Palhares, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    This catalog contains the spectra of the 45 variable objects, which was observed with SOAR 4.1m telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, and the Perkin- Elmer 1.6m telescope at Observatorio do Pico dos Dias (OPD-LNA/MCTI), locate in Brazopolis-MG, Brasil. (3 data files).