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Sample records for cerrado sentido restrito

  1. Composição florística e fitossociologia do cerrado sentido restrito no município de Água Boa - MT

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    Felfili Jeanine Maria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido no município de Água Boa , no Vale do Araguaia, área de ecótono entre o Cerrado e Amazônia, que apresenta um complexo vegetacional com o predomínio do cerrado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a composição florística e a fitossociologia do cerrado sentido restrito na região. Foram alocadas dez parcelas de 20x50m (1000m². Entraram na amostragem todos os indivíduos lenhosos com diâmetro no nível do solo igual ou superior a 5cm. Além da amostragem com identificação in loco das espécies, foram efetuadas incursões de coleta em áreas próximas, para ampliar o levantamento da composição florística. Foram encontradas 34 famílias botânicas, contendo 60 gêneros e 80 espécies. A família Leguminosae apresentou o maior número de espécies (10, seguida por Myrtaceae (7, Vochysiaceae (6 e Malpighiaceae (5. Outras 19 famílias foram representadas por uma única espécie. As espécies com maior Índice de Valor de Importância foram Curatella americana L., Qualea parviflora Mart., Callisthene fasciculata Mart., Mezilaurus crassiramea (Meiss Taub. e Byrsonima crassa Nied. Treze espécies estiveram representadas por um único indivíduo. A densidade foi de 995 indivíduos/ha e a área basal de 7,5 m² /ha. O índice de Shannon encontrado (H' foi de 3,69, evidenciando a alta diversidade da área.

  2. Efeito de queimadas sobre a estrutura e composição da comunidade vegetal lenhosa do cerrado sentido restrito em Caldas Novas, GO Effect of fire on the structure and floristic composition of a cerrado sensu stricto area in Caldas Novas, GO

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    Sérgio de Faria Lopes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que o regime de queima é um dos principais fatores que alteram a estrutura e composição de espécies de uma comunidade vegetal, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o efeito do fogo na composição florística e estrutura da vegetação lenhosa de Cerrado sentido restrito no Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas (PESCAN, Goiás, submetida a diferentes regimes de queima. Foram utilizadas duas áreas de Cerrado sentido restrito: uma delas submetida ao fogo em 2002 e 2006 e outra sem a passagem do fogo nessas duas épocas. Em cada área foram estabelecidas 25 parcelas de 20 x 20 m, sendo incluídas no estudo todas as árvores (C30>15 cm. As duas áreas estudadas apresentaram composição florística similar, evidenciada pelo Coeficiente de Sorensen, o qual encontrou 84% de similaridade na composição florística entre as áreas. Entretanto, a estrutura da vegetação apresentou diferenças relevantes, evidenciada pelo Indice de Similaridade de Bray Curtis, o qual obteve valor de 0,67, que foi refletido por mudanças na estrutura das comunidades estudadas. A área queimada apresentou menor número de indivíduos, de espécies, menor valor de área basal e, por conseguinte, do Índice de Diversidade de Shannon (H' e Equabilidade (J'. Nesse sentido, provavelmente a frequência das queimadas ocorridas na área não foram suficientes para evidenciar o efeito do fogo no processo de alteração na composição das espécies lenhosas. Entretanto, o fogo exerceu papel relevante na modificação da estrutura da vegetação.Considering that the regimes of burning modify important factors of the structure and composition of the species of a plant community, the objective of this work was to analyze the effect of burning on the floristic composition and structure of the wood vegetation of the cerrado sensu stricto at the Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas (PESCAN, Goiás, submitted to different times of burning. Two areas had been

  3. Fitossociologia e similaridade florística entre trechos de Cerrado sentido restrito em interflúvio e em vale no Jardim Botânico de Brasília, DF Phytossociology and floristic similarity between plateau and valley `Cerrado` woody vegetation in the Brasília Botanic Gardens, Federal District, Brazil

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    Mônica Souza da Fonseca

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a composição florística, densidade e área basal do componente lenhoso do cerrado sentido restrito em duas situações num gradiente topográfico, designadas interflúvio (I e vale (V, no Jardim Botânico de Brasília, DF. Foram alocadas em cada área 10 parcelas permanentes de 20x50m para amostragem de todos os indivíduos com diâmetro basal DB(30cm> 5cm. A classificação por UPGMA (Índices de Sørensen e Morisita foi usada para a avaliação da similaridade entre parcelas. A análise da fitossociologia mostrou que as espécies mais importantes no interflúvio foram: Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.Hil Baill., Miconia ferruginata DC. e Dalbergia miscolobium Benth., enquanto que no vale foram: Eriotheca pubescens (Mart. & Zucc. Schott & Endl., Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.-Hil. Baill. e Schefflera macrocarpa (Seem D.C. Frodin. Os índices de similaridade variaram entre 0,26 a 0,81 (Sørensen e 0,06 a 0,92 (Morisita. A classificação por UPGMA indicou dois grupos principais, que coincidiram com as posições no relevo: interflúvio e vale. Os resultados salientaram a topografia como forte determinante na distribuição de algumas das populações e comunidades lenhosas, por meio de sua influência na variação da profundidade do lençol freático, que afetou a composição florística, a densidade (I/V=1.219/956 ind.ha-1 e a área basal (I/V=8,56/5,64m².ha-1 nos Cerrados sentido restrito de interflúvio (I e vale (V estudados.This study aims to check differences in the floristic composition and structure of the woody vegetation of the cerrado (sensu stricto in two distinct topographic positions, Interfluve (I and Valley Slope (V area in the Brasília Botanic Gardens, Federal District, Brazil. In each area ten 20x50m permanent plots were located to survey individuals, basal diameter BD(30cm > 5cm. UPGMA classification (Sørensen and Morisita similarity indices was used to assess similarity among plots

  4. Fenologia de uma comunidade arbórea em cerrado sentido restrito, Barra do Garças, MT, Brasil Phenology of a tree community in a cerrado sensu stricto, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso State, Brasil

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    Flávia Richelli Pirani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisamos a fenologia vegetativa e reprodutiva procurando relacionar mudanças nas fenofases com variáveis abióticas (precipitação, temperatura e fotoperíodo e investigamos a ocorrência de sazonalidade. A região apresenta verão chuvoso (outubro-abril e inverno seco (maio-setembro. Entre out/2005 e set/2007, 1.221 indivíduos pertencentes a 84 espécies foram monitorados mensalmente quanto a presença/ausência e intensidade das fenofases queda foliar, brotamento, floração e frutificação. A maioria das espécies apresentou estratégia fenológica vegetativa decídua (44% ou brevidecídua (16%. A queda foliar foi correlacionada negativa e significativamente com precipitação e fotoperíodo, apresentando data média em agosto. O brotamento apresentou correlação positiva com temperatura média mensal. Floração e frutificação ocorreram nos dois anos em 69 espécies. Houve maior concentração de flores nos meses de maior estresse hídrico (jul-ago. Afrutificação de espécies zoocóricas (70% das espécies na área ocorreu de forma contínua, sendo correlacionada negativamente com precipitação e positivamente com temperatura. A frutificação das anemocóricas ocorreu nos meses mais secos. Nossos resultados sugerem padrões fenológicos sazonais, sendo que na transição entre estações seca e chuvosa ocorreu maior atividade vegetativa e reprodutiva. Esses padrões fenológicos têm sido comumente encontrados no cerrado brasileiro e sugerem que a época de dispersão, germinação de sementes e de estabelecimento de plântulas é um fator importante para sincronizar a maturação dos frutos no início da estação chuvosa.We observed leaf and reproductive phenology and analyzed the relationship among phenophases and abiotic variables (rainfall, temperature and photoperiod and investigated the occurrence of seasonality. The local climate is characterized by marked wet (October-April and dry seasons (May-September. From October

  5. Comparação do método de parcelas com o "levantamento rápido" para amostragem da vegetação arbórea do Cerrado sentido restrito Comparison of the plot method with "rapid survey" for sampling the arboreal vegetation of Cerrado stricto sensu

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    Bruno Machado Teles Walter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde os anos 1960 o Cerrado sofre uma perda agressiva de área pelas atividades antrópicas. Visando acumular informações botânicas de forma ágil, projetos nesta região adotaram um método de amostragem expedita da vegetação, denominado "levantamento rápido" (LR. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar e analisar a aplicação do LR com um método de parcelas, muito utilizado neste bioma. O trabalho foi realizado em um trecho de Cerrado sentido restrito na Fazenda Água Limpa, DF, Brasil (15º56'S - 47º46'W. Para o LR foram aplicadas três linhas de caminhada (L1, L2 e L3, registrando-se em intervalos de cinco minutos a presença das espécies inéditas que fossem encontradas. Isto permitiu a construção de uma curva espécies×tempo. Para possibilitar uma comparação direta, L1 foi coberta com 11 parcelas amostrais de 20×50 m, alocadas sobre um trecho estruturalmente homogêneo, amostrando-se todos os indivíduos com diâmetro a 30 cm de altura do solo > 5cm. Quarenta minutos foi o tempo máximo para estabilizar uma curva espécie×tempo individual (L2. Pelo LR foram identificadas 67 espécies, 53 gêneros e 32 famílias, enquanto nas parcelas foram identificadas 58 espécies, 45 gêneros e 27 famílias, distribuídas entre os 1.132 indivíduos amostrados. O tempo necessário para concluir a amostragem por parcelas foi de 8 horas e 17 minutos, enquanto o método rápido encerrou-se em 110 minutos. Comparando apenas L1 (concluída em 35 minutos com parcelas, os resultados florísticos revelaram diferenças, que são analisadas à luz das características de cada método. O LR requisita t��cnicos com ampla experiência de campo, tendo se mostrado eficiente para registrar a riqueza do trecho estudado, com mais rapidez que as parcelas. Entretanto, LR não fornece informações estruturais da vegetação e suas sugestões de abundância são meramente especulativas. Porém, pela velocidade e facilidade de aplicação, pelo custo baixo

  6. Comparação da vegetação arbustivo-arbórea de uma área de cerrado rupestre na Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goiás, e áreas de cerrado sentido restrito do Bioma Cerrado

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    Lenza, Eddie; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues; Pinto, Alexandre de Siqueira; Maracahipes, Leandro; Bruziguessi, Elisa Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Foram determinadas a composição florística e a estrutura da vegetação arbustivo-arbórea, incluindo monocotiledôneas, em uma comunidade de cerrado rupestre, no município Alto Paraíso de Goiás, Goiás. Os objetivos desse estudo foram: 1. Comparar os aspectos florísticos e estruturais da área estudada com aqueles de outros 14 estudos com comunidades arbustivo-arbóreas, com e sem a presença de monocotiledôneas, 2. Avaliar os padrões fitogeográficos das 15 áreas comparadas. Foram amostradas 71 espé...

  7. Fogo e dinâmica da comunidade lenhosa em cerrado sentido restrito, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso Fire and dynamics of a woody community in the cerrado of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Michele Novaes Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre a dinâmica e estrutura da vegetação lenhosa após incêndios naturais ocorridos no Parque Estadual da Serra Azul mostram que as queimadas afetam a sobrevivência e o crescimento das plantas sendo o impacto dependente da intensidade, frequência e duração dos incêndios. Dez parcelas (20 × 50 m queimaram em 2002 e 2007 (Área 1 e outras 10 (Área 2 queimaram em 2002, 2005 e 2007. Em janeiro de 2009, a Área 1 apresentou menor mortalidade (2,0% e maior recrutamento (3,7% que a Área 2 (4,3% e 0,05% respectivamente. A mortalidade decresceu com o aumento das classes de diâmetro. O tamanho médio (altura e diâmetro dos indivíduos decresceu na Área 2. O padrão de rebrotas após o fogo foi relacionado ao tamanho dos indivíduos. As rebrotas ocorreram na base dos indivíduos pertencentes às menores classes de tamanho e na copa daqueles pertencentes às maiores classes de tamanho. Os estimadores Jacknife e Chao 2 indicaram redução da riqueza na Área 2 submetida a maior freqüência de queimadas. A longevidade das árvores adultas e a persistência de indivíduos menores através das rebrotas podem determinar a manutenção da comunidade lenhosa no cerrado se os intervalos entre queimadas não forem inferiores a cinco anos.Studies on the dynamics and structure of woody vegetation after natural fires in Parque Estadual da Serra Azul have shown that fire affects plant survival and growth. The response of vegetation to fire depends on intensity, frequency and duration of burning. Ten plots (20 × 50 m (Area 1 were burned in 2002 and 2005. Another ten plots (Area 2 were burned in 2002, 2005 and 2007. In January 2009, in Area 1, tree mortality was lower (2.0% and recruitment (3.7% higher than that observed Area 2 (4.3% and 0.05% respectively. Plant mortality decreased with increasing size class. In Area 2, there was a reduction in plant size (height and diameter. The resprouting pattern after fire was related to plant size. Smaller

  8. Distribuição da brioflora em diferentes fisionomias de cerrado da Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brasil Distribution of the brioflora in the different cerrado physiognomies of the Biological Reserve and of the Experimental Station of Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brazil

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    Sandra Regina Visnadi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho refere-se à distribuição da brioflora ocorrente no cerrado Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de MogiGuaçu. Este bioma apresenta fisionomias que variam de florestas a campos. As coletas foram realizadas entre 1993 e 1995, na casca de 15 espécies de forófitos arbustivo-arbóreos, ao longo de um transecto, passando por cinco fisionomias diferentes de cerrado. Estudaramse 1.345 exsicatas de 49 gêneros e 92 espécies de briófitas. A brioflora está relacionada às fisionomias de cerrado e não aos forófitos arbustivo-arbóreos. As fisionomias são mais semelhantes quanto à flora de musgos do que em relação à flora de hepáticas. As briófitas distribuem-se em três grupos de fisionomias: cerrado sentido restrito, campo cerrado e transição / cerrado sentido restrito de Myrsine / campo cerrado queimado.This paper refers to the distribution of the brioflora in the cerrado vegetation of the Biological Reserve and of the Experimental Station of Mogi-Guaçu. This biome includes forests to grassland physiognomies. Collects of bryophytes was made between 1993 and 1995 on bark of 15 shrubby-arboreous phorophytes species along a transect, through five different physiognomies of the cerrado vegetation. The studied material totalized 1,345 numbers from 49 genera and 92 species of bryophytes. The brioflora is not related to the shrubby-arboreous phorophytes, but to the cerrado physiognomies. Similarity between physiognomies is higher due to mosses than hepatics distribution. Bryophytes are distributed in three physiognomic groups: cerrado 'stricto sensu', cerrado grassland and transition / cerrado 'stricto sensu' of Myrsine / burned cerrado grassland.

  9. Cerrado remisión de V. en saltarregla cerrado.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Definición del término Cerrado remisión de V. en saltarregla cerrado. en el diccionario Dicter. [EN] Definition of the word Cerrado remisión de V. en saltarregla cerrado. in the dictionary Dicter.

  10. Los cinco sentidos

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    Tamir, Abraham; Ruiz Beviá, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Percibimos el mundo que nos rodea por medio de nuestros cinco sentidos principales, la vista, el oído, el tacto, el gusto y el olfato. Los sentidos alimentan nuestro cerebro con bits de información que nos ayudan a construir una imagen del complicado mundo que nos rodea. Científicamente un sentido se define como un medio de recibir información del mundo exterior o de nuestro cuerpo y convertirla en un código electroquímico que es procesado por el cerebro.

  11. Sentir y tener sentido

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    Humberto Malavassi-Calvo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo plantea, mediante una pequeña reflexión, que el desprestigio que tenemos los educadores y que nos hace aparecer como los únicos responsables del rendimiento académico y la formación humana, no es cierto; los actores del proceso educativo, no son sólo los educadores, sino los gremios, las instituciones superiores de educación, las instituciones gubernamentales y los hogares, principalmente. Mediante una pequeña experiencia con 93 estudiantes de décimo del Conservatorio Castella que presentaban una conducta agresiva e irrespetuosa hacia la institución, se trabajaron cuatro sesiones, con la ayuda de una colega de la Universidad Nacional, para explorar, a manera de diagnóstico, cuál podría ser la causa de la resistencia hacia los profesores y la indisciplina que existía en esos grupos. Se les pasó un cuestionario y se les realizó una actividad con un trabajo más personalizado, para que cada estudiante pudiera manifestar abiertamente cuáles eran sus inquietudes e incomodidades. Al final de este diagnóstico, manifestaron, de una u otra manera, que la responsabilidad de la educación es de todos, y que si no le damos sentido, ni sentimiento a nuestros actos, estaríamos fomentando y promoviendo un clima cada vez más estéril y distante entre los diferentes actores del proceso educativo, pues se viviría en un mundo reservado a promedios, contenidos y memoria, en vez de desempeño y autorrealización.

  12. Trauma cardiaco cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Camilo; Vargas, Fernando; Guzmán, Fernando; Zárate, Alejandro; Correa, José L.; Ramírez, Alejandro; Quintero, Diana M.; Ramírez, Erika M.

    2016-01-01

    El trauma cardiaco constituye una de las primeras causas de mortalidad en la población general. Requiere alto índice de sospecha en trauma cerrado severo, mecanismo de desaceleración y en presencia de signos indirectos como: equimosis, huella del volante o del cinturón en el tórax anterior. Las lesiones incluyen: conmoción cardiaca, ruptura cardiaca, lesión cardiaca indirecta como la trombosis coronaria aguda, lesión aórtica, lesión del pericardio y herniación cardiaca. Entre las manifestacio...

  13. Dinâmica de populações de espécies lenhosas de Cerrado, Balsas, Maranhão Population dynamics of Cerrado woody plants, Balsas, Maranhão

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    Fabiana de Gois Aquino

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou investigar a dinâmica populacional de 12 espécies lenhosas de Cerrado sentido restrito. O estudo foi executado nas áreas de reserva legal (fragmentos 1 e 2 do Projeto de Colonização Gerais de Balsas, no sul do Maranhão, no período de 1995 a 2002. A maioria das espécies estudadas apresentou distribuição de freqüência dos indivíduos nas classes de diâmetro em forma de J invertido, característica de populações auto-regenerativas. As populações das espécies Byrsonima coccolobifolia, Sclerolobium paniculatum e Vochysia rufa, no fragmento 1, e B. coccolobifolia, Byrsonima crassa, Davilla elliptica e Qualea parviflora, no fragmento 2, destacaram-se por apresentar altas taxas de recrutamento que compensaram as elevadas taxas de mortalidade. Os maiores valores de incremento em diâmetro foram registrados nas espécies B. crassa, Q. parviflora, S. paniculatum e V. rufa, em ambos os fragmentos. As espécies que apresentaram alto recrutamento e alto incremento em diâmetro provavelmente permanecerão ocupando posição de destaque na estrutura da comunidade. No entanto, as populações das espécies Connarus suberosus, D. elliptica, Hirtella ciliata e Erythroxylum deciduum, no fragmento 1, e Salvertia convallariaeodora, no fragmento 2, não mostraram altas taxas de recrutamento e podem ter sua sobrevivência comprometida no futuro, caso as tendências detectadas neste estudo permaneçam.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the population dynamics of 12 woody species. This study was conducted in two fragments of Cerrado stricto sensu in the Gerais de Balsas Colonization Project, located in Southern Maranhão, Brazil, between 1995 and 2002. The frequency distribution in diameter classes showed the reverse J-shape curve for the majority of species studied. The high recruitment rates were registered for Byrsonima coccolobifolia, Sclerolobium paniculatum e Vochysia rufa, in fragment 1, and B

  14. Os Sentidos: jardins e paisagens

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    Schirley Fátima Nogueira da Silva Cavalcante Alves

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os sentidos permitem aos seres vivos a capacidade de perpecepção, principalmente de características do meio ambiente, por meio de sensações de origem interna ou externa. Até a algum tempo, apenas se relacionava a jardins e paisagens os cinco sentidos básicos: visão, audição, olfato, tato e gosto. Mas, com a evolução do conceito da paisagem, também se aumentou a abrangência dos seus sentidos, indo além desse conjunto das sensações humanas,  sendo incluídas também as relações sociais, culturais e econômicas. Os jardins e paisagens passam a se manifestar como um conjunto de representações estruturadas e caracterizadas por forte impregnação emocional e cultural, desencadeando no homem sensações nascidas da relação entre sua trajetória histórica e cultural.

  15. Trauma cardiaco cerrado

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    Camilo Alvarado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El trauma cardiaco constituye una de las primeras causas de mortalidad en la población general. Requiere alto índice de sospecha en trauma cerrado severo, mecanismo de desaceleración y en presencia de signos indirectos como: equimosis, huella del volante o del cinturón en el tórax anterior. Las lesiones incluyen: conmoción cardiaca, ruptura cardiaca, lesión cardiaca indirecta como la trombosis coronaria aguda, lesión aórtica, lesión del pericardio y herniación cardiaca. Entre las manifestaciones clínicas están: la angina refractaria a nitratos, el dolor pleurítico, la hipotensión arterial, la taquicardia, la ingurgitación yugular que aumenta con la inspiración, el galope por tercer ruido, el frote pericárdico, los soplos de reciente aparición, los estertores crepitantes por edema pulmonar. El electrocardiograma es el primer eslabón en el algoritmo diagnóstico con hallazgos como: la taquicardia sinusal, los complejos ventriculares prematuros, la fibrilación auricular, el bloqueo de rama derecha y los bloqueos auriculoventriculares. La radiografía de tórax ayuda a descartar lesiones adicionales óseas y pulmonares. La troponina I tiene un valor predictivo negativo del 93% para el trauma cardiaco, otras enzimas como la creatina quinasa total y la creatina quinasa fracción MB son menos específicas. El ecocardiograma está indicado en caso de hipotensión persistente, electrocardiograma con alteraciones o falla cardiaca aguda. El tratamiento incluye la estabilización inicial y un manejo específico de las lesiones. Entre las complicaciones se incluyen: el taponamiento cardiaco, la contusión miocárdica, el síndrome coronario agudo, las arritmias cardíacas y la lesión aórtica. El pronóstico se determina en mayor medida por los signos vitales al ingreso y la presencia de paro cardiaco durante el abordaje inicial.

  16. Para uma semiologia psicanalítica da paixão na antiguidade grega e seus sentidos adictivo e tóxico

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    Victor Eduardo Silva Bento

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de pesquisa de revisão de literatura. Seu objetivo foi realizar a semiologia psicanalítica da paixão na Antiguidade grega. Discutiu-se a hipótese central que compara “paixão” com “adicção” e “tóxico”. Analisou-se: 1o - Os sentidos e a origem etimológica da paixão em Aristóteles. Destacou-se aqui, em sentido amplo, “paixão como fato de sofrer passivamente uma ação” e, em sentido restrito, como “fato de sofrer passivamente uma ação dolorosa ou prejudicial”; 2o - Os sentidos da paixão em Platão. Evidenciaram-se aqui, em sentido geral, “paixão-sensível como fato de se sofrer passivamente uma ação” e, em sentido particular, “paixão como cegueira da realidade”, “como ilusão sensorial” e “como submissão a uma ação do mundo exterior sobre o corpo”; 3o - O sentido paradoxal das paixões em Platão persistiria a partir da Renascença, especialmente em Descartes e em Freud?; e 4o - Seria o “phármakon” platônico a origem semiológica dos sentidos “tóxico” e paradoxal das paixões em geral?

  17. El Principio Abierto/Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; Pardo Aguilar, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    El principio abierto/cerrado es, sin duda alguna, una de las referencias más importantes para realizar un buen Diseño Orientado a Objetos, de forma que las clases diseñadas para un determinado software puedan ser extendidas en otros desarrollos, pero sin modificar el código fuente de dichas clases, aprovechando de esta forma las facilidades de extensión y reutilización que ofrece la orientación a objeto.

  18. Adolescência e sentido de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Cleia Zanatta Clavery Guarnido Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Esta pesquisa tem como problema de investigação o sentido de vida na adolescência. E os objetivos a alcançar foram: discutir questões atuais relativas à adolescência; analisar questões centrais da Logoterapia, propostas por Viktor Frankl; e investigar empiricamente o sentido de vida na adolescência. Na pesquisa ex post facto realizada, foram submetidas à corroboração cinco conjecturas, relacionando adolescência, sexo, orientação confessional da escola e sentido de vida. Os participantes foram...

  19. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  20. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  1. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  2. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Rosana Marta; Pilon, Natashi Aparecida Lima; Durigan, Giselda

    2016-01-01

    Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i) recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii) under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii)...

  3. The Cerrado (Brazil) plant cytogenetics database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Fernando; Telles, Mariana Pires de Campos

    2017-01-01

    Cerrado is a biodiversity hotspot that has lost ca. 50% of its original vegetation cover and hosts ca. 11,000 species belonging to 1,423 genera of phanerogams. For a fraction of those species some cytogenetic characteristics like chromosome numbers and C-value were available in databases, while other valuable information such as karyotype formula and banding patterns are missing. In order to integrate and share all cytogenetic information published for Cerrado species, including frequency of cytogenetic attributes and scientometrics aspects, Cerrado plant species were searched in bibliographic sources, including the 50 richest genera (with more than 45 taxa) and 273 genera with only one species in Cerrado. Determination of frequencies and the database website (http://cyto.shinyapps.io/cerrado) were developed in R. Studies were pooled by employed technique and decade, showing a rise in non-conventional cytogenetics since 2000. However, C-value estimation, heterochromatin staining and molecular cytogenetics are still not common for any family. For the richest and best sampled families, the following modal 2n counts were observed: Oxalidaceae 2n = 12, Lythraceae 2n = 30, Sapindaceae 2n = 24, Solanaceae 2n = 24, Cyperaceae 2n = 10, Poaceae 2n = 20, Asteraceae 2n = 18 and Fabaceae 2n = 26. Chromosome number information is available for only 16.1% of species, while there are genome size data for only 1.25%, being lower than the global percentages. In general, genome sizes were small, ranging from 2C = ca. 1.5 to ca. 3.5 pg. Intra-specific 2n number variation and higher 2n counts were mainly related to polyploidy, which relates to the prevalence of even haploid numbers above the mode of 2n in most major plant clades. Several orphan genera with almost no cytogenetic studies for Cerrado were identified. This effort represents a complete diagnosis for cytogenetic attributes of plants of Cerrado.

  4. OS SENTIDOS DO PODER/SABER DIZER

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa Cruz, Edna

    2014-01-01

    A pergunta trazida no título do livro Pode o Subalterno Falar? da escritora indianaGayatri Chakravorty Spivak traz em seu bojo algumas ambiguidades, possivelmentepropositais. Ao analisarmos o título original em inglês – Can the Subaltern Speak? –observamos que a autora, ao usar can e não may, deixa ao leitor a livre inferência sobre osentido do verbo modal can: queria ela perguntar se o subalterno pode ( no sentido depermissão) falar? Ou se esse subalterno pode no sentido de saber, ser capaz ...

  5. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production. PMID:23555089

  6. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  7. Stereo photo series for quantifying cerrado fuels in Central Brazil—volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Ottmar; R.E. Vihnanek; H.S. Miranda; M.N. Sata; S.M. Andrade

    2001-01-01

    The first volume of the Cerrado photo series is a collection of sites that represent a range of physiognomic forms of the Cerrado in central Brazil including campo limpo, campo sujo, cerrado ralo, cerrado sensu stricto, and cerrado denso. Sites include wide-angle and stereo pair photographs supplemented with information on living and dead fuels,...

  8. O cerrado brasileiro: notas para estudo

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Augusto dos Santos; Alisson Flávio Barbieri; José Alberto Magno de Carvalho; Carla Jorge Machado

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a short literature review on the Brazilian Cerrado, with emphasis on the following aspects: (1) characterization of the area, (2) environmental degradation and population occupation, (3) history of regional occupation (4) role of immigration; the use of technology; and the land market.

  9. Significado e sentido do trabalho docente

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    Itacy Salgado Basso

    Full Text Available O estudo tem como objetivo a compreensão do trabalho docente como um aprofundamento teórico-metodológico orientador da atividade de formação acadêmica e continuada de professores. Discute-se a natureza do trabalho docente, sustentando a sua particularidade, caracterizada por uma certa autonomia e denotando a importância da formação do professor para o exercício da prática pedagógica. A interpretação do trabalho docente foi empreendida através das categorias significado - finalidade dessa atividade fixada socialmente - e sentido do trabalho realizado pelo professor. A ruptura entre significado e sentido torna seu trabalho alienado, comprometendo ou descaracterizando a atividade docente.

  10. Short-term community dynamics in seasonal and hyperseasonal cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MV. Cianciaruso

    Full Text Available In South America, the largest seasonal savanna region is the Brazilian cerrado. Our aim was to study temporal changes in some community descriptors, such as floristic composition, richness, species density, plant density, and cylindrical volume, in a seasonal cerrado, comparing it to a nearby hyperseasonal cerrado. In four different seasons, we placed randomly ten 1 m² quadrats in each vegetation form and sampled all the vascular plants. Seasonal changes in floristic composition, species density, and plant density were less pronounced in the seasonal than in the hyperseasonal cerrado. Floristic similarity between the vegetation forms was lower when the hyperseasonal cerrado was waterlogged. Richness and species density were higher in the seasonal cerrado, which reached its biomass peak at mid rainy season. The hyperseasonal cerrado, in turn, reached its biomass peak at early rainy season and, despite the waterlogging, maintained it until late rainy season. In the hyperseasonal cerrado, waterlogging acts as an environmental filter restricting the number of cerrado species able to withstand it. The seasonal cerrado community was more stable than the hyperseasonal one. Our results corroborated the idea that changes in the environmental filters will affect floristic composition and community structure in savannas.

  11. Groundwater recharge in different physiognomies of the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T. S.; Leite, M.; Mattos, T.; Wendland, E.; Nearing, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2014, several cities of southeastern Brazil have grappled with their worst drought in nearly 80 years. To improve water availability in this region, the Brazilian government has studied the possibility of increasing groundwater use, mainly in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS), the largest (~1.2 million km2) transnational boundary groundwater reservoir in South America. Approximately one half of the outcrop areas of the GAS are located in the Cerrado biome, the main agricultural expansion region in Brazil. Large areas of Cerrado vegetation have been converted into farmland in recent years; however, little attention has been paid to the consequences of this land cover and land use change on groundwater recharge. In this study we assessed groundwater recharge in different physiognomies of the Cerrado located in an outcrop area of the GAS. Water table fluctuations were measured from October 2011 through August 2013, by 64 monitoring wells distributed on five physiognomies of the undisturbed Cerrado. We used 20 (2.2±0.3 m), 20 (4.3±1.4 m), 14 (4.7±1.9 m), 9 (6.2±0.7 m), and 1 (42 m) monitoring wells (and average depth of wells) for "campo limpo" (cerrado grassland), "campo sujo" (shrub cerrado), "campo cerrado" (shrub cerrado), "cerrado sensu stricto" (wooded cerrado), and "cerrado sensu stricto denso" (cerrado woodland), respectively. Recharge was computed for each well using the Water Table Fluctuation method. The measured precipitation for hydrological years 2011-12 and 2012-13 were 1247 mm and 1194 mm, respectively. We found values of average annual recharge of 363 mm, 354 mm, 324 mm, and 315 mm for "campo limpo", "campo sujo","campo cerrado", and "cerrado sensu stricto", respectively. We did not find changes in the water table level in the one well located in the "cerrado sensu stricto denso". The water table in this well was 35 m deep; therefore, the amount of water that eventually reached the saturated zone was not enough to cause a rapid change in the

  12. Pensar la escuela para construir sentido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Núñez Luis Fernando

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available

    El nuevo libro de la profesora Neyla Pardo y en él continúa explorando, con rigor científico e intelectual, «el papel esencial que cumple el lenguaje en la construcción -y en la negación- de sentido en la doble línea de elaborar, institucionalizar e, inclusive, imponer ciertos discursos pedagógicos», como dice la profesora Carolina Mayorga R., en el prólogo.

     

  13. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  14. Children's Perceptions of Brazilian Cerrado Landscapes and Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizerril, Marcelo X. A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author evaluated Brazilian students' environmental perceptions of Cerrado (savanna-like vegetation). The author administered tests of knowledge and perception of the Cerrado biome's wildlife to students of different social classes. The students (age range: 11-17 years) generally exhibited low identification with the region, and…

  15. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  16. Soil characteristics of a hyperseasonal cerrado compared to a seasonal cerrado and a floodplain grassland: implications for plant community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, P K; Batalha, M A

    2006-05-01

    Savannas may be divided according to their seasonality into semi-seasonal, seasonal, hyperseasonal, or marshy savannas. Hyperseasonal savannas are characterized by the alternation of two contrasting stresses during each annual cycle, one induced by drought and fire and the other, by waterlogging. In South America, the largest savanna region is the Brazilian cerrado, in which there are few hyperseasonal areas that become waterlogged in the rainy season. The cerrado soils are generally well drained, but in central Brazil there is a small cerrado area in which the soil is poorly drained and which becomes waterlogged in the middle of the rainy season, allowing the appearance of a hyperseasonal cerrado. As long as soil is important in the ecology of the cerrado vegetation, we asked whether the waterlogging in this hyperseasonal cerrado implied that there were differences in soil characteristics in relation to a seasonal cerrado, which is not waterlogged in the rainy season, and to a floodplain grassland, which remains waterlogged throughout the year. In each environment, we randomly selected ten points, in which we collected soil samples in the mid-rainy season for chemical and granulometric analyses. For all variables, we found significant differences among the three environments, at least at one of the depths. Nevertheless, when we took into account all the variables together, we observed that the soils under the hyperseasonal and seasonal cerrados were similar and both were different to the soil under the floodplain grassland. The soil under the floodplain grassland was related to larger amounts of clay, silt, organic matter, phosphorus, aluminium, aluminium saturation, cation exchange capacity, and sum of bases, whereas soils under hyperseasonal and seasonal cerrados were related to higher pH values, base saturation, calcium, magnesium, and sand. As long as the soil under both cerrados was chemically and physically similar, the duration of waterlogging in the

  17. Soil characteristics of a hyperseasonal cerrado compared to a seasonal cerrado and a floodplain grassland: implications for plant community structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Amorim

    Full Text Available Savannas may be divided according to their seasonality into semi-seasonal, seasonal, hyperseasonal, or marshy savannas. Hyperseasonal savannas are characterized by the alternation of two contrasting stresses during each annual cycle, one induced by drought and fire and the other, by waterlogging. In South America, the largest savanna region is the Brazilian cerrado, in which there are few hyperseasonal areas that become waterlogged in the rainy season. The cerrado soils are generally well drained, but in central Brazil there is a small cerrado area in which the soil is poorly drained and which becomes waterlogged in the middle of the rainy season, allowing the appearance of a hyperseasonal cerrado. As long as soil is important in the ecology of the cerrado vegetation, we asked whether the waterlogging in this hyperseasonal cerrado implied that there were differences in soil characteristics in relation to a seasonal cerrado, which is not waterlogged in the rainy season, and to a floodplain grassland, which remains waterlogged throughout the year. In each environment, we randomly selected ten points, in which we collected soil samples in the mid-rainy season for chemical and granulometric analyses. For all variables, we found significant differences among the three environments, at least at one of the depths. Nevertheless, when we took into account all the variables together, we observed that the soils under the hyperseasonal and seasonal cerrados were similar and both were different to the soil under the floodplain grassland. The soil under the floodplain grassland was related to larger amounts of clay, silt, organic matter, phosphorus, aluminium, aluminium saturation, cation exchange capacity, and sum of bases, whereas soils under hyperseasonal and seasonal cerrados were related to higher pH values, base saturation, calcium, magnesium, and sand. As long as the soil under both cerrados was chemically and physically similar, the duration of

  18. EFETIVIDADE DAS ÁREAS DE RESERVA FLORESTAL LEGAL POR MEIO DO PAGAMENTO PELOS SERVIÇOS AMBIENTAIS: PERSPECTIVA PARA A RECUPERAÇÃO DO CERRADO GOIANO.

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Angela Acosta Giovanini de

    2012-01-01

    Esta dissertação analisa a vantagem da adoção de mecanismos de incentivos como ferramenta de gestão ambiental integrada das áreas de reserva legal, objetivando a conservação do Cerrado goiano. Nesse sentido, dos temas tratados em debates internacionais sobre as questões ambientais e climáticas que marcaram as últimas décadas, apontando a necessidade de proteção dos recursos naturais, destaca-se a contribuição das florestas para a redução de emissões de gases de efeito estufa, ...

  19. Soil-vegetation relationships in hyperseasonal cerrado, seasonal cerrado, and wet grassland in Emas National Park (central Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Priscilla Kobayashi; Batalha, Marco Antônio

    2007-11-01

    In South America, the largest savanna region is the Brazilian cerrado, in which there are few areas that become waterlogged in the rainy season. However, we found a small cerrado area in which the soil is poorly drained and becomes waterlogged at the end of the rainy season, allowing the appearance of a hyperseasonal cerrado. We investigated the soil-vegetation relationships in three vegetation forms: hyperseasonal cerrado, seasonal cerrado, and wet grassland. We collected vegetation and soil samples in these three vegetation forms and submitted obtained data to a canonical correspondence analysis. Our results showed a distinction among hyperseasonal cerrado, seasonal cerrado and wet grassland, which presented different floristic compositions and species abundances. The edaphic variables best related to the hyperseasonal and seasonal cerrados were sand, base saturation, pH, and magnesium. The wet grassland was related to higher concentrations of clay, organic matter, aluminium saturation, aluminium, phosphorus, and potassium. Although it is not possible to infer causal relationships based on our results, we hypothesize that the duration of waterlogging in the hyperseasonal cerrado may not be long enough to alter most of its soil characteristics, such as organic matter, phosphorus, and potassium, but may be long enough to alter some, such as pH and base saturation, as the soils under both cerrados were more similar to one another than to the soil under the wet grassland. Since waterlogging may alter soil characteristics and since these characteristics were enough to explain the plant community variation, we may conclude that water excess—permanent or seasonal—is one of the main factors to distinguish the three vegetation forms, which presented different floristic compositions and species abundances.

  20. Sentidos, sentimientos y sensibilidades (1880-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Barrancos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo problematiza los modos en que sentidos, sentimientos y sensibilidades pueden ser analizados en Argentina en el período 1880-1930. Particularmente los modos en que las sensibilidades sociales pueden ser rastreadas entre las clases sociales y, transversalmente, en las relaciones de género. Para ello se centra en tres segmentos sociales: en primer lugar, en las clases dominantes cuyo poder se asentaba sobre todo en la propiedad de la tierra, en segundo lugar, en las clases medias capitalinas que comenzaron a delinearse desde fines del XIX y, en tercer lugar, en las clases populares incorporadas a la producción y los servicios. Conjuntamente se distingue lo que se corresponde más estrictamente a la diferencia de géneros. Se concluye que resulta indiscutible que varones y mujeres no son asimilables, es justamente en el orden complejo de las sensaciones, emociones y sensibilidades donde se registran las marcas de una imposible identificación de los géneros.

  1. Sentidos, sentimientos y sensibilidades (1880-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Beatriz Barrancos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo problematiza los modos en que sentidos, sentimientos y sensibilidades pueden ser analizados en Argentina en el período 1880-1930. Particularmente los modos en que las sensibilidades sociales pueden ser rastreadas entre las clases sociales y, transversalmente, en las relaciones de género. Para ello se centra en tres segmentos sociales: en primer lugar, en las clases dominantes cuyo poder se asentaba sobre todo en la propiedad de la tierra, en segundo lugar, en las clases medias capitalinas que comenzaron a delinearse desde fines del XIX y, en tercer lugar, en las clases populares incorporadas a la producción y los servicios. Conjuntamente se distingue lo que se corresponde más estrictamente a la diferencia de géneros. Se concluye que resulta indiscutible que varones y mujeres no son asimilables, es justamente en el orden complejo de las sensaciones, emociones y sensibilidades donde se registran las marcas de una imposible identificación de los géneros.

  2. Sobre a diversidade de sentidos de comunidade

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    Silva, Rosalina Carvalho da

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo neste trabalho foi realizar algumas reflexões sobre as implicações da expansão do uso do termo comunidade e sua diversidade de sentidos. Pretendemos discutir os usos indiscriminados do termo nem sempre acompanhados da devida reflexão e crítica. A partir das perspectivas da sociologia, saúde e psicologia social identificamos que o termo ainda permanece arraigado aos ideais de comunidades naturais próprios aos períodos do feudalismo e do pós-revolução industrial. Esta concepção pode camuflar formas impositivas de trabalho em muitos dos quais o termo comunidade é empregado praticamente como sinônimo de população-alvo e participação comunitária é vista meramente como freqüência às atividades propostas por profissionais que determinam quem são as comunidades. Comprometem-se assim, as práticas emancipatórias. Para repensarmos comunidades, hoje, consideramos necessário relevar os aspectos processuais relacionais, dialógicos e identitários em constantes mudanças. Assim, a condição de comunidade extrapola a delimitação geográfica para as possibilidades de pertencimento e participação através dos espaços simbolicamente delimitados

  3. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, José M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area...

  4. Interception of rainfall and surface runoff in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarso Oliveira, Paulo; Wendland, Edson; Nearing, Mark; Perea Martins, João

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado plays a fundamental role in water resources dynamics because it distributes fresh water to the largest basins in Brazil and South America. In recent decades, the native Cerrado vegetation has increasingly been replaced by agricultural crops and pasture. These land cover and land use changes have altered the hydrological processes. Meanwhile, little is known about the components of the water balance in the Brazilian Cerrado, mainly because the experimental field studies in this region are scarce or nonexistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate two hydrological processes under native Cerrado vegetation, the canopy interception (CI) and the surface runoff (R). The Cerrado physiognomy was classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" with an absolute density of 15,278 trees ha-1, and a basal area of 11.44 m2 ha-1. We measured the gross rainfall (P) from an automated tipping bucket rain gauge (model TB4) located in a tower with 11 m of height on the Cerrado. Throughfall (TF) was obtained from 15 automated tipping bucket rain gauges (model Davis) spread below the Cerrado vegetation and randomly relocated every month during the wet season. Stemflow (SF) was measured on 12 trees using a plastic hose wrapped around the trees trunks, sealed with neutral silicone sealant, and a bucket to store the water. The canopy interception was computed by the difference between P and the sum of TF and SF. Surface runoff under undisturbed Cerrado was collected in three plots of 100 m2(5 x 20 m) in size and slope steepness of approximately 0.09 m m-1. The experimental study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2013. We found TF of 81.0% of P and SF of 1.6% of P, i.e. the canopy interception was calculated at 17.4% of P. There was a statistically significant correlation (p 0.8. Our results suggest that the rainfall intensity, the characteristics of the trees trunks (crooked and twisted) and stand structure are the main factors that have influenced

  5. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants Propriedades antifúngicas de plantas do Cerrado brasileiro

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    Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e Souza

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.A atividade antifúngica de extratos etanólicos de folhas de Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis e Lafoensia pacari sobre isolados de dermatófitos foi verificada. Os extratos mais ativos foram os de H. ovalifolia e E. uniflora, enquanto que Trichophyton rubrum foi o dermatófito mais sensível a ação das plantas. Estes dados demonstram as propriedades antifúngicas de plantas do Cerrado em ensaios in vitro.

  6. El sentido humano entre enfermera y paciente

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    Erika Nathalia Rojas-Moreno

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo retoma la Enfermería como una profesión de gran importancia a nivel mundial, no solo por la preparación técnica, científica e investigativa que la caracteriza, sino por aquel sentido humano que la identifica y a la vez la diferencia de todas las demos carreras formativas en el área de la salud. Sin embargo, en la actualidad surge una enorme preocupación debido a que en el ejercicio de la labor, los enfermeros (as se han olvidado que los pacientes, más que instrumentos de trabajo son seres humanos que necesitan de un amigo cercano para superar la enfermedad que afecta su cuerpo y a la vez entristece su espíritu. Por esta razón se retoma la teoría de la Enfermería Psicodinornica de Hildegard E. Peplau a fin de recordar los seis roles frol de extrana, rol de suministradora de recursos, rol de educadora, rol de !icier, rol de sustituta y rol de consejera y las cuatro fases (Orientación, identificación, exploración y resolución], que de manera sencilla y concreta, enmarcan nuestra significativa labor en la relación enfermera-paciente. El ensayo finaliza presentando un breve análisis de lo que una relación de ayuda puede hacer en beneficio de la vida del paciente y del profesional de enfermería puesto que a lo largo del tiempo se ha demostrado que esta, contribuye en gran medida al crecimiento personal del individuo.

  7. El sentido olvidado del patriotismo republicano

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    Viroli, Maurizio

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article Maurizio Viroli shows that although republican patriotism has a cultural dimension it is primarily a political passion based upon the experiencia of citizenship. Patriotism is the love for a free republic and for its way of life: il vivere libero. In this sense republican patriotism is almost the contrary of nationalism. For nationalists patriotism is the love for a modest liberty: the freedom to enjoy in the shadow of the throne one´s dwelling and vineyard in peace. For republican patriots love of country is an artificial passion, for nationalists it is a natural one. As a conclusion, Viroli suggest that republican patriotism is able to answer the dylemas of modern democracy beyond the choice between the myth of civic nationalism and the horror of ethnic nationalism.

    En este artículo Maurizio Viroli muestra que aunque el patriotismo republicano tiene una dimensión cultural es, sobre todo, una pasión política basada en la experiencia de la ciudadanía. Patriotismo es el amor por una república libre y por su forma de vida: il vivere libero. En este sentido, el patriotismo es casi lo opuesto al nacionalismo. Para los nacionalistas el patriotismo es el amor por una libertad más modesta: la libertad de disfrutar a la sombra del trono, y en paz, de la casita y el majuelo. Para los patriotas republicanos el amor por la patria es una pasión artificial, para los nacionalistas es natural. Como conclusión, Viroli sugiere que el patriotismo republicano es capaz de responder a los dilemas de la democracia moderna al ir más allá de la elección entre el mito del nacionalismo cívico y el horror del nacionalismo étnico.

  8. Effects of soil and space on the woody species composition and vegetation structure of three Cerrado phytophysiognomies in the Cerrado-Amazon transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maracahipes-Santos, L; Lenza, E; Santos, J O; Mews, H A; Oliveira, B

    2017-11-01

    The Cerrado Biome is considered one of the world's biodiversity hotspots because of its rich biodiversity, the high level of endemism and the increasing threat. The Cerrado is composed by a mosaic of different vegetation types, including physiognomies that vary from grasslands (campo limpo) to savannas (typical cerrado or cerrado sensu stricto) and cerrado woodlands (cerradão). However, the factors that determine the composition of the Cerrado's flora and the structure of the physiognomies that compose this biome are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the influence of the chemical and granulometric properties of the soil and the effect of geographic distance on the occurrence and abundance of woody species in three Cerrado phytophysiognomies - cerrado woodland (cerradão), dense cerrado savanna and typical cerrado savanna - in the Cerrado-Amazon transition. We tested the hypothesis that the edaphic characteristics and geographic space determine the species composition and the structure of the woody vegetation of these three phytophysiognomies. We demonstrate that the dissimilarities in the structure and composition of the three sites were determined more by space (13% of explanation) than edaphic properties (1%), but primarily by the interaction between these two factors (26%). We conclude that, in situations where the chemical and granulometric properties of the soil are relatively homogeneous, as we found in the present study, geographic distance between sites has a greater influence than variation in the substrate's properties on modelling the occurrence and abundance of the woody plant species in the Cerrado.

  9. Molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J C B; Silva, I A; Ferreira, H D; Ferri, P H; Santos, S C

    2002-08-01

    Alcoholic extracts of six Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plants were evaluated for their molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of schistosomiasis. Stryphnodendron polyphyllum bark extract, rich in condensed tannins, was the most promising as molluscicide.

  10. A FLORA DO CERRADO E SUAS FORMAS DE APROVEITAMENTO UTILIZATION OF CERRADO FLORA

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    Cynthia Santos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para colher informações sobre as formas de utilização do cerrado, realizou-se um levantamento por meio de questionários aplicados nas regiões do país onde ocorre esse tipo de vegetação. As informações solicitadas foram: nome comum, local de ocorrência, época de floração, frutificação, partes utilizáveis e seu aproveitamento geral. Encontrou-se um número superior a 170 espécies que são utilizadas das mais diferentes formas. As famílias que se destacam em número de espécies são, em ordem decrescente: Leguminosae, Palmae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Compositae, Vochysiaceae, Annonaceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae, Convolvulaceae, Boraginaceae, Moraceae, Dilleniaceae, Guttiferae, Gentianaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Colchospermaceae, Bromeliaceae, Tiliacea, e Sapotaceae, entre outras de menor utilização.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cerrado; flora nativa; flora do cerrado; savana; savana flora.

    The uses of Brazilian cerrado vegetation were surveyed by means of a questionnaire, requesting common name, local of occurrence, flowering and fruitage time, usable parts and general utilization. Over 170 species were found, with a wide variety of uses. In decreasing order, the most frequent families were: Leguminosae, Palmae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Compositae, Vochysiaceae, Annonaceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae, Convolvulaceae, Boraginaceae, Moraceae,

  11. Archaea diversity in vegetation gradients from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Ademir Sergio Ferreira de; Mendes, Lucas Wiliam; Bezerra, Walderly Melgaço; Nunes, Luis Alfredo Pinheiro Leal; Lyra, Maria do Carmo Catanho Pereira de; Figueiredo, Marcia do Vale Barreto; Melo, Vania Maria Maciel

    2018-02-11

    We used 16S rRNA sequencing to assess the archaeal communities across a gradient of Cerrado. The archaeal communities differed across the gradient. Crenarcheota was the most abundant phyla, with Nitrosphaerales and NRPJ as the predominant classes. Euryachaeota was also found across the Cerrado gradient, including the classes Metanocellales and Methanomassiliicoccaceae. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. New Ravenelia species on leguminous hosts from the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    REZENDE, DENISE V.; DIANESE, JOSÉ C.

    2001-01-01

    Four new Ravenelia species were described on native leguminous hosts from the Brazilian Cerrado, as follows: Ravenelia cerradensis sp. nov., R. chapadensis sp. nov., R. mineirosensis sp. nov. and R. emaensis sp. nov. on Chamaecrista clausenii var. cyclophylla, Chamaecriista conferta var. virgata, Anadenanthera colubrina var. colubrina, and on Anadenanthera sp., respectively. Quatro espécies novas de Ravenelia foram descritas em leguminosas do Cerrado brasileiro, a saber: Ravenelia cerraden...

  13. O direito à informação e o (ainda restrito espaço cidadão no Jornalismo Popular impresso

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    Marise Baesso Tristão

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva mostrar como na era da informação o Jornalismo, muitas vezes, negligencia o estímulo ao exercício da cidadania, em especial o Jornalismo realizado pelos meios de Comunicação de grande circulação. Estes veículos, em geral, não priorizam temas que colaboram para a formação e o espírito crítico. A análise será focada nos jornais ditos populares, em especial o Super Notícia, periódico fundado em 2002, que se tornou o veículo impresso mais vendido no país, mas com circulação restrita aos municípios mineiros. A pertinência do assunto se dá já que os periódicos populares apresentam grande circulação e, muitas vezes, são a única fonte de leitura das chamadas classes subalternas. Para o estudo, utilizamos a Análise de Conteúdo. Entendemos que o espaço para o Jornalismo Comunitário é restrito, enquanto há ênfase em assuntos relacionados com o crime, os astros de TV e o futebol. No entanto, é preciso buscar este espaço e não apenas ficar no campo da crítica.

  14. Escala de Autoeficácia para a Atividade com Sentido: Encontrando sentido no envelhecimento ativo

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    Albertina Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available // Objetivos: O presente artigo apresenta um estudo que visa aprofundar as qualidades psicométricas da Escala de Autoeficácia para a Atividade com Sentido (EAASentido, através de análises de fidelidade e validade. A escala foi desenvolvida a partir dos constructos teóricos da autoeficácia, da aprendizagem autodirigida e da atividade de pessoas de idade avançada no âmbito do projeto europeu PALADIN, com o objetivo de criar um instrumento apto a avaliar até que ponto os seniores se sentem confiantes para realizarem atividades com sentido, por si próprios.   Método: A investigação é de natureza não experimental e incidiu sobre uma amostra de 503 seniores e idosos das regiões Norte e Centro de Portugal com uma média etária de 71,66 (51 a 96 anos a quem foram aplicadas a EAASentido, a Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg (Rosenberg, 1989, a Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (Watson e Clark, 1994, a Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985, o Meaning in Life Questionnaire (Steger, Frazier, Oishi e Kaler, 2006, a Escala de Autoeficácia para a Autodireção na Saúde (Oliveira, 2011 e a Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (Lawton e Brody, 1969.   Resultados: A consistência interna encontrada foi de 0,94 (alfa de Cronbach e a validade de constructo revelou muito bons indicadores. No que respeita à análise de componentes principais, os resultados apontaram para três dimensões e não as cinco inicialmente previstas: atividades de desenvolvimento pessoal e participação social, atividades instrumentais, e atividades espirituais/religiosas. Analisadas as saturações dos itens propôs-se a reformulação da escala, eliminando cinco itens. A consistência interna global dos 15 itens manteve-se elevada (0,92.   Conclusões: Conclui-se que a EAASentido, com 15 itens, é bastante consistente e adequada para avaliar em que medida os seniores têm confiança na sua capacidade para se envolverem em atividades com

  15. Molecular phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with soil of the savanna-like Cerrado vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirino, Betania F; Pappas, Georgios J; Tagliaferro, Andrea C; Collevatti, Rosane G; Neto, Eduardo Leonardecz; da Silva, Maria Regina S S; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Krüger, Ricardo H

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian savanna-like vegetation of Cerrado is rapidly being converted to pasture and agricultural fields. A 16S rDNA-based approach was taken to study the bacterial community associated with the soil of a native cerrado area (sensu stricto) and an area that has been converted to pasture. The bacterial group most abundantly identified in cerrado sensu stricto soil was the alpha-Proteobacteria while in cerrado converted to pasture the Actinobacteria were the most abundant. Rarefaction curves indicate that the species richness of cerrado sensu stricto is greater than that of cerrado converted to pasture. Furthermore, lineage-through-time plots show that the expected richness of species present in cerrado sensu stricto soil is approximately 10 times greater than that of cerrado converted to pasture.

  16. Dynamics Of A Rodent Assemblage In A Cerrado Of Southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira M.V.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal variation of densities of cerrado rodents have been studied mostly near the center of cerrado phytogeographic province. Herein, I describe the dynamics of a rodent assemblage at the southern border of the cerrado province, in Itirapina, SP. Density was estimated by mark-recapture from September 1985 through September 1986, on a 1.32ha grid composed mostly of campo cerrado. Four rodents were captured, Clyomys bishopi, Oryzomys subflavus, Oligoryzomys eliurus, and Bolomys lasiurus. The...

  17. The mammalian faunas endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Marinho-Filho, Jader

    2017-01-01

    We undertook a comprehensive, critical review of literature concerning the distribution, conservation status, and taxonomy of species of mammals endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga, the two largest biomes of the South American Dry-Diagonal. We present species accounts and lists of species, which we built with criteria that, in our opinion, yielded results with increased scientific rigor relative to previously published lists - e.g., excluding nominal taxa whose statuses as species have been claimed only on the basis of unpublished data, incomplete taxonomic work, or weak evidence. For various taxa, we provided arguments regarding species distributions, conservation and taxonomic statuses previously lacking in the literature. Two major findings are worth highlighting. First, we unveil the existence of a group of species endemic to both the Cerrado and the Caatinga (i.e., present in both biomes and absent in all other biomes). From the biogeographic point of view, this group, herein referred to as Caatinga-Cerrado endemics, deserves attention as a unit - just as in case of the Caatinga-only and the Cerrado-only endemics. We present preliminary hypotheses on the origin of these three endemic faunas (Cerrado-only, Caatinga-only, and Caatinga-Cerrado endemics). Secondly, we discovered that a substantial portion of the endemic mammalian faunas of the Caatinga and the Cerrado faces risks of extinction that are unrecognized in the highly influential Red List of Threatened Species published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). "Data deficient" is a category that misrepresents the real risks of extinction of these species considering that (a) some of these species are known only from a handful of specimens collected in a single or a few localities long ago; (b) the Cerrado and the Caatinga have been sufficiently sampled to guarantee collection of additional specimens of these species if they were abundant; (c) natural habitats of the Cerrado and

  18. Seasonality effect on the allelopathy of cerrado species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, A B; Takao, L K; Pereira, V C; Ferreira, A G; Lima, M I S; Gualtieri, S C J

    2014-08-01

    The Brazilian cerrado presents strong climate seasonality. During the dry season, plants may be exposed to stressful situations, such as a soil surface water deficit, that stimulate their chemical defenses. However, the seasonality effect on the production of allelopathic compounds of cerrado plant species is poorly understood. In this study, the phytotoxic activities of common native cerrado plants were evaluated during rainy and dry seasons. Crude leaves extracts (10% concentration: weight/volume, with dry leaves and distilled water) from eleven species were tested on lettuce and sesame germination. The negative effects on germination percentages, rates and informational entropies of the target species were higher when submitted to plant extracts from the dry season, where the germination rate was the most sensible parameter. The higher sensibility of lettuce and the germination rate parameter showed this difference. Only two exceptions had higher effects for rainy season extracts; one species showed higher negative effects on germination informational entropy of lettuce and another species on the germination rate of sesame. Thus, increases in the allelopathic activity were seen in the majority of the studied cerrado plant species during the dry season. These distinct responses to stressful situations in a complex environment such as the Brazilian cerrado may support the establishment and survival of some species.

  19. Mapping the Cerrado vegetation classes using Rapid Eye imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Davis, F. W.; Nackoney, J.; Antunes Daldegan, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Cerrado biome is a world's important biodiversity hotspot. Its natural vegetation is being severely converted by agriculture and pasture, with a large risk to be reduced into small fragments. The Cerrado is the second largest biome of South America and is considered the most floristically diverse savanna in the world. Its vegetation is divided into three major physiognomies: grassland, forest and savanna. The main objective of this study is to classify the major vegetation classes of the Cerrado and its converted areas. A very common issue faced by scientists when using remote sensing to map the Cerrado's vegetation is finding some confusion between the vegetation and the converted areas. It is believed that satellites with a finer spatial resolution would help improve the classification of this biome. In order to test this hypothesis, we have selected the RapidEye 3A imagery for the year 2012 to use in this work. Decision Trees method were tested in this work to classify the vegetation classes with an effective result. Mapping the Cerrado classes and its converted areas is very important to understand and develop studies to monitor its land use change and prioritize areas for conservation.

  20. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna Soils.

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    Alinne Pereira de Castro

    Full Text Available The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  1. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  2. Electronic Library of Embrapa Cerrados: user study

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    Maria Elisabeth Salviati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper presents the results of research conducted with Electronic Library users – website, created in 2004 by Embrapa Cerrados, that organizes, stores, and provides full text of the technical scientific production published by the Institution. Objective: To explore the user profile and to make an accurate assessment of the website. Methodology: Data collection of demographic aspects; habits; and search features: navigation, loading time of pages, help, layout and terminology by an online survey. Analysis by SPSS software - Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: The main users are students and agronomists, young people up to 30 years old, coming from the Federal District, belonging to universities and high schools wishing to update knowledge. After, appear the users of public agencies; private companies; Embrapa; agribusiness; federal government; schools; associations and non-governmental organizations; rural extension; cooperatives and syndicates. These users have no difficulties to use the service. Conclusions: The service works well, but some suggestions are useful to improve it. In addition, little demand coming from farms, ranches, rural extension services, cooperatives and syndicates indicates the need to design new products and services oriented to such public.

  3. O sentido da espiritualidade na transitoriedade da vida

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    Isabel Cristina de Oliveira Arrieira

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: Compreender o sentido da espiritualidade para a pessoa em cuidados paliativos. Métodos: Abordagem qualitativa, fundamentada na fenomenologia existencialista e referencial de Viktor Frankl. Os participantes foram nove pessoas em cuidados paliativos atendidas no domicílio. Informações coletadas por meio da observação e de entrevista realizadas no período de junho a outubro de 2014, gravadas, transcritas e transformadas em texto interpretado com a abordagem fenomenológica hermenêutica. Resultados: Surgiram as seguintes categorias: sentido de continuidade da vida; sentido de alívio do sofrimento; sentido de naturalidade da morte e sentido de valorização do viver. Conclusão: Para a integralidade da atenção faz-se necessário a inclusão da espiritualidade na prática do cuidado em saúde. A espiritualidade proporciona o encontro existencial entre a pessoa em cuidados paliativos e os profissionais que a cuidam em sua integralidade.

  4. Mapping Fire Scars in the Brazilian Cerrado Using AVHRR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavka, C. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Brass, J. A.; Rezendez, A.; Alexander, S.; Guild, L. S.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian cerrado, or savanna, spans an area of 1,800,000 square kilometers on the great plateau of Central Brazil. Large fires covering hundreds of square kilometers, frequently occur in wildland areas of the cerrado, dominated by grasslands or grasslands mixed with shrubs and small trees, and also within area in the cerrado used for agricultural purposes, particularly for grazing. Smaller fires, typically extending over arm of a few square kilometers or less, are associated with the clewing of crops, such as dry land rice. A method for mapping fire scars and differentiating them from extensive areas of bare sod with AVHRR bands 1 (.55 -.68 micrometer) and 3 (3.5 - 3.9 micrometers) and measures of performance based on comparison with maps of fires with Landsat imagery will be presented. Methods of estimating total area burned from the AVHRR fire scar map will be discussed and related to land use and scar size.

  5. Mundo e sentido na obra de Viktor Frankl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, Ivo Studart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se investigar um ponto central na obra do psiquiatra austriáco Viktor Frankl, criador da Logoterapia: as acepções para o termo "sentido da vida". Em nosso entendimento, o tema concerne, fundamentalmente, a visão de mundo que alicerça a mencionada escola psicológica, constituindo uma categoria chave para uma compreensão mais adequada do pensamento do autor. O traçado lógico do artigo esforçou-se em explicitar a discussão a respeito da objetividade do sentido e sua relação com a gênese dos valores. Por fim, o texto foi articulado conclusivamente para defender a existência de uma fundação de mundo a partir do sentido, no escopo teórico da Logoterapia

  6. Scarabaeoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera) no Cerrado brasileiro: estado atual do conhecimento

    OpenAIRE

    Luçardo,Milena; Oliveira,Charles Martins de; Frizzas,Marina Regina

    2014-01-01

    Besouros pertencentes à superfamília Scarabaeoidea ocupam habitats variados, possuem hábitos alimentares diversificados, desempenham importante papel ecológico e diversas espécies apresentam importância agrícola. No entanto, estudos com esse grupo na região do Cerrado são escassos. Nesta revisão realizou-se um levantamento dos artigos publicados nos últimos 30 anos a respeito dos Scarabaeoidea no Cerrado. Foram recuperados 64 artigos, realizados em nove unidades da federação, que focavam quat...

  7. Sentido nas perspectivas de Frege e de Wittgenstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Henrique Lima MOREIRA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse texto é apresentar as concepções de sentido dos dois autores anunciados aqui, pois ambos têm concepções com aproximações e diferenciações. Frege cria uma teoria da linguagem que diferencia sentido e referência, salvaguardando as sentenças sem valor de verdade. Segundo ele, existe um discurso que não tem valor de verdade, mas que é significativo, pois é um discurso possuidor de sentido. Esse discurso, no entanto, não pode almejar o status de científico, pois para isso teria que ter também referência, ou seja, valor de verdade. Já Wittgenstein tem uma concepção de sentido que se pauta na bipolaridade da proposição, não sendo exigido dela que denote algo, i.e., que tenha referência também. Com isso, o que não tem essa propriedade fica condenado ao âmbito da não-linguagem. A diferença, portanto, é que Wittgenstein não exige um correspondente referencial para a sentença, cabendo-lhe descrever um estado de coisas [possíveis].

  8. Hipertexto e construção do sentido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingedore G. Villaça Koch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste artigo é, partindo de um levantamento das principais características do hipertexto, discutir a questão da construção do sentido no hipertexto e, portanto, da sua coerência.

  9. Hipertexto e construção do sentido

    OpenAIRE

    Ingedore G. Villaça Koch

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é, partindo de um levantamento das principais características do hipertexto, discutir a questão da construção do sentido no hipertexto e, portanto, da sua coerência.

  10. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects.

  11. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo C Pereira Júnior

    Full Text Available Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008 for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects.

  12. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, José M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  13. Curve number estimation from Brazilian Cerrado rainfall and runoff data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Curve Number (CN) method has been widely used to estimate runoff from rainfall events in Brazil, however, CN values for use in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) are poorly documented. In this study we used experimental plots to measure natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff under undisturbed Cerr...

  14. Soil organic matter dynamics in a Cerrado Oxisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the second largest biome in the country, spreading over 23 % of the national territory. In the last three decades, it has increasingly contributed to the national production, being responsible in 1995 for 25% of the national agricultural production and sheltering 40% of the

  15. Effects of soil and space on the woody species composition and vegetation structure of three Cerrado phytophysiognomies in the Cerrado-Amazon transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Maracahipes-Santos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Cerrado Biome is considered one of the world's biodiversity hotspots because of its rich biodiversity, the high level of endemism and the increasing threat. The Cerrado is composed by a mosaic of different vegetation types, including physiognomies that vary from grasslands (campo limpo to savannas (typical cerrado or cerrado sensu stricto and cerrado woodlands (cerradão. However, the factors that determine the composition of the Cerrado’s flora and the structure of the physiognomies that compose this biome are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the influence of the chemical and granulometric properties of the soil and the effect of geographic distance on the occurrence and abundance of woody species in three Cerrado phytophysiognomies – cerrado woodland (cerradão, dense cerrado savanna and typical cerrado savanna – in the Cerrado-Amazon transition. We tested the hypothesis that the edaphic characteristics and geographic space determine the species composition and the structure of the woody vegetation of these three phytophysiognomies. We demonstrate that the dissimilarities in the structure and composition of the three sites were determined more by space (13% of explanation than edaphic properties (1%, but primarily by the interaction between these two factors (26%. We conclude that, in situations where the chemical and granulometric properties of the soil are relatively homogeneous, as we found in the present study, geographic distance between sites has a greater influence than variation in the substrate’s properties on modelling the occurrence and abundance of the woody plant species in the Cerrado.

  16. A vontade de sentido na obra de Viktor Frankl

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    Ivo Studart Pereira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, procurou-se investigar um ponto central na obra do psiquiatra austríaco, criador da Logoterapia, Viktor Frankl: o conceito de "vontade de sentido". Em nosso entendimento, o tema concerne fundamentalmente à visão de homem que alicerça a referida escola psicológica, constituindo uma categoria chave para uma compreensão mais adequada do pensamento do autor. O traçado lógico do artigo busca relacionar essa categoria à explicitação do caráter autotranscendente da existência humana. Por fi m, o texto foi articulado conclusivamente para defender um descentramento do indivíduo em favor do sentido.

  17. "Os Sentidos do Adoecer: Refazendo o Percurso Freudiano"

    OpenAIRE

    InÃs Maria de Oliveira Reis

    2008-01-01

    Ao tomar referÃncia à abordagem psicanalÃtica, esta pesquisa se propÃe a uma revisÃo bibliogrÃfica sobre Os Sentidos do Adoecer: refazendo o percurso freudiano, escolhendo como objetivos investigar os sentidos, os mecanismos e as manifestaÃÃes envolvidas no Ãmbito do adoecer psÃquico. A metodologia baseia-se numa pesquisa qualitativa feita atravÃs de uma anÃlise de conteÃdo de um total de 75 resumos selecionados. Buscam-se, em cada resumo, os significados de conteÃdo; escolhem-se dez Ãreas te...

  18. Atitude religiosa e sentido da vida: um estudo correlacional

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    Thiago Antônio Avellar de Aquino

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa abordou o sentido da vida (Viktor Frankl e a atitude religiosa. Para a logoterapia, a religiosidade não significa necessariamente a opção por uma crença religiosa, mas pode ser uma das possíveis maneiras de o homem encontrar sentido para a vida. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre o sentido de vida e a atitude religiosa de forma transversal e correlacional. A amostra foi composta por 300 sujeitos de ambos os sexos, 37% homens e 63% mulheres, com idade média de 42 anos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Teste Propósito de Vida (PIL-Test, de James C. Crumbauch e Leonard T. Maholick, e a Escala de Atitude Religiosa/Espiritualidade, de Aquino. Os resultados apontam correlações positivas entre a atitude religiosa e a realização existencial, a atitude religiosa e a idade, o desespero existencial e o vazio existencial e a realização existencial e a idade, havendo também correlações negativas entre a atitude religiosa e o desespero existencial, a atitude religiosa e o vazio existencial, o desespero existencial e a realização existencial e o vazio existencial e a realização existencial. Concluiu-se que a atitude religiosa é uma forma de encontro de sentido de vida bem como um elemento de prevenção do vazio existencial e do desespero existencial.

  19. CARACTERIZAÇÃO QUÍMICA E FÍSICA DE FRUTOS DE CURRIOLA, GABIROBA E MURICI PROVENIENTES DO CERRADO BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARESSA CALDEIRA MORZELLE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O bioma Cerrado apresenta uma variedade de espécies frutíferas detentoras de características sensoriais peculiares pouco exploradas científica e comercialmente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização química, física e nutricional dos frutos de curriola (Pouteria ramiflora, gabiroba (Campomanesia cambessedeana e murici (Byrsonima verbascifolia, nativos do Cerrado brasileiro. A gabiroba apresentou elevada quantidade de vitamina C (383,33 mg/100g, bem como uma proporção significativa de polpa (81,52%. Por sua vez, a curriola apresentou teores consideráveis de fibra bruta (8,18%, enquanto o murici apresentou uma quantidade considerável de pectina (746,81 mg/100g, lipídeos (2,31% e um expressivo potencial antioxidante (56 mg DPPH/g fruto. Desta forma, os resultados obtidos servem como base para pesquisas futuras no sentido da comprovação da presença de compostos bioativos e elaboração de produtos visando à agregação de valor aos frutos.

  20. Diversidade sexual e ensino de ciências: buscando sentidos

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    Leandro Jorge Coelho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo desse estudo foi analisar os sentidos atribuídos por professores de Ciências e alunos à diversidade sexual. Foram utilizados: questionário, entrevista, produção de textos, análise documental e a técnica de grupo focal para a coleta de dados. De modo geral, os alunos possuem sentidos que reconhecem Lésbicas, Gays, Bissexuais e Transgêneros (LGBT como "estranhos", mesmo assim, acreditam que têm o dever de respeitar as escolhas de cada um. As travestis foram declaradamente apresentadas com repúdio por eles, sendo a homossexualidade e bissexualidade aparentemente mais aceitas. Os professores parecem manter aulas que não abordam estas questões, mesmo o Ensino de Ciências, sendo um momento privilegiado para problematizações sobre diversidade sexual e gênero. É necessário investir em discussões sobre esses temas na formação inicial e continuada de professores, buscando a construção de novos sentidos e práticas que se preocupem com o desvelamento de significados preconceituosos sobre gênero e diversidade sexual.

  1. Mapping of Phytoecological Units of the ’Cerrados’ of the Central Plateaus of Brazil,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mapping of phytoecological units in the Region of Cerrado , of Brazil, has the purpose of giving a global view of the result obtained through the...mapping of a big extension of the country’s vegetation cover, where predominates the ’ cerrado ’. The phytoecological units represent the close links...which, besides several ’ cerrado ’ physiognomies, some forests were found. On the north of the area it occurs the contact between the dominium of the

  2. Por que não distinguir sentido próprio de sentido figurado em Saussure e em Ducrot?

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    Leci Borges Barbisan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Este texto propõe uma reflexão sobre as noções clássicas de sentido próprio e de sentido figurado, com base em princípios e conceitos apresentados por Ferdinand de Saussure, no Curso de linguística geral e nos Escritos de linguística geral, e por Oswald Ducrot, a propósito da postulação da tese de que a argumentação está na língua. Dentre os conceitos saussurianos mais importantes para as reflexões feitas ao longo deste texto, destacam-se os de arbitrário, de relação e de valor. Ganha o acento este último conceito da teoria de Saussure, visto que é baseado nele e na noção de alteridade apresentada por Platão, em O Sofista, que Ducrot rejeita a existência de um aspecto objetivo na linguagem e une os aspectos subjetivo e intersubjetivo ‒ constitutivos do sentido de enunciados ‒ no que chamou de valor argumentativo. Mantendo-se, portanto, fiel ao modo saussuriano de olhar para a linguagem, Ducrot construiu a Teoria da Argumentação na Língua ‒ « L'Argumentation Dans la Langue » ‒ e defende, até o momento atual da teoria, a hipótese que rejeita a distinção dos tradicionalmente chamados sentidos denotativo e conotativo.

  3. Efeito do fogo em comunidades de pequenos mamiferos de cerrado do Brasil Central

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson Monteiro Vieira

    1994-01-01

    Resumo: O Cerrado é um tipo de vegetação onde ocorrem cerca de 60 espécies de pequenos mamíferos. Embora estejam sujeitas a queimadas freqüentes, muito pouco se sabe sobre o efeito do fogo nas comunidades de pequenos mamíferos de áreas de cerrado. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar o efeito de queimadas em comunidades de pequenos mamíferos de áreas de cerrado, submetidas a diferentes regimes de queima. Estabeleci grades de armadilhas em duas áreas de cerrado com diferentes históricos de quei...

  4. Fraccionamientos Cerrados Residenciales, Productores de Inseguridad Urbana Subjetiva

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Isabel Galaviz Mosqueda; Reyna Valladares Anguiano; Martha Chávez

    2014-01-01

    Independientemente del tamaño, de la importancia o las particularidades de las ciudades y sus sociedades, las condiciones de aislamiento y encerramiento sociourbano de los fraccionamientos cerrados residenciales de clase alta enfatizan aspectos subjetivos de inseguridad urbana como percepción de riesgo, imaginarios del miedo y sentimientos de inseguridad. Con método descriptivo-correlacional o estrategia no experimental mixta, este estudio muestra el impacto de lo mencionado en la vida cot...

  5. Spatial heterogeneity of soils of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Codolo de Lucena

    Full Text Available In areas of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Brazil, the soil displays features which are inherent to the processes of soil formation, both of the Central Plateau and the Pantanal Plain. Given this premise, the area should be noteworthy for its high level of edaphic heterogeneity. The present study aimed to determine the physical, chemical and physico-hydric attributes that best explain the heterogeneity of soils in areas of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone, and to assess whether these attributes differ between the studied fragments and between the Cerrado soils of the Central Plateau and of the Pantanal Plain. One hundred and sixty soil samples were collected and 11 profiles described for five areas of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone (15º43' S, 56º04' W. The following classes were identified: typic Concretionary Petric Plinthosol; typic Lithoplintic Petric Plinthosol; typic dystrophic Yellow Latosol; dystrophic Yellow Latosol with plinthite, the last three not yet having been described for this region. The chemical attributes CEC, M, OM, K, P, Mg, Ca and Mn explained 40.49% of the variability of the soils in the region under study, whether differing or not between the studied fragments. Spatial distribution of the attributes varied between random and aggregated, with the chemical attributes CEC, K, Ca and Mg being similar to soils of the Pantanal Plain. Whereas Al, P and Mn, as well as the hydric variables, were similar to the Plateau. On the other hand, the average organic matter content, pH, gravel and pebbles, were characteristic of both the Plateau and the Plain.

  6. MODIFICAÇÕES NA ESTABILIDADE DE AGREGADOS NO SOLO DECORRENTES DA INTRODUÇÃO DE PASTAGENS EM ÁREAS DE CERRADO E FLORESTA AMAZÔNICA

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    Regina Márcia Longo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os impactos decorrentes da remoção das coberturas originais e seu posterior uso agrícola tomando-se, para tanto, duas distintas condições fisiográficas brasileiras - cerrado e floresta amazônica, tendo como atributos primordiais de análise as modificações da estrutura/agregação dos solos. As áreas selecionadas para as investigações foram Porto Velho, RO (floresta e Senador Canedo, GO (cerrado de ocorrência de Latossolos argilosos, cujas amostras foram coletadas ao longo de transeções contendo 24 pontos (pequenas trincheiras de 60 cm de profundidade, 12 sob vegetação natural (floresta e cerrado e 12 sob pastagem plantada, em cada uma das áreas de estudo; em seguida, estas foram analisadas quanto à distribuição e estabilidade de agregados em água. Verificou-se diminuição acentuada no diâmetro médio dos agregados (DMP no sentido vegetação natural-pastagem, sendo mais pronunciada na região do cerrado; de maneira geral, os maiores valores foram observados na região amazônica em que a remoção da cobertura vegetal original promoveu efeitos negativos sobre os atributos dos solos estudados, notadamente sobre a estrutura/agregação dos mesmos, mostrando a fragilidade dos solos dos ecossistemas brasileiros, quando submetidos ao cultivo.

  7. Species convergence into life-forms in a hyperseasonal cerrado in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I A; Batalha, M A

    2008-05-01

    Whether the functional structure of ecological communities is deterministic or historically contingent is still quite controversial. However, recent experimental tests did not find effects of species composition variation on trait convergence and therefore the environmental constraints should play the major role on community convergence into functional groups. Seasonal cerrados are characterized by a sharp seasonality, in which the water shortage defines the community functioning. Hyperseasonal cerrados experience additionally waterlogging in the rainy season. Here, we asked whether waterlogging modifies species convergences into life-forms in a hyperseasonal cerrado. We studied a hyperseasonal cerrado, comparing it with a nearby seasonal cerrado, never waterlogged, in Emas National Park, central Brazil. In each area, we sampled all vascular plants by placing 40 plots of 1 m(2) plots in four surveys. We analyzed the species convergences into life-forms in both cerrados using the Raunkiaer's life-form spectrum and the index of divergence from species to life-form diversity (IDD). The overall life-form spectra and IDDs were not different, indicating that waterlogging did not affect the composition of functional groups in the hyperseasonal cerrado. However, there was a seasonal variation in IDD values only in the hyperseasonal cerrado. As long as we did not find a seasonal variation in life-form diversity, the seasonal variation of convergence into life-forms in the hyperseasonal cerrado was a consequence of the seasonal variation of species diversity. Because of high functional redundancy of cerrado plants, waterlogging promoted a floristic replacement without major changes in functional groups. Thus, waterlogging in the hyperseasonal cerrado promoted seasonal changes in species convergence into life-forms by reducing species diversity.

  8. Padrão filogenético de comunidades do cerrado : evolução e biogeografia = Phylogenetic pattern of cerrado communities: evolution and biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Almozara Aranha

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Investigamos o padrão filogenético de comunidades silvestres do cerrado sensu lato. No primeiro capítulo utilizamos o padrão filogenético para investigar se há maior influência do tipo de solo ou do regime de fogo sobre a organização de algumas comunidades silvestres do cerrado. No município de Itirapina, estados de São Paulo amostraram espécies silvestres de cinco comunidades de cerrado com diferentes fitofisionomias, classificadas em protegidas e desprotegidas do fogo em solos areno...

  9. El sentido del chisme en una comunidad de pobres urbanos

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Fasano; Aurora Ruiu; Juan M. Giménez; Alejandro Ramírez; Ana Aymá; Natalia Savulsky

    2009-01-01

    El artículo interpreta el sentido del chisme como práctica comunicacional en una comunidad barrial pobre urbana de la ciudad de Paraná (Argentina). A través de un estudio etnográfico realizado en el barrio La Pasarela (también denominado Belgrano) en los años 2002 y 2003, los autores muestran cómo la práctica del chisme pone en forma -da forma, performa- algunas características específicas de la socialidad de la pobreza urbana, constituyendo especialmente una manifestación paradigmática del l...

  10. Grupo de sala de espera: sentidos do envelhecimento humano

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Sandoval Moreira Jr.; Marisa Japur

    2003-01-01

    Este trabalho parte da consideração do envelhecimento humano como experiência heterogênea. Busca pôr em diálogo o grupo de sala de espera, recorrendo ao construcionismo social, para descrevê-lo como prática discursiva. Problematizando essa modalidade de intervenção psicológica, nesse estudo objetivamos descrever o processo de produção de sentidos sobre o envelhecimento humano nesse contexto. Dez grupos de sala de espera, gravados e transcritos, foram pré-analisados favorecendo a escolha de um...

  11. Sentidos sobre Beleza Feminina no Blog Blogueiras Feministas.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Thais de Camargo

    2016-01-01

    O presente estudo propõe uma análise dos discursos sobre beleza feminina de um dos blogs feministas mais acessados no Brasil, o Blogueiras Feministas, e objetivou identificar os sentidos produzidos sobre os corpos das mulheres e os padrões sociais de beleza impostos, por meio da análise da produção discursiva das autoras do blog e dos comentários suscitados ao longo de 2014. Para tanto, na metodologia, foram utilizados o arcabouço teórico do Construcionismo Social, das teori...

  12. Felicidad subjetiva, sentido del humor y personalidad en la docencia

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Torres, Lucía; Perandones González, Teresa María

    2017-01-01

    La investigación pretende analizar, en primer lugar, la relación que existe entre diferentes variables psicológicas de los docentes, esto es, felicidad subjetiva, sentido del humor y personalidad. En segundo lugar, determinar la estructura factorial de dichas variables. Formaron parte del estudio 454 docentes (24.4% hombres y 65.6% mujeres), con una edad media de 40.4 años (DT = 10.50) y una experiencia profesional media de 14.03 años. El 15% trabajaba en Educación Infantil (n = 68), el 26.2%...

  13. O Casamento e a TPM: novos tempos, novos sentidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Boemler Hollenbach

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é analisar a forma como a revista TPM, Trip Para Mulher, criada para ser uma alternativa às revistas femininas tradicionais, trata do tema casamento. A partir dos pressupostos teóricos da Análise de Discurso Francesa, a investigação procurou encontrar os sentidos dominantes a respeito do casamento nas matérias publicadas na revista entre Abril e Julho de 2003, concluindo que o casamento ainda é considerado importante e desejável para as mulheres.

  14. Produção de serrapilheira no Cerrado e Floresta de Transição Amazônia-Cerrado do Centro-Oeste Brasileiro Litterfall production in the Brazilian mid-western Amazonia-Cerrado transition forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a variação da produção de serrapilheira de diferentes biomas: Cerrado (com as fitofisionomias Cerrado sensu stricto e Cerradão e Floresta de Transição Amazônia-Cerrado, em clima tropical. Para a determinação da produção de serrapilheira foram utilizados coletores de tela em náilon. Dados micrometereológicos foram coletados nas áreas de estudo. A produção de serrapilheira nos dois biomas mostrou acentuada sazonalidade, com as maiores produções ocorrendo durante a estação seca e menor durante a estação chuvosa. A maior produção de serrapilheira ocorreu na Floresta de Transição, seguida do bioma Cerrado. A fração de folhas foi mais representativa do que as frações de galhos, flores, frutos em ambas as áreas estudadas.The objective of the present work was to verify the variation of litterfall production of different biomass: a cerrado ("savanna" with vegetation types Cerrado sensu stricto ("orchard-like vegetation" and Cerradão ("woodland-like vegetation" and Amazonia-Cerrado transition forest in a tropical climate. To determine the litterfall production, we used nylon screen traps. Micrometereologic data was collected in both areas of study. The litterfall in two biomass revealed themselves as seasonal, with the highest productions occurring during the dry season and the lowest during the wet. The biggest litterfall occurred in the Transition Forest, followed by the Cerrado biome. Leaf fraction was more representative than twigs, flowers, fruits in both areas studied.

  15. Tillage effects on soil organic matter in density fractions of a Cerrado Oxisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.; Buurman, P.

    2003-01-01

    Reclamation of Brazilian cerrados (savannas) has been intensified in the last decades, with implications for soil quality and soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics. Studying the impact of different tillage systems is essential to define better strategies for land use in Cerrado, which may favor C

  16. Groundwater recharge decrease with increased vegetation density in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately one half of the outcrop areas of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) are located in the Cerrado biome, the main agricultural expansion region in Brazil. Large areas of cerrado vegetation have been converted into farmland in recent years; however, little attention has been paid to the cons...

  17. El Sentido de la Vida The Sense of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Sánchez Hernández

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Luego de hablar de la importancia tanto teórica como práctica del tema, el autor plantea que en la presente investigación no asume el termino vida en su expresión biológica sino como “estar en el mundo” por lo que define que con el término “sentido de la vida” se referirá a la razón del estar en el mundo de individuos concretos. Más adelante conceptualiza sentido de la vida desde las perspectivas filosófica y psicológica y habla de los factores biológicos, psicológicos y sociales que participan en su conformación. Continúa definiendo el encuentro con uno mismo como la confluencia de factores biológicos, psicológicos y sociales que contribuyen a la conformación de un sentido de la vida correcto desde el punto de vista ético-moral, en un individuo interesado en aprovechar esa confluencia, lo cual no es más que el logro por parte del individuo de una orientación con relación a él mismo como ser bio-psico-social. El autor plantea que todos los individuos no tienen un sentido de la vida, unos porque no llegan a alcanzarlo mientras que otros lo alcanzan, pero lo pierden, y argumenta que esto se debe a que para que el sentido de la vida se forme, los factores favorables que participan en su conformación deben confluir en un individuo interesado en aprovechar esa confluencia. Continúa planteando que la voluntad juega su papel en la formación del sentido de la vida, pero condicionada y determinada por múltiples factores. Continua exponiendo la relación existente entre el sentido de la vida y la categoría sistema. Mas adelante expone la relación existente entre la categoría analizada y las de “bien” y “valor”. Termina exponiendo algunas características del sentido de la vida que deben evitarse en los profesionales de la saludAfter speaking of the importance so much theoretical as practice of the topic, the author outlines that in the present investigation it doesn't assume the I finish life in his biological

  18. Habitat use by Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata) in a Cerrado in southeastern Brazil: implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegae, M F; Levy, G; Freitas, S R

    2012-11-01

    The Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata) is a small insectivore endemic to the Cerrado. We examine the habitat use of this bird in a preserved Cerrado area in southeastern Brazil. Despite its occurrence in grassland with shrubs, the species used these areas less frequently than expected. The Collared Crescentchest mainly used areas of campo cerrado, but it was not recorded in a disturbed one. The common occurrence of exotic grass (U. decumbens) and cattle grazing may have brought about factors for its occurrence. However, the preference for native grasses may indicate an adverse indirect relationship against its occurence as there is competition between native and exotic grasses in the Cerrado. The presence of the Collared Crescentchest included the highest density of tall shrubs (>1 m) and native grasses. Conservation of the species should involve preserved areas of campo cerrado with a dominance of native grasses and tall shrubs.

  19. Comparação do processo de categorização de documentos utilizando palavras-chave e citações em um domínio de conhecimento restrito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Rezende Gouvêa MEIRELES

    Full Text Available Resumo O processo de categorização requer a extração de elementos representativos de um documento de modo que sua essência possa ser utilizada na identificação de similaridades e na geração de categorias. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar as dificuldades e os resultados encontrados em dois processos diferentes de categorização de documentos de um domínio de conhecimento restrito, o primeiro, baseado no uso de palavras-chave e o segundo, na utilização de citações para representação dos documentos. Para exemplificar a utilização de diferentes atributos na representação dos documentos foram realizados dois experimentos. O pri-meiro utilizou um algoritmo de categorização baseado em palavras-chave. O segundo experimento gerou as categorias, utilizando Redes Neurais Artificiais, a partir das citações dos artigos. Em um domínio de conhecimento restrito, como o utilizado neste trabalho, foi possível evidenciar a dificuldade na formação de grupos que utilizam palavras-chave como atributo do processo de categorização devido à grande similaridade existente entre aquelas utilizadas pelos autores dos artigos. As citações podem ser, como mostrado no segundo experimento, um atributo alternativo e mais eficiente para esse processo. A formação de um grupo de artigos com um expressivo acoplamento bibliográfico e uma forte relação semântica comprovou a validade do método proposto. A presente pesquisa detalha a metodologia utilizada nos experimentos, mostrando a importância de uma criteriosa fase de pré-processamento para a confiabilidade das bases de dados. Este estudo pode contribuir com as pesquisas relacionadas à representação de documentos em processos de categorização e de recuperação de informação.

  20. Prevalência de idosos restritos ao domicílio em região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brasil Prevalence of housebound elderly people in the urban region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Príscila Guedes Santana Ursine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo estimar a prevalência e o perfil sociodemográfico e de saúde dos idosos restritos ao domicílio adscritos a uma unidade de saúde da família da região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais. Realizou-se inquérito domiciliar no período de maio a julho de 2006 com 275 idosos selecionados através de amostragem por conglomerados. Utilizou-se a suíte svy do aplicativo Stata 9.0 para lidar adequadamente com a estrutura amostral de conglomeração e permitir a incorporação das frações de expansão nas análises. Dos 275 idosos entrevistados, 22,4% (IC95%: 14,7; 32,4 eram restritos ao domicílio. A prevalência dessa condição foi maior entre as mulheres, entre os indivíduos com 80 anos ou mais e entre aqueles com suspeita de déficit cognitivo (p-valor The aim of this article is to estimate the prevalence and the socio-demographic and health profile of housebound elderly people registered at a Family Health Unit in the urban region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil. A household survey was conducted between May and July 2006 with 275 elderly people selected via cluster sampling. The svy suite of commands in Stata 9.0 was used to deal adequately with the cluster sample structure and to allow the incorporation of fractions of expansion in the analyses. Among the 275 elderly, 22.4% (IC95%: 14.7; 32.4 were restricted to their homes. The prevalence of this condition was greater among women, people over 80 and suspected of suffering from cognitive impairment (p-valor < 0.05. The majority of housebound people had incomes below the minimum wage, reported history of falls, depression and indicated physical disorders as the cause of the restriction. The large contingent of low-income housebound elderly with several health problems, reinforces the need for incorporation of proposals for promotion and vigilance of the health of the elderly, which extend beyond the boundaries of the healthcare units.

  1. O cerrado não é um bioma

    OpenAIRE

    Batalha,Marco Antônio

    2011-01-01

    É importante definirmos corretamente um termo, porque pode haver implicações práticas e imediatas. Dois conceitos importantes para serem definidos acuradamente são os de "cerrado" e de "bioma". Da maneira como vem sendo usado no Brasil, o conceito de bioma adquiriu erroneamente uma conotação florística. Na verdade, o conceito de bioma é similar ao de formação vegetal, mas leva em conta a associação da vegetação com a fauna e com os microrganismos. Assim, por um lado, o conceito de bioma é fis...

  2. Capital territorialization: biotechnology, biodiversity and their impacts on the cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Calaça, Manoel

    2010-01-01

    v.4,n.1,p.06-23,jan./fev. 2010. A expansão do capitalismo no campo no cerrado está intimamente associada à adoção da biotecnologia. Esse processo implicou em profundas transformações na biodiversidade e dos saberes tradicionais produzidos e transmitidos pelas populações aqui existentes, de geração em geração. Como resultado verifica-se a substituição, espacialmente diferenciada, da biodiversidade pela agrobiodiversidade, com alterações mais profundas nos territórios dominados pelo agronegó...

  3. Does season affect fire behaviour in the Cerrado?

    OpenAIRE

    Rissi, Mariana Ninno; Baeza, M. Jaime; Gorgone-Barbosa, Elizabeth; Zupo, Talita; Fidelis, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Fire has played an important role in the plant dynamics and diversity of the Cerrado for millions of years. We evaluated fire behaviour in different fire seasons in areas of an open savanna, providing information for fire management plans. It has been hypothesised that early fires (May – end of the rainy season) will be less intense than those conducted in the middle and end of the dry season (July and October) owing to the amount of dead biomass accumulated. Therefore, we compared fire behav...

  4. Characterization of Juquitiba virus in Oligoryzomys fornesi from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterres, Alexandro; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Fernandes, Jorlan; Strecht, Liana; Casado, Flavia; Gomes de Oliveira, Flavio Cesar; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba Regina

    2014-03-26

    The Juquitiba virus, an agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome, is one of the most widely distributed hantavirus found in South America. It has been detected in Oligoryzomys nigripes, Akodon montensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon paranaensis in Brazil and in O. nigripes, Oryzomys sp. and Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents in Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay. Here, we report the genomic characterization of the complete S segment from the Juquitiba strain, isolated from the lung tissues of O. fornesi, the presumed rodent reservoir of Anajatuba virus in Brazilian Amazon, captured in the Cerrado Biome, Brazil.

  5. Characterization of Juquitiba Virus in Oligoryzomys fornesi from Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Guterres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Juquitiba virus, an agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome, is one of the most widely distributed hantavirus found in South America. It has been detected in Oligoryzomys nigripes, Akodon montensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon paranaensis in Brazil and in O. nigripes, Oryzomys sp. and Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents in Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay. Here, we report the genomic characterization of the complete S segment from the Juquitiba strain, isolated from the lung tissues of O. fornesi, the presumed rodent reservoir of Anajatuba virus in Brazilian Amazon, captured in the Cerrado Biome, Brazil.

  6. A estrutura do sentido: Goldstein e Merleau-Ponty

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    Claudinei Aparecido de Freitas da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao reatar o elo mais profundo entre a psicologia e a filosofia, Merleau-Ponty revisita a obra clínica de Kurt Goldstein (1878-1965, reavivando, em especial, seu contributo fenomenológico. As noções de "estrutura" (Gestalt e "sentido" são, aqui, agenciadas quanto a uma compreensão mais integral do comportamento, da vida e da linguagem; alcance que Goldstein obtém, ao estudar os diferentes distúrbios linguísticos, na contramão das teorias intelectualistas e empiristas, essencialmente causais. Ao retomar esse inventário crítico, Merleau-Ponty atenta para o caráter original, dinâmico e, sobretudo, ontológico dessa proposta.

  7. EL SENTIDO DE LA MUERTE EN CHILE COLONIAL

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    Julio Retamal Ávila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo realiza un aporte analítico sobre las diferentes representaciones que en la sociedad chlena de la Colonia, durante los siglos XVI y XVII, se realizaba en torno al tema de la muerte. Para ello el autor se apoya fundamentalmente en los antecedentes entregados por los testamentos de hombres y mujeres que, conviviendo con la incertidumbre del curso de sus vidad, se preparaban para el recibimiento de la muerte. A través de tales legados se logra describir pasajes sobre el sentido e importancia de la muerte como también las diversas prácticas y ritos que la acompañaban.

  8. Os múltiplos sentidos das vacinas para a Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Spink Mary Jane P.; Carvalheiro José da Rocha

    2002-01-01

    Esta pesquisa visa contribuir para o desenvolvimento de práticas éticas de recrutamento de voluntários para ensaios de vacinas anti-HIV através da análise de entrevistas sobre os sentidos atribuídos às vacinas. Foram identificados quatro modelos de funcionamento das vacinas: terapêutico, onde são vistas como formas de medicamento; preventivo embrionário, centrado na função de proteção; de agência, focalizado na noção de anticorpos, e o modelo pleno no qual função e mecanismos são integrados. ...

  9. El sentido de lo radiofónico

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    Lvovich, Lea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] De la mano de diversos autores, entre los que se destaca George Simmel, caracterizamos al oído, único sentido involucrado en lo radiofónico. La intención es advertir las posibles consecuencias sociales, pedagógicas y políticas devenidas por las formas de socialización que promueve, tanto en su estado natural como a través del dispositivo radiofónico. [en] Drawing on the work of several authors, including George Simmel , we characterize the hearing, the only sense involved in radio. The intention is to warn about possible social, pedagogical and politicial consequences turned by the forms of socialization that it promotes, both in its natural state and through the radio device.

  10. Ética y sentido común

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    John Dinges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo establece un punto de partida y da algunas sugerencias para enfrentar dilemas éticos. Intenta develar el misterio y la complejidad y devolver la toma de decisiones éticas al campo en el cual los periodistas se sienten cómodos; el ámbito del método, el juicio profesional, las destrezas prácticas y el sentido común. En el periodismo la ética es un esfuerzo grupal. La ética del periodismo surge de los derechos y de las obligaciones de la prensa libre dentro de una sociedad democrática y en la lucha inexorable por preservar la libertad.

  11. Voleibol sentado: un deporte que da sentido a la vida

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    Efraín Muñoz Galíndez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación que tuvo como objetivo interpretar el sentido que un grupo de deportistas de voleibol sentado le dan a este deporte. Las personas que permitieron el desarrollo de este estudio son ex-militares que en su quehacer profesional perdieron una de sus extremidades a manos de las minas antipersonas, sembradas por grupos al margen de la ley. Para ahondar en la subjetividad de los deportistas y develar sus sentires, se utilizó el enfoque cualitativo y como técnicas de recolección de datos la entrevista en profundidad y el grupo focal; los relatos fueron analizados y categorizados bajo la técnica de análisis de contenido y los lineamientos de la teoría fundada. Los resultados evidencian que la amputación es un episodio que cambió sus vidas sumergiéndolos en un mundo de incertidumbres, desafíos y retos que debieron sortear junto con sus familiares y personas allegadas. En este duelo las víctimas encontraron en el voleibol sentado un espacio para reencontrase con ellos mismos y sus pares, dándole nuevamente un sentido a sus vidas. Por ello, conciben el equipo de voleibol como una familia que les ha enseñado que los límites van más allá de la condición física.

  12. Estrutura de um cerrado strico sensu na Gleba Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP

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    Fidelis Alessandra Tomaselli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado ocupa aproximadamente 23% do território brasileiro e 70% do bioma correspondem a cerrado stricto sensu (s.s., sendo relevantes os estudos que buscam o entendimento da estrutura da vegetação nessas áreas. Com esse objetivo, foram estudadas cinco parcelas (10×25m em um hectare de cerrado s.s., amostrando-se todos os indivíduos com perímetro no nível do solo igual ou acima de 3cm (exceto lianas e indivíduos mortos. Alguns parâmetros fitossociológicos foram analisados, assim como a distribuição de classes de diâmetro dos indivíduos amostrados e a estrutura vertical. Foram amostradas 1.747 indivíduos, distribuídos em 75 espécies, pertencentes a 31 famílias. A densidade total absoluta encontrada foi de 13.976 ind.ha-1 e a área basal total, de 4,902m². Leguminosae foi a família com o maior número de espécies (16. As espécies que apresentaram os maiores valores de Índice do Valor de Importância (IVI foram Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Altschul, Myrcia guianensis (Aubl. DC., Xylopia aromatica (Lm. Mart., Ouratea spectabilis (Mart. Engl. e Pouteria ramiflora (Mart. Radlk. O Índice de Shannon encontrado foi de 3,623. A distribuição de classes de diâmetro apresentou curva na forma de "J" invertido, estando a maioria dos indivíduos na primeira classe. A área estudada não apresentou estratos bem definidos, estando a maioria dos indivíduos entre 1 e 3m de altura.

  13. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-02-23

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  14. Discrimination And Biophysical Characterization Of Brazilian Cerrado Physiognomies With Eo-1 Hyperspectral Hyperion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoaki; Huete, Alfredo R.; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Sano, Edson E.

    2004-01-01

    The savanna, typically found in the sub-tropics and seasonal tropics, are the dominant vegetation biome type in the southern hemisphere, covering approximately 45% of the South America. In Brazil, the savanna, locally known as "cerrado," is the most intensely stressed biome with both natural environmental pressures (e.g., the strong seasonality in weather, extreme soil nutrient impoverishment, and widespread fire occurrences) and rapid/aggressive land conversions (Skole et al., 1994; Ratter et al., 1997). Better characterization and discrimination of cerrado physiognomies are needed in order to improve understanding of cerrado dynamics and its impact on carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Brazilian cerrado biome. Satellite remote sensing have been known to be a useful tool for land cover and land use mapping (Rougharden et al., 1991; Hansen et al., 2000). However, attempts to discriminate and classify Brazilian cerrado using multi-spectral sensors (e.g., Landsat TM) and/or moderate resolution sensors (e.g., NOAA AVHRR NDVI) have often resulted in a limited success due partly to small contrasts depicted in their multiband, spectral reflectance or vegetation index values among cerrado classes (Seyler et al., 2002; Fran a and Setzer, 1998). In this study, we aimed to improve discrimination as well as biophysical characterization of the Brazilian cerrado physiognomies with hyperspectral remote sensing. We used Hyperion, the first satellite-based hyperspectral imager, onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) platform.

  15. Diversity of soil fungal communities of Cerrado and its closely surrounding agriculture fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; Pappas, Georgios; Kurokawa, Adriane Silva; Neto, Eduardo Leonardecz; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2008-08-01

    Cerrado is a savanna-like region that covers a large area of Brazil. Despite its biological importance, the Cerrado has been the focus of few microbial diversity studies. A molecular approach was chosen to characterize the soil fungal communities in four areas of the Cerrado biome: a native Cerrado, a riverbank forest, an area converted to a soybean plantation, and an area converted to pasture. Global diversity of fungal communities in each area was assessed through Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis which revealed remarkable differences among the areas studied. Sequencing of approximately 200 clones containing 18S rDNA sequences from each library was performed and, according to the genetic distance between sequences, these were assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A total of 75, 85, 85, and 70 OTUs were identified for the native Cerrado, riverbank forest, pasture, and soybean plantation, respectively. Analysis of sequences using a similarity cutoff value of 1% showed that the number of OTUs for the native Cerrado area was reduced by 35%; for the soybean plantation, a reduction by more than 50% was observed, indicating a reduction in fungal biodiversity associated with anthropogenic activity. This is the first study demonstrating the anthropogenic impact on Cerrado soil fungal diversity.

  16. Potential antioxidant of brazilian coffee from the region of Cerrado

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    Richtier Gonçalves da CRUZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Its chemical composition may have varied according to the planting site, degree of roasting, and method of preparation. This work aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of coffee from the region of Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The evaluation was performed with samples roasted at two different levels (traditional and extra dark and using two different preparation methods (decoction and infusion that reflect the conditions of preparing coffee. In vitro antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH radical methods and the concentration of total phenolic compounds and caffeine were determined. Samples made by decoction showed a higher content of phenolic compounds and no significant difference was observed between the degrees of roasting. However, the antioxidant activity and caffeine concentration of the extra dark samples were higher than those of the traditional samples for both preparation methods. The decoction preparation method was better for extracting phenolic compounds and the extra dark roast showed a higher concentration of caffeine and antioxidant activity. The samples showed a high antioxidant activity, indicating the coffee from Cerrado is an important source of antioxidants.

  17. Medicinal species with gastroprotective activity found in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, José L R; Rodrigues, Oscar R L; de Sousa, Fábio B; Fajemiroye, James O; Galdino, Pablinny M; Florentino, Iziara F; Costa, Elson A

    2015-06-01

    Peptic and/or duodenal ulcers are characterized by diverse acute and chronic ulcerative lesions that commonly arise in any portion of the gastric mucosa that is exposed to the aggressive action of gastric acid. The pathophysiology of peptic ulcers has been attributed to an imbalance between aggressive and protective factors. In Brazil, medicinal plants are commonly used to treat this ailment. A country with great biodiversity, Brazil is considered a rich source of therapeutic products. There have been popular and pharmacological reports on the medicinal relevance of the Brazilian cerrado plant species, including Ananas ananassoides, Celtis iguanaea, Encholirium spectabile, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Lafoensia pacari, Qualea grandiflora, Qualea parvifora, Mouriri pusa, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum paniculatum, Serjania erecta, and Vochysia tucanorum, in the treatment of stomach disorders. The aim of the present review was to report on some of the Brazilian cerrado plants that are used in folk medicine because of their gastroprotective potential and to encourage novel studies in the search and preservation of plants with this therapeutic potential. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  18. Ceras foliares epicuticulares de espécies congêneres da mata e do cerrado Foliar epicuticular waxes of congeneric species from forest and cerrado vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Mouro Varanda

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de cerrado e mata foram analisadas quanto à sua composição em ceras foliares epicuticulares e de seus componentes hidrocarbonetos. Observou-se nas espécies de cerrado uma tendência a teores de ceras pouco maiores que os de espécies de mata estacionai semidecídua. A porcentagem de hidrocarbonetos nas ceras foi maior na maioria das espécies de mata que nas espécies congêneres de cerrado. Pela análise em CG, os hidrocarbonetos mostraram predominância de C29 e C31 apresentando um comprimento médio da cadeia de carbono dos homólogos menos variável em espécies de mata, em torno de 30,5, que de cerrado nas quais este valor variou de 28,5 a 31,3. Os resultados são discutidos em relação ao provável papel ecológico das ceras e sua aplicação como marcadores taxônomicos.Four woody species of cerrado and five woody species of seasonal semideciduous forest were analysed concerning the contents of epicuticular waxes and their parafinic profiles. The cerrado species showed a tendency to higher contents of epicuticular waxes and lower proportion of hydrocarbons than the forest species. The C29 and C31 alkanes were dominant in all species and the average lenght of the hydrocarbon chains were around 30,5 in the forest species and from 28,5 to 31,3 in the cerrado species. The ecological and taxonomic aspects of this characteristics are discussed.

  19. Litterfall production in the Brazilian mid-western Amazonia-Cerrado transition forest

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Carlos José da; Sanches, Luciana; Bleich, Monica Elisa; Lobo, Francisco de Almeida; Nogueira, José de Souza

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a variação da produção de serrapilheira de diferentes biomas: Cerrado (com as fitofisionomias Cerrado sensu stricto e Cerradão) e Floresta de Transição Amazônia-Cerrado, em clima tropical. Para a determinação da produção de serrapilheira foram utilizados coletores de tela em náilon. Dados micrometereológicos foram coletados nas áreas de estudo. A produção de serrapilheira nos dois biomas mostrou acentuada sazonalidade, com as maiores produções ...

  20. Construyendo sentido sobre las transiciones al inicio de la escolaridad

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    Rocío Abello Correa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación problematiza las transiciones al inicio de la escolaridad, en la búsqueda de construir sentido, en una escuela privada en Bogotá. El problema de investigación versa en torno a las expectativas y a las problemáticas que enfrentan los niños y niñas desde su perspectiva, y las que enfrentan los padres y madres, los maestros y maestras, los directivos docentes y las expertas en el campo educativo. Exploro si la institución tiene o no directrices educativas que las faciliten, incidiendo en la capacidad de aprender a aprender de los niños y niñas y contribuyendo a garantizar su retención en la institución educativa. La opción epistemológica es histórico-hermenéutica. Los recursos procedimentales utilizados son los grupos focales, talleres de dibujo y narración y entrevistas semiestructuradas. El recurso metodológico para hacer el análisis de la información recolectada es la triangulación. Las producciones textuales de los distintos actores las trabajo combinando elementos del análisis socio semántico y la lógica de emparejamiento (pattern- matching. Identifiqué que el Colegio no cuenta con directrices institucionales para el manejo de las transiciones, pero tiene una cultura institucional que favorece prácticas de articulación que inciden positivamente en la capacidad de aprender a aprender de los niños y niñas con quienes trabajé. A partir del análisis de resultados, formulo varios interrogantes que orientan la construcción de sentido acerca de las transiciones a partir de las tensiones entre la continuidad y la discontinuidad, lo convergente y lo divergente y lo dominante y lo emergente en la cultura. Finalmente, hago sugerencias para el diseño de posibles directrices educativas que contribuyan al manejo de las transiciones.

  1. A incompletude narrativa como efeito de sentido nos jogos digitais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Razzino Ernica

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2014v10n1p46 Se tomarmos o termo “narrativa” em um sentido amplo, certamente não poderíamos atestar que todo e qualquer jogo digital constitua uma narrativa. Tetris, por exemplo, apresenta blocos que precisam ser encaixados em linhas para gerar pontos, não constituindo uma narrativa per se. Já em Donkey Kong as relações entre figuras como um homem, um gorila e uma princesa abalam um estado prévio de coisas e tecem uma narrativa com começo, meio e fim. Apesar disso, Jesper Juul (2005 caracteriza esse tipo de universo ficcional como incompleto – não sabemos de onde vem a princesa, como o gorila a capturou –, e incoerente – a personagem principal tem várias vidas disponíveis. Essa postura crítica é problemática, em nossa opinião, pois: 1 considera o jogo como um meio de retratar um universo pré-existente, na medida em que, para ser incompleto, é preciso haver uma completude além da que se mostra no jogo e independente dele; e 2 aplica como medidor de coerência elementos alheios ao gênero “jogo digital”, como os da “vida real” ou de demais artes. Nossa proposta é de que os elementos problemáticos para Juul são constitutivos da forma expressiva em si, e portanto não podem torná-la incoerente nem incompleta – sendo a incompletude um efeito de sentido gerado pelo modo próprio desse meio expressivo conjugar-se a um conteúdo seja ele qual for e também um meio de ampliar a própria experiência ficcional. Para embasar as afirmações aqui presentes utilizaremos os trabalhos de Aristóteles, Achcar (1994 e Murray (1997.

  2. El sentido cultural del cuidado en casa del enfermo

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    Marina Sánches-Sanabria

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene un diseño cualitativo descriptivo, transversal para comprender las diferencias existentes en los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas influidas por la percepción o sentido cultural de cuidar del cuidador primario, como elemento básico para caracterizar elementos culturales presentes en el ambiente de cuidado al enfermo o discapacitado que está en casa a través de la indagación profunda de la percepción y sentimientos que tiene tanto el cuidador primario como el ser cuidado en casa. Se realizó con los usuarios inscritos del Programa de Promoción y Prevención de la indagación profunda de la percepción y sentimientos Universidad Popular del Cesar (IPS-UPC de los enfermos crónicos y discapacitados a nivel comunitario del grupo extramural de la comuna cinco y del Hospital Eduardo Arredondo Daza de la ciudad de Valledupar, Colombia. El valor de realizar este proyecto, está en desocultar los múltiples significados que en la realidad vivida por los seres cuidadores primarios y en los seres cuidados; son esas distintas formas de percibir la existencia, influido por el conocimiento de lo ancestral, los sentimientos y la sabiduría de la cultura que cada uno posee para expresarse en las múltiples formas que el cuidado lo acontece y lo requiere para dar el sentido cultural característico y diferenciado que se percibe en el modo de cuidar y la satisfacción de quien lo recibe y lo ofrece. Este aspecto fue valioso para la comunidad académica del programa de enfermería, porque ubicó epistémicamente la transculturalidad del cuidado como una mirada y forma de enseñar transdisciplinariamente, enseñando y ofreciendo el cuidado desde la cultura, sentimientos y pensamientos del ser cuidado para el mantenimiento de la vida y la salud, en la que estudiantes de enfermeria desde sus primeras experiencias formativas deben incursionar en la intervención holística que se requiere en el cuidado de la salud y de la vida.

  3. Sentido arendtiano de la “banalidad del mal”

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    Sissi Cano Cabildo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En su obra Eichmann en Jerusalén Arendt habla de la “banalidad del mal” para referirse a la ambigüedad del concepto de maldad por el que algunas personas pueden ser manipuladas por conceptos frívolos de lo bueno y de lo malo, banalidad que no minimiza la crueldad de sus efectos. Este enfoque arendtiano no pretende explicar, ni definir de forma total a la maldad, más bien deviene en una crítica a la trivialidad de los conceptos cerrados y dogmáticos de la maldad por los que se puede atentar contra la vida o la dignidad de las personas. La autora refiere esta tesis a partir del seguimiento del caso Eichmann, quien siempre se mostró orgulloso de su colaboración con el genocidio nazi. Arendt explica la “banalidad del mal” a partir de la falta de pensamiento; sólo el pensamiento como autorreflexión que busca el significado puede prevenirnos de criterios que pueden ser altamente perniciosos. Ahora bien, la actualización del pensamiento no depende del nivel informativo ni del contexto histórico, sino que sólo depende de la libertad del Sujeto, por lo que no hay prescripciones universales para atreverse a pensar.Palabras clave: Banalidad del mal; Pensamiento; Autorreflexión; Significado y libertad.ABSTRACTArendt talk abaut “banality of badness” in Eichmann in Jerusalem to refer the ambiguous criteria of badness which lead to manipulation’s people; so much people can follow frivolous concept of goodness and badness, and it banality don’t diminish the cruelty abaut consequences. It arendtian’s sence don’t try to explain the universal sence of the badness, it’s only a criticism abaut the triviality of the dogmatics concepts of badness wich can to attempt the life and the dignidty of so much persons. Arendt refer it sence of “banality of badness” because of the pursuit Eichmann’s prosecute; Eichmann always seems proud by his colaboration with the nazism. Arendt explain the banality of badness because the absence of

  4. Banco de sementes em cerrado sensu stricto sob queimada e sistemas de cultivo Seedbanks in cerrado sensu stricto under burning and cultivation system

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    Fernanda Satie Ikeda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de queimada e de sistemas de cultivo sobre o banco de sementes em solo de Cerrado. Foi realizada amostragem em área sob cerrado sensu stricto queimada e não queimada, assim como em área de pastagem e lavoura com preparo convencional do solo. Não houve redução no banco de sementes, embora tenha havido menor número de espécies e de famílias, e dos índices de diversidade, com a queimada. Houve maior índice de valor de importância (IVI e número de espécies nativas, na área não queimada, e de espécies invasoras na área queimada. Na área de lavoura, houve maior densidade de sementes do que na área de pastagem e de cerrado. Asespécies com o maior IVI nas áreas foram aquelas consideradas invasoras e forrageiras. A área de lavoura apresentou menores IVI de espécies nativas, índices de diversidade (Shannon e Simpson e percentagem de espécies nativas do que as áreas de pastagem e cerrado. O cultivo com lavoura causa maior perturbação nas áreas do que a queimada.The objective of this work was to evaluate the burning and cultivation effects on soil seedbanks originally under cerrado vegetation. Two areas under cerrado sensu stricto were sampled, one burned and the other one not burned, as well as areas under tilled crop and pasture. There was no reduction on seedbank, although lower number of species and families and diversity index (Shannon and Simpson with burning were observed. There was also greater importance value index (IVI and number of native species, in the non burned area, and of weeds in the burned one. It was observed that the crop area had higher seed density than the pasture and cerrado areas. The species with the highest IVI in the areas were those considered as weeds and forages. The crop area presented lower IVI of native species than the pasture and cerrado areas; besides, it presented diversity indexes (Shannon and Simpson and native species percentage lower than

  5. El sentido del chisme en una comunidad de pobres urbanos

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    Patricia Fasano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo interpreta el sentido del chisme como práctica comunicacional en una comunidad barrial pobre urbana de la ciudad de Paraná (Argentina. A través de un estudio etnográfico realizado en el barrio La Pasarela (también denominado Belgrano en los años 2002 y 2003, los autores muestran cómo la práctica del chisme pone en forma -da forma, performa- algunas características específicas de la socialidad de la pobreza urbana, constituyendo especialmente una manifestación paradigmática del lugar que en tal socialidad ocupa la dimensión comunitaria. A través de un análisis que pone el acento en la condición realizativa de las prácticas de comunicación -y discursivas en general- el artículo intenta mostrar cómo el chisme hace un tipo de socialidad, al mismo tiempo que es su producto.

  6. Grupo de sala de espera: sentidos do envelhecimento humano

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    Cesar Sandoval Moreira Jr.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho parte da consideração do envelhecimento humano como experiência heterogênea. Busca pôr em diálogo o grupo de sala de espera, recorrendo ao construcionismo social, para descrevê-lo como prática discursiva. Problematizando essa modalidade de intervenção psicológica, nesse estudo objetivamos descrever o processo de produção de sentidos sobre o envelhecimento humano nesse contexto. Dez grupos de sala de espera, gravados e transcritos, foram pré-analisados favorecendo a escolha de um deles para análise extensiva. Essa análise apontou que, nesse processo conversacional, a vivência do envelhecimento como experiência individual vai sendo paulatinamente reconstruída pelos interlocutores como de natureza sócio-interacional, apontando para posições mais ativas na produção de qualidade de vida no envelhecimento. Assim, os participantes em co-autoria, falando de seus cotidianos, abrem possibilidades de novas descrições sobre si mesmos enquanto pessoas idosas, nesse contexto interativo.

  7. Transexualidade/travestilidade na literatura brasileira: sentidos e significados

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    Alexsander Lima da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Análisis interdisciplinar cualitativo del universo transexual y travesti a partir de las obras literarias "Grande Sertão Veredas" y "Triunfo dos Pelos". Utiliza los estudios de género psicosociales teóricos y las categorías de identidad, sentido y significado. El análisis de los personajes Diadorín y Transexual Sin Nombre pone de relieve el significado de la transexualidad y travestilidad en experiencias sociales e históricas. Diadorín se disfraza y adopta una identidad masculina como forma de aceptación en el mundo del cangaço. El personaje Transexual Sin Nombre revela una experiencia de identidad descriptiva y en movimiento, el cuerpo experimenta la travestilidad y transexualidad como producciones de relación en un contexto impregnado de significados binarios sobre el hombre y la mujer que son compartidas cultural e históricamente.

  8. A mulher nas propagandas de cerveja: efeitos de sentido

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    Keila Rejane Warmling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar propagandas de cervejas que circulam na mídia, observando as marcas de seus discursos em relação a figura feminina. A cerveja no Brasil, muitas vezes aparece associada as mulheres, tais propagandas têm como objetivo principal atingir o público masculino. Nas propagandas analisadas, as mulheres aparecem estereotipadas, vistas somente como símbolo sexual, provocando além do apelo ao consumo, desejos através dos sentidos, pois aparecem desnudas e provocantes, despertando assim a libido no público alvo. Os anúncios publicitários fazem parte do cotidiano das pessoas, são utilizados para divertir, comunicar e interagir no meio em que são expostos, por isso a grande empreitada dos publicitários é encontrar meios de despertar interesse por sua marca, tudo se resume em uma luta pela atenção do consumidor.Palavras-chave: letras; Análise do Discurso; mulher; propagandas de cerveja.

  9. Sobre el sentido de expresarse así entre nosotros...

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    Mora García, José Luis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fortnigth “Pensar en español”, organized by “Instituto de Filosofía” (Madrid had a main objective: thinking about Iberoamerican Philosophy tradition. At the beginning I have memory about some background, after I comment a María Zambrano‘s interesting words. We can carry out some topics because that had been whit us for a long time. We can shown how Spanish language Philosophy had proclaimed absolutist reason, so this does proposals to a freedom future.La quincena “Pensar en español” organizada por el Instituto de Filosofía ha tenido como objetivo impulsar una reflexión con sentido acerca de lo que el mundo Iberoamericano ha hecho en el campo de la Filosofía. En esta intervención, tras recordar algunos antecedentes de esta propuesta, me baso en un interesante texto de María Zambrano desde el cual es posible superar tópicos que han dirigido la indagación de nuestra historia y mostrar cómo la filosofía en lengua española ha denunciado usos absolutistas de la razón y contiene una propuesta a favor de otros usos liberadores que son una propuesta de realización de futuro.

  10. O SENTIDO DO TRABALHO PARA O SER ESTOMIZADO

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    Vanessa Cristina Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de esta investigación cualitativa y descriptiva exploratoria es abordar el significado del trabajo para veinte personas estomizadas, o sea, determinar la situación laboral de los estomizados y analizar los significados del trabajo en sus vidas. La entrevista semiestructurada recolectó datos en una institución de rehabilitación en Río de Janeiro y utilizó el Análisis Temático de Conte nido para el análisis de datos. Los resultados mostraron que los sujetos exhiben sentimientos dialécticos respecto al trabajo, considerándose la actividad laboral como la fuente de vida que garantiza la subsistencia material y la participación activa en la sociedad, sin embargo, también es fuente de sufrimiento, debido al sentimiento de exclusión y segregación social. Se concluye que, aunque el trabajo alude a sentimientos negativo, es sentido como algo más positivo, razón por que los enfermeros, otros profesionales de la salud y afines deben alentar y facilitar la reintegración del estomizado en el mundo laboral.

  11. Towards testing the "honeycomb rippling model" in cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, C S; Batalha, M A

    2011-05-01

    Savannas are tropical formations in which trees and grasses coexist. According to the "honeycomb rippling model", inter-tree competition leads to an effect of trees growing and dying due to competition, which, at fine spatial scale, would resemble honeycomb rippling. The model predicts that the taller the trees, the higher the inter-tree distances and the evenness of inter-tree distances. The model had been corroborated in arid savannas, in what appears to be caused by uneven distribution of rains, but had not yet been tested in seasonal savannas, such as the cerrado, which could be caused by the irregular occurrence of fire.A basic assumption of the model is that strong inter-tree competition affects growth (estimated by height) and mortality (estimated by inter-tree distances). As a first step towards testing this model in the cerrado, we tested this assumption in a single cerrado patch in southeastern Brazil. We placed 80 quadrats, each one with 25 m², in which we sampled all shrubs and trees. For each individual, we measured its height and the distance to its nearest neighbour--the inter-tree distance. We did not find correlations between tree height and both inter-tree distances and evenness of inter-tree distances, refuting the honeycomb rippling model. Inter-tree distances were spatially autocorrelated, but height was not. According to our results, the basic assumption of the model does not apply to seasonal savannas. If, in arid savannas, rainfall events are rare and unpredictable, in seasonal savannas, the rainy season is well-defined and rainfall is considerable. We found horizontal structuring in the community, which may be due to soil nutrient heterogeneity. The absence of vertical structuring suggests that competition for light among adult trees is not as important as competition for nutrients in the soil. We tested the basic assumption of the model in a single patch and at a single moment. To test the model effectively, we suggest this assumption to

  12. Matéria orgânica e textura do solo em veredas conservadas e antropizadas no bioma Cerrado Organic matter and texture of the soil in conserved and altered wetlands in the Cerrado biome

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    Ricardo F. de Sousa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As veredas são ecossistemas úmidos, geralmente associados a solos hidromórficos e ao afloramento do lençol freático, ocorrendo com frequência nas proximidades das nascentes e cursos d'água da região do Cerrado. Este trabalho objetivou estudar os solos de veredas situadas no bioma Cerrado, em ambientes conservados e antropizados (em áreas agrícolas e de pecuária, por meio da determinação da textura e da matéria orgânica do solo. Três veredas foram selecionadas para amostragem de solo, sendo: uma conservada, circundada por vegetação natural; uma área antropizada, com pastagem em seu entorno e uma outra, também antropizada, com culturas anuais (agricultura em seu entorno. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em diferentes profundidades, ao longo de linhas de referência dispostas segundo sua posição no relevo, nos terços superior, médio e inferior de uma das vertentes, acompanhando de modo aproximado o sentido da linha de drenagem da vereda. Verificou-se que os teores de argila na região inferior do relevo são maiores em ambientes antropizados e os teores de silte são maiores na vereda adjacente à área agrícola. No terço inferior das vertentes os teores de matéria orgânica são menores em veredas adjacentes às áreas com pastagens e agricultura.Veredas (a type of wetland are humid ecosystems, generally associated to hydromorphic soils and shallow water table, which occur frequently in the neighborhood of the springs and watercourses in the Cerrado region. The objective of this work was to study wetland soils located in undisturbed (native forest and disturbed (agriculture and pasture environments by means of determination of the soil texture and organic matter contents. Three wetlands were selected for this study: undisturbed wetland, surrounded by natural vegetation; disturbed wetland, surrounded by pasture areas; and disturbed wetland, surrounded by cultivated areas. Soil samples were collected at three different

  13. LBA-ECO ND-07 Nitric Oxide Flux from Cerrado Soils, Brasilia, Brazil: 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the results of soil nitric oxide (NO) flux, soil moisture, and soil nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4) concentration measurements on Cerrado...

  14. LBA-ECO ND-07 Microbial Biomass in Cerrado Soils, Brasilia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the microbial biomass in soil samples collected from the Cerrado, a woodlands-savannah area, in Brasilia, Brazil. Microbial biomass was...

  15. LBA-ECO ND-07 Microbial Biomass in Cerrado Soils, Brasilia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the microbial biomass in soil samples collected from the Cerrado, a woodlands-savannah area, in Brasilia, Brazil. Microbial biomass...

  16. Fungal diversity in soils across a gradient of preserved Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Araujo, Ademir Sergio; Bezerra, Walderly Melgaço; Dos Santos, Vilma Maria; Nunes, Luis Alfredo Pinheiro Leal; de Lyra, Maria do Carmo Catanho Pereira; do Vale Barreto Figueiredo, Marcia; Melo, Vania Maria Maciel

    2017-04-01

    The preserved Cerrado from Northeastern Brazil presents different physicochemical properties and plant diversity, which can influence the fungal communities. Therefore, we evaluated the fungal diversity in preserved sites, at Sete Cidades National Park, across a gradient of vegetation that included Campo graminoide, Cerrado stricto sensu, Cerradao, and Floresta decidual. Of all of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained, the Floresta decidual presented the highest richness. Ascomycota were the most abundant phylum (45%), followed by Basidiomycota (32%). Basal fungi and other phyla accounted for 23% of the total dataset. Agaricomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Basidiobolus, Dothideomycetes, and Taphrinomycetes were the most abundant classes of fungi found across the gradient of Cerrado vegetation. In conclusion, our study suggests that the Brazilian Cerrado from Sete Cidades National Park presents a high fungal diversity and includes sources of new fungal species for biotechnological purposes.

  17. Use of LANDSAT images to study cerrado vegetation. [Mato Grosso Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Channel 5 and 7 LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000 made during passes in the dry and rainy seasons were used to select the optimal season for cerrado characterization in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The study area is located around the cities of Campo Grande and Tres Lagoas, a region being used for reforestation and rangeland activities. Imagery acquired during the dry season permitted a good discrimination between "cerrado" (woodsy pasture) vegetation and reforestation. In relation to the altered areas, only the recently modified area presented good discrimination of cerrado vegetation. Imagery of the rainy season did not provide a reasonable separation between cerrado and reforestation areas but the altered area could be easily discriminated.

  18. An Algorithm for Burned Area Detection in the Brazilian Cerrado Using 4 µm MODIS Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Libonati, Renata; DaCamara, Carlos; Setzer, Alberto; Morelli, Fabiano; Melchiori, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is significantly affected by anthropic fires every year, which makes the region an important source of pyrogenic emissions. This study aims at generating improved 1 km monthly burned area maps for Cerrado based on remote-sensed information. The algorithm relies on a burn-sensitive vegetation index based on MODIS daily values of near and middle infrared reflectance and makes use of active fire detection from multiple sensors. Validation is performed using reference burned...

  19. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A M S; De Paula, J E; Degallier, N; Molez, J E; Espindola, L S

    2006-06-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extract from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 microg/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (>65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these Dugeutia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 microg/ml, respectively. Annona crassiflora and Cybistax antisyphilitica showed activity at 23.06 and 27.61 microg/ml. The larvicidal properties of these species are described for the first time, and may prove to be promising in active chemical compound isolation.

  20. Cerrado ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae as indicators of edge effects

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    Carlos Roberto F. Brandão

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale agricultural production in Brazil preferentially occupies plateaus reclaimed from areas originally covered by Cerrado (savanna. Depending on the region, a percentage of the pristine vegetation coverage must be preserved by law, resulting in the creation of fragmented legal Cerrado reserves. The geometry of these relatively small legal reserves creates new habitat edges and ecotones, whose effects on the invertebrate fauna are poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the effects of abrupt edges resulting from soy production on ground-dwelling ant assemblages in the Brazilian Cerrado. The study sites are located within the Amazon region, in the state of Maranhão, northern Brazil, but were covered by Cerrado on a relatively low plateau, irregularly inter-spaced with gallery forests along streams. We compared species richness and species composition of ground-dwelling ants along eight transects set 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m into the sensu stricto Cerrado and 50 and 100 m into the soy field. The collecting periods covered the wet and dry seasons. Effects on ant species richness were non-significant, although composition of the assemblages was significantly affected by edge effects, which were, in part, found to be species specific. We hypothesize that edge effects are probably greater than estimated because of the shape and complexity of reserves. Consideration of edge effects in the Cerrado Biome should enable the design of appropriate reserve sizes and shapes to meet conservation goals.

  1. Fruits and frugivores of the Brazilian Cerrado: ecological and phylogenetic considerations

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    Marcelo Kuhlmann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the morphological and phylogenetic patterns of fruits of a plant community may elucidate plant-frugivore interactions, and analysis of dispersal syndromes is a practical approach to understanding these mutualisms. We investigated different zoochorous fruits and frugivorous animals among Cerrado formations (forest, savanna and grassland, mapped dispersal syndromes on a Cerrado angiosperm phylogeny and tested for phylogenetic signal. For a core region in Cerrado, we found that, among almost a thousand fruit species and 258 fruit-eating vertebrates, 60% of the fruits had an ornithochorous syndrome and that 70% of the frugivores were birds. Most fruit and frugivorous species (~80% inhabit forest formations, but many of them also occurred in more than one Cerrado formation. The zoochorous syndromes were found to have little phylogenetic signal, with many plant families exhibiting more than one fruit syndrome, and with ornithochory being widely distributed throughout the phylogeny. Our results suggest that plant-frugivore interactions tend to be evolutionarily labile in this Neotropical region, although birds have had a prominent role in fruit evolution. Furthermore, we found that all three Cerrado formations seem to be interrelated in maintaining functional stability of the plant-frugivore mutualisms in the Cerrado biome.

  2. El sentido social de la idea de un buen maestro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mata Segreda, Alejandrina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el proceso de investigación desarrollado para la elaboración del sentido social de la idea de un buen maestro, por parte de un grupo de niñas y niños, madres y padres de familia, y profesores y profesoras de las carreras de Educación de las universidades estatales costarricenses. Con la aplicación de un enfoque cualitativo en el que se utilizó la estrategia de análisis de contenido mediante la técnica de análisis de contingencias, se le dio respuesta al siguiente problema de investigación: ¿Cuál es la correspondencia teórica entre el sentido social de la idea del “buen maestro”y los enfoques normativo y descriptivo para la formación inicial de educadores? Desde el punto de vista del enfoque normativo de formación de educadores, las características que mayormente se destacan son: tiene personalidad de maestro, tiene destrezas de maestro y practica conductas de maestro. En concordancia con el enfoque descriptivo de formación de educadores, las características que se destacan son las siguientes: desarrolla y aplica estrategias de pensamiento, desarrolla y aplica estrategias de percepción u observación, desarrolla su capacidad para la toma de decisiones, sabe considerar el contexto y puede individualizar su tarea. Se concluye que persisten percepciones en el grupo de participantes que elaboran un imaginario del maestro ideal tanto desde la perspectiva normativa como la descriptiva. En el caso de las percepciones basadas en el enfoque normativo, éstas ocasionan un sentimiento de inadecuación para la tarea docente por parte de estos profesionales, con sus consecuencias negativas. This article describes the research process applied to identify the social sense of the idea of a good teacher, as viewed by a group of children, parents and university professors from state universities of Costa Rica . The research problem was stated as “What is the theoretical relation between the idea of a good teacher

  3. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado

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    Pais Mara Patrícia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechanisms in different habitat physiognomies. The defensive mechanisms and the nutritional traits of a cerrado plant, Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae, were compared along a vegetation gradient. Toughness, as well as water, nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, and tannin contents were measured in young and mature leaves of D. vinosum collected in campo cerrado, cerrado sensu stricto (s.s. and cerradão. Plants from cerrado s.s. and cerradão were of better nutritional quality but also had higher tannin contents than campo cerrado plants. Some type of compensation mechanism could have been selected to provide an optimum investment in defense, according to limitations imposed by water deficits in the habitat.

  4. La percepción y la pregunta por el sentido: implicaciones para una enseñanza corporal con-sentido

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    Luis Guillermo Jaramillo Echeverri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito pretende evidenciar los alcances de la percepción, a través de la pregunta por el sentido. Inicialmente, se toma como fundamento la obra Fenomenología de la percepción, del filósofo francés Merleau-Ponty. Después se desarrollan algunas implicaciones que se derivan de esta postura fenomenológica, a partir de la pregunta por el sentido y su relación con los procesos de intersubjetividad. Finalmente, se concluye con el planteamiento de rutas metodológicas o vías de acción, como un ejercicio pedagógico desde una enseñanza de la educación corporal con-sentido.

  5. Os sentidos de theologia physica para os antiqui: Tomás de Aquino leitor de Agostinho [The senses of theologia physica for the antiqui: Thomas Aquinas reads Augustine

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    Evaniel Brás dos Santos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Explicito neste artigo que a expressão “theologia physica” atribuída aos antigos (antiqui possui dois sentidos na ST, IIa-IIae, q. 94, a. 1, resp., de Tomás de Aquino. O primeiro, atribuído a Varrão, denota um estudo restrito, uma physiologia ou mecânica na qual deus é entendido como a força imanente no mundo, locomovendo-o. O segundo, por sua vez, pertence aos platônicos (platonici e denota um estudo geral, pois aborda, além de entidades imateriais, um criador. Ambas as teologias físicas, conforme Tomás, institui filosoficamente a idolatria ao entenderem que a divindade é causa de locomoção. Embora se valha de Agostinho em sua leitura da expressão “theologia physica”, Tomás introduz discussões que estão além do texto agostiniano.  [In the article I clarify that the expression “theologia physica” attributed to the Ancients (antiqui has two senses in the ST, IIa-IIae, q. 94, a.1, resp., of Thomas Aquinas. The first, attributed to Varro, denotes a restrict study, a physiologia or mechanics in which god is understood as the immanent force in the world, moving it. The second, in turn, belongs to the Platonics (platonici and denotes a general study, for it approaches, besides immaterial entities, a creator. Both physical theologies, according to Aquinas, set up philosophically the idolatry since they understand that the divinity is cause for locomotion. Although Aquinas makes use of Augustine in his reading of the expression “theologia physica”, he introduces discussions that go beyond the Augustinian text.

  6. El sentido epicúreo de la amistad en Goethe

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    Miguel Salmerón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ES] La amistad en Epicuro es procurada por la sabiduría. Además la amistad propicia la felicidad. La «sabiduría», un bien inmortal, conduce al hombre a buscar la «amistad», uno mortal. La sabiduría es un bien inmortal, y por tanto de dioses. Mas, si los dioses no intervienen en el curso del mundo, ¿qué sentido tienen para los epicúreos? La emulación. La divinidad es un modelo a imitar. Por la meditación se puede vivir como un dios entre humanos no sufriendo turbación ni despierto ni en sueños. Con todo la amistad entraña peligros, aun eligiéndola por el placer, soportamos los mayores males por los amigos. Mas estos riesgos merecen la pena correrse, pues los perjuicios posibles, son menos indeseables que la ausencia de amistad. Goethe coincide con los epicúreos en la importancia que confieren a la experiencia del momento. Goethe también sitúa la amistad junto a la sabiduría y la felicidad, pero sólo aceptaba la amistad si intensificaba la sensación de vida, si los momentos que generaba eran razonables y felices. Conforme a ello se tratan sus relaciones con Lenz, Schiller, Charlotte von Stein y Christiane Vulpius, ejemplificadas en personajes de ficción como Mignon y Mefistófeles. ; [EN] Friendship according to Epicurus is procured by wisdom. Furthermore friendship makes happiness possible. Wisdom, an inmortal good, leads the man to seek for friendship, a mortal good. As an inmortal virtue, Wisdom is an attribute of the Gods. But if Gods have no role in world´s leading, what a sense have them for the Epicureans? The sense of Emulation. Divinity is a role model. Through meditation is possible to live like a God among humans, suffering no restlessness neither awake nor in dreams. Yet friendship involves risks. Even choosing it for the pleasure, we endure the greatest evils on account of friends. But these risks are worthy, because the potential damages are less undesirable than no friendship. Goethe agrees with the

  7. Potential impacts of climate change on biogeochemical functioning of Cerrado ecosystems.

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    Bustamante, M M C; Nardoto, G B; Pinto, A S; Resende, J C F; Takahashi, F S C; Vieira, L C G

    2012-08-01

    The Cerrado Domain comprises one of the most diverse savannas in the world and is undergoing a rapid loss of habitats due to changes in fire regimes and intense conversion of native areas to agriculture. We reviewed data on the biogeochemical functioning of Cerrado ecosystems and evaluated the potential impacts of regional climate changes. Variation in temperature extremes and in total amount of rainfall and altitude throughout the Cerrado determines marked differences in the composition of species. Cerrado ecosystems are controlled by interactions between water and nutrient availability. In general, nutrient cycles (N, P and base cations) are very conservative, while litter, microbial and plant biomass are important stocks. In terms of C cycling, root systems and especially the soil organic matter are the most important stocks. Typical cerrado ecosystems function as C sinks on an annual basis, although they work as source of C to the atmosphere close to the end of the dry season. Fire is an important factor altering stocks and fluxes of C and nutrients. Predicted changes in temperature, amount and distribution of precipitation vary according to Cerrado sub-regions with more marked changes in the northeastern part of the domain. Higher temperatures, decreases in rainfall with increase in length of the dry season could shift net ecosystem exchanges from C sink to source of C and might intensify burning, reducing nutrient stocks. Interactions between the heterogeneity in the composition and abundance of biological communities throughout the Cerrado Domain and current and future changes in land use make it difficult to project the impacts of future climate scenarios at different temporal and spatial scales and new modeling approaches are needed.

  8. Potential impacts of climate change on biogeochemical functioning of Cerrado ecosystems

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    MMC Bustamante

    Full Text Available The Cerrado Domain comprises one of the most diverse savannas in the world and is undergoing a rapid loss of habitats due to changes in fire regimes and intense conversion of native areas to agriculture. We reviewed data on the biogeochemical functioning of Cerrado ecosystems and evaluated the potential impacts of regional climate changes. Variation in temperature extremes and in total amount of rainfall and altitude throughout the Cerrado determines marked differences in the composition of species. Cerrado ecosystems are controlled by interactions between water and nutrient availability. In general, nutrient cycles (N, P and base cations are very conservative, while litter, microbial and plant biomass are important stocks. In terms of C cycling, root systems and especially the soil organic matter are the most important stocks. Typical cerrado ecosystems function as C sinks on an annual basis, although they work as source of C to the atmosphere close to the end of the dry season. Fire is an important factor altering stocks and fluxes of C and nutrients. Predicted changes in temperature, amount and distribution of precipitation vary according to Cerrado sub-regions with more marked changes in the northeastern part of the domain. Higher temperatures, decreases in rainfall with increase in length of the dry season could shift net ecosystem exchanges from C sink to source of C and might intensify burning, reducing nutrient stocks. Interactions between the heterogeneity in the composition and abundance of biological communities throughout the Cerrado Domain and current and future changes in land use make it difficult to project the impacts of future climate scenarios at different temporal and spatial scales and new modeling approaches are needed.

  9. Understanding patterns of land-cover change in the Brazilian Cerrado from 2000 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Marcos E.; Silva, Jhonathan O.; Barbosa, Rômulo S.; Rocha, André M.; Anaya, Felisa C.; Dupin, Mariana G. V.

    2016-01-01

    Clearing tropical vegetation impacts biodiversity, the provision of ecosystem services, and thus ultimately human welfare. We quantified changes in land cover from 2000 to 2015 across the Cerrado biome of northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. We assessed the potential biophysical and socio-economic drivers of the loss of Cerrado, natural regeneration and net cover change at the municipality level. Further, we evaluated correlations between these land change variables and indicators of human welfare. We detected extensive land-cover changes in the study area, with the conversion of 23 446 km2 and the natural regeneration of 13 926 km2, resulting in a net loss of 9520 km2. The annual net loss (−1.2% per year) of the cover of Cerrado is higher than that reported for the whole biome in similar periods. We argue that environmental and economic variables interact to underpin rates of conversion of Cerrado, most severely affecting more humid Cerrado lowlands. While rates of Cerrado regeneration are important for conservation strategies of the remaining biome, their integrity must be investigated given the likelihood of encroachment. Given the high frequency of land abandonment in tropical regions, secondary vegetation is fundamental to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services. Finally, the impacts of Cerrado conversion on human welfare likely vary from local to regional scales, making it difficult to elaborate land-use policies based solely on socio-economic indicators. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation’. PMID:27502383

  10. Forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noojipady, Praveen; Morton, C. Douglas; Macedo, N. Marcia; Victoria, C. Daniel; Huang, Chengquan; Gibbs, K. Holly; Edson Bolfe, L.

    2017-02-01

    Land use, land use change, and forestry accounted for two-thirds of Brazil’s greenhouse gas emissions profile in 2005. Amazon deforestation has declined by more than 80% over the past decade, yet Brazil’s forests extend beyond the Amazon biome. Rapid expansion of cropland in the neighboring Cerrado biome has the potential to undermine climate mitigation efforts if emissions from dry forest and woodland conversion negate some of the benefits of avoided Amazon deforestation. Here, we used satellite data on cropland expansion, forest cover, and vegetation carbon stocks to estimate annual gross forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado biome. Nearly half of the Cerrado met Brazil’s definition of forest cover in 2000 (≥0.5 ha with ≥10% canopy cover). In areas of established crop production, conversion of both forest and non-forest Cerrado formations for cropland declined during 2003-2013. However, forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion increased over the past decade in Matopiba, a new frontier of agricultural production that includes portions of Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Gross carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado averaged 16.28 Tg C yr-1 between 2003 and 2013, with forest-to-cropland conversion accounting for 29% of emissions. The fraction of forest carbon emissions from Matopiba was much higher; between 2010-2013, large-scale cropland conversion in Matopiba contributed 45% of total Cerrado forest carbon emissions. Carbon emissions from Cerrado-to-cropland transitions offset 5%-7% of the avoided emissions from reduced Amazon deforestation rates during 2011-2013. Comprehensive national estimates of forest carbon fluxes, including all biomes, are critical to detect cross-biome leakage within countries and achieve climate mitigation targets to reduce emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry.

  11. Understanding patterns of land-cover change in the Brazilian Cerrado from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espírito-Santo, Mário M; Leite, Marcos E; Silva, Jhonathan O; Barbosa, Rômulo S; Rocha, André M; Anaya, Felisa C; Dupin, Mariana G V

    2016-09-19

    Clearing tropical vegetation impacts biodiversity, the provision of ecosystem services, and thus ultimately human welfare. We quantified changes in land cover from 2000 to 2015 across the Cerrado biome of northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. We assessed the potential biophysical and socio-economic drivers of the loss of Cerrado, natural regeneration and net cover change at the municipality level. Further, we evaluated correlations between these land change variables and indicators of human welfare. We detected extensive land-cover changes in the study area, with the conversion of 23 446 km(2) and the natural regeneration of 13 926 km(2), resulting in a net loss of 9520 km(2) The annual net loss (-1.2% per year) of the cover of Cerrado is higher than that reported for the whole biome in similar periods. We argue that environmental and economic variables interact to underpin rates of conversion of Cerrado, most severely affecting more humid Cerrado lowlands. While rates of Cerrado regeneration are important for conservation strategies of the remaining biome, their integrity must be investigated given the likelihood of encroachment. Given the high frequency of land abandonment in tropical regions, secondary vegetation is fundamental to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services. Finally, the impacts of Cerrado conversion on human welfare likely vary from local to regional scales, making it difficult to elaborate land-use policies based solely on socio-economic indicators.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Concordance between phylogeographical and biogeographical patterns in the Brazilian Cerrado: diversification of the endemic tree Dalbergia miscolobium (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Renan Milagres Lage; Ribeiro, Renata Acácio; Lemos-Filho, José Pires; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the phylogeography of species of the Cerrado, the largest savanna biome of South America. Here we aimed to investigate the phylogeographical structure of Dalbergia miscolobium, a widespread tree from the Cerrado, and to verify its concordance with plant phylogeographical and biogeographical patterns so far described. A total of 287 individuals from 32 populations were analyzed by sequencing the trnL intron of the chloroplast DNA and the internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Analysis of population structure and tests of population expansion were performed and the time of divergence of haplotypes was estimated. Twelve and 27 haplotypes were identified in the cpDNA and nrDNA data, respectively. The star-like network configuration and the mismatch distributions indicated a recent spatial and demographic expansion of the species. Consistent with previous tree phylogeographical studies of Cerrado trees, the cpDNA also suggested a recent expansion towards the southern Cerrado. The diversity of D. miscolobium was widespread but high levels of genetic diversity were found in the Central Eastern and in the southern portion of Central Western Cerrado. The combined analysis of cpDNA and nrDNA supported a phylogeographic structure into seven groups. The phylogeographical pattern showed many concordances with biogeographical and phylogeographical studies in the Cerrado, mainly with the Cerrado phytogeographic provinces superimposed to our sampling area. The data reinforced the uniqueness of Northeastern and Southeastern Cerrados and the differentiation between Eastern and Western Central Cerrados. The recent diversification of the species (estimated between the Pliocene and the Pleistocene) and the 'genealogical concordances' suggest that a shared and persistent pattern of species diversification might have been present in the Cerrado over time. This is the first time that an extensive 'genealogical concordance' between

  13. Species composition, diversity, and vegetation structure in a gallery forest-cerrado sensu stricto transition zone in eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Lenza; Josias O. Santos; Leonardo Maracahipes-Santos

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTWe investigated the existence of an ecotone in the species composition, diversity and vegetation structure in the transition between gallery forest and cerrado sensu strictoin central Brazil. We tested two hypotheses: 1) a ecotone can be found between gallery forest and cerrado; 2) a gradient exists in the species composition of the cerrado. We established three parallel transects of 5 m × 350 m running between gallery forest and cerrado, which were divided into subplots of 5 m × 10 m...

  14. The vascular flora of the cerrado in Emas National Park (Central Brazil: a savanna flora summarized

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    Marco Antônio Batalha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian cerrado may be divided in two main phytogeographic sectors: one characterized by Piptocarpha rotundifolia, in which the Emas National Park (ENP is located, and other characterized by Curatella americana. We carried out a floristic survey in ENP, which allowed an assessment of the taxonomic composition, taxa size, and similarity with other sites for the ENP's vascular flora. We compared the ENP's flora with southeastern outlying cerrado sites, also in the Piptocarpha sector, and with general floristic patterns in the cerrado vegetation. The distribution of species per family in ENP was significantly different from that obtained for each component of the general cerrado flora. The herbaceous component was characterized by an overproportion of Myrtaceae and an underproportion of Orchidaceae and Lythraceae; and the woody component, by an overproportion of Myrtaceae and Nyctaginaceae. When compared with outlying cerrado sites, the ENP was quite distinct, not only at species level, but also at family level.O cerrado pode ser dividido em dois principais setores fitogeográficos: um caracterizado por Piptocarpha rotundifolia, em que o Parque Nacional das Emas (PNE está localizado, e outro caracterizado por Curatella americana. Realizamos um levantamento florístico no PNE, que nos permitiu determinar a composição taxonômica de sua flora vascular e sua similaridade com outros sítios. Comparamos a flora do PNE com sítios disjuntos de cerrado, também no setor Piptocarpha, e com padrões florísticos gerais do cerrado. A distribuição de espécies por família foi significativamente diferente daquela obtida para cada componente da flora do cerrado. O componente herbáceo-subarbustivo se caracterizou pela super-representação de Myrtaceae e pela sub-representação de Orchidaceae e Lythraceae; e o componente arbustivo-arbóreo, pela super-representação de Myrtaceae e Nyctaginaceae. Quando comparado aos sítios disjuntos, o PNE se

  15. Fungal Community Structure as an Indicator of Soil Agricultural Management Effects in the Cerrado

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    Alana de Almeida Valadares-Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Forest-to-agriculture conversion and soil management practices for soybean cropping are frequently performed in the Cerrado (Brazilian tropical savanna. However, the effects of these practices on the soil microbial communities are still unknown. We evaluated and compared the fungal community structure in soil from soybean cropland with soil under native Cerrado vegetation at different times of the year in the Tocantins State. Soil samples were collected in two periods after planting (December and in two periods during the soybean reproductive growth stage (February. Concomitantly, soil samples were collected from an area under native Cerrado vegetation surrounding the agricultural area. The soil DNA was analyzed using a fingerprinting method termed Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Space Analysis (ARISA to assess the fungal community structure in the soil. Differences in the fungal community structure in the soil were found when comparing soybean cropland with the native vegetation (R = 0.932 for sampling 1 and R = 0.641 for sampling 2. Changes in the fungal community structure after management practices for soybean planting in Cerrado areas were related to changes in soil properties, mainly in copper, calcium, and iron contents, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, and calcium to magnesium ratio. These results show the changes in the fungal community structure in the soil as an effect of agricultural soil management in Cerrado vegetation in the state of Tocantins.

  16. Effect of sugarcane burning or green harvest methods on the Brazilian Cerrado soil bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Caio T C C; Santos, Adriana L; Piccolo, Marisa C; Balieiro, Fabiano C; Coutinho, Heitor L C; Peixoto, Raquel S; Tiedje, James M; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is one of the most important biodiversity reservoirs in the world. The sugarcane cultivation is expanding in this biome and necessitates the study of how it may impact the soil properties of the Cerrado. There is a lack of information especially about the impacts of different sugarcane management on the native bacterial communities of Cerrado soil. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate and compare the soil bacterial community structure of the Cerrado vegetation with two sugarcane systems. We evaluated samples under native vegetation and the impact of the two most commonly used management strategies for sugarcane cultivation (burnt cane and green cane) on this diversity using pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of the rrs gene (16S rRNA). Nineteen different phyla were identified, with Acidobacteria (≈35%), Proteobacteria (≈24%) and Actinobacteria (≈21%) being the most abundant. Many of the sequences were represented by few operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 3% of dissimilarity), which were found in all treatments. In contrast, there were very strong patterns of local selection, with many OTUs occurring only in one sample. Our results reveal a complex bacterial diversity, with a large fraction of microorganisms not yet described, reinforcing the importance of this biome. As possible sign of threat, the qPCR detected a reduction of the bacterial population in agricultural soils compared with native Cerrado soil communities. We conclude that sugarcane cultivation promoted significant structural changes in the soil bacterial community, with Firmicutes phylum and Acidobacteria classes being the groups most affected.

  17. A year in a Cerrado wet grassland: a non-seasonal island in a seasonal savanna environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciaruso, M V; Batalha, M A

    2008-08-01

    In some Cerrado regions where the water table is superficial and soils are hydromorphic, we may find wet grasslands. We studied temporal changes in some community descriptors, such as species density, plant density, basal area, and cylindrical volume in a Cerrado wet grassland in four different seasons of the year. We also compared the species richness and composition of the wet grassland with a hyperseasonal cerrado, and a seasonal cerrado. We found significant differences among the seasons only for species density. Chao-Sørensen similarity values varied from 0.86 to 0.99 and, in the wet grassland, were not different among the seasons. On the contrary, similarity values between the wet grassland and hyperseasonal and seasonal cerrados were low. Species richness was lower in the wet grassland and higher in the seasonal cerrado. As long as savannas are highly dynamic on all temporal and spatial scales, the wet grassland stability, at least in a short-term view, introduces an important heterogeneity in regional scale. Wet grasslands are also important in the Cerrado domain to increase b-diversity, since they are floristically dissimilar with cerrado vegetation.

  18. Antimicrobial screening of some medicinal plants from Mato Grosso Cerrado

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    Iberê E Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from stem barks of Bowdichia virgilioides, Calophyllum brasiliense, Cariniana rubra, Lafoensia pacari, and Stryphnodendron obovatum and rhizome of Simaba ferruginea and Dragon's blood red sap from Croton urucurana were screened against a panel of bacteria and fungi using the micro-broth dilution method. Dragon's blood from Croton urucurana was the most effective antimicrobial plant material. Ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense stem bark deserved distinction by their selective antibacterial activity. Lafoensia pacari stem bark polar extracts distinguished by their potent and selective anti-yeast activity and Bowdichia virgilioides polar and non-polar extracts by their antifungal activity towards hyalohypho-mycetes and dermatophytes. This is the first report showing antifungal activity for polar extracts of Cariniana rubra and Simaba ferruginea. This study has demonstrated antimicrobial activity of Mato Grosso Cerrado ethnomedicinal plants in in vitro assays and has indicated that they can be effective potential candidates for the development of new strategies to treat fungal and bacterial infections.

  19. Morphological characterization of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. cork from brazilian cerrado

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    Polliana D`Angelo Rios

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Kielmeyera coriacea Mart., known as “pau-santo”, is mentioned in the literature as the main tree species which produces cork of the Brazilian Cerrado. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphological aspect of Kielmeyera coriacea (“pau-santo” cork cells through its microscopic structure and to compare it with the cellular morphology of Quercus suber (cork oak, which is the main cork producing species worldwide. The bark from three trees of the species Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. was collected randomly at points 1.30 m above the ground, with four repetitions per sample. Samples came from native stands situated in the region of Luminárias - MG, Brazil. The study of morphological characteristics was conducted by counting the number of sides of the cells, and measuring the dimensions of the cells from images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Images were analyzed using the LEOUIF software. The distribution in faces and edges of cork cells from Kielmeyera coriacea, was observed to have from 4 to 8 sides, with a predominance of hexagonal cells, similar to Quercus suber. The averages of height and thickness of the cell walls were 40 to 70 µm and 1.5 to 2.0 µm respectively, indicating cells from an early growth season. Both height and thickness were observed to be greater than those present in Quercus suber

  20. The 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle': application in a cerrado site

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    CA Gadotti

    Full Text Available Researchers may alter the ecology of their studied organisms, even carrying out apparently beneficial activities, as in herbivory studies, when they may alter herbivory damage. We tested whether visit frequency altered herbivory damage, as predicted by the 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle'. In a cerrado site, we established 80 quadrats, in which we sampled all woody individuals. We used four visit frequencies (high, medium, low, and control, quantifying, at the end of three months, herbivory damage for each species in each treatment. We did not corroborate the 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle', since visiting frequency did not alter herbivory damage, at least when the whole plant community was taken into account. However, when we analysed each species separately, four out of 11 species presented significant differences in herbivory damage, suggesting that the researcher is not independent of its measurements. The principle could be tested in other ecological studies in which it may occur, such as those on animal behaviour, human ecology, population dynamics, and conservation.

  1. Plants from Brazilian Cerrado with potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

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    Paula Monteiro Souza

    Full Text Available The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05 tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC₅₀ value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC₅₀ value of 13.14 µg/mL. Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations.

  2. Antileishmanial and trypanocidal activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants

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    Mariana Laundry de Mesquita

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The side effects and the emerging resistance to the available drugs against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis led to the urgent need for new therapeutic agents against these diseases. Thirty one extracts of thirteen medicinal plants from the Brazilian Cerrado were therefore evaluated in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua was the most active against both L. donovani and T. cruzi. Fifteen extracts were active against promastigotes of L. donovani with concentrations inhibiting 50% of parasite growth (IC50 between 0.1-10 µg/ml, particularly those of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae, Himatanthus obovatus (Apocynaceae, Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae, Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae, and Serjania lethalis (Sapindaceae. With regard to amastigotes of T. cruzi, extracts of A. crassiflora, Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae, and C. sylvestris var. lingua were active with IC50 values between 0.3-10 µg/ml. Bioassay fractionations of the more active extracts are under progress to identify the active antiparasite compounds.

  3. Antileishmanial and trypanocidal activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Mariana Laundry de; Desrivot, Julie; Bories, Christian; Fournet, Alain; Paula, José Elias de; Grellier, Philippe; Espindola, Laila Salmen

    2005-11-01

    The side effects and the emerging resistance to the available drugs against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis led to the urgent need for new therapeutic agents against these diseases. Thirty one extracts of thirteen medicinal plants from the Brazilian Cerrado were therefore evaluated in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua was the most active against both L. donovani and T. cruzi. Fifteen extracts were active against promastigotes of L. donovani with concentrations inhibiting 50% of parasite growth (IC50) between 0.1-10 microg/ml, particularly those of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae), Himatanthus obovatus (Apocynaceae), Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae), Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae), and Serjania lethalis (Sapindaceae). With regard to amastigotes of T. cruzi, extracts of A. crassiflora, Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae), and C. sylvestris var. lingua were active with IC50 values between 0.3-10 microg/ml. Bioassay fractionations of the more active extracts are under progress to identify the active antiparasite compounds.

  4. Estoque de carbono em cerrado sensu stricto do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Orelli Paiva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estimar o estoque de carbono da parte aérea (troncos, galhos e serapilheira e subterrânea (raízes e solo da vegetação lenhosa de um cerrado sensu stricto, localizado na Fazenda Água Limpa, da Universidade de Brasília, Distrito Federal. A área de estudo foi amostrada a partir de parcelas de 20 x 50m alocadas sistematicamente. Em cada parcela foram inventariados todos os indivíduos lenhosos arbóreo-arbustivos, vivos e mortos em pé, com no mínimo 5 cm de diâmetro tomado a 30 cm do solo. Foram realizadas também coletas da biomassa de serapilheira; da biomassa de raízes (fina, média e grossa e da densidade e teor de carbono no solo. A profundidade máxima adotada para a coleta de biomassa da parte subterrânea foi de 2 m. A maior parte do carbono correspondeu ao compartimento solo (88,7%, superando bastante as raízes (7,3%, onde as concentrações foram de 271,23 e 22,38 toneladas por hectare, respectivamente. Troncos e galhos totalizaram 8,60 toneladas de carbono por hectare e a serapilheira, 3,62 toneladas de carbono por hectare.

  5. Padrões espaciais e conservação da diversidade de serpentes do bioma cerrado = Spatial patterns and biodiversity conservation of snakes from Cerrado biome

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    Larice de Fátima Couto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Em geral, as tentativas para estabelecer áreas prioritárias para conservação no Cerrado têm sido baseadas em critérios subjetivos. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dados macroecológicos de distribuição de 129 espécies de serpentes distribuídas em 181 células com 1o de latitude/longitude do Cerrado para analisar padrões espaciais na riqueza e propor uma estratégia de conservação para essas espécies. Verificou-se que as cinco variáveis ambientaisanalisadas explicaram apenas 34,65% da variação na riqueza de serpentes do Cerrado. Para seleção de áreas prioritárias utilizando-se procedimentos de otimização, estabeleceu-se que 14 células são necessárias para representar todas as espécies pelo menos uma vez. Também foram incorporados ao modelo os padrões de ocupação humana no Cerrado, visando minimizar conflitos entre desenvolvimento e conservação, e neste caso as células concentram-se principalmente nosudoeste do bioma. Em função da falta geral de conhecimento sobre os padrões mais locais de distribuição de espécies no Cerrado, esses resultados devem ser considerados preliminares. De qualquer modo, o presente estudo, em escala biogeográfica, é importante para estabelecer estratégias metodológicas e para fornecer uma visão ampla dos padrões de diversidade e de que regiões seriam mais importantes para sua conservação. Until recently, the conservation of Cerrado has been neglected andattempts to establish conservation priorities were usually based on subjective criteria. In this paper, macroecological data of distribution of 129 species of snakes in the Cerrado were used to evaluate spatial patterns in species richness and to establish a system of potential areas that preserves all snake species in the region. The five environment variables used as predictors explained only 34.65% of the variance in species richness. In order to establishconservation priorities, optimization procedures were used

  6. Identifying hydrological responses of micro-catchments under contrasting land use in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, R. L. B.; Guzha, A. C.; Torres, G. N.; Kovacs, K.; Lamparter, G.; Amorim, R. S. S.; Couto, E.; Gerold, G.

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, the Brazilian Cerrado biome has been affected by intense land-use change, particularly the conversion of natural forest to agricultural land. Understanding the environmental impacts of this land-use change on landscape hydrological dynamics is one of the main challenges in the Amazon agricultural frontier, where part of the Brazilian Cerrado biome is located and where most of the deforestation has occurred. This study uses empirical data from field measurements to characterize controls on hydrological processes from three first-order micro-catchments gallery forests in these catchments. Although the results of this study provide a useful assessment of catchment rainfall-runoff controls in the Brazilian Cerrado landscape, further research is required to include quantification of the influence of the gallery forests on both hydrological and hydrochemical fluxes, which are important for watershed management and ecosystem services provisioning.

  7. Episodic nitrous oxide soil emissions in Brazilian savanna (cerrado) fire-scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, A. D.; Crill, P. M.; Harriss, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonally burned cerrados of Brazil are the largest savanna-type ecosystem of South America and their contribution to the global atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20) budget is unknown. Four types of fire-scarred cerrado along a vegetation gradient from grassland to forest were investigated during the wet season of 1992/93. The effect of fire and subsequent water additions on epiodic emissions of N2O and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O concentrations were studied for several months. Additionally, the effect on episodic emissions of N2O of nitrate and glucose additions to a cerrado soil after fire and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O mixing ratios were determined. Finally, N2O episodic emissions in cerrado converted to corn, soybean, and pasture fields were investigated during one growing/wet season. Results showed N2O consumption/emission for the four fire-scared savanna ecosystems, for nitrogen and carbon fertilization, and for agriculture/pasture ranging from -0.3 to +0.7, 1.8 to 9.1, and 0.5 to 3.7 g N2O-N ha(exp -1) d(exp -1), respectively. During the wet season the cerrado biome does not appear to be a major source of N2O to the troposphere, even following fire events. However, the results of this study suggest that conversion of the cerrado to high input agriculture, with liming and fertilization, can increase N2O emissions more than ten fold.

  8. Episodic nitrous oxide soil emissions in Brazilian savanna (cerrado) fire-scars. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, A.D.; Crill, P.M.; Harriss, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The seasonally burned cerrados of Brazil are the largest savanna-type ecosystem of South America and their contribution to the global atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) budget is unknown. Four types of fire-scarred cerrado along a vegetation gradient from grassland to forest were investigated during the wet season of 1992/93. The effect of fire and subsequent water additions on epiodic emissions of N2O and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O concentrations were studied for several months. Additionally, the effect on episodic emissions of N2O of nitrate and glucose additions to a cerrado soil after fire and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O mixing ratios were determined. Finally, N2O episodic emissions in cerrado converted to corn, soybean, and pasture fields were investigated during one growing/wet season. Results showed N2O consumption/emission for the four fire-scared savanna ecosystems, for nitrogen and carbon fertilization, and for agriculture/pasture ranging from -0.3 to +0.7, 1.8 to 9.1, and 0.5 to 3.7 g N2O-N ha(exp -1) d(exp -1), respectively. During the wet season the cerrado biome does not appear to be a major source of N2O to the troposphere, even following fire events. However, the results of this study suggest that conversion of the cerrado to high input agriculture, with liming and fertilization, can increase N2O emissions more than ten fold.

  9. Shifts in taxonomic and functional microbial diversity with agriculture: How fragile is the Brazilian Cerrado?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Renata Carolini; Mendes, Iêda Carvalho; Reis-Junior, Fábio Bueno; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Vicente, Vânia Aparecida; Hungria, Mariangela

    2016-03-16

    The Cerrado--an edaphic type of savannah--comprises the second largest biome of the Brazilian territory and is the main area for grain production in the country, but information about the impact of land conversion to agriculture on microbial diversity is still scarce. We used a shotgun metagenomic approach to compare undisturbed (native) soil and soils cropped for 23 years with soybean/maize under conservation tillage--"no-till" (NT)--and conventional tillage (CT) systems in the Cerrado biome. Soil management and fertilizer inputs with the introduction of agriculture improved chemical properties, but decreased soil macroporosity and microbial biomass of carbon and nitrogen. Principal coordinates analyses confirmed different taxonomic and functional profiles for each treatment. There was predominance of the Bacteria domain, especially the phylum Proteobacteria, with higher numbers of sequences in the NT and CT treatments; Archaea and Viruses also had lower numbers of sequences in the undisturbed soil. Within the Alphaproteobacteria, there was dominance of Rhizobiales and of the genus Bradyrhizobium in the NT and CT systems, attributed to massive inoculation of soybean, and also of Burkholderiales. In contrast, Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Xanthomonas, Pseudomonas and Acidobacterium predominated in the native Cerrado. More Eukaryota, especially of the phylum Ascomycota were detected in the NT. The functional analysis revealed lower numbers of sequences in the five dominant categories for the CT system, whereas the undisturbed Cerrado presented higher abundance. High impact of agriculture in taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in the biome Cerrado was confirmed. Functional diversity was not necessarily associated with taxonomic diversity, as the less conservationist treatment (CT) presented increased taxonomic sequences and reduced functional profiles, indicating a strategy to try to maintain soil functioning by favoring taxa that are probably not the most

  10. Use of Orbital LIDAR in the Brazilian Cerrado Biome: Potential Applications and Data Availability

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    Laerte Guimarães Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS data availability over the 2 million km2 Cerrado, the Brazilian central savanna biome and one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. Overall, about 2.5 million laser shots, distributed along the seven years of ICESat operation (2003–2009 and comprising three major seasonal domains, were acquired, from which, 206,026 and 176,035 screened footprints are coincident with the remnant vegetation and cultivated pasture areas (the dominant land-use form in the Cerrado. Although these points are well distributed over the entire Cerrado, the ICESat track data collection results in substantial data gaps. In relation to the 15,612 Cerrado watersheds (6th order Otto basin system, 8,369 and 4,415 watersheds are completely deprived of data points over their remnant vegetation and pasture covers, respectively. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR availability was also evaluated in relation to specific targets of interest, including both fully-protected conservation units as well as areas impacted by fire and deforestation. In spite of the very few occurrences, our assessments indicate that enough LIDAR data is available for retrieving structural and functional properties of a variety of Cerrado physiognomies, as well as to assess how these physiognomies respond to anthropogenic induced changes. In fact, the comprehensive data availability analysis conducted in this study corroborate the potential of GLAS LIDAR waveforms for the retrieval of biophysical properties at both local and regional scales, particularly concerning remnant carbon stocks and pasture conditions, key information for the conservation of the fast-changing and severely threatened Cerrado.

  11. Deve-se usar o fogo como instrumento de manejo no Cerrado e Campos Sulinos?

    OpenAIRE

    Fidelis, Alessandra; Universidade de São Paulo; Pivello, Vânia Regina; Universidade de São Paulo

    2011-01-01

    O fogo é um importante instrumento de manejo em diversos ecossistemas, no mundo todo. No Brasil, particularmente o Cerrado e os Campos Sulinos são submetidos a queimadas periódicas, seja por motivos naturais (raios) ou por ações humanas. Entretanto, nas unidades de conservação que se propõem a conservar esses biomas, procura-se impedir a ocorrência de queimadas. Pretendemos aqui evidenciar a importância do fogo no Cerrado e nos Campos Sulinos e estimular uma reavaliação do manejo em relação a...

  12. The first species of Aplastodiscus endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Hylidae

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    Bianca V.M. Berneck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the A. perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome. In addition, its geographical distribution and conservation status are discussed.

  13. Conserving Biogeography: Habitat Loss and Vicariant Patterns in Endemic Squamates of the Cerrado Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Pietro L H; Machado, Ricardo B; Nogueira, Cristiano de C

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the threat levels and impacts of habitat loss over the Cerrado Squamate fauna. The region is under severe habitat loss due to mechanized agriculture, accelerated by changes in the Brazilian National Forest Code. The Squamate fauna of the Cerrado is rich in endemics and is intrinsically associated with its surrounding microhabitats, which make up a mosaic of phitophysiognomies throughout the region. Herein we evaluate current conservation status of Squamate biogeographic patterns in the Brazilian Cerrado, the single savanna among global biodiversity hotspots. To do so, we first updated point locality data on 49 endemic Squamates pertaining to seven non-random clusters of species ranges in the Cerrado. Each cluster was assumed to be representative of different biogeographic regions, holding its own set of species, herein mapped according to their extent of occurrence (EOO). We then contrasted these data in four different scenarios, according to the presence or absence of habitat loss and the presence or absence of the current protected area (PA) cover. We searched for non-random patterns of habitat loss and PA coverage among these biogeographic regions throughout the Cerrado. Finally, with the species EOO as biodiversity layers, we used Zonation to discuss contemporary PA distribution, as well as to highlight current priority areas for conservation within the Cerrado. We ran Zonation under all four conservation scenarios mentioned above. We observed that habitat loss and PA coverage significantly differed between biogeographic regions. The southernmost biogeographic region is the least protected and the most impacted, with priority areas highly scattered in small, disjunct fragments. The northernmost biogeographic region (Tocantins-Serra Geral) is the most protected and least impacted, showing extensive priority areas in all Zonation scenarios. Therefore, current and past deforestation trends are severely threatening biogeographic patterns in

  14. ITS phylogeny and taxonomy of Phyllachora species on native Myrtaceae from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Maria Desterro Mendes; de Noronha Fonseca, Maria Esther; Silva Boiteux, Leonardo; Câmara, Paulo Eduardo A S; Dianese, Jose C

    Nine Phyllachora species found on hosts belonging to the family Myrtaceae native to the Brazilian Cerrado were described and illustrated. We sequenced nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer barcode regions for representatives of seven species and conducted phylogenetic analyses, which provided strong support for four new species that we describe as Phyllachora cerradensis, P. ermidensis, P. furnasensis, and P. myrciariae. Catacauma nigerrimum was recombined into P. nigerrima, and a key to the common Phyllachora species on myrtaceous hosts from the Brazilian Cerrado was also included.

  15. The first species ofAplastodiscusendemic to the Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneck, Bianca V M; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A; Brandão, Reuber A; Cruz, Carlos A G; Haddad, Célio F B

    2017-01-01

    The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the Aplastodiscus perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome. In addition, its geographical distribution and conservation status are discussed.

  16. Using Landsat 8 Image Time Series for Crop Mapping in a Region of Cerrado, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, H.; Sanches, I. D.; Körting, T. S.; Fonseca, L. M. G.; Luiz, A. J. B.; Formaggio, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to classify agricultural land use in a region of the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) biome using a time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from Landsat 8 OLI. Phenological metrics extracted from EVI time series, a Random Forest algorithm and data mining techniques are used in the process of classification. The area of study is a region in the Cerrado in a region of the municipality of Casa Branca, São Paulo state, Brazil. The results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of phenological parameters obtained from time series of OLI vegetation indices for agricultural land use classification.

  17. O corpo sentido e os sentidos do corpo anoréxico Sensing and making sense of the anorexic body

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    Rubia Carla Formighieri Giordani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a experiência corporal na anorexia nervosa e compreender os sentidos que os indivíduos anoréxicos atribuem às práticas corporais de restrição e purgação presentes nesse tipo de transtorno alimentar. MÉTODOS: A partir da etnografia e do método biográfico foram acompanhados oito indivíduos anoréxicos para uma descrição intensa do conteúdo das experiências de doença. Foram reconstituídas narrativas sobre a história de vida apoiadas em depoimentos autobiográficos, cartas e diários pessoais. O estudo foi realizado em Curitiba, no período de janeiro a setembro de 2003. RESULTADOS: A abordagem fenomenológica utilizada privilegia a experiência contada pelo indivíduo que, pela reconstituição da história de vida pretende trazer à tona o conteúdo do vivido. Nessa discussão o corpo assume uma posição central pois, além de ser o fundamento e a condição para participar do mundo social, ele aparece também como o alicerce para a experiência socialmente constituída da anorexia nervosa. Os significados atribuídos pelos indivíduos à sua experiência são o resultado de um cruzamento entre, sua história biográfica e o conhecimento significativamente apreendido por meio dela, juntamente com aquilo que foi experimentado pelo corpo em um mundo intersubjetivo. A imagem corporal distorcida na anorexia nervosa expressa um vivido relacional pela anoréxica, e as práticas corporais são a manifestação de um desejo de transformação da sua realidade. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostrou que o corpo é uma dimensão importante a ser reconhecida para a compreensão do processo de adoecer e levantou ainda questões específicas a serem estudadas sobre a gênese da anorexia nas sociedades modernas ocidentais. Revelou que a experiência corporal na anorexia comunica uma dimensão social da doença, em que os significados são sempre construídos e compartilhados com pessoas do microcosmo

  18. Micronucleus as biomarker of genotoxicity in birds from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baesse, Camilla Queiroz; Tolentino, Vitor Carneiro de Magalhães; da Silva, Adriano Marcos; Silva, Arthur de Andrade; Ferreira, Giancarlo Ângelo; Paniago, Luís Pedro Mendes; Nepomuceno, Júlio César; de Melo, Celine

    2015-05-01

    Birds are considered efficient bioindicators, by their behavioral characteristics, diversified diet, and use of several vegetation layers, including in contaminated environments. The accumulation of contaminants can harm the reproductive process and survival of species, in addition to causing severe metabolic disorders. Air pollution can also affect the birds' health. Micronucleus analysis, a technique able to evaluate the organisms' sensitivity to contaminant agents, has been regarded as a practical tool for evaluating and monitoring the clastogenic and aneugenic effects caused by pollutants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of micronuclei in bird species that use forest environments and their surroundings; and to verify if the frequency and amount of micronuclei varies between species, areas and populations. Birds transiting between the Brazilian Cerrado forest and open formations were analyzed, coming from four forest fragments of Triângulo Mineiro, two close to urban areas and two more distant. Birds were captured with mist-nets for collecting blood extensions, which were used for counting micronuclei. In total, 103 individuals of 21 species were captured, and the micronucleus rate for every 5000 erythrocytes analyzed was 1.30. Only six populations had sampling sufficiency. There was no difference between the number of individuals with and without micronuclei (χ²=3.18, df=1, p=0.08). In areas closer to the urban perimeter, the micronuclei averages in birds were greater compared to the most isolated areas (H=27.534, df=3, pbirds was effective for evaluating the area quality as well as the intensity with which the birds respond to impacts caused by the surrounding matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Controls on fluxes of trace gases from Brazilian cerrado soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.C. [Coll. of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA (United States). Virginia Inst. of Marine Science; Poth, M.A. [Dept. of Agriculture, Riverside, CA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Tropical ecosystems play an important role in production or consumption of atmospheric trace gases including nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and methane (CH{sub 4}). Here the authors describe field and laboratory experiments, performed during 1994, to determine the influence of fire on processes responsible for fluxes of gases from cerrado sites burned 17 and 45 d earlier, and a control site, last burned in 1974. Burning stimulated gross N mineralization but depressed nitrification rates; however, rates were sufficient to support NO fluxes observed in a 1992 study at the same site. Extractable nutrients and fluxes of NO and N{sub 2}O from wetted and dry soils were measured prior to and for a 3-d period following burning. Over this period NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} declined to undetectable levels; NH{sub 4}{sup +} increased, and NO fluxes remained relatively constant, suggesting that nitrifiers replaced the NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} reduced to NO. Soils at burned and unburned sites exhibited CH{sub 4} uptake, which was inhibited by CH{sub 3}F, thereby converting soils from a strong sink to a weak source of CH{sub 4}. Carbon dioxide fluxes did not increase, and there were no detectable fluxes of N{sub 2}O following burning. In lab studies NO and N{sub 2}O emissions were inhibited by autoclaving, suggesting that nitrification was key to their production. However, addition of NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} to autoclaved soil resulted in large fluxes of NO but no detectable N{sub 2}O, suggesting that chemodenitrification may have been responsible for NO but not N{sub 2}O production. Further research is needed to determine whether NO is produced directly by nitrifier NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} reduction or indirectly by chemodenitrification of NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} produced by nitrifiers.

  20. Leaf histochemistry analysis of four medicinal species from Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius C. Kuster

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chemical components act in plant defense and protection, but many of them are extracted and used medicinally. For Cerrado, active chemical components are used in the treatment of diseases, which strengthens the necessity for pharmacological studies of plants of that environment. The objective was to evaluate the histochemistry of the leaf blade of Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC., Malpighiaceae, Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess. O.Berg, Myrtaceae, Roupala montana Aubl., Proteaceae, and Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae, species that have been reported as producers of secondary metabolites for pharmacological use. The 3rd node leaves (median, intercostal and margin regions were collected, fixed, included in Paraplast® or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, sectioned in microtome, stained and photographed on microscope. This analysis aimed to find leaf regions which produced chemical compounds. For histochemical tests, intercostal areas were selected from median region leaf of the 3rd node. Samples fresh and newly collected and fixed and embedded in Paraplast® were used. Tests were conducted for lipids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, sugars and proteins. Alkaloids were observed only in R. montana, as well as the results for phenolic compounds. Flavonoids are present in B. verbascifolia and R. montana. The lipid composition was showed for the chemical compounds of B. verbascifolia and C. adamantium, which proved to be part of the essential oils or resins oils in C. adamantium idioblasts. The chemical compounds of B. verbascifolia, C. adamantium and R. montana are present mainly in idioblasts among the parenchyma and epidermal cells. C. adamantium has secretory cavities, but only with lipid content. The identification of chemical compounds has not been possible in mature leaves of S. lycocarpum.

  1. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart, Brazil’s Native Fruit

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    Fernanda R. Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD. Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  2. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.; Arruda, Sandra F.

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  3. Produtividade da soja no cerrado influenciada pelas fontes de enxofre Soybean grain yield in cerrado region influenced by sulphur sources

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    Dirceu Luiz Broch

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O enxofre é um componente de proteínas e aminoácidos em plantas, sendo exigido em boa quantidade por leguminosas, pelo alto acúmulo de proteínas nessas espécies. Com isso, este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a influência de diferentes fontes de enxofre sobre a produtividade de grãos na cultura da soja. O experimento foi instalado na área experimental da Fundação MS, em Maracajú, MS, em três anos consecutivos no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, submetidas à análise de variância conjunta. Foram implantadas as cultivares BRS-133 (2002/03 e 2003/04 e CD 202 (2004/05. Como tratamento foram avaliados: as adições de enxofre na forma de superfosfato simples, MAP sulfurado + Sulfurgran, Sulfurgran, enxofre elementar, gesso granulado, Fosmag 509M6, gesso agrícola a lanço e testemunha, sem a aplicação. A soja responde à aplicação de enxofre em solos das regiões do cerrado brasileiro, sendo necessária, na maioria das vezes, a fertilização com este nutriente para obtenção de altas produtividades. A grande maioria das fontes de enxofre utilizadas foi eficiente em fornecer este nutriente para a soja, com destaque para a aplicação de MAP Sulfurado + Sulfurgran, Formag 509M6 e gesso agrícola a lanço, que promoveram as melhores produtividades de grãos. O enxofre elementar não foi eficiente em disponibilizar S para a cultura.Sulphur is a component of protein and aminoacids in plants, being required in an expressive amount by leguminous, as function of high protein levels in these plants. Then, this work aimed to verify the influence of different sulphur sources on soybean grain yield. The experiment was carried out at the experimental area of Fundação MS, Maracajú, MS, in three consecutive years in a randomized block design with four replications, submitted to variance analysis of group experiments. The cultivars used were BRS-133 (2002/03 and 2003/04 and CD 202 (2004/05. As treatments, it was

  4. Macroecologia de mamíferos neotropicais com ocorrência no Cerrado Macroecology of neotropical mammals with occurrence in the brazilian "Cerrado"

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    Cleiber Marquez Vieira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The macroecological approach has been used recently to analyze correlations between ecological variables in large taxonomic groups, at continental scales. A positive relationship between body weight and geographic range size has been described as a poligonal space envelope form, that can be explained by ecological and evolutionary constraints. However, these variables can be disturbed by spatial and phylogenetic autocorrelation effects. In this work, the relationship between body weight and geographic range size was analyzed for 80 species of Neotropical mammals present in the Brazilian "cerrado". Spatial and taxonomic effects were tested using a linear trend surface analysis and an ANOVA (at level of order, combined in a generalized model. Around 61% of variation in geographic range size and 69% of variation in body weight in mammals of the "cerrado" can be explained simultaneously by spatial and taxonomic effects. The analysis of residuals of the generalized model showed that positive correlation between variables persist even after removing these effects. Thus, variation and covariation of traits in the mammals of the brazilian "cerrado" agree with the general macroecological pattern proposed for another taxonomic groups such as mammals, birds and snakes worldwilde.

  5. Casos de pérdida del sentido. La tabla de la nada en Kant

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    Hardy Neumann Soto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinan las diversas modalidades de la nada como casos de pérdida del sentido y falta de consumación del conocimiento: la nada como noúmeno y su relación con el fenómeno, así como la conexión trascendental de ambos. Aunque la nada pone en jaque al concepto de sentido, este se encuentra supuesto antes de todo tipo de pregunta por el ser, y se constituye en el trasfondo de las condiciones trascendentales que posibilitan el conocimiento.

  6. Percepción de sentido de vida en universitarios colombianos

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    Efrén Martínez Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El presente trabajo se propuso describir la percepción del sentido de vida de estudiantes universitarios colombianos de la ciudad de Bogotá, definida por Martínez (2007 como la percepción afectiva-cognitiva de valores que invitan a la persona a actuar de un modo u otro ante situaciones específicas o de la vida en general, dando coherencia e identidad personal. Se buscó caracterizar la percepción del sentido de vida según el área académica, el género y la edad de los participantes. Método. La muestra intencional estuvo compuesta por 695 estudiantes universitarios, de los cuales 68.9% eran mujeres y 31.1% hombres, con edad promedio de 22.17 años. Resultados. Mediante la aplicación de la Escala Dimensional del Sentido de Vida, no se encontraron diferencias significativas por género, sí se encontró que 36.7% de los participantes presentaron bajo sentido de vida, mientras que los estudiantes entre 16 y 20 años mostraron mayor sentido de vida. Los estudiantes de Medicina y Enfermería mostraron los mayores puntajes de sentido de vida, por su parte, los estudiantes de Psicología y Comunicación social presentaron puntajes significativamente más bajos que el resto de participantes. Conclusión. Los resultados obtenidos permiten obtener una primera aproximación general del sentido de vida de población joven colombiana, empleando un instrumento desarrollado y validado para el país. Además, se plantean nuevas preguntas investigativas con respecto a la salud mental de los estudiantes de Psicología, en vista de su correlación con el sentido de vida reportada en otros estudios.

  7. Apreciación del sentido del humor en estudiantes universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Lara Rodriguez; Elsa Catalina Lizcano; Monica Reyes Rojas

    2011-01-01

    La apreciación del humor incluye varios procesos cognitivos y sociales. No se puede decir que dos comunidades se rían de los mismos chistes y que encuentren divertidos los mismos contenidos humorísticos. En este estudio se trabajaron las diferencias en la apreciación del sentido del humor en estudiantes universitarios y se hicieron comparaciones entre sexo y edad de los participantes. Para valorar la apreciación del sentido del humor se construyó un instrumento con 15 chistes escritos present...

  8. Apreciação do sentido de humor em estudantes universitários

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Rojas, Monica; Lara-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Lizcano-Lopez, Elsa-Catalina

    2012-01-01

    La apreciación del humor incluye varios procesos cognitivos y sociales. No se puede decir que dos comunidades se rían de los mismos chistes y que encuentren divertidos los mismos contenidos humorísticos. En este estudio se trabajaron las diferencias en la apreciación del sentido del humor en estudiantes universitarios y se hicieron comparaciones entre sexo y edad de los participantes. Para valorar la apreciación del sentido del humor se construyó un instrumento con 15 chistes escritos present...

  9. Casos de pérdida del sentido. La tabla de la nada en Kant

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy Neumann Soto

    2016-01-01

    Se examinan las diversas modalidades de la nada como casos de pérdida del sentido y falta de consumación del conocimiento: la nada como noúmeno y su relación con el fenómeno, así como la conexión trascendental de ambos. Aunque la nada pone en jaque al concepto de sentido, este se encuentra supuesto antes de todo tipo de pregunta por el ser, y se constituye en el trasfondo de las condiciones trascendentales que posibilitan el conocimiento.

  10. Approche d'un grand espace: la maille municipale des Cerrados brésiliens

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    Philippe WANIEZ

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available L'espace des Cerrados brésiliens est en cours de colonisation. Le système d'information SISECSO facilite l'analyse des transformations économiques et sociales de ce territoire. Le film de la formation de la maille municipale est une première approche originale.

  11. An Algorithm for Burned Area Detection in the Brazilian Cerrado Using 4 µm MODIS Imagery

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    Renata Libonati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Cerrado is significantly affected by anthropic fires every year, which makes the region an important source of pyrogenic emissions. This study aims at generating improved 1 km monthly burned area maps for Cerrado based on remote-sensed information. The algorithm relies on a burn-sensitive vegetation index based on MODIS daily values of near and middle infrared reflectance and makes use of active fire detection from multiple sensors. Validation is performed using reference burned area (BA maps derived from Landsat imagery. Results are also compared with MODIS standard BA products. A monthly BA database for the Brazilian Cerrado is generated covering the period 2005–2014. Estimated value of BA is 1.3 times larger than the value derived from reference data, making the product suitable for applications in fire emission studies and ecosystem management. As expected the intra and inter-annual variability of estimated BA over the Brazilian Cerrado is in agreement with the regime of precipitation. This work represents the first step towards setting up a regional database of BA for Brazil to be developed in the framework of BrFLAS, an R and D project in the areas of fire emissions and ecosystem management planning.

  12. Seed germination and seedling growth of two Pseudobombax species (Malvaceae) with contrasting habitats from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Rodrigues, Clesnan; Oliveira, Paulo Eugênio; Ranal, Marli Aparecida

    2011-12-01

    Pseudobombax tomentosum and P. longiflorum are common trees in the Cerrado region, but the former species is more common in forest edges while the later is present in open cerrado areas. This work aimed to investigate differences in seed germination and seedling growth in these species, from seed collected from Cerrado areas in Central Brazil. For this, a seed germination experiment was designed and included four replicates with 25 seeds per species; seeds were randomly distributed in the germination chamber. To evaluate initial seedling growth, seedlings height was measured up to 67 days after seedling emergence; besides, some of these seedlings were grown for biomass evaluation during nine months. Results showed that seeds of the two species had the same germinability (near 100%) and mean germination time (ca. 12 days). However, P. longiflorum showed a more spread seed germination through time, with higher values of coefficient of variation in germination time and uncertainty index; and lower values of synchronization than P. tomentosum. The two species showed basically the same growth pattern, but lower values for height of apical meristem, diameter of underground structures (mostly roots), dry mass of shoots, underground structure and total mass of seedlings in P. tomentosum were obtained, compared to P. longiflorum. Both species allocated more dry mass to underground structures in detriment of shoot. This probably allows resprouting behavior which prevents hydric stress and detrimental fire action typical of the open Cerrado areas.

  13. Evidence of the effects of fire on branching and leaf development in cerrado trees

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    João Paulo Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We discuss evidence of effects of an accidental fire on shoot growth and leaf development in six cerrado tree species with distinct leaf phenologies. Buds of all six species were marked before shoot and leaf emergence in the dry season. After fire, leaf and shoot growth were monitored weekly and specific leaf area (SLA was determined. Shoot order was determined in the growing season. Evergreens and semideciduous woody species had rapid leaf and shoot growth and decreased leaf life span (LLS after fire compared with published data for evergreens in cerrado areas without fire. On the other hand, Kielmeyera variabilis, a deciduous species, showed intense branching and produced two orders of shoots in one growing season. Fires promote rapid leaf and shoot growth in evergreens owing to reserve accumulations that allow survivorship after disturbances. However, the leaves produced by evergreens after fire had high SLAs and were discarded before the next rainy season (short LLS. This leaf cohort was produced with less carbon per leaf, and the decreased LLS prevented herbivory and water loss during the dry season. Fire is an important factor of cerrado environments, influencing leaf production and shoot architecture in cerrado trees.

  14. Use of habitats by non-volant small mammals in Cerrado in Central Brazil

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    M. Santos-Filho

    Full Text Available Non-volant small mammals are organisms capable of yielding precise information on richness, abundance and species composition variations related to the use of habitats. The aim of this research was to compare these variations in Cerrado sensu stricto, Palm Forest, Gallery Forest and Rocky Field. From May 1999 to February 2000, we surveyed non-volant small mammals (hence small mammals in Serra das Araras Ecological Station. We captured 218 individuals and recaptured 62 individuals, belonging to 21 taxa, 13 rodents and eight marsupials, in a total of 13200 trap-nights. Capture success was 1.7%. We observed higher richness of small mammals in forested areas (Gallery Forest and Palm Forest than in open areas (Rocky Field and Cerrado sensu stricto. The Palm Forest had the highest richness of marsupials, possibly due to the quality of a specific niche. The Rocky Field had the smallest richness, but with very high abundance of few species, mainly Thrichomys pachyurus and Monodelphis domestica. Forest habitats had similar species composition. The open habitats, Cerrado sensu stricto and Rocky Field, had a distinct species composition between them, and also when compared to forested areas. Different species are exclusive or showed preference for specific habitats. The protection of horizontally heterogeneous biomes, such as Cerrado, has a fundamental importance to the maintenance of the regional diversity of the small mammal community of Central Brazil.

  15. Use of habitats by non-volant small mammals in Cerrado in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Filho, M; Frieiro-Costa, F; Ignácio, Á R A; Silva, M N F

    2012-11-01

    Non-volant small mammals are organisms capable of yielding precise information on richness, abundance and species composition variations related to the use of habitats. The aim of this research was to compare these variations in Cerrado sensu stricto, Palm Forest, Gallery Forest and Rocky Field. From May 1999 to February 2000, we surveyed non-volant small mammals (hence small mammals) in Serra das Araras Ecological Station. We captured 218 individuals and recaptured 62 individuals, belonging to 21 taxa, 13 rodents and eight marsupials, in a total of 13200 trap-nights. Capture success was 1.7%. We observed higher richness of small mammals in forested areas (Gallery Forest and Palm Forest) than in open areas (Rocky Field and Cerrado sensu stricto). The Palm Forest had the highest richness of marsupials, possibly due to the quality of a specific niche. The Rocky Field had the smallest richness, but with very high abundance of few species, mainly Thrichomys pachyurus and Monodelphis domestica. Forest habitats had similar species composition. The open habitats, Cerrado sensu stricto and Rocky Field, had a distinct species composition between them, and also when compared to forested areas. Different species are exclusive or showed preference for specific habitats. The protection of horizontally heterogeneous biomes, such as Cerrado, has a fundamental importance to the maintenance of the regional diversity of the small mammal community of Central Brazil.

  16. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species

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    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself.

  17. Seed germination and seedling growth of two Pseudobombax species (Malvaceae with contrasting habitats from Brazilian Cerrado

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    Clesnan Mendes-Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudobombax tomentosum and P. longiflorum are common trees in the Cerrado region, but the former species is more common in forest edges while the later is present in open cerrado areas. This work aimed to investigate differences in seed germination and seedling growth in these species, from seed collected from Cerrado areas in Central Brazil. For this, a seed germination experiment was designed and included four replicates with 25 seeds per species; seeds were randomly distributed in the germination chamber. To evaluate initial seedling growth, seedlings height was measured up to 67 days after seedling emergence; besides, some of these seedlings were grown for biomass evaluation during nine months. Results showed that seeds of the two species had the same germinability (near 100% and mean germination time (ca. 12 days. However, P. longiflorum showed a more spread seed germination through time, with higher values of coefficient of variation in germination time and uncertainty index; and lower values of synchronization than P. tomentosum. The two species showed basically the same growth pattern, but lower values for height of apical meristem, diameter of underground structures (mostly roots, dry mass of shoots, underground structure and total mass of seedlings in P. tomentosum were obtained, compared to P. longiflorum. Both species allocated more dry mass to underground structures in detriment of shoot. This probably allows resprouting behavior which prevents hydric stress and detrimental fire action typical of the open Cerrado areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1915-1925. Epub 2011 December 01.

  18. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Nisgoski, Silvana; Oliveira, Julia S; Marcati, Carmen R; Ballarin, Adriano W; Muñiz, Graciela I B

    2016-05-13

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself.

  19. Selection of efficient rhizobial symbionts for Cratylia argentea in the cerrado biome

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    Giovanna Moura Calazans

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cratylia argentea is a leguminous shrub native to the cerrado, which has great potential for forage production and recovery of degraded areas. This study aimed to isolate, characterize, and select efficient rhizobial strains in symbiosis with Cratylia argentea . Rhizobacteria were isolated from the nodules of 12-month-old plants and cultivated in pots containing cerrado soil. Twenty-five bacterial strains were obtained, which displayed extensive variability with respect to morphological and symbiotic characteristics. Cratylia argentea seeds were planted in pots containing 5kg of cerrado soil and maintained in the greenhouse. The treatments consisted of 25 rhizobial isolates, two controls (without nitrogen and without inoculation, with or without nitrogen fertilization (5mgN·plant-1·week-1, and four replications. Plants were cultivated for 150 days after planting seeds to evaluate nodule number, nodule dry weight, shoot and root dry weight, shoot and root N content, and relative and symbiotic efficiency. Thirteen isolates improved shoot dry weight (up to 65.8% and shoot nitrogen concentration (up to 76% compared with those of control treatments. Two isolates, 4 (CR42 and 22 (CR52, conferred higher symbiotic efficiency values of approximately 20%. Therefore, these two rhizobial isolates displayed the highest potential as beneficial inoculants to optimize the symbiotic efficiency for Cratylia and to increase the incorporation of nutrients and biomass into the productive system in the cerrado.

  20. Prevalence and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidians from three distinct cerrado habitats in Brazil.

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    Nayara O Belo

    Full Text Available Habitat alteration can disrupt host-parasite interactions and lead to the emergence of new diseases in wild populations. The cerrado habitat of Brazil is being fragmented and degraded rapidly by agriculture and urbanization. We screened 676 wild birds from three habitats (intact cerrado, disturbed cerrado and transition area Amazonian rainforest-cerrado for the presence of haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus to determine whether different habitats were associated with differences in the prevalence and diversity of infectious diseases in natural populations. Twenty one mitochondrial lineages, including 11 from Plasmodium and 10 from Haemoproteus were identified. Neither prevalence nor diversity of infections by Plasmodium spp. or Haemoproteus spp. differed significantly among the three habitats. However, 15 of the parasite lineages had not been previously described and might be restricted to these habitats or to the region. Six haemosporidian lineages previously known from other regions, particularly the Caribbean Basin, comprised 50-80% of the infections in each of the samples, indicating a regional relationship between parasite distribution and abundance.

  1. Aesthetic Experiences in the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna): Contributions to Environmental Education Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iared, Valéria Ghisloti; Torres de Oliveira, Haydée; Reid, Alan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we reflect on a study in Brazil's Cerrado that attempts to address a lack of attention to an aesthetic dimension in environmental education practice and research. We start by tracing this lack to the overvaluing of the cognitive sphere in the educational process, noting its echo in the low aesthetic value attributed to the Cerrado…

  2. Changes in organic carbon stocks upon land use conversion in the Brazilian Cerrado: A review. Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle-Bayer, L.; Batjes, N.H.; Bindraban, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on changes in carbon stocks upon land use conversion in the Brazilian Cerrado. First, we briefly characterize the savanna ecosystem and summarize the main published data on C stocks under natural conditions. The effects of increased land use pressure in the

  3. Very low mitochondrial variability in a stingless bee endemic to cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Rute Magalhães; de Oliveira Francisco, Flávio; Françoso, Elaine; Santiago, Leandro Rodrigues; Arias, Maria Cristina

    2013-03-01

    Partamona mulata is a stingless bee species endemic to cerrado, a severely threatened phytogeographical domain. Clearing for pasture without proper soil treatment in the cerrado facilitates the proliferation of termite ground nests, which are the nesting sites for P. mulata. The genetic consequences of these changes in the cerrado environment for bee populations are still understudied. In this work, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 48 colonies of P. mulata collected throughout the species' distribution range by sequencing two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome B. A very low polymorphism rate was observed when compared to another Partamona species from the Atlantic forest. Exclusive haplotypes were observed in two of the five areas sampled. The sharing of two haplotypes between collection sites separated by a distance greater than the flight range of queens indicates an ancient distribution for these haplotypes. The low haplotype and nucleotide diversity observed here suggests that P. mulata is either a young species or one that has been through population bottlenecks. Locally predominant and exclusive haplotypes (H2 and H4) may have been derived from local remnants through cerrado deforestation and the expansion of a few colonies with abundant nesting sites.

  4. The length of the dry season may be associated with leaf scleromorphism in cerrado plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcelo C; Franco, Augusto C; Haridasan, Mundayatan; Rossatto, Davi R; de Araújo, Janaína F; Morellato, Leonor P C; Habermann, Gustavo

    2015-09-01

    Despite limitations of low fertility and high acidity of the soils, the cerrado flora is the richest amongst savannas. Many cerrado woody species show sclerophyllous leaves, which might be related to the availability of water and nutrients in the soil. To better understand the function and structure of cerrado vegetation within its own variations, we compared two cerrado communities: one in its core region in central Brazil (Brasília, DF) and the other on its southern periphery (Itirapina, SP). We contrasted the length of the dry season, soil fertility rates, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg and the specific leaf area (SLA) between these communities. The dry season was shorter on the periphery, where the soil was more fertile although more acidic. Plants from the periphery showed higher SLA and higher leaf concentrations of N, P, Ca and Mg. We propose that the higher SLA of plants from the periphery is related to the shorter dry season, which allows better conditions for nutrient uptake.

  5. Cambial activity in dry and rainy season on branches from woody species growing in Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen R. Marcati; Silvia R. Machado; Diego Sotto Podadera; Natalia O. Totti de Lara; Fabio Bosio; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal cambial activity was investigated in one- to three-year-old branch modules (branch constructional units) of ten woody species from cerrado sensu stricto, a savanna-like ecosystem, of southernBrazil. Relationships between cambial activity and environmental factors (precipitation, temperature,day length) and leaf production were tested using...

  6. Polyembryony in Melastomataceae from Brazilian Cerrado: multiple embryos in a small world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Rodrigues, C; Oliveira, P E

    2012-09-01

    Polyembryony has been commonly associated with apomixis in the angiosperms and seems to be more common than expected, even in biomes where sexual reproduction processes are predominant. Recent studies in Cerrado, the Neotropical savannas of Central Brazil, showed high frequencies of apomixis and polyembryony and indicated these processes as reproductive and evolutionary alternatives for plants in these areas. In this sense, we investigated the occurrence of polyembryony and its relationships with ecological (season and type of dispersal, ploidy, species distribution and breeding system) and taxonomic (tribe) factors in the Melastomataceae, a mostly tropical family already known for its high frequency of apomixis and very common in Cerrado. We collected seeds from 69 populations of 53 species, which were sown in germination chambers. After seed germination, the presence and number of seedlings per seed were evaluated as a method to estimate polyembryony. We encountered 18 species (33.96%) with polyembryony (more than one seedling, or gemellar seedlings, originated per seed) concentrated in species of the tribe Miconieae (64%) and Microlicieae (16.67%), but absent in Melastomeae. Monoembryony was present only in sexual species, while all apomictic species were polyembryonic. In Miconia, the polyembryony was correlated with polyploidy, and monoembryony with diploid species. Polyembryony was more common among species with wide distribution in the Cerrado region, which indicates that the presence of gemellar seedlings is important for establishment and survival of the group in the Cerrado biome. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Occurrence of invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in a Cerrado ecosystem in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity of microorganisms in natural environments is threatened worldwide by human activities. In a protected area of Cerrado, Goiás State, Brazil, naturally occurring invertebrate-pathogenic fungi were isolated from soils, slurries and water samples collected during the dry season in 2...

  8. Insect folivory in Didymopanax vinosum (Apiaceae in a vegetation mosaic of Brazilian cerrado

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    E. M. Varanda

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Didymopanax vinosum (Apiaceae to insect herbivores was investigated in three sites of a cerrado mosaic - composed of campo cerrado (a grassland with scattered trees and shrubs, cerradão (a tall woodland and cerrado sensu stricto (intermediate between the two - situated in Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil. We also examined the relationship of folivory with the composition and abundance of the insect herbivore fauna, and with several nutritional and defensive plant characteristics (water, nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, tannin leaf contents, and leaf toughness. We collected insects associated with D. vinosum every month, and we measured leaf damage every three months. In general, the annual folivory differed among sites. It reached the highest rates in site 1 and site 3: 7.33 and 8.5 percent, respectively. Only 1.32 percent of annual folivory was observed in site 2. These levels resulted from the higher abundance, in sites 1 and 3, of the thrips Liothrips didymopanacis (Phlaeothripidae, the most abundant herbivore sampled, responsible for more than 90 percent of the observed damage. However, no significant relationship was found between insect activity and the chemical and physical composition of the leaves. Our findings suggest that, at least in this species, other chemical compounds or variables related to plant apparency and resource availability to herbivores (e.g. plant architecture might play a more decisive role in the spatial variation of folivory than the nutritional and defensive traits that were analyzed.

  9. Very low mitochondrial variability in a stingless bee endemic to cerrado

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    Rute Magalhães Brito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Partamona mulata is a stingless bee species endemic to cerrado, a severely threatened phytogeographical domain. Clearing for pasture without proper soil treatment in the cerrado facilitates the proliferation of termite ground nests, which are the nesting sites for P. mulata. The genetic consequences of these changes in the cerrado environment for bee populations are still understudied. In this work, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 48 colonies of P. mulata collected throughout the species' distribution range by sequencing two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome B. A very low polymorphism rate was observed when compared to another Partamona species from the Atlantic forest. Exclusive haplotypes were observed in two of the five areas sampled. The sharing of two haplotypes between collection sites separated by a distance greater than the flight range of queens indicates an ancient distribution for these haplotypes. The low haplotype and nucleotide diversity observed here suggests that P. mulata is either a young species or one that has been through population bottlenecks. Locally predominant and exclusive haplotypes (H2 and H4 may have been derived from local remnants through cerrado deforestation and the expansion of a few colonies with abundant nesting sites.

  10. Ocorrência, diversidade e potencial biotecnológico de leveduras associadas a plantas do Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Sperandio, Eugenio Miranda

    2012-01-01

    O Cerrado é considerado um patrimônio natural e genético do país tanto pela sua extensão e diversidade como pela variedade de fitofisionomias. No entanto, o conhecimento sobre a distribuição e organização da biodiversidade, principalmente nas comunidades microbianas do Cerrado, é ainda reduzido. Leveduras em plantas do Cerrado são pouco estudadas, sendo estas, nichos em potencial para o desenvolvimento destes microrganismos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar ocorrência, densidade e ...

  11. Azteca cf. lanuginosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) : biologia, comportamento de predação e forrageamento em cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Castanheira de Morais

    1998-01-01

    Resumo: Neste trabalho são apresentadas informações sobre a biologia e os comportamentos de forrageamento e de defesa em Azteca cf. lanuginosa (Dolichoderinae), uma espécie de formiga que ocorre na região de cerrados do Brasil central. Seus ninhos foram vistos em áreas de cerrado do Distrito Federa_ de Goiás e de Minas Gerais e as observações foram feitas em áreas de cerrado do Distrito Federal. Azteca cf. lanuginosa constrói um ninho oval, de cartão, ao redor de um galho, normalmente em árv...

  12. Caracterização genética de uma coleção de germoplasma de cagaiteira, uma espécie nativa do cerrado

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    Edivaldo Barbosa de Almeida Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cagaiteira é uma espécie frutífera comum no bioma Cerrado. A planta produz um fruto do tipo baga que é consumido in natura ou processado de várias formas. Em função do potencial produtivo da espécie, existe interesse na sua domesticação, para produção em larga escala. Para atender esse objetivo, a avaliação da variabilidade genética é fundamental para subsidiar programas de melhoramento e domesticação da espécie. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos quantitativos da coleção de germoplasma de Eugenia dysenterica DC., para disponibilizar informações que possam ser úteis em programas de melhoramento da espécie. O experimento foi montado no ano de 1998 em delineamento experimental de blocos completos ao acaso com 110 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas as variáveis das plantas que incluem a altura (AP, altura da primeira bifurcação (AB, circunferência do caule a 10 cm do solo (CC, projeção média da copa (DC e variáveis das folhas, que incluem o comprimento do limbo (CL, largura do limbo (LL, formato das folhas (FF e comprimento do pecíolo (CP. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade ao nível das médias variaram entre 87,66% e 25,16% e os coeficientes de variação genética, entre 45% e 7%, valores próximos aos obtidos para outras espécies silvestres do Cerrado. As estimativas dos parâmetros sugerem respostas modestas à seleção para as variáveis das plantas e respostas expressivas para as variáveis das folhas.

  13. Consequences to precipitation regimes of replacing native Brazilian Cerrado by managed Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, M. B.; Mota, F. C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Before the large people influx and development of the central part of Brazil in the sixties, due to new capital Brasília, Cerrado, a typical Brazilian savanna-type vegetation, used to occupy about 2 million km2, going from the Amazon tropical forest, in the north, to the edges of what used to be the Atlantic forest in the southeast. Today, somewhat 50% of this area has given place to agriculture, pasture and managed forests. Understanding how Cerrado interacts with the atmosphere and how this interaction will be modified with this land-use change is a crucial step towards improving predictions of future climate-change scenarios. Cerrado is a vegetation adapted to a climate characterized by two distinct seasons, a wet season (Nov-Mar) and dry season (May-Ago), with April and October being transitions between seasons. Typically, 75% of precipitation happens in the wet-season months and only 5% during dry-season. In this study, it is investigated the potential impacts of the substitution of Cerrado to the eco-hydrological characteristics of the region. The focus here is Eucalyptus plantation, which has increased substantially in the last decade due to government incentives. Two eddy-covariance (EC) systems were installed, one in an undisturbed Cerrado Stricto area and other in a recently-established Eucalyptus plantation. The two areas are 1,400m apart and are subjected to the same meteorology and similar edaphic conditions. Besides instrumentation typical of EC towers, a soil-moisture profiling system was installed in each site. Surface flux data from the eddy-covariance towers, along with daily upper air sounding profiles collected at the Brasília International Airport (located 10Km from the towers), were used to drive a simplified Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) slab model in order to investigate possible consequences of a large-scale shift from Cerrado to Eucalyptus to precipitation regimes in the region. Preliminary results show that replacing Cerrado for

  14. Patterns of diversity and abundance of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini in areas of the Brazilian Cerrado Padrões de diversidade e abundância de formigas cultivadoras de fungo (Formicidade: Attini em áreas do Cerrado Brasileiro

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    Heraldo L. Vasconcelos

    2008-09-01

    ênero mais diverso, com 10 espécies. Encontramos 18 espécies na savana, incluindo Mycetagroicus cerradensis Brandão & Mayhé-Nunes, 2001, uma espécie de um gênero de Attini recentemente descrito, enquanto que nas áreas de floresta registramos somente 12 espécies. As savanas e florestas apresentaram faunas relativamente distintas, com espécies exclusivas de cada tipo de vegetação; as espécies presentes nas florestas não representaram um subconjunto das espécies encontradas nas savanas. Além disso, apesar de muitas espécies terem sido comuns a ambos os tipos de vegetação, suas abundâncias foram muito diferentes. A densidade estimada de ninhos de Attini foi relativamente alta em alguns locais, ultrapassando 4.000 ninhos por hectare. Neste sentido, as formigas da tribo Attini podem ser consideradas como invertebrados predominantes no Cerrado brasileiro.

  15. Avaliação dos atributos físicos do solo em consórcio de forrageiras e milho em sucessão com soja em região de cerrados Evaluation of soil physical properties in a forage-corn intercropping in succession with soybean in the cerrado region

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    Veridiana Zocoler de Mendonça

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de áreas do Cerrado para produção agropecuária aliado ao manejo inadequado tem causado degradação dos solos. Nesse sentido há necessidade da incorporação de sistemas sustentáveis como plantio direto e a integração lavoura-pecuária. Este trabalho objetivou identificar o efeito da sucessão de milho+forrageiras e soja nos atributos físicos do solo. Para tanto foi realizado, em área experimental da Unesp, campus de Ilha Solteira, um ensaio composto do consórcio de milho com quatro forrageiras (Brachiaria brizantha,B. ruziziensis, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia e P. maximum cv. Áries semeadas em três modalidades (na linha de semeadura do milho misturada ao adubo, a lanço simultânea à semeadura do milho e a lanço no estádio V4 do milho e o milho sem consorciação (testemunha. A soja de verão foi implantada sobre os restos culturais dos tratamentos anteriores. Foram realizadas coletas para determinar a macro e microporosidade, porosidade total e densidade do solo em duas épocas de amostragem, após as colheitas do milho e da soja. Pelos resultados, pôde-se concluir que, em regiões de cerrados, a sucessão de culturas utilizada promoveu a melhoria da macroporosidade, porosidade total e densidade do solo, independentemente da utilização de forrageiras em consórcio com milho.The intensive use of Cerrado soils for agricultural production coupled with an inadequate management has resulted in soil degradation. This created the need for the introduction of more sustainable systems such as no-tillage and crop-livestock integration. This study analyzed the effect of succession of corn+forage and soybean on soil physical properties. For this purpose, four forages (Brachiaria brizantha, B. ruziziensis, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, and P. maximum cv. Áries, were sown in an intercropping trial with maize in three modalities (in the corn row mixed with fertilizer; broadcast at corn sowing; and broadcast in corn stage

  16. Land Use and Changes in Carbon Budget in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M.; Potter, C.; Corbeels, M.; Scopel, E.

    2007-12-01

    Tropical savannas cover 22.5 x 106 km2, an area nearly 30% larger than the area of tropical forests. Although the average carbon \\(C\\) content of savanna vegetation is only about 25% as great as tropical forest vegetation (29 vs. 120 Mg C ha-1), land use changes in tropical savannas are even more rapid than changes in tropical forests. The Brazilian savanna, locally known as Cerrado, covers about 2 x 106 km2 and is the largest savanna formation in South America. Its area is comparable to the Miombo savanna of Southern Africa. Biomass in the Cerrado varies from 1.9 Mg C ha-1 \\(grassy campo limpo\\) to 30.5 Mg C ha-1 \\(woody cerradão\\). Cerrado vegetation can be highly productive; annual net ecosystem exchange fluxes as high as 2.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 have been measured although lower values are more common. Assuming approximately 40 years of land use conversion and an average net biomass change \\(29 Mg C ha-1\\), this would lead to an average loss of C from the Cerrado of nearly 0.1 Pg C y-1. These values can be higher if belowground biomass is included as in Cerrado the ratio of belowground to aboveground biomass reaches values as high as 7.7. Fire is a principle factor controlling vegetation dynamics in the Cerrado \\(especially the ratio of grass to woody biomass\\). Frequent fires kill trees and shrubs favoring grasses favoring more open vegetation types. Inversely fire suppression favors woody growth. Advances in agricultural productivity have made the Cerrado the leading region of Brazil for beef cattle production and soybean production. It is estimated that between 40% and 55% of the region has been converted to pasture and other agricultural uses with peak rates in the early 1970's. Increasing international demand of biofuels represents a new aspect of land use in the region. Soil organic matter stocks exceed biomass stocks and data on soil C storage with conversion of native savanna into pasture indicated that well-managed, cultivated pastures may provide

  17. La Percepción como un Estado Pseudo-Onírico Modulado por los Sentidos

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    Rodolfo R. Llinás

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Un punto fundamental en nuestra apreciación de la función del sistema nervioso central concierne las similitudes y diferencias que existen entre el estado de vigilia y el estado de ensueños. Efectivamente, desde el punto de vista del sistema tálamo cortical estos dos estados tienen un mecanismo de implementación intrínseco común y por lo tanto pueden considerarse, en ese sentido, como fundamentalmente equivalentes.

    Si se demuestra que el estado de vigilia es el producto de un mecanismo funcional intrínseco y fundamentalmente cerrado, como lo es el estado de ensueños, las implicaciones de tal hipótesis serían de gran trascendencia. Si tal fuere el caso, la principal diferencia entre el estado de ensueño y el de vigilia estaría dada por el grado de modulación que, a tal estado, le proporciona la activación sensorial.

    El estado de vigilia y los ensueños
    Los ensueños generalmente ocurren durante la etapa del “sueño paradójico” que se caracteriza por la aparición de atonía muscular y de movimientos oculares rápidos (rapid eye movements, o REM, de donde se deriva el nombre alterno de “sueño REM”. Sujetos despertados durante el sueño REM indican, con frecuencia, que estaban soñando y por lo tanto el sueño REM se usa como sinónimo para el estado de ensueños. Una de las diferencias más notorias entre los estados de vigilia y el de ensueños reside en el hecho, conocido universalmente, que la estimulación sensorial no genera, en el estado de ensueños, las consecuencias cognoscitivas que se encuentran en el estado de vigilia. Con respecto a las otras etapas del sueño, el sueño REM difiere de las otras etapas en que los umbrales sensoriales para el despertar son los más altos, salvo en la etapa IV2,3o de sueño más profundo.

    De interés aquí es el hallazgo de los potenciales evocados que se registran sobre el cráneo a estímulo sensorial durante el estado de vigilia y el

  18. Mapping Large-Scale Mechanized Agriculture Across the Brazilian Cerrado Between 2001-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, S. A.; Mustard, J. F.; VanWey, L.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is a global commodities powerhouse. Over the last decade, dynamic changes in agricultural development and land transformations occurred within Brazil's tropical savanna region, the cerrado. This interdisciplinary study uses remote sensing tools to map land cover across more than 3.6 million km2 of cerrado and statistical methods to characterize drivers of this land-cover change. We use the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index 16-day data product and a decision-tree algorithm, proven highly accurate in Mato Grosso (Spera et al. 2014) and here modified for the broader cerrado region, to characterize crop type, cropping frequency, expansion, and abandonment of large-scale mechanized agriculture during the 2001-2013 period. The algorithm exploits phenological differences between forest, pasture and cerrado, and mechanized agriculture. It is parameterized to distinguish between crop rotations in Mato Grosso, Goias, and the new agricultural frontier spanning Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, and Bahia (MaToPiBa). Training and validation data were collected using Google's Earth Engine. We map single-cropped soy, corn, and cotton; double-cropped soy/corn and soy/cotton rotations; and irrigated agriculture across these six Brazilian cerrado states. We find that while double cropping dominates in Mato Grosso and Goias, single cropping is still the dominant form of mechanized agriculture in the burgeoning MaToPiBa region. In western Bahia alone, preliminary results show agriculture has expanded by almost 350,000 ha and double cropping has increased by almost 40,000 ha. With MaToPiBa touted as Brazil's latest and last agricultural frontier, we predict that the region will experience a transition similar to that of Mato Grosso during the 2000s—an expansion and intensification of agriculture—which may beget unprecedented ramifications on regional climate processes that can then affect ecosystem health and the economic feasibility of cultivating rain-fed export crops.

  19. The water balance components of undisturbed tropical woodlands in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T. S.; Wendland, E.; Nearing, M. A.; Scott, R. L.; Rosolem, R.; da Rocha, H. R.

    2015-06-01

    Deforestation of the Brazilian cerrado region has caused major changes in hydrological processes. These changes in water balance components are still poorly understood but are important for making land management decisions in this region. To better understand pre-deforestation conditions, we determined the main components of the water balance for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso". We developed an empirical model to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ET) by using flux tower measurements and vegetation conditions inferred from the enhanced vegetation index and reference evapotranspiration. Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, surface runoff, and water table level were assessed from ground measurements. We used data from two cerrado sites, Pé de Gigante (PDG) and Instituto Arruda Botelho (IAB). Flux tower data from the PDG site collected from 2001 to 2003 were used to develop the empirical model to estimate ET. The other hydrological processes were measured at the field scale between 2011 and 2014 at the IAB site. The empirical model showed significant agreement (R2 = 0.73) with observed ET at the daily timescale. The average values of estimated ET at the IAB site ranged from 1.91 to 2.60 mm day-1 for the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Canopy interception ranged from 4 to 20 % and stemflow values were approximately 1 % of the gross precipitation. The average runoff coefficient was less than 1 %, while cerrado deforestation has the potential to increase that amount up to 20-fold. As relatively little excess water runs off (either by surface water or groundwater), the water storage may be estimated by the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. Our results provide benchmark values of water balance dynamics in the undisturbed cerrado that will be useful to evaluate past and future land-cover and land-use changes for this region.

  20. Cryptic lineages and Pleistocene population expansion in a Brazilian Cerrado frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Cynthia P A; Haddad, Célio F B; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2012-02-01

    Diversification of South American species endemic to open habitats has been attributed to both Tertiary events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. Nonetheless, phylogeographical studies of taxa in these regions are few, precluding generalizations about the timing and processes leading to differentiation and speciation. We inferred population structure of Hypsiboas albopunctatus, a frog widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado. Three geographically distinct lineages were recovered in our phylogeny. The Chapada dos Guimarães (CG) clade was the first to diverge from other populations and contains multiple haplotypes from a single population in western Cerrado, probably representing a cryptic species. The southeast clade (SE) includes populations along the southeastern limit of the range within the historical distribution of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Finally, the Central Cerrado (CC) group includes haplotypes from the interior of Brazil that are paraphyletic relative to the SE clade. Analyses of historical demography indicate significant population expansion in the CC and SE populations, likely associated with colonization of newly formed open habitats. The divergence of populations in the CG clade occurred in the late Miocene, concordant with the uplift of the central Brazilian plateau. Divergence of the SE clade from the CC occurred during the mid-Pleistocene. Thus, both Tertiary geological events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations promoted divergences among lineages. Our study reveals a complex history of diversification in the Cerrado, a morphoclimatic domain highly threatened because of anthropogenic habitat alteration. We identified surprisingly deep divergences in a widely distributed frog, indicating that the Cerrado is not a barrier-free habitat and that its diversity is likely underestimated. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Effect of Sugarcane Burning or Green Harvest Methods on the Brazilian Cerrado Soil Bacterial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Santos, Adriana L.; Piccolo, Marisa C.; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Coutinho, Heitor L. C.; Peixoto, Raquel S.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Brazilian Cerrado is one of the most important biodiversity reservoirs in the world. The sugarcane cultivation is expanding in this biome and necessitates the study of how it may impact the soil properties of the Cerrado. There is a lack of information especially about the impacts of different sugarcane management on the native bacterial communities of Cerrado soil. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate and compare the soil bacterial community structure of the Cerrado vegetation with two sugarcane systems. Methods We evaluated samples under native vegetation and the impact of the two most commonly used management strategies for sugarcane cultivation (burnt cane and green cane) on this diversity using pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of the rrs gene (16S rRNA). Results and Conclusions Nineteen different phyla were identified, with Acidobacteria (≈35%), Proteobacteria (≈24%) and Actinobacteria (≈21%) being the most abundant. Many of the sequences were represented by few operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 3% of dissimilarity), which were found in all treatments. In contrast, there were very strong patterns of local selection, with many OTUs occurring only in one sample. Our results reveal a complex bacterial diversity, with a large fraction of microorganisms not yet described, reinforcing the importance of this biome. As possible sign of threat, the qPCR detected a reduction of the bacterial population in agricultural soils compared with native Cerrado soil communities. We conclude that sugarcane cultivation promoted significant structural changes in the soil bacterial community, with Firmicutes phylum and Acidobacteria classes being the groups most affected. PMID:23533619

  2. Nesting habits of Centris (Hemisiella) dichrootricha (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Northern Cerrado of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gracy C A; Carreira, Léa M M; Rêgo, Márcia M C; Albuquerque, Patricia M C

    2016-09-01

    The Neotropical bee Centris (Hemisiella) dichrootricha is a solitary bee that nests in pre-existing cavities that occur in the rain forest. This study describes the nesting biology of C. dichrootricha and its preference for nesting in Cerrado and gallery forest habitats. The study was conducted from January 2012 and December 2013, in Mirador State Park in the municipality of Formosa da Serra Negra, Maranhão State, Brazil. For this, wooden trap-nests of 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 mm in diameter were used; a total of 300 trap-nests were placed in the gallery forest and Cerrado areas, respectively. Traps were monitored monthly and all completed nests were collected and replaced with empty ones. The nests were then taken to the laboratory to analyze bee development and emergence, nests characteristics and parasites presence. The species used 29 of the trap-nests, which had diameters of 8, 10, 12 and 14 mm. A total of 87 C. dichrootricha specimens emerged. The nests were parasitized by two bee species, Mesocheira bicolor (Apinae) and Coelioxys sp. (Megachilinae), and one fly species, Antrax sp. (Diptera). The highest nesting incidence of 72.4 % was observed in the gallery forest, whereas only 27.6 % in the Cerrado; this difference in habitat use was significant (χ² = 5.56; p Byrsonima crassifolia, B. rotunda, B. spicata and Heteropterys sp.). C. dichrootricha showed a preference for nesting in cavities of various diameters in gallery forest sites. The present study provides a novel description of the nesting habits and biology of C. dichrootricha in habitats of Central/Southern Maranhão. C. dichrootricha primarily used resources from the Cerrado, including soil to build their nests, pollen and floral oils; we concluded that gallery forest and Cerrado areas are intrinsically related to the maintenance of local populations of this species.

  3. Fitossociologia de cerrado sensu stricto no município de Abaeté-MG Phytosociology of the cerrado sensu stricto in Abaeté, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Walter Saporetti Jr

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O cerrado tem sido objeto de discussão de grupos temáticos que estudam a conservação de biodiversidade no Estado de Minas Gerais. São inúmeras as áreas de conservação com vegetação de cerrado das quais não se têm informações a respeito de sua composição florística e estrutura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar florística e fitossociologicamente uma área de cerrado sensu stricto, no município de Abaeté-MG. A área de estudo é um fragmento com 2 ha de cerrado sensu stricto, preservado como área de reserva da CAF-Santa Bárbara, situada nas coordenadas 19º05'S e 44º58'W, a uma altitude de 480 m, em leve depressão próxima de uma vereda. O clima pertence ao tipo Cwa pelo sistema de Köppen, com precipitação média anual de 1.400 mm. O solo é do tipo Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram instaladas 15 parcelas de 200 m² (10 x 20 m, distribuídas sistematicamente ao longo de trilhas, distanciadas 10 m entre si. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos lenhosos vivos com circunferência do caule ao nível do solo (CAS igual ou maior que 10 cm. O índice de Shannon foi de 3,590 e a equabilidade foi de 0,804, considerados comuns para cerrados bem conservados. Foram amostrados 1.339 indivíduos, sendo a composição florística constituída por 85 espécies, distribuídas em 44 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae com sete espécies, Annonaceae com cinco, Myrtaceae, Malpighiaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rubiaceae e Bignoniaceae com quatro, seguidas de Vochysiaceae e Leguminosae Papilionoideae com três. As espécies que apresentaram o maior valor de importância (VI foram Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (22,21, Myrcia lingua Berg (18,18 Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (17,91, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (17,58, Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (13,69 e Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (11,86.The cerrado has been a topic of discussion of thematic groups studying biodiversity

  4. SENTIDO DE LA VIOLENCIA ESCOLAR EN CHILE. UN ESTUDIO DE SOCIOLOGIA COMPRENSIVA

    OpenAIRE

    ZERON RODRIGUEZ, ANA MARIA; ZERON RODRIGUEZ, ANA MARIA

    2006-01-01

    Esta investigación de sociología comprensiva descansa sobre una encuesta de terreno conducida en 22 escuelas secundarias municipales. subvencionadas y particulares. de Santiago de Chile entre 2002 y 2005. El sentido de la violencia constituye su objeto. L 147p.

  5. Produção de sentido subjetivo: as singularidades dos alunos no processo de aprender

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    Maria Carmen Villela Rosa Tacca

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, procuramos identificar como o sentido subjetivo se manifesta e está na base dos processos de aprendizagem de cada aluno, revelando a sua singularidade enquanto pessoa. Para essa compreensão, foi realizada uma pesquisa com base nas categorias de subjetividade e sentido subjetivo de González Rey. Nela esteve envolvida uma professora e sua turma de 4ª série do ensino fundamental. Na análise dos dados, foi possível compreender as formas como os alunos utilizavam as informações que constavam das atividades na conjuntura de seus recursos pessoais, no que emergiam diferentes sentidos subjetivos para construir caminhos de aprendizagem. Conclui-se que a aprendizagem se encontra envolvida com a produção de sentidos subjetivos procedentes dos diferentes espaços e situações de vida do aluno. Assim, considerar essa dimensão permitiria ações diferenciadas orientadas ao apoio à criança no avanço contínuo de sua escolaridade.

  6. Los estudiantes Universitarios Javerianos y su respuesta al sentido de la vida

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    Alba Liliana Jaramillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar qué aspectos influyen, de manera significativa, en el sentido de vida en estudiantes, entre 16 y 34 años de edad, pertenecientes a la Carrera de Psicología de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana de Cali. Para la recolección de la información se utilizó la escala existencial de A. Langle y C. Orgler, un instrumento técnico para el abordaje preventivo, diagnóstico y terapéutico del sentido de vida; el instrumento presentó 46 reactivos, divididos en cuatro sub-escalas: auto distanciamiento (AD, auto trascendencia (AT, libertad (L, responsabilidad (R. Dicho instrumento tuvo una calificación de tipo Likert. La muestra se conformó con un total de 277 estudiantes, distribuidos en 60 hombres y 217 mujeres, todos pertenecientes a la Carrera de Psicología, desde primero a décimo semestre. Los resultados muestran que los puntajes obtenidos se ubicaron por debajo de la media para todas las variables (edad, género y semestre con un puntaje de 177.83 para la escala total, lo que indica que el nivel de sentido de vida de los estudiantes es bajo, sin diferencias significativas en ninguna de las variables con relación al sentido de vida.

  7. Artificialização da natureza humana? Biotecnologias à busca de sentido

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Vitor

    2007-01-01

    Texto revisto da intervenção no colóquio "Vida sem fim, artifício, sentido", no âmbito das Jornadas de Teologia sobre "O futuro da natureza humana e o progresso tecnológico", na Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto 17.04.2007

  8. Avaliação dos atributos físicos do solo em consórcio de forrageiras e milho em sucessão com soja em região de cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Zocoler de Mendonça

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de áreas do Cerrado para produção agropecuária aliado ao manejo inadequado tem causado degradação dos solos. Nesse sentido há necessidade da incorporação de sistemas sustentáveis como plantio direto e a integração lavoura-pecuária. Este trabalho objetivou identificar o efeito da sucessão de milho+forrageiras e soja nos atributos físicos do solo. Para tanto foi realizado, em área experimental da Unesp, campus de Ilha Solteira, um ensaio composto do consórcio de milho com quatro forrageiras (Brachiaria brizantha,B. ruziziensis, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia e P. maximum cv. Áries semeadas em três modalidades (na linha de semeadura do milho misturada ao adubo, a lanço simultânea à semeadura do milho e a lanço no estádio V4 do milho e o milho sem consorciação (testemunha. A soja de verão foi implantada sobre os restos culturais dos tratamentos anteriores. Foram realizadas coletas para determinar a macro e microporosidade, porosidade total e densidade do solo em duas épocas de amostragem, após as colheitas do milho e da soja. Pelos resultados, pôde-se concluir que, em regiões de cerrados, a sucessão de culturas utilizada promoveu a melhoria da macroporosidade, porosidade total e densidade do solo, independentemente da utilização de forrageiras em consórcio com milho.

  9. First record of Mesoclemmys tuberculata (Reptilia, Testudines, Chelidae in the Cerrado area of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Lima Silveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoclemmys tuberculata is a turtle species that is distributed in northeastern Brazil, recorded mainly in the Caatinga and at some localities in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. In this paper we report the first species record in an area of Cerrado of Minas Gerais state, and it is the only known state record in a specific location. During field sampling, a specimen of M. tuberculata was collected in the municipality of João Pinheiro, northwest state, in a Cerrado nuclear area in the São Francisco river basin. The locality of this record is the southern and western limits of M. tuberculata’s known distribution, as well as the most inland locality of species record in the Cerrado biome.

  10. COMPOSIÇÃO E DIVERSIDADE NO CERRADO DO LESTE DE MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRASIL

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    Renato Augusto Ferreira de Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliaram-se a composição e diversidade no Cerrado em três áreas do Leste de Mato Grosso do Sul, uma das regiões mais ameaçadas e menos estudadas do Cerrado brasileiro. Para tanto, levantaram-se as espécies vasculares em trilhas percorridas em diferentes fisionomias desse bioma, com enfoque especial para as espécies arbustivas e arbóreas. Adicionalmente, nas áreas de Cerrado sensu stricto foram instaladas 30 parcelas de 10 x 3 m, nas quais foram amostrados apenas indivíduos lenhosos > 1 m de altura. No geral, foram levantadas 220 espécies, 150 gêneros e 65 famílias de diferentes formas de vida, incluindo espécies consideradas raras nos Cerrados brasileiros e possíveis novas ocorrências nos Cerrados de Mato Grosso do Sul. A riqueza de espécies arbustivas e arbóreas no Cerrado sensu stricto foi alta (79-101 espécies por área. Houve baixa similaridade florística entre as áreas estudadas, de modo que apenas 50 espécies foram comuns a todas elas. O estudo da vegetação lenhosa por meio de parcelas (total de 651 indivíduos e 105 espécies revelou uma diferença na riqueza média, diversidade (índice de Shannon e dominância (Berger-Parker entre as áreas estudadas. Adicionalmente, a densidade relativa das espécies e a composição florística foram bastante variáveis entre as áreas estudadas (similaridade entre 0,42 e 0,53. Tais resultados colocam as áreas estudadas entre as mais ricas áreas de Cerrado sensu stricto do Brasil, mostrando que áreas marginais de Cerrado podem ser tão ricas quanto suas áreas centrais, mesmo que através da contribuição de elementos florísticos de outras formações florestais. Os resultados reforçam ainda a existência de elevada heterogeneidade florística no Cerrado, mesmo em distâncias relativamente curtas (≤60 km, que pode ser desencadeada por diferenças entre fragmentos em relação à característica de solo, histórico de perturbação e proximidade de outras

  11. Runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Tarso S.; Nearing, Mark; Wendland, Edson

    2015-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a large and important economic and environmental region that is experiencing major loss of its natural landscapes due to pressures of food and energy production, which has caused large increases in soil erosion. However the magnitude of the soil erosion increases in this region is not well understood, in part because scientific studies of surface runoff and soil erosion are scarce or nonexistent in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation. In this study we measured natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" and bare soil to compute the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover and management factor (C-factor) to help evaluate the likely effects of land use change on soil erosion rates. Replicated data on precipitation, runoff, and soil loss on plots (5 x 20 m) under bare soil and cerrado were collected for 55 erosive storms occurring in 2012 and 2013. The measured annual precipitation was 1247.4 mm and 1113.0 mm for 2012 and 2013, resulting in a rainfall erosivity index of 4337.1 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 and 3546.2 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, for each year respectively. The erosive rainfall represented 80concentrated in the wet season, which generally runs from October through March. In the plots on bare soil, the runoff coefficient for individual rainfall events (total runoff divided by total rainfall) ranged from 0.003 to 0.860 with an average value and standard deviation of 0.212 ± 0.187. Moreover, the runoff coefficient found for the bare soil plots (~20infiltration capacity. In forest areas the leaf litter and the more porous soil tend to promote the increase of infiltration and water storage, rather than rapid overland flow. Indeed, runoff coefficients ranged from 0.001 to 0.030 with an average of less than 1under undisturbed cerrado. The soil losses measured under bare soil and cerrado were 15.68 t ha-1yr-1 and 0.24 t ha-1 yr-1 in 2012, and 14.82 t ha-1 yr-1, 0.11 t ha-1

  12. The Brazilian Cerrado: ecohydrological assessment of water and soil degradation in heavily modified meso-scale catchments

    OpenAIRE

    Hunke, Philip Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is recognised as one of the most threatened biomes in the world, as the region has experienced a striking change from natural vegetation to intense cash crop production. The impacts of rapid agricultural expansion on soil and water resources are still poorly understood in the region. Therefore, the overall aim of the thesis is to improve our understanding of the ecohydrological processes causing water and soil degradation in the Brazilian Cerrado. I first present a m...

  13. Recent assembly of the Cerrado, a neotropical plant diversity hotspot, by in situ evolution of adaptations to fire

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Marcelo F.; Grether, Rosaura; de Queiroz, Luciano P.; Skema, Cynthia; Pennington, R. Toby; Hughes, Colin E.

    2009-01-01

    The relative importance of local ecological and larger-scale historical processes in causing differences in species richness across the globe remains keenly debated. To gain insight into these questions, we investigated the assembly of plant diversity in the Cerrado in South America, the world's most species-rich tropical savanna. Time-calibrated phylogenies suggest that Cerrado lineages started to diversify less than 10 Mya, with most lineages diversifying at 4 Mya or less, coinciding with t...

  14. Temporal changes in species composition, diversity, and woody vegetation structure of savannas in the Cerrado-Amazon transition zone

    OpenAIRE

    Maracahipes-Santos, Leonardo; Santos, Josias Oliveira dos; Reis, Simone Matias; Lenza, Eddie

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vegetation in the transition between tropical forest and savanna is hyperdynamic and there is evidence that in the absence of fire, forest advances over savanna. Between 2008 and 2013 we evaluated changes in species composition and diversity and in the structure of the woody vegetation of savanna physiognomies in the transition between the Cerrado and Amazon biomes that were fire free for 11 years. The physiognomies form a gradient from savanna woodland (Typical Cerrado - TC), to low...

  15. Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) in south-western Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres, Nilton C.; Hannibal, Wellington; Freitas, Dirceu R.; Silva, Edson L.; Roman, Cassiano; Casella, Janaina

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites) and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80) within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23) were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled ...

  16. Quality of granola prepared with dried caju-do-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz) and baru almonds (Dipteryx alata Vog)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Priscila Laís C.; Silva, Mara R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of Brazilian Cerrado fruits and research into their nutritional potential are important for socioeconomic development and the sustainable preservation of the environment. The use of these fruits in products such as granola encourages the inclusion of healthier and more-natural foods in the diet. This study was undertaken to evaluate acceptability, microbiological, physical and nutritional characteristics and the stability of granola made from dried caju-do-cerrado and baru almonds. Gr...

  17. ACÚMULO DE SERRAPILHEIRA EM FRAGMENTOS DE MATA MESOFÍTICA E CERRADO STRICTO SENSO EM UBERLÂNDIA-MG.- The accumulation of organic material under different natural vegetation in Uberlândia - MG

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    Ricardo Reis Alves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para explorar os recursos naturais de forma sustentável, respeitando as fragilidades ambientais, énecessário compreender os processos dinâmicos que envolvem as relações dos diversos elementos danatureza. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo coletar, tratar e apresentar dados einformações referentes ao acúmulo de serrapilheira, bem como dados relacionados à umidade no solo,precipitação, vento e temperatura em fragmentos de Mata Mesofítica e Cerrado Stricto Senso, localizadosna Fazenda Experimental do Glória, identificando características da dinâmica local.O experimento foi conduzido entre julho de 2007 e janeiro de 2008 em duas etapas: fase de campopara coleta de dados e, logo em seguida, fase pós-campo, que consistia no tratamento estatístico.Para obtenção de informações climáticas, utilizou-se os dados fornecidos pela estação climatológicainstalada no local, e em relação à umidade do solo, fez-se as medições próximo aos coletores deserrapilheira. Para avaliar a produção de serrapilheira, foram instalados 2 (dois coletores de madeira,um na Mata Mesofítica e outro na área de Cerrado Stricto Senso.ABSTRACTThe sustainable way to explore the natural resources according to the environmental fragility is necessaryto understand the dynamic processes which evolve the diversity of natural aspects. In this way thepresent research had for objective collect, manage and present data about the organic matteraccumulation, as well as data related to the soil humidity, rainfall, wind and temperature in plotslocated in two different fragments of Mesophytic Forest and Cerrado (Savanna at Fazenda Experimentalof Glória, looking for understand the local environmental evolution.The experiments were carried out between July/2007 and January/2008 in two phases: the field workwhen the measurements were carried out and at the same time the lab work when the material wastreated and analyzed.The climate data was

  18. Trap-Nesting Bees in Montane Grassland (Campo Rupestre) and Cerrado in Brazil: Collecting Generalist or Specialist Nesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, P C S; Lourenço, A P; Raw, A

    2016-10-01

    Species richness and seasonal abundance of solitary bees were investigated in rocky, montane grassland (campo rupestre) (1180 m asl) and cerrado sensu stricto (680 m asl) in the Biribiri State Park, Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Three hundred nineteen nest traps of bamboo canes and black cardboard tubes were monthly inspected at each site during 15 months. A total of eight species of bees built 97 nests. Four species were common to both sites. Tetrapedia aff. curvitarsis Friese and Tetrapedia aff. peckoltii Friese were the most abundant at campo rupestre and cerrado s.s., respectively, followed by Centris analis (Fabricius) in campo rupestre and Centris tarsata Smith in cerrado s.s. The nesting peaks occurred in May in campo rupestre and in February in cerrado s.s. Three cuckoo bees and one bee-fly were collected as natural enemies. The findings suggest that differences between the sites were related more to ecological factors (floral resources, natural nest sites) than to the altitudinal difference. The species richness was similar to that in other habitats with open vegetation. We demonstrate the need to use several types of trap-nest to increase the range of species sampled; some species used only one of the two types traps provided. We also comment on the limitations of trap-nests in cerrado vegetation. Most cerrado species of bees are very selective in their choice for a nesting site, but bees that use trap-nests are more generalists.

  19. Circuito cerrado para una industria sostenible, aportaciones del sector cementero

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    Zaragoza, A.

    2010-03-01

    de recursos y las emisiones a la atmósfera. El producto debe incorporar características sostenibles tales como la posibilidad de ser reciclado y/o valorizado en algún momento de su ciclo de vida y, así, poder ser reintroducido de nuevo en la actividad industrial. De esta manera, el producto se convierte en la piedra angular de un sistema de producción en “circuito cerrado” que implique a todos los sectores industriales en el concepto de reciclaje de productos y residuos y que minimice la huella del proceso. El sector cementero debe seguir incidiendo en las posibilidades de reciclado de los materiales fabricados con cemento, además de los utilizados propiamente en su fabricación, y, sobre todo, se debe seguir profundizando en la relación entre Ciclo de Vida y reciclaje, lo que proporcionará al sector una metodología y unas herramientas útiles para reducir el impacto ambiental y reforzar sus contribuciones sociales y económicas. Por ello el sector está haciendo esfuerzos para la puesta en marcha de una industria en circuito cerrado en la que se reutilicen materiales y energía, minimizando al máximo su afección en el entorno, a la vez que se está trabajando en una conceptualización de este modelo de producción en cadena, que implique a todos los sectores industriales en el reciclado de materiales. Prueba de este compromiso son los acuerdos firmados con FER y Sigrauto para el aprovechamiento de vehículos fuera de uso y con UNESID para la valorización de residuos siderúrgicos, así como el proyecto Pressure para la gestión integral de residuos industriales.

  20. Phosphogypsum applications in the cerrado agriculture and his radiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de

    2008-01-01

    Dangerous, Not Inert, Not Corrosive and Not Reactive. The soil samples analyzed as were acids, with low content of organic matter and high potential acidity. The average of specific activity for 226 Ra in phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq.kg -1 ) was below of the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq.kg -1 for agricultural use. Although the most of the results of mean specific activity of radionuclides present in samples of lettuce present values below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), the Transfer Factors were estimated for those conditions in which the mean specific activity proved to be superior to MDA. The values ranges from 1.8 10 -3 to 2.3 10 -2 for 232 Th; 3.5 10 -2 to 4.1 10 -2 for 226 Ra, 2.4 10 -1 to 3.2 10 -1 for 228 Ra and 3.5 10 -2 to 8.5 10 -2 for 210 Po, depending on the type of soil used in the planting of the vegetables. In general, the results obtained in the present study indicated that the mobility of radionuclides in both studied soils was low. The effective doses committed calculated well below the limit of 1 mSv.year -1 established by ICRP, for the public in general (4,3 10 -3 mSv for the experiments in loamy soil and 7,5 10 -3 mSv for the experiments in sandy soil). It is possible to conclude that from the point of view of the radiological protection, the data obtained in this work demonstrated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum in agriculture of the Cerrado, Brazil. (author)

  1. Levantamento florístico no cerrado de Pedregulho, SP, Brasil Floristic inventory of cerrado at Pedregulho, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Denise Sasaki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Em Pedregulho, município do extremo nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, ocorrem fragmentos de cerrado considerados floristicamente distintos dos demais remanescentes paulistas. Nesse estudo, foi realizado um levantamento florístico em Pedregulho, abordando duas regiões geologicamente distintas: o Parque Estadual das Furnas do Bom Jesus e o distrito de Estreito. Em cada uma, delimitaram-se duas parcelas de 50×50 m, totalizando um hectare, onde foram encontradas 65 famílias e 379 espécies de angiospermas. Coletas em áreas adjacentes totalizaram 71 famílias e 443 espécies. As duas regiões estudadas têm baixa similaridade florística entre si. A distribuição geográfica das espécies é analisada e oito padrões são delimitados para aquelas cuja distribuição no Estado de São Paulo é restrita à região de Pedregulho.Pedregulho municipality in the far northeastern region of São Paulo state has fragments of cerrado vegetation thought to be floristically distinct from other cerrado remmants in the state. In this study, a floristic survey was carried out at Pedregulho, focusing on two geologically distinct regions: Furnas do Bom Jesus State Park and the Estreito district. In each region, 50×50 m plots were set up for a total sample area of 1 hectare, where 65 families and 379 angiosperm species were recorded. Collecting efforts in adjacent areas resulted in a total of 71 families and 443 species. The two study areas had low floristic similarity. Geographic species distribution was analyzed and eight patterns were defined for those species restricted to the Pedregulho region in São Paulo.

  2. Baetidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera em córregos do cerrado matogrossense sob diferentes níveis de preservação ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton M. de L. Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O efeito dos diferentes níveis de preservação ambiental de córregos de 1ª a 4ª ordens sobre a riqueza, abundância, similaridade na composição de Baetidae (Ephemeroptera e o potencial das espécies como bioindicadoras foram investigados em uma região de cerrado matogrossense. Um total de vinte espécies/morfoespécies foi catalogado dentre as 1752 ninfas amostradas, sendo reportado dois novos registros de espécies para o país. Os valores do Índice de Integridade de Hábitat (HII obtidos foram categorizados para ambientes degradados, alterados e conservados. A riqueza de espécies foi diferente entre os locais, sendo maior em ambientes alterados. A abundância foi maior entre ambientes conservados e alterados, sendo significantemente diferente dos locais degradados. A análise NMDS indicou que locais conservados e alterados apresentam similaridade de composição de espécies, diferindo dos locais degradados. Quatro espécies demonstraram relação positiva com o aumento dos valores do HII. Baetidae apresentou espécies indicadoras de ambientes com diferentes níveis de preservação, sendo Zelusia principalis Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1998 e Baetodes sp. indicadoras de ambientes conservados e Aturbina nigra Salles, Boldrini & Shimano, 2011, Callibaetis sp. 2, Camelobaetidius aff. janae Dominique & Thomas, 2000, Paracloeodes binodulus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1996, Waltzoyphius roberti Thomas & Peru, 2002 como indicadoras de ambientes alterados. O conhecimento da ecologia das espécies avança no sentido de fornecer subsídios ao biomonitoramento da bacia e uso de espécies indicadoras.

  3. Propriedades físico-hídricas em Latossolo do Cerrado sob diferentes sistemas de manejo Physicohydric properties of Cerrado Latosol under different management systems

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    Cícero C. de Figueiredo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Visou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar as propriedades físico-hídricas do solo sob diferentes sistemas de manejo, em comparação com o Cerrado nativo, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, em áreas cultivadas desde o ano de 1993. As propriedades físico-hídricas foram avaliadas nas profundidades de 0-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m do solo submetido aos sistemas de manejo: S1 (soja/feijão/arroz/milheto/feijão, S2 (soja/milheto/milho, S3 (milho + pastagem de braquiária - integração-lavoura-pecuária e S4 (cerrado nativo. Utilizou-se, para comparar os resultados obtidos nos diversos sistemas de manejo do solo, o intervalo de confiança com nível de probabilidade de 5%. A área com pastagem de braquiária sob pastejo animal promoveu compactação do solo na camada superficial, verificada pela redução da macroporosidade, aumento da microporosidade e da densidade do solo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the physico-hydric soil properties under different management systems in comparison with the native Cerrado, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, Goiás State, in areas cultivated since 1993. The evaluated systems in the depths of 0 - 0.10 and 0.10 - 0.20 m were: system S1 (soybean/bean/rice/pearl millet /bean, system S2 (soybean/pearl millet/corn, system S3 (corn + Brachiaria brizantha in integrated crop-livestock system and system S4 (native cerrado. To compare the results obtained in the several soil management systems, the interval of confidence was used, at a probability level of 5%. The use of area under Brachiaria brizantha pasture for animal grazing caused compaction of the soil in the surface layer, verified through the reduction of the macroporosity, and increase of the microporosity and soil bulk density.

  4. Using Remote Sensing and Random Forest to Assess the Conservation Status of Critical Cerrado Habitats in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Jason Reynolds

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s Cerrado is a highly diverse ecosystem and it provides critical habitat for many species. Cerrado habitats have suffered significant degradation and decline over the past decades due to expansion of cash crops and livestock farming across South America. Approximately 1,800,000 km2 of the Cerrado remain in Brazil, but detailed maps and conservation assessments of the Cerrado are lacking. We developed a land cover classification for the Cerrado, focusing on the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, which may also be used to map critical habitat for endangered species. We used a Random Forest algorithm to perform a supervised classification on a set of Landsat 8 images. To determine habitat fragmentation for the Cerrado, we used Fragstats. A habitat connectivity analysis was performed using Linkage Mapper. Our final classification had an overall accuracy of 88%. Our classification produced higher accuracies (72% in predicting Cerrado than existing government maps. We found that remaining Cerrado habitats were severely fragmented. Four potential corridors were identified in the southwest of Mato Grosso do Sul, where large Cerrado patches are located. Only two large patches remain in Mato Grosso do Sul: one within the Kadiwéu Indian Reserve, and one near the southeastern edge of the Pantanal-dominated landscape. These results are alarming for rare species requiring larger tracts of habitat such as the giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus.

  5. Assessment of different management systems in an area of cerrado sensu strict

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    Flávia Nascimento de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of different management systems on the floristic composition and diversity of a fragment of Cerrado sensu stricto vegetation located in Brasilândia de Minas (MG, eleven years after interventions. In 1997, 30 plots were installed in the study site, in a random block design, consisting of ten treatments with three replications: 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% removal of the basal area, involving 20% reduction and increase in the De Liocourt quotient value; clear cutting and control treatment. Prior to treatment installation, an inventory was compiled of original vegetation. In 2004 and 2008 further inventories were produced. It was observed that interventions in the relevant Cerrado area led to changes in the floristic composition and diversity of local vegetation, yet these changes were also observed in undisturbed areas which had not been subjected to management plans.

  6. Natural history of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae in a Cerrado region of northeastern Brazil

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    Francisco Dal Vechio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhardt & Luetken, 1861 is a microteiid lizard widely distributed in the open areas of South America. Little is known about its ecology and reproductive biology. Here, we analyzed aspects of the natural history of a population of M. maximiliani from a Cerrado area in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil. Our results suggest that the reproductive activity of M. maximiliani might be seasonal in the Cerrado, since reproductive females were observed only in the dry season, whereas reproductive males were present in both seasons. Vitellogenic follicles and oviductal eggs were found simultaneously in one female, suggesting that females may produce more than one clutch per season. Sexual dimorphism was observed in body shape, and individuals were mainly restricted to a typical savanna physiognomy. The diet consisted of small arthropods, including spiders, crickets and cockroaches as the most important items.

  7. Biodiversity, threats and conservation challenges in the Cerrado of Amapá, an Amazonian savanna

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    Karen Mustin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An Amazonian savanna in northern Brazil known as the Cerrado of Amapá is under imminent threat from poor land-use planning, the expansion of large-scale agriculture and other anthropogenic pressures. These savannas house a rich and unique flora and fauna, including endemic plants and animals. However, the area remains under-sampled for most taxa, and better sampling may uncover new species. We estimate that only ~9.16% of these habitats have any kind of protection, and legislative changes threaten to further weaken or remove this protection. Here we present the status of knowledge concerning the biodiversity of the Cerrado of Amapá, its conservation status, and the main threats to the conservation of this Amazonian savanna. To secure the future of these unique and imperilled habitats, we suggest urgent expansion of protected areas, as well as measures that would promote less-damaging land uses to support the local population.

  8. Chemical variability of the essential oils from fruits of Pterodon emarginatus in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Suzana F. Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pterodon emarginatus Vogel, Fabaceae, is a tree species commonly known as "sucupira-branca". It is a popular medicinal plant in the Brazilian cerrado (Savanna. This study investigates the chemical variability of the essential oils from fruits of P. emarginatus. The fruits were collected from five sites in the Brazilian Cerrado and their essential oils were analyzed by GC/MS. The results obtained by Principal Component and Cluster Analysis identified two groups: cluster I containing β-caryophyllene and δ-elemene and cluster II containing α-copaene, β-cubebene, allo-aromadendrene, α-cubebene and γ-muurulene. The Canonical Discriminant Analysis was used to differentiate between clusters on the basis of essential oil composition. The results showed high variability in the composition of the essential oils from fruits of P. emarginatus, contributing to studies of domestication of this species.

  9. Pollination and dispersal systems in a Cerrado remnant (Brazilian Savanna in Southeastern Brazil

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    Katia Losano Ishara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify the pollination and dispersal systems among the species in a disjunct marginal cerrado area and to compare the frequency of these systems to those found in other Neotropical vegetation. The floral and diaspore traits and the pollination and dispersal systems of 176 species were analysed in a cerrado remnant in Southeastern Brazil. The most frequent pollination system was melittophily (63% of the studied species with the remaining 37% distributed among diverse pollination systems. Zoochory was the predominant system of dispersal (44.9%. The frequencies of melittophily and zoochory observed in diverse tropical areas were the main feature that allowed the formation of distinct groups in the dendrograms generated by cluster analysis.

  10. Water and energy fluxes from a woodland savanna (cerrado in southeast Brazil

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    Osvaldo M.R. Cabral

    2015-09-01

    The small variation in the observed annual ET totals shows that in this cerrado vegetation the deep soil moisture content supports the ET in a dry year and the water available for recharging the soil profile and groundwater (∼R − ET was dominated by the rainfall amount being significantly greater in the wet year (422 mm than in the dry year (13 mm.

  11. Can anthropic fires affect epigaeic and hypogaeic Cerrado ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) communities in the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo-Júnior, Ernesto de Oliveira; Cuissi, Rafael Gonçalves; Nelson Henrique de Almeida, Curi; Demetrio, Guilherme Ramos; Lasmar, Chaim José; Malves, Kira

    2016-03-01

    Fire occurrences are a common perturbation in Cerrado ecosystems, and may differently impact the local biodiversity. Arthropods are one of the taxa affected by fires, and among them, ants are known as good bioindicators. We aimed to evaluate the effect of anthropic fires on epigaeic and hypogaeic ant communities (species richness and composition) in Cerrado areas with different post-fire event recovery periods. We conducted the study in four Cerrado areas during two weeks of 2012 dry season: one unburned and three at different post-fire times (one month, one and two years). We sampled ants with pitfall traps in epigaeic and hypogaeic microhabitats. We collected 71 ant morpho-species from 25 genera. In the epigaeic microhabitat we sampled 56 morpho-species and 42 in the hypogaeic microhabitat. The area with the shortest recovery time presented lower epigaeic ant species richness (4.3 ± 2.00) in comparison to the other areas (8.1 ± 2.68 species on one year area; 10.3 ± 2.66 species on two years area; 10.4 ± 2.31 species on control area), but recovery time did not affect hypogaeic ant species richness. Regarding ant species composition, fire did not directly affect hypogaeic ant species, which remained the same even one month after fire event. However, two years were not enough to reestablish ant species composition in both microhabitats in relation to our control group samples. Our study is the first to assess anthropic fire effects upon epigaeic and hypogaeic ants communities; highlighting the importance of evaluating different microhabitats, to more accurately detect the effects of anthropic disturbances in biological communities. We concluded that ant communities are just partially affected by fire occurrences, and epigaeic assemblages are the most affected ones in comparison to hypogaeic ants. Furthermore the study provides knowledge to aid in the creation of vegetation management programs that allow Cerrado conservation.

  12. Microbial communities in Cerrado soils under native vegetation subjected to prescribed fire and under pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Viana,Laura Tillmann; Bustamante,Mercedes Maria da Cunha; Molina,Marirosa; Pinto,Alexandre de Siqueira; Kisselle,Keith; Zepp,Richard; Burke,Roger A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of fire regimes and vegetation cover on the structure and dynamics of soil microbial communities, through phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Comparisons were made between native areas with different woody covers ("cerrado stricto sensu" and "campo sujo"), under different fire regimes, and a 20-year-old active palisadegrass pasture in the Central Plateau of Brazil. Microbial biomass was higher in the native plots than in the pasture,...

  13. Evidence of the effects of fire on branching and leaf development in cerrado trees

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, João Paulo; Albino, Ana Lúcia S.; Prado, Carlos Henrique B. A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We discuss evidence of effects of an accidental fire on shoot growth and leaf development in six cerrado tree species with distinct leaf phenologies. Buds of all six species were marked before shoot and leaf emergence in the dry season. After fire, leaf and shoot growth were monitored weekly and specific leaf area (SLA) was determined. Shoot order was determined in the growing season. Evergreens and semideciduous woody species had rapid leaf and shoot growth and decreased leaf life s...

  14. Sources and sinks of trace gases in Amazonia and the Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.M.C. Bustamante; Michael Keller; D.A. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Data for trace gas fluxes (NOx, N2O, and CH4) from the Amazon and cerrado region are presented with focus on the processes of production and consumption of these trace gases in soils and how they may be changed because of land use changes in both regions. Fluxes are controlled by seaonality, soil moisture, soil texture, topography, and fine-root dynamics. Compared to...

  15. Desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de jatobazeiro do cerrado em Aquidauana-MS

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    Edilson Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A busca por uma alimentação saudável tem aumentado o consumo de frutas e hortaliças, proporcionando maior aceitação das fruteiras do cerrado no mercado. Visando à obtenção de mudas de qualidade, este trabalho avaliou a formação de mudas do jatobazeiro-do-cerrado em diferentes ambientes protegidos e substratos, na UEMS, Aquidauana, no período de novembro de 2008 a março de 2009. Foram utilizados três ambientes protegidos: estufa plástica de polietileno transparente, viveiro de tela de sombreamento e viveiro telado com malha termorrefletora; e seis substratos: solo, Plantmax®, fibra de coco fina, fibra de coco chips, vermiculita e composto orgânico. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com esquema de parcelas subdivididas (split-plot e dez repetições. Houve interação entre ambiente de cultivo e substrato na formação de mudas de jatobá-do-cerrado. Na estufa agrícola, indica-se a utilização do Plantmax® e, nos telados, recomenda-se a vermiculita. O Plantimax® promoveu crescimento uniforme das mudas, em todos ambientes, especialmente na estufa agrícola. O substrato com 100% de composto orgânico não é indicado na formação de mudas de jatobá-do-cerrado. O Índice de Qualidade de Dickson é um bom indicador do padrão de qualidade das mudas.

  16. Distinct bacterial communities across a gradient of vegetation from a preserved Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Ademir Sergio Ferreira; Bezerra, Walderly Melgaço; Dos Santos, Vilma Maria; Rocha, Sandra Mara Barbosa; Carvalho, Nilza da Silva; de Lyra, Maria do Carmo Catanho Pereira; Figueiredo, Marcia do Vale Barreto; de Almeida Lopes, Ângela Celis; Melo, Vania Maria Maciel

    2017-04-01

    The Cerrado biome in the Sete Cidades National Park, an Ecological Reserve in Northeastern Brazil, has conserved its native biodiversity and presents a variety of plants found in other savannas in Brazil. Despite this finding the soil microbial diversity and community structure are poorly understood. Therefore, we described soil bacterial diversity and distribution along a savanna vegetation gradient taking into account the prevailing environmental factors. The bacterial composition was retrieved by sequencing a fragment of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned to 37 different phyla, 96 classes, and 83 genera. At the phylum level, a core comprised by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes, was detected in all areas of Cerrado. 'Cerrado stricto sensu' and 'Cerradao' share more similarities between edaphic properties and vegetation and also present more similar bacterial communities, while 'Floresta decidual' and 'Campo graminoide' show the largest environmental differences and also more distinct bacterial communities. Proteobacteria (26%), Acidobacteria (21%) and Actinobacteria (21%) were the most abundant phyla within the four areas. All the samples present similar bacteria richness (alpha diversity) and the observed differences among them (beta diversity) were more related to the abundance of specific taxon OTUs compared to their presence or absence. Total organic C, N and P are the main abiotic factors structuring the bacterial communities. In summary, our findings show the bacterial community structure was clearly different across the Cerrado gradient, but that these environments share a bacterial phylum-core comprising Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes with other Brazilian savannas.

  17. Could Fidicina mannifera (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Fidicinini) promote a resource pulse in two Brazilian Cerrado vegetation classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R N; Caramori, S S; Maccagnan, D H B

    2017-11-01

    Cicadas are usually studied regarding their importance in agriculture. However, the possibility of this group to represent a pulse of nutrients can also imply on the success of a given species in the biome. The aim of this study was to assess the level of total soluble proteins and lipids of Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius, 1803), and to determine whether the species can promote a pulse of nutrients in two vegetation classes of the Brazilian Cerrado. To assess the pulse of nutrients, it was concluded the determination of total soluble proteins and lipids from samples of males and adult females of F. mannifera, and the spatial distribution of exuviae of this species was also calculated in two vegetation classes of the Brazilian Cerrado. The amount of protein provided by each individual did not differ between males and females (p = 0.66) but females had 40% more lipids than males (p = 0.05). Regarding F. mannifera the gallery forest offered 11.75 g/ha of protein, 3.91 g/ha of lipids, and the Cerrado stricto sensu offered 4.25 g/ha of protein, and 1.41 g/ha of lipid. The male cicadas have a hollow abdomen, which houses a resonance chamber for sound production in order to attract females to mate, and females store larger amounts of lipids, mainly located in the abdominal cavity, where the body fat is directly linked to the reproductive system for the development of the ovaries and egg production after emergence. The mass occurrence of F. mannifera in the Brazilian Cerrado and the fast availability of proteins and lipids make this species a food resource that can directly impact the diet of secondary consumers and scavengers, although the amount of nutrients available by F. mannifera does not promote a pulse of nutrients in the study site.

  18. Diversity of nutcracking tool sites used by Sapajus libidinosus in Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Francisco Dyonísio C; Cardoso, Raphael Moura; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Izar, Patrícia; Villar, Daniell Nunes A; Marquezan, Rogério F

    2015-05-01

    Cracking nuts with tools is a behavior documented in a small number of populations of tufted capuchins, mainly in semi-arid Caatinga and Caatinga-Cerrado transitional environments of northeastern Brazil. Only one of these populations inhabits the less arid Cerrado in Central Brazil, where environments are composed of a heterogeneous mosaic of fields, savannas and forest formations. We conducted surveys in 10 of 20 localities where nutcracking by capuchins was reported by the local inhabitants in the Cerrrado of Northern Goiás and Tocantins. Our purpose was to evaluate nutcracking sites (anvils and associated hammers and nuts) based on indirect evidence of extensive pounding of nuts and seeds. Nutcracking was confirmed at all 10 surveyed localities. A total of 270 sites were identified. Surveyed localities included areas that were ecologically similar to those where capuchins crack nuts in Caatinga, as well as less arid localities with more typical Cerrado habitat. Anvils and hammers were made of materials including quartz, limestone, sandstone and wood, and displayed a wider range of sizes (i.e., 60-3,750 g for hammers' weight) than reported at previously studied localities. Nuts of seven genera were found in association with anvils and hammers. We conclude that nutcracking by capuchins are not restricted to arid environments and argue that the occurrence and diversity of nutcracking tool sites result from complex interactions of environmental variables (e.g., availability of food and mineral resources, density of canopy cover) and social variables (e.g., spatial cohesiveness and tolerance among group members) that need to be examined through long-term research of habituated groups. Localities in the Cerrado of Northern Goiás and Tocantins vary considerable in the ecological conditions faced by wild groups, and therefore offer the opportunity to examine these interactions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cryptic lineages and diversification of an endemic anole lizard (Squamata, Dactyloidae) of the Cerrado hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Werneck, Fernanda P; Giugliano, Lilian G; Santos, Marcella G; Fenker, Jéssica; Sousa, Lucas; D'Angiolella, Annelise B; Dos Santos, Adriana R; Strüssmann, Christine; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Dorado-Rodrigues, Tainá F; Gamble, Tony; Colli, Guarino R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is a wide Neotropical savanna with tremendously high endemic diversity. Yet, it is not clear what the prevalent processes leading to such diversification are. We used the Cerrado-endemic lizard Norops meridionalis to investigate the main abiotic factors that promoted genetic divergence, the timings of these divergence events, and how these relate to cryptic diversity in the group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 21 sites of N. meridionalis to generate species tree, divergence time estimations, and estimate species limits. We also performed population-level analysis and estimated distribution models to test the roles of niche conservatism and divergence in the group diversification. We found that N. meridionalis is composed by at least five cryptic species. Divergence time estimations suggest that the deepest branches split back into the early-mid Miocene, when most of the geophysical activity of the Cerrado took place. The deep divergences found in N. meridionalis suggest that beta anoles invaded South America much earlier than previously thought. Recent published evidence supports this view, indicating that the Panama gap closed as early as 15 mya, allowing for an early invasion of Norops into South America. The spatial pattern of diversification within N. meridionalis follows a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent across several species of vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado. Also, we found evidence for non-stationary isolation by distance, which occurs when genetic differentiation depends on space. Our preliminary data in two out of five lineages suggest that niche conservatism is an important mechanism that promoted geographic fragmentation in the group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Could Fidicina mannifera (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Fidicinini promote a resource pulse in two Brazilian Cerrado vegetation classes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cicadas are usually studied regarding their importance in agriculture. However, the possibility of this group to represent a pulse of nutrients can also imply on the success of a given species in the biome. The aim of this study was to assess the level of total soluble proteins and lipids of Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius, 1803, and to determine whether the species can promote a pulse of nutrients in two vegetation classes of the Brazilian Cerrado. To assess the pulse of nutrients, it was concluded the determination of total soluble proteins and lipids from samples of males and adult females of F. mannifera, and the spatial distribution of exuviae of this species was also calculated in two vegetation classes of the Brazilian Cerrado. The amount of protein provided by each individual did not differ between males and females (p = 0.66 but females had 40% more lipids than males (p = 0.05. Regarding F. mannifera the gallery forest offered 11.75 g/ha of protein, 3.91 g/ha of lipids, and the Cerrado stricto sensu offered 4.25 g/ha of protein, and 1.41 g/ha of lipid. The male cicadas have a hollow abdomen, which houses a resonance chamber for sound production in order to attract females to mate, and females store larger amounts of lipids, mainly located in the abdominal cavity, where the body fat is directly linked to the reproductive system for the development of the ovaries and egg production after emergence. The mass occurrence of F. mannifera in the Brazilian Cerrado and the fast availability of proteins and lipids make this species a food resource that can directly impact the diet of secondary consumers and scavengers, although the amount of nutrients available by F. mannifera does not promote a pulse of nutrients in the study site.

  1. Species composition, community and population dynamics of two gallery forests from the Brazilian Cerrado domain

    OpenAIRE

    Gastauer,Markus; Almado,Roosevelt; Miazaki,Angela; Souza,Écio; Moreira,Luis; Meira-Neto,João

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background To understand the impacts of global changes on future community compositions, knowledge of community dynamics is of crucial importance. To improve our knowledge of community composition, biomass stock and maintenance of gallery forests in the Brazilian Cerrado, we provide two datasets from the 0.5 ha Corrego Fazendinha Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot and the Corrego Fundo Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot situated in the Bom Despacho region, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. New ...

  2. A poesia de dom Pedro Casaldáliga: doadora de sentido libertador

    OpenAIRE

    Migotto, Clóvis José

    2017-01-01

    Esta dissertação tem como objetivo a investigação da poesia de Pedro Casaldáliga, que abordamos a partir de um recorte de parte da sua produção poética e, busca perceber um sentido específico. Inserido no contexto de sua Prelazia de São Félix do Araguaia Pedro Casaldáliga amadureceu sua expressão como poeta na medida mesmo de seu compromisso com a libertação de seu povo. Cada traço de seu pensamento humano e poético, portanto, pode ser compreendido pela busca de sentido de ser testemunha cris...

  3. SENTIDOS EM TODOS OS SENTIDOS

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    Simone Silveira de Alcântara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the performance of Arnaldo Antunes in Ao vivo no estúdio, considering that lyric and music are not artistic categories considered separately by the researcher of Brazilian Popular Song. In the case of this DVD, also other elements must be present in the analysis. Together parameters linguistic, musical, visual and technological translate the poetic experience of the artist and the listener, or express personal meanings, social, cultural and aesthetic proposed jointly by the work in every way.

  4. O espaço da ficção e os limites do sentido

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    Janine Resende Rocha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre as condições de emergência do sentido, reflexão que demanda aqui a pesquisa de dois temas: a hermenêutica do texto literário e o papel do leitor diante desse texto, pensados a partir do romance O processo, de Franz Kafka.

  5. A crise de sentido e o futuro das organizações

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    Arnoldo José de Hoyos Guevara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao pensar sobre a crise de sentido e a fragmentação do conhecimento que caracterizaram o trabalho no mundo contemporâneo, devemos nos perguntar: se trabalhamos para viver, ou vivemos para trabalhar, por isto está emergindo um novo tipo de consciência expandida (econômico social - ambiental - espiritual capaz de repensar o complexo mundo atual por meio de novas lideranças transformadoras.

  6. Bird richness and composition in a Cerrado fragment in the State of São Paulo

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    LT Manica

    Full Text Available Bird species richness is an important measure for monitoring biodiversity changes. We analysed avifauna richness and composition in a 472 ha protected cerrado fragment and surroundings at Fazenda Canchim (RL-CPPSE, São Carlos, in the State of São Paulo (SP. We carried out 95.1 hours of observation (22 visits at irregular intervals from May 2004 to December 2006. Qualitative surveys were done walking through tracks inside the fragment and on the roads at its edge. We recorded 160 species, six of which were endemic to Cerrado domain, 22 migratory, seven threatened within the State of São Paulo, and two globally threatened. We found 28 species in the cerradão, 110 in the cerrado sensu stricto, 13 in the gallery forest, 26 in the reservoir border, 26 in pasturelands and sugar cane monoculture and 55 in an anthropic area. Most of the species had low frequency of occurrence in all vegetation forms. Insectivores were the major trophic category (46.9%, which is typical in tropical regions, and it is also related to resource availability. Omnivores followed with 19.4%, granivores with 8.8% and frugivores with 7.5%. We conclude that, despite its size and conservation status, our study area has a remarkable bird community and must be considered as a priority conservation area to preserve bird species in Sao Paulo State.

  7. Estoque de Serapilheira em Três Fisionomias no Cerrado do Distrito Federal

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    Nickolas Mendes Matos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o estoque mensal e anual de serapilheira e sazonalidade em duas fitofisionomias (Cerrado stricto sensu e Mata de Galeria e em um povoamento de eucalipto, localizados na Fazenda Água Limpa, DF. O estoque de serapilheira foi coletado mensalmente, pelo período de um ano, com auxílio de um gabarito metálico de 0,25 m2. O material foi separado manualmente nas frações folhas, cascas, galhos, raízes, flores/frutos e material particulado. O estoque de serapilheira na Mata de Galeria (9,36 t ha-1 foi estatisticamente igual ao observado no povoamento de eucalipto (9,12 t ha-1, valores maiores que o verificado no Cerrado Típico (6,08 t ha-1. A fração folha apresentou maior quantidade nas fitofisionomias e no povoamento quando comparada às demais frações. Verificaram-se dois padrões divergentes de sazonalidade do estoque de serapilheira: maior estoque no Cerrado Típico e no povoamento de eucalipto na estação seca e maior estoque na Mata de Galeria na estação chuvosa.

  8. Evolution of seed dispersal in the Cerrado biome: ecological and phylogenetic considerations

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    Marcelo Kuhlmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The investigation of the phylogeny of a group of organisms has the potential to identify ecological and evolutionary processes that have been occurring within a community. Seed dispersal is a key process in the life cycle of vegetation and reflects different reproductive strategies of plants to a set of ecological and evolutionary factors. Knowing the dispersal syndromes and fruits types of a plant community may help elucidate plant-animal interactions and colonization strategies of plants. We investigated dispersal syndromes and fruit types in Cerrado formations as a parameter for understanding the evolution of angiosperm reproductive strategies in this mega-diverse tropical biome. To do this we identified and mapped the distribution of different parameters associated with seed dispersal on a phylogeny of Cerrado angiosperms genera and tested the presence of phylogenetic signal. The results showed that there were strong relationships between fruit types, seed dispersal strategies and vegetation life forms and that these traits were closely related to angiosperms phylogeny and, together, contribute to the evolution of plants in the forest, savanna and grassland formations of the Cerrado biome.

  9. Contribution to the discussions on the origin of the cerrado biome: Brazilian savanna

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    MHO. Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Theories that attempt to explain the origin of the cerrado biome are mostly based on the isolated action of three major factors: climate, fire and soil. Another factor that has been mentioned is that of human interference. We hypothesise that the evolutionary origin of this biome resulted from the complex interaction of climate, fire and soil, with climate being the triggering agent of this assumed interaction. Fire, as well as acid and dystrophic soils, would be factors involved in the selection of savanna species throughout climatic events, during the Tertiary and the Quaternary, e.g. Pliocene and Pleistocene. The genesis of the physiognomies that would give rise to cerrado sensu lato, rather than forest formations, could have occurred due to the strong pressure exerted by the reduction in water availability, and the selection of the species adapted to the new conditions imposed by the environment. The characteristics of cerrado sensu lato soil, originated from edaphic impoverishment caused by lixiviation and successive past fires, would remain, even after hydric availability increased following the Pleistocene glaciations.

  10. Accidental Fire in the Cerrado: Its Impact on Communities of Caterpillars on Two Species of Erythroxylum

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    Cintia Lepesqueur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the mechanisms that influence herbivorous insects, fires, a very frequent historical phenomenon in the cerrado, appear to be an important modifying influence on lepidopteran communities. The purpose of this study was to compare the richness, abundance, frequency, and composition of species of caterpillars in two adjacent areas of cerrado sensu stricto, one recently burned and one unburned since 1994, on the experimental farm “Fazenda Água Limpa” (FAL (15∘55′S and 47∘55′W, DF, Brazil. Caterpillars were surveyed on two plant species, genus Erythroxylum: E. deciduum A. St.-Hil. and E. tortuosum Mart. (Erythroxylaceae. We inspected a total of 4,196 plants in both areas, and 972 caterpillars were found on 13.3% of these plants. The number of plants with caterpillars (frequency differed significantly between the areas. The results indicate that recent and accidental fires have a positive effect on the abundance of caterpillars up to one year postfire, increase the frequency of caterpillars associated with Erythroxylum species in the cerrado and do not affect the richness of caterpillars on these plants. Moreover, the fires change the species composition of caterpillars by promoting an increase in rare or opportunistic species.

  11. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Cury, Graziela

    2011-09-01

    In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna), the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell.) Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam.) DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng.), to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  12. Contribution to the discussions on the origin of the cerrado biome: Brazilian savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, M H O; Monteiro, R

    2010-02-01

    Theories that attempt to explain the origin of the cerrado biome are mostly based on the isolated action of three major factors: climate, fire and soil. Another factor that has been mentioned is that of human interference. We hypothesise that the evolutionary origin of this biome resulted from the complex interaction of climate, fire and soil, with climate being the triggering agent of this assumed interaction. Fire, as well as acid and dystrophic soils, would be factors involved in the selection of savanna species throughout climatic events, during the Tertiary and the Quaternary, e.g. Pliocene and Pleistocene. The genesis of the physiognomies that would give rise to cerrado sensu lato, rather than forest formations, could have occurred due to the strong pressure exerted by the reduction in water availability, and the selection of the species adapted to the new conditions imposed by the environment. The characteristics of cerrado sensu lato soil, originated from edaphic impoverishment caused by lixiviation and successive past fires, would remain, even after hydric availability increased following the Pleistocene glaciations.

  13. Pouteria torta: a native species of the Brazilian Cerrado as a bioindicator of glyphosate action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, P F; Costa, A C; Megguer, C A; Lima, J S; Silva, F B; Guimarães, D S; Almeida, G M; Nascimento, K J T

    2017-10-23

    In Brazil, the expansion of agricultural activity and the associated indiscriminate use of herbicides such as glyphosate is directly related to the loss of biodiversity in the Cerrado. The identification of plant species as bioindicators of herbicide action, especially species native to the area, can help in monitoring the impacts of xenobiotics in the remaining Cerrado. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the possible use of the native Cerrado species Pouteria torta as a bioindicator of glyphosate action via changes in physiological performance. At 16 months after sowing, the effect of glyphosate was evaluated by applying the following doses: 0 (control), 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 g a.e. ha-1. In response to glyphosate, P. torta exhibited reductions in photosynthesis and chloroplastid pigment content, as well as accumulation of shikimic acid and the occurrence of chlorosis and necrosis. These changes demonstrate the high sensitivity of P. torta to glyphosate and its potential for use as a bioindicator of this herbicide.

  14. Bat flies on phyllostomid hosts in the Cerrado region: component community, prevalence and intensity of parasitism

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    Alan Eriksson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Streblidae flies are specialised parasites of bat hosts, mainly phyllostomids. There is a high richness of streblids in the savannah-like Cerrado region; however, there is little quantitative data available in parasitological indices. Here, we describe the component community, prevalence and intensity of a streblid infestation on a phyllostomid bat assemblage in Serra da Bodoquena, a Cerrado region in Southwest Brazil. We conducted surveys by capturing and inspecting bat hosts during the seven-month period between October 2004-December 2005. All the ectoparasites found on the bats were collected in the field and then counted and identified in the laboratory. We captured 327 bats belonging to 13 species, of which eight species were parasitized by 17 species of streblids. Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina were infested with seven streblid species, whereas the other bat species were infested with four or fewer streblid species. Megistopoda proxima and Aspidoptera falcata flies were found on Sturnira lilium, and Trichobius joblingi was the most prevalent fly on C. perspicillata. Megistopoda aranea and Aspidoptera phyllostomatis were highly prevalent and had a high intensity of infestation on Artibeus planirostris. Overall comparisons of the available data suggest that the component communities of streblids vary more between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest phytogeographical regions than between localities within the same phytogeographical region.

  15. Seed removal of Dipteryx alata Vog. (Leguminosae: Faboidae) in the edge and interior of Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2017-11-01

    Post-dispersal seed agents of mortality include pathogens, invertebrates, and vertebrates, which may shape tropical tree populations and communities. In this study I experimentally evaluated Dipteryx alata endocarp removal both in the interior and edge of Cerrado vegetation. Specifically, I simulated primary dispersion of endocarps by bats and evaluated secondary removal intensity according to habitat, season, and endocarp number. This study was developed in the Pombo Natural Municipal Park, a large Cerrado remnant with an area of 9,000 ha, located in the Western Brazil. In each of the two habitat types, I set down 45 points in which D. alata piles of 1, 3, 7, 15, and 40 endocarps were positioned. On average, endocarp removal in the interior was higher than in the edge, so that the intensity of removal varied from positive density-dependent (interior: rains), to negative density-dependent (edge: both seasons). Also, at both habitat types and seasons non removed endocarps were intensely attacked by fungus. Indeed, seed mortality by fungus infestation was positive density-dependent. The results indicate high propensity of endocarps to escape from removal in the edge, in principle, a defaunated area. As Dipteryx species strongly rely on caviomorph rodents for their dispersal, the scarcity of these vectors might reduce recruitment chances of D. alata in remnants of Cerrado. This imply in future changes in the vegetation structure from the edge to the interior towards low tree diversity.

  16. Seed removal of Dipteryx alata Vog. (Leguminosae: Faboidae in the edge and interior of Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ragusa-Netto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Post-dispersal seed agents of mortality include pathogens, invertebrates, and vertebrates, which may shape tropical tree populations and communities. In this study I experimentally evaluated Dipteryx alata endocarp removal both in the interior and edge of Cerrado vegetation. Specifically, I simulated primary dispersion of endocarps by bats and evaluated secondary removal intensity according to habitat, season, and endocarp number. This study was developed in the Pombo Natural Municipal Park, a large Cerrado remnant with an area of 9,000 ha, located in the Western Brazil. In each of the two habitat types, I set down 45 points in which D. alata piles of 1, 3, 7, 15, and 40 endocarps were positioned. On average, endocarp removal in the interior was higher than in the edge, so that the intensity of removal varied from positive density-dependent (interior: rains, to negative density-dependent (edge: both seasons. Also, at both habitat types and seasons non removed endocarps were intensely attacked by fungus. Indeed, seed mortality by fungus infestation was positive density-dependent. The results indicate high propensity of endocarps to escape from removal in the edge, in principle, a defaunated area. As Dipteryx species strongly rely on caviomorph rodents for their dispersal, the scarcity of these vectors might reduce recruitment chances of D. alata in remnants of Cerrado. This imply in future changes in the vegetation structure from the edge to the interior towards low tree diversity.

  17. Co-circulation of Araraquara and Juquitiba Hantavirus in Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterres, Alexandro; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Fernandes, Jorlan; Maia, Renata Malachini; Teixeira, Bernardo Rodrigues; Oliveira, Flávio César Gomes; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2018-04-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging serious disease in the Americas, transmitted from wild rodents to humans through inhalation of aerosol containing virus. Herein, we characterized two distinct hantaviruses circulating in rodent species form Central Plateau, Midwestern region of Brazil in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome, an area characterized by small trees and grasses adapted to climates with long dry periods. In this study, we identified the co-circulation of the Araraquara virus and a possible new lineage of the Juquitiba virus (JUQV) in Oligoryzomys nigripes. The implications of co-circulation are still unknown, but it can be the key for increasing viral diversity or emergence of new species through spillover or host switching events leading to co-infection and consequently recombination or reassortment between different virus species. Phylogenetic analyses based on the complete S segment indicated that, alongside with Oligoryzomys mattogrossae rodents, O. nigripes species could also have a whole as JUQV reservoir in the Cerrado biome. Although these rodents' species are common in the Cerrado biome, they are not abundant demonstrating how complex and different hantavirus enzootic cycles can be in this particular biome.

  18. Bat flies on phyllostomid hosts in the Cerrado region: component community, prevalence and intensity of parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Alan; Graciolli, Gustavo; Fischer, Erich

    2011-05-01

    Streblidae flies are specialised parasites of bat hosts, mainly phyllostomids. There is a high richness of streblids in the savannah-like Cerrado region; however, there is little quantitative data available in parasitological indices. Here, we describe the component community, prevalence and intensity of a streblid infestation on a phyllostomid bat assemblage in Serra da Bodoquena, a Cerrado region in Southwest Brazil. We conducted surveys by capturing and inspecting bat hosts during the seven-month period between October 2004-December 2005. All the ectoparasites found on the bats were collected in the field and then counted and identified in the laboratory. We captured 327 bats belonging to 13 species, of which eight species were parasitized by 17 species of streblids. Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina were infested with seven streblid species, whereas the other bat species were infested with four or fewer streblid species. Megistopoda proxima and Aspidoptera falcata flies were found on Sturnira lilium, and Trichobius joblingi was the most prevalent fly on C. perspicillata. Megistopoda aranea and Aspidoptera phyllostomatis were highly prevalent and had a high intensity of infestation on Artibeus planirostris. Overall comparisons of the available data suggest that the component communities of streblids vary more between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest phytogeographical regions than between localities within the same phytogeographical region.

  19. Pouteria torta: a native species of the Brazilian Cerrado as a bioindicator of glyphosate action

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    P. F. Batista

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil, the expansion of agricultural activity and the associated indiscriminate use of herbicides such as glyphosate is directly related to the loss of biodiversity in the Cerrado. The identification of plant species as bioindicators of herbicide action, especially species native to the area, can help in monitoring the impacts of xenobiotics in the remaining Cerrado. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the possible use of the native Cerrado species Pouteria torta as a bioindicator of glyphosate action via changes in physiological performance. At 16 months after sowing, the effect of glyphosate was evaluated by applying the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 g a.e. ha-1. In response to glyphosate, P. torta exhibited reductions in photosynthesis and chloroplastid pigment content, as well as accumulation of shikimic acid and the occurrence of chlorosis and necrosis. These changes demonstrate the high sensitivity of P. torta to glyphosate and its potential for use as a bioindicator of this herbicide.

  20. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

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    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  1. Search for antifungal and anticancer compounds from native plant species of Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzani, V da S; Young, M C; Furlan, M; Cavalheiro, A J; Araújo, A R; Silva, D H; Lopes, M N

    1999-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of several bioactive extracts obtained from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest plant species led to the isolation of potent DNA-damaging piperidine 1-5 and guanidine alkaloids 6-9 from Cassia leptophylla and Pterogyne nitens respectively, two common Leguminosae from Atlantic Forest. By means of biotechnological approach on Maytenus aquifolium, a species from Cerrado, moderate DNA-damaging sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloid 10-11 was isolated. Bioassay-guided fractionation on Casearia sylvestris, a medicinal plant species found in Cerrado and Atlantic Forest, led to the isolation of clerodane diterpenes 12-13 which showed effect on DNA. In addition, we have reported several interesting potent antifungal iridoids: 1 beta-hydroxy-dihydrocornin (14), 1 alpha-hydroxy-dihydrocornin (15), alpha-gardiol (16), beta-gardiol (17), plumericin (18), isoplumericin (19), 11-O-trans-caffeoylteucrein (20); ester derivative: 2-methyl-4-hydroxy-butyl-caffeoate (21), amide N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2Z, 4Z-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine (22) and triterpene viburgenin (23).

  2. Feedbacks between land cover and climate changes in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, M. T.; Silverio, D. V.; Bustamante, M.; Macedo, M.; Shimbo, J.; Brando, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    An estimated 20% of Amazon forests and 45% of Cerrado savannas have been cleared to make way for the expansion of croplands and pasturelands in Brazil. Although deforestation rates have decreased or remained steady over the last decade, the cumulative area deforested continues to grow in both biomes. These land-use transitions are expected to influence regional climate by reducing evapotranspiration (ET), increasing land surface temperatures (LST), and ultimately reducing regional precipitation. Here we present results from spatial analyses to quantify the impact of land-use transitions on the regional climate of the Amazon-Cerrado agricultural frontier. The analyses combine satellite observations and model outputs from the MODIS dataset. Results from the southeastern Amazon indicate that transitions from forest to pasture or cropland decreased mean annual ET (by 24% and 32%, respectively) and increased LST (by 4.2°C and 6.4°C). Preliminary results from the Cerrado indicate that transitions from woody savannas to pasture or cropland also result in substantial reductions in mean annual ET (23% and 20%, respectively) and increases in LST (by 1.6°C in both cases). These results reinforce the need to better understand how land-use change at regional scales may alter climate by changing ecosystem properties (beyond carbon stocks and fluxes). It is important to evaluate these responses across different biomes, particularly in tropical regions under increasing deforestation pressure.

  3. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of leaf infusions of Myrtaceae species from Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, L K; Imatomi, M; Gualtieri, S C J

    2015-11-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying new antioxidants from plant materials. Several studies have emphasized the antioxidant activity of species belonging to the Myrtaceae family. However, there are few reports on these species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). In this study, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 12 native Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado were evaluated (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia dysenterica, Eugenia klotzschiana, Hexachlamys edulis, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, and Psidium laruotteanum). Antioxidant potential was assessed using the antioxidant activity index (AAI) by the DPPH method and total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. There was a high correlation between TPC and AAI values. Psidium laruotteanum showed the highest TPC (576.56 mg GAE/g extract) and was the most potent antioxidant (AAI = 7.97, IC50 = 3.86 µg·mL-1), with activity close to that of pure quercetin (IC50 = 2.99 µg·mL-1). The extracts of nine species showed IC50 of 6.24-8.75 µg·mL-1. Most species showed TPC and AAI values similar to or higher than those for Camellia sinensis, a commonly consumed tea with strong antioxidant properties. The results reveal that the analyzed Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado possess high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Thus, they are a potential source of new natural antioxidants.

  4. Convergence beyond flower morphology? Reproductive biology of hummingbird-pollinated plants in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Maruyama, P K; Oliveira, P E

    2016-03-01

    Convergent reproductive traits in non-related plants may be the result of similar environmental conditions and/or specialised interactions with pollinators. Here, we documented the pollination and reproductive biology of Bionia coriacea (Fabaceae), Esterhazya splendida (Orobanchaceae) and Ananas ananassoides (Bromeliaceae) as case studies in the context of hummingbird pollination in Cerrado, the Neotropical savanna of Central South America. We combined our results with a survey of hummingbird pollination studies in the region to investigate the recently suggested association of hummingbird pollination and self-compatibility. Plant species studied here differed in their specialisation for ornithophily, from more generalist A. ananassoides to somewhat specialist B. coriacea and E. splendida. This continuum of specialisation in floral traits also translated into floral visitor composition. Amazilia fimbriata was the most frequent pollinator for all species, and the differences in floral display and nectar energy availability among plant species affect hummingbirds' behaviour. Most of the hummingbird-pollinated Cerrado plants (60.0%, n = 20), including those studied here, were self-incompatible, in contrast to other biomes in the Neotropics. Association to more generalist, often territorial, hummingbirds, and resulting reduced pollen flow in open savanna areas may explain predominance of self-incompatibility. But it is possible that mating system is more associated with the predominance of woody hummingbird plants in the Cerrado plant assemblage than to the pollination system itself. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Biological properties of disturbed and undisturbed Cerrado sensu stricto from Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, A S F; Magalhaes, L B; Santos, V M; Nunes, L A P L; Dias, C T S

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure soil microbial biomass and soil surface fauna in undisturbed and disturbed Cerrado sensu stricto (Css) from Sete Cidades National Park, Northeast Brazil. The following sites were sampled under Cerrado sensu stricto (Css) at the park: undisturbed and disturbed Css (slash-and-burn agricultural practices). Total organic and microbial biomass C were higher in undisturbed than in disturbed sites in both seasons. However, microbial biomass C was higher in the wet than in the dry season. Soil respiration did not vary among sites but was higher in the wet than in the dry season. The densities of Araneae, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera were higher in the undisturbed site, whereas the densities of Formicidae were higher in the disturbed site. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis separated undisturbed from disturbed sites according to soil biological properties. Disturbance by agricultural practices, such as slash-and-burn, probably resulted in the deterioration of the biological properties of soil under native Cerrado sensu stricto in the Sete Cidades National Park.

  6. Amblyomma sculptum: genetic diversity and rickettsias in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourth, K; Amorim, M; DE Oliveira, S V; Caetano, R L; Voloch, C M; Gazêta, G S

    2017-12-01

    Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Berlese, 1888 is the most important tick vector in Brazil, transmitting the bioagent of the most severe form of spotted fever (SF) in part of the Cerrado (in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo). In another part of the Cerrado (Central-West region of Brazil), a milder form of SF has been recorded. However, neither the rickettsia nor the vector involved have been characterized. The aim of the current study was to analyse genetic variation and the presence of rickettsia in A. sculptum in Cerrado, from silent areas and with the milder form of SF. Samples were subjected to DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of 12S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit II and D-loop mitochondrial genes (for tick population analyses), and gltA, htrA, ompA and gene D (sca4) genes for rickettsia researches. Exclusive haplotypes with low frequencies, high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity, star-shaped networks and significant results in neutrality tests indicate A. sculptum population expansions in some areas. Rickettsia amblyommatis, Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae and Rickettsia felis were detected. The A. sculptum diversity is not geographically, or biome delimited, pointing to a different potential in vector capacity, possibly associated with differing tick genetic profiles. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. O sentido do cuidado espiritual na integralidade da atenção em cuidados paliativos

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    Isabel Cristina de Oliveira Arrieira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Compreender o sentido do cuidado espiritual para a integralidade da atenção à pessoa e para a equipe interdisciplinar de cuidados paliativos. Métodos Pesquisa qualitativa com referencial teórico de Viktor Frankl. Os participantes foram nove pessoas em cuidados paliativos e seis profissionais do Programa de Internação Domiciliar Interdisciplinar que atendiam a estes. As informações foram coletadas no domicílio dos participantes, por meio da observação, e entrevistas fenomenológicas realizadas no período de junho a outubro de 2014, gravadas, transcritas e transformadas em texto interpretado, com abordagem fenomenológica hermenêutica. Resultados Surgiram as seguintes categorias: Sentido da integralidade do cuidado e O sentido da espiritualidade para os profissionais que cuidam de pessoas em tratamento paliativo, com suas subcategorias. Conclusão O cuidado espiritual proporciona conforto e o encontro existencial entre a pessoa em cuidados paliativos e os profissionais da equipe que o cuidam.

  8. Chapeuzinho Amarelo: um novo sentido para uma velha história

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    Martha E. K. Kling Bonotto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Chapeuzinho Amarelo é uma das reescrituras de Chapeuzinho Vermelho em que o diferente irrompe no discurso, produzindo sentidos novos - a polissemia. As tradicionais posições-sujeito do Lobo e de Chapeuzinho sofrem uma reversão total em função da mudança de sentido do medo. São analisadas as posições-sujeito bem como as imagens que as acompanham e que se mantêm no interdiscurso através das reescrituras parafrásticas. O Lobo, ocupando a posição de dominador, com suas características de maldade e agressividade; Chapeuzinho, ocupando a posição de dominada, com suas características de ingenuidade e impotência, sendo o lugar do medo determinante dessas posições. A partir da paródia de Chico Buarque, mostrase a desconstrução dessas imagens, o deslocamento dos sentidos através das pistas que se evidenciam na base lingüística e que fazem surgir a imagem de Chapeuzinho Amarelo, forte e dominadora e do Lobo, fraco e dominado.

  9. Enfermagem neonatal: o sentido existencial do cuidado na unidade de terapia intensiva

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    Rita de Cássia de Jesus Melo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Entender que cuidado ao recém-nascido prematuro perpassa por diversas ações que estão, por vezes, imbricadas na rotina predominante nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal, requer que profissionais compreendam a sutileza entre o cuidado no sentido de atividades e procedimentos realizados no dia-a-dia, e cuidado no sentido existencial de ser e cuidar do outro. Este estudo, na abordagem fenomenológica heideggeriana, objetivou desvelar o sentido existencial do cuidado às mães de bebês prematuros internados em UTIN. Após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa, foram realizadas entrevistas com nove mães. A análise pelo método heideggeriano desvelou que o ser-mãe, ao ser-com-o-filho, também se sente cuidada pelos profissionais que propiciam que enfrente esse momento existencial de maneira mais segura.

  10. CONSTRUÇÃO SOCIAL DE SENTIDOS SOBRE A RAVIDEZMATERNIDADE ENTRE ADOLESCENTES

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    Nayara Bueno de Araujo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se buscó comprehender la construcción social de sentidos sobre embarazo-maternidad entre adolescentes embarazadas. Estudio explicativo, realizado en 2014, con 12 adolescentes, por medio de entrevista individual y grupal, observación del contexto local, consulta al documentos y preceptos de Análisis de Discurso Crítica de Fairclough. Se encontró el sentido de compatibilidad entre el embarazo y adolescencia y de contraposición al discurso dominante de embarazo como un problema. El evento respondía al que las adolescentes proyectaban para si, en uno contexto restringido de oportunidades sociales. Lo valoran con base en un ideal social de maternidad y de constitución familiar, prebendo reconocimiento social, comprobación de feminidad y mayor poder y autonomía. Sin embargo, esas ganancias se muestran atravesados por dificultades percibidas, como enfrentar el juicio familiar y el “doloroso” parto. La comprensión contextualizada de estos sentidos y su contenido social y ideológico es esencial al desenvolvimiento de mayor grado de autonomía-responsabilidad de adolescentes.

  11. Sentidos de doença mental em um grupo terapêutico e suas implicações

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    Carla Guanaes

    Full Text Available Este estudo adota uma perspectiva construcionista social, que focaliza o modo como as pessoas constroem sentidos de si mesmas e de mundo em suas práticas discursivas. Enfatizando o caráter performático da linguagem, objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, descrever alguns sentidos de doença mental produzidos em um grupo terapêutico realizado em um ambulatório de saúde mental, e as implicações do uso destes sentidos para as conversações grupais. Baseada na transcrição das 16 sessões do grupo, a análise da produção de sentidos permitiu a descrição de alguns sentidos de doença mental, bem como a construção de relações entre estes sentidos, a visão de mudança e os modos de interação por estes favorecidos. Através dessa análise, apontamos a utilidade de refletir sobre as implicações do uso de determinados sentidos de doença mental em terapia de grupo, como uma forma de potencializar as trocas dialógicas entre os participantes e a construção conversacional da mudança.

  12. Florística em um hectare de cerrado stricto sensu na ARIE - cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP

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    Weiser Veridiana de Lara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento florístico em um ha de cerrado stricto sensu, na parte norte da ARIE - Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo. Foram coletados 428 espécimes em fase reprodutiva, em vinte e cinco excursões de coleta, durante o período de novembro de 1996 a abril de 1998. A listagem florística obtida apresenta 141 espécies, distribuídas em 109 gêneros e 49 famílias. As famílias mais representativas foram: Leguminosae, Asteraceae, Malpighiaceae e Myrtaceae. A floração e frutificação das espécies foram maiores no período chuvoso. Espécies zoocóricas (61 predominaram, seguidas pelas anemocóricas (46 e autocóricas (34. Analisou-se a flora como um todo e seus componentes herbáceo-subarbustivo e arbustivo-arbóreo, separadamente.

  13. Sentidos da violência ou a violência sem sentido: o olhar dos adolescentes sobre a mídia

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    Njaine,Kathie

    2006-01-01

    Trata-se de estudo qualitativo que investiga os sentidos atribuídos pelos adolescentes à violência na mídia, especialmente na televisão, e as formas como esse grupo interage com o meio. Busca-se aprofundar a compreensão sobre como o fenômeno de violência, mediado pela televisão, é interpretado e incorporado ou não pelos adolescentes em seu cotidiano. Foi utilizada a técnica de grupos focais com alunos das sétimas e oitavas séries do ensino fundamental do município de São Gonçalo/RJ, em duas e...

  14. Dinâmica das populações bacterianas em solos de Cerrados Dynamic of bacterial populations from Cerrado soils

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    João Carlos Pereira

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos ambientes tropicais, os Cerrados destacam-se pelo seu potencial agrícola. Apesar das funções dos microrganismos no crescimento das plantas e na produtividade das culturas, existem poucas informações dos efeitos resultantes do manejo do solo, na ecologia microbiana. Neste estudo, foram avaliados os efeitos das condições ambientais e das práticas agrícolas sobre as populações bacterianas. As densidades das populações em solos com vegetação nativa foram variáveis e diferenciadas. Em Sete Lagoas, MG, as populações de actinomicetos variaram de 1,7 a 50 X 10(4 UFC/g de solo seco, enquanto em Planaltina as densidades das populações bacterianas em solo com primeiro e segundo ano de cultivo de soja foram semelhantes, mas superiores ao solo com vegetação nativa. A utilização agrícola deste solo não resultou em desequilíbrios acentuados das populações de actinomicetos provenientes de esporos e hifas. As relações esporos/hifas variaram de 1,1 a 5,8. Na rizosfera da soja, os coeficientes de correlação entre as populações de actinomicetos com as demais populações bacterianas foram significativos. Os resultados evidenciam que as práticas agrícolas utilizadas na introdução da cultura da soja em solos de Cerrados pode influenciar o equilíbrio das populações na comunidade bacteriana.Among tropical environments, Cerrados stand out because of its agriculture potencial. Although microorganisms play an important role on soil sustainability and crop production, few information is available on the effects of soil management systems on Cerrado's microbial ecology. In this study the effects of environmental conditions and soil management practices on bacterial populations were evaluated. Bacterial population densities in soil under native vegetation were variable and diferentiated. Actinomycetes densities varied from 1.7 to 50 X 10(4 CFU/g dry soil in Sete Lagoas region, Brazil, whereas bacterial populations in both the

  15. Flora e aspectos auto-ecológicos de um encrave de cerrado na chapada do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil Flora and autecology's aspects of a disjunction cerrado at Araripe plateau, Northeastern Brazil

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    Itayguara Ribeiro da Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa conhecer a composição e riqueza florística, os padrões fenológicos reprodutivos, as síndromes de dispersão e as formas de vida das espécies de uma disjunção de cerrado em clima semi-árido, na chapada do Araripe, Estado do Ceará. Foram encontradas 107 espécies e 41 famílias. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Malpighiaceae foram as mais ricas em espécies. Foi feita a distribuição geográfica de 47 espécies arbustivas e arbóreas em 27 listagens de cerrados brasileiros. Doze espécies apresentaram ampla distribuição geográfica e 13 foram registradas apenas neste trabalho. Cerca de 76% das espécies floresceram e frutificaram no período chuvoso. As síndromes de dispersão predominantes foram: zoocoria, autocoria e anemocoria. O espectro biológico foi predominantemente constituído por fanerófitos (50,7%, hemicriptófitos (14,9% e caméfitos (13,1%. O cerrado estudado apresentou menor riqueza taxonômica que os cerrados contínuos e comportamento das fenofases reprodutivas, percentagem de síndromes de dispersão e formas de vida similares.This study subject to investigate the floristic composition and richness, the reproductive phenological patterns, the dispersal syndromes and life forms of species of a disjunt cerrado in semiarid climate at Araripe plateau during a one year period. We found 107 species and 41 families. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Malpighiaceae showed the largest number of species. For 47 of the woody species found, we studied the geographical distribution based on 27 papers of the Brazilian cerrados. Twelve species are of widespread occurence in the cerrado, and 13 are restricted to the Araripe plateau. Zoocory, autocory, and anemocory are the predominant syndromes of dispersal. The predominant life forms were phanerophytes (50.7%, hemicriptophytes (14.9% and camephytes (13.1%. The cerrado of Araripe have lower species richness

  16. SENTIDOS DE LA TRAYECTORIA ESCOLAR. DESVÍOS ENCONTRADOS ENTRE LOS TRAYECTOS Y LA EXPERIENCIA

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    María Fernanda Ventós Coll

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo comparte los resultados de una investigación realizada en 2013 sobre los sentidos que construyen los estudiantes que retoman sus estudios con el plan de Formación Profesional Básica (FPB, plan 2007 del Consejo de Educación Técnica Profesional (CETP/UTU. El estudio mantuvo un enfoque cualitativo y los resultados muestran diferentes sentidos que construyen los estudiantes a lo largo del curso, entendidos como construcción mutuamente configurante entre el orden estructural y subjetivo. Los sentidos se clasifican en históricos (mandatos sociales e institucionales; emergentes (responden a singularidades de los recorridos; móviles (anuncian movilidad del interés; comparativos (entre la enseñanza general y técnica; y de experiencia (anuncian un devenir estudiante y marcan un antes y un después. Las vivencias y opiniones de los estudiantes sobre sus construcciones de sentido son valiosos aportes para pensar en el diseño e implementación de las actuales políticas educativas. Además, abren un campo de producción de conocimiento sobre la educación técnico‑tecnológica en nuestro país que no ha sido suficientemente explorado.   Palabras clave: educación media (secundaria, enseñanza técnica, sentidos   STUDENTS’ MEANINGS OF THE SCHOOL TRAJECTORY. DEFLECTIONS BETWEEN PATHS AND EXPERIENCES   Abstract   The present article shows the results of research conducted in 2013 regarding the meanings that students develop when they resume their studies at high school level through a plan of Basic Professional Studies designed in 2007 by the National Council of Technical and Professional Studies (CETP/UTU. These meanings are classified as historical (social and institutional rules; emergent (related to the singularity of each process; mobile (showing mobility of interests; comparative (between general and technical education; experiential (announcing the becoming of a student and signalling a before and an after

  17. Gênero e os sentidos do trabalho social Gender and the meanings of social work

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    Jacy Corrêa Curado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de pesquisa realizada com profissionais do Programa de Inclusão Social (PIS, do Estado Mato Grosso do Sul, gestão 2003-2006, este artigo discute os sentidos do trabalho social, ressaltando sentidos da relação gênero e trabalho e da naturalização da participação da mulher no trabalho social. A pesquisa pautou-se por aportes da Psicologia Social, em diálogo com teorias de gênero e literatura sobre trabalho social. Apresentamos cinco conjuntos de sentidos do trabalho social, a saber: ajuda; promoção de direitos e transformação social; mercado profissional e gestão social; estratégia político-eleitoral e assistencialista. O quinto conjunto agrega sentidos das relações de gênero e incluem o afeto como instrumento de trabalho, o desapego financeiro e o não-profissionalismo. Apesar de positividades, esses sentidos alimentam a desvalorização, a invisibilidade e a feminização dessa atividade.Based upon a research done with professionals of the Program for Social Inclusion (PIS, of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during 2003-2006, the article discusses the meanings of social work, highlighting meanings of gender and work relationship and the naturalization of women's participation in the territory of social work. The research was developed under the perspective of Social Psychology, including dialogues with theories of gender and literature on social work. We present five sets of meanings assigned to this activity: social work as an aid, as an element of social change and rights promotion, as a professional category and social management, as a vote-seeking and aid-oriented strategy. The fifth set includes meanings produced within gender relationships such as: kindness as a work tool, lack of financial attachment and lack of professional skills. Although the positive aspects of this net, it also feeds a process of devaluation, invisibility and feminization of the social work.

  18. O SENTIDO DA CIDADANIA NO JORNALISMO POPULAR TELEVISIVO: ENTRE A VISIBILIDADE E A TRADUÇÃO

    OpenAIRE

    Casadei, Eliza Bachega; Universidade de São Paulo

    2012-01-01

    A partir do estudo de programas jornalísticos televisivos populares, o objetivo do presente artigo é discutir o sentido do termo cidadania utilizado por essas produções. Esses programas evocam a proteção do cidadão como o seu mote principal e mostram como o termo cidadania está alocado em um terreno em constante disputa, cujos sentidos são imprecisos e flutuantes. A partir do questionamento de como a cidadania é evocada nestes programas é possível notar que esses sentidos se deslocam entre, d...

  19. Variações no investimento em defesas em Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl.) Seem. (Apiaceae) ao longo de um gradiente de vegetação num cerrado brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Mara Patrícia; Varanda, Elenice Mouro

    2003-01-01

    Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechani...

  20. Mapping fire events in the transition of Amazon and Cerrado biome using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Daldegan, G.; Roberts, D. A.; Peterson, S.; Ribeiro, F.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract to AGU Fire is considered one of the determinant factors that have shaped Cerrado biome, the Brazilian Savanna, considered the most biodiverse savanna in the world. At the same time, fire has not acted a major role during the evolution of the Amazon Forest due to the strong capacity it has to resist burning. Recently, with the expansion of the agricultural activities in the central Brazil, about 49% of the Cerrado has been converted to other uses and as deforestation vector runs towards the Amazon Forest it modifies the natural moist microclimate in the edges of the forest, increasing the likelihood of wildfires. Every year these ecosystems suffer with several fire events responsible for large burned areas, causing losses of biomass, biodiversity, soil nutrients, and releasing tons of CO2 that help climate change. The occurrence of fires has a direct relationship with the climate of the central portion of the south american continent, charaterized by a two seasons regime, wet and dry, each one lasting around 6 months. In this region is located the ecotone of these two majors Brazilians ecosystems. In the Cerrado biome fire is often used to manage pasture, stimulating the regrowth of natural grasses used as pasture and also to open new areas for agriculture. There are researches showing that people have been traditionally using fire as a lower cost way to manage their lands for different purposes. In the Amazon forest the cycle of deforestation started around the 60's with incentives from the federal government to populate the region in the middle of the last century, and most recently by the progress of the commodities prices, such as soybean and sugar-cane, that has occupied vast areas of the Cerrado and is marching towards the forest. In the Amazon, fire is frequently used to further open the areas that were previously logged selectively and then converted to agricultural uses.Given the ecological importance of the Amazon Forest and Cerrado biome and the

  1. Cerrado: The Brazilian Savanna as a Hot Spot of Agricultural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, G. L.; Coe, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in agricultural land uses are one of the largest forces of global change and have been particularly severe in the Cerrado (savanna) of Brazil, altering the cycling of carbon, nitrogen and water. Globally, land use accounts for over 30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and is the second largest source of all greenhouse gas emissions. In the Cerrado, land use in pasture and croplands now accounts for over 50% of the landscape. About half of the total carbon in the Cerrado is stored below ground in root mass and soil carbon. Deforestation, tillage or other changes in land use can release relatively large amounts of carbon to the atmosphere as greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Nitrogen losses in the form of the greenhouse nitrous oxide (300 CO2-eq) are very low in the native Cerrado environment. There is the potential for significant N2O flux increase as agriculture grows because most crops grown in the Cerrado are either nitrogen-fixing or require additions of N fertilizers. We show that even at modest rates of N fixation and/or fertilization, there could be losses of N2O. The water cycle for this region also changes with land use change, significantly decreasing evapotranspiration and increasing water yield and stream discharge. Here, we present a spatial and temporal model of carbon and nitrogen fluxes and water budget changes as a function of historical and future scenarios of land-cover and land-use change. We utilize historical maps of land cover change through remote sensing, from which we can estimate area deforested, area in cropland and other spatial inputs for modeling water, carbon and nitrogen fluxes. Future scenarios of agricultural development are produced by the SimBrazil project. These scenarios represent plausible futures of land-cover and land use-change ranging from business-as-usual to conservation trajectories. This analysis includes sensitivity analysis of different land use types as well as different levels of production

  2. Millenial-scale climatic and vegetation changes in a northern Cerrado (Northeast, Brazil) since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Ceccantini, Gregorio; Gouveia, Susy E. M.; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Pessenda, Luiz C. R.; Ribeiro, Adauto S.

    2006-05-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, lacustrine sediments started to be deposited with the beginning of the deglaciation at ca 19,000 cal yr BP. At this time the region of Lake Caço was dominated by sparse and shrubby vegetation with dominance of steppic grasses in a poor sandy soil. The landscape did not present any ecological characteristics of a modern Cerrado. However single pollen grains of two Cerrado indicators, Byrsonima and Mimosa, suggest that some Cerrado species were able to survive under the prevailing arid climate, probably as small shrubs. After 15,500 cal yr BP, a sudden increase in the moisture rates is evidenced with the progressive expansion of rainforest showing successive dominance of various associations of taxa. The development of the forest stopped abruptly at the end of the Pleistocene between 12,800 and 11,000 cal yr BP, as attested by strong fires and the expansion of Poaceae. In the early Holocene an open landscape with a relatively high level of water in the lake preceded the progressive expansion of Cerrado species towards a denser forested landscape; fires are recorded from then on, resulting in the physiognomy of the Cerrado we know today. Late Pleistocene paleoenvironmental records from northern Brazil reflect the interplay between insolation forcing of two hemispheres with the local components represented by the interannual shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone and the influence of seasonal equatorwards polar air incursions.

  3. Recent assembly of the Cerrado, a neotropical plant diversity hotspot, by in situ evolution of adaptations to fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marcelo F; Grether, Rosaura; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Skema, Cynthia; Pennington, R Toby; Hughes, Colin E

    2009-12-01

    The relative importance of local ecological and larger-scale historical processes in causing differences in species richness across the globe remains keenly debated. To gain insight into these questions, we investigated the assembly of plant diversity in the Cerrado in South America, the world's most species-rich tropical savanna. Time-calibrated phylogenies suggest that Cerrado lineages started to diversify less than 10 Mya, with most lineages diversifying at 4 Mya or less, coinciding with the rise to dominance of flammable C4 grasses and expansion of the savanna biome worldwide. These plant phylogenies show that Cerrado lineages are strongly associated with adaptations to fire and have sister groups in largely fire-free nearby wet forest, seasonally dry forest, subtropical grassland, or wetland vegetation. These findings imply that the Cerrado formed in situ via recent and frequent adaptive shifts to resist fire, rather than via dispersal of lineages already adapted to fire. The location of the Cerrado surrounded by a diverse array of species-rich biomes, and the apparently modest adaptive barrier posed by fire, are likely to have contributed to its striking species richness. These findings add to growing evidence that the origins and historical assembly of species-rich biomes have been idiosyncratic, driven in large part by unique features of regional- and continental-scale geohistory and that different historical processes can lead to similar levels of modern species richness.

  4. Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado in south-western Brazil

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    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80 within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23 were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled 33, belonging to nine orders and 16 families. In the Cerrado, 31 species were recorded in habitats; of these, 25 were found dead on roads. In the Atlantic Forest ecoregions, however, we found 21 species in habitats, 16 of which were also found dead on roads. There was no overall significant difference between ecoregions for frequencies of occurrence in habitats or for roadkills, but there were differences between individual species. Hence, anteaters were mostly recorded in the Cerrado ecoregion, whereas caviomorph rodents tended to be more frequent in the Atlantic Forest ecoregion (seen mainly by roadkills. The greater number of species (overall and threatened and the greater abundance of species records in the Cerrado suggest that this ecoregion has a greater biodiversity and is better conserved than the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, south-western Brazil.

  5. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  6. Recent assembly of the Cerrado, a neotropical plant diversity hotspot, by in situ evolution of adaptations to fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marcelo F.; Grether, Rosaura; de Queiroz, Luciano P.; Skema, Cynthia; Pennington, R. Toby; Hughes, Colin E.

    2009-01-01

    The relative importance of local ecological and larger-scale historical processes in causing differences in species richness across the globe remains keenly debated. To gain insight into these questions, we investigated the assembly of plant diversity in the Cerrado in South America, the world's most species-rich tropical savanna. Time-calibrated phylogenies suggest that Cerrado lineages started to diversify less than 10 Mya, with most lineages diversifying at 4 Mya or less, coinciding with the rise to dominance of flammable C4 grasses and expansion of the savanna biome worldwide. These plant phylogenies show that Cerrado lineages are strongly associated with adaptations to fire and have sister groups in largely fire-free nearby wet forest, seasonally dry forest, subtropical grassland, or wetland vegetation. These findings imply that the Cerrado formed in situ via recent and frequent adaptive shifts to resist fire, rather than via dispersal of lineages already adapted to fire. The location of the Cerrado surrounded by a diverse array of species-rich biomes, and the apparently modest adaptive barrier posed by fire, are likely to have contributed to its striking species richness. These findings add to growing evidence that the origins and historical assembly of species-rich biomes have been idiosyncratic, driven in large part by unique features of regional- and continental-scale geohistory and that different historical processes can lead to similar levels of modern species richness. PMID:19918050

  7. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  8. Mites from Cerrado fragments and adjacent soybean crops: does the native vegetation help or harm the plantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, José M; Lofego, Antonio C; Nuvoloni, Felipe M; Navia, Denise

    2014-12-01

    Aiming to recognize the distribution patterns of the mite fauna in soybean crops and to determine the existence of similarity in the composition of species between Cerrado fragments and these plantations, samplings were carried out in 10 areas located in Brazilian Mid-Western and Southeastern regions. Each area was comprised of one fragment of Cerrado sensu stricto and one adjacent soybean crop plantation, with simultaneous samplings carried out on both of them. From the total sampled species, 111 were recorded in the Cerrado and 25 in soybean crops. About 68 % were common in both environments and only eight were exclusively found in soybean. All the species of Phytoseiidae recorded in soybean were also found in the Cerrado. The tetranychid mite Mononychellus planki (McGregor) was the most abundant species (96.3 % of the total individuals) and the only one recorded in every sampled crop. The main occurrence of M. planki was verified in soybean crops using the transgenic cultivar ANTA 82. In general terms, it has been observed that Cerrado fragments do not shelter pest species that may attack soybean and can contribute to the increase of possible predator species in this agroecosystem.

  9. Study of the cerrado vegetation in the Federal District area from orbital data. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Aoki, H.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The physiognomic units of cerrado in the area of Distrito Federal (DF) were studied through the visual and automatic analysis of products provided by Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) of LANDSAT. The visual analysis of the multispectral images in black and white, at the 1:250,000 scale, was made based on the texture and tonal patterns. The automatic analysis of the compatible computer tapes (CCT) was made by means of IMAGE-100 system. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) the delimitation of cerrado vegetation forms can be made by the visual and automatic analysis; (2) in the visual analysis, the principal parameter used to discriminate the cerrado forms was the tonal pattern, independently of the year's seasons, and the channel 5 gave better information; (3) in the automatic analysis, the data of the four channels of MSS can be used in the discrimination of the cerrado forms; and (4) in the automatic analysis, the four channels combination possibilities gave more information in the separation of cerrado units when soil types were considered.

  10. INTERACTIONS OF NUTRIENT AND CARBON CYCLES AND TRACE GAS EXCHANGE WITH LAND USE CHANGE AND FIRE IN THE CERRADO OF CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land use changes accompanied by fire frequently occur in the Brazilian cerrado. Here we report measurements in the cerrado of the effects of fire and land use change on the composition and persistence of litter and soil organic carbon and nitrogen and related changes in the soil-...

  11. Matemática informal y sentido numérico en escolares de priemr ciclo de E. Primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián, Cristina; Jiménez-Fanjul, Noelia; Maz-Machado, Alexander; Bracho López, Rafael; García, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Presentamos un avance de los resultados de una investigación sobre el sentido númerico en alumnos y alumnas de primero y segundo de Educación Primaria de la provincia de Córdoba. Se utilizó un test estandarizado y validado internacionalmente TEMA-3. Los niños y niñas manifestaron un alto grado de desarrollo del sentido numérico en la matemática informal.

  12. Descripción del sentido de la vida en adolescentes infractores de la ciudad de Medellín

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    Horacio Manrique Tisnés

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar la intensidad del sentido de la vida en adolescentes infractores en la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia. Su Método tuvo un diseño descriptivo, mixto. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 44 adolescentes infractores a quienes se les aplicó el Cuestionario del sentido de la vida (PIL desarrollado por Crumbaugh y Maholick, que consta de una primera parte que sirve para recolectar información cuantitativa y otras dos partes para recolectar información cualitativa. Los resultados mostraron un bajo índice de vacío existencial en los adolescentes encuestados. A mayor tiempo de permanencia en la institución de resocialización mayor es la intensidad del sentido de vida. La familia (real e ideal es importante como valor fundamental en torno al cual se construye su sentido de vida. Se plantea que el constructo “sentido de la vida” posee diferentes niveles de complejidad que dan cuenta de varios aspectos que mencionamos a continuación: el deseo de vivir, el objetivo o propósito de la vida que da la orientación propia de cada existencia, el significado que cada uno le atribuye a su vida y a los diferentes valores que la rigen y, por último, el análisis del sentido en general. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales.

  13. Descripción del sentido de la vida en adolescentes infractores de la ciudad de Medellín

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    Horacio Manrique Tisnés

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar la intensidad del sentido de la vida en adolescentes infractores en la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia. Su Método tuvo un diseño descriptivo, mixto. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 44 adolescentes infractores a quienes se les aplicó el Cuestionario del sentido de la vida (PIL desarrollado por Crumbaugh y Maholick, que consta de una primera parte que sirve para recolectar información cuantitativa y otras dos partes para recolectar información cualitativa. Los resultados mostraron un bajo índice de vacío existencial en los adolescentes encuestados. A mayor tiempo de permanencia en la institución de resocialización mayor es la intensidad del sentido de vida. La familia (real e ideal es importante como valor fundamental en torno al cual se construye su sentido de vida. Se plantea que el constructo “sentido de la vida” posee diferentes niveles de complejidad que dan cuenta de varios aspectos que mencionamos a continuación: el deseo de vivir, el objetivo o propósito de la vida que da la orientación propia de cada existencia, el significado que cada uno le atribuye a su vida y a los diferentes valores que la rigen y, por último, el análisis del sentido en general.

  14. Interfaz Colaborativa y Emocional para Interpretar el Sentido Común

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    Alberto Balcázar-Rengifo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es diseñar e implementar una aplicación web que relacione sentencias que se asocian con el sentido común y con la connotación emocional que tienen para cada persona. Para definir el marco de trabajo se propone un conjunto de características que facilitan el trabajo colaborativo y que permitan la interacción de los usuarios para fomentar la producción de nuevos conocimientos. Entre ellas: el perfil de usuario, con el que se definen elementos para procesar la información obtenida con los rasgos característicos de los participantes; el chat como herramienta de comunicación que permite la interacción en tiempo real; un foro que usa comentarios para recoger el sentido común y emoticones que servirán para representar las emociones asociadas con los comentarios realizados en el foro. Se construyó una aplicación web para recolectar el conocimiento tácito de las personas, conocido como sentido común, en la que los usuarios pueden registrarse y participar con sus aportes en foros sobre los diferentes temas propuestos. Para validar la usabilidad de la aplicación se hizo una encuesta a los participantes luego de su participación, de la cual se puede determinar que la inclusión de elementos emocionales y colaborativos como chats, foros y emoticones, facilitó la interacción de los participantes, quienes escribieron y asociaron emociones a sus comentarios. También les fue posible comentar sobre aportes de otros participantes y se dinamizó este proceso con la creación de pequeñas discusiones alrededor de un tema específico.

  15. Sentidos da trajetória de vida para adolescentes em medida de liberdade assistida

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    Clara Costa Gomes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata de uma pesquisa que teve como objetivo compreender os sentidos atribuídos por adolescentes que cumpriam medida socioeducativa de liberdade assistida às trajetórias de vida e ao envolvimento com infrações à lei. Foram realizados sete sociodramas semanais com 21 adolescentes da comunidade, dos quais 18 eram do sexo masculino. As informações foram organizadas com base no modelo construtivo-interpretativo de González-Rey e analisadas à luz do aporte teórico da Psicossociologia. Da análise resultaram três zonas de sentido: 1 "Parecia uma vida fácil" - referente à sedução do mundo do crime; 2 "Minhas tábuas de salvação" - sobre as estratégias usadas ante os infortúnios da incursão infracional; 3 "A vida no crime não compensa" - concernente ao saldo das escolhas: dores, perdas e arrependimento. As discussões dos encontros desencadearam nos adolescentes relatos acerca do passado, presente e futuro e reflexões que conduzem à reconstrução de projetos de vida desvinculados de atos de infração. Concluiu-se que os métodos socionômico e de história de vida favoreceram a produção de sentidos pelos adolescentes a partir de sua proposta de ação e reflexão e forneceram informações relevantes para se compreender a trajetória infracional dos adolescentes, constituindo-se em poderosa ferramenta de pesquisa-intervenção junto a adolescentes em cumprimento de medidas socioeducativas.

  16. Os Sentidos do Trabalho: a percepção dos agentes penitenciários

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    Kelen Cristina de Lara Siqueira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As problemáticas do sistema prisional brasileiro, bem como seus números deficitários são, de modo geral, velhos conhecidos da população. Nesse contexto, se destaca a figura do agente penitenciário, que mesmo sem sofrer condenação, durante a realização do seu trabalho, tem privações semelhantes às dos presos. Tomando como princípio que o trabalho é um dos principais pilares do desenvolvimento humano e está presente na vida das pessoas, conforme enfatiza Fonseca (2009 e sustentado nas abordagens do sentido do trabalho, especialmente de Morin (2001 e Morin et al (2003, este estudo objetivou identificar os sentidos do trabalho para os agentes penitenciários. Utilizando abordagem qualitativa, foram pesquisados três agentes atuantes em uma penitenciária no interior do Paraná. O levantamento de dados ocorreu por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas, com roteiro embasado na literatura revisada. Após categorização e análise dos resultados, identificou-se que o principal sentido do trabalho para os agentes penitenciários é a remuneração e a estabilidade que o serviço público proporciona, e que a família é a esfera mais central no suporte à sociabilidade dos entrevistados. Todavia, os discursos dos pesquisados apontaram que estes têm uma visão negativa do trabalho, principalmente devido à insegurança e ao medo que sentem exercendo a profissão de agente penitenciário e as condições de trabalho insalubre.

  17. Small mammals of Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park (Cerrado of Central Brazil: ecologic, karyologic, and taxonomic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Bonvicino

    Full Text Available This work is based on a survey of small mammals carried out in the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, a natural reserve located in the mountains of the Planalto Central Goiano in the Cerrado of Central Brazil. The 227 specimens collected represented six marsupial and 13 rodent species. Taxonomic, karyologic, and ecologic considerations are present and discussed in the present work. Our data reflected the faunal heterogeneity with respect to both elevation and vegetation because only eight of the 19 species were collected at both high and low elevations. The composition of the small mammal fauna of the park is influenced by predominance of forest formations at low elevations and cerrado with rupestrian areas at high elevations. Presence of endemic species and one undescribed demonstrated that the cerrado has an endemic fauna and a little known diversity of small mammals.

  18. Small mammals of Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park (Cerrado of Central Brazil): ecologic, karyologic, and taxonomic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicino, C R; Lemos, B; Weksler, M

    2005-08-01

    This work is based on a survey of small mammals carried out in the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, a natural reserve located in the mountains of the Planalto Central Goiano in the Cerrado of Central Brazil. The 227 specimens collected represented six marsupial and 13 rodent species. Taxonomic, karyologic, and ecologic considerations are present and discussed in the present work. Our data reflected the faunal heterogeneity with respect to both elevation and vegetation because only eight of the 19 species were collected at both high and low elevations. The composition of the small mammal fauna of the park is influenced by predominance of forest formations at low elevations and cerrado with rupestrian areas at high elevations. Presence of endemic species and one undescribed demonstrated that the cerrado has an endemic fauna and a little known diversity of small mammals.

  19. Elemental composition of atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 for a savanna (Cerrado) region of southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Santanna, F. B.; Almeida Filho, E. O.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Nogueira, J. D. S.; Palácios, R.

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystems such as the Amazonian tropical forest and savanna (known locally as Cerrado) are undergoing sweeping changes, such as deforestation and burning to expand new areas of agriculture and farming. These activities generate an increase in the concentration of gases and particles emitted into the atmosphere, which can affect energy balance and biogeochemical cycles. To determine how human activities affected the emission of coarse and fine particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), atmospheric aerosol samples were collected continuously from June 2004 until April 2005 in the Cuiaba Basin of south-central Mato Grosso, Brazil, which contains a mixture of urban, agricultural, and native Cerrado land surface types. Aerosols were sampled using stacked filter units (SFU), which separate fine (dCerrado and Amazonian forest areas that are undergoing rapid and spatially extensive land-cover change.

  20. The insect gall collection of the Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro: biome cerrado, rupestrian fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Rodrigues, A R; Ascendino, S H S; Boggi, M

    2014-08-01

    An inventory of the insect gall from Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) was elaborated based on samples of the collection of the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Data on localities and host plants were obtained from the labels and information about the gall morphology (plant organ of occurrence, shape, and presence of trichomes) by observing the samples. The galling species was determined based on the literature. The collection includes 131 morphotypes of galls from Cerrado, obtained from 71 host plant species distributed in 50 genera and 30 botanical families (Table 1). All galls were collected in rupestrian fields (a rare vegetation physiognomy of the Brazilian Cerrado) in the state of Minas Gerais. As the collection comprises a great diversity of insect galls, it can be considered representative of this physiognomy.

  1. In vitro investigation of Brazilian Cerrado plant extract activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei gambiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charneau, Sébastien; de Mesquita, Mariana Laundry; Bastos, Izabela Marques Dourado; Santana, Jaime Martins; de Paula, José Elias; Grellier, Philippe; Espindola, Laila Salmen

    2016-06-01

    The threatened Brazilian Cerrado biome is an important biodiversity hotspot but still few explored that constitutes a potential reservoir of molecules to treat infectious diseases. We selected eight Cerrado plant species for screening against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum, human intracellular stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and bloodstream forms of T. brucei gambiense, and for their cytotoxicity upon the rat L6-myoblast cell line. Bioassays were performed with 37 hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts prepared from different plant organs. Activities against parasites were observed for 24 extracts: 9 with anti-P. falciparum, 4 with anti-T. cruzi and 11 with anti-T. brucei gambiense activities. High anti-protozoal activity (IC50 values Cerrado conservation and sustainable development.

  2. Ajuste do modelo Chistiansen-Hargreaves para estimativa da evapotranspiração do feijão no cerrado Chistiansen-Hargreaves model adjustment for estimating evapotranspiration of bean crop in the Cerrado region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar C. Rocha

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Os produtores de feijão da região do Cerrado contam com apenas uma tecnologia, já estabelecida, para o manejo das irrigações: a tensiometria. Muito embora essa metodologia tenha alto potencial de uso não tem sido amplamente adotada pelos produtores, razão pela qual a utilização de modelos de estimativa de evapotranspiração tem se mostrado bastante aplicável à realidade da região. Assim, este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho do modelo Chistiansen-Hargreaves na estimativa da evapotranspiração da cultura do Feijão Preto, no período seco do Cerrado brasileiro, almejando colocar à disposição dos produtores um modelo ajustado, que permita um manejo eficiente da irrigação no sistema produtivo da região. A evapotranspiração do feijoeiro foi medida com um lisímetro de pesagem. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Cerrados, localizada em Planaltina, DF, Brasil. Quando calculado com coeficientes de cultura determinados na pesquisa e testado com o termo energético ajustado (S0 = 0,5 o modelo apresentou ótimo desempenho podendo, nesta condição, ser empregado com segurança no manejo de irrigação.Bean producers from the Brazilian Cerrado region have only one technology for the irrigation management: the measurement of the water tension in the soil through the use of tensiometers. Although this methodology has high potential, it has not been widely adopted by the producers. Thus, the utilization of models to estimate evapotranspiration estimate has shown to be applicable to the Cerrado region. So, this paper aims to evaluate the performance of the Chistiansen-Hargreaves model to estimate evapotranspiration of black bean crop in the dry season of the Brazilian Cerrado region. It also aims to provide producers an the adjusted model to estimate evapotranspiration which permit an efficient management for the agricultural irrigated system of the Cerrado region. The evapotranspiration of the black bean crop was

  3. A aprendizagem escolar e o sentido pessoal na Psicologia de A. N. Leontiev

    OpenAIRE

    Calve,Tiago Morales; Rossler,João Henrique; Silva,Graziela Lucchesi Rosa da

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: Este estudo é resultado de uma pesquisa conceitual e toma como objeto a aprendizagem escolar e a atribuição desentido pessoal na atividade de estudo, sob os fundamentos da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural. O objetivo reside em explicitar desdobramentos da Psicologia de Leontiev para as reflexões e as práticas educativas escolares, no que se refere às relações entre os processos de aprendizagem escolar e a produção do sentido pessoal. Para tanto, aborda o conceito de atividade objetivada,...

  4. Crisis de sentidos profesoral: representaciones sociales del vacío existencial

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Sanches, Ronnie Charles; Andrade, José Roberto Stella; Kodato, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    El sentimiento de vacío de alma y angustia existencial que afectan parte importante de maestros de escuelas públicas paulistas y brasileñas, asociado con la crisis de sentido, que infiltra y traspasa la dinámica escolar, producen una sensación de fracaso profesional e impotencia que maniatan el proceso pedagógico. Los efectos de este vacío se manifiestan en el desaliento cotidiano en la sala de clases, en una didáctica alienada, en la dificultad en manejar las situaciones de conflicto, en el ...

  5. Processos de construção do sentido na esquizofrenia: uma perspectiva cognitiva da linguagem

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa Junior, Nelson Ferreira de

    2010-01-01

    Muito ainda há para se compreender acerca das relações entre cultura, cognição e linguagem. Tendo como ponto de partida a perspectiva corporificada da linguagem, podese perceber que os sentidos gerados e utilizados nas produções discursivas são construídos e negociados não apenas linguisticamente, um vez que envolvem também estereótipos, esquemas, frames etc. Por sua vez, essas estruturas cognitivas adviriam das experiências e interações dos sujeitos inseridos num ambiente sóci...

  6. Reinhart Koselleck. Sentido y repetición en la historia.

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    Edwin Cruz Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este volumen reúne tres trabajos escritos en distintas épocas por el historiador alemán Reinhart Koselleck (1923-2006, tomados de la colección póstuma en alemán editada por el filósofo Carsten Dutt, y acompañados por un prefacio y un epílogo del politólogo Reinhard Mehring. Es una traducción muy bien cuidada y sus notas iluminan los entramados de significación que revisten ciertos conceptos nodales en la obra del historiador, cuyo sentido es privativo de la lengua alemana.

  7. Jóvenes generadores de sentidos : ¿Extensión o Integración?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, María Belén

    2010-01-01

    Durante los últimos años, se ha problematizado el concepto de extensión al reflexionar la relación entre la Universidad y la sociedad. En el ámbito académico social se cree que el concepto de "extensión" no abarca completamente la dimensión de las actividades que se realizan partiendo de pensar la relación comunicacional como dialéctica, en donde el receptor no es un mero depositario de saberes sino que al recibir un mensaje, genera sentidos configurados desde su situación individual y social...

  8. Os sentidos da corporeidade em ostomizados por câncer

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Suellen Santos Lima de; Rezende, Adryene Milanez; Schall, Virgínia Torres; Modena, Celina Maria

    2010-01-01

    A partir da perspectiva fenomenológica, procurou-se compreender como os pacientes ostomizados vivenciam a corporeidade. Foram entrevistados dez pacientes que realizavam tratamento em um hospital oncológico pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), em Belo Horizonte, MG. As narrativas dos sujeitos falaram do significado do câncer para eles, do sentido que atribuíam à bolsa de colostomia, das limitações advindas do processo de adoecer e do papel da religiosidade neste percurso. A vivência do cuidado f...

  9. Enfermeiros de família – olhares e sentidos à práxis cuidativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelle Caires Dias Araújo Nunes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diante das novas configurações de família na contemporaneidade, o cuidado de enfermagem envolve-se numa teia relacional para a sua práxis. O estudo objetiva conhecer os sentidos atribuídos por enfermeiros da Estratégia da Saúde da Família (ESF a partir de sua práxis cuidativa. Fundamentado na transpessoalidade e na abordagem sistêmica. Estudo qualitativo cuja coleta de informações envolveu multitécnicas. Os resultados evidenciaram a necessidade de cuidar a família intersubjetivamente e em sua complexidade existencial-relacional.

  10. Jogando phantasy star: trajetória compreensiva ao sentido de jogar videogame

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago de Paula Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Esta pesquisa parte do problema acerca do sentido de jogar videogame. Estudos sobre videogame nunca foram muitos na área acadêmica, todavia vemos um crescimento na preocupação séria com o tema nos últimos anos com os game studies que englobam estudos interdisciplinares vários. O objetivo deste trabalho é compreender como é jogar videogame com base em um relato referente à experiência em Phantasy Star . Propõe-se a utilização do método fenomenológico como forma de análise dos dados e um diálog...

  11. Mulheres reeducandas no sistema penitenciário: um estudo sobre afetividade e sentidos

    OpenAIRE

    Gardini, Ivonete

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho trata de uma pesquisa de campo realizada na Penitenciária Feminina de Sant Ana, com 120 mulheres. Seu objetivo é conhecer e analisar a experiência de estar confinada no sistema penitenciário: o sentido do espaço e como afeta a imagem de si, os desejos, capacidade de agir, o projeto de futuro. A categoria central da pesquisa é a afetividade conforme vem sendo discutida no Núcleo de Pesquisa Dialética Exclusão/Inclusão. Esta tem como referencial teórico as obras de Vigotski e Espi...

  12. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  13. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss

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    Antonio F. M. Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90m g.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene revealed lowefficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga, T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.A influência do teor e da composição química das ceras epicuticulares foliares de espécies da caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida e Ziziphus joazeiro e do cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina e Tocoyena formosa foram avaliadas em relação à resistência à perda de água, através de um dispositivo experimental construído para essa finalidade. Em geral, as ceras das espécies da caatinga foram mais eficientes contra a perda de água que as das espécies do cerrado. O aumento da espessura dos

  14. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna, the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell. Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam. DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng., to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.No Cerrado brasileiro (savana neotropical, o desenvolvimento de sistemas subterrâneos que produzem gemas, como estruturas adaptativas contra o fogo e períodos de seca, pode compreender um importante suprimento de gemas para esse ecossistema, como já demonstrado nos campos brasileiros e nas pradarias norte-americanas. Espécies de Asteraceae tanto do estrato lenhoso, quanto do herbáceo têm órgãos que acumulam carboidratos, reforçando a estratégia adaptativa dessas plantas a diferentes condições ambientais. Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a morfo

  15. Sentidos do trabalho apreendidos por meio de fatos marcantes na trajetória de mulheres prostitutas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késia Aparecida Teixeira Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho, que antes era visto apenas como meio de sobrevivência e acúmulo de riqueza, tornou-se uma das principais dimensões da vida humana, fazendo com que os indivíduos sejam identificados mediante as atividades que realizam. Assim, o trabalho adquiriu um novo sentido para os indivíduos, uma vez que a realização pessoal está intimamente relacionada ao seu reconhecimento perante a sociedade. Diversos estudos têm abordado o trabalho por meio dos sentidos que os trabalhadores atribuem à atividade que realizam, como é o caso da presente pesquisa que investiga os sentidos produzidos por uma categoria distante das profissões formais: as prostitutas. Nesse intuito, objetiva-se apreender os sentidos subjetivos produzidos por mulheres que atuam na prostituição em boates no interior de Minas Gerais. Para tanto, buscou-se, inicialmente, contextualizar a prostituição como profissão, desvendar a trajetória das participantes e sua inserção nessa atividade e levantar os sentidos subjetivos relacionados ao trabalho na prostituição. Participaram da pesquisa seis prostitutas que trabalham em boates. O levantamento dos dados deu-se por meio de uma entrevista focando especificamente um fato marcante na trajetória profissional dessas mulheres. Optou-se pelo estudo de natureza qualitativa baseada na Epistemologia Qualitativa (Rey, 2005 e as análises foram fundamentadas pela acepção de sentido subjetivo. O autor defende que entre o pensamento e a linguagem está a emoção, e que por isso nem sempre os sentidos subjetivos podem ser captados nas expressões diretas do sujeito. Ao final, apreendeu-se sentidos subjetivos relacionados ao trabalho na prostituição que relacionam-se à violência, aborto induzido, abandono, desconfiança, preconceito, discriminação, humilhação, medo, insegurança e solidão. A análise dos sentidos subjetivos das prostitutas frente ao trabalho que realizam mostrou-se oportuna para o entendimento de

  16. Long term leaf phenology and leaf exchange strategies of a cerrado savanna community

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G.; Costa Alberton, Bruna; de Carvalho, Gustavo H.; Magalhães, Paula A. N. R.; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia C.

    2017-04-01

    Leaf development and senescence cycles are linked to a range of ecosystem processes, affecting seasonal patterns of atmosphere-ecosystem carbon and energy exchanges, resource availability and nutrient cycling. The degree of deciduousness of tropical trees and communities depend on ecosystems characteristics such as amount of biomass, species diversity and the strength and length of the dry season. Besides defining the growing season, deciduousness can also be an indicator of species response to climate changes in the tropics, mainly because severity of dry season can intensify leaf loss. Based on seven-years of phenological observations (2005 to 2011) we describe the long-term patterns of leafing phenology of a Brazilian cerrado savanna, aiming to (i) identify leaf exchange strategies of species, quantifying the degree of deciduousness, and verify whether these strategies vary among years depending on the length and strength of the dry seasons; (ii) define the growing seasons along the years and the main drivers of leaf flushing in the cerrado. We analyzed leafing patterns of 107 species and classified 69 species as deciduous (11 species), semi-deciduous (29) and evergreen (29). Leaf exchange was markedly seasonal, as expected for seasonal tropical savannas. Leaf fall predominated in the dry season, peaking in July, and leaf flushing in the transition between dry to wet seasons, peaking in September. Leafing patterns were similar among years with the growing season starting at the end of dry season, in September, for most species. However, leaf exchange strategies varied among years for most species (65%), except for evergreen strategy, mainly constant over years. Leafing patterns of cerrado species were strongly constrained by rainfall. The length of the dry season and rainfall intensity were likely affecting the individuals' leaf exchange strategies and suggesting a differential resilience of species to changes of rainfall regime, predicted on future global

  17. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is <7 my old and exhibits several ecologically diverse life forms. Eight subtribes of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Ageratinae, Alomiinae, Ayapaninae, Critoniinae, Disynaphiinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae and Hebecliniinae) and 16 genera (Ageratum, Agrianthus, Austroeupatorium, Bejaranoa, Chromolaena, Critonia, Disynaphia, Grazielia, Hatschbachiella, Heterocondylus, Koanophyllon, Lasiolaena, Neocabreria, Praxelis, Stylotrichium, and Symphyopappus) were found to be polyphyletic. We attribute incongruities between the molecular phylogenetic results and the current classification of the tribe mostly to convergent evolution of morphological characters traditionally used in the classification of the tribe. We used these phylogenetic results to suggest changes to the classification of some subtribes and genera of Eupatorieae that occur in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Checklist of aquatic and marshy Monocotyledons from the Araguaia River basin, Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Adriana; Bove, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Araguaia River basin runs through the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Tocantins, and Pará, covering 373,000 Km(2), mostly within the Brazilian Cerrado. The region has a wide variety of wetlands. The climate is characterized by high temperatures and strongly seasonal precipitation. There are two well defined seasons: the dry season (winter-spring) and the rainy season (summer- fall). The Araguaia River basin is dominated by plinthosoils that are found in low flat areas, poorly drained and prone to flooding, yielding wetland habitats of high plant diversity. Since the 1970s, human activities have led to reduction in both the diversity and area of wetlands. The construction of the Belém-Brasília highway and hydroelectric dams, as well as the expansion of agricultural and mining activities, have had major impacts on the region. The flora diversity data of the Araguaia River basin was developed through field work, herbarium research, and use of a database (Species Link). The resulting checklist of 162 aquatic and marshy monocotyledons from the Araguaia River basin represents 20 families and 50 genera. Cyperaceae (51 spp.), Poaceae (39 spp.), and Eriocaulaceae (16 spp.) are the most representative families. Life form analysis indicates that helophytes predominate (98 spp.; 60.5%). One hundred one species are native to tropical and/or subtropical America and twenty one are endemic to Brazil. Ninety-three species are new occurrences for the Araguaia River basin. Among them, three species are reported in the Brazilian Cerrado for the first time. This work contributes to the understanding of aquatic plant diversity in the Cerrado and other savanna-like vegetation physiognomies; environments and habitats poorly understood taxonomically and undercollected generally.

  19. Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Cerrado area of the Maranhão state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francinaldo S; Carvalho, Luis P C de; Cardozo, Francisco P; Moraes, Jorge L P; Rebêlo, José M M

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to increase the knowledge on the sand fly fauna in the cerrado areas of Maranhão state in urban, rural and forest environments. The research was carried out from October 2007 to September 2008, between 18:00h and 06:00h, in the municipality of Chapadinha, northeast Maranhão. For insect sampling, CDC light traps were set up in peridomicile and domicile areas of urban and rural zones as well as in Cerrado and Gallery forests. The total of 1,401 specimens belonging to 17 species were sampled, all within the genus Lutzomyia. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (52.5%), Lu. evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes) (18.3%), Lu. whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) (12.1%), Lu. lenti (Mangabeira) (4.7%) and Lu. termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva) (4.0%) were the most frequently collected. From an epidemiological viewpoint, five from all of the collected species are vectors of leishmaniasis: Lu. longipalpis, Lu. whitmani, Lu. flaviscutellata (Mangabeira), Lu. gomezi (Nitzulescu) and Lu. chagasi (Costa Lima). Lutzomyia chagasi was registered for the first time in Maranhão state and Lu. saulensis (Floch & Abonnenc), Lu. monstruosa (Floch & Abonnenc) and Lu. gomezi were found for the first time in the eastern part of the state, since they had been reported only in the Amazonian region of Maranhão. Regarding to the studied environments, the urban chicken house had the highest number of specimens collected (801), while the Gallery Forest was the most diverse (15 species). This study demonstrates that the northeast cerrado exhibits a mixed sand fly fauna characterized by an extremely important species vectors assortment involved in the epidemiological cycle of leishmaniasis in Maranhão state.

  20. CERRADO EM ÁREA DISJUNTA EM BREJO DE ALTITUDE NO AGRESTE PERNAMBUCANO, BRASIL

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    Linaldo Severino dos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo dos brejos de altitude configura-se como fundamental para a Geografia do semiárido pernambucano, uma vez que permite resolver questões de valor tanto na sua vertente física, quanto na social. Nos estudos biogeográficos, a distribuição das espécies do bioma cerrado, em Pernambuco, ainda é pouco referida na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar uma possível mancha de cerrado num brejo de altitude entre os municípios de Iatí e Saloá, no Agreste Meridional de Pernambuco. Para tanto, buscou-se identificar as unidades ambientais existentes na área de estudo e o seu padrão climático. Em campo, foram realizadas coletas para a identificação de espécies vegetais e houve o registro fotográfico para a descrição da fisionomia da área de estudo. As espécies de plantas foram coletadas em área de colinas altas, com floresta subcaducifólia sobre Neossolos Quartzarênicos, Argissolos Vermelho-amarelos e Vermelho-escuros, afloramentos de quartzito (50- 25-25%, sob clima mesotérmico com chuvas de inverno e com verão quente. Das 13 espécies identificadas, 6 são típicas do bioma cerrado, ocorrendo em áreas de fisionomia arbóreo-arbustiva com altura entre 4 e 6 metros. Assim, pode-se concluir que essa área constitui um núcleo de importância para o estudo da biogeografia do bioma em questão, sobretudo no tangente às suas variações ao longo do tempo geológico recente.

  1. Seasonality in insect abundance in the "Cerrado" of Goiás State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Aparecida Pereira da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality in insect abundance in the "Cerrado" of Goiás State, Brazil. Many studies have provided evidence that tropical insects undergo seasonal changes in abundance and that this is partly due to alternation between the dry and rainy seasons. In the Brazilian "Cerrado" (savannah, this season alternation is particularly evident. The purpose of this work was to study the seasonal abundance of insects in a "Cerrado" area in the municipality of Pirenópolis, Goiás State, Brazil. The insects were captured fortnightly using a light trap between September 2005 and August 2006. The insects collected were separated at the order level and counted. Faunistic analysis was performed to select the predominant insect orders, a multiple linear regression to examine the relation between climatic variables (temperature and precipitation with the abundance of insects and a circular distribution analysis to evaluate the existence of seasonality in the abundance of insect orders. A total of 34,741 insect specimens were captured, belonging to 19 orders. The orders with the greatest number of specimens were Hymenoptera (8,022, Coleoptera (6,680, Diptera (6,394, Lepidoptera (6,223, Isoptera (2,272, Hemiptera (2,240 and Trichoptera (1,967, which represent 97.3% of all the specimens collected. All the orders, except for Diptera, Isoptera and Trichoptera, showed a relationship with the climate variables (temperature, and all the orders, except for Diptera, presented a grouped distribution, with greater abundance in the transition from the end of the dry season (September to the start of the rainy one (October/November. A discussion about seasonality on the abundance of the insects is presented.

  2. First report of Ditylenchus gallaeformans in Miconia albicans from the Brazilian Cerrado, State of Goiás

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    Rodrigo Vieira da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae, whose common name is canela-de-velha, is a native plant of the tropical region that is abundant in the Cerrado biome. A nematode species was found parasitizing M. albicans, causing severe deformation and gall-like structures on the infected leaves and inflorescences. Morphological, morphometric and molecular characterizations identified the nematode as Ditylenchus gallaeformans. This nematode has great potential as a biocontrol agent of plants in the family Melastomataceae, which are invasive weeds in ecosystems of the Pacific Islands. This is the first report of D. gallaeformans parasitizing M. albicans in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás.

  3. Ecologia dos insetos associados aos frutos de leguminosas do Parque Estadual do Cerrado, Jaguariaiva, Paraná /

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Lisiane Taiatella

    2007-01-01

    Orientadora : Cibele Stamare Ribeiro-Costa Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciencias Biológicas (Entomologia). Defesa: Curitiba, 2007 Inclui bibliografia Área de concentração: Entomologia O Parque Estadual do Cerrado, em Jaguariaíva, Paraná, constitui-se um dos últimos remanescentes da vegetação de cerrado do Estado. No Parque são observadas duas formas quanto à vegetação, uma savânica que varia desde cam...

  4. Dung beetle community responses to the land use changes and dung types in the brazilian savannas (Cerrado)

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Renan da Silva

    2013-01-01

    O Cerrado é o segundo maior bioma do Brasil e uma das savanas mais diversas do mundo. Ele está localizado entre três grandes biomas: Floresta Amazônica, Floresta Atlântica e a Caatinga, estendendo-se por uma grande região com várias fitosionomias peculiares, dentre elas, o cerrado sensu stricto, amplamente distribuído. Nas últimas décadas, grande parte do seu território está sendo transformado em campo de produção de diversas culturas como a soja e em imensas áreas de pastagens introduzidas p...

  5. Modelo agrícola e desenvolvimento sustentável: a ocupação do cerrado piauiense

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar,Teresinha de Jesus Alves de; Monteiro,Maria do Socorro Lira

    2005-01-01

    Analisou-se a forma como a soja, implantada no cerrado piauiense, influencia os eixos ambiental e socioeconômico.O baixo valor da terra, a proximidade do mercado externo, solos mecanizáveis, os recursos governamentais facilitados na forma de incentivos fiscais e financeiros são fatores que justificam a exploração dessa região.Conclui-se que o uso e ocupação agrícola dessa região seguem o mesmo receituário desenvolvimentista ocorrido no Cerrado do Brasil.

  6. Indentificação de cultivares de soja para a região sudoeste do Cerrado piauiense

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Bohn, Nerison; Filho, José Ferreira Lustosa; Nóbrega, Júlio César Azevedo; Campos, Alcinei Ribeiro; Nóbrega, Rafaela Simão Abrahão; Pacheco, Leandro Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The soybean in the southwestern region of the Cerrado in Piaui occupies a prominent position in agricultural production. However, levels of productivity are still below the national average, a fact due, among other factors, to the inappropriate choice of cultivar. The aim of this study was to select the most productive soybean cultivars to be used in the region of the Cerrado in Piauí. The work was carried out in the 2010/2011 agricultural year. The experimental design was of randomised block...

  7. MINAS GERAIS AND THE STARTING-POINT OF THE OCCUPATION OF THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO: THE ROLE OF STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Augusto dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Cerrado is undergoing an accelerated process of degradation, caused mainly by the expansion of agriculture. The occupation process of this biome began from an agricultural project established in the State of Minas Gerais, the Programa de Assentamento Dirigido do Alto Paranaíba (PADAP. This project served as a model for the implantation of two other major projects that were also had the Cerrado as one of the places chosen for the allocation of its resources. This article has as its main objective, to describe and analyze how was the participation of State and Federal government in the process of occupation of this biome.

  8. Análise da estrutura de duas unidades fitofisionômicas de savana (cerrado no sul do Brasil Structural analysis of two physiognomic types of savanna ("cerrado" from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Uhlmann

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A região de Jaguariaíva. situada no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil, abriga os últimos remanescentes de savana no Estado e pode ser considerada como marco do limite meridional de distribuição deste tipo de vegetação no Brasil. O Parque Estadual do Cerrado (24º09" S; 50º18' WG foi objeto deste estudo em que se analisou a estrutura da vegetação de duas fornias fisionômicas de savana, o campo cerrado e o cerrado sensu stricto. Estas duas formas são predominantes na área do Parque, ainda que este não seja coberto exclusivamente por vegetação savânica. Vinte parcelas com dimensões de 200m² (20 X 10m foram alocadas sistematicamente em cada unidade fisionômica, onde todo indivíduo com perímetro basal (PB igual ou maior a 15cm foi amostrado. Os resultados do levantamento apontaram para pequeno número de espécies lenhosas em ambos os tipos fisionômicos (33 espécies no cerrado sensu stricto e 18 no campo cerrado. As espécies mais importantes foram virtualmente as mesmas em ambas as formas fisionômicas, destacando-se Byrsonima coccolobifolia. Acosníium subelegans. Couepia grandiflora e Stryphnodendron adstringens. A densidade total, dominância total e diversidade foram mais elevadas no cerrado sensu stricto. Além disso, ficou aparente a maior semelhança florística com as savanas de São Paulo, especialmente aquelas situadas ao sul deste Estado.The Jaguariaiva region is located at Parana State, southern Brazil, and it keeps up the last remnants of savanna vegetation in the State. Thus, it should be considered a mark of the meridional distribution limit of this vegetation type in Brazil. The Parque Estadual do Cerrado (24º09' S; 50º18' WG, whose vegetation is not solely composed by savanna forms, was the object of this study that analysed the vegetation of two dominant savanna physiognomic types (cerrado sensu stricto and campo cerrado. Twenty quadrats of 200m² (20 x 10m were sistematicaly established in each

  9. Diseño de un dispositivo difusor de aromas para espacios comerciales cerrados

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Franco, Santiago; Lema Suárez, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    El proyecto presenta el desarrollo de diseño de un producto flexible a mercados emergentes, con el fin de brindar a las empresas un medio innovador para entrar en la mente de los consumidores y quedar plasmado dentro de estas, de manera positiva y permanente -- Este proyecto está establecido por el desarrollo y el diseño de un difusor de aromas, para ambientar espacios comerciales cerrados, con el cual se pretende conquistar nichos de mercado con muy poca oferta, así como crear una herramient...

  10. Wild animals ticks in the cerrado biome screened by the cetas, Ibama-Goiás

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Thiago Souza Azeredo; Madrid, Darling Melany de Carvalho; Faria, Adriana Marques; Freitas, Thais Miranda Silva; Linhares, Guido Fontgalland Coelho

    2016-01-01

    v. 17, n. 2, p. 296-302, abr./jun. 2016. O Bioma Cerrado possui por volta de 320 mil espécies de animais e ocupa aproximadamente 25% do território brasileiro. Por sua grande diversidade de espécies, excita o tráfico ilegal de animais silvestres. O Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA) apreende animais traficados e encaminha-os para o Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (CETAS), onde passam por triagem, são identificados e submetido...

  11. Influência de borda sobre vegetação e microclima no cerrado paulista

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Dodonov

    2011-01-01

    Existe ampla variação nos padrões de influência de borda (IB) dentro de uma região, devido a fatores como estrutura da vegetação, uso da terra adjacente, orientação e contraste da borda. Entender esta variação é importante para o planejamento direcionado à conservação. Nós estudamos IB sobre aspectos de microclima e vegetação em sete fragmentos de cerrado no Sudeste do Brasil, amostrando áreas tanto de savana quanto de floresta. Nós delimitamos transectos perpendiculares a 14 bordas de cerrad...

  12. Zinc and Liming Effects on the Development of Cerrado Forest Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, M. R.; Moraes, M. I. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is considered priority area for conservation of biodiversity. The biome has covered approximately 33% of the territory of the State of São Paulo, but, currently, there are isolated fragments of Cerrado that correspond to less than 7% of its original area. One of the consequences of the natural vegetation removal and soil degradation is the loss of fertility, reduction the nutrient content. There is limited knowledge of the nutritional requirements of native forest species from Cerrado, especially about micronutrients. The aims of this work are: (i) verify the influence of four levels of Zn in soil and three levels of liming on development of six forest species native to the Cerrado biome; (ii) assess Zn deficiency symptoms in native species of Savannah. The treatments were four levels of Zn (0.0; 2.0; 4.0;-1 6.0 kg ha of Zn) and three levels of base saturation (V% = natural, V% = 50% and V% = 70%), cultivated in green house. The forest species studied have different responses to soil correction and fertilization, and were not observed responses regarding biometric parameters (growth in height and dry matter) with respect to the correction of base saturation and soil fertilization with Zn, for seedlings of Tabebuia aurea, Eugenia dysenterica and Astronium graveolens, showing that these species are highly adapted to the conditions of low fertility and showing efficient physiology for Zn absorption, since there was satisfactory growth in conditions of low base saturation (36%), very low content of Zn in soil (0.3 mg dm-3 ) and ideal supply of other nutrients. The species Andira cuyabensis and Anacardium giganteum responded well to fertilization and soil remediation. The omission of Zn resulted in visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency only for the species Tabebuia aurea, Astronium graveolens and Anacardium giganteum. The content of Zn presented significance interaction between Zn doses and V% for species Hymenaea courbaril, Tabebuia aurea and

  13. Determinação do potencial antioxidante in vitro de frutos do Cerrado brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Mônica Lopes; Silva, Anne Caroline Rodrigues; Araújo, Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha; Esteves, Elizabethe Adriana; Dessimoni-Pinto, Nísia Andrade Villela

    2013-01-01

    Extratos em metanol e acetona de diferentes espécies do Cerrado, semente de Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil (Lobeira), polpa de Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) DC. (Murici), epicarpo e mesocarpo de Caryocar brasiliense Cambess (Pequi) e pendúculo de Cipocereus minensis F. Ritter (Quiabo-da-lapa) foram submetidos a ensaios antioxidantes in vitro para avaliar a capacidade de sequestrar os radicais orgânicos DPPH e ABTS.+, reduzir o ferro (FRAP) e/ ou inibir a peroxidação lipídica (β-caroteno). Todas...

  14. UN CICLO CERRADO: EL PATRIMONIO NOBILIARIO CONSTRUIDO EN LA CIUDAD DE MURCIA

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    Francisco Calvo García-Tornel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia en el tejido urbano de la ciudad de Murcia de las viviendas o palacios de la nobleza, está directamente relacionado con la evolución patrimonial de este grupo social. Cerrado el ciclo en el que el poder social nobiliario fue decisivo en la vida regional, su memoria se conserva básicamente a través de sus casas-palacio, un patrimonio histórico y, en buena medida, también artístico que ha sufrido una suerte muy desigual hasta el presente.

  15. Primeiros Povos do Bioma Cerrado no Brasil Central e Biologia Molecular

    OpenAIRE

    Nóbrega, Judas Tadeu N.; da Silva, Rosiclér T.; Nóbrega, Viviane Martins de M.; de Oliveira, Kátia Karina V.

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: este artigo visa apresentar informações preliminares sobre a extração de DNA dos primeiros povos do bioma cerrado, partindo de pesquisas desenvolvidas junto ao Mestrado em Genética (PUC-Goiás), de ossos humanos exumados de Sítios Arqueológicos. Essa pesquisa objetiva estabelecer um protocolo para extração de DNA humano e quantificação para posteriores desdobramentos em outras análises genéticas. Palavras-chave: Identidade. Genética. Arqueologia. DNA. Extração....

  16. Nuevas formas de producción urbana: Emprendimientos cerrados Metepec, Estado de México

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    María Estela Orozco Hernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En la perspectiva de los habitantes de los emprendimientos cerrados de alto nivel económico, las bardas perimetrales, la vigilancia y el confort, son los garantes de la seguridad y la exclusividad ante los riesgos que provienen del exterior. En Metepec, las inmobiliarias en alianza con el sector público han capitalizado estás necesidades para producir novedosas formas urbanas insertas en un proceso mercantil selectivo, el cual se manifiesta en la conformación de variados estilos de vida, basados en la individualidad y en la distancia social.

  17. NUEVAS FORMAS DE PRODUCCIÓN URBANA: EMPRENDIMIENTOS CERRADOS METEPEC, ESTADO DE MÉXICO

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    María Estela Orozco Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la perspectiva de los habitantes de los emprendimientos cerrados de alto nivel económico, las bardas perimetrales, la vigilancia y el confort, son los garantes de la seguridad y la exclusividad ante los riesgos que provienen del exterior. En Metepec, las inmobiliarias en alianza con el sector público han capitalizado estás necesidades para producir novedosas formas urbanas insertas en un proceso mercantil selectivo, el cual se manifi esta en la conformación de variados estilos de vida, basados en la individualidad y en la distancia social.

  18. Threshold effect of habitat loss on bat richness in cerrado-forest landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylaert, Renata L; Stevens, Richard D; Ribeiro, Milton C

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how animal groups respond to contemporary habitat loss and fragmentation is essential for development of strategies for species conservation. Until now, there has been no consensus about how landscape degradation affects the diversity and distribution of Neotropical bats. Some studies demonstrate population declines and species loss in impacted areas, although the magnitude and generality of these effects on bat community structure are unclear. Empirical fragmentation thresholds predict an accentuated drop in biodiversity, and species richness in particular, when less than 30% of the original amount of habitat in the landscape remains. In this study, we tested whether bat species richness demonstrates this threshold response, based on 48 sites distributed across 12 landscapes with 9-88% remaining forest in Brazilian cerrado-forest formations. We also examined the degree to which abundance was similarly affected within four different feeding guilds. The threshold value for richness, below which bat diversity declines precipitously, was estimated at 47% of remaining forest. To verify if the response of bat abundance to habitat loss differed among feeding guilds, we used a model selection approach based on Akaike's information criterion. Models accounted for the amount of riparian forest, semideciduous forest, cerrado, tree plantations, secondary forest, and the total amount of forest in the landscape. We demonstrate a nonlinear effect of the contribution of tree plantations to frugivores, and a positive effect of the amount of cerrado to nectarivores and animalivores, the groups that responded most to decreases in amount of forest. We suggest that bat assemblages in interior Atlantic Forest and cerrado regions of southeastern Brazil are impoverished, since we found lower richness and abundance of different groups in landscapes with lower amounts of forest. The relatively higher threshold value of 47% suggests that bat communities have a relatively lower

  19. Vertical and horizontal distribution of pollination systems in cerrado fragments of central Brazil

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    Fernanda Quintas Martins

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In fragments of the cerrado, we determined the frequency of pollination systems and analyzed their spatial distribution. We placed 38 transects, sampling 2,280 individuals and 121 species. As expected in Neotropical regions, bee-pollination was the most frequent pollination system. We found a decrease in the frequency of plants pollinated by beetles towards the fragment interior. Similarly, we found significant variation in relation to height just for the bats; there was an increase in the frequency of plants pollinated by bats towards the higher heights. In general, we found no horizontal and vertical variation in the pollination systems, probably as consequence of the more open physiognomy of the cerrado vegetation.As principais pressões seletivas nas estratégias de polinização originam principalmente do ambiente em que plantas ocorrem, como subdossel, dossel, borda ou interior de um fragmento. Diferentes condições ambientais aumentam as diferenças entre os nichos ecológicos e podem implicar diferenças nas proporções dos sistemas de polinização. Em fragmentos de cerrado, determinamos a freqüência dos sistemas de polinização e analisamos sua distribuição espacial. Lançamos 38 transecções aleatoriamente, amostrando 2.280 indivíduos e 121 espécies. Como esperado para regiões neotropicais, a polinização por abelhas foi o sistema de polinização mais freqüente. Encontramos uma diminuição na freqüência de plantas polinizadas por besouros em direção ao interior do fragmento. De modo similar, encontramos uma variação significativa em relação à altura somente para os morcegos, havendo um aumento na freqüência de plantas em direção a alturas mais altas. Em geral, não encontramos variações horizontais e verticais nos sistemas de polinização, provavelmente, como conseqüência da fisionomia mais aberta de cerrado.

  20. A new species of Calomys Waterhouse (Rodentia, Sigmodontinaefrom the Cerrado of Central Brazil

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    Cibele R. Bonvicino

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Brazilian Calomys Waterhouse, 1837 species is described based on morphologic and karyologic data. This species is endemic to the Cerrado of Central Brazil and allopatric with all other species of the genus Calomys. Its chromosome complement (2n = 46, AN = 66 is different from those described in other Calomys species. Morphometric analysis significantly distinguished this new species from other Calomys of the Brazilian fauna like C. callosus (Renger, 1830, C. expulsus (Lund, 1841 and C. tener (Winge, 1887 and placed it among the large-sized Calomys.

  1. Species composition, community and population dynamics of two gallery forests from the Brazilian Cerrado domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastauer, Markus; Almado, Roosevelt P; Miazaki, Angela S; Diniz, Écio S; Moreira, Luis C B; Meira-Neto, João A A

    2016-01-01

    To understand the impacts of global changes on future community compositions, knowledge of community dynamics is of crucial importance. To improve our knowledge of community composition, biomass stock and maintenance of gallery forests in the Brazilian Cerrado, we provide two datasets from the 0.5 ha Corrego Fazendinha Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot and the Corrego Fundo Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot situated in the Bom Despacho region, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. We report diameter at breast height, basal area and height measurements of 3417 trees and treelets identified during three censuses in both areas.

  2. Determinação do potencial antioxidante in vitro de frutos do Cerrado brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Lopes Morais; Anne Caroline Rodrigues Silva; Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo; Elizabethe Adriana Esteves; Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni-Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Extratos em metanol e acetona de diferentes espécies do Cerrado, semente de Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil (Lobeira), polpa de Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) DC. (Murici), epicarpo e mesocarpo de Caryocar brasiliense Cambess (Pequi) e pendúculo de Cipocereus minensis F. Ritter (Quiabo-da-lapa) foram submetidos a ensaios antioxidantes in vitro para avaliar a capacidade de sequestrar os radicais orgânicos DPPH e ABTS.+, reduzir o ferro (FRAP) e/ ou inibir a peroxidação lipídica (β-caroteno). ...

  3. Cultivo de cachama blanca en altas densidades y en dos sistemas cerrados

    OpenAIRE

    Poleo, Germán; Aranbarrio, José Vicente; Mendoza, Lismen; Romero, Oneida

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia de la cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus, a cultivos en altas densidades en sistemas cerrados. Novecientos alevines de 44,3±26 g de peso, se distribuyeron en seis tanques de concreto, con 4,8 m³ de agua. Tres tanques presentaron cero recambio de agua (SCR), y en otros tres, el agua se hizo circular a través de un bioclarificador (SRA). Ambos tratamientos presentaron fuerte aireación para mantener los sólidos en suspensión y suministrar ...

  4. Sobre a (não adesão ao tratamento: ampliando sentidos do autocuidado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celiane Camargo-Borges

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los nuevos discursos en el contexto del Sistema Unificado de Salud han exigido una mirada más crítica sobre el auto-cuidado. Este es un estudio de carácter cualitativo, basado teórica y metodológicamente en el construccionismo social. Su objetivo es describir los sentidos del autocuidado producidos en grupos comunitarios en el contexto de la Estrategia de la Salud de la Familia. Los datos fueron recolectados durante el año 2001, totalizando 28 participantes con 50 años de edad, aproximadamente. Las conversaciones fueron grabadas, transcritas y analizadas dando visibilidad a las versiones del auto-cuidado. El análisis, basado en una perspectiva construccionista, permitió ampliar los sentidos del auto-cuidado, favoreciendo una reflexión sobre su complejidad, señalando necesidades más amplias, diferentes de la adopción de un medicamento prescrito. Diálogo y foco en la relación son presentados como recursos transformadores de las prácticas de cuidado y auto-cuidado, los cuales posibilitan la construcción de acciones dentro de una perspectiva más integral y co-responsable.

  5. Sentido de la responsabilidad con la salud: perspectiva de sujetos que reivindican este derecho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela María Franco-Cortés, Colombia.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available (analítico: En este artículo presentamos los resultados de una investigación que realizamos con el objetivo de comprender el sentido que tiene la responsabilidad con la salud para miembros de organizaciones sociales que se movilizan por el derecho a la vida saludable. Es una investigación cualitativa, soportada epistemológica y metodológicamente en la hermenéutica y en la fenomenología social. Develamos tres tendencias sobre el sentido de la responsabilidad con la salud que orientan las acciones individuales y colectivas de estos sujetos: la responsabilidad como compasión (perspectiva judeo-cristiana y como actitud de servicio con quien está enfermo; como tensión entre la presencia del Estado y la resistencia/movilización de los ciudadanos y las ciudadanas por el derecho a los servicios; y como compromiso político y vinculación solidaria a un proyecto colectivo por una sociedad distinta.

  6. Sentido de la responsabilidad con la salud: perspectiva de sujetos que reivindican este derecho

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    Ángela María Franco-Cortés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos los resultados de una investigación querealizamos con el objetivo de comprender el sentido que tiene la responsabilidad con la salud paramiembros de organizaciones sociales que se movilizan por el derecho a la vida saludable. Es unainvestigación cualitativa, soportada epistemológica y metodológicamente en la hermenéutica y enla fenomenología social. Develamos tres tendencias sobre el sentido de la responsabilidad con lasalud que orientan las acciones individuales y colectivas de estos sujetos: la responsabilidad comocompasión (perspectiva judeo-cristiana y como actitud de servicio con quien está enfermo; comotensión entre la presencia del Estado y la resistencia/movilización de los ciudadanos y las ciudadanaspor el derecho a los servicios; y como compromiso político y vinculación solidaria a un proyectocolectivo por una sociedad distinta.

  7. Adelantamiento con vehiculos autónomos en carreteras de doble sentido

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    Joshué Pérez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las investigaciones llevadas a cabo para el control de vehículos autónomos en maniobras cooperativas están en la vanguardia de los Sistemas de Transporte Inteligente (ITS. Ejemplos de esta cooperación se plasman en intersecciones, control de crucero adaptativo (ACC y adelantamientos, entre otros. Los adelantamientos requieren especial atención en un entorno variable, y sobre todo si se aproxima un vehículo en sentido contrario. En el presente artículo se plantea un algoritmo de decisión, un sistema de comunicaciones entre tres vehículos y un controlador borroso para la conducción de un vehículo en una maniobra de adelantamiento. Se han considerado diferentes casos de uso, en los que conviene abortar o terminar la maniobra de adelantamiento en una carretera de doble sentido. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que, basándonos en el conocimiento humano, se pueden ajustar controladores borrosos para la conducción autónoma de vehículos en maniobras de alto riesgo. Palabras clave: Comunicación entre vehículos, Adelantamientos, Controlador borroso, Vehículos autónomos, GPS

  8. La función del relato en la producción social de sentido

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    Cristina Palomar Verea

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una reflexión sobre la producción de sentido en las prácticas sociales a partir de la discusión en torno a la relación entre la historia, la investigación antropológica y la narrativa, intentando acercar esta discusión al análisis de las prácticas discursivas, entendidas como la puesta en acto del discurso en tanto vehículo primario a través del cual las relaciones sociales son producidas y reproducidas. La discursividad, entonces, hace referencia al conjunto de fenómenos en y a través de los cuales tiene lugar la producción de sentido que constituye a una sociedad como tal, mediante distintos relatos de las prácticas sociales que pueden ser vistas como textos narrativos más allá de la escritura. En este punto se retoman los planteamientos hermenéuticos de Paul Ricoeur sobre la noción de “texto”. Ricoeur se refiere al uso que hace Freud de esta noción: El relato del sueño es un texto ininteligible que el análisis sustituye por otro texto más inteligible.

  9. A produção de sentidos sobre a imagem do corpo

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    Francisco Romão Ferreira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se algumas formas de produção de sentidos sobre o corpo a partir de uma revisão bibliográfica com base em autores da antropologia, sociologia, filosofia, psicologia e psicanálise. Para esses autores o corpo é construído socialmente, modelado por meio de convenções sociais que vão reproduzir os conflitos simbólicos, culturais ou políticos de cada sociedade. O corpo materializa a relação sujeito x sociedade, refletindo o diálogo entre o biológico e o simbólico na construção da subjetividade, pois os processos de subjetivação são construídos em relação direta com o corpo. Conclui-se que a sociologia, psicologia, psicanálise e antropologia, isoladamente, não dão conta de entender e/ou explicar a complexidade da produção de sentidos sobre o corpo.

  10. George Santayana ante los límites del sentido común en John Locke

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    Daniel MORENO MORENO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El análisis detallado de la conferencia de Santayana «Locke y los límites del sentido común» (1932 y el estudio de su relación con el resto de la obra santayaniana que se recogen en este estudio desarrollan tres aspectos: i el vínculo que une «Locke y los límites del sentido común» con «Religión última», ii la relación del escepticismo de Locke con el escepticismo último de Santayana, iii las implicaciones ontológicas y gnoseológicas. Se aprecia de este modo que es una conferencia donde se condensan todas las facetas del pensamiento de Santayana.ABSTRACT: The conspicuous analysis of Santayana’s lecture «Locke and the Frontiers of Common Sense» (1932 and the study of its relationship with other works of Santayana carried out in this paper develop three aspects: i the tie between «Locke and the Frontiers of Common Sense» and «Ultimate Religion», ii the link between Locke’s scepticism and Santayana’s ultimate scepticism, iii the ontological and epistemological consequences. Its relationship with the whole Santayanian philosophic system is thus manifested.

  11. Técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos no Cerrado

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    Milhomem Michelle Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Métodos de coleta passiva, com o uso de armadilhas, têm sido utilizados na coleta de besouros da família Scarabaeidae. No Cerrado existem poucos estudos sobre estes insetos, apesar da sua importância para o ecossistema e para o controle biológico de pragas do gado bovino. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae sensu stricto com armadilha de interceptação de vôo e armadilha de queda com fezes e com carcaça. O experimento foi realizado em três fitofisionomias (campo sujo, cerrado sensu stricto e mata de galeria da Reserva Ecológica do IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, a 35 km de Brasília, DF, na época das chuvas (outubro/1999 a janeiro/2000 e da seca (maio a agosto/2000. A armadilha de queda com isca de fezes e o campo sujo apresentaram maior riqueza e abundância de espécies. Houve uma associação positiva entre as chuvas e a distribuição temporal dos besouros. A armadilha de queda com isca de fezes humanas é a mais indicada para coletas de besouros copronecrófagos.

  12. Pollination systems and floral traits in cerrado woody species of the Upper Taquari region (central Brazil

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    F. Q. Martins

    Full Text Available Plant species present flowers with varied morphological and functional features, which may be associated to pollination systems, including species pollinated by wind, beetles, moths, bees, small insects, birds, or bats. We calculated the frequencies of the pollination systems among woody species in five cerrado fragments in central-western Brazil and tested whether the pollination systems were indeed related to floral traits. We sampled 2,280 individuals, belonging to 121 species, ninety-nine of which were described in relation to all floral traits. Most species had diurnal anthesis, pale colors, and open flowers. The most frequent groups were those composed by the species pollinated by bees, small insects, and moths. A Principal Component Analysis of the species and floral traits showed that there was a grouping among species with some pollination systems, such as those pollinated mainly by beetles, moths, birds, and bats, for which inferences based on the floral traits are recommended in cerrado sites. For the species pollinated mainly by bees or small insects, inferences based on the floral traits are not recommended, due to the large dispersion of the species scores and overlapping between these two groups, which probably occurred due to the specificity absence in plant-pollinator relationships.

  13. Effects of changes in the riparian forest on the butterfly community (Insecta: Lepidoptera in Cerrado areas

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    Helena S.R. Cabette

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preserved riparian vegetation usually has greater environmental complexity than the riparian vegetation modified by human actions. These systems may have a greater availability and diversity of food resources for the species. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of changes on the structure of the riparian forest on species richness, beta diversity and composition of butterfly species in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that: (i higher species richness and (ii beta diversity would be recorded in more preserved environments; and (iii species composition would be more homogeneous in disturbed habitats. For hypothesis testing, the riparian vegetation of eight streams were sampled in four periods of the year in a fixed transect of 100 m along the shores. The richness of butterfly species is lower in disturbed than in preserved areas. However, species richness is not affected by habitat integrity. Beta diversity differed among sites, such that preserved sites have greater beta diversity, showing greater variation in species composition. In addition, beta diversity was positively affected by environmental heterogeneity. A total of 23 of the 84 species sampled occurred only in the changed environment, 42 were exclusive to preserved sites and 19 occurred in both environments. The environmental change caused by riparian forest removal drastically affects the butterfly community. Therefore, riparian vegetation is extremely important for butterfly preservation in the Cerrado and may be a true biodiversity oasis, especially during the dry periods, when the biome undergoes water stress and resource supply is more limited.

  14. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. flour

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    Cintia Pereira Da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savannah, known as "Cerrado," has an extensive biodiversity, but it is under explored. Among the native vegetables is the jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart., a legume with great potential for exploration for its content of dietary fiber. Legumes are an important source of nutrient compounds, such as phenolic compounds and vitamins that have antioxidant properties. This study aimed at determining the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the jatobá flour. The jatobá flour showed high fiber content (insoluble and soluble fiber 47.8 and 12.8 g.100 g- 1, respectively, significant amounts of carotenoids such as beta-carotene and lutein, and some minerals such as calcium: 145 mg.100 g- 1, magnesium: 125 mg.100 g- 1, and potassium: 1352 mg.100 g- 1. The jatobá flour extracted with different solvents (water, methanol, and acetone exhibited antioxidant activity by the DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC methods. The solvent used in the extraction affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Acetone extraction produced the best results. Therefore, the jatobá flour is an ingredient that can be used to develop new products with properties that promote health.

  15. Population structure of Annona crassiflora: an endemic plant species of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, R; Setotaw, T A; Rodrigues, F A; França, D V C; da Silveira, F A; Pio, L A S; Pasqual, M

    2016-12-23

    Habitat fragmentation has numerous consequences, particularly to endemic species, and has a negative impact on the genetic diversity of neglected species, leading to genetic drift. Annona crassiflora Mart. is a species that is endemic to Brazil, and its incidence in the Cerrado biome has decreased. The identification and characterization of its remaining diversity is necessary for its conservation. Our aim was to study the population structure of A. crassiflora populations from different Cerrado regions in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Corinto, Curvelo, Carmo da Mata, Boa Esperança, and Paraguaçu) using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and DNA content. Nuclear DNA content was estimated by flow cytometry using 10 individuals from each population. ISSR markers were used for genotyping accessions in order to study their genetic diversity and population structures. We found considerable genetic variation among populations, with the highest variability observed in the Curvelo population. There was a significant positive correlation between DNA content and latitude (r = 0.46, P = 0. 0003). A Bayesian-based cluster analysis grouped the populations into three clusters, which followed their geographical origins. There was some level of genetic diversity and differentiation among the populations, suggesting the need for a conservation plan for this species. The ISSR markers and DNA content analysis were effective in studying the genetic diversity and population structure of A. crassiflora.

  16. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes; Siqueira, Maria Celia; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific 226 Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg -1 ) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg -1 for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  17. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b, E-mail: kapo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.b [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), MG (Brazil); Siqueira, Maria Celia, E-mail: mc.ufscar@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires, E-mail: eleonora.deschamps@meioambiente.mg.gov.b [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente (FEAM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Gestao de Residuos Solidos; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de, E-mail: davidf.agro@hotmail.co, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos

    2009-09-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific {sup 226}Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  18. Polyembryony in angiospermous trees of the Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga vegetation

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    Antonieta N. Salomão

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of polyembryony was investigated in 75 woody species of the Cerrado in central Brazil and the xerophilous Caatinga vegetation in northeastern Brazil. Fourteen species showed polyembryony, a type of anomalous angiospermous reproduction. Polyembryony is reported for the first time for nine genera, Astronium, Byrsonima, Cariniana, Copaifera, Hancornia, Magonia, Myracrodruon, Tabebuia, and Tapirira. The positive correlation found between polyembryony, sexual reproduction, and apomictic processes suggests that a number of angiospermous species may make regular use of multiple breeding systems.A ocorrência de poliembrionia foi investigada em 75 espécies lenhosas do Cerrado do Brasil central e da Caatinga xerófila do nordeste brasileiro. Quatorze espécies apresentaram poliembrionia, uma modalidade de reprodução anômala em angiospermas. Poliembrionia é relatada pela primeira vez para nove gêneros, Astronium, Byrsonima, Cariniana, Copaifera, Hancornia, Magonia, Myracrodruon, Tabebuia e Tapirira. A correlação positiva encontrada entre poliembrionia, reprodução sexual e processos apomíticos sugere que parte das espécies de angiospermas faça uso regular de sistemas de cruzamento múltiplos.

  19. TRAUMA OCULAR CERRADO: MANIFESTACIONES, MANEJO E IMPLICACIONES EN EL BOXEO Y EL FÚTBOL

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    Álvaro Rodríguez González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El trauma ocular cerrado según su grado puede ser ligero moderado o severo. En algunos casos permanece inadvertido o enmascarado y crea consecuencias por lo que debe ser investigado. El trauma tiene características y deja huellas, algunas evidentes y otras ocultas que pueden aparecer en la historia clínica o deben ser buscadas en el segmento anterior ocular en donde se pueden observar trastornos del reflejo pupilar, (incluye midriasis paralítica, laceraciones palpebrales, hemorragia orbitaria, hifema (hemorragia en cámara anterior y fracturas óseas, orbitaria o maxilofacial. En biomicroscopía, pueden observarse laceraciones corneanas, a veces sutiles, otras veces son cicatrices perforantes enmascaradas, acompañadas interiormente de sinequia anterior del iris a la cicatriz de la córnea. También, heridas corneanas recientes, diálisis del iris, a veces extensas en su base, con retroinserción angular de variable extensión y tunelización supracoroidea que inducen, bien a hipotonía ocular o a elevación de la tensión ocular y establecimiento de glaucomas. El trauma ocular cerrado es importante por haberse convertido en un problema de salud pública dadas sus implicaciones en niños, en trabajadores y en aficionados y profesionales en los deportes.

  20. Smoke and fire characteristics for cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil - BASE-B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. E.; Susott, R. A.; Kauffman, J. B.; Babbitt, R. E.; Cummings, D. L.; Dias, B.; Holben, B. N.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Setzer, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    Five test fires were performed during August and September 1990 in the cerrado (savannalike region) in central Brazil (three fires) and tropical moist forest (two fires) in the eastern Amazon. This paper details the gases released, the ratios of the gases to each other and to particulate matter, fuel loads, and the fraction consumed (combustion factors), and the fire behavior associated with biomass consumption. Models are presented for evaluating emission factors for CH4, CO2, CO, H2, and particles less than 2.5 micron diam (PM2.5) as a function of combustion efficiency. The ratio of carbon released as CO2 (combustion efficiency) for the cerrado fires averaged 0.94 and for the deforestation fires it decreased from 0.88 for the flaming phase to less than 0.80 during the smoldering phase of combustion. For tropical ecosystems, emissions of most products of incomplete combustion are projected to be lower than previous estimates for savanna ecosystems and somewhat higher for fires used for deforestation purposes.

  1. Microbial communities in Cerrado soils under native vegetation subjected to prescribed fire and under pasture

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    Laura Tillmann Viana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of fire regimes and vegetation cover on the structure and dynamics of soil microbial communities, through phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis. Comparisons were made between native areas with different woody covers ("cerrado stricto sensu" and "campo sujo", under different fire regimes, and a 20-year-old active palisadegrass pasture in the Central Plateau of Brazil. Microbial biomass was higher in the native plots than in the pasture, and the highest monthly values were observed during the rainy season in the native plots. No significant differences were observed between fire regimes or between communities from the two native vegetation types. However, the principal component (PC analysis separated the microbial communities by vegetation cover (native x pasture and season (wet x dry, accounting for 45.8% (PC1 and PC3 and 25.6% (PC2 and PC3, respectively, of the total PLFA variability. Changes in land cover and seasonal rainfall in Cerrado ecosystems have significant effects on the total density of soil microorganisms and on the abundance of microbial groups, especially Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Smoke and fire characteristics for Cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil: BASE-B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. E.; Susott, R. A.; Kauffman, J. B.; Babbitt, R. E.; Cummings, D. L.; Dias, B.; Holben, B. N.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Setzer, A. W.

    1992-09-01

    Fires of the tropical forests and savannas are a major source of particulate matter and trace gases affecting the atmosphere globally. A paucity of quantitative information exists for these ecosystems with respect to fuel biomass, smoke emissions, and fire behavior conditions affecting the release of emissions. Five test fires were performed during August and September 1990 in the cerrado (savannalike region) in central Brazil (three fires) and tropical moist forest (two fires) in the eastern Amazon. This paper details the gases released, the ratios of the gases to each other and to particulate matter, fuel loads and the fraction consumed (combustion factors), and the fire behavior associated with biomass consumption. Models are presented for evaluating emission factors for CH4, CO2, CO, H2, and particles less than 2.5 μm diameter (PM2.5) as a function of combustion efficiency. The ratio of carbon released as CO2 (combustion efficiency) for the cerrado fires averaged 0.94 and for the deforestation fires it decreased from 0.88 for the flaming phase to fires used for deforestation purposes.

  3. Bird diversity along a gradient of fragmented habitats of the Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Shayana DE; Pedro, Wagner A; Bispo, Arthur A

    2017-12-11

    Understanding the factors that affect biodiversity is of central interest to ecology, and essential to species conservation and ecosystems management. We sampled bird communities in 17 forest fragments in the Cerrado biome, the Central-West region of Brazil. We aimed to know the communities structure pattern and the influence of geographical distance and environmental variables on them, along a gradient of fragmented habitats at both local and landscape scales. Eight structural variables of the fragments served as an environmental distance measurement at the local scale while five metrics served as an environmental distance measurement at the landscape scale. Species presence-absence data were used to calculate the dissimilarity index. Beta diversity was calculated using three indices (βsim, βnes and βsor), representing the spatial species turnover, nestedness and total beta diversity, respectively. Spatial species turnover was the predominant pattern in the structure of the communities. Variations in beta diversity were explained only by the environmental variables of the landscape with spatial configuration being more important than the composition. This fact indicates that, in Cerrado of Goiás avian communities structure, deterministic ecological processes associated to differences in species responses to landscape fragmentation are more important than stochastic processes driven by species dispersal.

  4. Anatomical and morphological modifications in response to flooding by six Cerrado tree species

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    Adilson Serafim de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are common in the Cerrado (Brazilian savannas biome, however flooding of these wetlands impairs growth and development of most plants. We evaluated flood tolerance of typical Cerrado trees. Seedlings of Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae, Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae, Handroanthus chrysotrichus (Bignoniaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva (Anacardiaceae, Kielmeyera coriacea (Calophyllaceae and Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae were flooded up to the stem base for 30 days. Stems with cortical cracks, secondary aerenchyma and hypertrophic lenticels were observed in flooded plants of M. urundeuva,H. chrysotrichus and T. rosea while adventitious roots were formed in flooded plants of T. rosea and H. chrysotrichus. However, only T. rosea developed aerenchyma in the root cortex. K. coriacea and A. macrocarpon were the most sensitive to flooding, showing a decrease in survival and necrosis of the leaves and roots. C. langsdorffii and M. urundeuva were less sensitive to flooding, although reductions in root biomass and symptoms of necrosis of the roots were noticeable in flooded seedlings. Flooded M. urundeuva seedlings also had a decrease in total leaf area, leaf biomass, total biomass and in stem growth. Flooding affected root development and reduced stem growth of H. chrysotrichus with symptoms of necrosis of the leaves and roots. T. rosea was the only species where symptoms of injury from flooding were not evident.

  5. Wood quality of five species from cerrado for production of charcoal

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    Tattiane Gomes Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of wood and charcoal of some species from cerrado mineiro aiming the production of bioenergy and use in steel industry. Five wood species from cerrado located in Minas Gerais state were used. Basic density and lignin, total extractives, holocellulose and ash contents were evaluated. Charcoal and fixed carbon yields, contents of fixed carbon, volatile materials and ashes, higher heating value and apparent relative density were evaluated. An entirely randomized design with four repetitions was used in the evaluation of the experiment. Moreover, multivariate analysis of principle components was used. The species Casearia sylvestris and Luehea divaricata had the highest gravimetric yield of charcoal and fixed carbon, as much as high lignin contents in the wood. Charcoal made from Trema micrantha presented high heating value, but the lowest apparent relative density. The species Guazuma ulmifolia stood out due to high fixed carbon content and great potential for use in the steel industry, together with the specie Casearia sylvestris.

  6. Landscape conservation genetics of Dipteryx alata ("baru" tree: Fabaceae) from Cerrado region of central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Thannya Nascimento; Chaves, Lázaro José; de Campos Telles, Mariana Pires; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Resende, Lucileide Vilela

    2008-01-01

    In this paper random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to evaluate the degree of among-population differentiation and associated spatial patterns of genetic divergence for Dipteryx alata Vogel populations from Cerrado region of central Brazil, furnishing support for future programs of conservation of this species. We analyzed patterns of genetic and spatial population structure using 45 RAPD loci scored for 309 trees, sampled from five different regions with two populations each. Genetic structure analysis suggested that panmixia null hypothesis can be rejected, with significant among-population components of 15%. Hierarchical partition by Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) shows that 5% of genetic variation is within regions, whereas 10% of variation is among regions, and these results were confirmed by a Bayesian analyses on HICKORY. The Mantel correlogram revealed that this divergence is spatially structured, so that local populations situated at short geographic distances could not be considered independent units for conservation and management. However, genetic discontinuities among populations were found in the northwest and southeast parts of the study area, corresponding to regions of recent socio-economic expansion and high population density, respectively. Taking both geographic distances and genetic discontinuities into account it is possible to establish a group of population to be conserved, covering most of D. alata geographic distribution and congruent with previously established priority areas for conservation in the Cerrado region.

  7. Three new species of the killifish genusMelanorivulusfrom the central Brazilian Cerrado savanna (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Wilson J E M

    2017-01-01

    Three new species are described from the Neotropical region comprising the Cerrado savannas of the central Brazilian plateaus, which is among the most important biodiversity centres in the world. These species are considered closely related to Melanorivulus dapazi from the same region, with which they share the presence of a rudimentary interarcual cartilage and a dark reddish brown distal margin on the male anal fin. The group comprising Melanorivulus dapazi and the three new species is here named as the Melanorivulus dapazi species group. Melanorivulus ignescens sp. n. , from the upper Rio Araguaia basin, is distinguished from all other species of the Melanorivulus dapazi group by the anal-fin colour pattern in males; Melanorivulus flavipinnis sp. n. and Melanorivulus regularis sp. n. from the Rio Paraguai basin are distinguished from all other congeners of the Melanorivulus dapazi group by the colour pattern of the caudal fin and number of scales in the longitudinal series, respectively. All the new species are further unambiguously diagnosed by unique combinations of morphological characters, including meristic and morphometric data, and colour patterns. This study reinforces the importance of using live colour patterns to diagnose species and species groups of the genus Melanorivulus , but also indicates that osteological characters may be informative for species diagnosis. This study confirms the high diversity of species of Melanorivulus in the central Brazilian Cerrado plateaus already reported in previous studies, indicating that endemic species are often restricted to short segments of a single river drainage.

  8. Estimated net radiation in an Amazon-Cerrado transition forest by Landsat 5 TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Heloisa Oliveira; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi; Pavão, Vagner Marques; Machado, Nadja Gomes; Querino, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Danelichen, Victor Hugo de Morais

    2017-10-01

    The Amazon-Cerrado transition forest is an extensive region with unique characteristics of radiation exchanges. The measurements of the net radiation (Rn) in this ecosystem are limited to the local scale, and their spatial distribution can be carried out by remote sensing techniques, of which accuracy needs to be evaluated. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the accuracy of the model of surface Rn derived from measured solar radiation and estimates of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), surface albedo (α), and land surface temperature (LST) estimated by images of Landsat 5 TM in an Amazon-Cerrado transition forest. The Rn, NDVI, α, and LST were estimated by Landsat 5 TM images and related to micrometeorological measurements in a tower of the study area. There was seasonality of micrometeorological variables with higher values of incident solar radiation, air temperature, and vapor pressure deficit during the dry season. However, there was no seasonality of Rn. NDVI decreased and α increased during the dry season, while LST was nearly constant. The Rn had negative correlation with α and positive with NDVI. Both instantaneous and daily Rn estimated with Landsat 5 TM images showed high correlation and low error values when compared with Rn measured in the study area.

  9. Functional Process Zones Characterizing Aquatic Insect Communities in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Simião-Ferreira, J; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2016-04-01

    Stream ecology studies see to understand ecological dynamics in lotic systems. The characterization of streams into Functional Process Zones (FPZ) has been currently debated in stream ecology because aquatic communities respond to functional processes of river segments. Therefore, we tested if different functional process zones have different number of genera and trophic structure using the aquatic insect community of Neotropical streams. We also assessed whether using physical and chemical variables may complement the approach of using FPZ to model communities of aquatic insects in Cerrado streams. This study was conducted in 101 streams or rivers from the central region of the state of Goiás, Brazil. We grouped the streams into six FPZ associated to size of the river system, presence of riparian forest, and riverbed heterogeneity. We used Bayesian models to compare number of genera and relative frequency of the feeding groups between FPZs. Streams classified in different FPZs had a different number of genera, and the largest and best preserved rivers had an average of four additional genera. Trophic structure exhibited low variability among FPZs, with little difference both in the number of genera and in abundance. Using functional process zones in Cerrado streams yielded good results for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera communities. Thus, species distribution and community structure in the river basin account for functional processes and not necessarily for the position of the community along a longitudinal dimension of the lotic system.

  10. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-02

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects.

  11. Genetic diversity among 16 genotypes of Coffea arabica in the Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, C M S; Pimentel, N S; Golynsk, A; Ferreira, A; Vieira, H D; Partelli, F L

    2017-09-21

    For the selection of coffee plants that have favorable characteristics, it is necessary to evaluate variables related to production. Knowledge of the genetic divergence of arabica coffee is of extreme importance, as this knowledge can be associated with plant breeding programs in order to combine genetic divergence with good productive performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence among 16 genotypes of Coffea arabica with the purpose of identifying the most dissimilar genotypes for the establishment of breeding programs and adaptation to the Brazilian cerrado. The genetic divergence was evaluated using multivariate procedures, the analysis of the average grouping unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and main components in 2013 and 2014. Eight characters were evaluated in an experiment conducted in Morrinhos, Goiás. The presence of genetic divergence among the 16 C. arabica genotypes under cerrado conditions was recorded. The formation of UPGMA groups for the evaluated characteristics was pertinent due to the number of genotypes. The first three major components accounted for 81.77% of the total variance. The genotype H-419-3-4-4-13(C-241) of low size was the most divergent, followed by Catucaí 2 SL and Catiguá MG2, according to the main components.

  12. Effect of brushwood transposition on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a cerrado area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Benetton Vergílio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of ecological restoration techniques can be monitored through biological indicators of soil quality such as the leaf litter arthropod fauna. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect of brushwood transposition transferred from an area of native vegetation to a disturbed area, on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a degraded cerrado area. The arthropod fauna of four areas was compared: a degraded area with signal grass, two experimental brushwood transposition areas, with and without castor oil plants, and an area of native cerrado. In total, 7,660 individuals belonging to 23 taxa were sampled. Acari and Collembola were the most abundant taxa in all studied areas, followed by Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Symphyla. The brushwood transposition area without castor oil plants had the lowest abundance and dominance and the highest diversity of all areas, providing evidence of changes in the soil community. Conversely, the results showed that the presence of castor oil plants hampered early succession, negatively affecting ecological restoration in this area.

  13. Density and fertility of Byrsonima pachyphylla A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae in small fragments of the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina da Silva Melo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation is one of the main threats to the biodiversity of the planet. This study was conducted in nine fragments of the Brazilian cerrado (savanna sensu stricto. We assessed the effects that fragment size and distance between fragments has on the density and fertility of populations of Byrsonima pachyphylla A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae, known in Brazil as "murici". In each of the nine fragments, we evaluated seven individuals. We quantified the B. pachyphylla density within a 20-m radius around each individual. Fertility in each fragment was estimated by determining the ratio between the number of flowers and the number of fruits produced. We carried out linear regression analyses between mean B. pachyphylla density and fragment size, as well as between mean B. pachyphylla fertility and fragment size. The influence of spatial autocorrelation on the fertility of each studied plant was estimated by Moran's I to evaluate the effect of fragment distance on B. pachyphylla fertility. Population densities and the proportions of fertile plants were greater in the larger fragments, which were also more preserved. There was spatial autocorrelation only between plants in the same fragment. Neighboring fragments differed significantly in terms of fertility, which is probably related to the degree of preservation of each fragment. Habitat fragmentation has a marked effect on the fertility of plant species in the cerrado, and larger fragments are needed in order to maintain their populations and those of associated species.

  14. Respostas de cultivares de girassol a doses crescentes de boro na entressafra do Cerrado Tocantinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No cerrado brasileiro a deficiência de boro no solo ocorre com maior frequência. A cultura do girassol é muito sensível à deficiência deste micronutriente, além de apresentar pouca eficiência em seu aproveitamento. Neste contexto, objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar as respostas de cultivares de girassol a doses crescentes de boro no período da entressafra no cerrado tocantinense. O experimento foi conduzido em Gurupi, (TO, com sistema de plantio direto em sucessão a soja, sobre Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com quinze tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos num esquema fatorial simples 3 x 5, constituído por três cultivares de girassol (variedade Br 122, híbridos Aguará 4 e Helio 863 e cinco doses de ácido bórico (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 kg ha-1. As características avaliadas foram: altura de planta, diâmetro da haste, diâmetro do capítulo, concentração de boro foliar, massa de mil aquênios e produtividade de aquênios. A dose de 3 kg ha-1 de boro proporcionou, em sua grande maioria, as melhores respostas das cultivares Br 122, Aguará 4 e Helio 863 quanto às características avaliadas. No entanto, com esta dose, a cultivar Aguará 4 apresenta melhor aproveitamento para produção de aquênios.Responses of sunflower cultivars to increasing doses of boron in the between harvests the Cerrado TocantinenseAbstract: In the brazilian cerrado soil boron deficiency occurs more frequently. The sunflower crop is very sensitive to this micronutrient deficiency, and have little efficiency in its use. In that context, aimed to of this study was to evaluate the response of sunflower cultivars to increasing doses of boron during the between harvests in the cerrado tocantinense. The experiment was conducted in Gurupi (TO, with no-tillages soybeans in succession on dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol. The experimental design was a randomized block

  15. Fluxes of carbon, water and energy over Brazilian cerrado: an analysis using eddy covariance and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. C. Miranda; H. S. Miranda; J. Lloyd; J. Grace; R. J. Francey; J. A. Mcintyre; P. Meir; P. Riggan; R. Lockwood; J. Brass

    1997-01-01

    We present the energy and mass balance of cerrado sensu stricto (a Brazilian form of savanna), in which a mixture of shrubs, trees and grasses forms a vegetation with a leaf area index of 1·0 in the wet season and 0·4 in the dry season. In the wet season the available energy was equally dissipated between sensible heat and...

  16. [Information on a wild rodent and marsupial collection from a "cerrado" region of Central Brazil (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, D A; Moojen, L E

    1979-09-01

    A list of wild rodents and marsupials from "cerrado" region captured in six conties of Goiás, Mato Grosso State and Federal District of Brasil, is presented. This list includes twenty-four rodent species and four marsupials species.

  17. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Pr...

  18. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  19. Aggregation studied by laser diffraction in relation to plowing and liming in the Cerrado region in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, R.; Buurman, P.; Griethuysen, van C.; Ayarza, M.; Vilela, L.; Zech, W.

    1999-01-01

    In the Cerrado savanna region in Brazil, the effects of different land use on axisol aggregation were studied using laser diffraction grain size analyses. The topsoil of plowed systems had significantly lower amount of macroaggregates (2000-194 μm) and a significantly higher amount of soil in the

  20. Diameter growth rates in tropical dry forests: contributions to the sustainable management of forests in the Bolivian Cerrado biogeographical province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, L.; Villalba, R.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth ring variations were used to provide the rates in diameter growth for seven tree species in the Bolivian Cerrado biogeographical province. Ten to 50 trees were measured per species. Ring width measurements provided accurate data on the rates of tree growth. Variations in growth rates were

  1. Quality of granola prepared with dried caju-do-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz) and baru almonds (Dipteryx alata Vog).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Priscila Laís C; Silva, Mara R

    2015-03-01

    The use of Brazilian Cerrado fruits and research into their nutritional potential are important for socioeconomic development and the sustainable preservation of the environment. The use of these fruits in products such as granola encourages the inclusion of healthier and more-natural foods in the diet. This study was undertaken to evaluate acceptability, microbiological, physical and nutritional characteristics and the stability of granola made from dried caju-do-cerrado and baru almonds. Granola containing Cerrado fruits had high levels of protein content (117.4 g/kg), dietary fiber (115.3 g/kg) and iron (32.1 mg/kg) and had lower moisture (57.0 g/kg), water activity (0.3), sodium (577.7 mg/kg), lipids (150.2 g/kg) and energy value (3952.2 kcal/kg) than did the control. After storage for 100 days, the granola presented adequate microbiological conditions, with acceptability scores higher than 7 assigned by 85.5 % to 95.2 % of the judges and a crunchy texture. The high nutritional potential of granola containing Cerrado fruits, coupled with its stability over 100 days of storage, may contribute to the appreciation and consumption of these fruits and meet the growing demand for healthier, more natural foods.

  2. The seasonal carbon and water balances of the Cerrado environment of Brazil: Past, present, and future influences of land cover and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Arielle Elias; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Coe, Michael T.

    2016-07-01

    The Brazilian savanna (known as Cerrado) is an upland biome made up of various vegetation types from herbaceous to arboreal. In this paper, MODIS remote sensing vegetation greenness from the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and evapotranspiration (ET) data for the 2000-2012 period were analyzed to understand the differences in the net primary productivity (NPP-proxy), carbon, and the evaporative flux of the major Cerrado natural and anthropic landscapes. The understanding of the carbon and evaporative fluxes of the main natural and anthropic vegetation types is of fundamental importance in studies regarding the impacts of land cover and land use changes in the regional and global climate. The seasonal dynamics of EVI and ET of the main natural and anthropic vegetation types of the Cerrado biome were analyzed using a total of 35 satellite-based samples distributed over representative Cerrado landscapes. Carbon and water fluxes were estimated for different scenarios, such as, a hypothetical unconverted Cerrado, 2002 and 2050 scenarios based on values derived from literature and on the PROBIO land cover and land use map for the Cerrado. The total growing season biomass for 2002 in the Cerrado region was estimated to be 28 gigatons of carbon and the evapotranspiration was 1336 gigatons of water. The mean estimated growing season evapotranspiration and biomass for 2002 was 576 Gt of water and 12 Gt of carbon for pasture and croplands compared to 760 Gt of water and 15 Gt of carbon for the Cerrado natural vegetation. In a modeled future scenario for the year 2050, the ET flux from natural Cerrado vegetation was 394 Gt less than in 2002 and 991 Gt less than in an unconverted scenario, with only natural vegetation, while the carbon was 8 Gt less than in 2002 and 21 Gt less than in this hypothetical pre-conversion Cerrado. On the other hand, the sum of the pasture and cropland ET flux increased by 405 Gt in 2050 relative to 2002 and the carbon by 11 Gt of carbon. Given the

  3. Diversidade taxonômica e formas de vida em cerrados hiperestacional e estacional no Brasil Central (Parque Nacional das Emas, GO).

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Aurélio da Silva

    2006-01-01

    As savanas, incluindo o cerrado, são caracterizadas por uma pronunciada estacionalidade, na qual a seca define o funcionamento da comunidade. No entanto, as savanas hiperestacionais experimentam, além da seca, um alagamento na estação chuvosa. Uma vez que o alagamento pode causar extinções locais de espécies intolerantes, nós nos perguntamos: As espécies de cerrado hiperestacional exibem estratégias de sobrevivência diferentes das espécies de cerrado estacional? O alagamento re...

  4. Influência do fogo no banco de sementes de áreas de cerrado com diferentes históricos de incêndio

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael de Oliveira Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Em comunidades altamente heterogêneas no tempo e espaço, tais como as de cerrado, é difícil identificar os processos e estratégias predominantes, assim como o efeito de eventuais perturbações. Tendo em vista a função de estruturação do fogo no cerrado, compreender o efeito dos incêndios no banco de sementes pode fornecer informações sobre o processo de regeneração. Nesse trabalho, buscamos identificar a influência do fogo sobre a estrutura do banco de sementes em duas áreas de cerrado sensu s...

  5. El derecho y la paz transformadora. El sentido de la estructura social en Talcott Parsons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gabriel Rodríguez de la Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El funcionalismo estructural de Talcott Parsons propone un sistema de acción que permite el análisis de la estructura social a partir de aspectos como la adaptación, la capacidad para alcanzar metas, la integración y la latencia. En este sentido, se encuentra una serie de subsistemas que permiten que una sociedad funcione. El derecho es uno de ellos, y cumple una función integradora; además, se convierte en un instrumento para el logro de objetivos sociales; se propone el concepto de paz transformadora como objetivo (valor cultural en la estructura social, y el derecho como medio idóneo para lograr la integración de los individuos a la estructura societal. Cabe resaltar que la paz transformadora es un proceso y un fin en sí misma, lo que permite que sea un objetivo de construcción participativa.

  6. KARL-OTTO APEL Y LA CRÍTICA DEL SENTIDO

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    Gustavo Salerno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo destaca el influjo que ejerce en Apel la llamada crítica del sentido desarrollada por Wittgenstein y Peirce. Reconstruimos los fundamentos del reconocimiento de un a priori lingüístico y de la radicalización semiótico-antropológica que conduce a la concepción de que el hombre puede entenderse como pensamiento-signo. Mostramos además cómo cree Apel que éste se halla inserto en el contexto de un medio supraindividual en el que forja su propia individualidad. Desde esta perspectiva, tiene que realizarse una transformación de la función sujeto en función intérprete de los signos, lo cual permite una nueva respuesta frente al problema de la intersubjetividad.

  7. La radio en la difusión universitaria. A la búsqueda de sentido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes de Quevedo Orozco

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Un panorama ideal de la radio universitaria en México sería contar con un amplio número de emisoras en el cuadrante, semejante al conjunto de los centros educativos profesionales del país. Ésta es la imagen del mundo al revés, como bien dice el escritor Eduardo Galeano en Patas arriba. Un mundo que nos enseña a padecer la realidad en lugar de cambiarla, a olvidar el pasado en lugar de escucharlo y a aceptar el futuro en lugar de imaginarlo. Este artículo presta oídos a algunas voces del pasado, con el fin de encontrar sentido a la situación presente de la radiodifusión universitaria. Lanza al aire algunas ideas para participar en la creación de un posible futuro hertziano.

  8. Esforço para compreensão do sentido do trágico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Mioto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Em prisma (representativo de um esforço inicial, tenta-se apreender algo do sentido do trágico clássico. Está a se resolver num próximo encadeamento o que se pode retirar de uma reflexão inicial como esta: o trágico, o mítico, o psicológico e o filológico, são todos tópicos que são humildemente tematizados neste texto; ora na dimensão de um Para-si que às vezes faz a sua vantagem.

  9. A constituição dos sujeitos e dos sentidos: do canibal, do homem desnaturado e do governante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria Viana Paim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo nos propomos a apresentar reflexões acerca da constituição dos sujeitos e dos sentidos no relato de viagem de Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Comentários, escrito em 1541 e publicado em 1555. Para tanto nos filiamos à perspectiva teórica da Análise de Discurso, fundada na França por Michel Pêcheux e institucionalizada no Brasil por Eni Orlandi. Neste estudo procuramos mostrar como podemos compreender a constituição mútua entre sujeito, sentido e história. Tratamos, assim, das relações de força que fundam os percursos de produção de sentido para uma sociedade como a nossa a partir de sequencias discursivas recortadas no relato em análise.

  10. SENTIDOS DO TRABALHO - UM ESTUDO EXPLORATÓRIO COM TRABALHADORES DO POLVILHO EM MINAS GERAIS

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    Lauisa Barbosa Pinto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo principal compreender o sentido do trabalho para trabalhadores das fábricas de polvilho de mandioca no sul de Minas Gerais. A mandioca é um produto fundamental para garantir a segurança alimentar de várias regiões do mundo, sendo a terceira fonte de calorias para a alimentação humana na região dos trópicos. Quanto à metodologia, trata-se de uma pesquisa de natureza quantitativa, exploratória e descritiva, cujos dados foram tratados por meio de estatística descritiva (distribuição frequência e média e duas técnicas multivariadas (análise de cluster e discriminante, utilizando-se o software SPSS no processamento dos dados. Quanto às expectativas e percepções sobre o trabalho (especificamente, o sentido do trabalho foi evidenciada a existência de dois grupos/perfis diferentes de trabalhadores. Sete variáveis discriminaram, significativamente, tais grupos: 1 Garantia das necessidades básicas (transporte/educação/saúde; 2 Oportunidades de aprendizado no trabalho; 3 Desenvolvimento das habilidades interpessoais; 4 Igualdade direitos; 5 Rotina/repetição de tarefas; 6 Boa comunicação com os chefes ou superiores e 7 Responsabilidade para superar os problemas do trabalho. Os resultados apresentados podem auxiliar na elaboração de programas de Gestão de Pessoas adequados à realidade dos trabalhadores das fábricas de polvilho em outras regiões nacionais e aos interesses organizacionais.

  11. BENVENISTE, LACAN E O ESTRUTURALISMO: SOBRE O SENTIDO ANTITÉTICO DAS PALAVRAS PRIMITIVAS

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    Bruno Focas Vieira MACHADO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende evidenciar determinados aspectos da leitura estruturalista de Benveniste sobre as fundamentações linguísticas encontradas em Freud, mais propriamente em seu texto “Sobre o sentido antitético das palavras primitivas”. Coloca-se em diálogo o artigo de Benveniste intitulado “Observações sobre a função da linguagem na descoberta freudiana” com as teorizações linguísticas apresentadas por Freud em seu texto supracitado. Busca-se, assim, uma interface entre os estudos linguísticos e psicanalíticos, problematizando a noção de língua primitiva trazida por Freud e confrontando-a com pressupostos da Linguística Estrutural defendida por Benveniste. A abordagem tecida é eminentemente teórica, buscando iluminar os pontos de divergência entre a concepção de linguagem na perspectiva de Freud e de Benveniste. Para atingir esse objetivo, buscou-se o estudo sobre a negação desenvolvida por Freud em seu texto “A negativa” e colocou-a em relação com as observações de Benveniste sobre o linguista Carl Abel, forte influência linguística no pensamento freudiano desenvolvido no texto “Sobre o sentido antitético das palavras primitivas”. Como conclusão, torna-se possível compreender que, se a língua é uma estrutura e um sistema, ela possui um caráter universal e a-histórico, o que contesta a tese freudiana sobre a existência de línguas primitivas.

  12. Cuidadores Principais Ante a Experiência da Morte: Seus Sentidos e Significados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Peres de Lima

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente trabalho teve como objetivo compreender os sentidos e significados atribuídos pelos cuidadores principais à experiência de acompanhamento de pacientes com câncer em Cuidados ao Fim de Vida. Com este intuito, foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativa exploratória, utilizando a observação participante como recurso metodológico. A análise de conteúdo foi utilizada como método de avaliação dos resultados, no qual a Teoria Existencialista de Viktor Frankl e a literatura contemporânea sobre Cuidados Paliativos serviram de substrato teórico à compreensão da temática em questão. Após a análise do diário de campo, foram extraídas cinco categorias temáticas: A espiritualidade atribuindo sentido à experiência; O tempo de espera; Morte como alívio do sofrimento; Revisão da história de vida; Incerteza quanto ao futuro. Foi possível perceber reações e sentimentos expostos pelos cuidadores, que, apesar do esgotamento físico e emocional, desejavam permanecer ao lado de seu familiar até sua morte. Entendemos que a comunicação da equipe ao cuidador sobre a aproximação da morte pode contribuir para o processo de elaboração psíquica desta vivência. A compreensão da experiência subjetiva do cuidador viabiliza uma abordagem efetiva da equipe às reais necessidades de cuidado do familiar.

  13. Usos e sentidos da voz no discurso político eleitoral brasileiro

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    Carlos Piovezani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A partir de considerações sobre a possibilidade, a especificidade e a produtividade de uma abordagem discursiva das relações entre sons e sentidos, o trabalho refl ete, inicialmente, sobre algumas funções da voz na constituição de efeitos de sentido no discurso político eleitoral brasileiro. Mais especificamente, são analisadas sequências discursivas extraídas do Horário Gratuito de Propaganda Eleitoral (HGPE das eleições presidenciais de 2002, por meio da descrição e interpretação de certos usos e efeitos dos segmentos, suprassegmentos e elementos prosódicos empregados em determinadas passagens de programas dos então candidatos, Lula e José Serra. Após essas análises, o estudo encerra-se com uma reflexão sobre um traço antropológico inscrito na voz humana, que congrega a razão e a sedução em suas modulações e com uma hipótese sobre uma espécie de nostalgia da voz ante a emergência de determinadas tecnologias de linguagem que supostamente a ameaçam. As refl exões e análises aqui desenvolvidas fundamentam-se na Análise do discurso, derivada dos trabalhos de Michel Pêcheux e seu grupo.

  14. Apreciación del sentido del humor en estudiantes universitarios

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    Gustavo Lara Rodriguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La apreciación del humor incluye varios procesos cognitivos y sociales. No se puede decir que dos comunidades se rían de los mismos chistes y que encuentren divertidos los mismos contenidos humorísticos. En este estudio se trabajaron las diferencias en la apreciación del sentido del humor en estudiantes universitarios y se hicieron comparaciones entre sexo y edad de los participantes. Para valorar la apreciación del sentido del humor se construyó un instrumento con 15 chistes escritos presentado a una muestra total de 81 estudiantes, divididos en tres grupos de edad. Los participantes debían valorar dos aspectos: la jocosidad y la dificultad de cada estímulo o viñeta humorística. Los chistes que demostraron diferencias significativas en jocosidad, es decir, que entre hombres y mujeres hubo diferencias en el grado de diversión del chiste, tienen una estructura particular marcada por un contenido descalificador hacia los hombres indicando, como lo señala la literatura sobre el tema, que los hombres se divierten más con el humor sexual y prefieren esta clase de chistes al igual que los chistes referidos a contenidos agresivos u hostiles, mientras que las mujeres se divierten más con las viñetas humorísticas cuando el hombre es la víctima y los rechazan más cuando la víctima es una mujer. En cuanto a la edad y la apreciación del humor, se pueden observar diferencias en el tipo de situaciones y contextos sociales valorados en los chistes, implicando relaciones entre los aspectos situacionales y humor.

  15. Eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium isoladas de solo do Cerrado em caupi Symbiotic efficiency of cowpea Bradyrhizobium strains in Cerrado soils

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    Jerri Édson Zilli

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as relações filogenéticas de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium e a contribuição destas estirpes para a fixação biológica de nitrogênio em caupi, em solos do Cerrado. Na avaliação da relação filogenética, o gene 16S rDNA de cada uma das estirpes foi amplificado e seqüenciado, e para a análise da eficiência simbiótica, determinou-se: N total, matéria seca das plantas, massa de nódulos e redução de acetileno, em casa de vegetação, e ocupação nodular, em experimento de campo. A maioria das estirpes estudadas pertence a B. elkanii e, pelo menos dez das estirpes, independentemente da espécie, apresentaram bom desempenho quanto à fixação biológica de N2. As estirpes BR3262, BR3280 (caracterizadas como B. elkanii e BR3267, BR3287 e BR3288 (Bradyrhizobium sp. mostram-se como inoculantes potenciais para o caupi, em razão do bom desempenho tanto na eficiência simbiótica quanto na ocupação nodular.The obejctive of this study was to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of Bradyrhizobium strains, and the contribution of these strains to cowpea biological nitrogen fixation in Cerrado soils. To elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among strains, their 16S rDNA gene was extracted, amplified and sequenced. In order to evaluate the symbiotic efficiency, total N, plant dry matter, nodular mass and acetylene reduction in a greenhouse experiment, and nodular occupation, in a field experiment, were determined. Most part of the strains belonge to B. elkanii, and at least ten of the analyzed strains, independently of the species, presented high capacity to fix N2. The strains BR3262, BR3280 (characterized as B. elkanii, BR3267, BR3287 and BR3288 (Bradyrhizobium sp. exhibit a potential as inoculant for cowpea, due to their high biological nitrogen fixation.

  16. Sistemas de cultivo no cerrado e dinâmica de populações de plantas daninhas Tillage systems in the cerrado and dinamics of weed populations

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    F.A.R. Pereira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de plantio direto, utilizando diferentes programas de rotação de culturas, de preparo convencional e de cultivo mínimo sobre a dinâmica de populações de plantas daninhas nas condições edafoclimáticas do cerrado. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos, sendo dois de plantio direto que constaram de programas de rotação constituídos por culturas de verão e de outono/inverno e dois em monocultivo, nos sistemas de preparo convencional e cultivo mínimo respectivamente. Avaliou-se a dinâmica das populações de plantas daninhas. A maior eficiência de controle cultural da comunidade infestante foi obtida com o sistema de plantio direto, por meio dos seguintes programas de rotação: (sorgo/soja - crotalária/milho - milheto/soja - milho safrinha/soja; (milho safrinha/soja - girassol/milho - sorgo/soja - girassol/milho e (guandu/soja - milheto/soja - milho safrinha/milho - girassol/soja.This research aimed to evaluate the effects of no-tillage systems using crop rotation variations, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage on the dynamics of weed populations in the cerrado region in Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, four replications and five treatments, (two no tillage treatments consisting of summer and fall/winter crop rotations and two single crop treatments under conventional tillage and minimum tillage. Weed population dynamics was evaluated. The results showed that the no-tillage system was the most efficient for weed control with the following programs: soybean/sorghum - Crotalaria/corn - millet/soybean, winter corn/soybean; (winter corn/soybean - sunflower/corn - sorghum/soybean - sunflower/corn and (Pigeon/pea/soybean - millet/soybean - winter corn/corn - sunflower/soybean .

  17. Falando de morte e da finitude no ambiente escolar: um estudo à luz do sentido da vida

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    Thiago Antonio Avellar de Aquino

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar as concepções da morte e suas repercussões para o sentido da vida entre os adolescentes. Para tanto, foi efetuada uma pesquisa-ação para abordar o tema da finitude partindo da concepção de Viktor Frankl sobre o sentido da vida e da morte. Contou-se com a participação de 17 estudantes do terceiro ano do ensino médio, a maioria do sexo feminino (52,9%, com idade média de 17 anos e amplitude de 15 a 24 anos. Os resultados foram obtidos por meio de cinco intervenções em sala de aula. Cada intervenção teve a duração média de 45 minutos, constituindo-se de questionamentos acerca da morte, do morrer e do sentido da vida. Em seguida, as respostas dos participantes foram submetidas a uma análise de conteúdo. No que se refere às representações da morte, emergiram três categorias: pensamentos, sentimentos e crenças. Sobre a compreensão do sentido da vida, os adolescentes responderam em duas direções: os sentidos subjetivos e sentidos objetivos. Quando refletiram sobre a própria morte, as suas respostas foram classificadas em termos de três categorias valorativas: vivenciais, atitudinais e criativos. No que se refere à pergunta “Como seria a vida se ninguém morresse?”, foram observados os seguintes tipos de argumentos: valorização da vida, corrigir erros do passado, resposta tautológica, resposta religiosa e dialética vida-morte. Os resultados mostraram a importância de tratar sobre o tema da finitude no âmbito escolar.

  18. Conservation biogeography of the Cerrado's wild edible plants under climate change: Linking biotic stability with agricultural expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Guilherme; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza; Terribile, Levi Carina; Dobrovolski, Ricardo; Telles, Mariana Pires de Campos; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola

    2015-06-01

    REMISE OF THE STUDY: Wild edible plants (WEPs) have an important cultural and economic role in human population worldwide. Human impacts are quickly converting natural habitats in agricultural, cattle ranch, and urbanized lands, putting native species on peril of risk of extinction, including some WEPs. Moreover, global climate changes also can pose another threat to species persistency. Here, we established conservation priorities for the Cerrado, a neotropical region in South America with high levels of plant endemism and vulnerability, aiming to assure long-term persistency of 16 most important WEPs. We evaluated these conservation priorities using a conservation biogeography framework using ecological patterns and process at a biogeographical scale to deal with species conservation features. We built ecological niche models for 16 WEPs from Cerrado in the neotropics using climate models for preindustrial, past (Last Glacial Maximum) and future (year 2080) time periods to establish climatically stable areas through time, finding refugias for these WEPs. We used a spatial prioritization algorithm based on the spatial pattern of irreplaceability across the neotropics, aiming to ensure the persistence of at least 25% of range size in climatically stable areas for each WEP, using agricultural models as constraints. The Southeast Cerrado was the most biotically stable and irreplaceable region for the WEPs compared with other areas across the neotropics. Our findings strongly suggest that the Southeast Cerrado should be considered a conservation priority, with new protected areas to be sustainably managed and restored, to guarantee the supply of cultural and ecosystem services provided from the Cerrado's WEPs. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  19. Combining multiple models to predict the geographical distribution of the Baru tree (Dipteryx alata Vogel) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabout, J C; Soares, T N; Diniz-Filho, J A F; De Marco Júnior, P; Telles, M P C; Naves, R V; Chaves, L J

    2010-11-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a biome of great biodiversity, but detailed information about the diversity and distribution of species in this region is still insufficient for both testing ecological hypotheses and for conservation purposes. Among native plants in the Cerrado, Dipteryx alata Vogel (commonly known as the "Baru" tree), has a high potential for exploitation. The aims of this paper were to predict the potential spatial distribution of D. alata in the Brazilian Cerrado utilising five different niche modelling techniques. These techniques usually provide distinct results, so it may be difficult to choose amongst them. To adjust for this uncertainty, we employ an ensemble forecasting approach to predict the spatial distribution of the Baru tree. We accumulated a total of 448 occurrence points and modelled the subsequent predicted occurrences using seven climatic variables. Five different presence-only ecological niche modelling techniques (GARP, Maxent, BIOCLIM, Mahalanobis Distance and Euclidean Distance) were used and the performance of these models was compared using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) and the Area Under the Curve (AUC). All models presented AUC values higher than 0.68, and GARP presented the highest AUC value, whereas Euclidean Distance presented the lowest. The ensemble forecasting approach suggested a high suitability for the occurrence of the Baru tree in the Central-Western region of the Brazilian Cerrado. Our study demonstrated that modelling species distribution using ensemble forecasting can be an important computational tool for better establishing sampling strategies and for improving our biodiversity knowledge to better identify priority areas for conservation. For the Baru tree, we recommend priority actions for conservation in the central region of the Cerrado Biome.

  20. Combining multiple models to predict the geographical distribution of the Baru tree (Dipteryx alata Vogel in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    JC. Nabout

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Cerrado is a biome of great biodiversity, but detailed information about the diversity and distribution of species in this region is still insufficient for both testing ecological hypotheses and for conservation purposes. Among native plants in the Cerrado, Dipteryx alata Vogel (commonly known as the "Baru" tree, has a high potential for exploitation. The aims of this paper were to predict the potential spatial distribution of D. alata in the Brazilian Cerrado utilising five different niche modelling techniques. These techniques usually provide distinct results, so it may be difficult to choose amongst them. To adjust for this uncertainty, we employ an ensemble forecasting approach to predict the spatial distribution of the Baru tree. We accumulated a total of 448 occurrence points and modelled the subsequent predicted occurrences using seven climatic variables. Five different presence-only ecological niche modelling techniques (GARP, Maxent, BIOCLIM, Mahalanobis Distance and Euclidean Distance were used and the performance of these models was compared using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC and the Area Under the Curve (AUC. All models presented AUC values higher than 0.68, and GARP presented the highest AUC value, whereas Euclidean Distance presented the lowest. The ensemble forecasting approach suggested a high suitability for the occurrence of the Baru tree in the Central-Western region of the Brazilian Cerrado. Our study demonstrated that modelling species distribution using ensemble forecasting can be an important computational tool for better establishing sampling strategies and for improving our biodiversity knowledge to better identify priority areas for conservation. For the Baru tree, we recommend priority actions for conservation in the central region of the Cerrado Biome.

  1. Mapas mentales, sentido de lugar y procesos migratorios: la comunidad mexicana en Albuquerque (Nuevo México)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristóbal Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    El artículo explora la relevancia de las experiencias y representaciones de los lugares, así como el sentido de lugar, para comprender los procesos migratorios y la toma de decisiones de los inmigrantes mexicanos en Albuquerque (Nuevo México). Metodológicamente, el artículo se centra en el análisis de los mapas mentales y de los discursos espaciales de los entrevistados. Resalta que los sentidos de lugar más arraigados se encuentran a nivel micro, de tal forma que algunos espacios públicos se...

  2. Sentidos das práticas corporais fora da escola para alunos dos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Machado Pinto; Jaison José Bassani; Alexandre Fernandez Vaz

    2012-01-01

    No presente trabalho são analisados balanços de saberes e questionários de 585 alunos da quarta série de 15 escolas da rede pública de Florianópolis-SC, objetivando compreender os sentidos atribuídos às práticas corporais aprendidas fora da escola. Nossos resultados revelam que: a) elementos socioculturais marcam o sentido das práticas corporais aprendidas fora da escola; b) as práticas corporais preferidas pelos alunos, extramuros escolares, são de caráter institucional, especialmente esport...

  3. O sentido de comunidade no contexto de trabalho de uma equipe de saúde multiprofissional hospitalar

    OpenAIRE

    Baasch, Cleonice Ines de Cesero

    2016-01-01

    O sentido de comunidade consiste na percepção das semelhanças com os outros, na identidade social compartilhada, na interdependência, na influência, na coesão e na união de um grupo, sendo esse um importante referencial nos estudos que envolvem a pesquisa de grupos de pessoas no contexto de trabalho. Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de compreender o sentido de comunidade no contexto de trabalho em uma equipe de saúde multiprofissional hospitalar, de um hospital público, no serviço ...

  4. El aula de clase, un espacio de relación con-sentido: Un estudio etnográfico

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal Arboleda, Ligia; García Gómez, María Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Educación y Desarrollo Humano). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas. CINDE, 2005 El presente trabajo de investigación tiene como directriz de motivación y ejecución los sentidos que la maestra y los/as estudiantes atribuyen a las relaciones interpersonales gestadas en el aula de clase. Los propósitos planteados para el desarrollo están enmarcados dentro de la configuración de los sentidos que la maestra y los/as estudiantes le at...

  5. THE ENORMOUS SENSE OF WHAT IS COMPLETELY VALUELESS O IMENSO SENTIDO DO QUE NÃO TEM NENHUM VALOR

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    Julio Cabrera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reply to PAULO MARGUTTI's paper "SENTIDO DA VIDA E VALOR DA VIDA: UMA DIFERENÇA CRUCIAL? (Discussão das idéias de Júlio Cabrera" published in PHILÓSOPHOS, V. 9, Nº 1, 2004.Esse artigo é uma réplica ao artigo de PAULO MARGUTTI intitulado: “SENTIDO DA VIDA E VALOR DA VIDA: UMA DIFERENÇA CRUCIAL? (Discussão das idéias de Júlio Cabrera” publicado na PHILÓSOPHOS, V. 9, Nº 1, 2004.

  6. Padrões espaciais e conservação da diversidade de serpentes do bioma cerrado - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.145 Spatial patterns and biodiversity conservation of snakes from Cerrado biome

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    Levi Carina Terribile

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Em geral, as tentativas para estabelecer áreas prioritárias para conservação no Cerrado têm sido baseadas em critérios subjetivos. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dados macroecológicos de distribuição de 129 espécies de serpentes distribuídas em 181 células com 1o de latitude/longitude do Cerrado para analisar padrões espaciais na riqueza e propor uma estratégia de conservação para essas espécies. Verificou-se que as cinco variáveis ambientais analisadas explicaram apenas 34,65% da variação na riqueza de serpentes do Cerrado. Para seleção de áreas prioritárias utilizando-se procedimentos de otimização, estabeleceu-se que 14 células são necessárias para representar todas as espécies pelo menos uma vez. Também foram incorporados ao modelo os padrões de ocupação humana no Cerrado, visando minimizar conflitos entre desenvolvimento e conservação, e neste caso as células concentram-se principalmente no sudoeste do bioma. Em função da falta geral de conhecimento sobre os padrões mais locais de distribuição de espécies no Cerrado, esses resultados devem ser considerados preliminares. De qualquer modo, o presente estudo, em escala biogeográfica, importante para estabelecer estratégias metodológicas e para fornecer uma visão ampla dos padrões de diversidade e de que regiões seriam mais importantes para sua conservação.Until recently, the conservation of Cerrado has been neglected and attempts to establish conservation priorities were usually based on subjective criteria. In this paper, macroecological data of distribution of 129 species of snakes in the Cerrado were used to evaluate spatial patterns in species richness and to establish a system of potential areas that preserves all snake species in the region. The five environment variables used as predictors explained only 34.65% of the variance in species richness. In order to establish conservation priorities, optimization procedures were used

  7. Compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutas nativas do cerrado

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    Wesley Silveira Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As frutas nativas do cerrado têm despertado ultimamente interesse crescente, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais aliadas ao potencial para agregar valor e conservar a biodiversidade deste bioma. Muitos compostos fenólicos apresentam capacidade antioxidante de neutralizar a atividade de radicais livres gerados no organismo, que estão associados a diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três soluções extratoras (acetona a 70 %, etanol a 95 % e metanol a 99,8 % e determinar os teores de compostos fenólicos em 10 espécies de frutas nativas do cerrado, utilizando o método de Folin-Ciocalteou para compostos fenólicos totais e o método da vanilina para taninos condensados. A acetona a 70 % mostrou-se como o melhor solvente extrator de compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutos de Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp., fenólicos totais de Brosimium gaudichaudii e taninos condensados de Jaracatia spinosa. O etanol a 95 % foi mais eficiente na extração de fenólicos totais de Jaracatia spinosa e taninos condensados de Brosimium gaudichaudii; o metanol a 99,8 % foi mais eficiente na extração de taninos condensados de Eugenia dysenterica. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 90 e 327 mg de ácido gálico equivalente por 100g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. punicifolia, respectivamente. Os teores de taninos condensados variaram entre 4 e 291 mg de catequina equivalente por 100 g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. calcyna, respectivamente. As espécies de frutas do cerrado, avaliadas neste estudo, podem ser consideradas boas fontes de compostos fenólicos totais, sendo que a natureza específica dos diferentes tipos deve ser avaliada em estudos futuros.

  8. Bud composition, branching patterns and leaf phenology in cerrado woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damascos, M A; Prado, C H B A; Ronquim, C C

    2005-11-01

    Plants have complex mechanisms of aerial biomass exposition, which depend on bud composition, the period of the year in which shoot extension occurs, branching pattern, foliage persistence, herbivory and environmental conditions. The influence of water availability and temperature on shoot growth, the bud composition, the leaf phenology, and the relationship between partial leaf fall and branching were evaluated over 3 years in Cerrado woody species Bauhinia rufa (BR), Leandra lacunosa (LL) and Miconia albicans (MA). Deciduous BR preformed organs in buds and leaves flush synchronously at the transition from the dry to the wet season. The expansion time of leaves is <1 month. Main shoots (first-order axis, A1 shoots) extended over 30 d and they did not branch. BR budding and foliage unfolds were brought about independently of inter-annual rainfall variations. By contrast, in LL and MA evergreen species, the shoot extension rate and the neoformation of aerial organs depended on rainfall. Leaf emergence was continuous for 2-6 months and lamina expansion took place over 1-4 months. The leaf life span was 5-20 months and the main A1 shoot extension happened over 122-177 d. Both evergreen species allocated biomass to shoots, leaves or flowers continuously during the year, branching in the middle of the wet season to form second-order (A2 shoots) and third-order (A3 shoots) axis in LL and A2 shoots in MA. Partial shed of A1 shoot leaves would facilitate a higher branching intensity A2 shoot production in LL than in MA. MA presented a longer leaf life span, produced a lower percentage of A2 shoots but had a higher meristem persistence on A1 and A2 shoots than LL. It was possible to identify different patterns of aerial growth in Cerrado woody species defined by shoot-linked traits such as branching pattern, bud composition, meristem persistence and leaf phenology. These related traits must be considered over and above leaf deciduousness for searching functional guilds in a

  9. Ruderal plants in remaining Cerrado areas: floristic survey, origin and mycorrhization

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Neto, Maria; de Cássia Brassaloti Otsubo, Helena; Luciene Maltoni, Kátia; Rodrigues Cassiolato, Ana Maria

    2015-04-01

    The urbanization process creates new ecosystems that harbor flora which has specialized in living in anthropogenically altered environments, since the advent of agriculture and urbanization. Plant specialization in new ecosystems has been due to accelerated population growth and extensive occupied spaces on the planet surface. This study was looking at the floristic survey and origin, as well as arbuscular mycorrhization of ruderal plants, in remaining Cerrado areas in the city of Três Lagoas-MS, Brazil. It was also to expand knowledge about native and introduced vegetation in anthropogenic environments. The survey was conducted for a year. From all species ruderal plants founded, plants from 49 species were collected with the purpose of this study and report the occurrence or not of AM colonization, by classifying root colonization, of the species as: very high; high; medium; low and absent when presented a index of colonization> 80%, 79-50%, 49-20%, 19-1% and 0%, respectively. Two hundred sixty-six species, distributed into 53 botanical families were found. The flora of Três Lagoas-MS is composed of native and exotic plants (82.72% from the Americas and 17.28% from the Old World and Australia). There were 220 species native to the America's, but the largest amount (60.45%) were Brazil native growing plants. Smaller percentage of this (28.63%) was found to come from the cerrado, which indicates that the ruderal vegetation was well represented by native species. Of the 49 species chosen for verification of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, 27 exhibited very high colonization; two were high; two were medium; eleven were low and seven species showed no mycorrhizal colonization, leading to the conclusion that most ruderal plants showed mycorrhizal colonization. The soil fertility, for both area, were considered higher than the typical cerrado, and by the average number of AMF spores (152 per 100 g of dry soil-1) may not even be considered degraded. This urban

  10. Pristine aquatic systems in a Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Bárbara Medeiros; de Mendonça-Galvão, Luciana

    2014-12-01

    The maintenance of limnological monitoring programs in the Cerrado Domain is crucial as a provision of useful information about temporal variations in land use and their respective water quality responses, considering its importance as water source for different Brazilian hydrographic basins. The purpose of this research was to describe limnological variables of low-order lotic systems located in the Cerrado Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site (Environmental Protection Area (APA) Gama and Cabeça de Veado, Federal District of Brazil). Altogether, nine different streams were considered in this study. Samplings were conducted between 2010 and 2012, concentrated in the dry and rainy seasons. The sampling sites were generally characterized by low nutrient concentrations (e.g., medians, TP = 14.8 μg L(-1), TN = 20.0 μg L(-1), NO3 = 13.8 μg L(-1)) and slightly acidic waters (median, pH = 5.3), with quite low electrical conductivity values (median = 6.4 μS cm(-1)). However, water quality degradation as a response to diffuse pollution was reported in some sampling points (e.g., Onça and Gama streams), expressed by relatively higher N and P concentrations, which were probably highlighted by the good water quality of the data set as whole. Although there was a trend to higher values of nitrogen forms during the dry season, significant statistical differences between the seasonal periods were reported only for the variables temperature and dissolved silica, which were higher in the dry and rainy season, respectively. The streams located in the preserved areas inside the ecological stations of APA Gama and Cabeça de Veado can still be considered good examples of reference lotic systems in the Cerrado Domain; notwithstanding, this study reported incipient signs of water quality degradation which cannot be overlooked in future limnological monitoring.

  11. Allelopathic evidence in Brachiaria decumbens and its potential to invade the Brazilian Cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gorgone Barbosa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to look for evidence of allelochemicals in B. decumbens, in parts of the plant from where they could easily be released to the environment. The germination inhibition of Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (standard species and Melinis minutiflora, another invasive African grass, was tested using B. decumbens germinating seeds and aqueous leachates of the roots, green and senescent leaves, at 5, 10 and 20% w/v. Both the germinating seeds and the aqueous leachates of B. decumbens reduced the germination of the species tested; the effectiveness of the aqueous leachates increased according to concentration. Apparently, the competitive advantage of B. decumbens in the cerrados could be amplified via allelopathy.Invasão biológica é uma das maiores causas atuais da perda de biodiversidade. Várias espécies que se tornam invasoras produzem substâncias fitotóxicas que aumentam sua capacidade competitiva; assim, a alelopatia é uma estratégia capaz de potencializar o sucesso de invasão. Brachiaria decumbens, uma gramínea africana, invadiu os cerrados brasileiros e representa, atualmente, uma séria ameaça à biota regional. Neste ensaio, verificamos a presença de aleloquímicos em partes de B. decumbens das quais poderiam ser facilmente liberados para o ambiente. Testamos a inibição da germinação de Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (espécies padrão e Melinis minutiflora (outra gramínea africana invasora usando sementes de B. decumbens e soluções aquosas lixiviadas de suas raízes, folhas verdes e folhas senescentes, a 5, 10 e 20% de peso do material por volume de água. Tanto as sementes como as soluções lixiviadas de decumbens reduziram a germinação das outras espécies; a eficiência dos lixiviados aumentou de acordo com a concentração da solução. Acreditamos que a grande vantagem competitiva de B. decumbens no cerrado possa ser amplificada pela alelopatia.

  12. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francinaldo S

    2012-06-01

    The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees were collected monthly from October 2007 to May 2009, in the Reserva Florestal da Itamacaoca belonging to the Companhia de Agua e Esgoto do Maranhão, in Chapadinha municipality, Maranhão State. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin were utilized, between 07:00 and 17:00hr, to attract the euglossine males. Cotton balls were dampened with the scents and suspended by a string on tree branches 1.5m above soil level, set 8m from one another. The specimens were captured with entomological nets, killed with ethyl acetate and transported to the laboratory to be identified. A total of 158 individuals and 14 species of bees were recorded. The genus Eulaema was the most representative group of euglossine bees in relation to the total number of the sampled individuals, accounting for 50.6% of bees followed by Euglossa (26.6%), Eufriesea (15.2%) and Exaerete (7.6%). The most frequent species were Eulaema nigrita (27.8%), Eulaema cingulara (19%) and Euglossa cordata (18.3%). Many species typical of forested environments were found in samples, like Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons and Eulaema meriana, emphasizing the role played by the Gallery Forests as bridge sites to connect the two great biomes of Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. The occurrence of Exaerete guaykuru represents the second record of this species for the Neotropical region, and both records coming from the Gallery Forest zones. The male euglossine bees were sampled mainly in the dry season, where 62.5% of the

  13. Influence of cerrado fragments in the distribution of mites in rubber tree crop; Influencia de fragmentos de cerrado na distribuicao de acaros em seringal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demite, Peterson R. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Animal; Plantacoes E. Michelin Ltda., Itiquira, MT (Brazil)]. E-mail: peterson_demite@yahoo.com.br; Feres, Reinaldo J.F. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia e Botanica]. E-mail: reinaldo@ibilce.unesp.br

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study was to verify whether fragments of cerrado influence the composition of the mite fauna on rubber trees. Five transects distant 50 m, being the first in the edge near the native areas and the last 200 m inside the crop, were established in each rubber tree crop in southern State of Mato Grosso. In each transect five plants were chosen, and seven leaves were collected from each plant. During one year, 25 quantitative samplings were conducted in two rubber tree crops. The lowest number of phytophagous mites occurred in the transect closer to the native vegetation, and the highest number, in the most distant from the native vegetation. The largest diversity was also observed in the transect closer to the neighboring vegetation. Ten species of predatory mites were also registered in neighboring native areas. These data suggest the movement of predatory mites from the native areas to the mono culture. These natural areas can possibly supply alternative food and habitat for natural enemies of phytophagous mites in the period of food scarceness in the rubber tree crop. The presence of native areas close to culture areas should be taken into account in the elaboration of programs of ecological management of pests. (author)

  14. Qualidade física de um Latossolo Vermelho sob sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária no Cerrado Soil physical quality under crop-livestock management systems in a Cerrado Oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robélio Leandro Marchão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária sobre atributos físico-hídricos do solo e avaliar o potencial uso desses atributos como indicadores da qualidade física de um Latossolo. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas 0-5, 10-15, 20-25 e 40-45 cm. Todos os sistemas de uso e manejo do solo alteraram significativamente a densidade, umidade volumétrica, resistência à penetração, porosidade total, macroporosidade, microporosidade efetiva e água prontamente disponível do solo. Foram observados incrementos na resistência à penetração e na densidade do solo em todos os sistemas em comparação ao cerrado nativo. A compactação resultante do pisoteio animal durante quatro anos da fase pastagem, nos sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária, não atingiu valores críticos, que pudessem limitar cultivos anuais subseqüentes. A porosidade total e a macroporosidade foram maiores no cerrado e nos sistemas em plantio direto em relação aos em preparo convencional. Os atributos avaliados são indicadores confiáveis da qualidade físico-hídrica do solo.The objective of this work was to analyze the effect of integrated crop-livestock systems on soil hydraulic properties, and test the potential use of these properties as physical quality indicators of a Cerrado Oxisol. The field study was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil, considering soil layers of: 0-5, 10-15, 20-25 and 40-45 cm. Crop-livestock systems caused significant changes in soil bulk density, volumetric soil-water content, soil penetration resistance, total porosity, macroporosity, effective microporosity, unsaturated pores and available water. An increase was observed in both soil resistance and bulk density for all systems in comparison to the cerrado. However, higher soil resistance did not appear as a limiting factor for annual crops growth in a rotation sequence. Total porosity and macroporosity were

  15. Comparação do estoque de C estimado em pastagens e vegetação nativa de Cerrado / Comparison of the estimated C stock in pastures and native Cerrado vegetation

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    Jussara Santos Rosendo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As mudanças climáticas constituem uma ameaça para o meio ambiente e para o desenvolvimento sustentável no mundo. São causadas pelo aumento do efeito estufa acima do nível desejável, principalmente devido aos gases CO2, CH4 e N2O na atmosfera, sendo o CO2 o mais abundante. Os solos são reconhecidamente importantes sumidouros de gases do efeito estufa, especialmente para o CO2. O principal objetivo deste artigo foi comparar o estoque de carbono armazenado em solos sob pastagens e solos sob vegetação nativa de cerrado, na bacia hidrográfica do rio Araguari- MG. A metodologia da pesquisa envolveu as seguintes etapas: seleção das áreas ocupadas com pastagens e Cerrado; coleta de amostrasde solo para determinação do estoque de carbono e análises de laboratório. Com apoio de imagens do sensor TM/Landsat5, foram coletadas amostras de solo em campo sob pastagem de brachiaria melhorada, pastagem de brachiaria degradada e cerrado, nas profundidades de 0 a 20 cm e 20 a 40 cm. Os resultados alcançados mostraram que a pastagem melhorada para a camada de 0 a 20 cm apresentou estoque de carbono de 43,92 Mg C ha-1, enquanto o cerrado 38,05 Mg C ha-1 e a pastagem degradada 34,63 Mg C ha-1, ao passo que à profundidade 20 a 40 cm, a pastagem melhorada atingiu 33,5 Mg C ha-1, o cerrado 26,80 Mg C ha-1 e a pastagem degradada 27,51 Mg C ha-1, o que permite concluir que pastagens bem estabelecidas e manejadas, podem contribuir no aumento da taxa de sequestro de carbono pelo solo.Entretanto, a falta de correção do solo, de adubação de manutenção, de controle de processos erosivos e de manejo adequado, com excesso de lotação (sobrepastejo têm levado a um estágio de degradação das pastagens cultivadas, o que compromete a capacidade das mesmas de seqüestrar carbono.Palavras-chave: estoque de C nos solos, pastagens, Cerrado.

  16. Geração de padrões de cortes bidimensionais guilhotinados restritos via programação dinâmica e busca em grafo-e/ou Generation of constrained two-dimensional guillotine cutting patterns via dynamic programming and and/or-graph search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Morabito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Um método heurístico para geração de padrões de cortes bidimensionais guilhotinados restritos, baseado no método exato de Christofides e Hadjiconstantinou (1995 foi proposto em Silveira e Morabito (2002. O método combina uma relaxação do espaço de estados de uma formulação de programação dinâmica, um procedimento do tipo otimização do subgradiente e uma heurística de factibilização. Neste trabalho, o método de Silveira e Morabito é modificado com a utilização de uma heurística de factibilização mais efetiva que a anterior, e com uma abordagem de busca em grafo-e/ou para geração de boas soluções iniciais. Resultados computacionais de exemplos da literatura e gerados aleatoriamente indicam que o método refinado tem desempenho bem superior ao anterior, e é competitivo diante de outros métodos propostos na literatura.A heuristic method for generating constrained two-dimensional guillotine cutting patterns based on the exact method by Christofides and Hadjiconstantinou (1995 was presented in Silveira and Morabito (2002. The method combines a state space relaxation of a dynamic programming formulation, a subgradient optimization procedure and an inner heuristic that turn infeasible solutions provided in each step of the optimization procedure into feasible solutions. In this work, the method of Silveira and Morabito is modified by using a more effective inner heuristic, and an and/or-graph search approach in order to generate good initial solutions. Results for benchmark and randomly generated instances indicate that the refined method's performance is superior to the previous one, and it is competitive face to other methods proposed in the literature.

  17. Armazenamento caseiro de medicamentos por usuários restritos ao domicílio da área de abrangência do Centro de Saúde Jaqueline I, Regional Norte, Município de Belo Horizonte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Silva de CASTILHO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo investigou o estoque caseiro de medicamentos de todos os indivíduos restritos ao domicílio de um Centro de Saúde em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. As variáveis sociodemográficas e econômicas dos pacientes; o tipo de medicamento, sua validade e o local de armazenamento foram coletados por meio de um questionário. Uma análise descritiva foi realizada. Foram visitados 43 pacientes em 42 casas, com predominância de mulheres (67,44%, idosos (72,10%, com baixa renda familiar (67,42% recebiam até 3 salários mínimos. Os medicamentos mais encontrados foram para os sistemas nervoso e cardiovascular, para o metabolismo e trato alimentar. Apenas um (2,4% lar não apresentava medicamento estocado. Do total de 14.385 doses/unidades encontradas, 12.346 (85,8% eram de uso contínuo e 2.966 (20,6% foram consideradas como inapropriadas para o consumo. O estoque de medicamentos encontrado coaduna com as patologias crônico-degenerativas apresentadas. O volume de unidades/doses encontradas mostrou uma diferença entre a quantidade de medicamento dispensada e a real utilização pelo paciente. Uma estratégia de controle deste volume de medicamentos pode trazer benefícios para o paciente, economia para o serviço e controle do descarte de medicamentos inapropriados para uso.

  18. Reproductive biology and food habits of Pseudoboa nigra (Serpentes: Dipsadidae from the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Paula Orofino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein we provide data on body size, sexual size dimorphism,reproductive cycle, and food habits of the pseudoboini snake Pseudoboa nigra, which is distributed mainly in central South America throughout the Cerrado domain. Based on dissections of 147 preserved specimens, it is shown that females attain, and mature at,larger body sizes than males. There is no significant sexual dimorphism in head length, but males have longer tails relative to their body sizes. Vitellogenesis, egg-laying, and sperm production occur throughout the year, but males do not exhibit long-term sperm storage. The main prey of P. nigra is lizards; there is no evidence of ontogenetic change or sex differences in the diet of this species.

  19. Seasonality of pathogenic fungi in mites of rubber tree plantations adjacent to fragments of Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PR. Demite

    Full Text Available Fungi are the most frequently observed pathogens of mite populations, helping to control them on different crops. Twenty-five samples of leaves were collected from rubber tree plantations adjacent to two fragments of Cerrado vegetation. Each rubber tree plantation had 25 plants selected for sampling and seven leaves from around each tree top were collected up to seven to eight meters above ground. Approximately 250 individuals of Calacarus heveae Feres, Phyllocoptruta seringueirae Feres, and Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, collected randomly, were mounted from each plantation. Hirsutella thompsoni Fisher was observed on all three mites and T. heveae was the most infected species. The highest infestation levels occurred from November to February (rainy season. In the dry season, infestation levels were below 5%. Hirsutella thompsonii has potential to be used as mycoacaricide during the rainy season.

  20. Description of Karyotype of Kerodon acrobata, an endemic rodent in Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappes, I A; Portella, A S; Lessa, G M

    2014-02-01

    Kerodon acrobata is a caviidae rodent endemic from Brazilian Cerrado. It was described only in 1997 and the data about it is very scarce. The aim of this work was to characterize the karyotype of K. acrobata. Giemsa staining, nucleolar organizer region (NOR) banding, C-positive heterochromatin banding and DAPI fluorescence were used in N metaphases of a specimen collected in Asa Branca Farm, in Aurora do Tocantins municipality, Tocantins state, Brazil. K. acrobata showed the same diploid number, fundamental number and chromosome morphology as Kerodon rupestris. But its NOR location and heterochromatin distribution patterns indicated a unique cytogenetic profile when compared to its sister species, emphasizing the evolutionary uniqueness of this relatively new and unknown species. This record also extends the distribution of this species northward.

  1. Near-field emission profiling of tropical forest and Cerrado fires in Brazil during SAMBBA 2012

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    A. K. Hodgson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We profile trace gas and particulate emissions from near-field airborne measurements of discrete smoke plumes in Brazil during the 2012 biomass burning season. The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA Project conducted during September and October 2012 sampled across two distinct fire regimes prevalent in the Amazon Basin. Combined measurements from a Compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS and a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2 are reported for the first time in a tropical biomass burning environment. Emissions from a mostly smouldering tropical forest wildfire in Rondônia state and numerous smaller flaming Cerrado fires in Tocantins state are presented. While the Cerrado fires appear to be representative of typical fire conditions in the existing literature, the tropical forest wildfire likely represents a more extreme example of biomass burning with a bias towards mostly smouldering emissions. We determined fire-integrated modified combustion efficiencies, emission ratios and emission factors for trace gas and particulate components for these two fire types, alongside aerosol microphysical properties. Seven times more black carbon was emitted from the Cerrado fires per unit of fuel combustion (EFBC of 0.13 ± 0.04 g kg−1 compared to the tropical forest fire (EFBC of 0.019 ± 0.006 g kg−1, and more than 6 times the amount of organic aerosol was emitted from the tropical forest fire per unit of fuel combustion (EFOM of 8.00 ± 2.53 g kg−1, EFOC of 5.00 ± 1.58 g kg−1 compared to the Cerrado fires (EFOM of 1.31 ± 0.42 g kg−1, EFOC of 0.82 ± 0.26 g kg−1. Particulate-phase species emitted from the fires sampled are generally lower than those reported in previous studies and in emission inventories, which is likely a combination of differences in fire combustion efficiency and fuel mixture, along with different measurement techniques. Previous

  2. Estudo fitoquímico de espécies arbóreas do cerrado

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    Carla Soares Godinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar os constituintes químicos dos extratos de folhas e cascas de sete espécies arbóreas do Cerrado, isto é, materiais vegetais compostos de folhas e cascas de plantas adultas de Brosimum gaudichauddi, Eugenia dysenterica, Astronium fraxinifolium, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum paniculatum e Anacardium humile. Os procedimentos para extração e identificação dos constituintes químicos foram adotados em função da classe química. Assim, observaram-se resultados positivos para flavonóides, taninos, antraquinonas, alcalóides, catequinas, saponinas, polissacarídeos, e ácidos orgânicos. A. humile foi a única planta a apresentar todas as substâncias analisadas. As espécies arbóreas estudadas apresentaram alto potencial medicinal e farmacológico.

  3. Mammalia, Estacao Ecologica do Panga, a Cerrado protected area in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

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    Bruna, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a species list of the mammals of the Estação Ecológica do Panga, a 404 ha Cerrado reserve in MinasGerais state, Brazil. Using methods ranging from camera traps to direct observations, we documented 46 species in thereserve. Among medium and large-sized mammals, the order Carnivora was the most commonly observed (N=12 species.The highest relative frequencies of observation were of Mazama guazoubira and Cerdocyon thous. Pecari tajacu was themost frequent species in camera traps. Over the course of 7320 trap nights there were 105 captures of small mammals fromseven species, with an overall capture rate of 1.6 %. The highest capture rates were for the marsupial Gracilinanus agilis,with Calomys tener the most commonly caught rodent. Our survey suggests that many of the Cerrado’s mammal species canpersist in landscapes that are a mosaic of natural areas and some types of agriculture.

  4. Elbella luteizona (Mabille, 1877 (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae: Pyrginae in Brazilian Cerrado: larval morphology, diet, and shelter architecture

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    Cintia Lepesqueur

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined temporal variation in the abundance of immature stages of Elbella luteizona (Hesperiidae and describes the morphology and behavior of the larvae on their host plants, Byrsonima coccolobifolia and Myrsine guianensis. Five hundred sixty-eight 10 m diameter plots were searched for caterpillars in the Brazilian Cerrado over a period of one year. We inspected 5968 host plants, and found 31 eggs and 262 larvae on 244 plants. Similar numbers of immatures were found in both species of host plants. The abundance of immature stages varied monthly and was significantly higher in the dry season on both host plants, which may be due to the low density of natural enemies during that time. E. luteizona is univoltine, and larvae present relatively little morphological variation. However, during development, substantial changes occur in the architecture of leaf shelters that caterpillars construct. In addition, E. luteizona larvae develop very slowly, taking more than 300 days to complete metamorphosis.

  5. Resistance of soybean genotipes of the cerrado region to rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Luís Antônio Siqueira de; Juliatti, Fernando Cezar; Barreto, Modesto

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo, quantificar a resistência à Phakopsora pachyrhizi em 50 genótipos de soja na região do cerrado. Foi conduzido em Uberlândia, MG , um experimento em casa de vegetação, durante o período de janeiro a julho de 2004. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros de resistência: período latente médio, número médio de pústulas por cm² e severidade da ferrugem. Com base nesses parâmetros, calculou-se a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença. Após, análise de va...

  6. Combinação de métodos paramétricos e não-paramétricos para estudo da estabilidade de cultivares de soja no Cerrado Tocantinense

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    Aristoteles Capone

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse estudo avaliar a viabilidade da combinação de métodos paramétrico e não-paramétricos para inferir acerca da estabilidade de cultivares de soja no cerrado tocantinense. Para isso utilizou-se os dados de ensaios de competição conduzidos em quatro ambientes nas safras de 2009/10 e 2010/11 e na entressafra de 2010. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. As estimativas de estabilidade foram obtidas pelo método paramétrico sugerido por Livorenti e Matsuoka e pelos métodos não-paramétricos propostos por Huenh e Fox. Pelo método paramétrico, os cultivares M8766, M9056, P98Y70RR, M9144RR, JulianaRR e BRS8560RR acumularam o maior número de sinais positivos nos ambientes avaliados, sendo que os dois últimos apresentaram sinal negativo em um ambiente. Pela metodologia não-paramétrica foram discriminados como produtivos e estáveis apenas os quatro primeiros cultivares. Neste sentido, houve concordância na discriminação de cultivares produtivos e estáveis por ambos os métodos, desde que desconsiderados aqueles que apresentam sinal negativo entre os ambientes avaliados.  Assim, a combinação dessas metodologias além de apresentar simples aplicabilidade, mostra-se viável para inferir acerca da estabilidade e produtividade de cultivares de soja para o estado do Tocantins.Combination of parametric and nonparametric methods for stability study of soybean cultivars in the from Cerrado TocantinenseAbstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of combining parametric and nonparametric methods to infer about the stability of soybean cultivars in the cerrado from Tocantins state. Were used data from competition experiments conducted in four environments in crop 2009/10 and 2010/11 and between crop of 2010. A randomized block design were used with four replications. Estimates of stability were obtained by the parametric method suggested by Livorenti and Matsuoka

  7. Normas, sentido de comunidad y colectivismo comunal en un contexto de edificios en altura

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    Yung Yau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La disposición de los residentes a intervenir es un determinante crucial en lo que respecta a la habitabilidad de sus barrios. En ciudades que cuentan con edificios en altura, los acuerdos de propiedad de la mayoría de las viviendas privadas requieren del colectivismo entre vecinos respecto a una gran cantidad de temas comunales. El influyente teorema de Mancur Olson sobre el parasitismo sugiere que una acción colectiva no puede ser iniciada o sostenida si esta no prueba ser beneficiosa para cada una de las personas involucradas. Sin embargo, gran parte de los residentes de barrios en altura están activamente involucrados en acciones colectivas; este fenómeno requiere de una explicación frente a la desviación que ocurre en relación a la predicción teórica. Con el objetivo de comprender por qué algunas personas están dispuestas a participar y otras no, este estudio analiza los resultados de una encuesta estructurada, realizada a residentes de viviendas privadas en Hong Kong. Si bien el modelo de interés colectivo sirve como un punto de partida teórico para este estudio sobre participación de residentes en asuntos vecinales, el foco de este análisis está puesto en la importancia de las normas y el sentido de comunidad dentro del colectivismo comunal. Dada la recurrente producción de bienes públicos para un barrio (limpieza y seguridad pública, se espera que los residentes participen en repetidos "juegos de acción colectiva". De acuerdo a algunos teóricos, las normas sociales juegan un papel importante en la definición del comportamiento colectivo de las personas, especialmente en estos juegos de repetición. Los resultados del análisis muestran que, además de los frecuentemente citados costos y beneficios selectivos, las normas sociales y el sentido de comunidad son importantes determinantes de colectivismo comunal en viviendas de gran altura en Hong Kong. Los resultados de esta investigación proporcionan pol

  8. CULTURAS POPULARES: TRAJETÓRIAS CONCEITUAIS E CONSTRUÇÕES DE SENTIDO

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    Thiago Paulino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Partindo do princípio que os conceitos surgem de realidades construídas por atores sociais, o presente artigo pretende fazer um levantamento e discussão a respeito de alguns conceitos de cultura popular, observando seus diversos sentidos e contextos históricos em que foram construídos. Inicialmente será apresentada a abordagem dos românticos e folcloristas no contexto Europeu como os Irmãos Grimm e Willian John Thoms e posteriormente a evolução do conceito no Brasil, através de alguns “folcloristas” Brasileiros. Também é trabalhada a relação de Mário de Andrade com a investigação das manifestações populares na busca do “substrato” de um “Brasil mais profundo”. Em seguida é demonstrado como o termo adquiriu sentidos de instrumento ideológico no contexto politico da década de 60 durante o Regime Militar no Brasil através de movimentos como os Centros Populares de Cultura ou os Movimentos de Cultura Popular. E por fim é observada a relação com os estudos contemporâneos de cultura nos quais se abordam termos como “entre-lugar” e “hibridismo”. Atores como Canclini, Bhabha e Hall apontam direções de olhares sobre o mundo de hoje suas contradições e conflitos quando se fala em cultura e poder. Para melhor entendimento dos diversos significados por trás da “cultura popular” foi feito um levantamento bibliográfico e de contextos históricos onde estava situado cada conceito. Essa discussão se torna extremamente pertinente para entender os usos e as relações de poder por trás deste conceito polissêmico. Isso provoca o próprio entendimento de como são tratados os segmentos populares e suas manifestações criativas. Manifestações essas que permitem narrar seus cotidiano e demonstrar seu protagonismo social.

  9. Para reconstruir el sentido que tiene el intento de desconstruir las ciencias sociales

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    Manuel Martín Serrano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A finales de los años ochenta ya estaban configurados los rasgos distintivos del pensamiento contrautópico que se correspondía con los intereses y con la visión del mundo, del nuevo imperialismo globalizante. Reaparece una concepción del hombre, de la sociedad y de la cultura semejante a la que se anticipó a la primera revolución industrial. La contrautopía preindustrial se llamó Progresismo. La contrautopía globalizante, Postmodernismo. Ambas mitologías corresponden a coyunturas históricas equivalentes, y se han utilizado para legitimar políticas comparables. Anuncian que los movimientos sociales ya son incapaces de transformar la historia y que resultan inútiles, porque de cambiar las formas de vida se van a encargar las nuevas tecnologías. Cada vez que han reaparecido estos modelos tecnocráticos de la acción social, también lo han hecho las ideologías desconstructoras, cuya propuesta consiste en cancelar todos los paradigmas mayores de las ciencias sociales para sustituirlos por otros particulares. Ese propósito de desconstruir las ciencias sociales es una reconstrucción. Se ha intentado cuantas veces la memoria histórica, que también está en la Teoría, representaba un obstáculo para el dominio y la mistificación. Por lo tanto, tiene un sentido que puede ser desvelado, reconstruido. Ofrece otra evidencia más de que la historia sigue y a veces se repite. Para mostrar ese sentido, el autor utiliza precisamente los análisis sociohistóricos que no les gustan a quienes aseguran que la historia ya se ha acabado. Algunas factorías mediáticas y académicas dedicadas a esa labor desconstructora llevan en el empeño un cuarto de siglo. Pero no hay indicios de que los paradigmas particulares sean una alternativa para entender por qué y cómo está cambiando el mundo en la forma en la que actualmente lo está haciendo. El autor concluye que los objetos de estudio que se quisieron dar por desaparecidos siguen existiendo y

  10. Género en transición: sentido común, mujeres y guerra

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    Kimberly Theidon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo utilizo la investigación que conduje desde 1995 en Perú a fin de explorar las comisiones de verdad y algunas implicancias en relación con las mujeres y la guerra. Me interesa examinar lo que constituye las estrategias de investigación "sensibles al género", como también los modos en los cuales las comisiones de verdad han incorporado estas estrategias dentro de su trabajo. Verdad y memoria son categorías que, de hecho, están atravesadas por el género, pero no en los modos en los que los plantea el sentido común. Por lo tanto, espero ofrecer una comprensión más sutil de las dimensiones asociadas al género presentes en la guerra.Neste artigo utilizo a pesquisa que conduzi desde 1995 no Peru a fim de explorar as comissões de verdade e algumas implicações em relação às mulheres e à guerra. Interessa-me examinar o que constitui as estratégias de pesquisa "sensíveis ao gênero", bem como os modos pelos quais as comissões de verdade têm incorporado estas estratégias em seu trabalho. Verdade e memória são categorias que, de fato, estão atravessadas por o gênero, mas não da forma como os que as colocam em sentido comum. Portanto, espero oferecer uma compreensão mais sutil das dimensões associadas ao gênero, presentes na guerra.In this article, I draw upon research I have conducted since 1995 in Peru to explore the commissioning of truth and some implications in terms of women and war. I am interested in examining what constitutes "gender sensitive" research strategies, as well as the ways in which truth commissions have incorporated these strategies into their work. Truth and memory are indeed gendered, but not in any common-sensical way. Thus I hope to offer a more nuanced understanding of the gendered dimensions of war.

  11. MOBILIDADE DO TRABALHO E REPRODUÇÃO DO CAPITAL NOS CERRADOS PIAUIENSES

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    Vicente Eudes Lemos Alves

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se, no estudo, analisar a mobilidade do trabalhoe a reprodução do capital nos cerrados piauienses. Busca-se acompanhar as transformações sócio-econômicase espaciais a partir da territorialização de empresas ede famílias originárias do Sul do Brasil interessadas emdesenvolver agricultura modernizada, principalmente associadaà produção de soja. Esse processo, apesar deter seu início nos anos 80 do século XX, se consolida demeados dos 90 em diante, quando houve um aumento dofluxo de empresas monopolistas e de população sulista.Esta última em sua maioria, já se desloca de outra fronteiraagrícola, para o Piauí. Diante do modelo econômicoque está se impondo nos cerrados piauienses, a nossaperspectiva na pesquisa, é tentar explicar – a partir dasorientações teóricas escolhidas e das observações decampo – de que maneira a mobilidade do trabalho e aterritorialização do capital se manifestam. Busca-se, porum lado, verificar os impactos produzidos no modo devida das comunidades locais, centrado, ainda, na relaçãodo homem com seu meio natural e no trabalho concreto.Por outro lado, como se impõe o tempo do trabalho abstratoe como a base do território piauiense se rearticulapara a fluidez das mercadorias destinadas aos mercadosexternos e internos.

  12. Cultivo de cachama blanca en altas densidades y en dos sistemas cerrados

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    Germán Poleo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia de la cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus, a cultivos en altas densidades en sistemas cerrados. Novecientos alevines de 44,3±26 g de peso, se distribuyeron en seis tanques de concreto, con 4,8 m³ de agua. Tres tanques presentaron cero recambio de agua (SCR, y en otros tres, el agua se hizo circular a través de un bioclarificador (SRA. Ambos tratamientos presentaron fuerte aireación para mantener los sólidos en suspensión y suministrar aire. Los peces se alimentaron a saciedad con pienso comercial por 192 días. Los parámetros de calidad de agua como: oxígeno disuelto, amonio total, nitritos, nitratos, alcalinidad, dureza, temperatura y pH, se midieron semanalmente. Los peces en el SCR crecieron a una tasa de 2,34±0,05 g por día, y tuvieron conversión alimenticia de 1,5±0,06, densidad final de 12,96±0,53 kg m-3, y peso final de 449,5±99 g. En el SRA, los peces crecieron 2,33±0,03 g por día, con conversión alimenticia de 1,6±0,07, densidad final de 12,13±1,12 kg m-3, y peso final de 446,5±10 g. La cachama blanca puede ser cultivada en sistemas cerrados con cero recambio de agua en altas densidades.

  13. Diversity and distribution of extra-floral nectaries in the cerrado savanna vegetation of Brazil

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    John Boudouris

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Throughout evolutionary history, plants and animals have evolved alongside one another. This is especially apparent when considering mutualistic relationships such as between plants with extra-floral nectaries (EFNs, glands on leaves or stems that secrete nectar and the ants that visit them. Ants are attracted by the nectar and then protect the plant against destructive herbivores. The distribution of these plants is of particular interest, because it can provide insights into the evolutionary history of this unique trait and the plants that possess it. In this study, we investigated factors driving the distribution of woody plants with EFNs in the cerrado vegetation of Brazil.Location. BrazilMethods. We used a database detailing the incidence of 849 plant species at 367 cerrado sites throughout Brazil. We determined which species possessed EFNs and mapped their distributions. We tested for correlations between the proportion of EFN species at each site and (i three environmental variables (mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, and the precipitation in the driest quarter of the year, (ii a broad soil classification, and (iii the total species diversity of each site.Results. We found a wide range in the proportion of EFN species at any one site (0–57%. However, whilst low diversity sites had wide variation in the number of EFN species, high diversity sites all had few EFN species. The proportion of EFN species was positively correlated with absolute latitude and negatively correlated with longitude. When accounting for total species diversity, the proportion of EFN species per site was negatively correlated with precipitation in the driest quarter of the year and positively correlated with temperature range.Main Conclusions. These results suggest either that herbivore pressure may be lower in drier sites, or that ants are not as dominant in these locations, or that plant lineages at these sites were unable to evolve EFNs.

  14. Diversity and distribution of extra-floral nectaries in the cerrado savanna vegetation of Brazil.

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    Boudouris, John; Queenborough, Simon A

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Throughout evolutionary history, plants and animals have evolved alongside one another. This is especially apparent when considering mutualistic relationships such as between plants with extra-floral nectaries (EFNs, glands on leaves or stems that secrete nectar) and the ants that visit them. Ants are attracted by the nectar and then protect the plant against destructive herbivores. The distribution of these plants is of particular interest, because it can provide insights into the evolutionary history of this unique trait and the plants that possess it. In this study, we investigated factors driving the distribution of woody plants with EFNs in the cerrado vegetation of Brazil. Location. Brazil Methods. We used a database detailing the incidence of 849 plant species at 367 cerrado sites throughout Brazil. We determined which species possessed EFNs and mapped their distributions. We tested for correlations between the proportion of EFN species at each site and (i) three environmental variables (mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, and the precipitation in the driest quarter of the year), (ii) a broad soil classification, and (iii) the total species diversity of each site. Results. We found a wide range in the proportion of EFN species at any one site (0-57%). However, whilst low diversity sites had wide variation in the number of EFN species, high diversity sites all had few EFN species. The proportion of EFN species was positively correlated with absolute latitude and negatively correlated with longitude. When accounting for total species diversity, the proportion of EFN species per site was negatively correlated with precipitation in the driest quarter of the year and positively correlated with temperature range. Main Conclusions. These results suggest either that herbivore pressure may be lower in drier sites, or that ants are not as dominant in these locations, or that plant lineages at these sites were unable to evolve EFNs.

  15. Patterns of Leaf Biochemical and Structural Properties of Cerrado Life Forms: Implications for Remote Sensing

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    Ball, Aaron; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Rivard, Benoit; Castro-Contreras, Saulo; Fernandes, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Aim The general goal of this study is to investigate and analyze patterns of ecophysiological leaf traits and spectral response among life forms (trees, shrubs and lianas) in the Cerrado ecosystem. In this study, we first tested whether life forms are discriminated through leaf level functional traits. We then explored the correlation between leaf-level plant functional traits and spectral reflectance. Location Serra do Cipo National Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods Six ecophysiological leaf traits were selected to best characterize differences between life forms in the woody plant community of the Cerrado. Results were compared to spectral vegetation indices to determine if plant groups provide means to separate leaf spectral responses. Results Values obtained from leaf traits were similar to results reported from other tropical dry sites. Trees and shrubs significantly differed from lianas in terms of the percentage of leaf water content and Specific Leaf Area. Spectral indices were insufficient to capture the differences of these key traits between groups, though indices were still adequately correlated to overall trait variation. Conclusion The importance of life forms as biochemical and structurally distinctive groups is a significant finding for future remote sensing studies of vegetation, especially in arid and semi-arid environments. The traits we found as indicative of these groups (SLA and water content) are good candidates for spectral characterization. Future studies need to use the full wavelength (400 nm–2500 nm) in order to capture the potential response of these traits. The ecological linkage to water balance and life strategies encourages these traits as starting points for modeling plant communities using hyperspectral remote sensing. PMID:25692675

  16. Identificación en lazo cerrado mediante algoritmos genéticos

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    Alfredo Gómez Infante

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} La identificación  en lazo cerrado de sistemas continuos es un problema de optimización no lineal que resulta de difícil solución mediante métodos convencionales.  En este trabajo se propone el uso de algoritmos genéticos (AG para esta tarea y se muestra mediante simulaciones que los modelos obtenidos pueden reproducir fielmente el comportamiento de la planta, aun en el caso de sistemas inestables o que presentan algún tipo de no-linealidad. Estos modelos pueden utilizarse para el ajuste de los parámetros de reguladores PID utilizando un método también basado en AG, como se muestra en dos ejemplos: un sistema inestable en lazo cerrado y otro de alto orden con retardo.  La metodología propuesta se aplica también  a la identificación del modelo AC5A de la IEEE, que incluye una no-linealidad del tipo saturación,  para unidades de generación eléctrica.

  17. Soil, land use time, and sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Brazilian Cerrado region.

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    Trabaquini, Kleber; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Formaggio, Antonio Roberto; de Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira E Cruz

    2017-02-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado area is in rapid decline because of the expansion of modern agriculture. In this study, we used extensive field data and a 30-year chronosequence of Landsat images (1980-2010) to assess the effects of time since conversion of Cerrado into agriculture upon soil chemical attributes and soybean/corn yield in the Alto do Rio Verde watershed. We determined the rates of vegetation conversion into agriculture, the agricultural land use time since conversion, and the temporal changes in topsoil (0-20 cm soil depth) and subsurface (20-40 cm) chemical attributes of the soils. In addition, we investigated possible associations between fertilization/over-fertilization and land use history detected from the satellites. The results showed that 61.8% of the native vegetation in the Alto do Rio Verde watershed was already converted into agriculture with 31% of soils being used in agriculture for more than 30 years. While other fertilizers in cultivated soils (e.g., Ca +2 , Mg +2 , and P) have been compensated over time by soil management practices to keep crop yield high, large reductions in C org (38%) and N tot (29%) were observed in old cultivated areas. Furthermore, soybean and cornfields having more than 10 years of farming presented higher values of P and Mg +2 than the ideal levels necessary for plant development. Therefore, increased risks of over-fertilization of the soils and environmental contamination with these macronutrients were associated with soybean and cornfields having more than 10 years of farming, especially those with more than 30 years of agricultural land use.

  18. SISTEMA COMPUTARIZADO EN LAZO CERRADO PARA EL SUMINISTRO DE LA ANESTESIA INTRAVENOSA

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    Alberto Vanegas-Saavedra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de suministro de la anestesia total intravenosa en lazo cerrado es una técnica reciente que ofrece ventajas sobre las técnicas actuales como la estabilidad intraoperatoria y la menor y más segura dosificación. OBJETIVO: El objetivo general de este artículo es el de resumir los hallazgos sobre un nuevo método computarizado sencillo, en lazo cerrado, para suministrar la anestesia total intravenosa de forma automatizada y segura bajo la supervisión permanente del Anestesiólogo. Este sistema se ha desarrollado para la administración de anestesia intravenosa implementando varios subsistemas. Un modelo multicompartimental de distribución de fármacos en el paciente, un algoritmo para determinar la curva de velocidades del hipnótico (propofol a infundir, un protocolo de comunicación para establecer las velocidades de infusión y un lazo de realimentación para controlar la profundidad hipnótica mediante el índice biespectral. RESULTADO: El resultado final ha sido el desarrollo de un instrumento de fácil uso, con una interfaz interactiva, que facilita la operación anestésica por parte del anestesiólogo valiéndose de un computador convencional y un monitor de profundidad hipnótica. CONCLUSIÓN: Se ha implementado una herramienta informática dotada de un modelo farmacocinético multicompartimental de gran interés académico y clínico, que tal y como se ha demostrado de forma cuantitativa, proporciona idénticos resultados a los ofrecidos por equipos comerciales; con importantes ventajas adicionales como una interfaz de usuario interactiva y la posibilidad de administrar anestesia total intravenosa.

  19. Diferenças florísticas e estruturais entre fitofisionomias do cerrado em Assis, SP, Brasil

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    Eduardo da Silva Pinheiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A classificação das fitofisionomias tem-se constituído em desafio entre os pesquisadores da vegetação de cerrado, seja por não haver critérios florísticos ou quantitativos claros para sua separação, seja pelas alterações que sofrem ao longo do tempo. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar três tipos fitofisionômicos de cerrado na Estação Ecológica de Assis, bem como verificar se são florística e, ou, estruturalmente distintos, buscando-se as melhores variáveis para caracterizá-los. A área amostral compreendeu 30 parcelas permanentes de 20 x 50 m, sendo 10 parcelas para cada um dos tipos fisionômicos: cerrado típico, cerrado denso e cerradão, em que foram identificadas e medidas as árvores com diâmetro à altura do peito > 5 cm. As três fitofisionomias de cerradoestudadas mostraram-se estruturalmente distintas em classes de área basal, cobertura de copas e altura das maiores árvores. O melhor descritor para classificar as fitofisionomias, por ser facilmente mensurável e pouco variável com o critério de inclusão, é a área basal (m² ha-1. Floristicamente, as fitofisionomias savânicas (cerradotípico e cerrado denso não se diferenciam, quer seja analisando apenas a presença e ausência das espécies, quer seja analisando a importância relativa das espécies na comunidade (fitossociologia. Em síntese, há três fitofisionomias distintas, mas a flora se diferencia apenas entre o cerradão e as fitofisionomias savânicas. A análise das espécies exclusivas de cada fitofisionomia quanto à tolerância à sombra, com base na literatura, indicou que a baixa disponibilidade de luz sob as copas no cerradão pode ter sido o fator condicionante da diferenciação entre esta e as demais fitofisionomias do cerrado lato sensu.

  20. La percepción de sentido de la vida en el ciclo vital: una perspectiva temporal

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    Thiago Antonio Avellar de Aquino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio ha sido conocer en qué medida la percepción ontológica del tiempo y la sensación de presencia y búsqueda de sentido cambian según el ciclo de la vida. Participaron 766 voluntarios, la mayoría mujeres (59%, agrupados en los siguientes rangos: Juventud (N = 350; 18 a 24 años, M = 20.8, DT = 1.84, Joven Adulto (N = 195; 25 a 34 años, M = 28.3, DT = 2.66, Adulto (N = 110; 35 a 59 años, M = 45.8, DT = 7.16 y Tercera Edad (N = 111; 60 a 87 años, M = 65.6, DT = 4.81. Los participantes contestaron al Cuestionario Sentido de la Vida (CSV, la Escala de Percepción Ontológica del Tiempo (EPOT y preguntas demográficas. Los resultados sugirieron que el sentido aumenta según las fases de la vida, en cuanto que la búsqueda de sentido disminuye. Se constató también que los adultos y las personas de tercera edad perciben mayor presencia de sentido en el presente cuando comparados con los jóvenes; además, las puntuaciones promedias en la dimensión de futuro fueron menores en las fases más maduras. Se concluyó que los hallazgos fueron en la dirección de la literatura, sugiriendo implicaciones clínicas de este estudio.

  1. Sentidos de la pasión de aprender. Perspectiva de estudiantes de universidad

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    Jesús Ernesto Urbina-Cárdenas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito central de este artículo se orienta a la comprensión del sentido que le otorga a la pasión de aprender un grupo de estudiantes universitarios de cuatro universidades de la ciudad de Cúcuta, Colombia. La investigación logra una aproximación al fenómeno de la pasión por el conocimiento y alcanza a visualizar los significados que los jóvenes apasionados por el saber le dan al acto de aprender. El enfoque de la investigación es de corte comprensivo, y se sitúa desde la perspectiva epistémica del sujeto conocido. Se utilizan como técnicas para recoger la información el grupo focal y entrevistas en profundidad. El análisis de datos se apoya en la teoría fundamentada. Se encuentra que los participantes asumen su pasión de aprender como actos inteligentes, por vocación y amor por una carrera, por placer, para saborear el saber, y como un desafío que requiere rigor y esfuerzo permanente.

  2. Un sentido para la formación en ingeniería de sistemas

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    Jorge Andrick Parra Valencia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como propósito presentar un sentido para  la  formación  del  Programa  de  Ingeniería  de Sistemas  de  la  Universidad  Autónoma  de Bucaramanga,   desde  su  Proyecto  Educativo Institucional y desde  los orígenes y fundamentos dela  ingeniería  de  sistemas.   Con  base  en  dicha presentación  se  proponen  algunas  competencias generales  del  programa.  El  artículo  ofrece  este ejercicio de reflexión como una vía para repensar la formación  en  ingeniería  de  sistemas,   desde  laintención  de  respetar  el  contexto  desde  donde  se realiza  la  intervención  de  esta  ingeniería interdisciplinaria.

  3. Sentido y significado del desplazamiento forzado en niños

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    Gertrudys Torres Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la investigación fue identificar el sentido y significado del desplazamiento forzado en niños entre seis a doce años. Método, se utilizó el método fenomenológico. La población estuvo conformada por 23 niños entre los seis y doce años, de ambos géneros. Escolaridad: preescolar, primaria y los primeros grados de la secundaria. Lugar de origen: zona urbana y rural de los departamentos del Caquetá, Tolima, Meta, Huila, Arauca, Santanderes y Caldas. El instrumento utilizado fue la técnica narrativa y la entrevista a profundidad. Resultados: los significados giran alrededor de las categorías emergentes, estas son en primer lugar el tipo de interacción en el pasado y presente a nivel de la familia, la escuela y la comunidad. Segundo las vivencias en diferentes espacios físicos: vivienda, centro educativo y barrio/vereda/pueblo. La tercera hace alusión al motivo y experiencia de la salida. Finalmente, la cuarta categoría relacionada con la construcción de mundos posibles.

  4. Ouvindo Crianças Sobre Sentidos e Significados Atribuídos ao TDAH

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    Rudinei Luiz Beltrame

    Full Text Available Resumo Cada vez mais, fenômenos de ordem cultural, social, econômica, política e comportamental são transformados em questões médicas e individuais. Logicamente, se o problema é do indivíduo, poder-se-ia tratá-lo e curá-lo, ignorando-se, assim, todo o vasto contexto problemático de desigualdades, de exclusão, de padrões e normas, de competitividade e de homogeneidade em que estamos inseridos. Na tentativa de aprofundar esse tema, o presente estudo investiga a produção de significados e sentidos por crianças/estudantes, diagnosticadas com Déficit de Atenção com ou sem hiperatividade. O estudo foi realizado com quatro estudantes entre 7 e 14 anos de idade e seus responsáveis. Como resultados, pode se destacar que todos os diagnósticos surgiram a partir de queixas oriundas da escola que levaram os familiares a buscar ajuda nos consultórios de especialistas. É necessário repensar práticas que proporcionem um desenvolvimento sem excluir a diversidade e nem patologizar a singularidade.

  5. SENTIDOS DO SER-AÍ-MULHER-APÓS-CIRURGIA-CARDÍACA À LUZ DE HEIDEGGER

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    Thaís Vasconselos Amorim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio cualitativo con objetivo de presentar el descubrimiento de sentidos del ser-mujer-después-cirugía-cardíaca sostenidos por Heidegger. El escenario fue un hospital de alta complejidad cardiovascular en Minas Gerais, Brasil. La fase de campo se produjo en diciembre de 2011 y enero de 2012, y las entrevistadas fueron llevadas a cabo a partir de la pregunta: ¿Cómo es su día a día después de la cirugía? Las lecturas y escuchas de testimonios posibilitaron análisis y interpretación. La mujer aparece en la publicidad, dominada por impersonal, siendo en la charla, curiosidad y ambigüedad. Revela insuficiencia en temor mediado a través del miedo, horror y terror, en dirección a la de-cadencia. Ante los movimientos existenciales, se puede comprender que como ser-en el-mundo, la mujer se escondió en la disposición para el autocuidado, señalando hueco a ser llenado por el enfermero a través de la promoción de la salud que debe aplicarse en su práctica.

  6. Validación de la prueba "Sentido del Trabajo" en población colombiana

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    Efrén Martínez Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las características psicométricas de validez y confiabilidad del instrumento "Sentido del trabajo", así como sus dimensiones experiencia (Cognición y vivencia (Afectividad. El cuestionario se aplicó a 842 empleados de los niveles operativo, medio y alto de organizaciones tanto del sector público como privado seleccionados intencionalmente previa construcción y revisión por jueces expertos y posterior pilotaje. La versión final, compuesta por 18 reactivos, mostró un nivel de respuesta a la totalidad de los ítems del 86,8% y una consistencia interna con el alfa de Cronbach de 0.83. Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio que identificó 3 componentes consistentes con la estructura teórica: Confusión existencial-laboral, Propósito-laboral e Identidad y Coherencia laboral. Se presenta un instrumento de fácil aplicabilidad en la consulta individual y en la valoración colectiva, con utilidad para el abordaje de problemáticas relacionadas con esta característica de la naturaleza humana.

  7. REFLEXIONES SOBRE EL SENTIDO DE UNA LEY DE AUTORIDAD DEL PROFESORADO

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    Andrés Gómez Heredia

    2013-05-01

    Se plantean aspectos varios –ámbito jurídicopenal, político, social, doctrinal- , recogidos de fuentes diversas y con reflexiones propias, sobre las consecuencias de poner en vigencia una Ley de Autoridad del Profesorado, así como una revisión del estado legal de la situación  a nivel de las Comunidades Autónomas -y una mínima referencia a la situación en Europa-, dado que desde el Gobierno central no se ha propuesto hasta la fecha establecer las bases comunes de una normativa que aparece dispersa y que está creando distorsiones en la condición jurídica del profesorado según el lugar de España donde se ejerza. Tras el análisis de la cuestión, se pone en evidencia que el sentido de la promulgación de una ley de autoridad del profesorado es claramente controvertido y por ello criticable, expuesto a razones ideológicas y de efectos prácticos.

  8. Análise Narrativa, Construção de Sentidos e Identidade

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    Karina Moutinho

    Full Text Available RESUMO Subjetividade é um fenômeno amplamente debatido por perspectivas narrativistas em Psicologia. Uma questão importante nessa direção é como analisar as construções narrativas em situações de pesquisa. Neste estudo, temos o objetivo de apresentar e discutir uma proposta analítica para estudo do fenômeno da identidade, à luz de perspectivas narrativistas e da psicologia discursiva. A proposta se fundamenta em uma forma específica de análise narrativa: a análise de posicionamento. Apresentamos um estudo de caso realizado com o objetivo de investigar a construção de sentidos de identidade por pessoas que tinham realizado cirurgia bariátrica. Espera-se ampliar a discussão sobre ferramentas analíticas, vinculando-as a referenciais teórico-metodológicos específicos no chamado "turno interpretativo", e ofertar uma proposta investigativa plausível para narrativas e subjetividade em Psicologia.

  9. Os sentidos da construção social: o convite construcionista para a Psicologia

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    Emerson Fernando Rasera

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O construcionismo social é um movimento que tem ganhado destaque na literatura internacional em Psicologia na última década e encontra seus primeiros passos no Brasil. O objetivo deste texto é descrever os múltiplos sentidos do convite construcionista, apresentando as histórias da origem deste movimento, suas contribuições e as principais tensões e questionamentos aí produzidos. Partindo de um conjunto de críticas ao fazer científico, as propostas construcionistas buscam ressaltar a especificidade cultural e histórica das formas de conhecermos o mundo, a primazia dos relacionamentos humanos na produção e sustentação do conhecimento, a interligação entre conhecimento e ação e a valorização de uma postura crítica e reflexiva. Estas propostas convidam assim a uma prática científica que se implique culturalmente e que promova a ampliação dos vocabulários relacionais.

  10. Alcance y sentido de la cultura pedagógica bajomedieval

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    Javier VERGARA CIORDIA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo analiza el alcance y sentido de la pedagogía en la Baja Edad Media, a partir de tres pilares que contribuyeron sobremanera a conformar su personalidad pedagógica y cultural: la educación intelectual, moral y religiosa, la apuesta por una emergente secularización y la visión positiva de las artes mecánicas. Ejes que, al discurrir por una apuesta más secular, racional y humanista de la cultura, dieron lugar, por un lado, a la aparición de uno de los momentos más sugerentes y atractivos del acontecer cultural del Occidente cristiano y, por otro, a lo que puede considerarse la base y antesala de la eclosión humanista y científica de los siglos XIV a XVI. ABSTRACT: This work analises the scope and sense of the pedagogy in the Middle Ages (XII- XIII centuries. It analises three very important pillars: the intellectual, moral and religious education, the bet for an initial secular culture and a new vision of the mechanical arts. These axes had a secular, rational and humanist character of the culture. They originated the appearance of one of the most attractive periods in the West culture and provides with the humanist, rational and scientific base of the XIV centuries to XVI.

  11. CONFLICTO, IDENTIDAD Y SENTIDO: EL CASO DEL TAMPIERAZO DE SAN FRANCISCO (CÓRBOBA, 1973

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    Lucas Aimar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente trabajo centra su atención sobre una de las protestas sociales más importantes de la historia de la provincia de Córdoba –ocurrida el 30 de julio de 1973 en la ciudad de San Francisco– conocida indistintamente como Tampierazo, Cordobacito o Sanfranciscazo. El hecho, que paralizó la ciudad y alcanzó momentos de extrema violencia, se inscribe en un amplio contexto de conflictividad social a nivel nacional y provincial; un ciclo de protestas –inaugurado con el Cordobazo– que se extendió hasta por lo menos 1975. Como proponemos, las acciones colectivas deben ser abordadas como un sistema de relaciones internas y externas y no como un simple punto de partida. Por ello, a partir de las redes de conflicto y los marcos de referencia existentes en el momento de la protesta, indagaremos el sentido que la acción tuvo para los actores intervinientes. Como intentaremos demostrar, el Tampierazo fue mucho más que un reclamo por los objetivos particulares de los obreros de la fábrica, convirtiéndose durante la jornada, en una amplia manifestación popular que canalizó el rechazo –compartido intersubjetivamente por varios sectores de la población– a las formas de control y los manejos que se mantenían desde los sectores dominantes del poder local.

  12. EFECTOS DE SENTIDO EN LA ENSEÑANZA DE LENGUAS EXTRANJERAS: UN GESTO DE LECTURA

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    Gladys Beatriz Morales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene por objetivo trazar un relato de la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras (ELE en Argentina, comprendiendo el período entre 1950 y la actualidad. Para esto, se buscó poner en evidencia la creciente complejidad que impregna a esta enseñanza con el avance de nuevas teorías. A partir de una triangulación teórica entre programas de investigación de la enseñanza, tendencias teóricas de formación docente inicial y abordajes metodológicos para la ELE, se constatan tres efectos de sentido: el efecto tecnocrático, el de especificidad y el de complejidad. Se considera que la perspectiva que consiste en reducir la complejidad a un conjunto de aspectos aislados se abandona paulatina, llegando al enfoque pedagógico predominante en la actualidad que ilustra las interacciones entre la cultura en la cual se inserta la ELE y las condiciones de superación del marco estrecho de esta cultura para aprender con la alteridad.

  13. Sentidos sobre derechos, salud y sexualidad en Argentina. Un estudio exploratorio

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    Josefina Leonor Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En la trama de una investigación mayor que busca explorar la apropiación subjetiva de los derechos sexuales y (no reproductivos de las personas residentes en el Área Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires a partir de un estudio cualitativo, este artículo explora las imágenes y nociones que las personas tienen sobre derecho o ley en términos abstractos en general y en relación con la sexualidad y la salud, bajo el presupuesto de que ellas hacen parte de lo que puede entenderse por apropiación subjetiva de los derechos. En ese sentido, el artículo sostiene que: a el discurso de los derechos y de los derechos humanos está muy presente como habilitante del juego político y social y, también, abre la posibilidad de formular demandas al Estado en su nombre; b que a pesar del neoliberalismo y su énfasis en las obligaciones, existe más hincapié en los derechos como garantía y en el Estado como proveedor; c en relación con la salud, prima el modelo biomédico hegemónico que en el caso de los derechos sexuales y reproductivos implica pensar a estos últimos bajo las categorías de riesgo, prevención y cuidado.

  14. Processos comunicacionais em ambiente escolar: o potencial de sentidos de representações visuais

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    Luciana Coutinho Pagliarini de Souza

    Full Text Available Este artigo, resultado de pesquisa em desenvolvimento sob os auspícios da FAPESP, trata de interseções entre Comunicação e Educação inseridas no ambiente educacional a partir de recursos pedagógicos disponibilizados, como o livro didático. Objetiva-se refletir sobre o potencial de sentidos engendrados em representações visuais sobre masculino/feminimo que constam de livros didáticos e para tanto apresentam-se reflexões sobre imagens; sobre a alteridade e o processo de construção da identidade cultural na pós-modernidade, enquanto o instrumental para análise das representações visuais selecionadas está baseado na semiótica peirceana. As representações visuais cumprem o propósito de abrir caminho para reflexões no campo Comunicação/Educação capazes de gerarem ações que podem redundar na possibilidade de construção de um pensamento crítico em relação às representações visuais.

  15. Sentidos do demoníaco em José de Alencar

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    Sandra Guardini Teixeira Vasconcelos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n62p271 O artigo explora algumas apropriações do gótico no Brasil, focando dois romances de José de Alencar nos quais se apreende um aproveitamento de algumas de suas convenções, em especial aquelas que ajudam a representar a vida rural brasileira como uma experiência marcada pela violência e pelo excesso. Indaga, a partir disso, os sentidos dessa apropriação, sugerindo que ela diz muito sobre o processo de formação da nação brasileira. The article explores some appropriations of the Gothic in Brazil, focusing on two novels by José de Alencar which borrow some of its conventions, especially those useful to the representation of Brazilian rural life as an experience characterized by violence and excess. It enquires into the meanings of this appropriation,suggesting that it has a lot to say about the process of nation- -building in Brazil.

  16. Produção de sentidos entre adolescentes sobre o cuidado de si na gravidez

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    Nayara Bueno de Araujo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available No pré-natal, profissionais comumente desconsideram a rede de produção de sentidos de adolescentes sobre o cuidado de si na gravidez. Busca-se evidenciá-la em uma situação concreta, com foco nas fontes e comunidades de referência para adolescentes de áreas pobres de Cuiabá-MT, Brasil, sintetizadas em um mapa. Trata-se de estudo qualitativo, realizado entre 2014-2015, com 12 adolescentes grávidas, por meio de: grupo focal, entrevista individual, consulta a prontuários e análise baseada em preceitos e categorias da Análise de Discurso Crítica. A principal comunidade discursiva de referência das adolescentes é a família, embora profissionais de saúde, mídia e conhecidos também intermedeiem a construção de seus discursos. A cultura biomédica e o cuidado, como controle de riscos via comportamentos, são, respectivamente, as fontes e as vozes mais relevantes dentre outras concorrentes. Entender essas peculiaridades propicia ao profissional buscar melhores formas de relacionar-se com adolescentes e ampliar sua autonomia.

  17. ARTESANATO NO E PARA O MERCADO: AS REDES DE PRODUÇÃO E COMERCIALIZAÇÃO DOS ARTESANATOS DAS FEIRAS HIPPIE E DO CERRADO DE GOIÂNIA - GO

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    Cristiana Andrade Fernandes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Artesanato são peças feitas com técnicas manuais e que pressupõem ausência de auxílio de máquinas industriais. A aceleração do consumo propiciada pela globalização, o constante avanço da tecnologia, a indústria cultural e o turismo são alguns fatores que alteram o artesanato na medida em que há o risco de padronização dos objetos e conseqüente modificação no seu significado e sentido. Considerando-se tais pressupostos, analisa-se o comércio e a produção, ou seja, o artesanato no e para o mercado tendo como foco aquele exposto nas feiras Hippie e do Cerrado em Goiânia, recuperando-se suas redes organizacionais. A pesquisa justifica-se pela carência de produção geográfica versando sobre esta atividade, apesar de sua relevância, já que comumente, mesmo nas viagens de curta distância, não há quem não compre uma “lembrancinha�? ou não se admire com a habilidade de alguém para produzir tal ou qual objeto, ao circular por uma feira. Metodologicamente, recorrem-se às técnicas de observação e entrevista com questionários estruturados e semi-estruturados aplicados em trabalhos de campo, além das análises documental e bibliográfica.

  18. Larvas de Siderone marthesia nemesis (Illiger (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae em cerrado de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil Caterpillars of Siderose marthesia nemesis (Illiger (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in cerrado near Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil

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    H.C. Morais

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars of Siderone marthesia nemesis (Illiger, 1802 (Nymphalidae, Charaxinae have been found on Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae, during the second half of the rainy season in an area of cerrado near Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. They occurred at very low density and are cryptic at all instars. The pupal stage does not occur on the host plant. Average duration of the pupa under laboratory conditions is 14.4 days.

  19. BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience - CEREBRO. Investigación en sentido amplio sobre Inteligencia Artificial y Neurociencia - Resumen en español

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    Bogdan Patrut

    2010-01-01

    BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience CEREBRO. Investigación en sentido amplio sobre Inteligencia Artificial y Neurociencia Investigación en sentido amplio sobre Inteligencia Artificial y Neurociencia Volumen 1, Número 4 Octubre 2010: Otoño 2010 www.brain.edusoft.ro Editor Jefe: Bogdan Patrut

  20. Os sentidos de alfabetizar na pré-escola: algumas reflexões

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    Cleonice Maria Tomazzetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-795X.2015v33n1p201 Este texto é resultado de análise de dados produzidos em trabalhos circunscritos ao nível pré-escolar, desenvolvidos com duas professoras em momentos e contextos distintos. As fontes de produção e análise dos dados para esse texto foram obtidos, principalmente, dos registros da prática de estágio supervisionado na Educação Infantil e durante pesquisa de mestrado em educação. A partir desses registros propõem-se algumas reflexões acerca do processo de apropriação da língua escrita por crianças em idade pré-escolar e são explorados aspectos da infância institucionalizada, a criação, a participação e a geração de novos potenciais que se entrecruzam com dimensões propostas nas ações docentes, como de controle e repetição. Questionam-se os sentidos das práticas “alfabetizadoras” em contraponto à leitura de mundo com crianças que fazem, sonham e vivem a potência da existência humana. Tais reflexões sobre os sentidos de alfabetizar na pré-escola são desenvolvidas à luz das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Infantil e de referenciais próprios da área da alfabetização. As discussões apresentadas no presente texto consideram que a complexidade da infância permite compreender as crianças em imersão no universo da leitura e da escrita muito antes de frequentarem as escolas, encarando este momento como não exclusivo do início da vida escolar das crianças. Este processo pode ser encarado como uma iniciação ou acontecimento, em que as crianças também aprendem a ler e a escrever descobrindo os caminhos sem deixar de ser criança, visto que elas não aguardam, necessariamente, a escola para iniciarem essas aprendizagens.   The meanings of literacy in pre-school: some reflections  Abstract This text is the result of data analysis produced in circumscribed work at pre-school level, developed with two teachers in

  1. Resposta de arroz de terras altas à correção de acidez em solo de cerrado Upland rice response to soil acidity in cerrado soil

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    NAND KUMAR FAGERIA

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do pH do solo sobre a produção, seus componentes e sobre a absorção de nutrientes por três cultivares/linhagens de arroz de terras altas em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, textura franco-argiloso de cerrado. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação, na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. Os níveis de pH criados, pela aplicação de calcário, foram: 4,6, 5,7, 6,2, 6,4, 6,6 e 6,8. Testaram-se as cultivares/linhagens de arroz de terras altas CNA 7460, Araguaia e CNA 7449. A produção de matéria seca e de grãos, os componentes de produção e a absorção de nutrientes foram significativamente influenciados pelo pH do solo. A faixa com pH adequado para a produção e para os componentes de produção variou entre 5 e 5,4. Da mesma maneira, para absorção de nutrientes, a variação foi de 4,6 a 5,5, indicando que as cultivaresde arroz de terras altas avaliadas são bastante tolerantes à acidez do solo, produzindo satisfatoriamente sob pH entre 5 e 5,5.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil pH on yield and its components and nutrients uptake by three upland rice cultivars/lines in a Dark-Red Latosol,clay loam texture of Cerrado region. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão, Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil. Soil pH levels created by application of lime were 4.6, 5.7, 6.2, 6.4, 6.6, and 6.8 and cultivars/lines tested were CNA 7460, Araguaia and CNA 7449. Dry matter and grain yield and yield components and nutrient absorption were significantly affected with soil pH. Adequate soil pH for yield and yield components was in the range of 5 to 5.4 and for the nutrients 4.6 to 5.5. These results suggest that rice cultivars tested were quite tolerant to soil acidity and it is possible to produce satisfactory crop in the pH range of 5 to

  2. Acarofauna da cafeicultura de cerrado em Patrocínio, Minas Gerais Acarofauna of cerrado's coffee crops in Patrocínio, Minas Gerais

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    Sheila Spongoski

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. na região de cerrado do Estado de Minas Gerais, mais especificamente no Alto Paranaíba, está se desenvolvendo com muito sucesso. As doenças e pragas vêm causando redução na produtividade e na qualidade do café produzido. Os ácaros fitófagos fazem parte deste problema, pois causam danos econômicos. Sendo assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo o levantamento da acarofauna em cafeeiros daquela região. Foram feitas quatro amostragens de folhas, ramos e frutos, sendo duas no período das águas e duas no período de seca em 2002 e 2003. Foram identificadas três famílias de ácaros fitófagos, quatro de ácaros predadores e quatro de ácaros generalistas. As espécies de ácaros encontradas foram: Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Tenuipalpidae; Oligonychus sp. (Tetranychidae; Tarsonemus confusus Ewing, 1939, Fungitarsonemus sp., Daidalotarsonemus sp., Phytonemus sp. (Tarsonemidae; Lorrya formosa Cooreman, 1958, Lorrya sp. (Tydeidae; Parapronematus acaciae Baker, 1965 (Iolinidae; Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959, Euseius citrifolius Denmark e Muma, 1970, Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant, 1959 (Phytoseiidae; Asca sp. (Ascidae; Bdella sp. (Bdellidae; Zetzellia sp. (Stigmaeidae, e espécimes da família Acaridae e da subordem Oribatida não identificadas. Trata-se do primeiro relato da ocorrência da espécie T. confusus em cafeeiro. Da família Tarsonemidae foram encontradas três novas espécies, e da família Iolinidae um novo gênero, para posterior descrição.The coffee (Coffea arabica L. growing in Cerrado areas of Patrocínio, State of Minas Gerais, more specifically in the region of Alto Paranaíba, have been expanding with success. Coffee diseases and pests result in reduction of the productivity and quality. Phytophagous mites are among the pests that cause economic damage. Therefore, this work had as objective the study of the mite fauna on coffee plants in those areas. Four surveys were

  3. Aggregates characterization of soils under cultivation in cerrado, MSCaracterização dos agregados em solos sob cultivo no cerrado, MS

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    Itaynara Batista

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Impacts on the environment and soil biological activity result in changes in the processes of formation of biogenic and fisiogenic aggregates. Aiming to evaluate the influence on physical and biological genesis of aggregates of Cerrado soils and determine the main environmental factors that determine the characteristics of households in the area of production under integrated crop-livestock (ICL, was developed this study in Farm Cabeceira, Maracaju-MS, in areas of ICL. The areas evaluated were: Savana, pasture/maize, corn/cotton and cotton/soybeans being evaluated during the dry (May/2009 and rainy (March 2010 season. To identify the pathways of aggregation were used morphological patterns, and established three clusters: fisiogenic, biogenic and intermediates. The aggregates were analyzed for exchangeable cations, carbon and aggregate stability, soil was analyzed for the exchangeable cations, particle size fractionation of soil organic matter, oxidizable fractions of total organic carbon, particle size analysis and soil macrofauna. In all areas studied, in the dry season, the highest values were quantified aggregate intermediates, while in the rainy season, in general, no differences were observed aggregates formed by different routes in areas except cotton/soybeans. The aggregates showed positive correlation with biogenic carbon and were found in lesser amounts compared to fisiogenic and intermediates. The different types of aggregates formed, besides having different characteristics morphological also differ as to chemical characteristics. Impactos sobre o ambiente do solo e a atividade biológica resultam em alterações nos processos de formação de agregados biogênicos e fisiogênicos. Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência física e biológica na gênese de agregados dos solos do Cerrado, bem como determinar quais os principais fatores do ambiente que determinam as características dos agregados em área de produção sob sistema de

  4. Occurrence of white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera, in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal, Brazil Ocorrência de Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Cerrado do Distrito Federal

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    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors cite Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 as occurring in all the Brazilian territory. In spite of that, there are no reports of capture sites for D. youngi in the literature for Distrito Federal or Cerrado of Central Brazil. Here we report the first precise record of this species for Central Brazil, rural area of Distrito Federal, and provide information on its biology, conservation and distribution in Brazil, according to our data and information from the literature.A espécie Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 é considerada por alguns autores como ocorrendo para todo o Brasil incluindo o bioma Cerrado e área rural do Distrito Federal. No entanto não há na literatura nenhum registro do local de coleta dessa espécie para essas regiões. Reportamos aqui o primeiro registro no Cerrado do Brasil Central, área rural do Distrito Federal, e alguns dados sobre a biologia, conservação e distribuição geográfica da espécie no Brasil, de acordo com dados desse trabalho e da literatura.

  5. EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS AND LIME IN RICE IN CERRADO SOILS EFEITO DE MICRONUTRIENTES E CALCÁRIO NA CULTURA DO ARROZ EM SOLO DE CERRADO

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    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    statistically superior to the others. The analysis of variance showed a significant difference among the treatments at the 5% level. The Duncan test indicated that, in rela-tion to grain yield, the treatments fell into two categories. The T1 and T3 treatments gave low yields, and the T2, T4, T5 and T6, produ-ced higher yields. With regard to the intensity of leaf symptoms, the treatments fell into two groups. In the T1 and T3 treatments, the manifestations ware more intense than in the T2, T4 , T5, and T6 treatments. Though there was no significant difference, lime seems to ag-gravate the intensity of the leaf symptom. In the plots that received lime and did not receive zinc, grain yield was significantly lower.

    Desde o ano agrícola de 1966/67, nos arrozais cultivados em solos de cerrado de diversas regiões do Estado de Goiás, vem se observando a ocorrência de anormalidades caracterizadas pela cor marrom no limbo foliar, que se acentuam com o decorrer do ciclo vegetativo, permanecendo a coloração verde apenas na nervura principal e bordos. Geralmente os sintomas aparecem mais intensamente em "reboleiras", onde as plantas se apresentam com porte reduzido, podendo morrer, resultando em sensível queda de produção. Quando as plantas não perecem, o ciclo vegetativo é retardado. Observou-se que as manifestações aparecem frequentemente em arrozais que receberam calcário. No presente trabalho procurou-se estudar a causa de tais sintomas, através da observação do efeito de micronutrientes e calcário, adicionados ao solo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O experimento foi instalado em latossolo vermelho, com cobertura típica de campo cerrado, próximo a Goiânia. O cultivar usado foi o IAC 12/46, tendo sido as sementes desinfectadas com Neantina seco a 0,3%. A adubação foi feita no sulco de plantio, exceto a calagem que foi a lanço. Na

  6. EFEITO DE NÍVEIS DE ZINCO SOBRE A CULTURA DO ARROZ EM SOLO DE CERRADO EFFECT OF ZINC LEVELS FOR RICE IN A CERRADO SOIL

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    Carlos Augusto Ribeiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    No presente trabalho, estudou-se o efeito de doses crescentes de sulfato de zinco sobre a produtividade e ocorrência de sintomas de deficiência de zinco na cultura do arroz de sequeiro em solo sob cerrado. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 6 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os níveis de sulfato de zinco testados foram 5, 10, 20 e 40 kg/ha, os quais foram comparados com a testemunha e com um tratamento que recebeu além da adubação básica e calagem, uma aplicação de sulfato de amônia (40 kg/ha em cobertura. O experimento foi instalado em latossolo vermelho, limo-argiloso, sob formação edáfica típica de campo-cerrado. O cultivar usado foi o IAC—12/46, tendo sido as sementes desinfectadas com Neantina Seco a 0,3%. Na aferição dos resultados computou-se a produção de grãos e a intensidade de ocorrência dos sintomas de bronzeamento nas folhas. A análise dos dados revela que os tratamentos com sulfato de zinco, nas dosagens de 5, 10, 20 e 40 kg/ha, equivaleram-se estatisticamente e foram superiores à testemunha e à cobertura com sulfato de amônia. Concluiu-se que a aplicação de sulfato de zinco no sulco de plantio, na dosagem de 5 kg/ha, é suficiente para impedir a ocorrência de deficiência de zinco em intensidade capaz de provocar decréscimos notáveis na produtividade da cultura do arroz. A aplicação de sulfato de amônia em cobertura, na dosagem de 40 kg/ha, por si só, não impediu a manifestação drástica da ocorrência de deficiência de zinco nas plantas.

    In the present experiment, the effect of increasing doses of zinc sulphate on productivity and on the occurrence of symptoms of zinc deficiency was studied in upland rice grown in ‘cerrado’ soil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six (6 treatments and four (4 repetitions. The zinc

  7. Padrões Espaciais e Conservação da Diversidade de Serpentes do Bioma Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Larice de Fátima Machado

    2006-01-01

    Até recentemente, a conservação do Cerrado tem sido negligenciada e tentativas de estabelecer áreas prioritárias para conservação foram baseadas em critérios subjetivos. As estratégias de conservação da biodiversidade devem passar por uma avaliação inicial dos processos ecológicos e evolutivos que geraram e mantém a diversidade de espécies em uma dada região, ou local. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dados macroecológicos de distribuição de 129 espécies de serpentes do Cerrado para ava...

  8. Seed dispersal and spatial distribution of Attalea geraensis (Arecaceae) in two remnants of Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjorne de Almeida, Lilian; Galetti, Mauro

    2007-09-01

    The seed dispersal system of Attalea geraensis (Arecaceae), an acaulescent palm, was investigated during one year in two Cerrado fragments in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. A. geraensis had inflorescences and infrutescences throughout the year. Two scatter-hoarding rodents (the spiny rat, Clyomys bishopi and agoutis, Dasyprocta azarae) were identified as seed predators/dispersers, able to move seeds up to 30 m from the palms, although most of the fruits (57.5%) were dispersed less than 2 m. The removal rates were high and after 20 days, 97.2% of the fruits were removed. Fruit fate was not related to fruit mass, length and diameter. The application of Morisita's index showed a more clumped distribution of adults in the smaller fragment, probably because of the absence of agoutis. Higher seed removal by rodents in the large Cerrado remnant may decrease seed predation by beetles.

  9. Fruit consumption and seed ispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae by the lowland tapir in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. X. A. Bizerril

    Full Text Available Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  10. Measurement of the Ecological Integrity of Cerrado Streams Using Biological Metrics and the Index of Habitat Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Deusiano Florêncio Dos; Salazar, Ayala Eduardo; Machado, Mayana Mendes Dias; Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Morais, Paula Benevides de

    2017-01-12

    Generally, aquatic communities reflect the effects of anthropogenic changes such as deforestation or organic pollution. The Cerrado stands among the most threatened ecosystems by human activities in Brazil. In order to evaluate the ecological integrity of the streams in a preserved watershed in the Northern Cerrado biome corresponding to a mosaic of ecosystems in transition to the Amazonia biome in Brazil, biological metrics related to diversity, structure, and sensitivity of aquatic macroinvertebrates were calculated. Sampling included collections along stretches of 200 m of nine streams and measurements of abiotic variables (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, and discharge) and the Index of Habitat Integrity (HII). The values of the abiotic variables and the HII indicated that most of the streams have good ecological integrity, due to high oxygen levels and low concentrations of dissolved solids and electric conductivity. Two streams showed altered HII scores mainly related to small dams for recreational and domestic use, use of Cerrado natural pasture for cattle raising, and spot deforestation in bathing areas. However, this finding is not reflected in the biological metrics that were used. Considering all nine streams, only two showed satisfactory ecological quality (measured by Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP), total richness, and EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) richness), only one of which had a low HII score. These results indicate that punctual measures of abiotic parameters do not reveal the long-term impacts of anthropic activities in these streams, including related fire management of pasture that annually alters the vegetation matrix and may act as a disturbance for the macroinvertebrate communities. Due to this, biomonitoring of low order streams in Cerrado ecosystems of the Northern Central Brazil by different biotic metrics and also physical attributes of the riparian zone

  11. Measurement of the Ecological Integrity of Cerrado Streams Using Biological Metrics and the Index of Habitat Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deusiano Florêncio dos Reis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, aquatic communities reflect the effects of anthropogenic changes such as deforestation or organic pollution. The Cerrado stands among the most threatened ecosystems by human activities in Brazil. In order to evaluate the ecological integrity of the streams in a preserved watershed in the Northern Cerrado biome corresponding to a mosaic of ecosystems in transition to the Amazonia biome in Brazil, biological metrics related to diversity, structure, and sensitivity of aquatic macroinvertebrates were calculated. Sampling included collections along stretches of 200 m of nine streams and measurements of abiotic variables (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, and discharge and the Index of Habitat Integrity (HII. The values of the abiotic variables and the HII indicated that most of the streams have good ecological integrity, due to high oxygen levels and low concentrations of dissolved solids and electric conductivity. Two streams showed altered HII scores mainly related to small dams for recreational and domestic use, use of Cerrado natural pasture for cattle raising, and spot deforestation in bathing areas. However, this finding is not reflected in the biological metrics that were used. Considering all nine streams, only two showed satisfactory ecological quality (measured by Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP, total richness, and EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera richness, only one of which had a low HII score. These results indicate that punctual measures of abiotic parameters do not reveal the long-term impacts of anthropic activities in these streams, including related fire management of pasture that annually alters the vegetation matrix and may act as a disturbance for the macroinvertebrate communities. Due to this, biomonitoring of low order streams in Cerrado ecosystems of the Northern Central Brazil by different biotic metrics and also physical attributes of the

  12. Frugivoria por aves em Miconia albicans (MELASTOMATACEAE), em um fragmento de cerrado em São Carlos, sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Allenspach, N.; Dias, MM.

    2012-01-01

    The avian guild that consumes Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae) fruits and its phenophases were studied in a fragment of cerrado vegetation located in southeastern Brazil. The fruiting period ocurred between October and January, coinciding with the wet season. Nineteen bird species, mainly of generalistic diets, were registered consuming fruits in 96 observational hours. Species of the families Emberizidae, Thraupidae and Tyrannidae showed the largest number of visits, while those of the fam...

  13. The effect of size and density on nut removal in Syagrus loefgrenii Glassman (Arecaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Ragusa-Netto, J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study I tested the effect of Syagrus loefgrenii nut size and number on the intensity of removal by rodents across seasons. Trials were performed in which piles of either small or large endocarps (1, 3, 6, 12, and 25) were subjected to removal by rodents in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). Despite of variations in the intensity of removal, always this process decrease conform endocarp number. Also, mean proportion of endocarp removal was unrelated to year period, initial numbe...

  14. Impact of Different Agricultural Waste Biochars on Maize Biomass and Soil Water Content in a Brazilian Cerrado Arenosol

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia B. Speratti; Mark S. Johnson; Heiriane Martins Sousa; Gilmar Nunes Torres; Eduardo Guimarães Couto

    2017-01-01

    Arenosols in the Brazilian Cerrado are increasingly being used for agricultural production, particularly maize. These sandy soils are characterized by low soil organic matter, low available nutrients, and poor water-holding capacity. For this reason, adding biochar as a soil amendment could lead to improved water and nutrient retention. A greenhouse experiment was carried out using twelve biochars derived from four feedstocks (cotton husks, swine manure, eucalyptus sawmill residue, sugarcane ...

  15. Measurement of the Ecological Integrity of Cerrado Streams Using Biological Metrics and the Index of Habitat Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Deusiano Florêncio; Salazar, Ayala Eduardo; Machado, Mayana Mendes Dias; Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; de Morais, Paula Benevides

    2017-01-01

    Generally, aquatic communities reflect the effects of anthropogenic changes such as deforestation or organic pollution. The Cerrado stands among the most threatened ecosystems by human activities in Brazil. In order to evaluate the ecological integrity of the streams in a preserved watershed in the Northern Cerrado biome corresponding to a mosaic of ecosystems in transition to the Amazonia biome in Brazil, biological metrics related to diversity, structure, and sensitivity of aquatic macroinvertebrates were calculated. Sampling included collections along stretches of 200 m of nine streams and measurements of abiotic variables (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, and discharge) and the Index of Habitat Integrity (HII). The values of the abiotic variables and the HII indicated that most of the streams have good ecological integrity, due to high oxygen levels and low concentrations of dissolved solids and electric conductivity. Two streams showed altered HII scores mainly related to small dams for recreational and domestic use, use of Cerrado natural pasture for cattle raising, and spot deforestation in bathing areas. However, this finding is not reflected in the biological metrics that were used. Considering all nine streams, only two showed satisfactory ecological quality (measured by Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP), total richness, and EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) richness), only one of which had a low HII score. These results indicate that punctual measures of abiotic parameters do not reveal the long-term impacts of anthropic activities in these streams, including related fire management of pasture that annually alters the vegetation matrix and may act as a disturbance for the macroinvertebrate communities. Due to this, biomonitoring of low order streams in Cerrado ecosystems of the Northern Central Brazil by different biotic metrics and also physical attributes of the riparian zone

  16. Land use and climate change impacts on runoff and soil erosion at the hillslope scale in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anache, Jamil A A; Flanagan, Dennis C; Srivastava, Anurag; Wendland, Edson C

    2018-05-01

    Land use and climate change can influence runoff and soil erosion, threatening soil and water conservation in the Cerrado biome in Brazil. The adoption of a process-based model was necessary due to the lack of long-term observed data. Our goals were to calibrate the WEPP (Water Erosion Prediction Project) model for different land uses under subtropical conditions in the Cerrado biome; predict runoff and soil erosion for these different land uses; and simulate runoff and soil erosion considering climate change. We performed the model calibration using a 5-year dataset (2012-2016) of observed runoff and soil loss in four different land uses (wooded Cerrado, tilled fallow without plant cover, pasture, and sugarcane) in experimental plots. Selected soil and management parameters were optimized for each land use during the WEPP model calibration with the existing field data. The simulations were conducted using the calibrated WEPP model components with a 100-year climate dataset created with CLIGEN (weather generator) based on regional climate statistics. We obtained downscaled General Circulation Model (GCM) projections, and runoff and soil loss were predicted with WEPP using future climate scenarios for 2030, 2060, and 2090 considering different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The WEPP model had an acceptable performance for the subtropical conditions. Land use can influence runoff and soil loss rates in a significant way. Potential climate changes, which indicate the increase of rainfall intensities and depths, may increase the variability and rates of runoff and soil erosion. However, projected climate changes did not significantly affect the runoff and soil erosion for the four analyzed land uses at our location. Finally, the runoff behavior was distinct for each land use, but for soil loss we found similarities between pasture and wooded Cerrado, suggesting that the soil may attain a sustainable level when the land management follows conservation

  17. Prostituição e sentido de vida: relações de significado Prostitución y sentido de la vida: relaciones de significado Prostitution and sense of life: relationship of significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Henrique Corrêa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo elaborar uma compreensão fenomenológica acerca da prática da prostituição, relacionando essa experiência à busca pelo sentido da vida. Com base nos conceitos empregados pela Logoterapia - a psicoterapia do sentido de vida -, elaborou-se uma reflexão teórica sobre as possíveis motivações e sentidos que têm as mulheres que se dedicam à prostituição. Dentre essas, as principais seriam, o meio de sobrevivência econômica, insatisfação com a família, busca por status social, entre outras. Esses pontos foram articulados com a concepção de homem para Viktor Emil Frankl, enquanto aquele ser que está em uma insaciável busca pelo sentido de vida. Esperou-se, com isso, lançar luzes sobre essa relação.La presente investigación tiene como objetivo elaborar una comprensión fenomenológica sobre la práctica de la prostitución relacionando esta experiencia a la búsqueda por el sentido de la vida. A partir de los conceptos empleados por la Logoterapia - la psicoterapia del sentido de la vida - se elaboró una reflexión teórica sobre las posibles motivaciones y sentidos que tienen las mujeres que se dedican a la prostitución. Entre ellas, las principales serian, el medio de sobrevivencia económica, insatisfacción con la familia, búsqueda por estatus social, entre otras. Esos puntos fueron articulados con la concepción de hombre para Viktor Emil Frankl, mientras un ser que está en una insaciable búsqueda por el sentido de la vida. Se esperó, con eso, lanzar luces sobre esa relación.This article aims to develop a phenomenological understanding about the practice of prostitution relating this experience to search for the meaning of life. Based on the concepts employed by Logotherapy - the psychotherapy of the meaning of life - is intended to make a theoretical reflection on the possible motivations and meanings that have women who engage in prostitution. Among those, we considered the

  18. EL SENTIDO COMÚN SOBRE EL GÉNERO: LA INSTITUCIONALIZACIÓN DEL GÉNERO Y LOS SENTIDOS DEL TRABAJO Y LA FAMILIA PARA LAS TRABAJADORAS DE MAQUILADORAS EN TIJUANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areli Veloz Contreras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el prop sito de contribuir a las discusiones actuales sobre la categor a g nero, en este art culo se aborda la relaci n entre g nero y sentido com n . La investigaci n se sit a en un contexto de crisis econ - mica en la ciudad de Tijuana, M xico, durante la primera d cada de 2000. El centro de la reflexi n es la producci n y circulaci n de ciertos saberes y filosof as abstractas en los discursos pol ticos oficiales que surgieron con la institucionalizaci n del g nero y que exaltaron los valores del trabajo, la familia y el cuidado. Se analizan tambi n las paradojas en el sentido com n vividas como experiencias por las mujeres trabajadoras en la industria maquiladora que las pueden llevar al cuestionamiento y a la inconformidad ante las condiciones de vida en la ciudad.

  19. O sentido de vida do familiar do paciente crítico El sentido de la vida familiar del paciente grave The life meaning of the parents of the critical patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Braitt Lima

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo emergiu da reflexão acerca de vivências, como profissional de enfermagem. Teve como objetivos compreender o sentido de vida do familiar do paciente crítico, diante da Tríade Trágica: culpa, sofrimento e morte; e identificar os conteúdos de sentido de vida destes, fundamentada na Analise Existencial. Na trajetória metodológica, a abordagem foi qualitativa, e a análise de conteúdo. A compreensão dos significados foi guiada pela Configuração Triádica, de onde surgiram as categorias: Vazio existencial, Sofrimento, Culpa, Morte, Sentido de vida e Assistência na UTI. Para o familiar do paciente crítico, encontrar o sentido de vida frente à Tríade Trágica é perceber o otimismo trágico, como possibilidade de responder às questões da vida de modo positivo e responsável, através de forças espirituais, como do seu Deus interior, do objetivo de criar ou realizar algo ou do amor dedicado ao seu enfermo.Este estudio surgió de la reflexión acerca de las vivencias tenidas como profesional de enfermería. Tuvo como objetivos: comprender el sentido de la vida del familiar del paciente crítico, frente a la Triada Trágica: culpa, sufrimiento y muerte; e identificar los contenidos del sentido de la vida, fundamentado en el Análisis Existencial. En la trayectoria metodológica el abordaje fue el cualitativo y el análisis de contenido. La comprensión de los significados fue guiada por la Configuración Triádica de donde surgieron las categorías: Vacío existencial, Sufrimiento, Culpa, Muerte, Sentido de la vida y Asistencia en la UCI. Para el familiar del paciente crítico, encontrar el sentido de la vida frente a la Triada Trágica es percibir el optimismo trágico, como posibilidad de responder a las cuestiones de la vida de modo positivo y responsable, a través de fuerzas espirituales, como de su Dios interior, del objetivo de crear o realizar algo o del amor dedicado a su enfermo.This study emerged from the

  20. Coffee berry borer in conilon coffee in the Brazilian Cerrado: an ancient pest in a new environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C M; Santos, M J; Amabile, R F; Frizzas, M R; Bartholo, G F

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to evaluate the population fluctuation of the pest in the Brazilian Cerrado (Federal District). The study was conducted, between November 2014 and October 2015, at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF, Brazil) in an irrigated conilon coffee production area. In November 2014, 120 samples (ten berries/sample) were collected from berries that had fallen on the ground from the previous harvest. Between November 2014 and October 2015, insects were collected weekly, using traps (polyethylene terephthalate bottles) baited with ethyl alcohol (98 GL), ethyl alcohol (98 GL) with coffee powder, or molasses. Between January and July 2015, samples were collected fortnightly from 92 plants (12 berries per plant). All samples were evaluated for the presence of adult coffee berry borers. Samples from the previous harvest had an attack incidence of 72.4%. The baited traps captured 4062 H. hampei adults, and showed no statistical difference in capture efficiency among the baits. Pest population peaked in the dry season, with the largest percentage of captured adults occurring in July (31.0%). An average of 18.6% of the collected berries was attacked by the borer and the highest percentage incidence was recorded in July (33.2%). Our results suggest that the coffee berry borer, if not properly managed, could constitute a limiting factor for conilon coffee production in the Brazilian Cerrado.