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Sample records for cerrado sensu stricto

  1. Fitossociologia de cerrado sensu stricto no município de Abaeté-MG Phytosociology of the cerrado sensu stricto in Abaeté, MG, Brazil

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    Amilcar Walter Saporetti Jr

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O cerrado tem sido objeto de discussão de grupos temáticos que estudam a conservação de biodiversidade no Estado de Minas Gerais. São inúmeras as áreas de conservação com vegetação de cerrado das quais não se têm informações a respeito de sua composição florística e estrutura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar florística e fitossociologicamente uma área de cerrado sensu stricto, no município de Abaeté-MG. A área de estudo é um fragmento com 2 ha de cerrado sensu stricto, preservado como área de reserva da CAF-Santa Bárbara, situada nas coordenadas 19º05'S e 44º58'W, a uma altitude de 480 m, em leve depressão próxima de uma vereda. O clima pertence ao tipo Cwa pelo sistema de Köppen, com precipitação média anual de 1.400 mm. O solo é do tipo Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram instaladas 15 parcelas de 200 m² (10 x 20 m, distribuídas sistematicamente ao longo de trilhas, distanciadas 10 m entre si. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos lenhosos vivos com circunferência do caule ao nível do solo (CAS igual ou maior que 10 cm. O índice de Shannon foi de 3,590 e a equabilidade foi de 0,804, considerados comuns para cerrados bem conservados. Foram amostrados 1.339 indivíduos, sendo a composição florística constituída por 85 espécies, distribuídas em 44 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae com sete espécies, Annonaceae com cinco, Myrtaceae, Malpighiaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rubiaceae e Bignoniaceae com quatro, seguidas de Vochysiaceae e Leguminosae Papilionoideae com três. As espécies que apresentaram o maior valor de importância (VI foram Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (22,21, Myrcia lingua Berg (18,18 Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (17,91, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (17,58, Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (13,69 e Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (11,86.The cerrado has been a topic of discussion of thematic groups studying biodiversity

  2. Diversidade alfa e beta no cerrado sensu strictu da Chapada Pratinha, Brasil Alfa and Beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto

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    Maria Cristina Felfili; Jeanine Maria Felfili

    2001-01-01

    O bioma cerrado possui uma das mais ricas floras dentre as savanas mundiais com mais de 6000 espécies, abrange uma vasta extensão territorial, contém as três maiores bacias hidrográficas sul americanas, e se destaca pela elevada biodiversidade. O objetivo deste trabalho, que faz parte do Projeto Biogeografia do Bioma Cerrado, foi analisar as diversidades alfa e beta em comunidades de cerrado sensu stricto. Foram amostrados o Parque Nacional de Brasília, a Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas,...

  3. Diversidade alfa e beta no cerrado sensu strictu da Chapada Pratinha, Brasil Alfa and Beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto

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    Maria Cristina Felfili

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O bioma cerrado possui uma das mais ricas floras dentre as savanas mundiais com mais de 6000 espécies, abrange uma vasta extensão territorial, contém as três maiores bacias hidrográficas sul americanas, e se destaca pela elevada biodiversidade. O objetivo deste trabalho, que faz parte do Projeto Biogeografia do Bioma Cerrado, foi analisar as diversidades alfa e beta em comunidades de cerrado sensu stricto. Foram amostrados o Parque Nacional de Brasília, a Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, a Area de Proteção Ambiental (APA Gama-Cabeça de Veado, Silvânia-GO, Paracatu-MG e Patrocínio-MG. A amostragem foi aleatória com 10 parcelas de 20x50m em cada área de estudo. Foram incluídas plantas lenhosas, exceto lianas, que tivessem no mínimo 5cm de diâmetro. Foi calculada a diversidade alfa pelo teste de Shannon & Wienner e o de Simpson. A diversidade beta foi calculada pelo índice de Whittaker que mede a mudança ou taxa de substituição na composição de espécies de um local para outro. Foi efetuada a curva espécie-área para as 60 parcelas amostradas e efetuada a classificação por TWINSPAN. O cerrado sensu stricto da Chapada Pratinha pode ser diferenciado em duas zonas fitogeográficas: Distrito Federal-Silvânia e Paracatu-Patrocínio. Estas coincidem com um zoneamento por sistemas de terra que classifica a primeira zona como terras altas em contraposição à segunda.The cerrado flora is one of the richest among the world's savannas with more than 6000 species. The cerrado covers a large territory, contains the three most important hydrographycal basins in South America and a high diversity. The objective of this work, that is part of the project Biogeography of the Cerrado Biome, was to analyse alfa and beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto. The sampled places were: Brasília National Park -- DF, Águas Emendadas Ecological Station -- DF, Environmentally protected Area of Gama-Cabeça de Veado -- DF, Silv

  4. Dry biomass distribution in a cerrado sensu stricto site in Brazil central Distribuição de biomassa seca em um sítio de cerrado sensu stricto no Brasil central

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    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado has been the main source of firewood and charcoal in Brazil, but despite being one of the hot spots for conservation of the world's biodiversity, neither plantations of native species nor sustainable management has been adopted in the region. The aim of this work was to investigate the biomass distribution and the potential for energy production of the cerrado species. The study was conducted in a cerrado sensu stricto site at the Água Limpa Farm (15º 56'14'' S and 47º 46'08'' W in the Cerrado Biosphere Reserve. An area of 63.54ha was divided in 20 x 50m plots and, a random sample consisting of ten of these plots, representing 1.56% of the study-site, was assessed. All woody individuals from 5 cm diameter at 30 cm above ground level were identified and measured. Each individual was felled, the twigs thinner than 3cm were discarded while the larger branches and the trunks, both with bark, were weighted separately. After that, 2.5cm transverse sections of the trunk with bark were taken at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the length. A similar sample was also taken at the base of each branch. A total of 47 species in 35 genera and 24 families were found, with an average density of 673 individuals per ha. The diameter distribution showed a reversed-J shape with 67% of the individuals up to 13cm, while the maximum diameter was 32.30cm. Seven species represented 72% of the total biomass. In general, the species with higher production per tree were among those with higher production per ha. This content was distributed by diameter classes, reaching a maximum of 2.5ton/ha between 9 to 13cm and then, decreasing to 0.96 ton/ha between 29 to 33cm diameter. Carbon sequestering was 6.2ton/ha (until the actual stage of cerrado based on an average 50% carbon content in the dry matter. The heat combustion of the wood varied from 18,903kj/kg to 20,888kj/kg with an average of 19,942kj/kg. The smaller diameter classes fix more carbon due to the large

  5. Survey of vegetation and its diametric distribution in an area of cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest fragment at Dois Irmãos stream in the Area of Environmental Protection (APA of Cafuringa, Federal District, Brazil.

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    José Elias de Paula

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available All individual trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH of over 5cm, as well as the natural succession, were identified in 2,500m2 of the savannah (cerrado sensu stricto area and in 5,000m2 of the “Dois Irmãos” riparian forest vegetation (15º30’19”S and 48º06’18”W. The floristic composition of the cerrado sensu stricto was composed by 100 trees distributed in 25 species, and the riparian forest consisted of 155 trees distributed in 55 species. The natural regeneration was formed with 211 and 287 individuals in the cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest distributed into 38 and 55 species respectively. The basal areas of the trees occupied 3.40m2.ha-1 in the cerrado sensu stricto and 5.08m2.ha-1 in the riparian forest. The diametric distribution curves for both plant communities, adjusted by the Meyers equation, demonstrated a typical tendency of reversed-J shape with strongly antropic action in the 11 to 17cm diametric classes.

  6. Species composition, diversity, and vegetation structure in a gallery forest-cerrado sensu stricto transition zone in eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Eddie Lenza; Josias O. Santos; Leonardo Maracahipes-Santos

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTWe investigated the existence of an ecotone in the species composition, diversity and vegetation structure in the transition between gallery forest and cerrado sensu strictoin central Brazil. We tested two hypotheses: 1) a ecotone can be found between gallery forest and cerrado; 2) a gradient exists in the species composition of the cerrado. We established three parallel transects of 5 m × 350 m running between gallery forest and cerrado, which were divided into subplots of 5 m × 10 m...

  7. Organização comunitária de um encrave de cerrado sensu stricto no bioma Caatinga, chapada do Araripe, Barbalha, Ceará Community organization of cerrado sensu stricto within the Caatinga Biome, Araripe plateau, Barbalha Municipality, Ceará

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    Itayguara Ribeiro da Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou caracterizar a organização comunitária de uma área de cerrado s.s. no semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro, situada no topo da chapada do Araripe, município de Barbalha, Ceará. Foi realizado o levantamento fitossociológico através de 200 pontos-quadrante nos quais foram medidos a altura e o diâmetro no nível do solo (DNS das plantas com no mínimo 3 cm de diâmetro. Foram calculados os parâmetros relativos: densidade, dominância e valor de cobertura (VC. Foi realizada uma análise comparativa dos parâmetros obtidos com outras áreas de cerrado no Brasil. A densidade encontrada foi de 2.224 ind. ha-1 e área basal 19,2 m² ha-1, sendo inferiores aos já obtidos em outros levantamentos. Foram amostradas 43 espécies e 28 famílias. As populações com maior densidade foram as de Miconia albicans, Vismia guianensis e Casearia grandiflora, que foram representadas por arbustos finos e baixos. Entre as populações de maior VC, Byrsonima sericea e Qualea parviflora são espécies consideradas amplamente representadas no bioma cerrado, independente do aumento da aridez, como é o caso da chapada do Araripe A diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 2,88 nats. ind.¹ e a equabilidade (J' de 0,77, ambos inferiores aos de outros levantamentos em áreas de cerrado s.s. pertencentes à área core do Cerrado no planalto Central. A disparidade entre os critérios de inclusão dificulta uma análise comparativa mais acurada e é aqui discutida.This paper describes the community organization of a cerrado area within the Caatinga Biome, semiarid Northeast Brazil, on the Araripe plateau, Barbalha Municipality, Ceará State. The phytosociological survey was carried out using the point-centered quarter method (200 points and included plants with a minimum stem diameter of 3 cm at ground level. Relative parameters of density, dominance and cover (VC were calculated. These data were compared with other brazilian cerrado areas. The cerrado area

  8. A new species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Brazil, with ontogeny and a key to the known species.

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    Castro, Elizeu B; Feres, Reinaldo J F; Ochoa, Ronald; Bauchan, Gary R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome, and is considered to be a "hotspot" due the great concentration of endemic species and high rate of deforestation. Surveys of the mite fauna present in this biome have revealed a great number of new species. In this paper, we describe Tenuipalpus spinosaurus sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), a new species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto, from adult females, deutonymphs, protonymphs, larvae and eggs, collected on Terminalia argentea (Combretaceae), from the Cerrado in Brazil. Females of this new species bear a prominent longitudinal crest on the opisthosoma. The ontogenetic changes in the idiosoma and leg chaetotaxy of all stages are presented. A key to the world species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto is provided. PMID:27394345

  9. Distribuição vertical dos sistemas de polinização bióticos em áreas de cerrado sentido restrito no Triângulo Mineiro, MG, Brasil Vertical distribution of biotic pollination systems in cerrado sensu stricto in the Triângulo Mineiro, MG, Brazil

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    Cláudia Inês da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alguns fatores podem influenciar a distribuição dos recursos florais e sistemas de polinização bióticos nos ecossistemas, como por exemplo, o clima, a altitude, a região geográfica, fragmentação de áreas naturais e as diferenças na composição florística na estratificação vertical. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a distribuição dos sistemas de polinização bióticos na estratificação vertical em fragmentos de cerrado sentido restrito no Triângulo Mineiro. Não houve diferença significativa (χ²0,05,9 =14,17; p = 0,12 na riqueza florística geral entre os fragmentos, nem quando comparada em separado para cada estrato (arbóreo, arbustivo, herbáceo e liana, estando o estrato arbustivo mais bem representado. Da mesma forma, não houve diferenças significativas entre fragmentos quanto aos sistemas de polinização (χ²0,05,21 =13,80; p = 0,8778, sendo a polinização por abelhas mais comum, correspondendo ao menos 85% das espécies de plantas em cada fragmento. Em termos relativos, as plantas polinizadas por abelhas foram dominantes em todos os estratos, chegando a 100% das lianas e herbáceas em alguns fragmentos. Neste estudo, com base na composição florística e distribuição dos sistemas de polinização na estratificação vertical, podemos caracterizar um mosaico vertical no cerrado sentido restrito, que tem implicações na sustentabilidade das comunidades no cerrado, assim como os mosaicos horizontais de fitofisionomias.Several factors can influence the distribution of floral resources and pollination systems in ecosystems, such as climate, altitude, geographic region, fragmentation of natural areas and differences in floristic composition along the vertical stratification. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of the vertical stratification of biotic pollination systems in cerrado (sensu stricto fragments in the Triângulo Mineiro. There was no significant difference (χ²0.05,9=14.17; P = 0.12 in

  10. Microdiversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in Australia.

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    Alvarez Rojas, C A; Ebi, D; Gauci, C G; Scheerlinck, J P; Wassermann, M; Jenkins, D J; Lightowlers, M W; Romig, T

    2016-07-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) is now recognized as an assemblage of cryptic species, which differ considerably in morphology, development, host specificity (including infectivity/pathogenicity for humans) and other aspects. One of these species, E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), is now clearly identified as the principal agent causing cystic echinococcosis in humans. Previous studies of a small section of the cox1 and nadh1 genes identified two variants of E. granulosus s.s. to be present in Australia; however, no further work has been carried out to characterize the microdiversity of the parasite in its territory. We have analysed the sequence of the full length of the cox1 gene (1609 bp) from 37 isolates of E. granulosus from different hosts and geographic regions of Australia. The analysis shows that seven haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. not previously described were found, together with five haplotypes known to be present in other parts of the world, including the haplotype EG01 which is widespread and present in all endemic regions. These data extend knowledge related to the geographical spread and host range of E. granulosus s.s. in a country such as Australia in which the parasite established around 200 years ago. PMID:27041115

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS Triticum, SENSU LATO AND SENSU STRICTO, BASED ON SPIKE AND GRAIN MORPHOLOGY

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    Hristo P. STOYANOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of the present classifications of species of the genus Triticum associates mainly with several plant morphological factors such as fragility of the spikes spindle, grains threshability, grain sphericity, shape and position of glumes, lemmas and paleas and awns, compactness, etc. Special attention is paid to the factor "cultural/wild" form, the ploidy and the genomic constitution of the species, often supported by molecular data which provides considerable comfort in disclosing phylogenetic features in a particular taxonomic unit. Such taxonomic determination is associated with certain disadvantages. It is not sufficiently focused on the spike morphology related to the reproductive apparatus of the plant, and also the causes of phylogenetic differentiation of certain parameters, such as spike branching, multiple spikelets, as well as the ratios of quantitative properties. The existing classifications do not give a precise answer to the taxonomic position of amphidiploids in the genus Triticum, and also for those obtained from hybrid combinations with genera Aegilops, Secale, Haynaldia, Hordeum, Elymus, Leymus, Elytrigia, Agropyron, as transitional and similar forms. Based on studies of spike and grain morphology of a large number of representatives of the genus Triticum and other interspecific and intergeneric amphidiploid forms, a classification of the genus sensu lato and sensu stricto is composed. Sensu stricto, genus Triticum covers all existing wild and cultivated known wheat forms, together with interspecific artificial synthetic forms. Sensu lato, the genus includes intergeneric hybrids, for which a specific generic epithet was coined - ×Triticum, and also a specific epithet, consistent with the originator of the amphidiploid. Special attention was paid to species and amphidiploids with the genus Aegilops. Classification sensu strictissimo was also formulated where the genus Triticum brings together only diploid species

  12. Assessment of different management systems in an area of cerrado sensu strict

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    Flávia Nascimento de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of different management systems on the floristic composition and diversity of a fragment of Cerrado sensu stricto vegetation located in Brasilândia de Minas (MG, eleven years after interventions. In 1997, 30 plots were installed in the study site, in a random block design, consisting of ten treatments with three replications: 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% removal of the basal area, involving 20% reduction and increase in the De Liocourt quotient value; clear cutting and control treatment. Prior to treatment installation, an inventory was compiled of original vegetation. In 2004 and 2008 further inventories were produced. It was observed that interventions in the relevant Cerrado area led to changes in the floristic composition and diversity of local vegetation, yet these changes were also observed in undisturbed areas which had not been subjected to management plans.

  13. Bread, beer and wine: yeast domestication in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex.

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    Sicard, Delphine; Legras, Jean-Luc

    2011-03-01

    Yeasts of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto species complex are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO(2) via fermentation. They have been used for thousands years by mankind for fermenting food and beverages. In the Neolithic times, fermentations were probably initiated by naturally occurring yeasts, and it is unknown when humans started to consciously add selected yeast to make beer, wine or bread. Interestingly, such human activities gave rise to the creation of new species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex by interspecies hybridization or polyploidization. Within the S. cerevisiae species, they have led to the differentiation of genetically distinct groups according to the food process origin. Although the evolutionary history of wine yeast populations has been well described, the histories of other domesticated yeasts need further investigation. PMID:21377618

  14. Identification of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Loci in Leptospira interrogans Sensu Stricto

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    Majed, Z.; Bellenger, E.; Postic, D.; Pourcel, C.; Baranton, G; Picardeau, M.

    2005-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans sensu stricto is responsible for the most frequent and severe cases of human leptospirosis. The epidemiology and clinical features of leptospirosis are usually associated with the serovars and serogroups of Leptospira. Because of the difficulties associated with serological identification of Leptospira strains, we evaluated a novel PCR-based method for typing L. interrogans serovars. Based upon the genome sequence of L. interrogans serovar Lai type strain 5660, 44 loci ...

  15. Evidence for Host-Genotype Associations of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto

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    Samir Mechai; Gabriele Margos; Feil, Edward J.; Nicole Barairo; L Robbin Lindsay; Pascal Michel; Nicholas H Ogden

    2016-01-01

    Different genotypes of the agent of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, show varying degrees of pathogenicity in humans. This variation in pathogenicity correlates with phylogeny and we have hypothesized that the different phylogenetic lineages in North America reflect adaptation to different host species. In this study, evidence for host species associations of B. burgdorferi genotypes was investigated using 41 B. burgdorferi-positive samples from five mammal s...

  16. STRICTO SENSU POST-GRADUATION PROGRAMME NURSING: THE OPINION OF UNDERGRADUATES

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    Estela Maria Leite Meirelles Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Objetivo: Conhecer o entendimento dos graduandos de Enfermagem de uma Universidade Pública de Pernambuco sobre a contribuição de um Programa Associado de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Enfermagem. Métodos: Estudo descritivo-exploratório qualitativo. Foram entrevistados trinta estudantes de enfermagem nos meses de agosto a novembro de 2009. Os dados foram apresentados utilizando-se a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Resultado: Foram evidenciadas três Idéias Centrais: Conhecimento sobre o Programa Associado de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Enfermagem da UPE; contribuição para a prática profissional e o interesse em ingressar. Conclusão: O entendimento da proposta de fortalecimento das pesquisas e de uma articulação destas com as tecnologias e práticas profissionais vem requerer um redirecionamento na filosofia das IES, tendo a incumbência de despertar o mais precocemente, entre seus graduandos o interesse e a habilidade por pesquisar, sedimentando sua formação na busca contínua de conhecimentos, na renovação dos saberes, na inquietação por investigar objetos de estudo instrumentalizadores do agir profissional em saúde.

  17. Genetic Diversity of Indigenous Saccharomyces sensu stricto Yeasts Isolated from Southern Croatia

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    Andrea Skelin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic fermentation is a polimicrobial process involving a large number of genera and species of yeast and bacteria. The major yeast genera involved in this process belongs to the Saccharomyces spp. The aim of this study was the isolation, identification and determination of genetic diversity of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae natural population taken from cv. Plavac mali from secluded wine growing areas of Southern Croatia. Must samples were taken during the spontaneous alcoholic fermentation followed by yeast isolation. A total of 40 isolates that were physiologically confirmed to belong to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group were furthermore differentiated by molecular methods. PCR-RFLP analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 region of the 18S ribosomal DNA identified 37 of the isolates as S. cerevisiae and two of the isolates as S. bayanus/pastorianus. All isolates were further analyzed by RAPD fingerprinting. The results of this study showed that in some cases the RAPD assay may be useful to separate species within the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group. The molecular analysis confirmed genetic diversity of S. cerevisiae indigenous population and additionally the involvement of indigenous S. paradoxus and S. bayanus was determined.The population structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has indicated that each vineyard is characterized with particular S. cerevisiae microflora. It is an important step towards the preservation and exploitation of yeast biodiversity in Southern Croatia.

  18. Structural and environmental variations in a continuum of gallery forest/savana stricto sensu in Itumirim, MG

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    Danilo José Santos Gomes; Isaias Paulino Carmo; Anne Priscila Dias Gonzaga; Leandro Carlos; Ricardo Ayres Loschi; José Aldo Alves Pereira; Evandro Luiz Mendonça Machado

    2013-01-01

    This work verified the possible correlations among the variations of the strucuture, species diversity and variations of the substrate in a tree compartment in a continuum of Gallery Forest/Savana stricto sensu in Itumirim, southern of Minas Gerais. The soils of the areas of Gallery Forest, Transition Forest and Savana stricto sensu presented medium structure, high acidity with pH between 4.5 and 5.0 and high aluminum contents. The structural survey all over the patch presented 1,347 individu...

  19. Decorin Binding by DbpA and B of Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto

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    Salo, Jemiina; Loimaranta, Vuokko; Lahdenne, Pekka; Viljanen, Matti K.; Hytönen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Background. Decorin adherence is crucial in the pathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis. Decorin-binding proteins (Dbp) A and B are the adhesins that mediate this interaction. DbpA and B of Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss) differ in their amino acid sequence, but little attention has been paid to the potential difference in their decorin binding.

  20. Critical analysis of management accounting in Brazil from the viewpoint of stricto sensu postgraduate professors of the area

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    Fábio Frezatti; Tânia Regina Sordi Relvas; Artur Roberto do Nascimento; Emanuel Rodrigues Junqueira

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a critical analysis of management accounting in Brazil, from the perception of professors from the management area of stricto-sensu postgraduate programs in accounting. The central goal was to identify the view of these professors on management accounting. The research, which is of the empirical-analytical and descriptive type, concentrated on identifying and analyzing the following elements: (i) profile of faculty members; (ii) differentiation between financial and managem...

  1. A world revision of the bee fly tribe Usiini (Diptera, Bombyliidae) Part 2: Usia sensu stricto.

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    Gibbs, David

    2014-01-01

    This is the second part of a world revision of the genera Usia Latreille and Parageron Paramonov, of the tribe Usiini Becker, and covers the pale-haired species, the Usia sensu stricto group. Usia sensu stricto as defined here contains 24 species of which 16 species fall into two monophyletic groups, the U. lata group with 10 species and the U. florea group with six species. Eight species cannot be placed in either of these two groups, four of them form two pairs of sibling species while the remaining four species have no clear affinities. Of the 25 formerly available names that belong in Usia sensu stricto, U. putilla Becker stat. rev., previously synonymised under U. angustifrons, is reinstated as a full species. U. sicula Egger syn. nov., is synonymised under U. manca Loew, U. anus Becker syn. nov., is synonymised under U. vestita Macquart and U. claripennis Macquart syn. nov., is synonymised under U. atrata (Fabricius). Usia vicina Macquart, formerly placed as a synonym of U. atrata, is shown to be a junior synonym of U. aenea Rossi. Five new species are described, U. anatoliensis sp. nov., U. annetteae sp. nov., U. greatheadi sp. nov., U. maghrebensis sp. nov. and U. cornigera sp. nov. Both the male and female genitalia are illustrated in detail for 21 species, female only in the cases of U. calva Loew and U. notata Loew and male only for U. incognita Paramonov. PMID:24870868

  2. First insights into the genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) in Serbia.

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    Debeljak, Zoran; Boufana, Belgees; Interisano, Maria; Vidanovic, Dejan; Kulisic, Zoran; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection which is endemic in Serbia where it is subject to mandatory reporting. However, information on the incidence of the disease in humans and prevalence of hydatid infection in livestock remains limited. We used sequenced data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) mitochondrial gene to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) from intermediate hosts from Serbia. We also compared our generated nucleotide sequences with those reported for neighbouring European countries. Echinococcus canadensis was molecularly confirmed from pig and human hydatid isolates. E. granulosus (G1) was confirmed from sheep and cattle hydatid isolates as well as the first molecular confirmation in Serbia of E. granulosus G2 in sheep and E. granulosus G3 in sheep and cattle hydatid isolates. The Serbian E. granulosus (s.s.) parsimony network displayed 2 main haplotypes (SB02 and SB05) which together with the neutrality indices were suggestive of bottleneck and/or balancing selection. Haplotype analysis showed the presence of the common E. granulosus haplotype described from other worldwide regions. Investigation of the pairwise fixation (Fst) index suggested that Serbian populations of E. granulosus (s.s.) from sheep and cattle hosts showed moderate genetic differentiation. Six of the Serbian haplotypes (SB02-SB07) were shared with haplotypes from Bulgaria, Hungary and/or Romania. Further studies using a larger number of hydatid isolates from various locations across Serbia will provide more information on the genetic structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) within this region. PMID:27198778

  3. A comparison of Mg/Ca ratios in Globigerinoides ruber (white): sensu stricto versus a mixture of genotypes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.S.

    . Acknowledgements: I thank Jimin Yu of LDEO and Miguel Martinez-Boti of the University of Southampton for the analytical help. This work was funded by the INDOUSSTF fellowship and a DST Fast Track Project to SN. This is National Institute of Oceanography... Version: J. Geol. Soc. India, vol.87(3); 2016; 323-326 A comparison of Mg/Ca ratios in Globigerinoides ruber (white): sensu stricto versus a mixture of genotypes SUSHANT S. NAIK* CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, 403004...

  4. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii DNAs in patient with Hyperkeratosis lenticularis perstans (Flegel disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzova, Katarina; Kozub, Peter; Szep, Zoltan; Golovchenko, Marina; Rudenko, Natasha

    2016-09-01

    Determination of the causative agent of erythema-like skin lesions in case of nonspecific superficial perivascular dermatitis was supported by histological examination and led to the latter diagnosis of Hyperkeratosis lenticularis perstans (Flegel disease) in patient. The presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in patient serum was confirmed by a routine ELISA method and verified by Western blot technique. Skin biopsy and blood specimens were analyzed by PCR and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). Western blot method revealed IgG antibody response against two specific antigens, 17 and 83 kDa proteins. The recombinant test detected IgG antibody response against p100 and p41 antigens. The sequence analysis of amplicons from the selected genomic loci obtained from skin biopsy and serum samples revealed the presence of two species from B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex as a co-infection in this patient-B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) and Borrelia garinii. PMID:26769152

  5. REVISIÓN DE Ceratocystis sensu stricto CON ESPECIAL REFERENCIA A LOS COMPLEJOS DE LAS ESPECIES C. coerulescens Y C. fimbriata A REVIEW OF Ceratocystis sensu stricto WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE SPECIES COMPLEXES C. coerulescens AND C. fimbriata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marín Montoya

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Ceratocystis sensu stricto incluye un alto número de hongos fitopatógenos de plantas angiospermas y gimnospermas en diversas regiones del mundo. Entre las principales enfermedades causadas por estos hongos se destacan los marchitamientos vasculares, manchado de maderas, chancros y pudriciones radiculares, de tallos y frutos. Muchas especies producen metabolitos volátiles con olores que atraen una amplia variedad de insectos a los tejidos vegetales infectados, sin embargo, el grado de asociación entre los insectos y las diferentes especies de Ceratocystis es altamente variable, presentandose asociaciones mutualistas tales como aquellas entre C. polonica, C. laricicola y C. rufipenni e insectos escolítidos, así como también relaciones no específicas como en los casos de C. paradoxa, C. fagacearum y C. fimbriata con nitidúlidos, moscas y diversos coleópteros. El alto grado de similitud morfológica encontrada entre estos hongos hace difícil la definición de los límites entre las especies de Ceratocystis. Durante la pasada década, la utilización de estudios filogenéticos basados en comparaciones de DNA ha contribuido sustancialmente a clarificar la taxonomía de este grupo de hongos, así por ejemplo, dichos estudios han permitido concluir que algunas especies de Ceratocystis realmente representan complejos de especies crípticas. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo principal proveer una introducción a los estudios experimentales desarrollados para las especies de Ceratocystis sensu stricto y brevemente discutir aspectos relacionados con los denominados hongos ophiostomatoides.The genus Ceratocystis sensu stricto Ellis & Halst. includes many economically important plant pathogens of both angiosperms and gymnosperms, worldwide. Diseases caused by these fungi include vascular wilts, sap stains on logs and lumber, stem cankers and rots of roots, stems and fruits. Most Ceratocystis species are well adapted to dispersal by

  6. Synergism between ammonia, lactic acid and carboxylic acids as kairomones in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2005-01-01

    Host odours play a major role in the orientation and host location of blood-feeding mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, which is the most important malaria vector in Africa, is a highly anthropophilic mosquito species, and the host-seeking behaviour of the females of this mosquito is

  7. The effect of aliphatic carboxylic acids on olfaction-based host-seeking of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2009-01-01

    The role of aliphatic carboxylic acids in host-seeking response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was examined both in a dual-choice olfactometer and with indoor traps. A basic attractive blend of ammonia + lactic acid served as internal standard odor. Single carboxylic acids w

  8. Identification of candidate volatiles that affect the behavioural response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to an active kairomone blend: laboratory and semi-field assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Bukovinszkine Kiss, G.; Otieno, B.; Mbadi, P.A.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting the lives of millions of people. Existing tools such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual sprays are not only effective, but also have limitations as a

  9. Differences in Genotype, Clinical Features, and Inflammatory Potential of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto Strains from Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerar, Tjasa; Strle, Franc; Stupica, Dasa; Ruzic-Sabljic, Eva; McHugh, Gail; Steere, Allen C; Strle, Klemen

    2016-05-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates from patients with erythema migrans in Europe and the United States were compared by genotype, clinical features of infection, and inflammatory potential. Analysis of outer surface protein C and multilocus sequence typing showed that strains from these 2 regions represent distinct genotypes. Clinical features of infection with B. burgdorferi in Slovenia were similar to infection with B. afzelii or B. garinii, the other 2 Borrelia spp. that cause disease in Europe, whereas B. burgdorferi strains from the United States were associated with more severe disease. Moreover, B. burgdorferi strains from the United States induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete higher levels of cytokines and chemokines associated with innate and Th1-adaptive immune responses, whereas strains from Europe induced greater Th17-associated responses. Thus, strains of the same B. burgdorferi species from Europe and the United States represent distinct clonal lineages that vary in virulence and inflammatory potential. PMID:27088349

  10. Comparison of Growth of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto at Five Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinović, Gorana; Ružić-Sabljić, Eva; Strle, Franc; Cerar, Tjaša

    2016-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, a fastidious bacterium that replicates slowly and requires special conditions to grow in the laboratory. Borrelia isolation from clinical material is a golden standard for microbiological diagnosis of borrelial infection. Important factors that affect in vitro borrelia growth are temperature of incubation and number of borrelia cells in the sample. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of temperature on borrelia growth and survival by evaluation and comparison of growth of 31 different borrelia strains at five different temperatures and to determine the influence of different inoculums on borrelia growth at different temperatures. Borreliae were cultured in the MKP medium; the initial and final number of spirochetes was determined by dark field microscopy using Neubauer counting chamber. The growth of borrelia was defined as final number of cells/mL after three days of incubation. For all three Borrelia species, the best growth was found at 33°C, followed by 37, 28, and 23°C, while no growth was detected at 4°C (Pburgdorferi sensu stricto at 28, 33, and 37°C (P>0.05), respectively. Inoculum had statistically significant influence on growth of all three Borrelia species at all tested temperatures except at 4°C. PMID:27310556

  11. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl.) Seem. (Apiaceae) across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Pais Mara Patrícia; Varanda Elenice Mouro

    2003-01-01

    Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechani...

  12. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC COST OF STRICTO SENSU GRADUATION: A SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS BY ACCAUNTANT MASTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Tiago Guimarães; Ensslin, Sandra Rolim

    2014-01-01

    The human capital theory suggests that higher education levels generate greater economic return. Socio-economic costs for Master degree are important to the properly measurement of possible return, and they may be used as evidences in the make decision processes by users. The aim is evaluate the cost on the personal aims socio-economic scopes for strictu sensu degree, according to their egresses perception. The survey evaluates cost situations by groups. Total costs varied from 0.58 to 7.18, ...

  13. Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2012-09-10

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime. PMID:22571833

  14. Behavioral Finance: an investigation based on the prospect theory and the investor profile of portuguese stricto sensu graduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Luis Colognese Haubert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral Finance is a new area of study that seeks to analyze the psychological aspects of individuals in making financial decisions. Studies in this area are intended to verify assumptions made by more traditional theories, in particular, the rationality of economic agents, and they aim to improve the economic and financial model through the incorporation of evidence on investor irrationality. In this context, the objective of this article is to understand the behavior of portuguese post-graduate students to its operations in investments based on behavioral finance. In order to learn about the behavioral profile of investors and prospective investors, a survey was conducted to collect quantitative data using a questionnaire comprising 15 questions for 130 stricto sensu graduate students of Lisbon – Portugal. It was possible to identify the predominant conservative and moderate profiles. It was observed that students showed risk aversion in the field of gains and risk propensity in the field of losses. So it is possible to say that the reflection effect occurred in this study.

  15. Trans-Atlantic exchanges have shaped the population structure of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Ramírez, S; Fingerle, V; Jungnick, S; Straubinger, R K; Krebs, S; Blum, H; Meinel, D M; Hofmann, H; Guertler, P; Sing, A; Margos, G

    2016-01-01

    The origin and population structure of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), the agent of Lyme disease, remain obscure. This tick-transmitted bacterial species occurs in both North America and Europe. We sequenced 17 European isolates (representing the most frequently found sequence types in Europe) and compared these with 17 North American strains. We show that trans-Atlantic exchanges have occurred in the evolutionary history of this species and that a European origin of B. burgdorferi s.s. is marginally more likely than a USA origin. The data further suggest that some European human patients may have acquired their infection in North America. We found three distinct genetically differentiated groups: i) the outgroup species Borrelia bissettii, ii) two divergent strains from Europe, and iii) a group composed of strains from both the USA and Europe. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that different genotypes were likely to have been introduced several times into the same area. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of whether B. burgdorferi s.s. originated in Europe or the USA, later trans-Atlantic exchange(s) have occurred and have shaped the population structure of this genospecies. This study clearly shows the utility of next generation sequencing to obtain a better understanding of the phylogeography of this bacterial species. PMID:26955886

  16. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl.) Seem. (Apiaceae) across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado Variações no investimento em defesas em Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl.) Seem. (Apiaceae) ao longo de um gradiente de vegetação num cerrado brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Patrícia Pais; Elenice Mouro Varanda

    2003-01-01

    Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechani...

  17. Canine echinococcosis: genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, B; Lett, W; Lahmar, S; Griffiths, A; Jenkins, D J; Buishi, I; Engliez, S A; Alrefadi, M A; Eljaki, A A; Elmestiri, F M; Reyes, M M; Pointing, S; Al-Hindi, A; Torgerson, P R; Okamoto, M; Craig, P S

    2015-11-01

    Canids, particularly dogs, constitute the major source of cystic echinococcosis (CE) infection to humans, with the majority of cases being caused by Echinococcus granulosus (G1 genotype). Canine echinococcosis is an asymptomatic disease caused by adult tapeworms of E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Information on the population structure and genetic variation of adult E. granulosus is limited. Using sequenced data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) we examined the genetic diversity and population structure of adult tapeworms of E. granulosus (G1 genotype) from canid definitive hosts originating from various geographical regions and compared it to that reported for the larval metacestode stage from sheep and human hosts. Echinococcus granulosus (s.s) was identified from adult tapeworm isolates from Kenya, Libya, Tunisia, Australia, China, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom and Peru, including the first known molecular confirmation from Gaza and the Falkland Islands. Haplotype analysis showed a star-shaped network with a centrally positioned common haplotype previously described for the metacestode stage from sheep and humans, and the neutrality indices indicated population expansion. Low Fst values suggested that populations of adult E. granulosus were not genetically differentiated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities for E. granulosus isolates from sheep and human origin were twice as high as those reported from canid hosts. This may be related to self-fertilization of E. granulosus and/or to the longevity of the parasite in the respective intermediate and definitive hosts. Improved nuclear single loci are required to investigate the discrepancies in genetic variation seen in this study. PMID:26442707

  18. The mode of action of spatial repellents and their impact on vectorial capacity of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila B Ogoma

    Full Text Available Malaria vector control relies on toxicity of insecticides used in long lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. This is despite evidence that sub-lethal insecticides reduce human-vector contact and malaria transmission. The impact of sub-lethal insecticides on host seeking and blood feeding of mosquitoes was measured. Taxis boxes distinguished between repellency and attraction inhibition of mosquitoes by measuring response of mosquitoes towards or away from Transfluthrin coils and humans. Protective effective distance of coils and long-term effects on blood feeding were measured in the semi-field tunnel and in a Peet Grady chamber. Laboratory reared pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes were used. In the taxis boxes, a higher proportion of mosquitoes (67%-82% were activated and flew towards the human in the presence of Transfluthrin coils. Coils did not hinder attraction of mosquitoes to the human. In the semi-field Tunnel, coils placed 0.3 m from the human reduced feeding by 86% (95% CI [0.66; 0.95] when used as a "bubble" compared to 65% (95% CI [0.51; 0.76] when used as a "point source". Mosquitoes exposed to coils inside a Peet Grady chamber were delayed from feeding normally for 12 hours but there was no effect on free flying and caged mosquitoes exposed in the semi-field tunnel. These findings indicate that airborne pyrethroids minimize human-vector contact through reduced and delayed blood feeding. This information is useful for the development of target product profiles of spatial repellent products that can be used to complement mainstream malaria vector control tools.

  19. Behavioural responses of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto M and S molecular form larvae to an aquatic predator in Burkina Faso

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    Gimonneau Geoffrey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predation of aquatic immature stages has been identified as a major evolutionary force driving habitat segregation and niche partitioning in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto in the humid savannahs of Burkina Faso, West Africa. Here, we explored behavioural responses to the presence of a predator in wild populations of the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae that typically breed in permanent (e.g., rice field paddies and temporary (e.g., road ruts water collections. Methods Larvae used in these experiments were obtained from eggs laid by wild female An. gambiae collected from two localities in south-western Burkina Faso during the 2008 rainy season. Single larvae were observed in an experimental arena, and behavioural traits were recorded and quantified a in the absence of a predator and b in the presence of a widespread mosquito predator, the backswimmer Anisops jaczewskii. Differences in the proportion of time allocated to each behaviour were assessed using Principal Component Analysis and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Results The behaviour of M and S form larvae was found to differ significantly; although both forms mainly foraged at the water surface, spending 60-90% of their time filtering water at the surface or along the wall of the container, M form larvae spent on average significantly more time browsing at the bottom of the container than S form larvae (4.5 vs. 1.3% of their overall time, respectively; P P P P Conclusions Behavioural differences between larvae of the M and S form of An. gambiae in response to an acute predation risk is likely to be a reflection of different trade-offs between foraging and predator vigilance that might be of adaptive value in contrasting aquatic ecosystems. Future studies should explore the relevance of these findings under the wide range of natural settings where both forms co-exist in Africa.

  20. Prioridades dos Programas de Pós-Fraduação Stricto Sensu em Educação Física: a visão dos egressos Prioridades de los Programas de Postgrado Stricto Sensu en Educación Física: la visión de los egresos Priorities of the Stricto Sensu Post Graduation's Programs in Physical Education: graduate student's point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Evando Carlos Moreira; João Batista Andreotti Gomes Tojal

    2013-01-01

    Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo identificar, junto aos alunos egressos dos Programas de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Educação Física, as prioridades do processo formativo estabelecidas pela Instituição em que realizaram seus cursos. A pesquisa envolve a coleta de dados dos objetivos desses Programas, além de questionário aplicado aos egressos dos mesmos e que receberam titulação entre os anos de 2001 e 2006. Os Programas de Pós-Graduação em Educação Física precisam dedicar mais tempo ao pr...

  1. Investigation of an unrecognized large-scale outbreak of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto fungaemia in a tertiary-care hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Zhang, Li; Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Chu, Yun-Zhuo; Kang, Mei; Sun, Zi-Yong; Li, Ruo-Yu; Liao, Kang; Lu, Juan; Zou, Gui-Ling; Xiao, Meng; Fan, Xin; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    A data analysis of yeast collections from the National China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net (CHIF-NET) programme in 2013 revealed a sudden increase in the proportion of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates (n = 98) in one participating hospital (Hospital H). Out of 443 yeast isolates submitted to the CHIF-NET reference laboratory by Hospital H (2010-2014), 212 (47.9%) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto by sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. Among the 212 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates, 176 (83.0%) bloodstream-based isolates and 25 isolates from tip cultures of various vascular catheters from 25 patients with candidaemia, were subjected to microsatellite genotyping, and a phylogenetic relationship analysis was performed for 152 isolates. Among the 152 isolates, 45 genotypes (T01 to T45) were identified, and two prevalent genotypes (63.8%) were found: T15 (n = 74, 48.7%) and T16 (n = 23, 15.1%). These two main clones were confined mainly to three different wards of the hospital, and they persisted for 16-25 months and 12-13 months, respectively. The lack of proper coordination between the clinical microbiology laboratory and infection control staff as part of public health control resulted in the failure to timely identify an outbreak, which led to the wide and long-term dissemination of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto in Hospital H. PMID:27251023

  2. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M. B.; Diaz-Soltero, H.; Claps, L. E.; Saracho Bottero, A.; Triapitsyn, S.; Hasson, E.; Logarzo, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s. showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  3. Using remote sensing images for stratification of the cerrado in forest inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Teixeira da Silva; José Marcio de Mello; Fausto Weimar Acerbi Junior; Aliny Aparecida dos Reis; Marcel Regis Raimundo; Iasmim Louriene Gouveia Silva; José Roberto Soares Scolforo

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing imagery can be a very useful auxiliary tool for native forests inventory. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the stratification of a cerrado (Brazilian savanna) patch based on visual image interpretation techniques as well as to compare the errors from two sampling designs, the Stratified Random Sampling (SRS) and the Systematic Sampling (SS).The study area corresponds to a cerrado sensu stricto patch located in the municipality of Papagaios, Minas Gerais, Brazil...

  4. A formação pedagógica no ensino superior e o papel da pós-graduação stricto sensu The pedagogical formation in higher education and the role of stricto sensu graduate studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Torres Corrêa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolvemos este trabalho com base na ideia de que ser docente no ensino superior não é apenas uma questão de domínio de conteúdo, de expertise em determinado campo. A prática pedagógica em tal nível de ensino é complexa, contextualizada, muitas vezes imprevisível e se configura por escolhas éticas e políticas. Nesse sentido, entendemos que a docência demanda um processo formativo que pode ter como fase inicial a pós-graduação stricto sensu. A partir de tal discussão, estabelecemos como objetivo estudar o modo como a formação pedagógica é tratada no âmbito das políticas públicas para o ensino superior, mais especificamente no que tange à pós-graduação stricto sensu. Para tanto, valemo-nos de dois referenciais metodológicos: a teoria dos campos de Pierre Bourdieu e a análise crítica do discurso de Norman Fairclough. A compreensão da pós-graduação como um campo científico e a análise do Plano Nacional de Pós-Graduação indicaram que esse nível de formação superior está basicamente voltado para a acumulação de capital científico e para a formação de habitus científico, tudo isso em meio a um silêncio sobre a dimensão do ensino no fazer e ser docente. Concluímos que há a necessidade de desenvolver uma cultura de valorização do ensino na universidade, processo este que pode ter na valorização de um capital pedagógico e na formação de um habitus pedagógico na pós-graduação stricto sensu uma fase de grande relevância.This work was developed based on the idea that being a higher education teacher is not just a question of having command of contents, of having expertise in a given field. The pedagogical practice at that level is complex, contextualized, often unpredictable, and is shaped by ethical and political choices. In this sense, we understand that teaching demands a formative process that may have as its initial stage stricto sensu graduate studies. From such discussions we have

  5. Postgrado Stricto Sensus del Departamento de Enfermería de la Universidad de Concepción: Concepción, Chile Pós-graduação Stricto Sensu do Departamento de Enfermagem da Universidad de Concepción: Concepción, Chile Stricto Sensu graduate program at the Nursing Department of Concepción University: Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paravic

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Artículo que relata la trayectoria e historia del Postgrado Stricto Sensus del Departamento de Enfermería de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Concepción. Concepción, Chile. Describe el diseño curricular de los programas , sus líneas de investigación , el producto que se quiere obtener y su impacto, así como el proceso para llegar a la aprobación del primer programa de Doctorado en Enfermería en Chile.Este artigo relata a trajetória histórica da Pós-Graduação stricto sensu do Departamento de Enfermagem da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Concepción, Chile. Descreve o desenho curricular dos programas, suas linhas de investigação, o produto que se pretende obter e seu impacto, assim como o processo para a aprovação do primeiro programa de Doutorado em Enfermagem do Chile.This article reports on the trajectory and history of the stricto sensu graduate program offered at the Nursing Department of Concepción University Medical School, Concepción, Chile. It describes the curricular design of its programs, its research lines, the desired product and its impact, as well as the process to arrive at the approval of the first Ph.D. program in nursing in Chile.

  6. Proposal of the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto and three new genera, Sphingobium, Novosphingobium and Sphingopyxis, on the basis of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, M; Hamana, K; Hiraishi, A

    2001-07-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences by distance matrix and parsimony methods indicated that the currently known species of the genus Sphingomonas can be divided into four clusters. Some chemotaxonomic and phenotypic differences were noted among these clusters. Three new genera, Sphingobium, Novosphingobium and Sphingopyxis, are proposed in addition to the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto. The genus Sphingobium is proposed to accommodate Sphingomonas chlorophenolica, Sphingomonas herbicidovorans and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae. The genus Novosphingobium is proposed for Sphingomonas aromaticivorans, Sphingomonas capsulata, Sphingomonas rosa, Sphingomonas stygia, Sphingomonas subarctica and Sphingomonas subterranea. Sphingomonas macrogoltabidus and Sphingomonas terrae are reclassified in the genus Sphingopyxis. The type species of Sphingobium, Novosphingobium and Sphingopyxis are Sphingobium yanoikuyae, Novosphingobium capsulatum and Sphingopyxis macrogoltabida, respectively. PMID:11491340

  7. Survey and first molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scioscia, Nathalia Paula; Petrigh, Romina Sandra; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín; Fugassa, Martín; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2016-06-01

    Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) has a world-wide distribution and its transmission is primarily maintained in a synanthropic cycle with dogs as definitive hosts and livestock species as intermediate hosts. However, many wild canids also function as definitive hosts for E. granulosus s. l. Echinococcosis in humans is mainly caused by E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.) G1 genotype. In the present work, we expanded the epidemiological study on echinococcosis reported cases in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) to provide a prevalence estimate for rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Ninety-five whole intestines were analyzed using the sedimentation and counting technique with a result of 83 foxes (87.37%) harboring at least one helminth species. E. granulosus s. l. adults were found in one Pampas fox (1.05%). These adult helminthes were E. granulosus s. s. (G1) according to the genotyping analysis of a 450-bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. PMID:26892869

  8. Floristic composition of the cerrado in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, southeastern Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Batalha Marco Antônio; Mantovani Waldir

    2001-01-01

    We studied a 1225 ha area, composed mainly of cerrado, in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil (21°36-38'S, 47°36-39'W). In three cerrado physiognomies (campo cerrado -- a wooded savanna, cerrado sensu stricto -- a woodland, and cerradão -- a tall woodland), we collected all vascular plants in reproductive stage, and identified them to species level. We found 360 species, representing 236 genera and 69 families. The richest families were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poac...

  9. Produção de serrapilheira no Cerrado e Floresta de Transição Amazônia-Cerrado do Centro-Oeste Brasileiro Litterfall production in the Brazilian mid-western Amazonia-Cerrado transition forest

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José da Silva; Luciana Sanches; Monica Elisa Bleich; Francisco de Almeida Lobo; José de Souza Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a variação da produção de serrapilheira de diferentes biomas: Cerrado (com as fitofisionomias Cerrado sensu stricto e Cerradão) e Floresta de Transição Amazônia-Cerrado, em clima tropical. Para a determinação da produção de serrapilheira foram utilizados coletores de tela em náilon. Dados micrometereológicos foram coletados nas áreas de estudo. A produção de serrapilheira nos dois biomas mostrou acentuada sazonalidade, com as maiores produções ...

  10. Contribuições da pós-graduação stricto sensu para o aprendizado da docência de professores de contabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marchine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inserida no campo da Docência no Ensino Superior, esta investigação teve por objetivo compreender quais contribuições mestrados e doutorados forneceram para professores-contadores universitários em termos de aprendizado dos saberes necessários para o exercício profissional da docência. A revisão de literatura abordou questões relativas à formação e desenvolvimento profissional de professores do ensino superior, aos saberes docentes na perspectiva de Tardif (2012, à formação para pesquisa e para o ensino e ao papel da pós-graduação stricto sensu na formação do professor de contabilidade, resgatando resultados de pesquisas já realizadas no âmbito da contabilidade. Metodologicamente a investigação teve orientação qualitativa como estratégia geral. A coleta de dados se deu por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas aplicadas a 12 professores dos cursos de Ciências Contábeis de uma universidade pública estadual. As análises foram realizadas fundamentando-se na Análise Textual Discursiva, método que se situa entre a Análise de Conteúdo e a Análise do Discurso. Como principal resultado, apurou-se que a percepção que têm sobre contribuição da pós-graduação para seus processos formativos docentes está relacionada mais com aprendizagem e atualização de conteúdos disciplinares específicos do que com o aprendizado de outros saberes necessários ao exercício docente. Percepção essa que se alinha a resultados de estudos sobre cursos de stricto sensu e aprendizagem da docência. Sobre os demais saberes profissionais docentes, há ausência nos discursos dos investigados sobre terem tido algum contato formal com eles (em disciplinas ou estágios docentes no decurso da realização dos seus mestrados e doutorados.

  11. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Mara Patrícia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechanisms in different habitat physiognomies. The defensive mechanisms and the nutritional traits of a cerrado plant, Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae, were compared along a vegetation gradient. Toughness, as well as water, nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, and tannin contents were measured in young and mature leaves of D. vinosum collected in campo cerrado, cerrado sensu stricto (s.s. and cerradão. Plants from cerrado s.s. and cerradão were of better nutritional quality but also had higher tannin contents than campo cerrado plants. Some type of compensation mechanism could have been selected to provide an optimum investment in defense, according to limitations imposed by water deficits in the habitat.

  12. Species composition and temporal activity of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in two cerrado vegetation types

    OpenAIRE

    Scheila Scherrer; Viviane G. Ferro; Marina N. Ramos; Ivone R Diniz

    2013-01-01

    Arctiinae moths include nearly 11,000 species worldwide, of which approximately 700 species occur in the Brazilian Cerrado. The aim of this study was to describe the species composition of Arctiinae, as well as the variation in annual and nightly moth activity, in two Cerrado vegetation types. We sampled moths one night per month from September 2008 to June 2009, in the gallery forest and in the cerrado sensu stricto in the Jardim Botânico de Brasília. We collected 395 tiger moths belonging t...

  13. O alcance da excelência por programas brasileiros de pós-graduação stricto sensu com doutorado em enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alacoque Lorenzini Erdmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este tuve como objetivo identificar los programas de postgrado en enfermería stricto sensu evaluados por el campo de la enfermería de la Coordinación de Perfeccionamiento de Personal de Nivel Superior, en el trienio 2007-2009, la excelencia alcanzado - 6 º grado. Estudio descriptivo exploratorio de naturaleza documental que examinó los datos de los informes de los indicadores de estos programas en el sitio de la Coordenación mencionada, en 2010. Se analizaron 99 fichas de 33 programas para el trienio 2007 a 2009, agrupadas en el sub-cláusulas sociales y categorías de artículos para los grados 6/7. Presenta los indicadores de excelencia de programas estadounidenses y brasileños, los resultados de la evaluación trienal sobre los subtemas del tema 5 y la descripción de la ejecución de los programas especificados para el grado 6. De ello se deduce que la excelencia de los programas ha ido ganando de forma progresiva, con el rendimiento en ciertas categorías como los exigidos por las normas internacionales, la superación de los obstáculos a la consecución de la excelencia en toda su plenitud.

  14. High-resolution melting analysis (HRM) for differentiation of four major Taeniidae species in dogs Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mansoureh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Sima; Shamsaddini, Saeedeh; Mirbadie, Seyed Reza; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-07-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Taenia include several species of important parasites with considerable medical and veterinary significance. Accurate identification of these species in dogs is the prerequisite of any prevention and control program. Here, we have applied an efficient method for differentiating four major Taeniid species in dogs, i.e., Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is simpler, less expensive, and faster technique than conventional DNA-based assays and enables us to detect PCR amplicons in a closed system. Metacestode samples were collected from local abattoirs from sheep. All the isolates had already been identified by PCR-sequencing, and their sequence data were deposited in the GenBank. Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting mitochondrial cox1 and ITS1 genes was used to differentiate taeniid species. Distinct melting curves were obtained from ITS1 region enabling accurate differentiation of three Taenia species and E. granulosus in dogs. The HRM curves of Taenia species and E .granulosus were clearly separated at Tm of 85 to 87 °C. In addition, double-pick melting curves were produced in mixed infections. Cox1 melting curves were not decisive enough to distinguish four taeniids. In this work, the efficiency of HRM analysis to differentiate four major taeniid species in dogs has been demonstrated using ITS1 gene. PMID:27008188

  15. Filosofia buberiana e a produção da pós-graduação Stricto Sensu brasileira: revisão integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Schaurich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Revisão integrativa que objetivou caracterizar a produção do conhecimento da Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu brasileira que se desenvolveu à luz da filosofia de Martin Buber. A coleta de dados ocorreu no Banco de Teses da CAPES e 66 produções compuseram a amostra. O período de 2003 a 2007 agrupou a maioria dos estudos que foram defendidos em programas de Educação e Psicologia. A maior parte foi produzida na região Sudeste e focada nas temáticas processo ensino-aprendizagem e sexualidade humana. Conclui-se que a utilização deste referencial, por sua abrangência e complexidade, tem servido a diferentes disciplinas do conhecimento no subsídio a distintos objetos de investigação. Ainda, configura uma alternativa à saúde e à Enfermagem para o desenvolvimento do cuidado relacional-dialógico e humanístico.

  16. Floristic composition of the cerrado in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, southeastern Brazil) Composição florística do cerrado na Reserva Pé-de-Gigante (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP)

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antônio Batalha; Waldir Mantovani

    2001-01-01

    We studied a 1225 ha area, composed mainly of cerrado, in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil (21°36-38'S, 47°36-39'W). In three cerrado physiognomies (campo cerrado -- a wooded savanna, cerrado sensu stricto -- a woodland, and cerradão -- a tall woodland), we collected all vascular plants in reproductive stage, and identified them to species level. We found 360 species, representing 236 genera and 69 families. The richest families were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poac...

  17. Shrub and tree species composition in the cerrados of southwest Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Antônio de Carvalho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the knowledge about variations in the floristic community of Brazilian cerrado, especially inregard to soil and climate conditions, we conducted a floristic assessment of the tree and shrub community of three disjoint adjacentregions situated in three municipalities of southwest Minas Gerais state (geographical coordinates 20-23ºS and 44-47ºW. Over aperiod of 24 months, in 49 allocated plots of 20 x 20 m, all tree and shrub species 1 m high or more in vegetative and/or reproductivestage were sampled. Additional random samples of blossoming plants were collected outside plots, and each plot was analyzed andcategorized for soil type. 170 botanical species were identified belonging to 103 genera and 46 families. Family Fabaceae and genusMiconia presented the largest number of species. Although the cerrado of southwest Minas Gerais extends over marginal areas ofoccurrence of Brazilian cerrado, its floristic composition is rich not only in species but also in genera and families. Some species foundin these cerrados also occur in local semideciduous forests, while other species that are frequently found in other areas of cerrado werenot found in southwest Minas Gerais. Tibouchina sellowiana does not feature in the list of species occurring in Brazilian cerrados.There is little similarity among the three sampled areas due to soil factors and different types of human influence in each of the areas.Alpinópolis presented cerrado sensu stricto subtype cerrado ralo, with 75 species and red-yellow latosol. Campo do Meiopresented cerrado sensu stricto subtype cerrado típico, with 88 species and red latosol. Pimenta falls under the cerradão category,with 124 species and red latosol. On the subsurface, the soil of Pimenta was found to present lower Al+++ saturation, which apparentlyshapes conditions for a more vigorous vegetation. The cerrado soils sampled in this study showed high similarity to cerrado soils inother parts of Brazil.

  18. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use. PMID:26131639

  19. In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Four Antibiotics against Borrelia burgdorferi: a Comparison of Results for the Three Genospecies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Sicklinger, Martin; Wienecke, Ralf; Neubert, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were evaluated for the four antibiotics azithromycin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, and doxycycline against the three main genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In MBC testing, statistically significant differences between the genospecies could be found in 7 out of 12 comparative evaluations (P < 0.05).

  20. In-vitro-Sensibilität von Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato gegenüber vier Antibiotika: ein Vergleich der Genospezies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii und Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Sicklinger, Martin

    2006-01-01

    MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were evaluated for the four antibiotics azithromycin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, and doxycycline against the three main genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In MBC testing, statistically significant differences between the genospecies could be found in 7 out of 12 comparative evaluations (P < 0.05).

  1. Programas de pós-graduação Stricto Sensu em contabilidade: sua contribuição na formação de professores e pesquisadores = Graduate programs in Stricto Sensu accounting: its contribution to teachers and researchers development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Comunelo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre a formação de professores e pesquisadores em Contabilidade importam no processo de desenvolvimento do ensino. Com o aumento da demanda destes profissionais e da oferta de cursos de graduações, o docente e o pesquisador devem estar preparados para enfrentar novos desafios. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo foi desenvolvido com objetivo de verificar a contribuição dos Programas de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Contabilidade em nível de mestrado quanto à formação de professores e pesquisadores. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida sob as formas qualitativa e quantitativa, utilizando-se de dados secundários e de análise de conteúdo para atingir o objetivo proposto. A análise de dados pautou-se em 6 PPGs, contemplando 115 mestres em Contabilidade que concluíram o curso no ano de 2004. Foram analisadas as suas publicações e atuação profissional nos cinco anos subsequentes, ou seja, até 2009. Os resultados apontam que os PPGs no período em estudo estavam voltados basicamente para a formação de professores, pois 104 mestres atuam na docência. Ainda, demonstrou que o destino destes professores eram as instituições de ensino superior privadas e para o curso de Ciências Contábeis. No processo de formação pedagógica, todos os programas possuíam a disciplina de Metodologia do Ensino Superior, sendo alguns de forma obrigatória e outros, optativa. No entanto, os dados da pesquisa mostraram que no período estudado, os programas não contribuíram significativamente para a formação de pesquisadores, pois estes estavam centrados na formação de docentes, evidenciada pela baixa publicação dos egressos dos programas e pela concentração em determinados egressos.Studies on the training of teachers and researchers in accounting matter in the process of development of education. With the increasing demand of these professionals and the supply of graduate courses, the teacher and the researcher must be prepared to face

  2. Fator de impacto e pós-graduação stricto sensu em alimentos, nutrição e ciência e tecnologia de alimentos Impact factor and stricto sensu post graduation in foods, nutrition and science and food technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Afonso Jordão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar a relação entre o fator de impacto de publicações e o conceito da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior para os programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu envolvidos com Alimentos e Nutrição, foram selecionados 39 programas do triênio 2001-2003, de 4 Comitês (Agrárias, Alimentos, Medicina II e Nutrição e Zootecnia. Apesar de a publicação científica ser muito valorizada, sua aplicação na conceituação de programas é limitada. Uma correlação muito pobre (r²= 0,0611 entre o conceito atribuído ao programa e a média anual de fator de impacto por docente, por programa, foi encontrada. Por outro lado, 48,6% dos artigos produzidos no triênio 2001-2003 por esses programas foram enviados para periódicos não indexados pelo Institute of Scientific Information. Houve, nos programas de pós-graduação analisados neste período, 1149 (51% trabalhos publicados em 231 revistas não indexadas na base Institute of Scientific Information, e 1216 (49% trabalhos publicados em 331 periódicos indexados no Institute of Scientific Information. Esses dados sugerem a necessidade de aprimorar a avaliação da produção intelectual na área de Alimentos e Nutrição, no sentido de ajustar as medidas de produção para reconhecer as particularidades da produção científica dessa área. É preciso, também, desenvolver mecanismos de inclusão da medida de fator de impacto de publicações nacionais.Aiming to analyze the relationship between the impact factor of publications and the concept of graduate nutrition and food programs, 39 programs were selected from the years 2001-2003 from 4 Committees (Agrarian, Foods, Medicine II and Nutrition and Zootechny. Even though scientific publications are highly valued, their application in the conceptualization of programs is very limited. A very poor correlation (r²= 0.0611 between the concept given to the program and the annual mean of the impact

  3. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil Duas cochonilhas mirmecófilas, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae e Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, coabitando no interior de ramos de Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae em área de Cerrado do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.O coccídeo Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 e o pseudococcídeo Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 são registrados coabitando no interior de galhos de Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, ambos atendidos pela formiga Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Essa interação foi observada em uma região de Cerrado sensu stricto, na Universidade Federal de São Carlos, UFSCar, Brasil. A. oecocordia é registrada pela primeira vez para o Brasil.

  4. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.

  5. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture. PMID:26849674

  6. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinne Pereira de Castro

    Full Text Available The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  7. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira de Castro, Alinne; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture. PMID:26849674

  8. Técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos no Cerrado Collection techniques of dung beetle in the Cerrado, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Silva Milhomem; Fernando Zagury Vaz de Mello; Ivone Rezende Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Métodos de coleta passiva, com o uso de armadilhas, têm sido utilizados na coleta de besouros da família Scarabaeidae. No Cerrado existem poucos estudos sobre estes insetos, apesar da sua importância para o ecossistema e para o controle biológico de pragas do gado bovino. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae sensu stricto) com armadilha de interceptação de vôo e armadilha de queda com fezes e com carcaça. O experimento ...

  9. Técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos no Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Milhomem Michelle Silva; Mello Fernando Zagury Vaz de; Diniz Ivone Rezende

    2003-01-01

    Métodos de coleta passiva, com o uso de armadilhas, têm sido utilizados na coleta de besouros da família Scarabaeidae. No Cerrado existem poucos estudos sobre estes insetos, apesar da sua importância para o ecossistema e para o controle biológico de pragas do gado bovino. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae sensu stricto) com armadilha de interceptação de vôo e armadilha de queda com fezes e com carcaça. O experimento ...

  10. Interception of rainfall and surface runoff in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarso Oliveira, Paulo; Wendland, Edson; Nearing, Mark; Perea Martins, João

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado plays a fundamental role in water resources dynamics because it distributes fresh water to the largest basins in Brazil and South America. In recent decades, the native Cerrado vegetation has increasingly been replaced by agricultural crops and pasture. These land cover and land use changes have altered the hydrological processes. Meanwhile, little is known about the components of the water balance in the Brazilian Cerrado, mainly because the experimental field studies in this region are scarce or nonexistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate two hydrological processes under native Cerrado vegetation, the canopy interception (CI) and the surface runoff (R). The Cerrado physiognomy was classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" with an absolute density of 15,278 trees ha-1, and a basal area of 11.44 m2 ha-1. We measured the gross rainfall (P) from an automated tipping bucket rain gauge (model TB4) located in a tower with 11 m of height on the Cerrado. Throughfall (TF) was obtained from 15 automated tipping bucket rain gauges (model Davis) spread below the Cerrado vegetation and randomly relocated every month during the wet season. Stemflow (SF) was measured on 12 trees using a plastic hose wrapped around the trees trunks, sealed with neutral silicone sealant, and a bucket to store the water. The canopy interception was computed by the difference between P and the sum of TF and SF. Surface runoff under undisturbed Cerrado was collected in three plots of 100 m2(5 x 20 m) in size and slope steepness of approximately 0.09 m m-1. The experimental study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2013. We found TF of 81.0% of P and SF of 1.6% of P, i.e. the canopy interception was calculated at 17.4% of P. There was a statistically significant correlation (p 0.8. Our results suggest that the rainfall intensity, the characteristics of the trees trunks (crooked and twisted) and stand structure are the main factors that have influenced

  11. Análise do processo de exame de grau na pós-graduação stricto sensu Analysis of the process of viva voce in graduate programs of degree by research

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    Silvana Pezzi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem por objetivo contribuir para o aprofundamento das discussões acerca da qualidade da pós-graduação stricto sensu no âmbito nacional, a partir de um de seus elementos constituintes: o exame de grau. O exame de grau é discutido de forma teórica, por meio da análise sistematizada de pesquisas nacionais e internacionais relacionadas com o tema. Primeiramente, são discutidos os propósitos de mestrados e doutorados, analisados os objetivos dos exames de grau, investigados os procedimentos e os critérios adotados na avaliação dos exames de grau, apontando seus pontos de vulnerabilidade. A seguir, sistematizam-se e analisam-se as variáveis relacionadas à subjetividade dos elementos decisórios de cada examinador e as influências externas às quais a banca está envolta. Em sua conclusão, ressalta-se o alto nível de heterogeneidade associado ao conhecimento e à percepção dos padrões esperados para a formação de um mestre e um doutor, que influencia sistemicamente no processo de exame de grau. Por fim, os temas sugeridos para a continuação da pesquisa visam buscar maior consistência nos procedimentos de avaliação dos exames de grau e uma avaliação mais equitativa do pós-graduando, contribuindo para a qualidade da pós-graduação stricto sensu.The article aims at contributing to further the discussion about the quality of graduate programs of degree by research in this country, taking into account one of its constitutive elements: the viva voce. The viva is discussed in a theoretical manner through the systematized analysis of national and international studies related to the theme. Firstly, the article discusses the purposes of master and doctorate programs, the objectives of the viva, its procedures and criteria, and then it points out its vulnerable aspects. The variables related to the subjectivity of the decision elements of each examiner are then analyzed, as well as the external influences surrounding the

  12. Cerrado ground-dwelling ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae as indicators of edge effects

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    Carlos Roberto F. Brandão

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale agricultural production in Brazil preferentially occupies plateaus reclaimed from areas originally covered by Cerrado (savanna. Depending on the region, a percentage of the pristine vegetation coverage must be preserved by law, resulting in the creation of fragmented legal Cerrado reserves. The geometry of these relatively small legal reserves creates new habitat edges and ecotones, whose effects on the invertebrate fauna are poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the effects of abrupt edges resulting from soy production on ground-dwelling ant assemblages in the Brazilian Cerrado. The study sites are located within the Amazon region, in the state of Maranhão, northern Brazil, but were covered by Cerrado on a relatively low plateau, irregularly inter-spaced with gallery forests along streams. We compared species richness and species composition of ground-dwelling ants along eight transects set 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m into the sensu stricto Cerrado and 50 and 100 m into the soy field. The collecting periods covered the wet and dry seasons. Effects on ant species richness were non-significant, although composition of the assemblages was significantly affected by edge effects, which were, in part, found to be species specific. We hypothesize that edge effects are probably greater than estimated because of the shape and complexity of reserves. Consideration of edge effects in the Cerrado Biome should enable the design of appropriate reserve sizes and shapes to meet conservation goals.

  13. Diet of two sympatric insectivores bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil Dieta de duas espécies simpátricas de morcegos insetívoros no Cerrado do Brasil Central

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar; Yasmine Antonini

    2008-01-01

    We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821) and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847) by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence), Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7), Diptera, Hemip...

  14. Biomassa aérea da vegetação de cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, João Roberto dos

    1988-01-01

    O presente trabalho pretende fornecer subsídios aos procedimentos de estimativa da biomassa aérea do cerrado, utilizando técnicas de sensoriamento remoto a nível orbital. Portanto, o objetivo principal é avaliar a relação funcional entre a biomassa foliar do cerrado (stricto sensu) e os índices de vegetação (razão simples, razão normalizada e transformada) oriundos das bandas 3 (0,63 - 0,69 um), 4 (0,76 - 0,90 um) e 5 (1,55 - 1,75 um) do Thematic Mapper/LANDSAT-5. No Distrito Federal, área ce...

  15. Floristic composition of the cerrado in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, southeastern Brazil

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    Batalha Marco Antônio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a 1225 ha area, composed mainly of cerrado, in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil (21°36-38'S, 47°36-39'W. In three cerrado physiognomies (campo cerrado -- a wooded savanna, cerrado sensu stricto -- a woodland, and cerradão -- a tall woodland, we collected all vascular plants in reproductive stage, and identified them to species level. We found 360 species, representing 236 genera and 69 families. The richest families were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. The savanna physiognomies were richer than the forest one. The ratio between herbaceous and woody species was approximately 2:1. We analysed the whole flora and its two components separately, woody and herbaceous, comparing them with other disjunct cerrado areas. We obtained similarity values (Sørensen index from 0.47 to 0.81, which showed that the 3 diversity of the cerrado was higher in the herbaceous component than in the woody one.

  16. Comparação de métodos para a observação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e endofíticos do tipo dark septate em espécies nativas de Cerrado Comparision of methods to visualise arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungi in native Cerrado species

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    Kelly da Silva Coutinho Detmann

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available As espécies vegetais de Cerrado sensu stricto apresentam estratégias adaptativas às condições edáficas e climáticas de altos investimentos em fotoassimilados, nutrientes e água para sua estruturação. A simbiose entre fungos e raízes de plantas é uma importante adaptação radicular que auxilia as plantas na absorção de nutrientes e água do solo, sendo determinantes para a sobrevivência no Cerrado. Com o objetivo de estudar fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs e fungos endofíticos do tipo dark septate (DSEFs nas raízes de algumas espécies arbóreas e herbáceas, nativas do Cerrado sensu stricto, foram testados diferentes métodos para melhor observação das estruturas fúngicas em simbiose. O melhor método de clarificação foi observado quando as raízes foram autoclavadas a 121 °C em KOH 2 %, por 20 min, e com a subseqüente transferência para solução nova de KOH 2 %, por 24 h, em temperatura ambiente. Este procedimento foi repetido e, em seguida, essas amostras foram imersas em H2O2 2 % por 2 h. Os arbúsculos foram observados com maiores detalhes após a inclusão em resina, seccionamento e coloração com azul-de-toluidina. Todas as espécies avaliadas encontravam-se colonizadas por FMAs, e apenas em Xylopia aromatica não se observaram os DSEFs. As espécies herbáceas apresentaram maiores freqüências de colonização micorrízica do que as arbóreas. O caráter generalista dos FMAs e DSEFs observado nas espécies vegetais do Cerrado sensu stricto sugere a importância dessas simbioses como mecanismo adaptativo às condições de Cerrado.Plant species in sensu stricto Cerrado have adaptive strategies to soil and climatic adversities that require high investment of nutrients, water and photoassimilates. The mutualistic fungi - plant root symbiosis is an important adaptation by which plants can improve soil nutrients and water acquisition and it can be determinant for plant survival in Cerrado conditions. The aim

  17. Técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos no Cerrado Collection techniques of dung beetle in the Cerrado, Brazil

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    Michelle Silva Milhomem

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Métodos de coleta passiva, com o uso de armadilhas, têm sido utilizados na coleta de besouros da família Scarabaeidae. No Cerrado existem poucos estudos sobre estes insetos, apesar da sua importância para o ecossistema e para o controle biológico de pragas do gado bovino. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar técnicas de coleta de besouros copronecrófagos (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae sensu stricto com armadilha de interceptação de vôo e armadilha de queda com fezes e com carcaça. O experimento foi realizado em três fitofisionomias (campo sujo, cerrado sensu stricto e mata de galeria da Reserva Ecológica do IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, a 35 km de Brasília, DF, na época das chuvas (outubro/1999 a janeiro/2000 e da seca (maio a agosto/2000. A armadilha de queda com isca de fezes e o campo sujo apresentaram maior riqueza e abundância de espécies. Houve uma associação positiva entre as chuvas e a distribuição temporal dos besouros. A armadilha de queda com isca de fezes humanas é a mais indicada para coletas de besouros copronecrófagos.Passive collection methods, with the use of traps, have been used to collect beetles of the Scarabaeidae family. However, in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna-like vegetation there are few studies about these insects, despite its importance to the ecosystem and to the biological control of cattle pests. The aim of this work was to evaluate techniques of dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae sensu stricto collections with the use of flight interception traps, pitfall traps baited with human faeces, and with carcass. The experiment was accomplished in three different phytophysiognomies (low tree and shrub savanna, semi-open scrub mixed with trees and gallery forests of the Ecological Reserve of IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, 35 km away from Brasília, DF, in the rainy season (October/1999 to January/2000 and in the dry season (May to August/2000. The

  18. Taxonomy and distribution pattern of the African rain forest butterfly genus Euphaedra Hübner sensu stricto with the description of three new subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and one of E. sarcoptera (Butler (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae, Adoliadini

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    Tomasz Pyrcz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Updated data on the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and Euphaedra sarcoptera (Butler are presented. Three new subspecies of E. cyparissa and one of E. sarcoptera are described and their geographic distribution is presented. The monophyly of the genus Euphaedra sensu Hecq is assessed based on morphological, in particular male and female genitalia, and behavioural traits. Possible evolutionary reasons for the convergence of colour pattern between the sympatric subspecies of E. cyparissa and E. sarcoptera are discussed.

  19. Accidental Fire in the Cerrado: Its Impact on Communities of Caterpillars on Two Species of Erythroxylum

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    Cintia Lepesqueur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the mechanisms that influence herbivorous insects, fires, a very frequent historical phenomenon in the cerrado, appear to be an important modifying influence on lepidopteran communities. The purpose of this study was to compare the richness, abundance, frequency, and composition of species of caterpillars in two adjacent areas of cerrado sensu stricto, one recently burned and one unburned since 1994, on the experimental farm “Fazenda Água Limpa” (FAL (15∘55′S and 47∘55′W, DF, Brazil. Caterpillars were surveyed on two plant species, genus Erythroxylum: E. deciduum A. St.-Hil. and E. tortuosum Mart. (Erythroxylaceae. We inspected a total of 4,196 plants in both areas, and 972 caterpillars were found on 13.3% of these plants. The number of plants with caterpillars (frequency differed significantly between the areas. The results indicate that recent and accidental fires have a positive effect on the abundance of caterpillars up to one year postfire, increase the frequency of caterpillars associated with Erythroxylum species in the cerrado and do not affect the richness of caterpillars on these plants. Moreover, the fires change the species composition of caterpillars by promoting an increase in rare or opportunistic species.

  20. Bird richness and composition in a Cerrado fragment in the State of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, L T; Telles, M; Dias, M M

    2010-05-01

    Bird species richness is an important measure for monitoring biodiversity changes. We analysed avifauna richness and composition in a 472 ha protected cerrado fragment and surroundings at Fazenda Canchim (RL-CPPSE), São Carlos, in the State of São Paulo (SP). We carried out 95.1 hours of observation (22 visits) at irregular intervals from May 2004 to December 2006. Qualitative surveys were done walking through tracks inside the fragment and on the roads at its edge. We recorded 160 species, six of which were endemic to Cerrado domain, 22 migratory, seven threatened within the State of São Paulo, and two globally threatened. We found 28 species in the cerradão, 110 in the cerrado sensu stricto, 13 in the gallery forest, 26 in the reservoir border, 26 in pasturelands and sugar cane monoculture and 55 in an anthropic area. Most of the species had low frequency of occurrence in all vegetation forms. Insectivores were the major trophic category (46.9%), which is typical in tropical regions, and it is also related to resource availability. Omnivores followed with 19.4%, granivores with 8.8% and frugivores with 7.5%. We conclude that, despite its size and conservation status, our study area has a remarkable bird community and must be considered as a priority conservation area to preserve bird species in Sao Paulo State. PMID:20552144

  1. The water balance components of undisturbed tropical woodlands in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T. S.; Wendland, E.; Nearing, M. A.; Scott, R. L.; Rosolem, R.; da Rocha, H. R.

    2015-06-01

    Deforestation of the Brazilian cerrado region has caused major changes in hydrological processes. These changes in water balance components are still poorly understood but are important for making land management decisions in this region. To better understand pre-deforestation conditions, we determined the main components of the water balance for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso". We developed an empirical model to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ET) by using flux tower measurements and vegetation conditions inferred from the enhanced vegetation index and reference evapotranspiration. Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, surface runoff, and water table level were assessed from ground measurements. We used data from two cerrado sites, Pé de Gigante (PDG) and Instituto Arruda Botelho (IAB). Flux tower data from the PDG site collected from 2001 to 2003 were used to develop the empirical model to estimate ET. The other hydrological processes were measured at the field scale between 2011 and 2014 at the IAB site. The empirical model showed significant agreement (R2 = 0.73) with observed ET at the daily timescale. The average values of estimated ET at the IAB site ranged from 1.91 to 2.60 mm day-1 for the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Canopy interception ranged from 4 to 20 % and stemflow values were approximately 1 % of the gross precipitation. The average runoff coefficient was less than 1 %, while cerrado deforestation has the potential to increase that amount up to 20-fold. As relatively little excess water runs off (either by surface water or groundwater), the water storage may be estimated by the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. Our results provide benchmark values of water balance dynamics in the undisturbed cerrado that will be useful to evaluate past and future land-cover and land-use changes for this region.

  2. STRATEGY AND PLANNING - PROJECT FOR MONITORING STRICTO SENSU POSTGRADUATE ALUMNI

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    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES has been contributing to the development of post-graduate studies in Brazil, through its system of evaluation. Lately, CAPES signaled the importance of follow the professional performance of the alumni as a way to measure the quality of courses. One difficulty reported by institutions that intend to recognize the trajectory of its graduates is to compile a lot of isolated and outdated data. In order to structure the data collection and to assist educational managers in decision making, we propose the development of a system that enables the evolution of the students and alumni professional career, in order to diagnose the influence of the courses. Based on literature review, this study presents an analysis and makes recommendations about the Monitoring Alumni Project planning. As a result, it is expected that the analysis will serve as a driver for conducting the project, aiming to contribute to the academic reflections, and in practice, contribute to improve educational projects quality.

  3. Dinâmica de distribuição de fontes de capitais científicos entre docentes / pesquisadores de um programa de pós- graduação Stricto- Sensu de uma universidade pública Dynamics of distribution of sources of scientific capital among teachers / researchers of a Master's and Doctorate's degree program of a public university

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    Juliana Cristina Teixeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Situando- se no contexto das universidades e, mais especificamente, da pós- graduação, o presente estudo visa analisar, de forma exploratória, a dinâmica de distribuição de capitais científicos entre docentes de um programa de pós- graduação Stricto Sensu de uma universidade pública. De forma específica, como os docentes distribuem suas atividades entre aquelas que lhes permitem acumular capital científico puro (como as publicações e contribuições acadêmicas para o campo do conhecimento e capital científico institucional (como a ocupação de cargos que lhes conferem o poder de decisão dentro do campo da ciência. Foi considerada a abordagem de Bourdieu (2003; 2004a; 2004b relativamente ao campo científico, por esta permitir a apreensão dessa dinâmica de distribuição de capitais, que são tipos específicos de poder. A abordagem foi quantitativa e qualitativa, utilizando pesquisa documental nos currículos Lattes de vinte e três docentes participantes do referido programa, que se situa em uma cidade de Minas Gerais (Brasil, sendo da área de Ciências Sociais Aplicadas. Como principais resultados, a dinâmica demonstra (1 que os docentes ocupam, em sua maioria, posições medianas dentro da distribuição de capitais; (2 há a dificuldade de acumulação expressiva de ambos os tipos de capitais por parte de um pesquisador; (3 não houve uma polarização entre os docentes baseada em forte acumulação de um dos capitais, e fraca acumulação de outro; e (4 há maior facilidade de conversão de capital institucional em capital científico puro.In the context of universities and more specifically, of graduate school, this study aims to analyze, in an exploratory way, the dynamics of scientific capital distribution among teachers of a Master's and Doctorate's degree program at a public university. Specifically, how teachers are distributed among those activities that allow them to accumulate pure scientific capital (such

  4. Runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Tarso S.; Nearing, Mark; Wendland, Edson

    2015-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a large and important economic and environmental region that is experiencing major loss of its natural landscapes due to pressures of food and energy production, which has caused large increases in soil erosion. However the magnitude of the soil erosion increases in this region is not well understood, in part because scientific studies of surface runoff and soil erosion are scarce or nonexistent in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation. In this study we measured natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" and bare soil to compute the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover and management factor (C-factor) to help evaluate the likely effects of land use change on soil erosion rates. Replicated data on precipitation, runoff, and soil loss on plots (5 x 20 m) under bare soil and cerrado were collected for 55 erosive storms occurring in 2012 and 2013. The measured annual precipitation was 1247.4 mm and 1113.0 mm for 2012 and 2013, resulting in a rainfall erosivity index of 4337.1 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 and 3546.2 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, for each year respectively. The erosive rainfall represented 80concentrated in the wet season, which generally runs from October through March. In the plots on bare soil, the runoff coefficient for individual rainfall events (total runoff divided by total rainfall) ranged from 0.003 to 0.860 with an average value and standard deviation of 0.212 ± 0.187. Moreover, the runoff coefficient found for the bare soil plots (~20infiltration capacity. In forest areas the leaf litter and the more porous soil tend to promote the increase of infiltration and water storage, rather than rapid overland flow. Indeed, runoff coefficients ranged from 0.001 to 0.030 with an average of less than 1under undisturbed cerrado. The soil losses measured under bare soil and cerrado were 15.68 t ha-1yr-1 and 0.24 t ha-1 yr-1 in 2012, and 14.82 t ha-1 yr-1, 0.11 t ha-1

  5. Diet of two sympatric insectivores bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in the Cerrado of Central Brazil Dieta de duas espécies simpátricas de morcegos insetívoros no Cerrado do Brasil Central

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    Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera and Homoptera (1/7. The diet of M. nigricans included all the main orders consumed by E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively and one other order: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera were collected only in bats captured in gallery forest. There is 80% of overlap in the diet of these two species. Predation on species of Scarabeidae, Hesperiidae, Sphingidae and Saturniidae families confirms bats potential as biological control agents of pests in agricultural ecosystems.Foi examinado o hábito alimentar das espécies de Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 por meio de análise de amostras fecais coletadas em animais capturados em área de cerrado sensu stricto e matas de galeria, na APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Um total de 20 amostras fecais foi analisado, sendo sete de E. furinalis e 13 de M. nigricans. A dieta de E. furinalis incluiu seis ordens de insetos: Coleoptera (5/7 (presença na amostra total, Lepidoptera e Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera e Homoptera (1/7. A dieta de M. nigricans incluiu todas as ordens consumidas por E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively e uma ordem a mais: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera e Orthoptera só foram amostrados para morcegos capturados em mata de galeria. Há 80% de sobreposição na dieta destas duas espécies. A predação sobre espécies das fam

  6. Florística e estrutura de comunidades arbóreas em cerrados de Rondônia,Brasil Flora and structure of tree communities in dry savannas in Rodônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izildinha Souza Miranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O cerrado constitui o segundo maior e mais diverso bioma brasileiro, configurando um heterogêneo mosaico fisionômico e florístico. Mais de seis mil espécies de fanerógamas são reportadas para o cerrado do Brasil Central. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de descrever e analisar a flora e a estrutura de quatro comunidades de árvores dos cerrados sensu latu do município de Vilhena, Rondônia, Brasil. As áreas estudadas foram: cerradão (Área 1, campo sujo (Área 2 e duas comunidades do cerrado sensu stricto (Áreas 3 e 4. Em cada área foi posicionado aleatoriamente um transecto de 10 x 1000 m (1 ha, dividido em 100 parcelas de 10 X 10 m. Todas as plantas vivas e mortas com circunferência do tronco e" 10 cm ao nível do solo foram registradas. O cerradão apresentou a maior riqueza específica, estrutura de tamanho e área basal. As percentagens de árvores mortas foram mais altas nas áreas de cerradão e campo sujo, com ocorrência de fogo recente. As famílias mais importantes foram Vochysiaceae, Ochnaceae, Clusiaceae, Malpighiaceae e Melastomataceae. As espécies mais importantes foram Qualea multiflora, Byrsonima crassifolia (área 1, Eugenia sp., Miconia sp.1 (área 2, Ouratea hexasperma, Caraipa savannarum (área 3, Ouratea hexasperma, Pouteria sp.3 (área 4. A maioria das espécies ocorre somente em uma área, sugerindo que a priorização de áreas para conservação deve envolver todo o mosaico de cerrados existentes. A mortalidade associada ao fogo é diferenciada entre as áreas, talvez induzida pelo grau de flamabilidade, recorrência do fogo e de fatores históricos do uso da terra.The Neotropical savannas, locally called "cerrado", are Brazil's second largest and diverse biome, constituting a heterogeneous physiognomic and floristic mosaic from which more than 6,000 species have been reported to date. This study describes and analyzes the floras and structures of four tree communities from dry savannas in the municipality of

  7. Whole genome sequence of an unusual Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W. G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.

    2011-03-01

    Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives warrant its candidacy for new-species status. We suggest that this isolate should be named 'Borrelia finlandensis.'

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Dib Gonçalves; Rodrigo Assunção Moura; Mônica Nunes; Teresa Carreira; Odilon Vidotto; Julio Cesar de Freitas; Maria Luísa Vieira

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil.

  9. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil.

  10. Conjuntos secuencialmente cerrados

    OpenAIRE

    Caicedo, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Decimos que un subconjunto A de un espacio topológico de Hausdorff es  secuencialmente cerrado si el límite de cualquier sucesión convergente de elementos de A esta en A. Todo sub conjunto cerrado es secuencialmente cerrado; sin embargo la afirmación conversa no es valida.

  11. Florística e estrutura de comunidades arbóreas em cerrados de Rondônia,Brasil Flora and structure of tree communities in dry savannas in Rodônia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Izildinha Souza Miranda; Samuel Soares Almeida; Paulo Jorge Dantas

    2006-01-01

    O cerrado constitui o segundo maior e mais diverso bioma brasileiro, configurando um heterogêneo mosaico fisionômico e florístico. Mais de seis mil espécies de fanerógamas são reportadas para o cerrado do Brasil Central. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de descrever e analisar a flora e a estrutura de quatro comunidades de árvores dos cerrados sensu latu do município de Vilhena, Rondônia, Brasil. As áreas estudadas foram: cerradão (Área 1), campo sujo (Área 2) e duas comunidades do cerrado sensu...

  12. Molecular characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated in the area of Belgrade, Serbia Caracterização molecular de cepas de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isoladas na região de Belgrado, Sérvia

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeta S. Ristanovic; Kayoko Kitamura; Toshiyuki Masuzawa; Marija J. Milutinovic; Radovan M. Cekanac; Novica T. Stajkovic; Danijela M. Zivanovic

    2007-01-01

    This is the first report of the molecular characterization and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated in Serbia. Isolates A1, A2 and M1, from Ixodes ricinus, belong to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, while isolate K1 from Apodemus flavicollis is a mixture of Borrelia afzelii and B. burgdorferi s.s.Trata-se do primeiro relato de identificação e caracterização molecular de cepas de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isoladas na região de Belgrado, Sérvia. As cepas A...

  13. Rapid Typing of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Species in Specimens from Patients with Different Manifestations of Lyme Borreliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lünemann, Jan D.; Zarmas, Silvia; Priem, Susanne; Franz, Juliane; Zschenderlein, Rolf; Aberer, Elisabeth; Klein, Rolf; Schouls, Leon; Burmester, Gerd R.; Krause, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    To further investigate the pathogenic potential of different Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies, specimens from 27 patients with different manifestations of Lyme borreliosis were analyzed by PCR and reverse line blotting (RLB). In samples from Lyme arthritis patients, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was predominantly identified, while in patients with neuroborreliosis or acrodermatitis, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii, respectively, were exclusively detected. The results demonstrate that PCR...

  14. Mudanças pós-fogo na estrutura e composição da vegetação lenhosa, em um cerrado mesotrófico, no período de cinco anos (1997-2002 em Nova Xavantina - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson de Souza Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Two inventories in an area of cerrado stricto sensu of mesotrophic type, were carried out, the first in 1997 and the second in 2002. The data were collected in 28 contiguous permanent plots with an area of 15 x 15 m each (0.63 ha. All individuals with stems of diameter > 3 cm at 0.30 m above ground level were identified and measured. During the first inventory 1266 individuals belonging to 32 families, 55 genera and 72 species were recorded. While in the second there were 1045 individuals in 33 families, 55 genera and 71 species. The diversity index of Shannon was high in both samples (3.10 and 3.13 nats/ind., respectively. The results show that the fires affected relative species abundance but not overall richness. The families Fabaceae, Vochysiaceae, Malpighiaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Apocynaceae, Combretaceae and Malvaceae showed the highest floristic richness in both inventories. The largest mortality rate occurred in the smallest diameter classes (to about 13 cm, where species recruitment was not high enough to compensate for it. Three rare species were lost between the two inventories and two others appeared. The variations found are in agreement with the patterns of other studies in cerrado vegetation.

  15. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  16. Diversity of shrub tree layer, leaf litter decomposition and N release in a Brazilian Cerrado under N, P and N plus P additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan Baiocchi Jacobson, Tamiel, E-mail: tamiel@unb.br [Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF 70919-970 (Brazil); Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria da, E-mail: mercedes@unb.br [Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF 70919-970 (Brazil); Rodrigues Kozovits, Alessandra, E-mail: kozovits@icep.ufop.br [Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF 70919-970 (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This study investigated changes in diversity of shrub-tree layer, leaf decomposition rates, nutrient release and soil NO fluxes of a Brazilian savanna (cerrado sensu stricto) under N, P and N plus P additions. Simultaneous addition of N and P affected density, dominance, richness and diversity patterns more significantly than addition of N or P separately. Leaf litter decomposition rates increased in P and NP plots but did not differ in N plots in comparison to control plots. N addition increased N mass loss, while the combined addition of N and P resulted in an immobilization of N in leaf litter. Soil NO emissions were also higher when N was applied without P. The results indicate that if the availability of P is not increased proportionally to the availability of N, the losses of N are intensified. - Highlights: > Simultaneous addition of N and P affected richness and diversity of the shrub-tree layer of a Brazilian savanna more significantly than addition of N or P separately. > Leaf litter decomposition rates increased in P and NP plots but did not differ in N plots in comparison to control plots. N addition increased N mass loss, while the combined addition of N and P resulted in an immobilization of N in leaf litter. Soil NO emissions were also higher when N was applied without P. > The results indicated that if increases in N deposition in Cerrado ecosystems are not accompanied by P additions, higher N losses through leaching and gas emissions can occur with other ecosystem impacts. - Shrub-tree diversity and functioning of Brazilian savanna are affected by increasing nutrient availability.

  17. Diversity of shrub tree layer, leaf litter decomposition and N release in a Brazilian Cerrado under N, P and N plus P additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated changes in diversity of shrub-tree layer, leaf decomposition rates, nutrient release and soil NO fluxes of a Brazilian savanna (cerrado sensu stricto) under N, P and N plus P additions. Simultaneous addition of N and P affected density, dominance, richness and diversity patterns more significantly than addition of N or P separately. Leaf litter decomposition rates increased in P and NP plots but did not differ in N plots in comparison to control plots. N addition increased N mass loss, while the combined addition of N and P resulted in an immobilization of N in leaf litter. Soil NO emissions were also higher when N was applied without P. The results indicate that if the availability of P is not increased proportionally to the availability of N, the losses of N are intensified. - Highlights: → Simultaneous addition of N and P affected richness and diversity of the shrub-tree layer of a Brazilian savanna more significantly than addition of N or P separately. → Leaf litter decomposition rates increased in P and NP plots but did not differ in N plots in comparison to control plots. N addition increased N mass loss, while the combined addition of N and P resulted in an immobilization of N in leaf litter. Soil NO emissions were also higher when N was applied without P. → The results indicated that if increases in N deposition in Cerrado ecosystems are not accompanied by P additions, higher N losses through leaching and gas emissions can occur with other ecosystem impacts. - Shrub-tree diversity and functioning of Brazilian savanna are affected by increasing nutrient availability.

  18. Fitossociologia e similaridade florística entre trechos de Cerrado sentido restrito em interflúvio e em vale no Jardim Botânico de Brasília, DF Phytossociology and floristic similarity between plateau and valley `Cerrado` woody vegetation in the Brasília Botanic Gardens, Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Souza da Fonseca

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a composição florística, densidade e área basal do componente lenhoso do cerrado sentido restrito em duas situações num gradiente topográfico, designadas interflúvio (I e vale (V, no Jardim Botânico de Brasília, DF. Foram alocadas em cada área 10 parcelas permanentes de 20x50m para amostragem de todos os indivíduos com diâmetro basal DB(30cm> 5cm. A classificação por UPGMA (Índices de Sørensen e Morisita foi usada para a avaliação da similaridade entre parcelas. A análise da fitossociologia mostrou que as espécies mais importantes no interflúvio foram: Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.Hil Baill., Miconia ferruginata DC. e Dalbergia miscolobium Benth., enquanto que no vale foram: Eriotheca pubescens (Mart. & Zucc. Schott & Endl., Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.-Hil. Baill. e Schefflera macrocarpa (Seem D.C. Frodin. Os índices de similaridade variaram entre 0,26 a 0,81 (Sørensen e 0,06 a 0,92 (Morisita. A classificação por UPGMA indicou dois grupos principais, que coincidiram com as posições no relevo: interflúvio e vale. Os resultados salientaram a topografia como forte determinante na distribuição de algumas das populações e comunidades lenhosas, por meio de sua influência na variação da profundidade do lençol freático, que afetou a composição florística, a densidade (I/V=1.219/956 ind.ha-1 e a área basal (I/V=8,56/5,64m².ha-1 nos Cerrados sentido restrito de interflúvio (I e vale (V estudados.This study aims to check differences in the floristic composition and structure of the woody vegetation of the cerrado (sensu stricto in two distinct topographic positions, Interfluve (I and Valley Slope (V area in the Brasília Botanic Gardens, Federal District, Brazil. In each area ten 20x50m permanent plots were located to survey individuals, basal diameter BD(30cm > 5cm. UPGMA classification (Sørensen and Morisita similarity indices was used to assess similarity among plots

  19. El género Navicula sensu stricto (Bacillariophyceae en humedales de altura de Jujuy, Argentina The genus Navicula sensu stricto (Bacillariophyceae in highland wetlands of Jujuy, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora I. Maidana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquí presentamos los resultados del estudio de la diversidad del género Navicula Bory en 22 humedales de altura de la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina (22° 30' - 22° 44' S; y 66° 39' - 66° 59' W; entre 3500 y 4683 m snm, incluyendo el Complejo Lagunar Vilama. Los ambientes con mayor riqueza de especies fueron las lagunas Vilama, Catal, Rincón de Cajas y Del Arenal, mientras que en la laguna Colorada el género estuvo ausente. Las especies con mayor frecuencia de ocurrencia fueron Navicula lauca Rumrich & Lange-Bertalot, N. paranicota Rumrich & Lange-Bertalot, N. salinicola Hustedt var. salinicola y N. veneta Kützing. En este trabajo discutimos algunos aspectos ecológicos, biogeográficos y taxonómicos y asignamos a una de las dos Secciones del género a las especies exclusivamente americanas. Con esta contribución ampliamos el conocimiento disponible sobre las diatomeas de ambientes de altura de Sudamérica.In this paper we present the main outcomes of the study of the diversity of genus Navicula Bory in 22 highland wetlands located in the Jujuy Province, Argentina (22° 30' - 22° 44' S; and 66° 39' - 66° 59' W; between 3500 and 4683 masl, including the Vilama Lake Complex. The environments with broader species richness were Vilama, Catal, Rincón de Cajas and Del Arenal, meanwhile in Laguna Colorada the genus was absent. The more frequent species were Navicula lauca Rumrich & Lange-Bertalot, N. paranicota Rumrich & Lange-Bertalot, N. salinicola Hustedt var. salinicola and N. veneta Kützing. We also discuss some ecological, bio-geographical and taxonomical issues and we assigned the exclusively American species to one of the two Sections of the genus. With the following contribution we improve the knowledge about the diatoms of highlands environments of Southamerica.

  20. El género Navicula sensu stricto (Bacillariophyceae) en humedales de altura de Jujuy, Argentina The genus Navicula sensu stricto (Bacillariophyceae) in highland wetlands of Jujuy, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Nora I. Maidana; Claudia Seeligmann; Marcelo R. Morales

    2011-01-01

    Aquí presentamos los resultados del estudio de la diversidad del género Navicula Bory en 22 humedales de altura de la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina (22° 30' - 22° 44' S; y 66° 39' - 66° 59' W; entre 3500 y 4683 m snm), incluyendo el Complejo Lagunar Vilama. Los ambientes con mayor riqueza de especies fueron las lagunas Vilama, Catal, Rincón de Cajas y Del Arenal, mientras que en la laguna Colorada el género estuvo ausente. Las especies con mayor frecuencia de ocurrencia fueron Navicula lauca ...

  1. The role of gallery forests in the distribution of cerrado mammals O papel das matas de galeria na distribuição dos mamíferos do cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. JOHNSON

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado biome contains a rich mammal community, with an influence from the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests, principally observed in the gallery forests. In this paper, through literature review, it is shown that the non-volant mammal community of the gallery forests is distinct from the mammal communities of any other physionomy of the Cerrado. Additionally, the gallery forests contain twice as many species common to the rainforests when compared to all the other physiognomies of the Cerrado combined. The gallery forests appear to provide habitat within the Cerrado for rainforest mammals, increasing the biodiversity of this biome. As such, gallery forests may function as dispersion corridors for these species.O bioma dos cerrados contém uma rica comunidade de mamíferos, com influência das matas Amazônica e Atlântica, principalmente observada nas matas de galeria. Neste trabalho, por revisão da literatura, foi demonstrado que a comunidade de mamíferos não voadores das matas de galeria no cerrado é distinta das comunidades de mamíferos de qualquer outro tipo de fisionomia do cerrado. Além disso, as matas de galeria contêm duas vezes mais espécies comuns às matas úmidas que às outras fisionomias do cerrado (sensu latu reunidas. As matas de galeria parecem fornecer hábitat dentro do cerrado (sensu latu para mamíferos das matas úmidas, aumentando a biodiversidade deste bioma. Assim, as matas de galeria podem funcionar como corredores de dispersão para estas espécies.

  2. Odorant-Binding Proteins of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles funestus sensu stricto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Cornel, Anthony J.; Leal, Walter S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The mosquito Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vector species in sub-Saharan Africa. Olfaction is essential in guiding mosquito behaviors. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are highly expressed in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception. An improved understanding of the function of malaria mosquito OBPs may contribute to identifying new attractants/repellents and assist in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly mosquito controlling strategies. Methodology In this study, a large screening of over 50 ecologically significant odorant compounds led to the identification of 12 ligands that elicit significant electroantennographic (EAG) responses from An. funestus female antennae. To compare the absolute efficiency/potency of these chemicals, corrections were made for differences in volatility by determining the exact amount in a stimulus puff. Fourteen AfunOBP genes were cloned and their expression patterns were analyzed. AfunOBP1, 3, 7, 20 and 66 showed olfactory tissue specificity by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that among olfactory-specific OBPs, AfunOBP1 and 3 are the most enriched OBPs in female antennae. Binding assay experiments showed that at pH 7, AfunOBP1 significantly binds to 2-undecanone, nonyl acetate, octyl acetate and 1-octen-3-ol but AfunOBP3, which shares 68% identify with AfunOBP1 at amino acid level, showed nearly no binding activity to the selected 12 EAG-active odorant compounds. Conclusion This work presents for the first time a study on the odorants and OBPs of the malaria vector mosquito An. funestus, which may provide insight into the An. funestus olfactory research, assist in a comparative study between major malaria mosquitoes An. gambiae and An. funestus olfactory system, and help developing new mosquito control strategies to reduce malaria transmission. PMID:21042539

  3. Visual and olfactory associative learning in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Chilaka Nora; Perkins Elisabeth; Tripet Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Memory and learning are critical aspects of the ecology of insect vectors of human pathogens because of their potential effects on contacts between vectors and their hosts. Despite this epidemiological importance, there have been only a limited number of studies investigating associative learning in insect vector species and none on Anopheline mosquitoes. Methods A simple behavioural assays was developed to study visual and olfactory associative learning in Anopheles gambi...

  4. Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma harzianum sensu stricto TR274

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindorff, Andrei S.; Noronha, Elilane F.; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert W.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2015-03-17

    Biological control is a complex process which requires many mechanisms and a high diversity of biochemical pathways. The species of Trichoderma harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against many plant pathogens. To gain new insights into the biocontrol mechanism used by T. harzianum, we sequenced the isolate TR274 genome using Illumina. The assembly was performed using AllPaths-LG with a maximum coverage of 100x. The assembly resulted in 2282 contigs with a N50 of 37033bp. The genome size generated was 40.8 Mb and the GC content was 47.7%, similar to other Trichoderma genomes. Using the JGI Annotation Pipeline we predicted 13,932 genes with a high transcriptome support. CEGMA tests suggested 100% genome completeness and 97.9% of RNA-SEQ reads were mapped to the genome. The phylogenetic comparison using orthologous proteins with all Trichoderma genomes sequenced at JGI, corroborates the Trichoderma (T. asperellum and T. atroviride), Longibrachiatum (T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum) and Pachibasium (T. harzianum and T. virens) section division described previously. The comparison between two Trichoderma harzianum species suggests a high genome similarity but some strain-specific expansions. Analyses of the secondary metabolites, CAZymes, transporters, proteases, transcription factors were performed. The Pachybasium section expanded virtually all categories analyzed compared with the other sections, specially Longibrachiatum section, that shows a clear contraction. These results suggests that these proteins families have an important role in their respective phenotypes. Future analysis will improve the understanding of this complex genus and give some insights about its lifestyle and the interactions with the environment.

  5. Sphaerospora sensu stricto: taxonomy, diversity and evolution of a unique lineage of myxosporeans (Myxozoa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartošová, Pavla; Fiala, Ivan; Jirků, Miloslav; Cinková, Martina; Caffara, M.; Fioravanti, M.L.; Atkinson, S.D.; Bartholomew, J.; Holzer, Astrid S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2013), s. 93-105. ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P724; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GAP506/10/2330 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Genus emendment * Suppression of Polysporoplasma * Phylogeny * Sporoplasmic organization * rDNA inserts * GC content Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2013

  6. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Provides New Insights Into the Molecular Taxonomy of the Saccharomyces Sensu Stricto Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards-Ingram, Laura C.; Gent, Manda E.; Hoyle, David C.; Hayes, Andrew; Stateva, Lubomira I.; Oliver, Stephen G.

    2004-01-01

    The science of taxonomy is constantly improving as new techniques are developed. Current practice is to construct phylogenetic trees based on the analysis of the DNA sequence of single genes, or parts of single genes. However, this approach has recently been brought into question as several tree topologies may be produced for the same clade when the sequences for various different genes are used. The availability of complete genome sequences for several organisms has seen the adoption of micr...

  7. Nucleotide polymorphisms and protein structure changes in the Fg16 gene of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abedi-Tizaki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important causes of wheat scab in different parts of the world. This fungus is able to produce widespread trichothecene mycotoxins such as nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON which are harmful for both human and animals. The Fg16 target is located in chromosome 1 of the F. graminearum genome coding for a hypothetical protein whose function is not yet known. The Fg16 gene is involved in lipid biosynthesis and leads to sexual development during colonization in wheat stalks. This gene is used to detect F. graminearum and determine the lineage of F. graminearum complex species. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction–single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR–SSCP and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation in 172 F. graminearum s.s. isolates. The PCR reaction forced the amplification of 410-bp fragments of Fg16. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (T82C and A352T and one amino acid exchange (C65S with three patterns (TA/TA, CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes were found in the Fg16 gene fragment. Two haplotypes, 1A and 1B, were identified within F. graminearum s.s. populations in northern and western regions of Iran. Two different secondary structures of protein were predicted for CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes of Fg16 gene. The average diversity levels detected were relatively high (He: 0.3238; Heu: 0.334; Ho: 0.2894; mean PIC: 0.514; mean Shannon's information index: 0.4132; mean number of alleles per locus: 1.473. On the basis of the obtained results, it was revealed that the Fg16 gene had a high degree of polymorphism that can be considered for future control programming strategies and thus the associations between the SSCP patterns with different traits of F. graminearum such as wheat colonization, perithecium formation on stalk tissues and lineage discrimination should be investigated.

  8. Visual and olfactory associative learning in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilaka Nora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory and learning are critical aspects of the ecology of insect vectors of human pathogens because of their potential effects on contacts between vectors and their hosts. Despite this epidemiological importance, there have been only a limited number of studies investigating associative learning in insect vector species and none on Anopheline mosquitoes. Methods A simple behavioural assays was developed to study visual and olfactory associative learning in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector of malaria in Africa. Two contrasted membrane qualities or levels of blood palatability were used as reinforcing stimuli for bi-directional conditioning during blood feeding. Results Under such experimental conditions An. gambiae females learned very rapidly to associate visual (chequered and white patterns and olfactory cues (presence and absence of cheese or Citronella smell with the reinforcing stimuli (bloodmeal quality and remembered the association for up to three days. Associative learning significantly increased with the strength of the conditioning stimuli used. Importantly, learning sometimes occurred faster when a positive reinforcing stimulus (palatable blood was associated with an innately preferred cue (such as a darker visual pattern. However, the use of too attractive a cue (e.g. Shropshire cheese smell was counter-productive and decreased learning success. Conclusions The results address an important knowledge gap in mosquito ecology and emphasize the role of associative memory for An. gambiae's host finding and blood-feeding behaviour with important potential implications for vector control.

  9. Nucleotide polymorphisms and protein structure changes in the Fg16 gene of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Tizaki, Mostafa; Zafari, Doustmorad

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important causes of wheat scab in different parts of the world. This fungus is able to produce widespread trichothecene mycotoxins such as nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) which are harmful for both human and animals. The Fg16 target is located in chromosome 1 of the F. graminearum genome coding for a hypothetical protein whose function is not yet known. The Fg16 gene is involved in lipid biosynthesis and leads to sexual development during colonization in wheat stalks. This gene is used to detect F. graminearum and determine the lineage of F. graminearum complex species. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation in 172 F. graminearum s.s. isolates. The PCR reaction forced the amplification of 410-bp fragments of Fg16. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (T82C and A352T) and one amino acid exchange (C65S) with three patterns (TA/TA, CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes) were found in the Fg16 gene fragment. Two haplotypes, 1A and 1B, were identified within F. graminearum s.s. populations in northern and western regions of Iran. Two different secondary structures of protein were predicted for CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes of Fg16 gene. The average diversity levels detected were relatively high (He: 0.3238; Heu: 0.334; Ho: 0.2894; mean PIC: 0.514; mean Shannon's information index: 0.4132; mean number of alleles per locus: 1.473). On the basis of the obtained results, it was revealed that the Fg16 gene had a high degree of polymorphism that can be considered for future control programming strategies and thus the associations between the SSCP patterns with different traits of F. graminearum such as wheat colonization, perithecium formation on stalk tissues and lineage discrimination should be investigated. PMID:27222818

  10. Lectin-binding characteristics of a Lyme borreliosis spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, M.; Nebesářová, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2005), s. 229-238. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1323; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * electron microscopy * lectin binding Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  11. Odorant-Binding Proteins of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles funestus sensu stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wei; Cornel, Anthony J; Leal, Walter S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The mosquito Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vector species in sub-Saharan Africa. Olfaction is essential in guiding mosquito behaviors. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are highly expressed in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception. An improved understanding of the function of malaria mosquito OBPs may contribute to identifying new attractants/repellents and assist in the development of more efficient and environmentally friendly...

  12. The spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sogoba

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the biology and ecology and the high level of genetic polymorphism of malaria vectors in Africa highlight the value of mapping their spatial distribution to enhance successful implementation of integrated vector management. The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes in Mali, to assess their association with climate and environmental covariates, and to produce maps of their spatial distribution. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models were fitted to identify environmental determinants of the relative frequencies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis species and to produce smooth maps of their geographical distribution. The frequency of An. arabiensis was positively associated with the normalized difference vegetation index, the soil water storage index, the maximum temperature and the distance to water bodies. It was negatively associated with the minimum temperature and rainfall. The predicted map suggests that, in West Africa, An. arabiensis is concentrated in the drier savannah areas, while An. gambiae s.s. prefers the southern savannah and land along the rivers, particularly the inner delta of Niger. Because the insecticide knockdown resistance (kdr gene is reported only in An. gambiae s.s. in Mali, the maps provide valuable information for vector control. They may also be useful for planning future implementation of malaria control by genetically manipulated mosquitoes.

  13. New hybrids between Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeast species found among wine and cider production strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masneuf, I; Hansen, J.; Groth, C;

    1998-01-01

    Two yeast isolates, a wine-making yeast first identified as a Mel(+) strain (ex. S. uvarum) and a cider-making yeast, were characterized for their nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, Electrophoretic karyotyping analyses, restriction fragment length polymorphism maps of PCR-amplified MET2 gene...... different sequences of the OLI1 gene. The sequence of the OLI1 gene from the wine hybrid strain appeared to be the same as that of the S. cerevisiae gene, whereas the OLI1 gene of the cider hybrid strain its equally divergent from both putative parents, S. bayanus and S, cerevisiae, Some fermentative...

  14. Geoecological drivers of cerrado heterogeneity and 13C natural abundance in oxisols after land-use change Fatores geoecológicos das diferentes formações de cerrados - uma hipótese baseada em abundância natural de 13C e fotografia aérea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Neufeldt

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The 13C natural abundance technique was applied to study C dynamics after land-use change from native savanna to Brachiaria, Pinus, and Eucalyptus in differently textured Cerrado Oxisols. But due to differences in the d13C signatures of subsoils under native savanna and under introduced species, C substitution could only be calculated based on results of cultivated soils nearby. It was estimated that after 20 years, Pinus C had replaced only 5 % of the native C in the 0-1.2 m layer, in which substitution was restricted to the top 0.4 m. Conversely, after 12 years, Brachiaria had replaced 21 % of Cerrado C to a depth of 1.2 m, where substitution decreased only slightly throughout the entire profile. The high d13C values in the subsoils of the cultivated sites led to the hypothesis that the natural vegetation there had been grassland rather than Cerrado sensu stricto, in spite of the comparable soil and site characteristics and the proximity of the studied sites. The hypothesis was tested using aerial photographs of 1964, which showed that the cultivated sites were located on a desiccated runoff head. The vegetation shift to a grass-dominated savanna formation might therefore have occurred in response to waterlogging and reduced soil aeration. A simple model was developed thereof, which ascribes the different Cerrado formations mainly to the plant-available water content and soil aeration. Soil fertility is considered of minor significance only, since at the studied native savanna sites tree density was independent of soil texture or nutrient status.A abundância natural de 13C foi utilizada para estudar a dinâmica de carbono em latossolos de textura média e argilosa após plantação de pastagens (Brachiaria decumbens e reflorestamentos (Pinus caribaea e Eucalyptus citriodora. Considerando as diferenças de d13C nos subsolos das savanas nativas e das espécies introduzidas, pôde-se calcular a substituição de carbono somente para os solos

  15. Potencial invasor de duas cultivares de Melinis minutiflora no cerrado brasileiro - características de sementes e estabelecimento de plântulas Invasion potential of two cultivars of Melinis minutiflora in the brazilian cerrado - seed characteristics and seedling establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero Martins

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A invasão biológica por espécies exóticas é considerada uma das principais ameaças para a conservação da biodiversidade em áreas protegidas. Devido à sua agressividade, Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv. (capim-gordura é a gramínea que tem causado o maior impacto sobre a flora nativa no Cerrado brasileiro. Este estudo objetivou avaliar características de sementes e de estabelecimento de plântulas que podem afetar o potencial invasor de duas cultivares do Melinis minutiflora em uma área de Cerrado sensu stricto dentro de uma Unidade de Conservação. As avaliações de campo e laboratório mostram que a produção de sementes foi de 192 kg/ha (71.946 sementes viáveis/m² e 171 kg/ha (81.690 sementes viáveis/m² pelas cultivares Cabelo-de-Negro e Roxo, respectivamente, e as sementes recém-colhidas apresentaram alta viabilidade e alta dormência. No tocante à dinâmica de colonização, o enterrio de sementes reduz a emergência de plântulas, mas não impede a emergência de plântulas até a profundidade de 3 cm, entretanto a partir da profundidade de 4 cm as plântulas não conseguem emergir. A emergência de plântulas ocorre entre dezembro e março. Fatores adversos como sombreamento, competição intra e interespecífica, baixa fertilidade do solo e estresse hídrico não eliminam totalmente os indivíduos que se estabeleceram no período chuvoso. As cultivares de Melinis minutiflora mostraram comportamento reprodutivo bastante similar, e os fatores estudados ajudaram a explicar parcialmente o sucesso apresentado por essa gramínea em colonizar ambientes naturais no Cerrado brasileiro.Biological invasion by exotic species is considered one of the main threats to biodiversity conservation in protected areas. Due to its aggressiveness, Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv (molasses grass is considered as the grass that has caused the highest impact on the native flora of the Brazilian Cerrado. The objective of the present study was to

  16. First report of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two threatened carnivores: the Marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna and the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Mammalia: Mustelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherman Călin M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lyme disease is a widespread cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by species belonging to the genus Borrelia. It is transmitted from animal reservoir hosts to humans through hard - ticks of genus Ixodes which are vectors of the disease. Case presentation Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was identified in a marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna, and two European minks, Mustela lutreola, from Romania, by PCR. RFLP revealed the presence of a single genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Conclusions This is the first report of the Lyme disease spirochetes in the two mentioned hosts.

  17. Analyses of mammalian sera in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C

    1995-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) between 1977 and 1991 in southern Connecticut and New York State (USA) and were tested for antibodies against eight strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Among these spirochetes were six strains of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, one strain of B. garinii (=IP90) and a strain (IPF) in group VS461. Sera from each study group reacted positively to all strains having origins in North America and Eurasia. Assay sensitivities normally ranged between 85% and 100% for all study groups. The lowest sensitivity (66%) was noted when mouse sera were tested with B. garinii, an isolate from Ixodes persulcatus in the former Soviet Union. Differences in serum reactivity to various strains were noted for all study groups, but because of multiple shared antigens among the closely related spirochetes tested, the selection of a particular North American strain of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto did not appear to be a critical factor for optimal assay performance. Locally obtained strains of this bacterium are preferred as coating antigens for serologic testing because of their availability. PMID:8583632

  18. Avaliação de imagens QuickBird para estimativa de fitomassa aérea do cerrado / Evaluation of QuickBird data to estimate aboveground cerrado phytomass

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo da Silva Pinheiro; Giselda Durigan; João Roberto dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Estimar a fi tomassa com precisão em áreas extensas tem sido um grande desafi o e a utilização de sensoriamento remoto com esta fi nalidade foi objeto do presente estudo. São apresentados os resultados da avaliação de imagens com alta resolução espacial do QuickBird para estimar a fi tomassa de cerrado lato sensu na Estação Ecológica de Assis (EEcA). A unidade de conservação preserva um dos poucos remanescentes do Cerrado no estado de São Paulo. A fi tomassa do cerrado foi estimada por meio de equ...

  19. SOIL EMISSIONS OF N2O, NO AND CO2 IN BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS: EFFECTS OF VEGETATION TYPE, SEASONALITY, AND PRESCRIBED FIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using closed chamber techniques, soil fluxes of NO, N20 and C02 were measured from September 1999 through October 2000 in savanna areas in central Brazil (Cerrado) subjected to prescribed fires. Our studies focused on two vegetation types, cerrado stricto sensu (20-50% canopy cov...

  20. Caracterização palinológica de espécies de Amaryllidaceae sensu stricto ocorrentes no nordeste brasileiro Pollen characterization of Amaryllidaceae sensu stricto species from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Alves-Araújo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve com objetivo realizar as descrições polínicas de espécies nordestinas de Amaryllidaceae s.s. e Alliaceae e relacioná-las visando a sua delimitação taxonômica. Foram analisadas as espécies: Griffinia espiritensis Ravenna var. bahiana Preuss & Meerow, Griffinia gardneriana (Herb. Ravenna, Habranthus itaobinus Ravenna, Habranthus robustus Herb, ex Sweet, Habranthus sylvaticus Herb., Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam. Kuntze, Hippeastrum stylosum Herb., Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury Zephyranthes cândida (Lindl. Herb, e Nothoscordum pernambucanum Ravenna. As descrições foram feitas a partir da análise de grãos de pólen acetolisados (ou não observados em microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura, os quais foram obtidos de espécimes recém-coletados. Todas as espécies apresentaram grãos de pólen em mônades, heteropolar-bilaterais, monossulcados e âmbito elíptico/elipsoidal. Foram detectadas características diagnosticas com relação ao padrão de ornamentação, destacando Hippeastrum stylosum Herb, e Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury por possuírem grãos de pólen com calotas equatoriais. As características polínicas analisadas foram suficientemente relevantes para a delimitação específica dentre os táxons analisados.The pollen of Amaryllidaceae s.s. and Alliaceae species from northeastern Brazil is described and related to taxonomic delimitation. The species analyzed were: Griffinia espiritensis Ravenna var. bahiana Preuss & Meerow, Griffinia gardneriana (Herb. Ravenna, Habranthus itaobinus Ravenna, Habranthus robustus Herb, ex Sweet, Habranthus sylvaticus Herb., Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam. Kuntze, Hippeastrum stylosum Herb., Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury, Zephyranthes cândida (Lindl. Herb, and Nothoscordum pernambucanum Ravenna. Descriptions of acetolyzed and non-treated pollen grains from fresh specimens were based on analysis in light and scanning electron microscopy. All species presented pollen grains in heteropolar and bilateral, monossulcate and elliptic/ellipsoidal monads. Exine sculpture patterns showed many divergent features; Hippeastrum stylosum Herb, and Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury had pollen grains with equatorial calotas where exine ornamentation is different. The pollen features analyzed were relevant to species delimitation among the taxons.

  1. Caracterização palinológica de espécies de Amaryllidaceae sensu stricto ocorrentes no nordeste brasileiro Pollen characterization of Amaryllidaceae sensu stricto species from northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Alves-Araújo; Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos Santos; Alves Marccus

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho teve com objetivo realizar as descrições polínicas de espécies nordestinas de Amaryllidaceae s.s. e Alliaceae e relacioná-las visando a sua delimitação taxonômica. Foram analisadas as espécies: Griffinia espiritensis Ravenna var. bahiana Preuss & Meerow, Griffinia gardneriana (Herb.) Ravenna, Habranthus itaobinus Ravenna, Habranthus robustus Herb, ex Sweet, Habranthus sylvaticus Herb., Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Kuntze, Hippeastrum stylosum Herb., Hymenocallis littoralis Salisb...

  2. Modeling the role of environmental variables on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parham Paul E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of weather and climate on malaria transmission has attracted considerable attention in recent years, yet uncertainties around future disease trends under climate change remain. Mathematical models provide powerful tools for addressing such questions and understanding the implications for interventions and eradication strategies, but these require realistic modeling of the vector population dynamics and its response to environmental variables. Methods Published and unpublished field and experimental data are used to develop new formulations for modeling the relationships between key aspects of vector ecology and environmental variables. These relationships are integrated within a validated deterministic model of Anopheles gambiae s.s. population dynamics to provide a valuable tool for understanding vector response to biotic and abiotic variables. Results A novel, parsimonious framework for assessing the effects of rainfall, cloudiness, wind speed, desiccation, temperature, relative humidity and density-dependence on vector abundance is developed, allowing ease of construction, analysis, and integration into malaria transmission models. Model validation shows good agreement with longitudinal vector abundance data from Tanzania, suggesting that recent malaria reductions in certain areas of Africa could be due to changing environmental conditions affecting vector populations. Conclusions Mathematical models provide a powerful, explanatory means of understanding the role of environmental variables on mosquito populations and hence for predicting future malaria transmission under global change. The framework developed provides a valuable advance in this respect, but also highlights key research gaps that need to be resolved if we are to better understand future malaria risk in vulnerable communities.

  3. Effect of temperature on the development of the aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoh, M N; Lindsay, S W

    2003-10-01

    Global warming may affect the future pattern of many arthropod-borne diseases, yet the relationship between temperature and development has been poorly described for many key vectors. Here the development of the aquatic stages of Africa's principal malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, is described at different temperatures. Development time from egg to adult was measured under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures between 10 and 40 degrees C. Rate of development from one immature stage to the next increased at higher temperatures to a peak around 28 degrees C and then declined. Adult development rate was greatest between 28 and 32 degrees C, although adult emergence was highest between 22 and 26 degrees C. No adults emerged below 18 degrees C or above 34 degrees C. Non-linear models were used to describe the relationship between developmental rate and temperature, which could be used for developing process-based models of malaria transmission. The utility of these findings is demonstrated by showing that a map where the climate is suitable for the development of aquatic stages of A. gambiae s.s. corresponded closely with the best map of malaria risk currently available for Africa. PMID:14641976

  4. Modeling the role of environmental variables on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Parham Paul E; Pople Diane; Christiansen-Jucht Céline; Lindsay Steve; Hinsley Wes; Michael Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The impact of weather and climate on malaria transmission has attracted considerable attention in recent years, yet uncertainties around future disease trends under climate change remain. Mathematical models provide powerful tools for addressing such questions and understanding the implications for interventions and eradication strategies, but these require realistic modeling of the vector population dynamics and its response to environmental variables. Methods Published a...

  5. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Entrap and Kill Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto Spirochetes and Are Not Affected by Ixodes ricinus Tick Saliva

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menten-Dedoyart, C.; Faccinetto, C.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Dupiereux, I.; Van Lerberghe, P.B.; Dubois, S.; Desmet, C.; Elmoualij, B.; Baron, F.; Rudenko, Natalia; Oury, C.; Heinen, E.; Couvreur, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 189, č. 11 (2012), s. 5393-5401. ISSN 0022-1767 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : GROUP-A STREPTOCOCCUS * IMMUNE-RESPONSE * PROTEIN * ESCAPE * INNATE * DEOXYRIBONUCLEASE * EXPRESSION * ALLOWS Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2012 http://www.jimmunol.org/content/189/11/5393

  6. Effect of salivary gland extract from Ixodes ricinus ticks on the proliferation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčková, Martina; Oborník, Miroslav; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2006), s. 153-158. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811 Grant ostatní: Studentská grantová agentura, Biologická fakulta Jihočeské univerzity(CZ) SGA2004/009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Ixodes ricinus * saliva -activated transmission Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2006

  7. The Mode of Action of Spatial Repellents and Their Impact on Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Ogoma, SB; Ngonyani, H; Simfukwe, ET; Mseka, A; Moore, J.; Maia, MF; Moore, SJ; Lorenz, LM

    2014-01-01

    Malaria vector control relies on toxicity of insecticides used in long lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. This is despite evidence that sub-lethal insecticides reduce human-vector contact and malaria transmission. The impact of sub-lethal insecticides on host seeking and blood feeding of mosquitoes was measured. Taxis boxes distinguished between repellency and attraction inhibition of mosquitoes by measuring response of mosquitoes towards or away from Transfluthrin...

  8. Insecticide susceptibility of natural populations of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) from Okyereko irrigation site, Ghana, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chabi, Joseph; Baidoo, Philip K.; Datsomor, Alex K.; Okyere, Dora; Ablorde, Aikins; Iddrisu, Alidu; Wilson, Michael D; Dadzie, Samuel K.; Jamet, Helen P.; Diclaro, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The increasing spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors has been well documented across sub-Saharan Africa countries. The influence of irrigation on increasing vector resistance is poorly understood, and is critical to successful and ethical implementation of food security policies. This study investigated the insecticide resistance status of An. gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes collected from the irrigated rice area of Okyereko, a village containing about 42 hectares of irriga...

  9. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão; Ivano Alessandro Devilla; Edemilson Cardoso da Conceição; Leonardo Luiz Borges

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provi...

  10. Diagnostic Value of Proteins of Three Borrelia Species (Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato) and Implications for Development and Use of Recombinant Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Lyme Borreliosis in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Ulrike; Lehnert, Gisela; Wilske, Bettina

    1998-01-01

    More and more assays for the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB) are based on recombinant antigens. However, so far, there is no consensus as to which are the most specific and sensitive proteins and how they should be used in combination to obtain tests with the best discrimination abilities. The present study was preceded by a detailed analysis of Western blots (WB) using whole-cell lysates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain PKa2, B. afzelii PKo, and B. garinii PBi (U. Hauser, ...

  11. Isolation of live Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochaetes from patients with undefined disorders and symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, N; Golovchenko, M; Vancova, M; Clark, K; Grubhoffer, L; Oliver, J H

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem disorder with a diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations, caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is an infectious disease that can be successfully cured by antibiotic therapy in the early stages; however, the possibility of the appearance of persistent signs and symptoms of disease following antibiotic treatment is recognized. It is known that Lyme borreliosis mimics multiple diseases that were never proven to have a spirochaete aetiology. Using complete modified Kelly-Pettenkofer medium we succeeded in cultivating live B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochaetes from samples taken from people who suffered from undefined disorders, had symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis, but who had undergone antibiotic treatment due to a suspicion of having Lyme disease even though they were seronegative. We report the first recovery of live B. burgdorferi sensu stricto from residents of southeastern USA and the first successful cultivation of live Borrelia bissettii-like strain from residents of North America. Our results support the fact that B. bissettii is responsible for human Lyme borreliosis worldwide along with B. burgdorferi s.s. The involvement of new spirochaete species in Lyme borreliosis changes the understanding and recognition of clinical manifestations of this disease. PMID:26673735

  12. Quantificação e caracterização energética da madeira e casca de espécies do cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Vale Teixera do

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the production of energy in an area of sensu stricto cerrado located on the Á gua Limpa Farm, University of Brasilia - Brazil. Aerial biomass and the characteristics of the wood and bark of the species found in the total area of 63.56 ha were determined. In ten 20 m x 50 m plots, the total height and diameter, of all the trees whose diameters were either equal to or greater than 5 cm, at 30 cm from the ground, were measured. Seven diameter classes were pre -determined. Then, three trees of each species were cut down at random and classified according to its diameter class. The green biomass of the stem and branches of each species was measured in the field. In laboratory, humidity, the wood/bark ratio, specific gravity, heat combustion, the content of fixed carbon, volatile material and ash of the wood and bark were obtained from cross-sections. It was also possible to estimate the dry mass of the wood and branches per tree, species and hectare as well as the amount of heat generated by this cerrado community. Forty-seven species were identified. The dry biomass of the community comprised 71% of wood and 29% of bark and trees had an average 53% of branches and 47% of stem. The mean production of total dry biomass in the area was 12.38 t/ha. Mean tree production was 18.39 kg. The specific gravity of the wood ranged from 0.2 g/cm3 to 0.78 g/cm3, and the bark from 0.17 g/cm3 to 0.67 g/cm3. The heat combustion of the woods varied from 4,516 kcal/kg to 4,989 kcal/kg, whereas that of the bark ranged from 17,526 kJ/kg to 24,019 kJ/kg. The mean heat combustion of the wood was 19,937 kJ/kg. The mean fixed carbon content was 20.73% in the wood and 25.19% in the bark. Vochysia thyrsoidea presented a great energy production (1,643 MJ/tree, 20 trees/ha e 32,859.00 MJ/ha due to a great biomass production, but with specific gravity low (0.49 g/cm3 and heat combustion low (19,728 kJ/kg. Acosmium dasycarpum showing wood

  13. Estabelecimento e desenvolvimento de Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. em duas fitofisionomias típicas dos cerrados do Brasil Central Establishment and development of Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. in two typical savanna physiognomies of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian S. Braz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available As formações savânicas do Brasil Central caracterizam-se por uma camada rasteira contínua, em que predominam gramíneas, entrecortada por uma camada de arbustos e árvores de densidade variável. Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. é uma leguminosa arbórea típica dos cerrados do Planalto Central. Este estudo examinou os efeitos da seca, disponibilidade de luz, herbivoria e fogo no estabelecimento e crescimento dessa espécie no campo sujo (estrato herbáceo contínuo com árvores e arbustos esparsos e no cerrado sensu stricto, onde a vegetação arbustivoarbórea é mais densa. Mudas foram transplantadas nas duas fitofisionomias, sendo acompanhadas mensalmente as variações na altura, produção de folhas e percentagem da área foliar removida por herbivoria, ao longo de cinco anos (1993-1998. A mortalidade ocorreu principalmente durante a época chuvosa. A seca sazonal não foi um importante fator de mortalidade. Número maior de mudas sobreviveu no campo sujo. Estas mudas não foram mortas por uma queimada ao final da seca de 1994, enquanto várias morreram no cerrado. O crescimento da parte aérea foi lento, em torno de 2,2cm/ano no campo sujo e 3,1cm/ano no cerrado, ocorrido principalmente na estação chuvosa. A maioria das mudas apresentou lesões necróticas de cor preta nas folhas, causada pelo ataque do fungo Phoma sp. A queda das folhas ocorreu durante a estação seca e o número máximo de folhas foi alcançado do meio para o final da época chuvosa, sempre seguido por um pico na herbivoria. Dados de disponibilidade de luz sugerem que plantas com folhas horizontais a 5cm do solo, atingiriam em média apenas 32% da capacidade máxima de assimilação de CO2, devido ao sombreamento. Entretanto, aumento da altura da planta de 5 para 50cm, onde não há mais sombreamento do estrato herbáceo, dobraria os valores estimados de assimilação de CO2 Assim sendo, o desenvolvimento desta espécie seria limitado pela disponibilidade de água e

  14. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  15. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  16. Barrios cerrados como estrategia de desarrollo municipal

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Libertun de Duren

    2010-01-01

    Los barrios cerrados han sido generalmente estudiados desde la perspectiva de sus residentes, preferencias, estatus económico, y ambiciones sociales. Aun más, estos proyectos han sido asociados con el debilitamiento del estado y un desarrollo urbano gobernado por las necesidades del mercado. Sin embargo, queda por responder cual ha sido el papel de las instituciones públicas en la proliferación de barrios cerrados. Este artículo analiza e...

  17. The Phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaka, Richard T; Keim, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The three main species of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis, were recognized and established by the early 1900s because they each exhibited distinct phenotypic traits. B. thuringiensis isolates and their parasporal crystal proteins have long been established as a natural pesticide and insect pathogen. B. anthracis, the etiological agent for anthrax, was used by Robert Koch in the 19th century as a model to develop the germ theory of disease, and B. cereus, a common soil organism, is also an occasional opportunistic pathogen of humans. In addition to these three historical species designations, are three less-recognized and -understood species: B. mycoides, B. weihenstephanensis, and B. pseudomycoides. All of these "species" combined comprise the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. Despite these apparently clear phenotypic definitions, early molecular approaches to separate the first three by various DNA hybridization and 16S/23S ribosomal sequence analyses led to some "confusion" because there were limited differences to differentiate between these species. These and other results have led to frequent suggestions that a taxonomic change was warranted to reclassify this group to a single species. But the pathogenic properties of B. anthracis and the biopesticide applications of B. thuringiensis appear to "have outweighed pure taxonomic considerations" and the separate species categories are still being maintained. B. cereus sensu lato represents a classic example of a now common bacterial species taxonomic quandary. PMID:26999390

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from migratory birds in Southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarpaas Tone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. are the causative agent for Lyme borreliosis (LB, the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Birds are considered important in the global dispersal of ticks and tick-borne pathogens through their migration. The present study is the first description of B. burgdorferi prevalence and genotypes in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on birds during spring and autumn migration in Norway. Methods 6538 migratory birds were captured and examined for ticks at Lista Bird Observatory during the spring and the autumn migration in 2008. 822 immature I. ricinus ticks were collected from 215 infested birds. Ticks were investigated for infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. by real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, and B. burgdorferi s.l. were thereafter genotyped by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification of the hbb gene, or by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon generated from the rrs (16S-rrl (23S intergenetic spacer. Results B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected in 4.4% of the ticks. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified were B. garinii (77.8%, followed by B.valaisiana (11.1%, B. afzelii (8.3% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (2.8%. Conclusion Infection rate in ticks and genospecies composition were similar in spring and autumn migration, however, the prevalence of ticks on birds was higher during spring migration. The study supports the notion that birds are important in the dispersal of ticks, and that they may be partly responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. in Europe.

  19. Presence of host-seeking Ixodes ricinus and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the Northern Apennines, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragagli, Charlotte; Mannelli, Alessandro; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Bisanzio, Donal; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Grego, Elena; Martello, Elisa; Selmi, Marco; Tomassone, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Host-seeking ticks were collected in the Northern Apennines, Italy, by dragging at 35 sites, at altitudes ranging from 680 and 1670 m above sea level (asl), from April to November, in 2010 and 2011. Ixodes ricinus (4431 larvae, 597 nymphs and 12 adults) and Haemaphysalis punctata (11,209 larvae, 313 nymphs, and 25 adults) were the most abundant species, followed by Haemaphysalis sulcata (20 larvae, five nymphs, and 13 adults), Dermacentor marginatus (42 larvae and two adults) and Ixodes hexagonus (one nymph). Greatest numbers of ticks were collected at locations characterised by southern exposure and limestone substratum, at altitudes Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in 294 host-seeking I. ricinus nymphs was 8.5 %. Borrelia garinii was the most frequently identified genospecies (64.0 % of positive nymphs), followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. lusitaniae. Based upon the comparison with the results of previous studies at the same location, these research findings suggest the recent invasion of the study area by the tick vector and the agents of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:26964552

  20. [Association of Constrictotermes cyphergaster Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae) with trees in the Brazilian Cerrado].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus de S; Pinto, Míriam P; Costa, Shirley S; Nabout, João C; Rangel, Thiago F L V B; de Melo, Tatiana L; de Moura, Iona'i O

    2006-01-01

    Termites usually build nests differently shaped and characterized according to each species, to protect and keep society cohesion. Some species build nests in the ground, some prefer tree thunks or branches as support, whereas other dig galleries in the wood. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the occurrence of arboreal termites Constrictotermes cyphergaster Silvestri and tree species that support the nest of this species, in a Cerrado sensu strictu of the Serra de Caldas Novas, GO. Data suggest a association relationship between C. Cyphergaster and the tree species Qualea grandiflora Mart., Annona crassiflora Mart., Caryocar brasiliense Camb. and Plathymenia reticulata Benth., shown by high Qui-squared values (chi2 = 214.986, gl. = 20, P < 0.001). This relationship may be found among other termites and tree species, including Cerrado biome, and may be due to several factors, such as natural competitors and predators, toxin production by other tree species or benefits between associated species (facultative mutualism or facilitation). PMID:17352068

  1. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato GENOTYPES IN DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK AND HUMANS IN GOLESTAN PROVINCE, IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHARBATKHORI, Mitra; TANZIFI, Asal; ROSTAMI, Sima; ROSTAMI, Masoomeh; HARANDI, Majid FASIHI

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus. This study investigated E. granulosus genotypes isolated from livestock and humans in the Golestan province, northern Iran, southeast of the Caspian sea, using partial sequencing data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) mitochondrial genes. Seventy E. granulosus isolates were collected from animals in slaughterhouses: 18 isolates from sheep, 40 from cattle, nine from camels, two from buffaloes and one from a goat, along with four human isolates (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues) from CE patients of provincial hospitals. All isolates were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and sequencing. The sequence analysis found four E. granulosus genotypes among the 74 CE isolates: G1 (78.3%), G2 (2.7%), G3 (15%) and G6 (4%). The G1-G3 complex genotype was found in all of the sheep, goat, cattle and buffalo isolates. Among the nine camel isolates, the frequency of G1-G3 and G6 genotypes were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. All four human CE isolates belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto. This study reports the first occurrence of the G2 genotype in cattle from Iran and confirms the previously reported G3 genotype in camels in the same country. PMID:27253740

  2. Contribuição da vegetação rasteira na evapotranspiração total em diferentes ecossistemas do bioma cerrado, Distrito Federal.

    OpenAIRE

    Otacílio Antunes Santana; Geraldine Cuniat; José Imaña-Encinas

    2010-01-01

    Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: (a) quantificar sazonalmente a evapotranspiração da vegetação rasteira (ET rasteira), (b) quantificar a influencia da ET rasteira para a evapotranspiração total (ET total), e (c) relacionar a ET rasteira com o índice de área foliar da vegetação rasteira (IAF rasteira), abertura de dossel e potencial hídrico do solo; em quatro diferentes paisagens: Cerrado stricu sensu, Mata de Galeria, pastagem e reflorestamento, situados na APA Gama-Cabeça de Veado, Distrit...

  3. Karyotypes of Saccharomyces sensu lato species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Randi Føns; Nilsson-Tilgren, Torsten; Piskur, Jure

    1999-01-01

    Saccharomyces unisporus, 16 in Saccharomyces exiguus and seven in Saccharomyces kluyveri. The sizes of individual chromosomes were resolved and the approximate genome sizes were determined by the addition of individual chromosomes of the karyotypes. Apparently. the genome of S. exiguus, which is the only...... Saccharomyces sensu late yeast to contain small chromosomes, is larger than that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On the other hand, other species exhibited genome sizes that were 10-25% smaller than that of S. cerevisiae. Well-defined karyotypes represent the basis for future genome mapping and sequencing projects...

  4. Diferenças florísticas e estruturais entre fitofisionomias do cerrado em Assis, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Pinheiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A classificação das fitofisionomias tem-se constituído em desafio entre os pesquisadores da vegetação de cerrado, seja por não haver critérios florísticos ou quantitativos claros para sua separação, seja pelas alterações que sofrem ao longo do tempo. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar três tipos fitofisionômicos de cerrado na Estação Ecológica de Assis, bem como verificar se são florística e, ou, estruturalmente distintos, buscando-se as melhores variáveis para caracterizá-los. A área amostral compreendeu 30 parcelas permanentes de 20 x 50 m, sendo 10 parcelas para cada um dos tipos fisionômicos: cerrado típico, cerrado denso e cerradão, em que foram identificadas e medidas as árvores com diâmetro à altura do peito > 5 cm. As três fitofisionomias de cerradoestudadas mostraram-se estruturalmente distintas em classes de área basal, cobertura de copas e altura das maiores árvores. O melhor descritor para classificar as fitofisionomias, por ser facilmente mensurável e pouco variável com o critério de inclusão, é a área basal (m² ha-1. Floristicamente, as fitofisionomias savânicas (cerradotípico e cerrado denso não se diferenciam, quer seja analisando apenas a presença e ausência das espécies, quer seja analisando a importância relativa das espécies na comunidade (fitossociologia. Em síntese, há três fitofisionomias distintas, mas a flora se diferencia apenas entre o cerradão e as fitofisionomias savânicas. A análise das espécies exclusivas de cada fitofisionomia quanto à tolerância à sombra, com base na literatura, indicou que a baixa disponibilidade de luz sob as copas no cerradão pode ter sido o fator condicionante da diferenciação entre esta e as demais fitofisionomias do cerrado lato sensu.

  5. O cerrado brasileiro: notas para estudo

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Augusto dos Santos; Alisson Flávio Barbieri; José Alberto Magno de Carvalho; Carla Jorge Machado

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a short literature review on the Brazilian Cerrado, with emphasis on the following aspects: (1) characterization of the area, (2) environmental degradation and population occupation, (3) history of regional occupation (4) role of immigration; the use of technology; and the land market.

  6. Patterns of Water and Heat Flux Across a Biome Gradient From Tropical Forest to Savanna in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, da, E.J.P.; A. O. Manzi; Cabral, O.M.; Miller, S D; Goulden, M. L.; S. R. Saleska; Coupe, N.R.; Wofsy, S.C.; Borma, L.S.; Artaxo, P.; Vourlitis, G.; Nogueira, J.S.; Cardoso, F.L.; Nobre, A. D.; Kruijt, B.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal patterns of water vapor and sensible heat flux along a tropical biome gradient from forest to savanna. We analyzed data from a network of flux towers in Brazil that were operated within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These tower sites included tropical humid and semideciduous forest, transitional forest, floodplain (with physiognomies of cerrado), and cerrado sensu stricto. The mean annual sensible heat flux at all sites ranged ...

  7. Ró - Cerrados e Mundo A'uwe Xavante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Cereda Gomide

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Xavante people live in what is now the western Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, on nine indigenous reservations that are fragments of their original territory, characteristic for its still untouched biodiversity and cerrado, a scrub-like ecosystem endemic to Brazil. This article discusses the relationship between the Xavante and the cerrado, and, accordingly, the concept of Ró is discussed, which for the Xavante means “cerrado, world, our land, everything”. In summary, it is a complex that is configured spatially through concentric circles that spread out from villages to the cerrado and its spirits. The importance of the cerrado with regards to their cosmology and their vision of Mother Nature is also emphasized, along with indigenous classifications for the phytophysiognomy of the cerrado.

  8. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Alinne Pereira de Castro; Maria Regina Silveira Sartori da Silva; Betania Ferraz Quirino; Mercedes Maria da Cunha Bustamante; Ricardo Henrique Krüger

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiogno...

  9. Ró - Cerrados e Mundo A'uwe Xavante

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lucia Cereda Gomide

    2011-01-01

    The Xavante people live in what is now the western Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, on nine indigenous reservations that are fragments of their original territory, characteristic for its still untouched biodiversity and cerrado, a scrub-like ecosystem endemic to Brazil. This article discusses the relationship between the Xavante and the cerrado, and, accordingly, the concept of Ró is discussed, which for the Xavante means “cerrado, world, our land, everything”. In summary, it is a complex that...

  10. The Text of Aristotle's De Sensu and De Memoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2008-01-01

    An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts.......An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts....

  11. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e; Oliveira Cecília Maria Alves de; Ferri Pedro Henrique; Santos Suzana Costa; Oliveira Júnior Juldásio Galdino de; Miranda André Thiago Borges; Lião Luciano Morais; Silva Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in...

  12. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  13. Large scale spatial risk and comparative prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes pacificus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Padgett

    Full Text Available Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss, the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n=70 and nymphal (n=36 Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%. These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America.

  14. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  15. Children's Perceptions of Brazilian Cerrado Landscapes and Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizerril, Marcelo X. A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author evaluated Brazilian students' environmental perceptions of Cerrado (savanna-like vegetation). The author administered tests of knowledge and perception of the Cerrado biome's wildlife to students of different social classes. The students (age range: 11-17 years) generally exhibited low identification with the region, and…

  16. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  17. Application of DNA Bar Codes for Screening of Industrially Important Fungi: the Haplotype of Trichoderma harzianum Sensu Stricto Indicates Superior Chitinase Formation▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Viviana; Seidl, Verena; Szakacs, George; Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P; Irina S. Druzhinina

    2007-01-01

    Selection of suitable strains for biotechnological purposes is frequently a random process supported by high-throughput methods. Using chitinase production by Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum as a model, we tested whether fungal strains with superior enzyme formation may be diagnosed by DNA bar codes. We analyzed sequences of two phylogenetic marker loci, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 of the rRNA-encoding gene cluster and the large intron of the elongation factor 1-alpha g...

  18. Application of DNA bar codes for screening of industrially important fungi: the haplotype of Trichoderma harzianum sensu stricto indicates superior chitinase formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Viviana; Seidl, Verena; Szakacs, George; Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2007-11-01

    Selection of suitable strains for biotechnological purposes is frequently a random process supported by high-throughput methods. Using chitinase production by Hypocrea lixii/Trichoderma harzianum as a model, we tested whether fungal strains with superior enzyme formation may be diagnosed by DNA bar codes. We analyzed sequences of two phylogenetic marker loci, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 of the rRNA-encoding gene cluster and the large intron of the elongation factor 1-alpha gene, tef1, from 50 isolates of H. lixii/T. harzianum, which were also tested to determine their ability to produce chitinases in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Statistically supported superior chitinase production was obtained for strains carrying one of the observed ITS1 and ITS2 and tef1 alleles corresponding to an allele of T. harzianum type strain CBS 226.95. A tef1-based DNA bar code tool, TrichoCHIT, for rapid identification of these strains was developed. The geographic origin of the strains was irrelevant for chitinase production. The improved chitinase production by strains containing this haplotype was not due to better growth on N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine or glucosamine. Isoenzyme electrophoresis showed that neither the isoenzyme profile of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidases or the endochitinases nor the intensity of staining of individual chitinase bands correlated with total chitinase in the culture filtrate. The superior chitinase producers did not exhibit similarly increased cellulase formation. Biolog Phenotype MicroArray analysis identified lack of N-acetyl-beta-D-mannosamine utilization as a specific trait of strains with the chitinase-overproducing haplotype. This observation was used to develop a plate screening assay for rapid microbiological identification of the strains. The data illustrate that desired industrial properties may be an attribute of certain populations within a species, and screening procedures should thus include a balanced mixture of all genotypes of a given species. PMID:17827332

  19. Gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto avoid ovipositing in Bermuda grass hay infusion and it’s volatiles in two choice egg-count bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Eneh, Lynda K.; Okal, Michael N; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Fillinger, Ulrike; Lindh, Jenny M.

    2016-01-01

    Background A number of mosquito species in the Culex and Aedes genera prefer to lay eggs in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) hay infusions compared to water alone. These mosquitoes are attracted to volatile compounds from the hay infusions making the infusions effective baits in gravid traps used for monitoring vectors of arboviral and filarial pathogens. Since Bermuda grass is abundant and widespread, it is plausible to explore infusions made from it as a potential low cost bait for outdoor ...

  20. Experimental hut evaluation of linalool spatial repellent agar gel against Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes in a semi-field system in Bagamoyo, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Tambwe, Mgeni; Mbeyela, Edgar; Massinda, Brian; Moore, Sarah; Maia, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria vector control is in need of new tools to face its current challenges such as the spread of pyrethroid-resistance and the increase of outdoor feeding mosquitoes. New strategies such as spatial repellents need to be evaluated as supplemental tools to existing control measures such as insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying. Linalool is a naturally occurring terpene alcohol commonly found in flowers and spices with reportedly repellent properties. Methods Fo...

  1. Invasive potential of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto ospC type L strains increases the possible disease risk to humans in the regions of their distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Golovchenko, Maryna; Šíma, Radek; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.; Rudenko, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 28 2014 (2014), s. 538. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : B. burgdorferi ospC type * Invasive potential * Lyme disease * Southeastern U.S.A. * Tick vector * Vertebrate host Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  2. A influência do sistema de avaliação nos programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Barsalini Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it was analyzed how the evaluation system of the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel - CAPES influenced the Brazilian post-graduate programs in Administration, Accounting and Tourism areas to adapt to meet the requirements of this evaluation system. Supported by Indicator’s Books in the CAPES's website, the research was characterized as descriptive, exploratory and documentary. As results, it was possible to identify three actions put in practices through programs that had the highest marks: a constancy in the number of Theses and Dissertations defended; b dynamic composition (changes / adjustments of the teaching staff to meet the evaluation system demands, and c consolidation of publication’s network between the teaching staff within the program.

  3. A Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados nos estudos de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu da Enfermagem brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Miranda da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo documental e quantitativo, que objetivou identificar as teses e dissertações defendidas nos Programas de Pós- Graduação em Enfermagem do Brasil que utilizaram o referencial metodológico da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados (TFD e analisar os aspectos epistemológicos destacados. Os dados foram coletados no Banco de Teses da CAPES, no recorte temporal entre 1996 a 2010. Foram levantados 99 resumos. Realizou-se a leitura analítica dos mesmos para constituição do tema ou problema da pesquisa e do enquadramento teórico. O maior número de produção foi em 2005, na soma dos dois níveis acadêmicos, e 54% das defesas foram sediadas na USP. As áreas temáticas mais expressivas foram: Saúde da Criança/Adolescente; Gestão em Saúde/Enfermagem; Saúde Coletiva e Saúde da Mulher. O principal referencial teórico utilizado foi o Interacionismo Simbólico. A TFD compreende uma metodologia que pode ser empregada na enfermagem, capaz de contribuir no desenvolvimento de novas investigações para o seu aprimoramento contínuo.

  4. Constructing a Species Database and Historic Range Maps for North American Bumble Bees (Bombus sensu stricto Latreille) to Inform Conservation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumble bees (Bombus Latrielle) are some of the most important native pollinators in North America, pollinating both wild flowers and agricultural crops often where other pollinators such as honey bees are absent. In the last decade at least six North American species of bumble bees (Bombus Latreill...

  5. 'Who's who' in renal sphaerosporids (Bivalvulida: Myxozoa) from common carp, Prussian carp and goldfish - molecular identification of cryptic species, blood stages and new members of Sphaerospora sensu stricto

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Bartošová, Pavla; Pecková, Hana; Tyml, Tomáš; Atkinson, S.; Bartholomew, J.; Sipos, D.; Eszterbauer, E.; Dyková, Iva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 140, JAN 2013 (2013), s. 46-60. ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P724; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Grant ostatní: Hungarian Scientifc Research Fund(HU) OTKA K75873 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Sphaerospora * Myxozoa * cyprinid * morphometry * cryptic speciation * ribosomal DNA * molecular identification * blood stages * multi-species infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2013

  6. Area-wide integrated pest control operation in Thailand: Two interacting closely related species, Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto and Bactrocera correcta, with potential of species complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since 1987, we have set up a pilot project initially for the control of the Oriental fruit fly (OFF), Bactrocera dorsalis (Handel), and recently also for control of the Guava fruit fly (GFF), Bactrocera correcta. In doing so, we integrated the SIT with other monitoring and control methods in the Rajburi province (south) as well as recently in Phichit province (north). These two area-wide control programmes are operated with different management schemes integrating various stakeholders such as crop growers, local field operators, producers of the sterile insects, politicians, activists, reporters, exporters, scientific experts, and researchers from academies and research institutes. Regular feed back information systems of the field monitoring have been set-up with geographical positioning system (GPS) with the support of IAEA. Thus, most trapping sites and infested fruits collection sites from both the control areas have been geo-referenced and have become valuable resources for the population dynamic studies regarding the effectiveness of the area-wide control programme. Recent research is investigating the impact of the presence of two different but conceivably interacting closely related species, B. dorsalis and B. correcta, which are sympatric polyphagous species with highly overlapping commodity host ranges. However, their degree of host preferences is somewhat different. Crop growers and area-wide control experts require that our effective area-wide control programme needs to be tailored so that population suppression for both species is achieved. Besides, there were several (unpublished) reports indirectly suggesting mating interactions between the two species. This presentation reports initial analysis of mating tests between these two fruit fly species, comparison of their natural history, and the demographic data from our area-wide control areas and from general agricultural areas. We also addressed the use of established molecular genetic markers for genotyping fruit fly species for the field operations. These DNA markers may be used for the analyses of the genetic structure of the population and estimate the degree of genetic diversity and relationships at the intraspecific and interspecific level. The data may also be useful for the understanding of the potential species complexity issues within the region. (author)

  7. Islands and stepping-stones: comparative population structure of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania and implications for the spread of insecticide resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodatus Maliti

    Full Text Available Population genetic structures of the two major malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, differ markedly across Sub-Saharan Africa, which could reflect differences in historical demographies or in contemporary gene flow. Elucidation of the degree and cause of population structure is important for predicting the spread of genetic traits such as insecticide resistance genes or artificially engineered genes. Here the population genetics of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in the central, eastern and island regions of Tanzania were compared. Microsatellite markers were screened in 33 collections of female An. gambiae s.l., originating from 22 geographical locations, four of which were sampled in two or three years between 2008 and 2010. An. gambiae were sampled from six sites, An. arabiensis from 14 sites, and both species from two sites, with an additional colonised insectary sample of each species. Frequencies of the knock-down resistance (kdr alleles 1014S and 1014F were also determined. An. gambiae exhibited relatively high genetic differentiation (average pairwise FST = 0.131, significant even between nearby samples, but without clear geographical patterning. In contrast, An. arabiensis exhibited limited differentiation (average FST = 0.015, but strong isolation-by-distance (Mantel test r = 0.46, p = 0.0008. Most time-series samples of An. arabiensis were homogeneous, suggesting general temporal stability of the genetic structure. An. gambiae populations from Dar es Salaam and Bagamoyo were found to have high frequencies of kdr 1014S (around 70%, with almost 50% homozygote but was at much lower frequency on Unguja Island, with no. An. gambiae population genetic differentiation was consistent with an island model of genetic structuring with highly restricted gene flow, contrary to An. arabiensis which was consistent with a stepping-stone model of extensive, but geographically-restricted gene flow.

  8. Islands and Stepping-Stones: Comparative Population Structure of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania and Implications for the Spread of Insecticide Resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Deodatus Maliti; Hilary Ranson; Stephen Magesa; William Kisinza; Juma Mcha; Khamis Haji; Gerald Killeen; David Weetman

    2014-01-01

    Population genetic structures of the two major malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, differ markedly across Sub-Saharan Africa, which could reflect differences in historical demographies or in contemporary gene flow. Elucidation of the degree and cause of population structure is important for predicting the spread of genetic traits such as insecticide resistance genes or artificially engineered genes. Here the population genetics of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in ...

  9. Reappraisal of Hydatigera taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786) (Cestoda: Taeniidae) sensu lato with description of Hydatigera kamiyai n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavikainen, Antti; Iwaki, Takashi; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey V; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E; Galimberti, Andrea; Halajian, Ali; Henttonen, Heikki; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Itagaki, Tadashi; Krivopalov, Anton V; Meri, Seppo; Morand, Serge; Näreaho, Anu; Olsson, Gert E; Ribas, Alexis; Terefe, Yitagele; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-05-01

    The common cat tapeworm Hydatigera taeniaeformis is a complex of three morphologically cryptic entities, which can be differentiated genetically. To clarify the biogeography and the host spectrum of the cryptic lineages, 150 specimens of H. taeniaeformis in various definitive and intermediate hosts from Eurasia, Africa and Australia were identified with DNA barcoding using partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene sequences and compared with previously published data. Additional phylogenetic analyses of selected isolates were performed using nuclear DNA and mitochondrial genome sequences. Based on molecular data and morphological analysis, Hydatigera kamiyai n. sp. Iwaki is proposed for a cryptic lineage, which is predominantly northern Eurasian and uses mainly arvicoline rodents (voles) and mice of the genus Apodemus as intermediate hosts. Hydatigera taeniaeformis sensu stricto (s.s.) is restricted to murine rodents (rats and mice) as intermediate hosts. It probably originates from Asia but has spread worldwide. Despite remarkable genetic divergence between H. taeniaeformis s.s. and H. kamiyai, interspecific morphological differences are evident only in dimensions of rostellar hooks. The third cryptic lineage is closely related to H. kamiyai, but its taxonomic status remains unresolved due to limited morphological, molecular, biogeographical and ecological data. This Hydatigera sp. is confined to the Mediterranean and its intermediate hosts are unknown. Further studies are needed to classify Hydatigera sp. either as a distinct species or a variant of H. kamiyai. According to previously published limited data, all three entities occur in the Americas, probably due to human-mediated introductions. PMID:26956060

  10. Lantana camara L. (sensu lato: an enigmatic complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Goyal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lantana camara L., considered among the world’s worst invaders is in identity crisis and contentiously referred as Lantana camara L. (sensu lato. Taxonomic ambiguity in L. camara L. (sensu lato, a species complex is one of the grim caveats behind incompetence of its management efforts. Recognizing the extent of variability within the complex, we aim to highlight the need to circumscribe its composition to bring effective management and control efforts into practice. There is a need for clear terminology to examine weedy, naturalized and/or invasive complex constituents that have been placed under the contentious umbrella of ‘L. camara L. (sensu lato’. The time is ripe for invasion ecologists, cytogeneticists and conservationists to collaboratively focus on disentangling the complex and integrate their knowledge and expertise into management and control programs.

  11. Barrios cerrados como estrategia de desarrollo municipal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Libertun de Duren

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los barrios cerrados han sido generalmente estudiados desde la perspectiva de sus residentes, preferencias, estatus económico, y ambiciones sociales. Aun más, estos proyectos han sido asociados con el debilitamiento del estado y un desarrollo urbano gobernado por las necesidades del mercado. Sin embargo, queda por responder cual ha sido el papel de las instituciones públicas en la proliferación de barrios cerrados. Este artículo analiza el caso de Buenos Aires, donde las municipalidades suburbanas más pobres han visto a las urbanizaciones cerradas como una estrategia de desarrollo local. Aprovechando la descentralización de la reglamentación sobre los usos del suelo del nivel provincial al municipal, las municipalidades con un alto porcentaje de hogares pobres han facilitado el desarrollo de urbanizaciones cerradas como estrategia para aumentar el empleo local y la inversión privada en la zona. Como consecuencia de esta política, las urbanizaciones cerradas se han concentrado en las municipalidades más pobres del cono urbano bonaerense. Así, se ha incrementando la polarización social dentro de cada municipalidad, lo cual llama a revisar el efecto de las reformas de descentralización en la formación de una sociedad mas inclusiva y participativa.

  12. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; José M.C. Pereira; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area...

  13. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants Propriedades antifúngicas de plantas do Cerrado brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e Souza; Cecília Maria Alves de Oliveira; Pedro Henrique Ferri; Suzana Costa Santos; Juldásio Galdino de Oliveira Júnior; André Thiago Borges Miranda; Luciano Morais Lião; Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva

    2002-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in...

  14. High-rate evolution of Saccharomyces sensu lato chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spirek, M.; Yang, J.; Groth, C.;

    2003-01-01

    Forty isolates belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu lato complex were analyzed for one nuclear and two mitochondrial sequences, and for their karyotypes. These data are useful for description and definition of yeast species based on the phylogenetic species concept. The deduced phylogenetic...

  15. La distribución de Iridois Labiatae sensu lato

    OpenAIRE

    Poser, Gilsane Lino von; Amélia T. HENRIQUES; Schripsema, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Los iridoides, presentes en muchas plantas usadas en la medicina popular, son importantes marcadores taxonómicos en las Sympetalae y su distribuición en las familias Verbenaceae y Labiatae ha sido de gran valor para la delimitación entre estas familias. En este trabajo mostramos la distribuición de estes compuestos en Labiatae sensu lato.

  16. A FLORA DO CERRADO E SUAS FORMAS DE APROVEITAMENTO UTILIZATION OF CERRADO FLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Santos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para colher informações sobre as formas de utilização do cerrado, realizou-se um levantamento por meio de questionários aplicados nas regiões do país onde ocorre esse tipo de vegetação. As informações solicitadas foram: nome comum, local de ocorrência, época de floração, frutificação, partes utilizáveis e seu aproveitamento geral. Encontrou-se um número superior a 170 espécies que são utilizadas das mais diferentes formas. As famílias que se destacam em número de espécies são, em ordem decrescente: Leguminosae, Palmae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Compositae, Vochysiaceae, Annonaceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae, Convolvulaceae, Boraginaceae, Moraceae, Dilleniaceae, Guttiferae, Gentianaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Colchospermaceae, Bromeliaceae, Tiliacea, e Sapotaceae, entre outras de menor utilização.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cerrado; flora nativa; flora do cerrado; savana; savana flora.

    The uses of Brazilian cerrado vegetation were surveyed by means of a questionnaire, requesting common name, local of occurrence, flowering and fruitage time, usable parts and general utilization. Over 170 species were found, with a wide variety of uses. In decreasing order, the most frequent families were: Leguminosae, Palmae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Compositae, Vochysiaceae, Annonaceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae, Convolvulaceae, Boraginaceae, Moraceae,

  17. L’invention du biome Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Aubertin, Catherine; pinton, florence

    2014-01-01

    L’enjeu de cet article est de comprendre comment le Cerrado, espace d’abord ignoré, puis voué à l’agriculture intensive, a été au début des années 2000 requalifié en biome, sujet de préoccupations environnementales. Sa propulsion sur la scène internationale lors de la conférence Climat de Copenhague en 2009 a par la suite contribué à transformer cet espace mal défini en un enjeu international du changement climatique et de la lutte contre la déforestation avec l’affirmation de deux mouvements...

  18. Carbono da biomassa microbiana em solo cultivado com soja sob diferentes sistemas de manejo nos Cerrados Microbial biomass carbon in soil cultivated with soybean, under different management systems in Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Sueli Sivek Perez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o carbono da biomassa microbina de solo, cultivado com soja em diferentes sistemas de manejo. Os sistemas de manejo foram semeadura direta, uma gradagem, subsolagem e duas gradagens, realizadas num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em cinco profundidades (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 e 30-40 cm e em quatro épocas (antes do preparo do solo, 30 dias após a germinação, floração e após a colheita da soja. Foram coletadas, também, amostras de solo na mesma profundidade e na mesma época, em uma área de vegetação nativa (Cerrado sensu strictu, adjacente ao experimento. A subsolagem apresentou os maiores valores de carbono aos 30 dias após a germinação (865,7 mg kg-1 de solo. Este valor foi reduzido para 80,3 mg kg-1 de solo na floração. Os valores de carbono na semeadura direta mantiveram-se mais estáveis, principalmente na camada de 0-20 cm. As camadas de 0-5 e 5-10 cm apresentaram diferença na maioria das épocas estudadas e das demais camadas. A subsolagem mostrou o menor valor do carbono orgânico do solo, após a colheita da soja. Não houve correlação entre a relação carbono da biomassa microbiana/carbono orgânico e os nutrientes do solo na subsolagemThe aim of this study was to quantify soil microbial biomass carbon in a soybean crop under different soil management systems no-tillage, single harrowing, subsoiling and two harrowing, on a clay Red-Yellow Latossol in the Cerrado region. Soils were studied at five depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm. Four periods were observed before soil preparation; 30 days after germination; flowering stage and after harvesting soybean plants. The same measurements were taken under the same conditions in an area of native cerrado vegetation, adjacent to the experiment (Cerrado sensu strictu. Subsoiling showed highest carbon values 30 days after germination (865.7 mg kg-1 of soil. This was reduced to less

  19. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Tiancheng; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. However, to realize one advanced control function of thermal flux, one needs to design one sophisticated, multilayered and inhomogeneous thermal structure with different composition/shape at different regions of one device. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is al...

  20. ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 secondary structure modelling for intra-specific differentiation among species of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Sephra N

    2014-01-01

    The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is among the most destructive fungal plant pathogens in the world, however, identification of member species which are of quarantine importance is impacted by a number of factors that negatively affect species identification. Structural information of the rRNA marker may be considered to be a conserved marker which can be used as supplementary information for possible species identification. The difficulty in using ITS rDNA sequences for identification lies in the low level of sequence variation at the intra-specific level and the generation of artificially-induced sequence variation due to errors in polymerization of the ITS array during DNA replication. Type and query ITS sequences were subjected to sequence analyses prior to generation of predicted consensus secondary structures, including the pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms and number of indel haplotypes, GC content, and detection of artificially-induced sequence variation. Data pertaining to structure stability, the presence of conserved motifs in secondary structures and mapping of all sequences onto the consensus C. gloeosporioides sensu stricto secondary structure for ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 markers was then carried out. Motifs that are evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes were found for all ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 sequences. The sequences exhibited conserved features typical of functional rRNAs. Generally, polymorphisms occurred within less conserved regions and were seen as bulges, internal and terminal loops or non-canonical G-U base-pairs within regions of the double stranded helices. Importantly, there were also taxonomic motifs and base changes that were unique to specific taxa and which may be used to support intra-specific identification of members of the C. gloeosporioides sensu lato species complex. PMID:25512885

  1. Establishment of Multiple Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat Analysis Assay for Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Detected in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin; HOU Xue Xia; GENG Zhen; ZHAO Rui; WAN Kang Lin; HAO Qin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Human Lyme Borreliosis (LB), which is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi), has been identified as a major arthropod-borne infectious disease in China. We aimed to develop a multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) assay for the genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi strains detected in China. Methods B. garinii PBi complete 904.246 kb chromosome and two plasmids (cp26 and lp54) were screened by using Tandem Repeats Finder program for getting potential VNTR loci, the potential VNTR loci were analyzed and identified with PCR and the VNTR loci data were analyzed and MLVA clustering tree were constrcted by using the categorical coefficient and the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA). Results We identified 5 new VNTR loci through analyzing 47 potential VNTR loci. We used the MLVA protocol to analyse 101 B. burgdorferi strains detected in China and finally identified 51 unique genotypes in 4 major clusters including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (B.b.s.s), B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. valaisiana, consistent with the current MLSA phylogeny studies. The allele numbers of VNTR-1, VNTR-2, VNTR-3, VNTR-4, and VNTR-5 were 7, 3, 9, 7, and 6. The Hunter-Gaston index (HGI) of five VNTR loci were 0.79, 0.22, 0.77, 0.71, and 0.67, respectively. The combined HGI of five VNTR loci was 0.96. Clustering of the strains of Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang was confirmed, and this situation was consistent with the close geographical distribution of those provinces. Conclusion The MLVA protocol esytablished in this study is easy and can show strains’ phylogenetic relationships to distinguish the strains of Borrelia species. It is useful for further phylogenetic and epidemiological analyses of Borrelia strains.

  2. Ant plant herbivore interactions in the neotropical cerrado savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo S.; Freitas, André V. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Brazilian cerrado savanna covers nearly 2 million km2 and has a high incidence on foliage of various liquid food sources such as extrafloral nectar and insect exudates. These liquid rewards generate intense ant activity on cerrado foliage, making ant plant herbivore interactions especially prevalent in this biome. We present data on the distribution and abundance of extrafloral nectaries in the woody flora of cerrado communities and in the flora of other habitats worldwide, and stress the relevance of liquid food sources (including hemipteran honeydew) for the ant fauna. Consumption by ants of plant and insect exudates significantly affects the activity of the associated herbivores of cerrado plant species, with varying impacts on the reproductive output of the plants. Experiments with an ant plant butterfly system unequivocally demonstrate that the behavior of both immature and adult lepidopterans is closely related to the use of a risky host plant, where intensive visitation by ants can have a severe impact on caterpillar survival. We discuss recent evidence suggesting that the occurrence of liquid rewards on leaves plays a key role in mediating the foraging ecology of foliage-dwelling ants, and that facultative ant plant mutualisms are important in structuring the community of canopy arthropods. Ant-mediated effects on cerrado herbivore communities can be revealed by experiments performed on wide spatial scales, including many environmental factors such as soil fertility and vegetation structure. We also present some research questions that could be rewarding to investigate in this major neotropical savanna.

  3. Mapping Fire Scars in the Brazilian Cerrado Using AVHRR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavka, C. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Brass, J. A.; Rezendez, A.; Alexander, S.; Guild, L. S.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian cerrado, or savanna, spans an area of 1,800,000 square kilometers on the great plateau of Central Brazil. Large fires covering hundreds of square kilometers, frequently occur in wildland areas of the cerrado, dominated by grasslands or grasslands mixed with shrubs and small trees, and also within area in the cerrado used for agricultural purposes, particularly for grazing. Smaller fires, typically extending over arm of a few square kilometers or less, are associated with the clewing of crops, such as dry land rice. A method for mapping fire scars and differentiating them from extensive areas of bare sod with AVHRR bands 1 (.55 -.68 micrometer) and 3 (3.5 - 3.9 micrometers) and measures of performance based on comparison with maps of fires with Landsat imagery will be presented. Methods of estimating total area burned from the AVHRR fire scar map will be discussed and related to land use and scar size.

  4. Scarabaeoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera) no Cerrado brasileiro: estado atual do conhecimento

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Luçardo; Charles Martins de Oliveira; Marina Regina Frizzas

    2014-01-01

    Besouros pertencentes à superfamília Scarabaeoidea ocupam habitats variados, possuem hábitos alimentares diversificados, desempenham importante papel ecológico e diversas espécies apresentam importância agrícola. No entanto, estudos com esse grupo na região do Cerrado são escassos. Nesta revisão realizou-se um levantamento dos artigos publicados nos últimos 30 anos a respeito dos Scarabaeoidea no Cerrado. Foram recuperados 64 artigos, realizados em nove unidades da federação, que focavam quat...

  5. Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in China▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Qin; Hou, Xuexia; Geng, Zhen; Wan, Kanglin

    2011-01-01

    We genotyped 102 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated from ticks, animals, and patients in 11 provinces in China by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) amplification of 5S (rrf)-23S (rrl) rRNA gene spacer amplicons and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The results showed that Borrelia garinii was the main genotype in China (65/102) and that it was distributed mainly in northern China. Borrelia afzelii was the second most frequently found species (22/102), an...

  6. Soil organic matter dynamics in a cerrado oxisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the second largest biome in the country, spreading over 23 % of the national territory. In the last three decades, it has increasingly contributed to the national production, being responsible in 1995 for 25% of the national agricultural production and sheltering 40% of the

  7. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  8. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo C Pereira Júnior

    Full Text Available Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008 for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects.

  9. Seasonality of litterfall and leaf decomposition in a cerrado site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, M W; Cianciaruso, M V; Batalha, M A

    2008-08-01

    We investigated annual litterfall and leaf decomposition rate in a cerrado site. We collected woody plant litter monthly from April 2001 to March 2002 and from July 2003 to June 2004. We placed systematically 13 litter traps (0.5 x 0.5 m) in a line, 10 m one from the other. We sorted litter into 'leaves', 'stems', 'reproductive structures', and 'miscellanea' fractions, oven-dried them at 80 degrees C until constant mass and weighed the dry material. To assess leaf decomposition rate, we packed leaves recently shed by plants in litter bags. We placed seven sets of nine litter bags in a line, 10 m one from the other, on the soil surface and collected nine bags each time after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months. Total and leaf litter productions showed a seasonal pattern. Leaf litterfall was the phenological attribute that showed the strongest response to seasonality and drought. Decomposition was slower in the cerrado that we studied compared to a more closed cerrado physiognomy, reflecting their structural and environmental differences. Thus, decomposition rates seem to increase from open to closed cerrado physiognomies, probably related to an increase of humidity and nutrients in the soil. PMID:18833466

  10. Coleoptera families other than Cerambycidae, Curculionidae sensu lato, Chrysomelidae sensu lato and Coccinelidae. Chapter 8.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Denux

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we consider 274 alien Coleoptera species belonging to 41 of the 137 beetle families in Europe (Cerambycidae, Curculionidae sensu lato, Chrysomelidae sensu lato and Coccinelidae are treated separately elsewhere. Among the families we consider asinvaded the European fauna, Acanthocnemidae and Ptilodactylidae represent new arrivals. Many species-rich families have surprisingly few aliens, whereas some relatively minor families such as Dermestidae, Nitidulidae and Anobiidae have a relatively high representation of alien species. Since the start of the 19th century, the number of coleopteran aliens introduced into Europe has continued to increase. Alien species colonizing Europe derive from a wide range of geographic regions as well as ecozones, but the most important source area is Asia. The countries with the largest number of alien species established are France, Germany and Italy. The majority have been introduced accidentally via international transport mechanisms. The most important route for importation is stored products and crops, followed by transport of wood, then horticultural and ornamental plants. Most alien species in these families are found within anthropogenic habitats in Europe. The introduction of invasive alien beetles in these families has had significant economic impacts, particularly as pests of stored foodstuffs, as well as serious ecological impacts. For example, the buprestid species Agrilus planipennis, recently recorded in Russia, is an important potential economic threat which may also impact the biodiversity associated with ash trees.

  11. Ascospore development in Ceratocystis sensu lato (Fungi: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. J. van Wyk

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceratocystis. Ceratocxstiopsis and  Ophiostoma are important pathogens of trees and some agricultural crops and have recently been found on proteas and forest trees in South Africa. Taxonomic controversy exists regarding these genera and ultrastructural studies on the development of asci, uniquely shaped ascospores and centrum structure are inadequate. This rev iew summarises current knowledge of ascospore shape and development of the centrum obtained from light and electron microscope studies of Cemtocystis sensu lato. Important questions requiring further investigations are outlined. It is furthermore proposed that additional ultrastructural studies are required to clarify the current taxonomic disagreement in this group. Such studies could also identify relationships between these fungi and other Ascomycetes.

  12. Soil organic matter dynamics in a cerrado oxisol

    OpenAIRE

    Roscoe, R

    2002-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the second largest biome in the country, spreading over 23 % of the national territory. In the last three decades, it has increasingly contributed to the national production, being responsible in 1995 for 25% of the national agricultural production and sheltering 40% of the cattle flock. Development strategies have stimulated strongly mechanised and intensive agricultural practices, which has raised concerns about soil organic matter (SOM) losses and soil degradation....

  13. A year in a Cerrado wet grassland: a non-seasonal island in a seasonal savanna environment Um ano em um campo úmido no Cerrado: uma ilha não-estacional em um ambiente de savana estacional

    OpenAIRE

    MV. Cianciaruso; MA. Batalha

    2008-01-01

    In some Cerrado regions where the water table is superficial and soils are hydromorphic, we may find wet grasslands. We studied temporal changes in some community descriptors, such as species density, plant density, basal area, and cylindrical volume in a Cerrado wet grassland in four different seasons of the year. We also compared the species richness and composition of the wet grassland with a hyperseasonal cerrado, and a seasonal cerrado. We found significant differences among the seasons ...

  14. Pequenas Parmelia S.L. (Líquens: Ascomycotina ciliadas dos cerrados brasileiros Little ciliate Parmeliae in the brazilian cerradoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pinto Marcelli

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi baseado em coletas realizadas em todos os tipos estruturais de cerrado, incluindo formações de altitude e rochosas. São apresentadas descrições detalhadas, chave de identificação e ilustrações das espécies de Bulboíhrix (16, Relicina (2, Myelochroa (2, Parmelinella (1, Parmelinopsis (6 e Hypotrachyna (3 encontradas. B. linteolocarpa M.P. Marcelli e B. subklementii M.P. Marcelli são descritas como novas. E feita a combinação nova Parmelinella versiformis (Kremp. M.P. Marcelli. B. sensibilis (Steiner & Zahlbr. Hale é nova para o Brasil. B. meizospora (Nyl. Hale e Parmelinopsis jamesii (Hale Elix & Hale são novas para o Continente Americano. Há um grande número de primeiras citações para vários estados e várias segundas referências para o Brasil.This work deals with species of the lichen genera Bulboihrix (16, Relicina (2, Myelochroa (2, Parmelinella (1, Parmelinopsis (6 and Hypotrachyna (3 (ciliate species growing in the brazilian "cerrado" vegetation. All types of cerradoes were investigated, since almost open fields to forestal formations and including altitude rock fields, gallery forests and others placed inside cerrado areas. Altogether 30 species were found and are described in detail. B. linteolocarpa M.P. Marcelli and B. subklementii M.P. Marcelli are new species. The new combination Parmelinella versiformis (Kremp. M.P. Marcelli is done. B. sensibilis (Steiner & Zahlbr. Hale is new for Brazil. B. meizospora (Nyl. Hale and Parmelinopsis jamesii (Hale Elix & Hale are new for the American Continent.

  15. Ceras foliares epicuticulares de espécies congêneres da mata e do cerrado Foliar epicuticular waxes of congeneric species from forest and cerrado vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Elenice Mouro Varanda; Déborah Yara Alves Cursino dos Santos

    1996-01-01

    Espécies de cerrado e mata foram analisadas quanto à sua composição em ceras foliares epicuticulares e de seus componentes hidrocarbonetos. Observou-se nas espécies de cerrado uma tendência a teores de ceras pouco maiores que os de espécies de mata estacionai semidecídua. A porcentagem de hidrocarbonetos nas ceras foi maior na maioria das espécies de mata que nas espécies congêneres de cerrado. Pela análise em CG, os hidrocarbonetos mostraram predominância de C29 e C31 apresentando um comprim...

  16. Whole-Genome Sequences of 94 Environmental Isolates of Bacillus cereus Sensu Lato

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Auwera, Géraldine A.; Feldgarden, Michael; Kolter, Roberto; Mahillon, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is a species complex that includes the anthrax pathogen Bacillus anthracis and other bacterial species of medical, industrial, and ecological importance. Their phenotypes of interest are typically linked to large plasmids that are closely related to the anthrax plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of 94 isolates of B. cereus sensu lato, which were chosen for their plasmid content and environmental origins.

  17. Whole-Genome Sequences of 94 Environmental Isolates of Bacillus cereus Sensu Lato

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Auwera, Géraldine A.; Feldgarden, Michael; Kolter, Roberto; Mahillon, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is a species complex that includes the anthrax pathogen Bacillus anthracis and other bacterial species of medical, industrial, and ecological importance. Their phenotypes of interest are typically linked to large plasmids that are closely related to the anthrax plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of 94 isolates of B. cereus sensu lato, which were chosen for their plasmid content and environmental origins.

  18. Comportamento alimentar de aves em Miconia rubiginosa (Melastomataceae) em fragmento de Cerrado, São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes-Machado Luiz Octavio

    2002-01-01

    Birds of 11 species were observed feeding on fruits of Miconia rubiginosa (Bonpl.)DL between February and March 1985 in Itirapina cerrado, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The feeding strategies of birds with regards to fruit use, and the role of the fruits as food resources for the birds in cerrado are analyzed.

  19. Groundwater recharge decrease with increased vegetation density in the Brazilian Cerrado 2322

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately one half of the outcrop areas of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) are located in the Cerrado biome, the main agricultural expansion region in Brazil. Large areas of cerrado vegetation have been converted into farmland in recent years; however, little attention has been paid to the cons...

  20. Phylogeny and Classification of Prunus sensu lato (Rosaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Shi; Jinlu Li; Jiahui Sun; Jing Yu; Shiliang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    The classification of the economically important genus Prunus L. sensu lato (s.l.) is controversial due to the high levels of convergent or the parallel evolution of morphological characters. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses of fifteen main segregates of Prunus s.l. represented by eighty-four species were conducted with maximum parsimony and Bayesian approaches using twelve chloroplast regions (atpB-rbcL, matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH, rbcL, rpL16, rpoC1, rps16, trnS-G, trnL, trnL-F and ycf1) and three nuclear genes (ITS, s6pdh and SbeI) to explore their infrageneric relationships. The results of these analyses were used to develop a new, phylogeny-based classification of Prunus s.l. Our phylogenetic reconstructions resolved three main clades of Prunus s.l. with strong supports. We adopted a broad-sensed genus, Prunus, and recognised three subgenera corresponding to the three main clades: subgenus Padus, subgenus Cerasus and subgenus Prunus. Seven sections of subgenus Prunus were recognised. The dwarf cherries, which were previously assigned to subgenus Cerasus, were included in this subgenus Prunus. One new section name, Prunus L. subgenus Prunus section Persicae (T. T. Yü&L. T. Lu) S. L. Zhou and one new species name, Prunus tianshanica (Pojarkov) S. Shi, were proposed.

  1. Arthropods associated with pig carrion in two vegetation profiles of Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil Artrópodes associados a carcaças de suínos em dois perfis de vegetação de Cerrado no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Augusto Rosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Forensic Entomology research has been concentrated in only a few localities of the "Cerrado" vegetation, the Brazilian Savannah. The present study had, as its objective, an examination of the diversity of arthropod fauna associated with the carcasses of Sus scrofa (Linnaeus in this biome. The study was conducted during the dry and humid periods in two Cerrado vegetation profiles of the State of Minas Gerais. The decaying process was slower and greater quantities of arthropods were collected during the dry period. Insects represented 99% of 161,116 arthropods collected. The majority of these were Diptera (80.2% and Coleoptera (8.8%. The entomofauna belong to 85 families and at least 212 species. Diptera were represented by 31 families and at least 132 species. Sarcophagidae (Diptera and Scarabaeidae (Coleoptera were the richest groups. Oxysarcodexia (Sarcophagidae presented the largest number of attracted species, however none of these species bred in the carcasses. The Coleoptera collected belong to at least 50 species of 21 families. Among these species, Dermestes maculatus and Necrobia rufipes were observed breeding in the carcasses. This study showed species with potential importance for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI, indicative of seasonal and environmental type located.Estudos de entomologia forense em área de Cerrado ainda são escassos no Brasil. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a riqueza da artropodofauna associada a carcaças de suínos domésticos em decomposição. O estudo foi conduzido em dois perfis de Cerrado, Cerrado senso stricto e Campo sujo, durante dois períodos do ano, seco e úmido, em Uberlândia, MG, Brasil. Insetos representaram 99% dos 161.116 artrópodes coletados, sendo representados majoritariamente por dípteros (80,2% e coleópteros (8,8%. A entomofauna era pertencente a 85 famílias e pelo menos 212 espécies. Os dípteros foram representados por 31 famílias e pelo menos 132 espécies. Os

  2. New Ravenelia species on leguminous hosts from the Brazilian Cerrado Novas espécies de Ravenelia sobre leguminosas do Cerrado brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    DENISE V. REZENDE; JOSÉ C. DIANESE

    2001-01-01

    Four new Ravenelia species were described on native leguminous hosts from the Brazilian Cerrado, as follows: Ravenelia cerradensis sp. nov., R. chapadensis sp. nov., R. mineirosensis sp. nov. and R. emaensis sp. nov. on Chamaecrista clausenii var. cyclophylla, Chamaecriista conferta var. virgata, Anadenanthera colubrina var. colubrina, and on Anadenanthera sp., respectively.Quatro espécies novas de Ravenelia foram descritas em leguminosas do Cerrado brasileiro, a saber: Ravenelia cerradensis ...

  3. Degradation of aldrin im samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-aldrin degradation was studied in the laboratory, in samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils, during a period of 240 days. Recovery of radiocarbon decreased with time, although radiocarbon was not incorporated to the soil organic matter as show by soil combustion. In both soils 14C-aldrin degraded to dieldrin and another compound that showed caracteristics of a hydrosoluble derivative of aldrin 14C-aldrin was more persistent in sandy soil but amendment of this soil with nutrients or fertilizers did not enhanced aldrin degradation in this soil. (Author)

  4. Liming and phosphorus fertilization in soils under cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of liming and phosphorus fertilizer (300 Kg P2O5/ha) application on dry matter accumulation and P-uptake by sorghum plants were studied under greenhouse conditions. Plants were grown in four Oxisols originally under cerrado vegetation. There was a positive correlation between P-fertilization and liming on dry matter accumulation and P-uptake by plants. The results showed that the main effect of liming in these soils was on the elimination of phytotoxicity, mainly due to exchangeable aluminum. (M.A.C.)

  5. A taxonomic synopsis of South American Cyanogomphini Carle with description of Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. from the Cerrado of Brazil (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ângelo Parise; Almeida, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira De

    2016-01-01

    A synopsis of Cyanogomphini Carle, 1986 (sensu Belle 1996), including all species currently under the genera Cyanogomphus Selys, 1873, and Tibiagomphus Belle, 1992, is provided. Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. (Holotype ♂ deposited in DZRJ: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Jaboticatubas municipality, Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, collecting site "Córrego das Pedras" 19°22'17"S, 43°36'03"W, 766 m a.s.l., 12.XII.2011, A.P.M. Santos & D.M. Takiya leg.) is described and illustrated based on four males and two females from Minas Gerais and São Paulo States, southeastern Brazil. The new species is most similar to C. waltheri Selys, 1873, from which it can be distinguished by its smaller size; larger pale areas on mesepisternum; pale dorsal surface of metathoracic tibia; larger distal concavity on epiproct, with laterodistal projection, in lateral view forefinger-shaped; and occurrence in Cerrado province. Five species are recognized in Cyanogomphini, and for each one a synonymy, diagnoses, identification key and maps of distribution are presented. The status of sibling taxa Tibiagomphus uncatus (Fraser, 1947) and T. noval (Rodrigues Capítulo, 1985), as well as the Agriogomphus-complex of genera are also discussed. PMID:27395962

  6. Using Remote Sensing and Random Forest to Assess the Conservation Status of Critical Cerrado Habitats in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Reynolds; Kathryn Wesson; Arnaud L. J. Desbiez; Jose M. Ochoa-Quintero; Peter Leimgruber

    2016-01-01

    Brazil’s Cerrado is a highly diverse ecosystem and it provides critical habitat for many species. Cerrado habitats have suffered significant degradation and decline over the past decades due to expansion of cash crops and livestock farming across South America. Approximately 1,800,000 km2 of the Cerrado remain in Brazil, but detailed maps and conservation assessments of the Cerrado are lacking. We developed a land cover classification for the Cerrado, focusing on the state of Mato Grosso do S...

  7. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-03-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  8. Discrimination And Biophysical Characterization Of Brazilian Cerrado Physiognomies With Eo-1 Hyperspectral Hyperion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoaki; Huete, Alfredo R.; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Sano, Edson E.

    2004-01-01

    The savanna, typically found in the sub-tropics and seasonal tropics, are the dominant vegetation biome type in the southern hemisphere, covering approximately 45% of the South America. In Brazil, the savanna, locally known as "cerrado," is the most intensely stressed biome with both natural environmental pressures (e.g., the strong seasonality in weather, extreme soil nutrient impoverishment, and widespread fire occurrences) and rapid/aggressive land conversions (Skole et al., 1994; Ratter et al., 1997). Better characterization and discrimination of cerrado physiognomies are needed in order to improve understanding of cerrado dynamics and its impact on carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Brazilian cerrado biome. Satellite remote sensing have been known to be a useful tool for land cover and land use mapping (Rougharden et al., 1991; Hansen et al., 2000). However, attempts to discriminate and classify Brazilian cerrado using multi-spectral sensors (e.g., Landsat TM) and/or moderate resolution sensors (e.g., NOAA AVHRR NDVI) have often resulted in a limited success due partly to small contrasts depicted in their multiband, spectral reflectance or vegetation index values among cerrado classes (Seyler et al., 2002; Fran a and Setzer, 1998). In this study, we aimed to improve discrimination as well as biophysical characterization of the Brazilian cerrado physiognomies with hyperspectral remote sensing. We used Hyperion, the first satellite-based hyperspectral imager, onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) platform.

  9. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  10. GRUPO DE ESTUDOS DE HISTÓRIA DO CONHECIMENTO DA ENFERMAGEM E SAÚDE (GEHCES): PRODUÇÃO DE CONHECIMENTO NA PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO STRICTO SENSU

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Costa; Miriam Süsskind Borenstein; Maria Itayra Padilha

    2013-01-01

    El Grupo de Estudios de Historia del Conocimiento de la Enfermería y Salud, vinculado al Programa de Postgrado en Enfermería de la Universidad Federal de Santa Catarina, produce conocimiento sobre este tema en los últimos quince años. Se trata de una investigación documental con el objetivo de analizar las disertaciones de maestría y tesis de doctorado de este grupo, en el período de 1995 a 2010. Fueron producidas 23 disertaciones de maestría y 12 tesis de doctorado. El grupo contribuye con l...

  11. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto ospC Alleles Associated with Human Lyme Borreliosis Worldwide in Non-Human-Biting Tick Ixodes affinis and Rodent Hosts in Southeastern United States

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Hönig, Václav; Mallátová, N.; Krbková, L.; Mikulášek, P.; Fedorovova, N.; Belfiore, N. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Lane, R. S.; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 5 (2013), s. 1444-1453. ISSN 0099-2240 Grant ostatní: NIH(US) R37AI-24899 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : North America * disease spirochete * genetic diversity * Europe * transmission Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.952, year: 2013

  12. Sinopse taxonômica de Boraginaceae sensu lato A. Juss. no Estado de Alagoas, Brasil Taxonomic synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato A. Juss. in Alagoas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no tratamento sinóptico da família Boraginaceae sensu lato no Estado de Alagoas, Nordeste do Brasil. Foram encontrados três gêneros e 23 espécies: Cordia, com 13 espécies e Heliotropium e Tournefortia, representados por cinco espécies cada. São fornecidas chaves para o reconhecimento de gêneros e espécies, bem como ilustrações, dados de distribuição e hábitat.This work consists of a synoptic treatment for the family Boraginaceae sensu lato in Alagoas state, located in Northeast Brazil. Three genera and 23 species were found: Cordia with 13 species, Heliotropium and Tournefortia with five species each. Keys for determining genera and species are given, as well as illustrations, distribution data and habitat.

  13. Use of LANDSAT images to study cerrado vegetation. [Mato Grosso Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Channel 5 and 7 LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000 made during passes in the dry and rainy seasons were used to select the optimal season for cerrado characterization in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The study area is located around the cities of Campo Grande and Tres Lagoas, a region being used for reforestation and rangeland activities. Imagery acquired during the dry season permitted a good discrimination between "cerrado" (woodsy pasture) vegetation and reforestation. In relation to the altered areas, only the recently modified area presented good discrimination of cerrado vegetation. Imagery of the rainy season did not provide a reasonable separation between cerrado and reforestation areas but the altered area could be easily discriminated.

  14. [Social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) diversity in a cerrado vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de M Santos, Gilberto M; da Cruz, Jucelho D; Marques, Oton M; Gobbi, Nivar

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the social wasps species diversity in a cerrado vegetation at the west region of the State of Bahia. Nineteen species of social wasps were found, with Chartergus globiventris de Saussure, Chartergellus communis Richards and Metapolybia cingulata (Fabricius) being recorded for the first time for the State of Bahia. The arboreous cerrado showed a higher species richness (S=19) and diversity (H'=2.33) than the agroecossistems (farms) (S=8; H'=1,84). However, nest abundance was higher at the agroecossystems (N=107 nests) than at the arboreous cerrado (N=87 nests). The physiognomy of 'cerrado campo sujo' showed the lowest abundance of social wasps colonies (N=61 nests) and intermediate values of species richness (S=13) and diversity (H'=2.20). PMID:19618045

  15. Genetic potential of half-sib families of popcorn for cerrado area from southern Tocantins State

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo André Colombo; Aurélio Vaz-de-Melo; Markus Taubinger; Wilma Dias Santana; Júlio Cesar DoVale

    2014-01-01

    The existence of high genetic variability in the tropical germplasm popcorn, suggests the possibility of breeding for productivity and popping expansion. It is known that the cerrado area from Tocantins State presents favorable conditions for the exploration of this culture, the aim of this study to evaluate the genetic potential of families of 40 half-sib of popcorn in conditions of the cerrado area from Tocantins State. Thus, were recombined two brands of popcorn, Produtos Paulista an...

  16. On the margins of soy farms : traditional populations and selective environmental policies in the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Eloy, Ludivine; Aubertin, Catherine; Toni, Fabiano; Lucio, Silvia; Bosgiraud, Marion

    2015-01-01

    In the Cerrado, the expansion of soybean cultivation since the 1990s has coincided with the strengthening of environmental regulations. We analyze how the two main environmental policies - Protected Areas and the Forest Code - have played out at the ground level in western Bahia state. These policies in Cerrado have not been designed to curb the expansion of this agricultural frontier. These norms have, on the contrary, accommodated this expansion because the way environmental managers select...

  17. ANALYSIS OF PROJECT ABOUT CERRADO FRUITS DEVELOPED WITH STUDENTS FROM TWO PUBLIC SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, D. B.; Costa, L. T.; C. P. O. F. Melo; A. G. Souza; E. M. Garcia; H. A. Taroco; J. O. F. Melo

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado has enormous diversity featuring a large number of fruit native plants that have a high nutritional value and distinctive flavor. This work belongs to an extension program of Cerrado fruits, where two species stand out in this region: Cagaita tree (Eugenia dysenterica DC) and Pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense). The same was done in a neighborhood located near the Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei, Campus of Sete Lagoas - MG and developed in two municipal schools, wit...

  18. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Francinaldo S Silva

    2012-01-01

    The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees wer...

  19. Growth and maturation of pequi fruit of the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the development of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense of the Brazilian cerrado. It takes 84 days (12 weeks for pequi to develop with the onset of flowering in September and early fruit set in January. Pequi fruit showed a simple sigmoid growth curve, and its growth was characterized based on fresh mass and longitudinal and transverse diameters. The contents of titratable acidity, soluble solids, β-carotene, and vitamin C increased during fruit growth, reaching their maximum values at the 12th week (84 days after anthesis. Pequi is a fruit with an extremely high respiratory activity; its respiratory rate decreased during its development. Pequi fruit has been classified as a non-climacteric fruit due to the decrease of both respiration and ethylene production rates during maturation and ripening.

  20. Remote Sensing for Mapping Soybean Crop in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, K.; Bernardes, T.; Mello, M. P.; Formaggio, A.; Rosa, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The soybean expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado has been strongly affected by internal and external markets. The main factors driving that expansion are the climatic conditions, the development of technologies and genetic improvement. Recent studies have shown that the soybean expansion has become a major cause of reduction of native vegetation in Mato Grosso State - Brazil, responding for 17% of deforestation from 2000 to 2004. This work aims to map soybean areas in the Brazilian Cerrado in Mato Grosso State, using MODIS data. Thirteen MODIS images (MOD13 - 16 days composition), acquired from September, 2005 to March, 2006, were used to run principal component analysis (PCA) in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data. The first three components (PC1, PC2 and PC3), which contained about 90% of data variability were segmented and utilized as input for an unsupervised classification using the ISOSEG classifier, implemented in the SPRING software. Eighty field work points were randomly selected for the accuracy assessment. An intersection between the soybean map and a map generated by the "Project Monitoring Deforestation of Brazilian Biomes Satellite - PMDBBS", which aimed at identifying anthropic areas, was conducted in order to evaluate the distribution of soybeans within those areas. Moreover a soil map was used in order to evaluate the soybean distribution over the classes of soil. The classification result presented overall index of 83% and the kappa coefficient of 0.64 for the soybean map, which presented a total soybean area of about 42,317 square kilometers. Furthermore, it was verified that 27% of anthropic area was covered by soybean. In relation to the soil analysis, 87% of the total soybean area was planted in Oxisoils. Despite the economic gain related to the soybean production, an adequate management is needed to avoid soil acidification, soil erosion and pollution, aiming at providing a sustainable environment.

  1. Ability to cause erythema migrans differs between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Tijsse-Klasen (Ellen); N. Pandak (Nenad); P. Hengeveld (Paul); K. Takumi (Katsuhisa); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); H. Sprong (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The variety of characteristic and non-specific clinical manifestations is partially explained by its genetic diversity. We investigated the ability of B. burgdorferi sl isolates to cause eryth

  2. Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Wilking, Hendrik; Fingerle, Volker; Klier, Christiane; Thamm, Michael; Stark, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    To assess Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the cause of Lyme borreliosis) seropositivity in Germany, we tested serum samples from health survey (2008–2011) participants. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among women and 13.0% among men; infection risk was highest among persons >60 years of age. Public health interventions, including education about risk factors and preventive measures, are needed.

  3. Mangrove Hercostomus sensu lato (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) of Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.; Yang, D; Grootaert, P.

    2008-01-01

    Seven new species of Hercostomus sensu lato are described from mangrove habitats in Singapore: H. brevidigitalis, new species, H. brevicornis, new species, H. lanceolatus, new species, H. limosus, new species, H. meieri, new species, H. plumatus, new species, and H. singaporensis, new species. A key is given to identify the mangrove Hercostomus of Singapore.

  4. Taxonomic notes on the Geastraceae, Tulostomataceae, Nidulari- aceae and Sphaerobolaceae (Gasteromycetes) sensu Bottomley, in southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Coetzee; Eicker, A.; A. E. van Wyk

    1997-01-01

    Bottomley’s (1948) Gasteromycetes of South Africa is still widely used for identification purposes. However, as a result of developments since 1948, the work has become outdated in many respects. Entries in the Geastreae (Lycoperdaceae), Tulostomataceae, Nidulariaceae and Sphaerobolaceae  sensu Bottomley (1948) that require updating are listed and brieflycommented on.

  5. Impact of land-use change in the net radiation of the Cerrado of the southern Mato Grosso

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Alves Fausto; Lucas Peres Angelini; Heloisa Oliveira Marques; Armando Silva Filho; Nadja Gomes Machado; Marcelo Sacardi Biudes

    2016-01-01

    Changes resulting from land use and occupation modify the surface radioactive balance. This paper evaluated the impact on the net radiation caused by the conversion of a Cerrado area in an agricultural zone in the southern Mato Grosso using Landsat 5 TM sensor imagery acquired between June and October 2011. The analyses were performed of the following land use classes: Cerrado, riparian vegetation, sugarcane, soybean, pasture, bare soil and water. The replacement of Cerrado by agricultural ar...

  6. Desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de jatobazeiro do cerrado em Aquidauana-MS Initial seedling development of "jatobazeiro do cerrado" in Aquidauana, MS

    OpenAIRE

    Edilson Costa; Paulo Ademar Martins Leal; Norton Hayd Rego; Jarbas Benatti

    2011-01-01

    A busca por uma alimentação saudável tem aumentado o consumo de frutas e hortaliças, proporcionando maior aceitação das fruteiras do cerrado no mercado. Visando à obtenção de mudas de qualidade, este trabalho avaliou a formação de mudas do jatobazeiro-do-cerrado em diferentes ambientes protegidos e substratos, na UEMS, Aquidauana, no período de novembro de 2008 a março de 2009. Foram utilizados três ambientes protegidos: estufa plástica de polietileno transparente, viveiro de tela de sombream...

  7. Germination of seeds from herbaceous plants artificially stored in cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASSAKI R. M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination of three cerrado herbaceous species: Bidens gardneri, Vernonia herbacea (Asteraceae and Psychotria barbiflora (Rubiaceae was studied using seeds stored in cerrado soil and in refrigerator at 4°C. The field experiment was carried out at a preserved area of cerrado, the Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Mogi-Guaçu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The soil was collected in the same cerrado where the experiment was carried out. The achenes of Bidens gardneri are light sensitive, but this sensitivity disappeared when the achenes were stored in soil. With 3 months storage in cerrado soil no differences in germination in light or darkness were detected. The number of intact achenes retrieved from storage in soil decreased with increasing time of storage. A large number of seeds had already germinated during the 3 months storage in soil. The longevity of seeds of this species stored for nearly 10 years at 4°C was checked: the achenes were viable for a long period of time but less than 10 years. Intact achenes of Vernonia herbacea could be retrieved from the soil only with 1 month storage. Germination was always very low and only 15% of the achenes possessed embryos. The number of intact seeds of Psychotria barbiflora decreased the longer the period of storage in soil. Germination of seeds stored at 4°C or in the soil was always very low. From the germination studies of stored seeds in cerrado it can be concluded that Vernonia herbacea does not form a seed bank and Bidens gardneri and Psychotria barbiflora may form a temporary seed bank in cerrado.

  8. Identifying hydrological responses of micro-catchments under contrasting land use in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. B. Nobrega

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the Brazilian Cerrado biome has been affected by intense land-use change, particularly the conversion of natural forest to agricultural land. Understanding the environmental impacts of this land-use change on landscape hydrological dynamics is one of the main challenges in the Amazon agricultural frontier, where part of the Brazilian Cerrado biome is located and where most of the deforestation has occurred. This study uses empirical data from field measurements to characterize controls on hydrological processes from three first-order micro-catchments 2 in the Cerrado biome. These micro-catchments were selected on the basis of predominant land use including native cerrado vegetation, pasture grass with cattle ranching, and cash crop land. We continuously monitored precipitation, streamflow, soil moisture, and meteorological variables from October 2012 to September 2014. Additionally, we determined the physical and hydraulic properties of the soils, and conducted topographic surveys. We used these data to quantify the water balance components of the study catchments and to relate these water fluxes to land use, catchment physiographic parameters, and soil hydrophysical properties. The results of this study show that runoff coefficients were 0.27, 0.40, and 0.16 for the cerrado, pasture, and cropland catchments, respectively. Baseflow is shown to play a significant role in streamflow generation in the three study catchments, with baseflow index values of more than 0.95. The results also show that evapotranspiration was highest in the cerrado (986 mm yr−1 compared to the cropland (828 mm yr−1 and the pasture (532 mm yr−1. However, discharges in the cropland catchment were unexpectedly lower than that of the cerrado catchment. The normalized discharge was 55 % higher and 57 % lower in the pasture and cropland catchments, respectively, compared with the cerrado catchment. We attribute this finding to the differences in soil

  9. Fraccionamientos Cerrados Residenciales, Productores de Inseguridad Urbana Subjetiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Galaviz Mosqueda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Independientemente del tamaño, de la importancia o las particularidades de las ciudades y sus sociedades, las condiciones de aislamiento y encerramiento sociourbano de los fraccionamientos cerrados residenciales de clase alta enfatizan aspectos subjetivos de inseguridad urbana como percepción de riesgo, imaginarios del miedo y sentimientos de inseguridad. Con método descriptivo-correlacional o estrategia no experimental mixta, este estudio muestra el impacto de lo mencionado en la vida cotidiana de sus habitantes. Este hecho acentúa dicotomías sociourbanas que incrementan el miedo al otro diferente y al territorio desconocido, modifica significados tradicionales atribuidos al concepto de inseguridad urbana, supera procesos formales de seguridad y traspasa fronteras, jerarquías de ciudad y tipologías de sociedades. Todo esto afecta las estructuras psicosociales de sus residentes, abona la cultura del miedo, consolida una espiral ascendente de inseguridad urbana, imprime universalidad en la relación entre aspectos subjetivos de inseguridad urbana y la manera en que se vive, conforma el territorio y estructura el espacio urbano.

  10. Plants from Brazilian Cerrado with potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro Souza

    Full Text Available The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05 tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC₅₀ value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC₅₀ value of 13.14 µg/mL. Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations.

  11. Establishment of a minor groove binder-probe based quantitative real time PCR to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and differentiation of Borrelia spielmanii by ospA-specific conventional PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strube Christina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes as vector. For identification of Borrelia infections in ticks a TaqMan™ minor groove binder (MGB probe-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR was established targeting the 5S-23S intergenic spacer. Extension to a duplex qPCR included an Ixodes spp. positive control to verify successful DNA isolation. Besides qPCR, an ospA-specific conventional PCR for species-specific identification of B. spielmanii was established. Afterwards 1000 I. ricinus flagged in the city of Hanover, Germany, were investigated for B. burgdorferi sl infections followed by species identification. Furthermore, I. hexagonus ticks were investigated to proof applicability of the PCRs. Results Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR identifying B. burgdorferi sl in ticks was able to detect 1-10 copies per reaction. B. spielmanii ospA-specific conventional PCR was also highly specific and showed no cross reactions with the other tested Borrelia species. From 1000 hanoveranian ticks 24.3% were positive compared to only 7.4% positives by dark-field microscopy. Related to tick stage 1.7% larvae, 18.1% nymphs, and 34.6% adults were positive. The most frequent species was B. garinii, followed by B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, B. valaisiana and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss. 70.6% of I. ricinus were mono-infected, whereas 28.0% and 1.4% were infected with two and three Borrelia species, respectively. From 232 I. hexagonus collected from hedgehogs in different sites of Germany, qPCR detected 5.7% to be infected with B. burgdorferi sl, which were identified as B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. spielmanii. Conclusions The evaluated qPCR to detect B. burgdorferi sl in Ixodes spp. is highly specific and sensitive. As a duplex qPCR including detection of Ixodes spp. DNA it is the first DNA based technique incorporating a control for successful DNA isolation from

  12. Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodidae) in synantropic rodents in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Kathleen Tavares; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha; Antunes, Lidiane Oliveira; Cárcamo, Marcial Corrêa; Vianna, Elvia Elena Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, is responsible for maintaining and transmitting various pathogens, both in animals and human beings, and it is of great sanitary importance. This communication reports the first occurrence of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato parasitizing Rattus norvegicus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and it is also the first record of this tick species parasitizing Rattus rattus in Brazil. The rodents were captured from the port area, located in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We collected 6 larvae of this tick species from 2 male R. rattus individuals, and 3 larvae from 2 female R. norvegicus individuals; parasitized specimens of both rodent species were captured from different sites within the experimental area. This record broadens the number of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato hosts in urban areas, indicating the need for continued monitoring on population density for both R. sanguineus and synanthropic rodents. PMID:25054514

  13. Isolation, cultivation, and in vitro susceptibility testing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veinović Gorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. The agents of Lyme borreliosis are borrelia, bacteria of the family Spirochaetaceae, which are grouped in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex. Borreliae are fastidious, slow-growing and biochemically inactive bacteria that need special attention and optimal conditions for cultivation. The isolation of Borrelia from clinical material and their cultivation is a time-consuming and demanding procedure. Cultivation lasts from 9 up to 12 weeks, which is much longer than is necessary to grow most other human bacterial pathogens. Although B. burgdorferi sensu lato is susceptible to a wide range of antimicrobial agents in vitro, up to now the susceptibility of individual Borrelia species to antibiotics is defined only partially. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175011

  14. First Isolation and Cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato from Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, J H; Kollars, T. M.; Chandler, F W; James, A. M.; Masters, E. J.; Lane, R S; Huey, L. O.

    1998-01-01

    Five Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from Missouri are described. This represents the first report and characterization of such isolates from that state. The isolates were obtained from either Ixodes dentatus or Amblyomma americanum ticks that had been feeding on cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) from a farm in Bollinger County, Mo., where a human case of Lyme disease had been reported. All isolates were screened immunologically by indirect immunofluorescence by using monocl...

  15. Coleopteran and Lepidopteran Hosts of the Entomopathogenic Genus Cordyceps sensu lato

    OpenAIRE

    Bhushan Shrestha; Eiji Tanaka; Min Woo Hyun; Jae-Gu Han; Chang Sun Kim; Jong Won Jo; Sang-Kuk Han; Junsang Oh; Gi-Ho Sung

    2016-01-01

    Entomophthoralean and ascomycetous fungi are the two major groups known to parasitize arthropods in almost every terrestrial habitat of the earth. Within Ascomycota, Cordyceps sensu lato is a large genus with more than 400 spp. described on numerous orders of Arthropoda. Among the hosts of Cordyceps, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera are the two major orders. Out of the estimated 200 Cordyceps spp. recorded on coleopteran and lepidopteran hosts, we have documented 92 spp. based on the available info...

  16. Molecular Typing of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato: Taxonomic, Epidemiological, and Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guiqing; Dam, Alje P. van; Schwartz, Ira; Dankert, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the spirochete that causes human Lyme borreliosis (LB), is a genetically and phenotypically divergent species. In the past several years, various molecular approaches have been developed and used to determine the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity within the LB-related spirochetes and their potential association with distinct clinical syndromes. These methods include serotyping, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, rRNA gene res...

  17. Genomic fingerprinting of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    A total of 46 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates that were isolated from patients with Lyme borreliosis and infected animals or were extracted from ticks of the genus Ixodes were analyzed. Large restriction fragment patterns obtained after cleavage of genomic DNAs with MluI were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). To eliminate the contribution of plasmid DNA, only fragments greater than 70 kb were used for the analysis. The results indicated that each of the 14 B. burgd...

  18. Common Ancestry of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Strains from North America and Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Postic, D; Ras, N. Marti; Lane, R S; Humair, P.-F.; Wittenbrink, M. M.; Baranton, G

    1999-01-01

    Ten atypical European Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Borrelia spp.) strains were genetically characterized, and the diversity was compared to that encountered among related Borrelia spp. from North America. Phylogenetic analyses of a limited region of the genome and of the whole genome extend existing knowledge about borrelial diversity reported earlier in Europe and the United States. Our results accord with the evidence that North American and European strains may have a common ancestry.

  19. Padrões espaciais e conservação da diversidade de serpentes do bioma cerrado = Spatial patterns and biodiversity conservation of snakes from Cerrado biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larice de Fátima Couto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Em geral, as tentativas para estabelecer áreas prioritárias para conservação no Cerrado têm sido baseadas em critérios subjetivos. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dados macroecológicos de distribuição de 129 espécies de serpentes distribuídas em 181 células com 1o de latitude/longitude do Cerrado para analisar padrões espaciais na riqueza e propor uma estratégia de conservação para essas espécies. Verificou-se que as cinco variáveis ambientaisanalisadas explicaram apenas 34,65% da variação na riqueza de serpentes do Cerrado. Para seleção de áreas prioritárias utilizando-se procedimentos de otimização, estabeleceu-se que 14 células são necessárias para representar todas as espécies pelo menos uma vez. Também foram incorporados ao modelo os padrões de ocupação humana no Cerrado, visando minimizar conflitos entre desenvolvimento e conservação, e neste caso as células concentram-se principalmente nosudoeste do bioma. Em função da falta geral de conhecimento sobre os padrões mais locais de distribuição de espécies no Cerrado, esses resultados devem ser considerados preliminares. De qualquer modo, o presente estudo, em escala biogeográfica, é importante para estabelecer estratégias metodológicas e para fornecer uma visão ampla dos padrões de diversidade e de que regiões seriam mais importantes para sua conservação. Until recently, the conservation of Cerrado has been neglected andattempts to establish conservation priorities were usually based on subjective criteria. In this paper, macroecological data of distribution of 129 species of snakes in the Cerrado were used to evaluate spatial patterns in species richness and to establish a system of potential areas that preserves all snake species in the region. The five environment variables used as predictors explained only 34.65% of the variance in species richness. In order to establishconservation priorities, optimization procedures were used

  20. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents from Gansu, northwestern China

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    Liu Zengjia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lyme disease is a multi-organ infection disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Lyme disease was first documented in north-east China in 1986. Since then more than 20 provinces in China were confirmed the existence of nature foci of Lyme disease. In the present study, a molecular epidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in rodents from Gansu Province for the first time. Result A total of 140 rodents of 7 species were examined for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. by nested-PCR and culture isolation. The overall infection rate was 22.86%. Two rodent species most frequently trapped were responsible for all positive. 3 strains were isolated from Apodemus agrarius, which belonged to B. garinii, 1 strain isolated from Rattus losea was identified as B. afzelii. Conclusion The study firstly showed the role of rodents in maintaining the pathogen of Lyme disease in the environment from Gansu Province and there existed at least two genotypes of Lyme disease spirochaetes in rodents.

  1. Episodic nitrous oxide soil emissions in Brazilian savanna (cerrado) fire-scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, A. D.; Crill, P. M.; Harriss, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonally burned cerrados of Brazil are the largest savanna-type ecosystem of South America and their contribution to the global atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20) budget is unknown. Four types of fire-scarred cerrado along a vegetation gradient from grassland to forest were investigated during the wet season of 1992/93. The effect of fire and subsequent water additions on epiodic emissions of N2O and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O concentrations were studied for several months. Additionally, the effect on episodic emissions of N2O of nitrate and glucose additions to a cerrado soil after fire and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O mixing ratios were determined. Finally, N2O episodic emissions in cerrado converted to corn, soybean, and pasture fields were investigated during one growing/wet season. Results showed N2O consumption/emission for the four fire-scared savanna ecosystems, for nitrogen and carbon fertilization, and for agriculture/pasture ranging from -0.3 to +0.7, 1.8 to 9.1, and 0.5 to 3.7 g N2O-N ha(exp -1) d(exp -1), respectively. During the wet season the cerrado biome does not appear to be a major source of N2O to the troposphere, even following fire events. However, the results of this study suggest that conversion of the cerrado to high input agriculture, with liming and fertilization, can increase N2O emissions more than ten fold.

  2. Use of Orbital LIDAR in the Brazilian Cerrado Biome: Potential Applications and Data Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Guimarães Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS data availability over the 2 million km2 Cerrado, the Brazilian central savanna biome and one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. Overall, about 2.5 million laser shots, distributed along the seven years of ICESat operation (2003–2009 and comprising three major seasonal domains, were acquired, from which, 206,026 and 176,035 screened footprints are coincident with the remnant vegetation and cultivated pasture areas (the dominant land-use form in the Cerrado. Although these points are well distributed over the entire Cerrado, the ICESat track data collection results in substantial data gaps. In relation to the 15,612 Cerrado watersheds (6th order Otto basin system, 8,369 and 4,415 watersheds are completely deprived of data points over their remnant vegetation and pasture covers, respectively. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR availability was also evaluated in relation to specific targets of interest, including both fully-protected conservation units as well as areas impacted by fire and deforestation. In spite of the very few occurrences, our assessments indicate that enough LIDAR data is available for retrieving structural and functional properties of a variety of Cerrado physiognomies, as well as to assess how these physiognomies respond to anthropogenic induced changes. In fact, the comprehensive data availability analysis conducted in this study corroborate the potential of GLAS LIDAR waveforms for the retrieval of biophysical properties at both local and regional scales, particularly concerning remnant carbon stocks and pasture conditions, key information for the conservation of the fast-changing and severely threatened Cerrado.

  3. Un operador compacto en un subconjunto cerrado de h2 1 (sn)

    OpenAIRE

    Granados, Claudia; Olaya, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo consideramos el problema de la existencia deuna subsucesión convergente de una sucesión en un subconjunto cerrado del espacio de Hilbert H2 1 (Sn). Más precisamente, demostramos que cierta funcional Jp Fréchet diferenciable en un subconjunto cerrado del espacio de Hilbert H2 1 (Sn) es compacta en un sentido análogo a la condición Palais-Smale usada en espacios de Banach.

  4. Using Landsat 8 Image Time Series for Crop Mapping in a Region of Cerrado, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, H.; Sanches, I. D.; Körting, T. S.; Fonseca, L. M. G.; Luiz, A. J. B.; Formaggio, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to classify agricultural land use in a region of the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) biome using a time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from Landsat 8 OLI. Phenological metrics extracted from EVI time series, a Random Forest algorithm and data mining techniques are used in the process of classification. The area of study is a region in the Cerrado in a region of the municipality of Casa Branca, São Paulo state, Brazil. The results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of phenological parameters obtained from time series of OLI vegetation indices for agricultural land use classification.

  5. Conserving Biogeography: Habitat Loss and Vicariant Patterns in Endemic Squamates of the Cerrado Hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro L H de Mello

    Full Text Available Little is known about the threat levels and impacts of habitat loss over the Cerrado Squamate fauna. The region is under severe habitat loss due to mechanized agriculture, accelerated by changes in the Brazilian National Forest Code. The Squamate fauna of the Cerrado is rich in endemics and is intrinsically associated with its surrounding microhabitats, which make up a mosaic of phitophysiognomies throughout the region. Herein we evaluate current conservation status of Squamate biogeographic patterns in the Brazilian Cerrado, the single savanna among global biodiversity hotspots. To do so, we first updated point locality data on 49 endemic Squamates pertaining to seven non-random clusters of species ranges in the Cerrado. Each cluster was assumed to be representative of different biogeographic regions, holding its own set of species, herein mapped according to their extent of occurrence (EOO. We then contrasted these data in four different scenarios, according to the presence or absence of habitat loss and the presence or absence of the current protected area (PA cover. We searched for non-random patterns of habitat loss and PA coverage among these biogeographic regions throughout the Cerrado. Finally, with the species EOO as biodiversity layers, we used Zonation to discuss contemporary PA distribution, as well as to highlight current priority areas for conservation within the Cerrado. We ran Zonation under all four conservation scenarios mentioned above. We observed that habitat loss and PA coverage significantly differed between biogeographic regions. The southernmost biogeographic region is the least protected and the most impacted, with priority areas highly scattered in small, disjunct fragments. The northernmost biogeographic region (Tocantins-Serra Geral is the most protected and least impacted, showing extensive priority areas in all Zonation scenarios. Therefore, current and past deforestation trends are severely threatening

  6. Conserving Biogeography: Habitat Loss and Vicariant Patterns in Endemic Squamates of the Cerrado Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Pietro L H; Machado, Ricardo B; Nogueira, Cristiano de C

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the threat levels and impacts of habitat loss over the Cerrado Squamate fauna. The region is under severe habitat loss due to mechanized agriculture, accelerated by changes in the Brazilian National Forest Code. The Squamate fauna of the Cerrado is rich in endemics and is intrinsically associated with its surrounding microhabitats, which make up a mosaic of phitophysiognomies throughout the region. Herein we evaluate current conservation status of Squamate biogeographic patterns in the Brazilian Cerrado, the single savanna among global biodiversity hotspots. To do so, we first updated point locality data on 49 endemic Squamates pertaining to seven non-random clusters of species ranges in the Cerrado. Each cluster was assumed to be representative of different biogeographic regions, holding its own set of species, herein mapped according to their extent of occurrence (EOO). We then contrasted these data in four different scenarios, according to the presence or absence of habitat loss and the presence or absence of the current protected area (PA) cover. We searched for non-random patterns of habitat loss and PA coverage among these biogeographic regions throughout the Cerrado. Finally, with the species EOO as biodiversity layers, we used Zonation to discuss contemporary PA distribution, as well as to highlight current priority areas for conservation within the Cerrado. We ran Zonation under all four conservation scenarios mentioned above. We observed that habitat loss and PA coverage significantly differed between biogeographic regions. The southernmost biogeographic region is the least protected and the most impacted, with priority areas highly scattered in small, disjunct fragments. The northernmost biogeographic region (Tocantins-Serra Geral) is the most protected and least impacted, showing extensive priority areas in all Zonation scenarios. Therefore, current and past deforestation trends are severely threatening biogeographic patterns in

  7. Padrões espaciais e conservação da diversidade de serpentes do bioma cerrado = Spatial patterns and biodiversity conservation of snakes from Cerrado biome

    OpenAIRE

    Larice de Fátima Couto; Levi Carina Terribile; José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho

    2007-01-01

    Em geral, as tentativas para estabelecer áreas prioritárias para conservação no Cerrado têm sido baseadas em critérios subjetivos. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dados macroecológicos de distribuição de 129 espécies de serpentes distribuídas em 181 células com 1o de latitude/longitude do Cerrado para analisar padrões espaciais na riqueza e propor uma estratégia de conservação para essas espécies. Verificou-se que as cinco variáveis ambientaisanalisadas explicaram apenas 34,65% da vari...

  8. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo; Edgley Soares da Silva; João Luiz Lopes Monteiro Neto; Luciana Baú Trassato; Roberto Dantas de Medeiros; Dilacy Sales Porto

    2015-01-01

    Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Bo...

  9. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.; Arruda, Sandra F.

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  10. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart, Brazil’s Native Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD. Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  11. Atributos físicos, químicos e biológicos de um Latossolo de cerrado em plantio de espécies florestais Physical, chemical and biological attributes of a cerrado Oxisol under different forest species

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Gomes da Silva; Iêda de Carvalho Mendes; Fábio Bueno Reis Junior; Marcelo Ferreira Fernandes; José Teodoro de Melo; Eiyti Kato

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto de plantios florestais nos atributos físicos, químicos e biológicos de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo de cerrado. Amostras de solo foram coletadas à profundidade de 0 a 10 cm, em áreas cultivadas há mais de 20 anos com pínus (Pinus tecunumanii), eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis) ou carvoeiro (Sclerolobium paniculatum). Uma área adjacente de cerrado nativo foi incluída como referência do solo original. Foram observados, em relação ao cerrado, aumento...

  12. Macroecologia de mamíferos neotropicais com ocorrência no Cerrado Macroecology of neotropical mammals with occurrence in the brazilian "Cerrado"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiber Marquez Vieira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The macroecological approach has been used recently to analyze correlations between ecological variables in large taxonomic groups, at continental scales. A positive relationship between body weight and geographic range size has been described as a poligonal space envelope form, that can be explained by ecological and evolutionary constraints. However, these variables can be disturbed by spatial and phylogenetic autocorrelation effects. In this work, the relationship between body weight and geographic range size was analyzed for 80 species of Neotropical mammals present in the Brazilian "cerrado". Spatial and taxonomic effects were tested using a linear trend surface analysis and an ANOVA (at level of order, combined in a generalized model. Around 61% of variation in geographic range size and 69% of variation in body weight in mammals of the "cerrado" can be explained simultaneously by spatial and taxonomic effects. The analysis of residuals of the generalized model showed that positive correlation between variables persist even after removing these effects. Thus, variation and covariation of traits in the mammals of the brazilian "cerrado" agree with the general macroecological pattern proposed for another taxonomic groups such as mammals, birds and snakes worldwilde.

  13. Molecular epidemiology and in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of 108 clinical Cryptococcus neoformans sensu lato and Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato isolates from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ferry; Hare Jensen, Rasmus; Meis, Jacques F; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2016-09-01

    Cryptococcosis is mainly caused by members of the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complexes. Here, we report the molecular characterisation and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Danish clinical cryptococcal isolates. Species, genotype, serotype and mating type were determined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting and qPCR. EUCAST E.Def 7.2 MICs were determined for amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole and isavuconazole. Most isolates were C. neoformans (serotype A; n = 66) and belonged to genotype AFLP1/VNI (n = 61) or AFLP1B/VNII (n = 5) followed by Cryptococcus deneoformans (serotype D; genotype AFLP2, n = 20), C. neoformans × C. deneoformans hybrids (serotype AD; genotype AFLP3, n = 13) and Cryptococcus curvatus (n = 2). Six isolates were C. gattii sensu lato, and one isolate was a C. deneoformans × C. gattii hybrid (genotype AFLP8). All isolates were amphotericin B susceptible. Flucytosine susceptibility was uniform MIC50 of 4-8 mg l(-1) except for C. curvatus (MICs >32 mg l(-1) ). Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato isolates were somewhat less susceptible to the azoles. MICs of fluconazole (>32 mg l(-1) ), voriconazole (≥0.5 mg l(-1) ) and isavuconazole (0.06 and 0.25 mg l(-1) respectively) were elevated compared to the wild-type population for 1/19 C. deneoformans and 1/2 C. curvatus isolates. Flucytosine MIC was elevated for 1/61 C. neoformans (>32 mg l(-1) ). Antifungal susceptibility revealed species-specific differential susceptibility, but suggested acquired resistance was an infrequent phenomenon. PMID:27061834

  14. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Nisgoski, Silvana; Oliveira, Julia S; Marcati, Carmen R; Ballarin, Adriano W; Muñiz, Graciela I B

    2016-05-13

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself. PMID:27192198

  15. The water balance components of undisturbed tropical woodlands in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforestation of the Brazilian cerrado region has caused major changes in hydrological processes. These changes in water balance components are still poorly understood but are important for making land management decisions in this region. To better understand pre-deforestation conditions, we determi...

  16. Occurrence of invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in a Cerrado ecosystem in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity of microorganisms in natural environments is threatened worldwide by human activities. In a protected area of Cerrado, Goiás State, Brazil, naturally occurring invertebrate-pathogenic fungi were isolated from soils, slurries and water samples collected during the dry season in 2...

  17. Curve number estimation from Brazilian Cerrado rainfall and runoff data 2274

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Curve Number (CN) method has been widely used to estimate runoff from rainfall events in Brazil, however, CN values for use in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) are poorly documented. In this study we used experimental plots to measure natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff under undisturbed Cerr...

  18. Prevalence and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidians from three distinct cerrado habitats in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara O Belo

    Full Text Available Habitat alteration can disrupt host-parasite interactions and lead to the emergence of new diseases in wild populations. The cerrado habitat of Brazil is being fragmented and degraded rapidly by agriculture and urbanization. We screened 676 wild birds from three habitats (intact cerrado, disturbed cerrado and transition area Amazonian rainforest-cerrado for the presence of haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus to determine whether different habitats were associated with differences in the prevalence and diversity of infectious diseases in natural populations. Twenty one mitochondrial lineages, including 11 from Plasmodium and 10 from Haemoproteus were identified. Neither prevalence nor diversity of infections by Plasmodium spp. or Haemoproteus spp. differed significantly among the three habitats. However, 15 of the parasite lineages had not been previously described and might be restricted to these habitats or to the region. Six haemosporidian lineages previously known from other regions, particularly the Caribbean Basin, comprised 50-80% of the infections in each of the samples, indicating a regional relationship between parasite distribution and abundance.

  19. Approche d'un grand espace: la maille municipale des Cerrados brésiliens

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    Philippe WANIEZ

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available L'espace des Cerrados brésiliens est en cours de colonisation. Le système d'information SISECSO facilite l'analyse des transformations économiques et sociales de ce territoire. Le film de la formation de la maille municipale est une première approche originale.

  20. Seed germination and seedling growth of two Pseudobombax species (Malvaceae) with contrasting habitats from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Rodrigues, Clesnan; Oliveira, Paulo Eugênio; Ranal, Marli Aparecida

    2011-12-01

    Pseudobombax tomentosum and P. longiflorum are common trees in the Cerrado region, but the former species is more common in forest edges while the later is present in open cerrado areas. This work aimed to investigate differences in seed germination and seedling growth in these species, from seed collected from Cerrado areas in Central Brazil. For this, a seed germination experiment was designed and included four replicates with 25 seeds per species; seeds were randomly distributed in the germination chamber. To evaluate initial seedling growth, seedlings height was measured up to 67 days after seedling emergence; besides, some of these seedlings were grown for biomass evaluation during nine months. Results showed that seeds of the two species had the same germinability (near 100%) and mean germination time (ca. 12 days). However, P. longiflorum showed a more spread seed germination through time, with higher values of coefficient of variation in germination time and uncertainty index; and lower values of synchronization than P. tomentosum. The two species showed basically the same growth pattern, but lower values for height of apical meristem, diameter of underground structures (mostly roots), dry mass of shoots, underground structure and total mass of seedlings in P. tomentosum were obtained, compared to P. longiflorum. Both species allocated more dry mass to underground structures in detriment of shoot. This probably allows resprouting behavior which prevents hydric stress and detrimental fire action typical of the open Cerrado areas. PMID:22208102

  1. Evaluation of three methods for sampling ground-dwelling Ants in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Cauê T; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the efficiency of methods for sampling ants, especially in regions with highly variable vegetation physiognomies such as the Cerrado region of central Brazil. Here we compared three methods to collect ground-dwelling ants: pitfall traps, sardine baits, and the Winkler litter extractor. Our aim was to determine which method would be most appropriate to characterize the ant assemblages inhabiting different vegetation types. More species were collected with pitfall traps and with the Winkler extractor than with sardine baits. Pitfall traps collected more species in the cerrado (savanna) physiognomies, particularly in those with a poor litter cover, whereas the Winlker extractor was more efficient in the forest physiognomies, except the one subject to periodic inundations. There was a low similarity in species composition between forest and cerrado physiognomies, and this pattern was detected regardless of the method used to sampling ants. Therefore, even the use of a single, relatively selective method of collection can be enough for studies comparing highly distinct habitats and/or conditions. However, if the purpose of the sampling is to produce a more thoroughly inventory of the ant fauna, we suggest the use of a combination of methods, particularly pitfall traps and the Winkler extractor. Therefore, the Ants of the Leaf-Litter (ALL) Sampling Protocol appear to be an adequate protocol for sampling ants in the highly-threatened Brazilian cerrado biome. PMID:18813741

  2. First record of Mesoclemmys tuberculata (Reptilia, Testudines, Chelidae) in the Cerrado area of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Lima Silveira; Raquel Valinhas e Valinhas

    2010-01-01

    Mesoclemmys tuberculata is a turtle species that is distributed in northeastern Brazil, recorded mainly in the Caatinga and at some localities in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. In this paper we report the first species record in an area of Cerrado of Minas Gerais state, and it is the only known state record in a specific location. During field sampling, a specimen of M. tuberculata was collected in the municipality of João Pinheiro, northwest state, in a Cerrado nuclear area in the São Fran...

  3. Identifying hydrological responses of micro-catchments under contrasting land use in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, R. L. B.; Guzha, A. C.; Torres, G. N.; Kovacs, K.; Lamparter, G.; Amorim, R. S. S.; Couto, E.; Gerold, G.

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, the Brazilian Cerrado biome has been affected by intense land-use change, particularly the conversion of natural forest to agricultural land. Understanding the environmental impacts of this land-use change on landscape hydrological dynamics is one of the main challenges in the Amazon agricultural frontier, where part of the Brazilian Cerrado biome is located and where most of the deforestation has occurred. This study uses empirical data from field measurements to characterize controls on hydrological processes from three first-order micro-catchments cattle ranching, and cash crop land. We continuously monitored precipitation, streamflow, soil moisture, and meteorological variables from October 2012 to September 2014. Additionally, we determined the physical and hydraulic properties of the soils, and conducted topographic surveys. We used these data to quantify the water balance components of the study catchments and to relate these water fluxes to land use, catchment physiographic parameters, and soil hydrophysical properties. The results of this study show that runoff coefficients were 0.27, 0.40, and 0.16 for the cerrado, pasture, and cropland catchments, respectively. Baseflow is shown to play a significant role in streamflow generation in the three study catchments, with baseflow index values of more than 0.95. The results also show that evapotranspiration was highest in the cerrado (986 mm yr-1) compared to the cropland (828 mm yr-1) and the pasture (532 mm yr-1). However, discharges in the cropland catchment were unexpectedly lower than that of the cerrado catchment. The normalized discharge was 55 % higher and 57 % lower in the pasture and cropland catchments, respectively, compared with the cerrado catchment. We attribute this finding to the differences in soil type and topographic characteristics, and low-till farming techniques in the cropland catchment, additionally to the buffering effect of the gallery forests in these catchments

  4. Revisiting phylogenetic diversity and cryptic species of Cenococcum geophilum sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obase, Keisuke; Douhan, Greg W; Matsuda, Yosuke; Smith, Matthew E

    2016-08-01

    The fungus Cenococcum geophilum Fr. (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) is one of the most common ectomycorrhizal fungi in boreal to temperate regions. A series of molecular studies has demonstrated that C. geophilum is monophyletic but a heterogeneous species or a species complex. Here, we revisit the phylogenetic diversity of C. geophilum sensu lato from a regional to intercontinental scale by using new data from Florida (USA) along with existing data in GenBank from Japan, Europe, and North America. The combination of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene resolved six well-supported lineages (87-100 % bootstrap values) that are closely related to each other and a seventh lineage that is phylogenetically distinct. A multi-locus analysis (small subunit (SSU), large subunit (LSU), translational elongation factor (TEF), and the largest and second-largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2)) revealed that the divergent lineage is the sister group to all other known Cenococcum isolates. Isolates of the divergent lineage grow fast on nutrient media and do not form ectomycorrhizas on seedlings of several pine and oak species. Our results indicate that C. geophilum sensu lato includes more phylogenetically distinct cryptic species than have previously been reported. Furthermore, the divergent lineage appears to be a non-mycorrhizal sister group. We discuss the phylogenetic diversity of C. geophilum sensu lato and argue in favor of species recognition based on phylogenetic and ecological information in addition to morphological characteristics. A new genus and species (Pseudocenococcum floridanum gen. et sp. nov.) is proposed to accommodate a divergent and putatively non-mycorrhizal lineage. PMID:26968743

  5. Hydrological impacts of land-use change and agricultural policy in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, M.; Coe, M. T.; Soares-Filho, B.; Ferreira, L. G.; Panday, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change and climate variability are two of the most important forces driving changes to the surface water and energy balance in tropical ecosystems. Our analysis combines satellite-derived data on rainfall (CRU), evapotranspiration (MOD16), soil water storage (GRACE), and land cover (MOD12Q1) to understand the effect of past (2000-2012) land cover changes and climate variability on the water balance of the Brazilian Cerrado (savannah woodlands). Based on these historical relationships, we examine potential future land-use transitions from native Cerrado to pasturelands and mechanized agriculture, using the Brazilian Water Agency's (ANA) 12th order watersheds as our unit of analysis. In the Cerrado, these watersheds constitute nearly 37,500 units (mean area ~5,400 ha) and serve as a useful proxy for property-level land-use decisions. Our future scenarios evaluate the potential ramifications of recent changes in the Brazilian Forest Code, which we estimate may allow for legal deforestation of an additional 40 × 2 million hectares of native Cerrado. Our analysis indicates that historical land-cover changes have already caused a significant decrease in evapotranspiration, leading to a three-fold increase in discharge in small watersheds and a nearly 25% increase in large river basins like the Tocantins-Araguaia. As global demand for agricultural commodities continues to rise, it is likely that large-scale conversion of the Cerrado will continue or accelerate in the coming decade. Our research suggests that the cumulative impact of such large-scale land cover change may shift the water balance sufficiently to alter regional precipitation and deplete groundwater stores. Future research will focus on understanding the potential feedbacks of these large-scale hydrological changes on regional climate and agricultural productivity.

  6. Evidencias de infección por Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez González, Islay

    2012-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de un conjunto de investigaciones realizadas con el propósito de aportar evidencias científicas sobre la presencia de la infección por Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato en Cuba, que incluyó la evaluación de métodos microbiológicos para la detección de esta espiroqueta, la confirmación de la infección en muestras clínicas de pacientes con sospechas clínico-epidemiológicas de enfermedad de Lyme, la estimación de la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra este agent...

  7. Florística do cerrado na Reserva Biológica de Moji Guaçu, SP Floristic of the "cerrado" in the Moji Guaçu Biological Reserve, São Paulo State

    OpenAIRE

    Waldir Mantovani; Fernando Roberto Martins

    1993-01-01

    Foi analisada uma área de 343,42 ha situada em mancha disjunta do cerrado, no Município de Moji Guaçu (Reserva Biológica de Moji Guaçu), São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil (22º15'-16'S e 47º08'-12'W). A área do cerrado estudada apresenta predomínio de fisionomias abertas, que vão do campo cerrado ao cerrado senso restrito. Foram amostradas as plantas vasculares em fase reprodutiva, em dezenove excursões de coletga, com intervalos de 30-45 dias, quando eram anotados dados fenológicos e as formas de ...

  8. The role of gallery forests in the distribution of cerrado mammals O papel das matas de galeria na distribuição dos mamíferos do cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Johnson; Saraiva, P.M.; Coelho, D

    1999-01-01

    The Cerrado biome contains a rich mammal community, with an influence from the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests, principally observed in the gallery forests. In this paper, through literature review, it is shown that the non-volant mammal community of the gallery forests is distinct from the mammal communities of any other physionomy of the Cerrado. Additionally, the gallery forests contain twice as many species common to the rainforests when compared to all the other physiognomies of the C...

  9. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils Conteúdo de radionuclídeos e metais pesados em amostras de fosfogesso, comparativamente ao de solos de cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Vanusa Maria Feliciano Jacomino; Kerley Alberto Pereira de Oliveira; Maria Helena Tirollo Taddei; Maria Célia Siqueira; Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires Carneiro; Marcos Roberto Lopes Nascimento; David Faria da Silva; Jaime Wilson Vargas de Mello

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogysum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a c...

  10. First record of Mesoclemmys tuberculata (Reptilia, Testudines, Chelidae in the Cerrado area of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Lima Silveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoclemmys tuberculata is a turtle species that is distributed in northeastern Brazil, recorded mainly in the Caatinga and at some localities in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. In this paper we report the first species record in an area of Cerrado of Minas Gerais state, and it is the only known state record in a specific location. During field sampling, a specimen of M. tuberculata was collected in the municipality of João Pinheiro, northwest state, in a Cerrado nuclear area in the São Francisco river basin. The locality of this record is the southern and western limits of M. tuberculata’s known distribution, as well as the most inland locality of species record in the Cerrado biome.

  11. Comparative Genomics of Listeria Sensu Lato: Genus-Wide Differences in Evolutionary Dynamics and the Progressive Gain of Complex, Potentially Pathogenicity-Related Traits through Lateral Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Matteo; Caruso, Marta; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Manzari, Caterina; Fraccalvieri, Rosa; Goffredo, Elisa; Latorre, Laura; Miccolupo, Angela; Padalino, Iolanda; Santagada, Gianfranco; Chiocco, Doriano; Pesole, Graziano; Horner, David S; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Historically, genome-wide and molecular characterization of the genus Listeria has concentrated on the important human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and a small number of closely related species, together termed Listeria sensu strictu. More recently, a number of genome sequences for more basal, and nonpathogenic, members of the Listeria genus have become available, facilitating a wider perspective on the evolution of pathogenicity and genome level evolutionary dynamics within the entire genus (termed Listeria sensu lato). Here, we have sequenced the genomes of additional Listeria fleischmannii and Listeria newyorkensis isolates and explored the dynamics of genome evolution in Listeria sensu lato. Our analyses suggest that acquisition of genetic material through gene duplication and divergence as well as through lateral gene transfer (mostly from outside Listeria) is widespread throughout the genus. Novel genetic material is apparently subject to rapid turnover. Multiple lines of evidence point to significant differences in evolutionary dynamics between the most basal Listeria subclade and all other congeners, including both sensu strictu and other sensu lato isolates. Strikingly, these differences are likely attributable to stochastic, population-level processes and contribute to observed variation in genome size across the genus. Notably, our analyses indicate that the common ancestor of Listeria sensu lato lacked flagella, which were acquired by lateral gene transfer by a common ancestor of Listeria grayi and Listeria sensu strictu, whereas a recently functionally characterized pathogenicity island, responsible for the capacity to produce cobalamin and utilize ethanolamine/propane-2-diol, was acquired in an ancestor of Listeria sensu strictu. PMID:26185097

  12. Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of a Novel Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Isolate from a Patient with Lyme Borreliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guiqing; Dam, Alje P. van; Dankert, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato A14S was cultured from a skin biopsy specimen of a patient with erythema migrans in The Netherlands. This isolate had a unique DNA fingerprint pattern compared to 135 other B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. In this study, the isolate A14S was further characterized by protein analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reactivity with various monoclonal antibodies. In addition, the 16S rRNA, ospA, and ospC genes, as w...

  13. Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) in south-western Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton C. Cáceres; Wellington Hannibal; Dirceu R. Freitas; Edson L. Silva; Cassiano Roman; Janaina Casella

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites) and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80) within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23) were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled ...

  14. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda R. Rosa; Arruda, Andréa F.; Egle M. A. Siqueira; Sandra F. Arruda

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotomet...

  15. Organic matter fractions in areas Oxisol under different management systems in Cerrado the State of Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Roni Fernandes Guareschi; Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Adriano Perin

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM), as well as perform the spectroscopic analysis in ultraviolet-visible humic acid in a Oxisol under no-tillage system (NTS) with different years of implementation, and compare them to areas of native cerrado and pasture. Was evaluated five areas namely: native cerrado (CE), planted pasture (PA) with Brachiaria decumbens; NTS with 3 (NTS 3) years of implementation; NTS with 15 years (NTS...

  16. Quality of granola prepared with dried caju-do-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz) and baru almonds (Dipteryx alata Vog)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Priscila Laís C.; Silva, Mara R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of Brazilian Cerrado fruits and research into their nutritional potential are important for socioeconomic development and the sustainable preservation of the environment. The use of these fruits in products such as granola encourages the inclusion of healthier and more-natural foods in the diet. This study was undertaken to evaluate acceptability, microbiological, physical and nutritional characteristics and the stability of granola made from dried caju-do-cerrado and baru almonds. Gr...

  17. First isolation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J H; Kollars, T M; Chandler, F W; James, A M; Masters, E J; Lane, R S; Huey, L O

    1998-01-01

    Five Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from Missouri are described. This represents the first report and characterization of such isolates from that state. The isolates were obtained from either Ixodes dentatus or Amblyomma americanum ticks that had been feeding on cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) from a farm in Bollinger County, Mo., where a human case of Lyme disease had been reported. All isolates were screened immunologically by indirect immunofluorescence by using monoclonal antibodies to B. burgdorferi-specific outer surface protein A (OspA) (antibodies H3TS and H5332), B. burgdorferi-specific OspB (antibody H6831), Borrelia (genus)-specific antiflagellin (antibody H9724), and Borrelia hermsii-specific antibody (antibody H9826). Analysis of the isolates also involved a comparison of their protein profiles by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Finally, the isolates were analyzed by PCR with six pairs of primers known to amplify selected DNA target sequences specifically found in the reference strain B. burgdorferi B-31. Although some genetic variability was detected among the five isolates as well as between them and the B-31 strain, enough similarities were found to classify them as B. burgdorferi sensu lato. PMID:9431909

  18. Circuito cerrado para una industria sostenible, aportaciones del sector cementero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaragoza, A.

    2010-03-01

    de recursos y las emisiones a la atmósfera. El producto debe incorporar características sostenibles tales como la posibilidad de ser reciclado y/o valorizado en algún momento de su ciclo de vida y, así, poder ser reintroducido de nuevo en la actividad industrial. De esta manera, el producto se convierte en la piedra angular de un sistema de producción en “circuito cerrado” que implique a todos los sectores industriales en el concepto de reciclaje de productos y residuos y que minimice la huella del proceso. El sector cementero debe seguir incidiendo en las posibilidades de reciclado de los materiales fabricados con cemento, además de los utilizados propiamente en su fabricación, y, sobre todo, se debe seguir profundizando en la relación entre Ciclo de Vida y reciclaje, lo que proporcionará al sector una metodología y unas herramientas útiles para reducir el impacto ambiental y reforzar sus contribuciones sociales y económicas. Por ello el sector está haciendo esfuerzos para la puesta en marcha de una industria en circuito cerrado en la que se reutilicen materiales y energía, minimizando al máximo su afección en el entorno, a la vez que se está trabajando en una conceptualización de este modelo de producción en cadena, que implique a todos los sectores industriales en el reciclado de materiales. Prueba de este compromiso son los acuerdos firmados con FER y Sigrauto para el aprovechamiento de vehículos fuera de uso y con UNESID para la valorización de residuos siderúrgicos, así como el proyecto Pressure para la gestión integral de residuos industriales.

  19. Phosphogypsum applications in the cerrado agriculture and his radiological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inert, Not Corrosive and Not Reactive. The soil samples analyzed as were acids, with low content of organic matter and high potential acidity. The average of specific activity for 226Ra in phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq.kg-1) was below of the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq.kg-1 for agricultural use. Although the most of the results of mean specific activity of radionuclides present in samples of lettuce present values below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), the Transfer Factors were estimated for those conditions in which the mean specific activity proved to be superior to MDA. The values ranges from 1.8 10-3 to 2.3 10-2 for 232Th; 3.5 10-2 to 4.1 10-2 for 226Ra, 2.4 10-1 to 3.2 10-1 for 228Ra and 3.5 10-2 to 8.5 10-2 for 210Po, depending on the type of soil used in the planting of the vegetables. In general, the results obtained in the present study indicated that the mobility of radionuclides in both studied soils was low. The effective doses committed calculated well below the limit of 1 mSv.year-1 established by ICRP, for the public in general (4,3 10-3 mSv for the experiments in loamy soil and 7,5 10-3 mSv for the experiments in sandy soil). It is possible to conclude that from the point of view of the radiological protection, the data obtained in this work demonstrated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum in agriculture of the Cerrado, Brazil. (author)

  20. Impact of land-use change in the net radiation of the Cerrado of the southern Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alves Fausto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes resulting from land use and occupation modify the surface radioactive balance. This paper evaluated the impact on the net radiation caused by the conversion of a Cerrado area in an agricultural zone in the southern Mato Grosso using Landsat 5 TM sensor imagery acquired between June and October 2011. The analyses were performed of the following land use classes: Cerrado, riparian vegetation, sugarcane, soybean, pasture, bare soil and water. The replacement of Cerrado by agricultural areas changed the biophysical indices of the surface due to the change in biomass and the optical properties of the surface as observed in this study. The NDVI values were higher in the typical Cerrado vegetation and Riparian Forest than in agricultural areas. The surface temperature and the surface albedo showed an inverse pattern of NDVI, with lower values in the typical Cerrado vegetation and Riparian Forest and higher values in agricultural areas and bare soil. The replacement of Cerrado by cultivated crops in the south of Mato Grosso decreased the available energy at the surface, as indicated by the radiation balance.

  1. Levantamento florístico no cerrado de Pedregulho, SP, Brasil Floristic inventory of cerrado at Pedregulho, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Sasaki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Em Pedregulho, município do extremo nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, ocorrem fragmentos de cerrado considerados floristicamente distintos dos demais remanescentes paulistas. Nesse estudo, foi realizado um levantamento florístico em Pedregulho, abordando duas regiões geologicamente distintas: o Parque Estadual das Furnas do Bom Jesus e o distrito de Estreito. Em cada uma, delimitaram-se duas parcelas de 50×50 m, totalizando um hectare, onde foram encontradas 65 famílias e 379 espécies de angiospermas. Coletas em áreas adjacentes totalizaram 71 famílias e 443 espécies. As duas regiões estudadas têm baixa similaridade florística entre si. A distribuição geográfica das espécies é analisada e oito padrões são delimitados para aquelas cuja distribuição no Estado de São Paulo é restrita à região de Pedregulho.Pedregulho municipality in the far northeastern region of São Paulo state has fragments of cerrado vegetation thought to be floristically distinct from other cerrado remmants in the state. In this study, a floristic survey was carried out at Pedregulho, focusing on two geologically distinct regions: Furnas do Bom Jesus State Park and the Estreito district. In each region, 50×50 m plots were set up for a total sample area of 1 hectare, where 65 families and 379 angiosperm species were recorded. Collecting efforts in adjacent areas resulted in a total of 71 families and 443 species. The two study areas had low floristic similarity. Geographic species distribution was analyzed and eight patterns were defined for those species restricted to the Pedregulho region in São Paulo.

  2. Using Remote Sensing and Random Forest to Assess the Conservation Status of Critical Cerrado Habitats in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Reynolds

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s Cerrado is a highly diverse ecosystem and it provides critical habitat for many species. Cerrado habitats have suffered significant degradation and decline over the past decades due to expansion of cash crops and livestock farming across South America. Approximately 1,800,000 km2 of the Cerrado remain in Brazil, but detailed maps and conservation assessments of the Cerrado are lacking. We developed a land cover classification for the Cerrado, focusing on the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, which may also be used to map critical habitat for endangered species. We used a Random Forest algorithm to perform a supervised classification on a set of Landsat 8 images. To determine habitat fragmentation for the Cerrado, we used Fragstats. A habitat connectivity analysis was performed using Linkage Mapper. Our final classification had an overall accuracy of 88%. Our classification produced higher accuracies (72% in predicting Cerrado than existing government maps. We found that remaining Cerrado habitats were severely fragmented. Four potential corridors were identified in the southwest of Mato Grosso do Sul, where large Cerrado patches are located. Only two large patches remain in Mato Grosso do Sul: one within the Kadiwéu Indian Reserve, and one near the southeastern edge of the Pantanal-dominated landscape. These results are alarming for rare species requiring larger tracts of habitat such as the giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus.

  3. Composition and ecological patterns of snake assemblages in an Amazon-Cerrado Transition Zone in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra C. Pinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study encompasses the species composition and ecological characteristics of the snake community in a Cerrado-Amazon transition zone in Midwest of Brazil (state of Mato Grosso. The data were collected during six excursions to the "Tanguro" (study area by visual encounter survey, pitfall traps with drift fences and non-systematic sampling. We collected 194 specimens, distributed in 34 species, 26 genera, and eight families. The most abundant species were Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 50, Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823 (n = 15, Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (n = 13, Xenodon rabdocephalus (Wied, 1824 (n = 12, Lachesis muta (Linnaeus, 1766 (n = 10 and Erythrolamprus almadensis (Wagler, 1824 (n = 10. The composition of species found here represents a combination of Cerrado and Amazonian savanna fauna.

  4. Effects of environmental factors on community structure of Leptophlebiidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Cerrado streams, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S. Brasil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of environmental factors on abundance, species richness, and functional group richness of Leptophlebiidae in 16 sampling points along four Cerrado streams. Across three periods of 2005, we collected 5,492 larvae from 14 species in stream bed substrate. These species belong to three functional feeding groups: scrapers, filtering collectors and shredders. The abundance and species richness were not affected by water quality, but habitat quality related to presence of riparian vegetation had positive effects on the abundance of shredders. Our results add important information on the natural history of the species and functional groups of aquatic insects and also provide relevant data for the monitoring and conservation of streams in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  5. Areas of climate stability of species ranges in the Brazilian Cerrado

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terribile, Levi Carina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza; Bastos Araujo, Miguel;

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the location of climatically stable areas in the future is subjected to uncertainties from ecological niche models, climatic models, variation in species ranges responses, and from the climatic variation through time. Here, we proposed an approach based on hierarchical ANOVA to reduce...... uncertainties and to identify climatically stable areas, working with Cerrado tree species as a model organism. Ecological niche models were generated for 18 Cerrado tree species and their potential distributions were projected into past and future. Analyses of the sources of uncertainties in ensembles...... hindcasts/forecasts revealed that the time component was the most important source of variation, whereas the climatic models had the smallest effect. The species responses to climate changes do not showed marked differences within each time period. By comparing past and future predictions, a single...

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Human Pathogenic Fungus Geomyces pannorum Sensu Lato and Bat White Nose Syndrome Pathogen Geomyces (Pseudogymnoascus) destructans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Jonathan; Nagaraj, Sushma; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2013-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of Geomyces pannorum sensu lato and Geomyces (Pseudogymnoascus) destructans. G. pannorum has a larger proteome than G. destructans, containing more proteins with ascribed enzymatic functions. This dichotomy in the genomes of related psychrophilic fungi is a valuable target for defining their distinct saprobic and pathogenic attributes. PMID:24356829

  7. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus in zoo animal species in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Širmarová, J.; Tichá, L.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Salát, Jiří; Grubhoffer, L.; Rudenko, Natalia; Nowotny, N.; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 523-527. ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Lyme borreliosis * Seroprevalence * Zoo animals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  8. Rodent species as natural reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in different habitats of Ixodes ricinus in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassner, F.; Takken, W.; Plas, C.; Kastelein, P.; Hoetmer, A.J.; Holdinga, M.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2013-01-01

    Rodents are natural reservoirs for human pathogenic spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi complex [B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)], and the pathogens are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans in The Netherlands. B. burgdorferi s.l. infection prevalence in questing ticks, rodents, and ti

  9. A new species of Aximopsis sensu lato Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) parasitic on Euglossa spp. (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Gates

    2009-01-01

    Aximopsis masneri Gates, sp. n., (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae) is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected nests of Euglossa sp. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in the Neotropical region with additional label data indicating E. variabilis and E. cybelia as hosts. It is compared with the nominate species of the nodularis species group of Aximopsis sensu lato to which it belongs.

  10. Genetic structure of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato isolates infecting papaya inferred by multilocus ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Sephra N

    2013-02-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato is widely distributed throughout temperate and tropical regions and causes anthracnose disease in numerous plant species. Development of effective disease management strategies is dependent on, among other factors, an understanding of pathogen genetic diversity and population stratification at the intraspecific level. For 132 isolates of C. gloeosporioides sensu lato collected from papaya in Trinidad, inter-simple-sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR) generated 121 polymorphic loci from five ISSR primers selected from an initial screen of 22 ISSR primers. The mean percentage of polymorphic loci was 99.18%. Bayesian cluster analysis inferred three genetic subpopulations, where group 1 consisted exclusively of isolates collected in the southern part of Trinidad whereas groups 2 and 3, although genetically distinct, were mixtures of isolates collected from both the northern and southern parts of Trinidad. Principal coordinates analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean phylogeny were concordant with Bayesian cluster analysis and supported subdivision into the three subpopulations. Overall, the total mean gene diversity was 0.279, the mean within-population gene diversity was 0.2161, and genetic differentiation for the Trinidad population was 0.225. Regionally, northern isolates had a lower gene diversity compared with southern isolates. Nei's gene diversity was highest for group 1 (h = 0.231), followed by group 2 (h = 0.215) and group 3 (h = 0.202). Genotypic diversity was at or near maximum for all three subpopulations after clone correction. Pairwise estimates of differentiation indicated high and significant genetic differentiation among the inferred subpopulations (Weir's θ of 0.212 to 0.325). Pairwise comparisons among subpopulations suggested restricted gene flow between groups 1 and 2 and groups 1 and 3 but not between groups 2 and 3. The null hypothesis of random mating was rejected

  11. Potential use of zeolites in attenuation water deficit in cerrado latosol

    OpenAIRE

    Samara Martins Barbosa; Geraldo César de Oliveira; Carla Eloize Carducci; Bruno Montoani Silva

    2014-01-01

    The improvements of hydro-physical conditions of the Cerrado Biome soils are extremely important in the view point of agricultural limitations in seasons of poor rainfall distribution and drought period. Against this background, we emphasize the potential use zeolites as soil conditioners, because they are minerals that have large interconnected voids that give them a high degree of hydration with ease to retain and release water. This study aimed to characterize the water retention in dystro...

  12. Composition and ecological patterns of snake assemblages in an Amazon-Cerrado Transition Zone in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leandra C. Pinheiro; Pedro S. Abe; Youszef O. C. Bitar; Luiz P. P. Albarelli; Maria C. Santos-Costa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study encompasses the species composition and ecological characteristics of the snake community in a Cerrado-Amazon transition zone in Midwest of Brazil (state of Mato Grosso). The data were collected during six excursions to the "Tanguro" (study area) by visual encounter survey, pitfall traps with drift fences and non-systematic sampling. We collected 194 specimens, distributed in 34 species, 26 genera, and eight families. The most abundant species were Crotalus durissus...

  13. Sources and sinks of trace gases in Amazonia and the Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M. M. C.; Keller, M.; Silva, D. A.

    Data for trace gas fluxes (NOx, N2O, and CH4) from the Amazon and cerrado region are presented with focus on the processes of production and consumption of these trace gases in soils and how they may be changed because of land use changes in both regions. Fluxes are controlled by seasonality, soil moisture, soil texture, topography, and fine-root dynamics. Compared to Amazonian forests where the rapid cycling of nitrogen supports large emissions of N2O, nitrification rates and soil emissions of N oxide gases in the cerrado region are very low. Several studies report CH4 consumption during both wet and dry seasons in forest soils, but there is occasionally net production of CH4 during the wet season. A few studies suggest an unknown source of CH4 from upland forests. As with N oxide emissions, there are few data on CH4 emissions from cerrado soils, but CH4 consumption occurs during both wet and dry seasons. Clearing natural vegetation, burning, fertilization of agricultural lands, intensive cattle ranching, and increasing dominance by legume species in areas under secondary succession after land conversion have all been identified as causes of increasing N2O and NO emissions from tropical regions. Large uncertainties remain for regional estimates of trace gas fluxes. Improvement of models for the N oxides and CH4 fluxes for Amazonia and the cerrado still depends upon gathering more data from sites more widely distributed across two vast biomes and more importantly on basic theory about the controls of emissions from the ecosystem to the atmosphere.

  14. Resource Selection and Its Implications for Wide-Ranging Mammals of the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L.; Machado, Ricardo B.; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J.; Wasser, Samuel K.

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the wor...

  15. Cryptic lineages and diversification of an endemic anole lizard (Squamata, Dactyloidae) of the Cerrado hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Werneck, Fernanda P; Giugliano, Lilian G; Santos, Marcella G; Fenker, Jéssica; Sousa, Lucas; D'Angiolella, Annelise B; Dos Santos, Adriana R; Strüssmann, Christine; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Dorado-Rodrigues, Tainá F; Gamble, Tony; Colli, Guarino R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is a wide Neotropical savanna with tremendously high endemic diversity. Yet, it is not clear what the prevalent processes leading to such diversification are. We used the Cerrado-endemic lizard Norops meridionalis to investigate the main abiotic factors that promoted genetic divergence, the timings of these divergence events, and how these relate to cryptic diversity in the group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 21 sites of N. meridionalis to generate species tree, divergence time estimations, and estimate species limits. We also performed population-level analysis and estimated distribution models to test the roles of niche conservatism and divergence in the group diversification. We found that N. meridionalis is composed by at least five cryptic species. Divergence time estimations suggest that the deepest branches split back into the early-mid Miocene, when most of the geophysical activity of the Cerrado took place. The deep divergences found in N. meridionalis suggest that beta anoles invaded South America much earlier than previously thought. Recent published evidence supports this view, indicating that the Panama gap closed as early as 15 mya, allowing for an early invasion of Norops into South America. The spatial pattern of diversification within N. meridionalis follows a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent across several species of vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado. Also, we found evidence for non-stationary isolation by distance, which occurs when genetic differentiation depends on space. Our preliminary data in two out of five lineages suggest that niche conservatism is an important mechanism that promoted geographic fragmentation in the group. PMID:26385121

  16. In Vitro Schistosomicidal Activity of Some Brazilian Cerrado Species and Their Isolated Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nayanne Larissa Cunha; Camila Jacintho de Mendonça Uchôa; Lucas Silva Cintra; Herbert Cristian de Souza; Juliana Andrade Peixoto; Claudia Peres Silva; Lizandra Guidi Magalhães; Valéria Maria Meleiro Gimenez; Milton Groppo; Vanderlei Rodrigues; Ademar Alves da Silva Filho; Márcio Luís Andrade e Silva; Wilson Roberto Cunha; Patrícia Mendonça Pauletti; Ana Helena Januário

    2012-01-01

    Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. (Melastomataceae), Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae), Struthanthus syringifolius (Mart.) (Loranthaceae), and Schefflera vinosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) Frodin (Araliaceae) are plant species from the Brazilian Cerrado whose schistosomicidal potential has not yet been described. The crude extracts, fractions, the triterpenes betulin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and the flavonoids quercetin 3-O- β -D-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O- β -D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O- β -D-glucopyran...

  17. Work in Darkness: How Hawk Moth Produce Mangabas (Hancornia speciosa, Apocynaceae) in Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Reisla; Fernando C. V. Zanella; Martins, Celso F.; Antonini, Yasmine; Grieb, Beatrice; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa, Apocynaceae), native to Cerrado in Brazil, is a tropical fruit crop, consumed mainly as juice. Supply, however, does not satisfy the market because mangabas are still harvested mainly in natural populations. Thus, the species has a great potential as future fruit crop. Recently, first experimental mangaba orchards arose in agricultural research stations in northeastern Brazil. We analysed floral biology and breeding systems, determined effective pollinators and...

  18. Human transportation network as ecological barrier for wildlife on Brazilian Pantanal-Cerrado corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Wagner A.; Ramos-Neto, Mario B.; Silveira, Leandro; Jacomo, Anah T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Highway impacts on terrestrial fauna are known as a serious mortality source for several species around the world. Despite the international concerns about this issue, only recently has this question been included in Brazilian policies of transportation. Brazilian Pantanal and Cerrado biomes and corridors are known as two of the broadest wildlife sanctuaries in South America, and their fauna movements has been drastically affected by road development. The last 13 years of road fauna-...

  19. Productivity and nutritional quality of Flechinha grass ( Echinolaena inflexa ), native grass of Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Rocha e Silveira; Rafael Sandin Ribeiro; João Paulo Sacramento; Domingos Sávio Campos Paciullo; Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira; Rogério Martins Maurício

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Due to scarce nutritional data, this study assessed the productivity and nutritional value of Echinolaena inflexa (EI) grass, native to the Cerrado biome. It was compared to B. brizantha (BB), one of the most cultivated grasses in Brazil, during a whole year (rainy; RS and dry season; DS). Sampling was held in accordance with pasture management (entry / exit height; 50 / 5cm and 80 / 25cm for EI and BB, respectively). Dry matter production (DMP), crude protein (CP), neutral and acid...

  20. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), a...

  1. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is Brazil. PMID:26667031

  2. Convergence beyond flower morphology? Reproductive biology of hummingbird-pollinated plants in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Maruyama, P K; Oliveira, P E

    2016-03-01

    Convergent reproductive traits in non-related plants may be the result of similar environmental conditions and/or specialised interactions with pollinators. Here, we documented the pollination and reproductive biology of Bionia coriacea (Fabaceae), Esterhazya splendida (Orobanchaceae) and Ananas ananassoides (Bromeliaceae) as case studies in the context of hummingbird pollination in Cerrado, the Neotropical savanna of Central South America. We combined our results with a survey of hummingbird pollination studies in the region to investigate the recently suggested association of hummingbird pollination and self-compatibility. Plant species studied here differed in their specialisation for ornithophily, from more generalist A. ananassoides to somewhat specialist B. coriacea and E. splendida. This continuum of specialisation in floral traits also translated into floral visitor composition. Amazilia fimbriata was the most frequent pollinator for all species, and the differences in floral display and nectar energy availability among plant species affect hummingbirds' behaviour. Most of the hummingbird-pollinated Cerrado plants (60.0%, n = 20), including those studied here, were self-incompatible, in contrast to other biomes in the Neotropics. Association to more generalist, often territorial, hummingbirds, and resulting reduced pollen flow in open savanna areas may explain predominance of self-incompatibility. But it is possible that mating system is more associated with the predominance of woody hummingbird plants in the Cerrado plant assemblage than to the pollination system itself. PMID:26370490

  3. Bat flies on phyllostomid hosts in the Cerrado region: component community, prevalence and intensity of parasitism

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    Alan Eriksson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Streblidae flies are specialised parasites of bat hosts, mainly phyllostomids. There is a high richness of streblids in the savannah-like Cerrado region; however, there is little quantitative data available in parasitological indices. Here, we describe the component community, prevalence and intensity of a streblid infestation on a phyllostomid bat assemblage in Serra da Bodoquena, a Cerrado region in Southwest Brazil. We conducted surveys by capturing and inspecting bat hosts during the seven-month period between October 2004-December 2005. All the ectoparasites found on the bats were collected in the field and then counted and identified in the laboratory. We captured 327 bats belonging to 13 species, of which eight species were parasitized by 17 species of streblids. Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina were infested with seven streblid species, whereas the other bat species were infested with four or fewer streblid species. Megistopoda proxima and Aspidoptera falcata flies were found on Sturnira lilium, and Trichobius joblingi was the most prevalent fly on C. perspicillata. Megistopoda aranea and Aspidoptera phyllostomatis were highly prevalent and had a high intensity of infestation on Artibeus planirostris. Overall comparisons of the available data suggest that the component communities of streblids vary more between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest phytogeographical regions than between localities within the same phytogeographical region.

  4. Genetic potential of half-sib families of popcorn for cerrado area from southern Tocantins State

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    Gustavo André Colombo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of high genetic variability in the tropical germplasm popcorn, suggests the possibility of breeding for productivity and popping expansion. It is known that the cerrado area from Tocantins State presents favorable conditions for the exploration of this culture, the aim of this study to evaluate the genetic potential of families of 40 half-sib of popcorn in conditions of the cerrado area from Tocantins State. Thus, were recombined two brands of popcorn, Produtos Paulista and Yoki. A randomized block design was used with two replications. At harvest time the traits were measured, mass of grains per ear, grains yield and popping expansion. Were observed significant genetic variability for all traits. The three traits showed gains with selection. Thus, it was found that the half-sib families of popcorn have genetic potential to be exploited in breeding programs for the conditions of the cerrado area from Tocantins State. However, future studies need to be conducted to determine which breeding strategy should provide more significant results.

  5. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

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    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  6. LEAF MICROMOPHOMETRY OF PALICOUREA RIGIDA KUNTH. (RUBIACEAE FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO AND CAMPO RUPESTRE ENVIRONMENTS

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    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate qualitative and quantitative leaf anatomical traits of Palicourea rigida Kunth. (Rubiaceae species occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado and Campo Rupestre ecosystems. Anatomical analysis was performed in fresh or fixed leaves processed with usual plant microtechnique. Leaves showed uniseriate epidermis in petiole and leaf blade which contains uniseriate nonglandular tricomes (tector type occurring only over the vascular bundles. Likewise, paracytic stomata were found only in abaxial side of the leaf surface. The mesophyll contains uniseriate palisade parenchyma and multiseriate spongy parenchyma (nine layers which showed cells with different morphology and size. Crystal idoblasts of different types were observed in both the petiole and leaf blade. Collateral vascular bundles were found both in the petiole and leaf blade. Leaf venation type was pinnate, campylodromous or brochydodromous. The micromorphometric analysis showed significant differences from plants of different environments for all leaf characteristics and Cerrado plants showed higher means for all evaluated traits. Therefore, the influence of environments may had modulated morphological responses in P. rigida, since no difference was found in the type or distribution of leaf tissues in Cerrado or Campo Rupestre.

  7. Coleopteran and Lepidopteran Hosts of the Entomopathogenic Genus Cordyceps sensu lato

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    Bhushan Shrestha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomophthoralean and ascomycetous fungi are the two major groups known to parasitize arthropods in almost every terrestrial habitat of the earth. Within Ascomycota, Cordyceps sensu lato is a large genus with more than 400 spp. described on numerous orders of Arthropoda. Among the hosts of Cordyceps, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera are the two major orders. Out of the estimated 200 Cordyceps spp. recorded on coleopteran and lepidopteran hosts, we have documented 92 spp. based on the available information of their host species. Among coleopteran hosts, Scarabaeidae and Elateridae are the two major families. Similarly, among lepidopterans, Hepialidae is the largest host family. Cordyceps militaris shows the widest host range, extending to 2 orders, 13 families, and 32 spp. We hope such accumulative work will be useful as a quick reference for interested biologists, forest ecologists, biocontrol researchers, and fungal and insect taxonomists to apprehend host range and host specificities of Cordyceps fungi.

  8. A taxonomic revision of the Neoserica (sensu lato calva group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini

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    Wangang Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The species of the Neoserica (sensu lato calva group are revised. Neoserica calva Frey, 1972, comb. n. is redescribed. Thirteen new species are described from China and South Korea: Neoserica ailaoshanica sp. n., N. anonyma sp. n., N. calvoides sp. n., N. gulinqingensis sp. n., N. koelkebecki sp. n., N. liangi sp. n., N. luxiensis sp. n., N. menghaiensis sp. n., N. mengi sp. n., N. taipingensis sp. n., N. zheijangensis sp. n., N. zhibenshanica sp. n., and N. zongyuani sp. n. A key to Sericini genera with multilamellate antenna and species groups of Neoserica of mainland Asia as well as a key to species of the N. calva group are provided. A map of species distribution is given, habitus and male genitalia are illustrated.

  9. Dinâmica das populações bacterianas em solos de Cerrados Dynamic of bacterial populations from Cerrado soils

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    João Carlos Pereira

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos ambientes tropicais, os Cerrados destacam-se pelo seu potencial agrícola. Apesar das funções dos microrganismos no crescimento das plantas e na produtividade das culturas, existem poucas informações dos efeitos resultantes do manejo do solo, na ecologia microbiana. Neste estudo, foram avaliados os efeitos das condições ambientais e das práticas agrícolas sobre as populações bacterianas. As densidades das populações em solos com vegetação nativa foram variáveis e diferenciadas. Em Sete Lagoas, MG, as populações de actinomicetos variaram de 1,7 a 50 X 10(4 UFC/g de solo seco, enquanto em Planaltina as densidades das populações bacterianas em solo com primeiro e segundo ano de cultivo de soja foram semelhantes, mas superiores ao solo com vegetação nativa. A utilização agrícola deste solo não resultou em desequilíbrios acentuados das populações de actinomicetos provenientes de esporos e hifas. As relações esporos/hifas variaram de 1,1 a 5,8. Na rizosfera da soja, os coeficientes de correlação entre as populações de actinomicetos com as demais populações bacterianas foram significativos. Os resultados evidenciam que as práticas agrícolas utilizadas na introdução da cultura da soja em solos de Cerrados pode influenciar o equilíbrio das populações na comunidade bacteriana.Among tropical environments, Cerrados stand out because of its agriculture potencial. Although microorganisms play an important role on soil sustainability and crop production, few information is available on the effects of soil management systems on Cerrado's microbial ecology. In this study the effects of environmental conditions and soil management practices on bacterial populations were evaluated. Bacterial population densities in soil under native vegetation were variable and diferentiated. Actinomycetes densities varied from 1.7 to 50 X 10(4 CFU/g dry soil in Sete Lagoas region, Brazil, whereas bacterial populations in both the

  10. Mapping fire events in the transition of Amazon and Cerrado biome using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Daldegan, G.; Roberts, D. A.; Peterson, S.; Ribeiro, F.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract to AGU Fire is considered one of the determinant factors that have shaped Cerrado biome, the Brazilian Savanna, considered the most biodiverse savanna in the world. At the same time, fire has not acted a major role during the evolution of the Amazon Forest due to the strong capacity it has to resist burning. Recently, with the expansion of the agricultural activities in the central Brazil, about 49% of the Cerrado has been converted to other uses and as deforestation vector runs towards the Amazon Forest it modifies the natural moist microclimate in the edges of the forest, increasing the likelihood of wildfires. Every year these ecosystems suffer with several fire events responsible for large burned areas, causing losses of biomass, biodiversity, soil nutrients, and releasing tons of CO2 that help climate change. The occurrence of fires has a direct relationship with the climate of the central portion of the south american continent, charaterized by a two seasons regime, wet and dry, each one lasting around 6 months. In this region is located the ecotone of these two majors Brazilians ecosystems. In the Cerrado biome fire is often used to manage pasture, stimulating the regrowth of natural grasses used as pasture and also to open new areas for agriculture. There are researches showing that people have been traditionally using fire as a lower cost way to manage their lands for different purposes. In the Amazon forest the cycle of deforestation started around the 60's with incentives from the federal government to populate the region in the middle of the last century, and most recently by the progress of the commodities prices, such as soybean and sugar-cane, that has occupied vast areas of the Cerrado and is marching towards the forest. In the Amazon, fire is frequently used to further open the areas that were previously logged selectively and then converted to agricultural uses.Given the ecological importance of the Amazon Forest and Cerrado biome and the

  11. Study of the cerrado vegetation in the Federal District area from orbital data. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Aoki, H.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The physiognomic units of cerrado in the area of Distrito Federal (DF) were studied through the visual and automatic analysis of products provided by Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) of LANDSAT. The visual analysis of the multispectral images in black and white, at the 1:250,000 scale, was made based on the texture and tonal patterns. The automatic analysis of the compatible computer tapes (CCT) was made by means of IMAGE-100 system. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) the delimitation of cerrado vegetation forms can be made by the visual and automatic analysis; (2) in the visual analysis, the principal parameter used to discriminate the cerrado forms was the tonal pattern, independently of the year's seasons, and the channel 5 gave better information; (3) in the automatic analysis, the data of the four channels of MSS can be used in the discrimination of the cerrado forms; and (4) in the automatic analysis, the four channels combination possibilities gave more information in the separation of cerrado units when soil types were considered.

  12. In vitro investigation of Brazilian Cerrado plant extract activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei gambiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charneau, Sébastien; de Mesquita, Mariana Laundry; Bastos, Izabela Marques Dourado; Santana, Jaime Martins; de Paula, José Elias; Grellier, Philippe; Espindola, Laila Salmen

    2016-06-01

    The threatened Brazilian Cerrado biome is an important biodiversity hotspot but still few explored that constitutes a potential reservoir of molecules to treat infectious diseases. We selected eight Cerrado plant species for screening against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum, human intracellular stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and bloodstream forms of T. brucei gambiense, and for their cytotoxicity upon the rat L6-myoblast cell line. Bioassays were performed with 37 hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts prepared from different plant organs. Activities against parasites were observed for 24 extracts: 9 with anti-P. falciparum, 4 with anti-T. cruzi and 11 with anti-T. brucei gambiense activities. High anti-protozoal activity (IC50 values knowledge essential for Cerrado conservation and sustainable development. PMID:26222897

  13. The insect gall collection of the Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro: biome cerrado, rupestrian fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Rodrigues, A R; Ascendino, S H S; Boggi, M

    2014-08-01

    An inventory of the insect gall from Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) was elaborated based on samples of the collection of the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Data on localities and host plants were obtained from the labels and information about the gall morphology (plant organ of occurrence, shape, and presence of trichomes) by observing the samples. The galling species was determined based on the literature. The collection includes 131 morphotypes of galls from Cerrado, obtained from 71 host plant species distributed in 50 genera and 30 botanical families (Table 1). All galls were collected in rupestrian fields (a rare vegetation physiognomy of the Brazilian Cerrado) in the state of Minas Gerais. As the collection comprises a great diversity of insect galls, it can be considered representative of this physiognomy. PMID:25627387

  14. Tulostoma Persoon (Gasteromycetes) from the cerrado region, State of São Paulo, Brazil Tulostoma Persoon (Gasteromycetes) em região de cerrado, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Iuri Goulart Baseia; Adauto Ivo Milanez

    2002-01-01

    Tulostoma species were collected on sandy soil and decaying wood in the cerrado region. Three species were identified: Tulostoma beccarianum Bresad., T. brumale Pers.: Pers. and T. exasperatum Mont. Tulostoma brumale represent first record from Brazil.Algumas espécies de Tulostoma foram coletadas em solo arenoso e madeira em decomposição em região de cerrado do Estado de São Paulo, sendo identificadas três espécies: Tulostoma beccarianum Bresad., T. brumale Pers.: Pers. e T. exasperatum Mont....

  15. Ajuste do modelo Chistiansen-Hargreaves para estimativa da evapotranspiração do feijão no cerrado Chistiansen-Hargreaves model adjustment for estimating evapotranspiration of bean crop in the Cerrado region

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    Omar C. Rocha

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Os produtores de feijão da região do Cerrado contam com apenas uma tecnologia, já estabelecida, para o manejo das irrigações: a tensiometria. Muito embora essa metodologia tenha alto potencial de uso não tem sido amplamente adotada pelos produtores, razão pela qual a utilização de modelos de estimativa de evapotranspiração tem se mostrado bastante aplicável à realidade da região. Assim, este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho do modelo Chistiansen-Hargreaves na estimativa da evapotranspiração da cultura do Feijão Preto, no período seco do Cerrado brasileiro, almejando colocar à disposição dos produtores um modelo ajustado, que permita um manejo eficiente da irrigação no sistema produtivo da região. A evapotranspiração do feijoeiro foi medida com um lisímetro de pesagem. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Cerrados, localizada em Planaltina, DF, Brasil. Quando calculado com coeficientes de cultura determinados na pesquisa e testado com o termo energético ajustado (S0 = 0,5 o modelo apresentou ótimo desempenho podendo, nesta condição, ser empregado com segurança no manejo de irrigação.Bean producers from the Brazilian Cerrado region have only one technology for the irrigation management: the measurement of the water tension in the soil through the use of tensiometers. Although this methodology has high potential, it has not been widely adopted by the producers. Thus, the utilization of models to estimate evapotranspiration estimate has shown to be applicable to the Cerrado region. So, this paper aims to evaluate the performance of the Chistiansen-Hargreaves model to estimate evapotranspiration of black bean crop in the dry season of the Brazilian Cerrado region. It also aims to provide producers an the adjusted model to estimate evapotranspiration which permit an efficient management for the agricultural irrigated system of the Cerrado region. The evapotranspiration of the black bean crop was

  16. Indução do processo de regeneração da vegetação de cerrado em área de pastagem, Assis, SP Inducement of cerrado regeneration in a pasture area, Assis, SP

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    Giselda Durigan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A vegetação natural do cerrado apresenta grande potencial de regeneração natural, principalmente através da brotação de raízes, ainda que se verifique a regeneração por sementes, em menor escala. Visando acelerar o processo de recuperação da cobertura arbustivo-arbórea em área de cerrado anteriormente utilizada como pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens em Assis, SP, foram testados seis tratamentos: A - Testemunha; B - Subsolagem; C - Preparo convencional de solo + calagem; D - Aplicação de herbicida de amplo espectro; E - Herbicida seletivo para gramíneas; F - Preparo convencional do solo + herbicida pré-emergente. Os tratamentos foram aplicados após corte raso (roçada mecanizada de toda a vegetação arbustivo-arbórea pré-existente na área experimental. A aplicação de herbicida de amplo espectro, controlando as gramíneas sem afetar as espécies do cerrado, proporcionou densidade 20% maior e cobertura 48% superior à testemunha, dois anos após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Nos tratamentos em que houve revolvimento do solo, os resultados foram inferiores à testemunha. O tratamento em que se fez também calagem, alterando a química do solo, apresentou os mais baixos valores de densidade e cobertura da vegetação de cerrado. Foram observadas 32 espécies do cerrado em regeneração, com predominância de Stryphnodendron obovatwn, com 44,8% dos indivíduos.Cerrado vegetation has a high potencial for natural regeneration. With the aim of accelerating the natural regeneration of cerrado woody species in an abandoned pasture of Brachiaria decumbens in Assis, São Paulo State, Brazil, six treatments were tested: A- control area; B- grubbing; C- tillage and liming; D- wide spectrum herbicide; E- selective herbicide for grasses, and F- tillage plus pre-emergence herbicide. Two years after the treatments, the application of a wide spectrum herbicide provided a density 20% higher and a crown cover 48% higher than in the control

  17. Crescimento e resistência à seca de leucena em solo de cerrado Growth and drought resistence of leucaena in "cerrado" soil

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Cristina Juliano Gualtieri de Andrade Perez; Silmara Cristina Fanti

    1999-01-01

    Plantas envasadas de Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (De Witt) foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação sob 30% de sombreamento artificial, em solo de cerrado, com adição de 0, 750, 1.500 e 3.000 kg ha-1 de NPK (4-14-8). Aos 180 dias após a emergência (DAE), as plantas crescidas em solo sem adubo químico apresentaram os menores valores de taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR = 0,028 g g-1 dia-1), biomassa total (5,2 g), taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL= 4,2.10-4 g cm-2 dia-1), e não produziram nem flores...

  18. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  19. Physical quality of the trails at the state park Cerrado – PR Qualidade física do solo das trilhas do parque estadual do Cerrado – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jully Gabriela Retzlaf de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The tourism in protected areas has been gaining attention and interest. However, the increased flow of people in these areas may endanger the ecological integrity of these environments preserved since the intensification of tourist crossing the tracks may enhance the possibility of soil compaction (soil degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the movement of people in some soil physical properties of the State Park trails Cerrado (PR to guide future actions in planning the use and occupation of the area that contribute to the preservation of the ecosystem. To evaluate the physical soil were collected at random points, 5 soil samples off track (FTr and track (Tr with preserved structure in the depth of 0-20 cm. With these samples, we determined the bulk density, total porosity, macro and micro, organic matter and aggregate stability. The trails of the state park Cerrado (PR receiving more than 50 visitors over the month, showed no degradation as the organic matter content and soil aggregation in relation to the area of native soil. A atividade turística em unidades de conservação vem ganhando interesse e destaque. Contudo, o aumento do fluxo de pessoas nestas áreas pode colocar em risco a integridade ecológica desses ambientes preservados, pois, a intensificação da passagem de turistas nas trilhas pode acentuar a possibilidade de compactação do solo (degradação do solo. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar o efeito do trânsito de pessoas em alguns atributos físicos do solo das trilhas do Parque Estadual do Cerrado (PR, a fim orientar futuras ações de planejamento do uso e ocupação da área que concorram para preservação do ecossistema. Para a avaliação física do solo foram coletadas em pontos aleatórios, 5 amostras de solo fora da trilha (FTr e na trilha (Tr com estrutura preservada na profundidade de 0-20 cm. Com essas amostras, determinou-se a densidade do solo, a porosidade total, a macro e

  20. Introduced Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) harbor more-diverse Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies than native bank voles (Myodes glareolus)

    OpenAIRE

    Marsot, Maud; Sigaud, M.; Chapuis, J L; Ferquel, E.; Vourc'H, Gwenaël

    2011-01-01

    Little attention has been given in scientific literature to how introduced species may act as a new host for native infectious agents and modify the epidemiology of a disease. In this study, we investigated whether an introduced species, the Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus barberi), was a potentially new reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease. First, we ascertained whether chipmunks were infected by all of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato geno...

  1. Introduced Siberian Chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) Harbor More-Diverse Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Genospecies than Native Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus)▿

    OpenAIRE

    Marsot, M.; Sigaud, M.; Chapuis, J L; Ferquel, E.; Cornet, M.; Vourc'h, G

    2011-01-01

    Little attention has been given in scientific literature to how introduced species may act as a new host for native infectious agents and modify the epidemiology of a disease. In this study, we investigated whether an introduced species, the Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus barberi), was a potentially new reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease. First, we ascertained whether chipmunks were infected by all of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato geno...

  2. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna, the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell. Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam. DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng., to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.No Cerrado brasileiro (savana neotropical, o desenvolvimento de sistemas subterrâneos que produzem gemas, como estruturas adaptativas contra o fogo e períodos de seca, pode compreender um importante suprimento de gemas para esse ecossistema, como já demonstrado nos campos brasileiros e nas pradarias norte-americanas. Espécies de Asteraceae tanto do estrato lenhoso, quanto do herbáceo têm órgãos que acumulam carboidratos, reforçando a estratégia adaptativa dessas plantas a diferentes condições ambientais. Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a morfo

  3. CERRADO EM ÁREA DISJUNTA EM BREJO DE ALTITUDE NO AGRESTE PERNAMBUCANO, BRASIL

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    Linaldo Severino dos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo dos brejos de altitude configura-se como fundamental para a Geografia do semiárido pernambucano, uma vez que permite resolver questões de valor tanto na sua vertente física, quanto na social. Nos estudos biogeográficos, a distribuição das espécies do bioma cerrado, em Pernambuco, ainda é pouco referida na literatura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar uma possível mancha de cerrado num brejo de altitude entre os municípios de Iatí e Saloá, no Agreste Meridional de Pernambuco. Para tanto, buscou-se identificar as unidades ambientais existentes na área de estudo e o seu padrão climático. Em campo, foram realizadas coletas para a identificação de espécies vegetais e houve o registro fotográfico para a descrição da fisionomia da área de estudo. As espécies de plantas foram coletadas em área de colinas altas, com floresta subcaducifólia sobre Neossolos Quartzarênicos, Argissolos Vermelho-amarelos e Vermelho-escuros, afloramentos de quartzito (50- 25-25%, sob clima mesotérmico com chuvas de inverno e com verão quente. Das 13 espécies identificadas, 6 são típicas do bioma cerrado, ocorrendo em áreas de fisionomia arbóreo-arbustiva com altura entre 4 e 6 metros. Assim, pode-se concluir que essa área constitui um núcleo de importância para o estudo da biogeografia do bioma em questão, sobretudo no tangente às suas variações ao longo do tempo geológico recente.

  4. Landscape structure in the expansion area of deforestation of the Brazilian Cerrado in Minas Gerais

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, A. D.; Streher, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome and is listed as one of the hotspots for biodiversity conservation priority. The biome provides important ecosystem services such as maintenance of the biodiversity, water cycle and carbon storage, and your preservation is essential to protecting the Amazon Rainforest. Although its importance, it was heavily affected by deforestation, with a loss of about 49% of its original native cover by the year of 2010. In Minas Gerais state, the remaining Cerrado original cover is very expressive, shaped by a mosaic of phytophysionomies, comprising grassland, savanna and forest. The great species diversity and endemism in these landscapes, associated with changes imposed by man over time, caused major environmental damage in this biome. Recently, new deforestation fronts have been identified throughout the Brazilian Cerrado, including Minas Gerais State. This study aimed to analyze the landscape structure in front of expansion in this state, as a subsidy for the establishment of guidelines for future biodiversity conservation and landscape planning. The study site comprised the sub basins of the Paracatú River (SF7) and Middle São Francisco (SF9). The analyses were performed based on land use, mapped through remote sensing techniques, resulting in 18 classes of land use. The most important results of the calculated indices showed that the study area is highly fragmented, with most of the remaining patches small, with large perimeter and strong edge effect, favoring biodiversity loss. Moreover, the biological flow in the study area is hindered by the presence of few fragments into a predetermined radius of 10 km. It has been found that less than 30% of the native vegetation remnant in the area, making all existing fragments relevant to conservation. Finally, the landscape metrics analyzed showed that there is a high level of environmental risk determining low support existing biodiversity in the landscape.

  5. Seed rain generated by bats under Cerrado's pasture remnant trees in a Neotropical savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J; Santos, A A

    2015-11-01

    In this study we described the seed rain generated by bats under four Cerrado's tree species common within pastures, Buchenavia tomentosa, Couepia grandiflora, Licania humilis and Qualea grandiflora. We analyzed the similarity among the four tree species in terms of seed rain composition, and compared the number of seeds and seed species deposited under them. Besides that, we assessed the relationship between seed rain intensity and the density of each tree species. Then, we randomly selected 10 mature trees of each species to sample seed rain. We recorded a total of 4892 bat dispersed seeds from 11 species. Also, we observed that along the year seed deposition varied substantially under all trees. At least two seed sub-communities could be distinguished according to tree species used by bats as feeding roost. One related to Couepia grandiflora and Licania humilis, and the other to Buchenavia tomentosa and Qualea grandiflora trees. The variability of seed rain composition in any particular tree and the range of actual seed fall into a particular species indicate patchiness in seed rain, and the overall results appear to be consistent in terms of a substantial and diverse seed rain generated by bats in a highly anthropized landscape. This is the first study concerning seed dispersal by bats in modified Brazilian Cerrado, one of the most endangered biomes in the world. In this respect, by preserving a dense and diverse collection of remnant trees within today's pastures may, potentially, contribute to a faster Cerrado recovery in extensive areas that can be reclaimed for restoration in the future. PMID:26602344

  6. First report of Ditylenchus gallaeformans in Miconia albicans from the Brazilian Cerrado, State of Goiás

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    Rodrigo Vieira da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae, whose common name is canela-de-velha, is a native plant of the tropical region that is abundant in the Cerrado biome. A nematode species was found parasitizing M. albicans, causing severe deformation and gall-like structures on the infected leaves and inflorescences. Morphological, morphometric and molecular characterizations identified the nematode as Ditylenchus gallaeformans. This nematode has great potential as a biocontrol agent of plants in the family Melastomataceae, which are invasive weeds in ecosystems of the Pacific Islands. This is the first report of D. gallaeformans parasitizing M. albicans in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás.

  7. DNA-Polymorphismen der internal transcribed spacer-Region zur Differenzierung anthropophiler und zoophiler Spezies von Trichophyton mentagrophytes sensu lato

    OpenAIRE

    Heidemann, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Dermatophytes are the main cause of superficial mycoses of the skin in humans and animals. Moleculargenetic studies have given useful insights in the phylogeny and taxonomy of the dermatophytes and have thus helped to avoid the difficulties of conventional diagnostic methods. Trichophyton mentagrophytes sensu lato contains anthropophilic and zoophilic species. Although different molecular markers for the differentiation of strains belonging to this complex have been developed the correct i...

  8. Sensitivity of spirochetes from \\kur{Borrelia burgdorferi} sensu lato complex to human complement: infection potential of selected species

    OpenAIRE

    Tichá, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity of spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex to serum complement of humans of different age and sex was analyzed. Complement-mediated Borrelia killing was observed in different combination of serum and selected Borrelia genospecies. The obtained results confirmed that age itself does not influence the sensitivity of human to Borrelia infection. However, the females seem to be more vulnerable to it. Each of ten tested Borrelia species was proved to be potentially inf...

  9. Molecular Evidence of Coinfection of Ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato and the Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis Agent in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Leutenegger, Christian M.; Pusterla, Nicola; Mislin, Caroline N.; Weber, Rainer; Lutz, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Adult Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in Switzerland and tested for the presence of coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent by real-time PCR. Of 100 ticks, 49% were positive for B. burgdorferi and 2% were positive for the HGE agent. The two HGE agent-positive ticks were also found to be positive for B. burgdorferi.

  10. A new species of Aximopsis sensu lato Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae parasitic on Euglossa spp. (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Michael Gates

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aximopsis masneri Gates, sp. n., (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eurytomidae is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected nests of Euglossa sp. (Hymenoptera, Apidae in the Neotropical region with additional label data indicating E. variabilis and E. cybelia as hosts. It is compared with the nominate species of the nodularis species group of Aximopsis sensu lato to which it belongs.

  11. Detection and differentiation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from sheep and cattle in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen Wayne; Ren Qiaoyun; Liu Aihong; Liu Junlong; Liu Zhijie; Ma Miling; Li Youquan; Xu Zongke; Fu Yuguang; Yang Jifei; Guan Guiquan; Niu Qingli; Luo Jianxun; Yin Hong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is an important endemic zoonosis whose distribution is closely related to the main ixodid tick vectors. In China, isolated cases of Lyme disease infection of humans have been reported in 29 provinces. Ticks, especially ixodid ticks are abundant and a wide arrange of Borrelia natural reservoirs are present. In this study, we developed a reverse line blot (RLB) to identify Borrelia spp. in ticks collected from sh...

  12. Accesibilidad en los cines : ampliación y mejora de un sistema de subtitulado cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Arroyo, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    El objeto de este proyecto de fin de carrera es el diseño y construcción de un prototipo de gafas inalámbricas de subtitulado cerrado en cines. Dicho sistema está pensado para que sea empleado por gente que tenga problemas de audición y mejorar así la accesibilidad de este tipo de salas. De esta forma, aunque estas personas no puedan escuchar correctamente los diálogos de una película, empleando este dispositivo podrán seguir la trama más fácilmente. Al mismo tiempo puede ser utilizado por ot...

  13. Influência do ambiente em cultivares de feijoeiro-comum em cerrado com baixa altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Helton Santos Pereira; Válter Martins de Almeida; Leonardo Cunha Melo; Adriane Wendland; Luís Cláudio de Faria; Maria José Del Peloso; Mariana Cruzick de Souza Magaldi

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar genótipos de feijoeiro-comum com alta adaptabilidade e estabilidade de produção e verificar a ocorrência de interação genótipos x ambientes (GxA) para diferentes caracteres em algumas regiões de cerrado com baixa altitude no Estado do Mato Grosso. Foram realizados 12 ensaios em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em épocas de semeadura da seca e do inverno, no Estado do Mato Grosso, em 2008 e 2009. Os ensaios foram compostos por 19 genótipos com...

  14. NUEVAS FORMAS DE PRODUCCIÓN URBANA: EMPRENDIMIENTOS CERRADOS METEPEC, ESTADO DE MÉXICO

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    María Estela Orozco Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la perspectiva de los habitantes de los emprendimientos cerrados de alto nivel económico, las bardas perimetrales, la vigilancia y el confort, son los garantes de la seguridad y la exclusividad ante los riesgos que provienen del exterior. En Metepec, las inmobiliarias en alianza con el sector público han capitalizado estás necesidades para producir novedosas formas urbanas insertas en un proceso mercantil selectivo, el cual se manifi esta en la conformación de variados estilos de vida, basados en la individualidad y en la distancia social.

  15. Nota: sobre la compacidad de los intervalo cerrados de numeros reales

    OpenAIRE

    Charris C., Jairo

    2012-01-01

    La intención de esta nota es proponer una demostración de la Compacidad de los Intervalos Cerrados [∞ ᵝ] de Números Reales (R), pa la topología usual de tales números (Topología de los intervalos (∞ ,ᵝ) abiertos). Tal resultado es bien conocido de todos los matemáticos y generalmente enunciado con el nombre de teorema de Borel- Lebesgue. El lector conocerá entonces indudablemente muchas demostraciones de tal teorema y la que sigue será apenas una más

  16. Zinc and Liming Effects on the Development of Cerrado Forest Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, M. R.; Moraes, M. I. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is considered priority area for conservation of biodiversity. The biome has covered approximately 33% of the territory of the State of São Paulo, but, currently, there are isolated fragments of Cerrado that correspond to less than 7% of its original area. One of the consequences of the natural vegetation removal and soil degradation is the loss of fertility, reduction the nutrient content. There is limited knowledge of the nutritional requirements of native forest species from Cerrado, especially about micronutrients. The aims of this work are: (i) verify the influence of four levels of Zn in soil and three levels of liming on development of six forest species native to the Cerrado biome; (ii) assess Zn deficiency symptoms in native species of Savannah. The treatments were four levels of Zn (0.0; 2.0; 4.0;-1 6.0 kg ha of Zn) and three levels of base saturation (V% = natural, V% = 50% and V% = 70%), cultivated in green house. The forest species studied have different responses to soil correction and fertilization, and were not observed responses regarding biometric parameters (growth in height and dry matter) with respect to the correction of base saturation and soil fertilization with Zn, for seedlings of Tabebuia aurea, Eugenia dysenterica and Astronium graveolens, showing that these species are highly adapted to the conditions of low fertility and showing efficient physiology for Zn absorption, since there was satisfactory growth in conditions of low base saturation (36%), very low content of Zn in soil (0.3 mg dm-3 ) and ideal supply of other nutrients. The species Andira cuyabensis and Anacardium giganteum responded well to fertilization and soil remediation. The omission of Zn resulted in visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency only for the species Tabebuia aurea, Astronium graveolens and Anacardium giganteum. The content of Zn presented significance interaction between Zn doses and V% for species Hymenaea courbaril, Tabebuia aurea and

  17. Un ciclo cerrado: el patrimonio nobiliario construido en la ciudad de Murcia

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo García-Tornel, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    La presencia en el tejido urbano de la ciudad de Murcia de las viviendas o palacios de la nobleza, está directamente relacionado con la evolución patrimonial de este grupo social. Cerrado el ciclo en el que el poder social nobiliario fue decisivo en la vida regional, su memoria se conserva básicamente a través de sus casas-palacio, un patrimonio histórico y, en buena medida, también artístico que ha sufrido una suerte muy desigual hasta el presente.

  18. Interactions between soil moisture and Atmospheric Boundary Layer at the Brazilian savana-type vegetation Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, L. R.; Siqueira, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Before the large people influx and development of the central part of Brazil in the sixties, due to new capital Brasília, Cerrado, a typical Brazilian savanna-type vegetation, used to occupy about 2 million km2, going all the way from the Amazon tropical forest, in the north of the country, to the edges of what used to be of the Atlantic forest in the southeast. Today, somewhat 50% of this area has given place to agriculture, pasture and managed forests. It is forecasted that, at the current rate of this vegetation displacement, Cerrado will be gone by 2030. Understanding how Cerrado interacts with the atmosphere and how this interaction will be modified with this land-use change is a crucial step towards improving predictions of future climate-change scenarios. Cerrado is a vegetation adapted to a climate characterized by two very distinct seasons, a wet season (Nov-Mar) and dry season (May-Ago), with April and October being transitions between seasons. Typically, based on measurements in a weather station located in Brasilia, 75% of precipitation happens in the wet-season months and only 5% during dry-season. Under these circumstances, it is clear that the vegetation will have to cope with long periods of water stress. In this work we studied using numerical simulations, the interactions between soil-moisture, responsible for the water stress, with the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). The numerical model comprises of a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere model where the biophysical processes are represented with a big-leaf approach. Soil water is estimated with a simple logistic model and with water-stress effects on stomatal conductance are parameterized from local measurements of simultaneous latent-heat fluxes and soil moisture. ABL evolution is calculate with a slab model that considers independently surface and entrainment fluxes of sensible- and latent- heat. Temperature tropospheric lapse-rate is taken from soundings at local airport. Simulations of 30-day dry

  19. Diseño de un dispositivo difusor de aromas para espacios comerciales cerrados

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Franco, Santiago; Lema Suárez, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    El proyecto presenta el desarrollo de diseño de un producto flexible a mercados emergentes, con el fin de brindar a las empresas un medio innovador para entrar en la mente de los consumidores y quedar plasmado dentro de estas, de manera positiva y permanente -- Este proyecto está establecido por el desarrollo y el diseño de un difusor de aromas, para ambientar espacios comerciales cerrados, con el cual se pretende conquistar nichos de mercado con muy poca oferta, así como crear una herramient...

  20. Roadkill hotspots in a protected area of Cerrado in Brazil: planning actions to conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno H Saranholi; Mariano M Bergel; Paulo HP Ruffino; Karen G Rodríguez-C; Lucas A Ramazzotto; de Freitas, Patrícia D.; Pedro M Galetti Jr

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Here we aimed to identify the main points of animal death by roadkill in the view of helping mitigation plans and reducing the impact over the local fauna of a protected area. Materials and methods. We surveyed the roads around a protected area of Cerrado (São Paulo, Brazil) from May 2012 to August 2013. We recorded the local of roadkills, biometric and morphologic data of the animals, and collected samples of tissue for molecular species confirmation. Results. Thirty-one roadkille...

  1. Compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutas nativas do cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Wesley Silveira Rocha; Renata Miranda Lopes; Dijalma Barbosa da Silva; Roberto Fontes Vieira; Joseane Padilha da Silva; Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2011-01-01

    As frutas nativas do cerrado têm despertado ultimamente interesse crescente, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais aliadas ao potencial para agregar valor e conservar a biodiversidade deste bioma. Muitos compostos fenólicos apresentam capacidade antioxidante de neutralizar a atividade de radicais livres gerados no organismo, que estão associados a diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três soluções extratoras (acetona a 7...

  2. Cultivo de cachama blanca en altas densidades y en dos sistemas cerrados

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Poleo; José Vicente Aranbarrio; Lismen Mendoza; Oneida Romero

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia de la cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus, a cultivos en altas densidades en sistemas cerrados. Novecientos alevines de 44,3±26 g de peso, se distribuyeron en seis tanques de concreto, con 4,8 m³ de agua. Tres tanques presentaron cero recambio de agua (SCR), y en otros tres, el agua se hizo circular a través de un bioclarificador (SRA). Ambos tratamientos presentaron fuerte aireación para mantener los sólidos en suspensión y suministrar ...

  3. Composição de carotenoides em passifloras do cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Cristina Wondracek; Fábio Gelape Faleiro; Sueli Matiko Sano; Roberto Fontes Vieira; Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo foi avaliar, por HPLC, a composição qualitativa e quantitativa de carotenoides em maracujás do cerrado. Frutos procedentes de acessos nativos de quatro espécies (Passiflora cincinnata, P. nitida, P. setacea e P. edulis) foram analisados, utilizando, como referência, o maracujá-amarelo comercial (P. edulis). As polpas de maracujá apresentaram neoxantina, violaxantina, cis-violaxantina, anteraxantina, luteína, zeaxantina, β-criptoxantina, poli-cis-caroteno, prolicopeno, cis-ζ-caroten...

  4. A new species of Calomys Waterhouse (Rodentia, Sigmodontinaefrom the Cerrado of Central Brazil

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    Cibele R. Bonvicino

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Brazilian Calomys Waterhouse, 1837 species is described based on morphologic and karyologic data. This species is endemic to the Cerrado of Central Brazil and allopatric with all other species of the genus Calomys. Its chromosome complement (2n = 46, AN = 66 is different from those described in other Calomys species. Morphometric analysis significantly distinguished this new species from other Calomys of the Brazilian fauna like C. callosus (Renger, 1830, C. expulsus (Lund, 1841 and C. tener (Winge, 1887 and placed it among the large-sized Calomys.

  5. Vertical and horizontal distribution of pollination systems in cerrado fragments of central Brazil

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    Fernanda Quintas Martins

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In fragments of the cerrado, we determined the frequency of pollination systems and analyzed their spatial distribution. We placed 38 transects, sampling 2,280 individuals and 121 species. As expected in Neotropical regions, bee-pollination was the most frequent pollination system. We found a decrease in the frequency of plants pollinated by beetles towards the fragment interior. Similarly, we found significant variation in relation to height just for the bats; there was an increase in the frequency of plants pollinated by bats towards the higher heights. In general, we found no horizontal and vertical variation in the pollination systems, probably as consequence of the more open physiognomy of the cerrado vegetation.As principais pressões seletivas nas estratégias de polinização originam principalmente do ambiente em que plantas ocorrem, como subdossel, dossel, borda ou interior de um fragmento. Diferentes condições ambientais aumentam as diferenças entre os nichos ecológicos e podem implicar diferenças nas proporções dos sistemas de polinização. Em fragmentos de cerrado, determinamos a freqüência dos sistemas de polinização e analisamos sua distribuição espacial. Lançamos 38 transecções aleatoriamente, amostrando 2.280 indivíduos e 121 espécies. Como esperado para regiões neotropicais, a polinização por abelhas foi o sistema de polinização mais freqüente. Encontramos uma diminuição na freqüência de plantas polinizadas por besouros em direção ao interior do fragmento. De modo similar, encontramos uma variação significativa em relação à altura somente para os morcegos, havendo um aumento na freqüência de plantas em direção a alturas mais altas. Em geral, não encontramos variações horizontais e verticais nos sistemas de polinização, provavelmente, como conseqüência da fisionomia mais aberta de cerrado.

  6. Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Italian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina V; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Pinzauti, Paolo; Cerri, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in healthy horses living in 7 provinces of central Italy. In the period 2007-2009, sera from 386 horses were tested by microagglutination test (MAT) to detect antibodies to Leptospira spp., employing the following serovars as antigens: Bratislava, Ballum, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Pomona, Tarassovi. 3 animals were positive for the serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae, 2 to Bratislava, and 1 to Pomona, for a total 1.5% seroprevalence. All sera were examined by immunofluorence antibody test (IFAT) to reveal anti-B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies. 94 (24.3%) horses were positive with antibody titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:1,024. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in >10 year-old horses compared to younger subjects. No significant differences in the mean seroprevalence were observed in the respective years. The total mean seroprevalence were strictly related to the environmental conditions of the areas in which the horses lived. No cross-reactions between Leptospira and Borrelia were observed. This is the first serological survey on antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. in Italian horses. PMID:22742794

  7. A primer on the phylogeography of Lagothrix lagotricha (sensu Fooden) in northern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Sergio; Stevenson, Pablo R; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic history of the genus Lagothrix is complex, with molecular and morphological assessments giving conflicting results for the separation between its taxa. Phylogeographic studies of the most widely distributed species, Lagothrix lagotricha, have only been attempted recently and are limited to few individuals per collection site, many of which were captive making their geographical origin dubious. There is debate regarding the possibility of raising subspecies of Lagothrix lagotricha to the species level, therefore the geographical origin of samples is particularly relevant. In the present work we revisit the intraspecific phylogeography of L. lagotricha from northwestern South America, including the subspecies L. l. poeppiggi, L. l. lagotricha and L. l. lugens (sensu Fooden, 1963), using DNA sequence data from hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial control region (D-loop HVI). Our results suggest a complex picture in which there are well delimited evolutionary units that, nonetheless, do not correlate well with the morphological variation used to support the current delimitation of taxa. Additionally, we corroborate previous results showing a lack of reciprocal monophyly between the putative subspecies of Lagothrix lagotricha, and we propose that this may be due to ancestral polymorphism that has been maintained following the recent spread of woolly monkeys throughout the western Amazonian lowlands and into the inter-Andean region of Colombia. PMID:24905154

  8. A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato abnormis group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini

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    Dirk Ahrens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper revises the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato abnormis group, so far known only with two nominal species. Twenty new species are herein described from Indochina and southern China: N. abnormoides sp. n. (Vietnam, China, N. allolaotica sp. n., N. namthaensis sp. n., N. simplicissima sp. n. (Laos, N. thailandensis sp. n. (Thailand, N. alloputaoana sp. n., N. kanphantensis sp. n., N. natmatoungensis sp. n., N. putaoana sp. n., N. taunggyiana sp. n. (Myanmar, N. lamellosa sp. n., N. tonkinea sp. n. (Vietnam, N. bairailingshanica sp. n., N. euyunnanica sp. n., N. huangi sp. n., N. jiangxiensis sp. n., N. trifida sp. n., N. yaoi sp. n., N. yingjiangensis sp. n. (China, N. cardamomensis sp. n. (Indochina and southern China. One new combination is established: Neoserica ponderosa Arrow, 1946, comb. n. The lectotypes of Neoserica abnormis Moser, 1908 and the taxonomically uncertain N. inclinata Brenske, 1898, which very likely also belongs to this species group, are designated herein. A key to the species and to species groups is given, the genitalia of all species including their habitus are illustrated. Maps of species distribution are included.

  9. A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Dirk; Liu, Wan-Gang; Fabrizi, Silvia; Bai, Ming; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-01-01

    The present paper revises the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato) abnormis group, so far known only with two nominal species. Twenty new species are herein described from Indochina and southern China: N. abnormoides sp. n. (Vietnam, China), N. allolaotica sp. n., N. namthaensis sp. n., N. simplicissima sp. n. (Laos), N. thailandensis sp. n. (Thailand), N. alloputaoana sp. n., N. kanphantensis sp. n., N. natmatoungensis sp. n., N. putaoana sp. n., N. taunggyiana sp. n. (Myanmar), N. lamellosa sp. n., N. tonkinea sp. n. (Vietnam), N. bairailingshanica sp. n., N. euyunnanica sp. n., N. huangi sp. n., N. jiangxiensis sp. n., N. trifida sp. n., N. yaoi sp. n., N. yingjiangensis sp. n. (China), N. cardamomensis sp. n. (Indochina and southern China). One new combination is established: Neoserica ponderosa Arrow, 1946, comb. n. The lectotypes of Neoserica abnormis Moser, 1908 and the taxonomically uncertain N. inclinata Brenske, 1898, which very likely also belongs to this species group, are designated herein. A key to the species and to species groups is given, the genitalia of all species including their habitus are illustrated. Maps of species distribution are included. PMID:25317056

  10. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of effective Rhizobium sp. associated with beans cultivated in brazilian cerrado soils Caracterização, via RAPD, de estirpes efetivas de Rhizobium sp associadas ao feijoeiro cultivado em solos de cerrado no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnia Aparecida de Oliveira

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient bean nodulating Rhizobium strains, isolated from different Brazilian cerrado soils, were characterized by RAPD. This study showed great genetic heterogeneity among R. tropici and R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains and allowed the constitution of genetic clusters, besides indicating the most suitable primers for this characterization. The groups of genetically distinct strains can be used in competitiveness studies to select appropriate Rhizobium strains for bean inoculation in cerrado soils.Estirpes de Rhizobium eficientes na nodulação do feijoeiro, isoladas de diferentes solos da região do cultivo dessa leguminosa nos cerrados brasileiros, foram caracterizadas via RAPD. Esse estudo mostrou grande heterogeneidade genética entre as estirpes de R. tropici e R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli testadas e permitiu a definição de grupos genéticos, além de indicar os "primers" mais adequados para essa caracterização. Os grupos de estirpes geneticamente distintas podem ser usados em estudos de competitividade, importantes para obtenção de resultados positivos na inoculação dessa leguminosa em solos de cerrado.

  11. Parasitism of ectoparasitic flies on bats in the northern Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Ciro Líbio Caldas; Pereira, Agostinho Cardoso Nascimento; Bastos, Vagner de Jesus Carneiro; Graciolli, Gustavo; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário

    2013-06-01

    In this work we record the highest number of bat flies species among those already performed in the Brazilian cerrado and discuss the associations and patterns of parasitism of these species and their hosts. A total of 1,390 ectoparasitic flies were collected, belonging to 24 species of Streblidae and one of Nycteribiidae, parasitizing 227 bats of 15 species. Among the species found, the presence of Trichobius sp. on Lonchophylla mordax and the first occurrence of Hershkovitzia sp. on Thyroptera devivoi are highlighted. Lophostoma species presented the highest proportion of individuals with infracommunities and the highest values of parasitological indexes. The high number of bat fly species and hosts, as well as the high values for rates of parasitism and infracommunities, suggests that this area of cerrado has good shelter conditions for these species. The abundance of species and high rates of parasitism detracts from the hypothesis that a higher mean intensity of ectoparasites results from lower competition among flies for hosts in areas with lower ectoparasite species richness. Biogeographical and historical factors of host populations, besides the number of host species and individuals sampled, may contribute to species number and intensity of parasitism. PMID:23666657

  12. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific 226Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg-1) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg-1 for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  13. Functional Process Zones Characterizing Aquatic Insect Communities in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Simião-Ferreira, J; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2016-04-01

    Stream ecology studies see to understand ecological dynamics in lotic systems. The characterization of streams into Functional Process Zones (FPZ) has been currently debated in stream ecology because aquatic communities respond to functional processes of river segments. Therefore, we tested if different functional process zones have different number of genera and trophic structure using the aquatic insect community of Neotropical streams. We also assessed whether using physical and chemical variables may complement the approach of using FPZ to model communities of aquatic insects in Cerrado streams. This study was conducted in 101 streams or rivers from the central region of the state of Goiás, Brazil. We grouped the streams into six FPZ associated to size of the river system, presence of riparian forest, and riverbed heterogeneity. We used Bayesian models to compare number of genera and relative frequency of the feeding groups between FPZs. Streams classified in different FPZs had a different number of genera, and the largest and best preserved rivers had an average of four additional genera. Trophic structure exhibited low variability among FPZs, with little difference both in the number of genera and in abundance. Using functional process zones in Cerrado streams yielded good results for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera communities. Thus, species distribution and community structure in the river basin account for functional processes and not necessarily for the position of the community along a longitudinal dimension of the lotic system. PMID:26830433

  14. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-01

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects. PMID:26852633

  15. Smoke and fire characteristics for cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil - BASE-B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. E.; Susott, R. A.; Kauffman, J. B.; Babbitt, R. E.; Cummings, D. L.; Dias, B.; Holben, B. N.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Setzer, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    Five test fires were performed during August and September 1990 in the cerrado (savannalike region) in central Brazil (three fires) and tropical moist forest (two fires) in the eastern Amazon. This paper details the gases released, the ratios of the gases to each other and to particulate matter, fuel loads, and the fraction consumed (combustion factors), and the fire behavior associated with biomass consumption. Models are presented for evaluating emission factors for CH4, CO2, CO, H2, and particles less than 2.5 micron diam (PM2.5) as a function of combustion efficiency. The ratio of carbon released as CO2 (combustion efficiency) for the cerrado fires averaged 0.94 and for the deforestation fires it decreased from 0.88 for the flaming phase to less than 0.80 during the smoldering phase of combustion. For tropical ecosystems, emissions of most products of incomplete combustion are projected to be lower than previous estimates for savanna ecosystems and somewhat higher for fires used for deforestation purposes.

  16. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b, E-mail: kapo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.b [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), MG (Brazil); Siqueira, Maria Celia, E-mail: mc.ufscar@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires, E-mail: eleonora.deschamps@meioambiente.mg.gov.b [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente (FEAM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Gestao de Residuos Solidos; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de, E-mail: davidf.agro@hotmail.co, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos

    2009-09-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific {sup 226}Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  17. Wood quality of five species from cerrado for production of charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tattiane Gomes Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of wood and charcoal of some species from cerrado mineiro aiming the production of bioenergy and use in steel industry. Five wood species from cerrado located in Minas Gerais state were used. Basic density and lignin, total extractives, holocellulose and ash contents were evaluated. Charcoal and fixed carbon yields, contents of fixed carbon, volatile materials and ashes, higher heating value and apparent relative density were evaluated. An entirely randomized design with four repetitions was used in the evaluation of the experiment. Moreover, multivariate analysis of principle components was used. The species Casearia sylvestris and Luehea divaricata had the highest gravimetric yield of charcoal and fixed carbon, as much as high lignin contents in the wood. Charcoal made from Trema micrantha presented high heating value, but the lowest apparent relative density. The species Guazuma ulmifolia stood out due to high fixed carbon content and great potential for use in the steel industry, together with the specie Casearia sylvestris.

  18. Effect of brushwood transposition on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a cerrado area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Benetton Vergílio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of ecological restoration techniques can be monitored through biological indicators of soil quality such as the leaf litter arthropod fauna. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect of brushwood transposition transferred from an area of native vegetation to a disturbed area, on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a degraded cerrado area. The arthropod fauna of four areas was compared: a degraded area with signal grass, two experimental brushwood transposition areas, with and without castor oil plants, and an area of native cerrado. In total, 7,660 individuals belonging to 23 taxa were sampled. Acari and Collembola were the most abundant taxa in all studied areas, followed by Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Symphyla. The brushwood transposition area without castor oil plants had the lowest abundance and dominance and the highest diversity of all areas, providing evidence of changes in the soil community. Conversely, the results showed that the presence of castor oil plants hampered early succession, negatively affecting ecological restoration in this area.

  19. Anatomical and morphological modifications in response to flooding by six Cerrado tree species

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    Adilson Serafim de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are common in the Cerrado (Brazilian savannas biome, however flooding of these wetlands impairs growth and development of most plants. We evaluated flood tolerance of typical Cerrado trees. Seedlings of Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae, Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae, Handroanthus chrysotrichus (Bignoniaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva (Anacardiaceae, Kielmeyera coriacea (Calophyllaceae and Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae were flooded up to the stem base for 30 days. Stems with cortical cracks, secondary aerenchyma and hypertrophic lenticels were observed in flooded plants of M. urundeuva,H. chrysotrichus and T. rosea while adventitious roots were formed in flooded plants of T. rosea and H. chrysotrichus. However, only T. rosea developed aerenchyma in the root cortex. K. coriacea and A. macrocarpon were the most sensitive to flooding, showing a decrease in survival and necrosis of the leaves and roots. C. langsdorffii and M. urundeuva were less sensitive to flooding, although reductions in root biomass and symptoms of necrosis of the roots were noticeable in flooded seedlings. Flooded M. urundeuva seedlings also had a decrease in total leaf area, leaf biomass, total biomass and in stem growth. Flooding affected root development and reduced stem growth of H. chrysotrichus with symptoms of necrosis of the leaves and roots. T. rosea was the only species where symptoms of injury from flooding were not evident.

  20. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of the pulp of Jatobá-do-cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Granja ARAKAKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oxygen metabolism in cells causes the production of free radicals, which produce damage, including changes in cell structure and function. Antioxidants are substances that, at low concentrations, slow down or prevent oxidation. Fruits and vegetables contribute to the dietary supply of these compounds. The flora of the Cerrado in Brazil has shown to have high levels of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to characterize the antioxidant activity of the pulp of jatobá-do-cerrado in vitro and in vivo.In vitro antioxidant activity of the aqueous, ethanol and aqueous acetone extracts was evaluated by the DPPH method. We determined total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and tannins by the Folin-Denis method.In vivo antioxidant potential of the aqueous acetone extract was evaluated by the TBARS technique. The aqueous acetone extract had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the aqueous and ethanol extracts. The same pattern occurred in the extraction of phenols and in the extraction of tannins. In vivo administration of the aqueous acetone extract inhibited lipid peroxidation compared to the control group. The inhibition of peroxidation has increased by elevating the dosage concentration of the extracts, demonstrating a significant antioxidant potential in vivo as well as in vitro.

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Pereira Da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savannah, known as "Cerrado," has an extensive biodiversity, but it is under explored. Among the native vegetables is the jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart., a legume with great potential for exploration for its content of dietary fiber. Legumes are an important source of nutrient compounds, such as phenolic compounds and vitamins that have antioxidant properties. This study aimed at determining the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the jatobá flour. The jatobá flour showed high fiber content (insoluble and soluble fiber 47.8 and 12.8 g.100 g- 1, respectively, significant amounts of carotenoids such as beta-carotene and lutein, and some minerals such as calcium: 145 mg.100 g- 1, magnesium: 125 mg.100 g- 1, and potassium: 1352 mg.100 g- 1. The jatobá flour extracted with different solvents (water, methanol, and acetone exhibited antioxidant activity by the DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC methods. The solvent used in the extraction affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Acetone extraction produced the best results. Therefore, the jatobá flour is an ingredient that can be used to develop new products with properties that promote health.

  2. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  3. Effect of water content on the persistence of 14C-DDT in a soil under cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of moisture on persistence and degradation of 14C-DDT in a soil under 'cerrado' is studied under laboratory conditions. The persistence of DDT in the Dark Red Latosol medium texture after one year, in spite of a tendency to be more persistente at 1/3 field capacity and less persistent at higher levels of moisture, is related. (Author)

  4. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Pr...

  5. Measures based on informational entropy applied to analysis of textural and spectral patterns of Brazilian Cerrado physiognomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme de Matos, S. V.; Vicente, L. E.; Siqueira, J. R.; Filho, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    Brazilian Cerrado is a biodiversity hotspot characterized by different physiognomies distributed along a vegetational gradient. Cerrado physiognomies are distinguished by their spatial patterns. The objective of this research has been to evaluate the complexity (in the sense of heterogeneity) of textural and spectral patterns of Cerrado phytophysiognomies with the purpose of verifying which properties related to organization and dynamics those patterns could show. For that, images from Aster multispectral sensor were used to study Cerrado areas in conservation reserves at State of São Paulo (southeastern Brazil). Two complexity measures based on informational entropy - H/Hmax and LMC measures - were applied to physiognomy images and to the corresponding spectral response curves. H/Hmax is a measure which considers that high complexity value means that the system has more disorder. It hence enables identifying if a system is close to order or to disorder. The LMC measure provides a different interpretation considering that the highest complexity is situated between order and disorder, that is, maximum entropy is found in a state of intermediary heterogeneity. This assumption could be mathematically represented by a convex function of entropy. Results pointed out that both measures were very efficient in assigning greater values of complexity to more heterogeneous physiognomies. There was also a strong tendency that each physiognomy presents the same values of complexity at different localities, attributing a typical range of values for each one, regardless of its location.

  6. The seasonal carbon and water balances of the Cerrado environment of Brazil: Past, present, and future influences of land cover and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Arielle Elias; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Coe, Michael T.

    2016-07-01

    The Brazilian savanna (known as Cerrado) is an upland biome made up of various vegetation types from herbaceous to arboreal. In this paper, MODIS remote sensing vegetation greenness from the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and evapotranspiration (ET) data for the 2000-2012 period were analyzed to understand the differences in the net primary productivity (NPP-proxy), carbon, and the evaporative flux of the major Cerrado natural and anthropic landscapes. The understanding of the carbon and evaporative fluxes of the main natural and anthropic vegetation types is of fundamental importance in studies regarding the impacts of land cover and land use changes in the regional and global climate. The seasonal dynamics of EVI and ET of the main natural and anthropic vegetation types of the Cerrado biome were analyzed using a total of 35 satellite-based samples distributed over representative Cerrado landscapes. Carbon and water fluxes were estimated for different scenarios, such as, a hypothetical unconverted Cerrado, 2002 and 2050 scenarios based on values derived from literature and on the PROBIO land cover and land use map for the Cerrado. The total growing season biomass for 2002 in the Cerrado region was estimated to be 28 gigatons of carbon and the evapotranspiration was 1336 gigatons of water. The mean estimated growing season evapotranspiration and biomass for 2002 was 576 Gt of water and 12 Gt of carbon for pasture and croplands compared to 760 Gt of water and 15 Gt of carbon for the Cerrado natural vegetation. In a modeled future scenario for the year 2050, the ET flux from natural Cerrado vegetation was 394 Gt less than in 2002 and 991 Gt less than in an unconverted scenario, with only natural vegetation, while the carbon was 8 Gt less than in 2002 and 21 Gt less than in this hypothetical pre-conversion Cerrado. On the other hand, the sum of the pasture and cropland ET flux increased by 405 Gt in 2050 relative to 2002 and the carbon by 11 Gt of carbon. Given the

  7. Adubação nitrogenada suplementar tardia em soja cultivada em latossolos do Cerrado Late supplemental nitrogen fertilization on soybean cropped in Cerrado Oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iêda de Carvalho Mendes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se a adubação nitrogenada, nos estádios de pré-florescimento (R1 e início do enchimento de grãos (R5, interfere na produtividade e na nodulação da soja. O estudo foi realizado por sete anos, em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso e, por quatro anos, em Latossolo Vermelho argiloso, ambos com populações estabelecidas de Bradyrhizobium. Foram conduzidos 15 ensaios, em plantio direto ou convencional, com os seguintes tratamentos: inoculação-padrão (IP com B. japonicum; IP + 200 kg ha-1 de N (uréia parcelados em 50% na semeadura e 50% em R1; IP + 50 kg ha-1 de N (nitrato de amônio em R1; IP + 50 kg ha-1 de N (sulfato de amônio em R1; IP + 50 kg ha-1 de N (nitrato de amônio em R5; e IP + 50 kg ha-1 de N (sulfato de amônio em R5. A aplicação de 200 kg ha-1 de N prejudicou a nodulação. Em apenas dois ensaios, houve resposta à aplicação de N, no entanto, sem retorno econômico ao produtor. A adubação nitrogenada tardia, no cultivo da soja com inoculação, em latossolos do Cerrado, não se justifica economicamente, em nenhum dos sistemas de cultivo avaliados, independentemente da fonte de N utilizada.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilization at the pre-flowering (R1 and seed filling (R5 stages, on the nodulation and yield of soybean grown in Cerrado Oxisols. The study was performed for seven years in a clayey Typic Haplustox, and for four years in a clayey Rhodic Haplustox, both with established populations of Bradyrhizobium. Fifteen experiments were carried out under conventional and no tillage management systems and the treatments were: standard inoculation (SI with B. japonicum; SI + 200 kg ha-1 N (urea, split-applied 50% at sowing and 50% at the R1 stage; SI + 50 kg ha-1 N (ammonium nitrate in R1; SI + 50 kg ha-1 N (ammonium sulfate in R1; SI + 50 kg ha-1 N (ammonium nitrate in R5; and SI + 50 kg ha-1 N (ammonium sulfate in R5. The application of

  8. Sistemas de cultivo no cerrado e dinâmica de populações de plantas daninhas Tillage systems in the cerrado and dinamics of weed populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.R. Pereira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de plantio direto, utilizando diferentes programas de rotação de culturas, de preparo convencional e de cultivo mínimo sobre a dinâmica de populações de plantas daninhas nas condições edafoclimáticas do cerrado. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e cinco tratamentos, sendo dois de plantio direto que constaram de programas de rotação constituídos por culturas de verão e de outono/inverno e dois em monocultivo, nos sistemas de preparo convencional e cultivo mínimo respectivamente. Avaliou-se a dinâmica das populações de plantas daninhas. A maior eficiência de controle cultural da comunidade infestante foi obtida com o sistema de plantio direto, por meio dos seguintes programas de rotação: (sorgo/soja - crotalária/milho - milheto/soja - milho safrinha/soja; (milho safrinha/soja - girassol/milho - sorgo/soja - girassol/milho e (guandu/soja - milheto/soja - milho safrinha/milho - girassol/soja.This research aimed to evaluate the effects of no-tillage systems using crop rotation variations, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage on the dynamics of weed populations in the cerrado region in Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, four replications and five treatments, (two no tillage treatments consisting of summer and fall/winter crop rotations and two single crop treatments under conventional tillage and minimum tillage. Weed population dynamics was evaluated. The results showed that the no-tillage system was the most efficient for weed control with the following programs: soybean/sorghum - Crotalaria/corn - millet/soybean, winter corn/soybean; (winter corn/soybean - sunflower/corn - sorghum/soybean - sunflower/corn and (Pigeon/pea/soybean - millet/soybean - winter corn/corn - sunflower/soybean .

  9. Eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium isoladas de solo do Cerrado em caupi Symbiotic efficiency of cowpea Bradyrhizobium strains in Cerrado soils

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    Jerri Édson Zilli

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as relações filogenéticas de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium e a contribuição destas estirpes para a fixação biológica de nitrogênio em caupi, em solos do Cerrado. Na avaliação da relação filogenética, o gene 16S rDNA de cada uma das estirpes foi amplificado e seqüenciado, e para a análise da eficiência simbiótica, determinou-se: N total, matéria seca das plantas, massa de nódulos e redução de acetileno, em casa de vegetação, e ocupação nodular, em experimento de campo. A maioria das estirpes estudadas pertence a B. elkanii e, pelo menos dez das estirpes, independentemente da espécie, apresentaram bom desempenho quanto à fixação biológica de N2. As estirpes BR3262, BR3280 (caracterizadas como B. elkanii e BR3267, BR3287 e BR3288 (Bradyrhizobium sp. mostram-se como inoculantes potenciais para o caupi, em razão do bom desempenho tanto na eficiência simbiótica quanto na ocupação nodular.The obejctive of this study was to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of Bradyrhizobium strains, and the contribution of these strains to cowpea biological nitrogen fixation in Cerrado soils. To elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among strains, their 16S rDNA gene was extracted, amplified and sequenced. In order to evaluate the symbiotic efficiency, total N, plant dry matter, nodular mass and acetylene reduction in a greenhouse experiment, and nodular occupation, in a field experiment, were determined. Most part of the strains belonge to B. elkanii, and at least ten of the analyzed strains, independently of the species, presented high capacity to fix N2. The strains BR3262, BR3280 (characterized as B. elkanii, BR3267, BR3287 and BR3288 (Bradyrhizobium sp. exhibit a potential as inoculant for cowpea, due to their high biological nitrogen fixation.

  10. Análise microclimática em duas fitofisionomias do cerrado no Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais

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    André Rodrigues da Cunha Gianotti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O clima e o solo tem uma estreita relação com a vegetação de uma determinada localidade. Visando entender melhor essa dinâmica no ambiente do cerrado, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar na região de Diamantina, Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, a interação dos elementos climáticos entre fitofisionomias de Campo Rupestre e Cerrado Rupestre, assim como relacionar as características edáficas, e florísticas com o clima. Os elementos climáticos utilizados para caracterizar os ambientes de cerrado foram a temperatura, a umidade relativa do ar, a pressão real e de saturação do vapor de água, o déficit de pressão do vapor do ar, a velocidade e a direção do vento, a precipitação, a radiação solar global e a amplitude térmica. Utilizaram-se para tanto os dados obtidos em duas estações meteorológicas automáticas localizadas próximas aos dois ambientes. O ambiente de Campo Rupestre se distingue do Cerrado Rupestre, principalmente pela maior velocidade do vento, menor umidade relativa do ar máxima, menor pressão real e de saturação do vapor de água, menor temperatura máxima e média e menor amplitude térmica. O efeito em conjunto das variáveis climáticas, somado ao embasamento geológico aparente, discutidos neste estudo, justifica a diferença fitofisionômica observada entre o Cerrado Rupestre e o Campo Rupestre.

  11. Clinical characteristics associated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato skin culture results in patients with erythema migrans.

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    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Clinical characteristics associated with isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from skin have not been fully evaluated. To gain insight into predictors for a positive EM skin culture, we compared basic demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data in 608 culture-proven and 501 culture-negative adult patients with solitary EM. A positive Borrelia spp. skin culture was associated with older age, a time interval of >2 days between tick bite and onset of the skin lesion, EM ≥ 5 cm in diameter, and location of the lesion on the extremities, whereas several other characteristics used as clinical case definition criteria for the diagnosis of EM (such as tick bite at the site of later EM, information on expansion of the skin lesion, central clearing were not. A patient with a 15-cm EM lesion had almost 3-fold greater odds for a positive skin culture than patients with a 5-cm lesion. Patients with a free time interval between the tick bite and onset of EM had the same probability of a positive skin culture as those who did not recall a tick bite (OR=1.02; however, the two groups had >3-fold greater odds for EM positivity than patients who reported a tick bite with no interval between the bite and onset of the lesion. In conclusion, several yet not all clinical characteristics used in EM case definitions were associated with positive Borrelia spp. skin culture. The findings are limited to European patients with solitary EM caused predominantly by B. afzelii but may not be valid for other situations.

  12. Trematode diversity in the freshwater snail Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos sensu lato from Thailand and Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatsopit, N; Sithithaworn, P; Kopolrat, K; Namsanor, J; Andrews, R H; Petney, T N

    2016-05-01

    In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of trematode diversity in Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos sensu lato, the first intermediate host of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini s.l., the prevalence of larval trematode species was investigated in different localities in Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). In Thailand, snail samples were collected from 29 localities in the nine provinces: Buri Ram, Surin, Chaiya Phum, Maha Sarakham, Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Mukdahan, Sakon Nakhon and Nakhon Phanom. In Lao PDR, snail samples were collected from 21 localities in Vientiane Province and six localities in Savannakhet Province. Snails were identified by standard morphological criteria and then examined for trematode infection using the cercarial shedding method. Twenty different types of cercariae were detected and identified, based on morphological criteria. Virgulate type 1 emerged as the most common cercaria, with an average prevalence of 10.90% (range 0.26-54.22%) in Thailand and 6.58% (range 1.15-89.77%) in Lao PDR. Opisthorchis viverrini s.l. cercariae were the fourth most common in Thailand, with an average prevalence of 1.59% (0.15-6.93), while in Lao PDR their prevalence was 0.96% (0.08-8.37). The high diversity of trematode cercariae observed in this study indicates that B. s. goniomphalos s.l. is highly susceptible to infection with a variety of trematode species. However, the role of non-opisthorchiid trematodes as fish-borne parasites in human health is not fully known and further molecular identification is required. PMID:25997613

  13. Padrões espaciais e conservação da diversidade de serpentes do bioma cerrado - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.145 Spatial patterns and biodiversity conservation of snakes from Cerrado biome

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    Levi Carina Terribile

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Em geral, as tentativas para estabelecer áreas prioritárias para conservação no Cerrado têm sido baseadas em critérios subjetivos. No presente trabalho, foram utilizados dados macroecológicos de distribuição de 129 espécies de serpentes distribuídas em 181 células com 1o de latitude/longitude do Cerrado para analisar padrões espaciais na riqueza e propor uma estratégia de conservação para essas espécies. Verificou-se que as cinco variáveis ambientais analisadas explicaram apenas 34,65% da variação na riqueza de serpentes do Cerrado. Para seleção de áreas prioritárias utilizando-se procedimentos de otimização, estabeleceu-se que 14 células são necessárias para representar todas as espécies pelo menos uma vez. Também foram incorporados ao modelo os padrões de ocupação humana no Cerrado, visando minimizar conflitos entre desenvolvimento e conservação, e neste caso as células concentram-se principalmente no sudoeste do bioma. Em função da falta geral de conhecimento sobre os padrões mais locais de distribuição de espécies no Cerrado, esses resultados devem ser considerados preliminares. De qualquer modo, o presente estudo, em escala biogeográfica, importante para estabelecer estratégias metodológicas e para fornecer uma visão ampla dos padrões de diversidade e de que regiões seriam mais importantes para sua conservação.Until recently, the conservation of Cerrado has been neglected and attempts to establish conservation priorities were usually based on subjective criteria. In this paper, macroecological data of distribution of 129 species of snakes in the Cerrado were used to evaluate spatial patterns in species richness and to establish a system of potential areas that preserves all snake species in the region. The five environment variables used as predictors explained only 34.65% of the variance in species richness. In order to establish conservation priorities, optimization procedures were used

  14. Nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana em solo cultivado com soja, sob diferentes sistemas de manejo, nos Cerrados Microbial biomass nitrogen in soil cultivated with soybean, under different management systems, in the Cerrado

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    Kátia Sueli Sivek Perez

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana do solo (NBMS, em diferentes manejos: semeadura direta (SD, uma gradagem (GR, subsolagem e duas gradagens (SG, comparado com solo sob cerrado nativo, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso, no Distrito Federal. Avaliaram-se os solos em cinco profundidades, 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 e 30-40 cm; e em quatro épocas: antes do preparo do solo, 30 dias após a germinação (30 DAG, floração e após colheita da soja. O nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana em solo não perturbado, apresentou maiores valores em todas as épocas estudadas comparadas com os solos em diferentes manejos. Houve diferença significativa nas camadas 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm, exceto aos 30 dias após a germinação. A razão porcentual no Cerrado Nmic:Ntotal foi 2,5 vezes maior que a GR, três vezes maior que a SD e cinco vezes maior que a SG. A distribuição do Ntotal foi decrescente no solo de Cerrado e nos manejos ao longo do perfil. Os teores de Ntotal reduziram-se de acordo com a profundidade em todas as épocas avaliadas. Houve correlação positiva entre os nutrientes e o nitrogênio microbiano nos diferentes manejos e solo de cerrado sob vegetação nativa.The aim of this work was to quantify soil nitrogen microbial biomassa (SNMB under different soil management systems: no-tillage (NT; one harrowing (OH; one subsoiling with two harrowings (SH. These systems were compared with native Cerrado, on a Red Yellow Latossol clay, in Federal District. Soils were studied at five depths, 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm, over four periods: before soil preparation; 30 days after germination (DAG; flowering stage and after harvesting soybean plants. The native Cerrado showed the highest values of SNMB in all periods and management systems. Significant differences were found between 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm soil layers, except at 30 DAG. The Nmic:Ntotal percentual ratio in cerrado soil was 2.5 times

  15. Allelopathic evidence in Brachiaria decumbens and its potential to invade the Brazilian Cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gorgone Barbosa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to look for evidence of allelochemicals in B. decumbens, in parts of the plant from where they could easily be released to the environment. The germination inhibition of Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (standard species and Melinis minutiflora, another invasive African grass, was tested using B. decumbens germinating seeds and aqueous leachates of the roots, green and senescent leaves, at 5, 10 and 20% w/v. Both the germinating seeds and the aqueous leachates of B. decumbens reduced the germination of the species tested; the effectiveness of the aqueous leachates increased according to concentration. Apparently, the competitive advantage of B. decumbens in the cerrados could be amplified via allelopathy.Invasão biológica é uma das maiores causas atuais da perda de biodiversidade. Várias espécies que se tornam invasoras produzem substâncias fitotóxicas que aumentam sua capacidade competitiva; assim, a alelopatia é uma estratégia capaz de potencializar o sucesso de invasão. Brachiaria decumbens, uma gramínea africana, invadiu os cerrados brasileiros e representa, atualmente, uma séria ameaça à biota regional. Neste ensaio, verificamos a presença de aleloquímicos em partes de B. decumbens das quais poderiam ser facilmente liberados para o ambiente. Testamos a inibição da germinação de Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (espécies padrão e Melinis minutiflora (outra gramínea africana invasora usando sementes de B. decumbens e soluções aquosas lixiviadas de suas raízes, folhas verdes e folhas senescentes, a 5, 10 e 20% de peso do material por volume de água. Tanto as sementes como as soluções lixiviadas de decumbens reduziram a germinação das outras espécies; a eficiência dos lixiviados aumentou de acordo com a concentração da solução. Acreditamos que a grande vantagem competitiva de B. decumbens no cerrado possa ser amplificada pela alelopatia.

  16. Gated communities in Latin American cities Barrios cerrados en ciudades latinoamericanas

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    Lucía Demajo Meseguer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban space in many Latin American cities is proliferating these last decades in a gated community form, being defined as enclosed housing developments, with controlled access and security devices. The search for security, the contact with nature and exclusivity are some common features of these urbanizations. These features are usually presented by advertising agencies as vital needs for this modern society. Development of gated communities entails consequences associated with urban space fragmentation, privatization of public space, social segregation and lack of a community belonging sense; hence the need to question these types of developments and to intervene to modify them. Interventions, both aimed to redirect the emerging urban model and to carry out specific actions in the already existing gated communities, should bet on following traditional neighborhood models. This article pretends to analyze the gated communities’ phenomenon occurring in Latin America, detecting it consequences and proposing possible intervention measures.

    El espacio urbano de algunas ciudades latinoamericanas está proliferando, en las últimas décadas, en forma de barrios cerrados; entendidos como áreas de viviendas cerradas, con acceso controlado y dispositivos de seguridad. La búsqueda de la seguridad, el contacto con la naturaleza y la exclusividad son algunos rasgos comunes de estos barrios que, en muchos casos, la publicidad trata de convertir en necesidades vitales para la sociedad. Los barrios cerrados llevan consigo consecuencias relacionadas con la fragmentación del espacio urbano, la privatización del espacio público, la segregación social y el sentimiento de comunidad; de ahí, la necesidad de cuestionarse este tipo de emprendimientos y de intervenir sobre ellos. Las intervenciones, ya sean dirigidas a redireccionar el modelo urbano emergente, como actuaciones puntuales en BC ya existentes, deberían apostar por seguir modelos de barrio

  17. Compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutas nativas do cerrado

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    Wesley Silveira Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As frutas nativas do cerrado têm despertado ultimamente interesse crescente, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais aliadas ao potencial para agregar valor e conservar a biodiversidade deste bioma. Muitos compostos fenólicos apresentam capacidade antioxidante de neutralizar a atividade de radicais livres gerados no organismo, que estão associados a diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três soluções extratoras (acetona a 70 %, etanol a 95 % e metanol a 99,8 % e determinar os teores de compostos fenólicos em 10 espécies de frutas nativas do cerrado, utilizando o método de Folin-Ciocalteou para compostos fenólicos totais e o método da vanilina para taninos condensados. A acetona a 70 % mostrou-se como o melhor solvente extrator de compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutos de Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp., fenólicos totais de Brosimium gaudichaudii e taninos condensados de Jaracatia spinosa. O etanol a 95 % foi mais eficiente na extração de fenólicos totais de Jaracatia spinosa e taninos condensados de Brosimium gaudichaudii; o metanol a 99,8 % foi mais eficiente na extração de taninos condensados de Eugenia dysenterica. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 90 e 327 mg de ácido gálico equivalente por 100g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. punicifolia, respectivamente. Os teores de taninos condensados variaram entre 4 e 291 mg de catequina equivalente por 100 g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. calcyna, respectivamente. As espécies de frutas do cerrado, avaliadas neste estudo, podem ser consideradas boas fontes de compostos fenólicos totais, sendo que a natureza específica dos diferentes tipos deve ser avaliada em estudos futuros.

  18. Influence of cerrado fragments in the distribution of mites in rubber tree crop; Influencia de fragmentos de cerrado na distribuicao de acaros em seringal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demite, Peterson R. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Animal; Plantacoes E. Michelin Ltda., Itiquira, MT (Brazil)]. E-mail: peterson_demite@yahoo.com.br; Feres, Reinaldo J.F. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia e Botanica]. E-mail: reinaldo@ibilce.unesp.br

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study was to verify whether fragments of cerrado influence the composition of the mite fauna on rubber trees. Five transects distant 50 m, being the first in the edge near the native areas and the last 200 m inside the crop, were established in each rubber tree crop in southern State of Mato Grosso. In each transect five plants were chosen, and seven leaves were collected from each plant. During one year, 25 quantitative samplings were conducted in two rubber tree crops. The lowest number of phytophagous mites occurred in the transect closer to the native vegetation, and the highest number, in the most distant from the native vegetation. The largest diversity was also observed in the transect closer to the neighboring vegetation. Ten species of predatory mites were also registered in neighboring native areas. These data suggest the movement of predatory mites from the native areas to the mono culture. These natural areas can possibly supply alternative food and habitat for natural enemies of phytophagous mites in the period of food scarceness in the rubber tree crop. The presence of native areas close to culture areas should be taken into account in the elaboration of programs of ecological management of pests. (author)

  19. Predators of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae in Wetlands, Western Kenya: Confirmation by Polymerase Chain Reaction Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Juma, Duncan; SONYE, GORGE; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine whether mosquito predators in wetland habitats feed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) larvae. Aquatic mosquito predators were collected from six wetlands near Lake Victoria in Mbita, Western Kenya. This study revealed that the whole positive rate of An. gambiae s.l. from 330 predators was 54.2%. The order of positive rate was the highest in Odonata (70.2%), followed by Hemiptera (62.8%), Amphibia (41.7%), and Coleoptera (18%)....

  20. Predators of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in Wetlands, Western Kenya: Confirmation by polymerase chain reaction method

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Juma, Duncan; SONYE, GORGE; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine whether mosquito predators in wetland habitats feed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) larvae. Aquatic mosquito predators were collected from six wetlands near Lake Victoria in Mbita, Western Kenya. This study revealed that the whole positive rate of An. gambiae s.l. from 330 predators was 54.2%. The order of positive rate was the highest in Odonata (70.2%), followed by Hemiptera (62.8%), Amphibia (41.7%), and Coleoptera (18%)....

  1. Qualidade física de um Latossolo Vermelho sob sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária no Cerrado Soil physical quality under crop-livestock management systems in a Cerrado Oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robélio Leandro Marchão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária sobre atributos físico-hídricos do solo e avaliar o potencial uso desses atributos como indicadores da qualidade física de um Latossolo. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas 0-5, 10-15, 20-25 e 40-45 cm. Todos os sistemas de uso e manejo do solo alteraram significativamente a densidade, umidade volumétrica, resistência à penetração, porosidade total, macroporosidade, microporosidade efetiva e água prontamente disponível do solo. Foram observados incrementos na resistência à penetração e na densidade do solo em todos os sistemas em comparação ao cerrado nativo. A compactação resultante do pisoteio animal durante quatro anos da fase pastagem, nos sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária, não atingiu valores críticos, que pudessem limitar cultivos anuais subseqüentes. A porosidade total e a macroporosidade foram maiores no cerrado e nos sistemas em plantio direto em relação aos em preparo convencional. Os atributos avaliados são indicadores confiáveis da qualidade físico-hídrica do solo.The objective of this work was to analyze the effect of integrated crop-livestock systems on soil hydraulic properties, and test the potential use of these properties as physical quality indicators of a Cerrado Oxisol. The field study was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil, considering soil layers of: 0-5, 10-15, 20-25 and 40-45 cm. Crop-livestock systems caused significant changes in soil bulk density, volumetric soil-water content, soil penetration resistance, total porosity, macroporosity, effective microporosity, unsaturated pores and available water. An increase was observed in both soil resistance and bulk density for all systems in comparison to the cerrado. However, higher soil resistance did not appear as a limiting factor for annual crops growth in a rotation sequence. Total porosity and macroporosity were

  2. Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera) from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome

    OpenAIRE

    Cátia A. Mello-Patiu; Maria Lígia Paseto; Lucas S. de Faria; Júlio Mendes; Arício X Linhares

    2014-01-01

    Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera) from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome. The diversity of the Sarcophagidae fauna of the Cerrado biome, also know as the Brazilian Savanna, is still underestimated. In this research we collected flies in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a Forensic Entomology experiment. Samples were collected throughout the decomposition process of domestic pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) carcas...

  3. Soil Acidobacterial 16S rRNA Gene Sequences Reveal Subgroup Level Differences between Savanna-Like Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Brazilian Biomes

    OpenAIRE

    Catão, Elisa C. P.; Lopes, Fabyano A. C.; Janaína F. Araújo; Alinne P. de Castro; Barreto, Cristine C.; Mercedes M.C. Bustamante; Betania F. Quirino; Krüger, Ricardo H.

    2014-01-01

    16S rRNA sequences from the phylum Acidobacteria have been commonly reported from soil microbial communities, including those from the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) and the Atlantic Forest biomes, two biomes that present contrasting characteristics of soil and vegetation. Using 16S rRNA sequences, the present work aimed to study acidobacterial diversity and distribution in soils of Cerrado savanna and two Atlantic forest sites. PCA and phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the acidobacterial ...

  4. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  5. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  6. DIAMETER DISTRIBUTION OF ONE SEMIDECIDUOUS SEASONAL FOREST STAND OF CERRADO ECOMUSEUM AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Imaña-Encinas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A stand of a semideciduous forest of the Raio de Sol s farm (15º 45 54 S and 49º 04 03 W with 10 ha was studied.It is inserted into the bioregion of the Cerrado Ecomuseum, Goiás state. For the phytosociological inventory, ten sample plots of 20 x20 m each were systematically laid out. In these plots all living trees with DBH above 5 cm were measured. 742 individuals belongingto 83 species, 67 genera and 36 families were registered. The diameter distribuition shows a tendency of a J inverse model. Ninetysix percent of the individuals are situated in the three first diameter classes. Studied vegetal community was balanced observedthrough the Liocourt quotient.

  7. Reproductive biology and food habits of Pseudoboa nigra (Serpentes: Dipsadidae from the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Paula Orofino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein we provide data on body size, sexual size dimorphism,reproductive cycle, and food habits of the pseudoboini snake Pseudoboa nigra, which is distributed mainly in central South America throughout the Cerrado domain. Based on dissections of 147 preserved specimens, it is shown that females attain, and mature at,larger body sizes than males. There is no significant sexual dimorphism in head length, but males have longer tails relative to their body sizes. Vitellogenesis, egg-laying, and sperm production occur throughout the year, but males do not exhibit long-term sperm storage. The main prey of P. nigra is lizards; there is no evidence of ontogenetic change or sex differences in the diet of this species.

  8. The use of phosphogysum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogysum is a byproduct of the chemical reaction called the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid is reacted with phosphate rock to produce the phosphoric acid needed for fertilizer production. The Brazilian production of this material is around 4.5 millions of tons per year, which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches accomplished in several countries around the world have demonstrated the potential use of this product as an agricultural source of calcium and sulfur, and as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of sodium. In Brazil, these studies are focused mainly in the application of phosphogysum in the Cerrado region, the main agriculture front line of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted by a partnership of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the Agriculture Department of Federal University of Vicosa in order to investigate the radiological impact of the use phosphogysum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado region. For this purpose a set green house experiments have been conducting in two types of soil (one with clay and the other with sandy loam in texture) to determine the transfer factor of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th, 226Ra e 228Ra) from soil to two forage crops (soy beams and lettuce). The present paper presents the preliminary results of this study, including the organic matter content, granulometric distribution and P, K, Ca, Mg and Al concentration in soil samples, the mineralogical characterization and radioactivity concentration in both, phosphogysum and soils samples. The measurement of 232Th concentration has been carried out by neutron activation analysis, 238U by delayed neutron counting technique, 226Ra and 228Ra by the method of radiochemical separation. (author)

  9. The use of phosphogypsum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum is a byproduct of the chemical reaction called the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid is reacted with phosphate rock to produce the phosphoric acid needed for fertilizer production. The Brazilian production of this material is around 4.5 millions of tons per year, which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches accomplished in several countries around the world have demonstrated the potential use of this product as an agricultural source of calcium and sulfur, and as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of sodium. In Brazil, these studies are focused mainly in the application of phosphogypsum in the Cerrado region, the main agriculture front line of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted by a partnership of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the Agriculture Department of Federal University of Vicosa in order to investigate the radiological impact of the use phosphogypsum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado region. For this purpose a set green house experiments have been conducting in two types of soil (one with clay and the other with sandy loam in texture) to determine the transfer factor of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th, 226Ra e 228Ra) from soil to two forage crops (soy beams and lettuce). The present paper presents the preliminary results of this study, including the organic matter content, granulometric distribution and P, K, Ca, Mg and Al concentration in soil samples, the mineralogical characterization and radioactivity concentration in both, phosphogypsum and soils samples. The measurement of 232Th concentration has been carried out by neutron activation analysis, 238U by delayed neutron counting technique, 226Ra and 228Ra by the method of radiochemical separation. (author)

  10. Influência do ambiente em cultivares de feijoeiro-comum em cerrado com baixa altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Santos Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar genótipos de feijoeiro-comum com alta adaptabilidade e estabilidade de produção e verificar a ocorrência de interação genótipos x ambientes (GxA para diferentes caracteres em algumas regiões de cerrado com baixa altitude no Estado do Mato Grosso. Foram realizados 12 ensaios em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em épocas de semeadura da seca e do inverno, no Estado do Mato Grosso, em 2008 e 2009. Os ensaios foram compostos por 19 genótipos com seis diferentes tipos de grãos. Foram obtidos dados de produtividade de grãos, reação à mancha angular, ciclo, tolerância ao acamamento e massa de cem grãos, e realizadas as análises de variância. Os dados de produtividade foram analisados quanto à estabilidade e adaptabilidade pelo método proposto por Annicchiarico. Foi observada interação GxA para todas as características avaliadas. A correlação entre a produtividade dos genótipos nas duas épocas de semeadura foi intermediária (0,48 (p<0,0375, mostrando que o desempenho dos genótipos nessas épocas é razoavelmente coincidente. As cultivares BRS Estilo, de grãos carioca e BRS Esplendor e BRS Campeiro, de grãos pretos, reúnem alta adaptabilidade, estabilidade e produtividade de grãos nas épocas de semeadura da seca e do inverno em regiões de cerrado de baixa altitude no Estado do Mato Grosso.

  11. Cultivo de cachama blanca en altas densidades y en dos sistemas cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Poleo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia de la cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus, a cultivos en altas densidades en sistemas cerrados. Novecientos alevines de 44,3±26 g de peso, se distribuyeron en seis tanques de concreto, con 4,8 m³ de agua. Tres tanques presentaron cero recambio de agua (SCR, y en otros tres, el agua se hizo circular a través de un bioclarificador (SRA. Ambos tratamientos presentaron fuerte aireación para mantener los sólidos en suspensión y suministrar aire. Los peces se alimentaron a saciedad con pienso comercial por 192 días. Los parámetros de calidad de agua como: oxígeno disuelto, amonio total, nitritos, nitratos, alcalinidad, dureza, temperatura y pH, se midieron semanalmente. Los peces en el SCR crecieron a una tasa de 2,34±0,05 g por día, y tuvieron conversión alimenticia de 1,5±0,06, densidad final de 12,96±0,53 kg m-3, y peso final de 449,5±99 g. En el SRA, los peces crecieron 2,33±0,03 g por día, con conversión alimenticia de 1,6±0,07, densidad final de 12,13±1,12 kg m-3, y peso final de 446,5±10 g. La cachama blanca puede ser cultivada en sistemas cerrados con cero recambio de agua en altas densidades.

  12. Composição de carotenoides em passifloras do cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristina Wondracek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar, por HPLC, a composição qualitativa e quantitativa de carotenoides em maracujás do cerrado. Frutos procedentes de acessos nativos de quatro espécies (Passiflora cincinnata, P. nitida, P. setacea e P. edulis foram analisados, utilizando, como referência, o maracujá-amarelo comercial (P. edulis. As polpas de maracujá apresentaram neoxantina, violaxantina, cis-violaxantina, anteraxantina, luteína, zeaxantina, β-criptoxantina, poli-cis-caroteno, prolicopeno, cis-ζ-caroteno, trans-ζ-caroteno, trans-β-caroteno, 13-cis-β-caroteno e fitoflueno. Em geral, os teores de carotenoides entre as espécies e entre os acessos da mesma espécie foram significativamente diferentes. A espécie P. edulis apresentou o maior número de carotenoides, com diferença entre os acessos. Em um acesso de P. edulis comercial, foi encontrado o trans-β-caroteno como o carotenoide principal (7,8±0,8 µg g-1 e no outro o trans-ζ-caroteno (11,4±0,4 µg g-1. Dois acessos de P. edulis nativos do Cerrado apresentaram cis-ζ-caroteno como carotenoide majoritário (6,28±0,15 µg g-1 e 12,1±0,7 µg g-1, casca amarela e roxa, respectivamente. O perfil de carotenoides em frutos de espécies de maracujá apresentou diversidade de composição, com potencial de uso para melhoramento genético para agregar maior valor ao produto e estimular o seu consumo.

  13. New apiaceous hosts of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the Cerrado region of Brazil Novas hospedeiras de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum na família Apiaceae na região do Cerrado do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    A. Reis; WM Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports for the first time in the Cerrado region of Brazil the occurrence of white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in coriander (Coriandum sativum), parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza). The disease was observed on coriander, in Cristalina, Goiás State, on parsley in Gama, the Federal District and on Peruvian carrot in Ibiá, Minas Gerais State. Pathogenicity tests demonstrated that the fungus S. sclerotiorum is the causal agent of the ...

  14. Antifungal activity of extracts from Brazilian Cerrado plants on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Corynespora cassiicola Atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas do Cerrado brasileiro sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Corynespora cassiicola

    OpenAIRE

    E.S. Naruzawa; M.F.S. Papa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the antifungal activity of leaf aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of 10 plants from the Brazilian Cerrado on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Corynespora cassiicola. Antifungal activity was measured through the incorporation of each extract in a culture media or spore suspension, at 50% concentration relative to the volume, determining respectively the mycelial growth and the spore germination. Then, the percentages of mycelial growth inhibition and spore ger...

  15. Relationship between macrofauna, mineralogy and exchangeable calcium and magnesium in Cerrado Oxisols under pasture Relações entre macrofauna, mineralogia, cálcio e magnésio trocáveis em Latossolos do Cerrado sob pastagem

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Rodolfo Siqueira Vendrame; Robélio Leandro Marchão; Osmar Rodrigues Brito; Maria de Fátima Guimarães; Thierry Becquer

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the relationship between macrofauna, mineralogy and exchangeable calcium and magnesium in Cerrado Oxisols under pasture. Twelve collection points were chosen in the Distrito Federal and in Formosa municipality, Goiás state, Brazil, representing four soil groups with varied levels of calcium + magnesium and kaolinite/(kaolinite + gibbsite) ratios. Soil macrofauna was collected in triplicate at each collection point, and identified at the level of taxono...

  16. Resposta de arroz de terras altas à correção de acidez em solo de cerrado Upland rice response to soil acidity in cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAND KUMAR FAGERIA

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do pH do solo sobre a produção, seus componentes e sobre a absorção de nutrientes por três cultivares/linhagens de arroz de terras altas em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, textura franco-argiloso de cerrado. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação, na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão, em Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. Os níveis de pH criados, pela aplicação de calcário, foram: 4,6, 5,7, 6,2, 6,4, 6,6 e 6,8. Testaram-se as cultivares/linhagens de arroz de terras altas CNA 7460, Araguaia e CNA 7449. A produção de matéria seca e de grãos, os componentes de produção e a absorção de nutrientes foram significativamente influenciados pelo pH do solo. A faixa com pH adequado para a produção e para os componentes de produção variou entre 5 e 5,4. Da mesma maneira, para absorção de nutrientes, a variação foi de 4,6 a 5,5, indicando que as cultivaresde arroz de terras altas avaliadas são bastante tolerantes à acidez do solo, produzindo satisfatoriamente sob pH entre 5 e 5,5.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil pH on yield and its components and nutrients uptake by three upland rice cultivars/lines in a Dark-Red Latosol,clay loam texture of Cerrado region. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão, Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil. Soil pH levels created by application of lime were 4.6, 5.7, 6.2, 6.4, 6.6, and 6.8 and cultivars/lines tested were CNA 7460, Araguaia and CNA 7449. Dry matter and grain yield and yield components and nutrient absorption were significantly affected with soil pH. Adequate soil pH for yield and yield components was in the range of 5 to 5.4 and for the nutrients 4.6 to 5.5. These results suggest that rice cultivars tested were quite tolerant to soil acidity and it is possible to produce satisfactory crop in the pH range of 5 to

  17. Occurrence of white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera, in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal, Brazil Ocorrência de Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Cerrado do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors cite Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 as occurring in all the Brazilian territory. In spite of that, there are no reports of capture sites for D. youngi in the literature for Distrito Federal or Cerrado of Central Brazil. Here we report the first precise record of this species for Central Brazil, rural area of Distrito Federal, and provide information on its biology, conservation and distribution in Brazil, according to our data and information from the literature.A espécie Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 é considerada por alguns autores como ocorrendo para todo o Brasil incluindo o bioma Cerrado e área rural do Distrito Federal. No entanto não há na literatura nenhum registro do local de coleta dessa espécie para essas regiões. Reportamos aqui o primeiro registro no Cerrado do Brasil Central, área rural do Distrito Federal, e alguns dados sobre a biologia, conservação e distribuição geográfica da espécie no Brasil, de acordo com dados desse trabalho e da literatura.

  18. EFEITO DE NÍVEIS DE ZINCO SOBRE A CULTURA DO ARROZ EM SOLO DE CERRADO EFFECT OF ZINC LEVELS FOR RICE IN A CERRADO SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Ribeiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    No presente trabalho, estudou-se o efeito de doses crescentes de sulfato de zinco sobre a produtividade e ocorrência de sintomas de deficiência de zinco na cultura do arroz de sequeiro em solo sob cerrado. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com 6 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os níveis de sulfato de zinco testados foram 5, 10, 20 e 40 kg/ha, os quais foram comparados com a testemunha e com um tratamento que recebeu além da adubação básica e calagem, uma aplicação de sulfato de amônia (40 kg/ha em cobertura. O experimento foi instalado em latossolo vermelho, limo-argiloso, sob formação edáfica típica de campo-cerrado. O cultivar usado foi o IAC—12/46, tendo sido as sementes desinfectadas com Neantina Seco a 0,3%. Na aferição dos resultados computou-se a produção de grãos e a intensidade de ocorrência dos sintomas de bronzeamento nas folhas. A análise dos dados revela que os tratamentos com sulfato de zinco, nas dosagens de 5, 10, 20 e 40 kg/ha, equivaleram-se estatisticamente e foram superiores à testemunha e à cobertura com sulfato de amônia. Concluiu-se que a aplicação de sulfato de zinco no sulco de plantio, na dosagem de 5 kg/ha, é suficiente para impedir a ocorrência de deficiência de zinco em intensidade capaz de provocar decréscimos notáveis na produtividade da cultura do arroz. A aplicação de sulfato de amônia em cobertura, na dosagem de 40 kg/ha, por si só, não impediu a manifestação drástica da ocorrência de deficiência de zinco nas plantas.

    In the present experiment, the effect of increasing doses of zinc sulphate on productivity and on the occurrence of symptoms of zinc deficiency was studied in upland rice grown in ‘cerrado’ soil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six (6 treatments and four (4 repetitions. The zinc

  19. EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS AND LIME IN RICE IN CERRADO SOILS EFEITO DE MICRONUTRIENTES E CALCÁRIO NA CULTURA DO ARROZ EM SOLO DE CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    statistically superior to the others. The analysis of variance showed a significant difference among the treatments at the 5% level. The Duncan test indicated that, in rela-tion to grain yield, the treatments fell into two categories. The T1 and T3 treatments gave low yields, and the T2, T4, T5 and T6, produ-ced higher yields. With regard to the intensity of leaf symptoms, the treatments fell into two groups. In the T1 and T3 treatments, the manifestations ware more intense than in the T2, T4 , T5, and T6 treatments. Though there was no significant difference, lime seems to ag-gravate the intensity of the leaf symptom. In the plots that received lime and did not receive zinc, grain yield was significantly lower.

    Desde o ano agrícola de 1966/67, nos arrozais cultivados em solos de cerrado de diversas regiões do Estado de Goiás, vem se observando a ocorrência de anormalidades caracterizadas pela cor marrom no limbo foliar, que se acentuam com o decorrer do ciclo vegetativo, permanecendo a coloração verde apenas na nervura principal e bordos. Geralmente os sintomas aparecem mais intensamente em "reboleiras", onde as plantas se apresentam com porte reduzido, podendo morrer, resultando em sensível queda de produção. Quando as plantas não perecem, o ciclo vegetativo é retardado. Observou-se que as manifestações aparecem frequentemente em arrozais que receberam calcário. No presente trabalho procurou-se estudar a causa de tais sintomas, através da observação do efeito de micronutrientes e calcário, adicionados ao solo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O experimento foi instalado em latossolo vermelho, com cobertura típica de campo cerrado, próximo a Goiânia. O cultivar usado foi o IAC 12/46, tendo sido as sementes desinfectadas com Neantina seco a 0,3%. A adubação foi feita no sulco de plantio, exceto a calagem que foi a lanço. Na

  20. Yeasts from native Brazilian Cerrado plants: Occurrence, diversity and use in the biocontrol of citrus green mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Eugenio Miranda; do Vale, Helson Mario Martins; Moreira, Geisianny Augusta Monteiro

    2015-11-01

    Yeasts are some of the most important postharvest biocontrol agents. Postharvest oranges frequently deteriorate due to green mould (Penicillium digitatum), which causes significant losses. The aims of this study were to determine the composition and diversity of yeasts on plants of the Brazilian Cerrado and to explore their potential for inhibiting citrus green mould. Leaves and fruit of Byrsonima crassifolia and Eugenia dysenterica were collected from Cerrado conservation areas, and thirty-five yeasts were isolated and identified by sequencing the D1-D2 domain of the rDNA large subunit (26S). The isolates represented the Aureobasidium, Meyerozyma, Candida, and Pichia genera. Three isolates identified as Aureobasidium pullulans exhibited potential for the control of P. digitatum in both in vitro and in vivo tests; these isolates reduced the incidence of disease and increased the storage time of fruit. Aureobasidium. pullulans has immense potential for the biological control of filamentous fungi. PMID:26466874

  1. Temporal and spatial variation of the limnological characteristics of a lotic ecosystem in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso.

    OpenAIRE

    Amintas Nazareth Rossete; Carlos José da Silva; Monica Elisa Bleich

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a stream in the area of Cerrado of Mato Grosso according to limnological characteristics during an annual cycle and to assess its relationship with the hydrological regime and anthropogenic changes of the adjacent land system. Two collection points in the stream were selected which passed through the Parque do Bacaba in addition to two other in areas of anthropogenic influence, mainly cattle-raising activity. Data collection was performed bimonthly in downstre...

  2. Content and carbon stocks in labile and recalcitrant organic matter of the soil under crop-livestock integration in Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Itaynara Batista; Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Maria Elizabeth Fernandes Correia; Wanderlei Bieluczyk; Jolimar Antônio Schiavo; Janaína Ribeiro Costa Rows

    2013-01-01

    The study of organic matter and its compartments and their relationship with management, aims to develop strategies for increasing their levels in soils and better understanding of its dynamics. This work aimed to evaluate the fractions of soil organic matter and their carbon stocks in different soil cover system in crop-livestock integration and native Cerrado vegetation. The study was conducted at the farm Cabeceira, Maracajú – MS, sample area have the following history: soybean/corn + brac...

  3. Briófitas de uma área de cerrado no município de Alagoinhas, Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Bôas-Bastos, Silvana B. Vilas; Bastos, Cid José Passos

    1998-01-01

    In a taxonomic survey carried out in cerrado vegetation from Alagoinhas county, State of Bahia, 15 species of Bryophyta, were identified distributed into 12 genera and 9 families, and 12 species of Hepatophyta distributed in 7 genera and 2 families. Cheilolejeunea rigidula (Mont. ) Schust., Diplasiolejeunea cobrensis Gott. ex Steph., Diplasiolejeunea rudolphiana Steph., Frullanoides corticalis (Lehm. & Lindenb.) van Slag., Frullania neesii Lindenb., Lejeunea glaucescens Gott. and Leucolejeune...

  4. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the central-western region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Maria Póvoa Violante; Lidilhone Hamerski; Walmir Silva Garcez; Ana Lucia Batista; Marilene Rodrigues Chang; Vali Joana Pott; Fernanda Rodrigues Garcez

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), a...

  5. Infestation of thornbird nests (Passeriformes: Furnariidae) by Psammolestes tertius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) across Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga ecoregions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves; César Augusto Cuba Cuba

    2011-01-01

    Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 is a sylvatic triatomine bug species that occurs in thornbird nests in Brazil. We studied infestation of 527 nests of Phacellodomus rufifrons Wied, 1821 and Phacellodomus ruber Vieillot, 1817 by P. tertius in eight Brazilian states across the Cerrado and Caatinga ecoregions. Psammolestes tertius occurred in 44% of the nests, mainly in those of P. ruber. Overall, 3,261 specimens (52% nymphs) were captured, with an average of 14 bugs per infested nest (...

  6. Transcriptional profile of Paracoccidioides induced by oenothein B, a potential antifungal agent from the Brazilian Cerrado plant Eugenia uniflora

    OpenAIRE

    Zambuzzi-Carvalho, Patrícia Fernanda; Tomazett, Patrícia Kott; Santos, Suzana Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Martins, Wellington Santos; De Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Pereira, Maristela

    2013-01-01

    Background The compound oenothein B (OenB), which is isolated from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian Cerrado plant, interferes with Paracoccidioides yeast cell morphology and inhibits 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation, which is involved in cell wall synthesis. In this work we examined the gene expression changes in Paracoccidioides yeast cells following OenB treatment in order to investigate the adaptive cellular responses to drug stress. Results We constructe...

  7. Temporal and spatial variation of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) caterpillar abundance in the cerrado of Brasilia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Helena C.; Mangabeira, Jacimary A. [Universidade Federal de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Ecologia]. E-mail: morais@unb.br; Cabral, Berites C.; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade Federal de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: irdiniz@unb.br

    2007-11-15

    The caterpillars of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick feed on Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae) in the cerrado of the Distrito Federal, Brazil. They construct shelters by joining leaves of the plant where they feed and pupate. The caterpillars are parasitized by a wasp (Hymenoptera: Brachonidae), which emerges from the pupae. Caterpillar abundance and parasitism frequency were associated in an area of frequently burned cerrado (biennial fire) and in another area that burns sporadically (1987 and 1994). For S. cathosiota, the variation among years in a single area, with sporadic fires, was greater than the variation among areas with different fire regimes. Caterpillar abundance among years was significantly different in the area that burns sporadically (c{sup 2} = 24.06; df. = 1; P = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences on caterpillar abundance between areas for the same period (c{sup 2} 3.45; df. = 1; P = 0.063). Parasitism frequency was high, reaching 29% of the collected caterpillars, and did not differ among areas. The great temporal variation in abundance of lepidopteran caterpillars in the cerrado makes it difficult to determine the effects that fire exerts over this fauna. (author)

  8. Temporal and spatial variation of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) caterpillar abundance in the cerrado of Brasilia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caterpillars of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick feed on Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae) in the cerrado of the Distrito Federal, Brazil. They construct shelters by joining leaves of the plant where they feed and pupate. The caterpillars are parasitized by a wasp (Hymenoptera: Brachonidae), which emerges from the pupae. Caterpillar abundance and parasitism frequency were associated in an area of frequently burned cerrado (biennial fire) and in another area that burns sporadically (1987 and 1994). For S. cathosiota, the variation among years in a single area, with sporadic fires, was greater than the variation among areas with different fire regimes. Caterpillar abundance among years was significantly different in the area that burns sporadically (c2 = 24.06; df. = 1; P = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences on caterpillar abundance between areas for the same period (c2 3.45; df. = 1; P = 0.063). Parasitism frequency was high, reaching 29% of the collected caterpillars, and did not differ among areas. The great temporal variation in abundance of lepidopteran caterpillars in the cerrado makes it difficult to determine the effects that fire exerts over this fauna. (author)

  9. Evidence of limited carbon sequestration in soils under no-tillage systems in the Cerrado of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeels, Marc; Marchão, Robelio Leandro; Neto, Marcos Siqueira; Ferreira, Eliann Garcia; Madari, Beata Emöke; Scopel, Eric; Brito, Osmar Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian government aims at augmenting the area cropped under no-tillage (NT) from 32 to 40 million ha by 2020 as a means to mitigate CO2 emissions. We estimated soil carbon (C) sequestration under continuous NT systems in two municipalities in the Goiás state that are representative of the Cerrado. A chronosequence of NT fields of different age since conversion from conventional tillage (CT) was sampled in 2003 and 2011. Soil C levels of native Cerrado and pasture were measured for comparison. After about 11 to 14 years, soil C stocks under NT were highest and at the levels of those under natural Cerrado. Average annual rates of soil C sequestration estimated using the chronosequence approach were respectively 1.61 and 1.48 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) for the 2003 and 2011 sampling, and were higher than those observed using repeated sampling after eight years. The diachronic sampling revealed that the younger NT fields tended to show higher increases in soil C stocks than the older fields. Converting an extra 8 million ha of cropland from CT to NT represents an estimated soil C storage of about 8 Tg C yr(-1) during 10 to 15 years. PMID:26907731

  10. Sistemas agroflorestais e seus efeitos sobre os atributos químicos em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo do Cerrado piauiense Agroforestry systems and its effects on chemical attributes of an Ultisol in the 'Cerrado' of Piaui state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna de F. Iwata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, quantificar os efeitos dos Sistemas Agroflorestais com diferentes tempos de adoção e a agricultura de corte e queima sobre os atributos químicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo em áreas de cerrado do estado do Piauí. Em duas épocas climáticas foram estudados quatro sistemas: sistemas agroflorestais com seis e treze anos de adoção, agricultura de corte e queima e uma floresta nativa do cerrado. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em quatro profundidades para determinação dos atributos químicos. No solo sob os Sistemas Agroflorestais foram observados, em todas as camadas avaliadas, redução dos teores de Al3+ e H++Al3+ e aumento do pH, dos teores dos nutrientes e do carbono orgânico total em relação aos demais sistemas. No solo sob agricultura de corte e queima, verificou-se que apenas nas camadas superficiais a cinza depositada sobre o solo promoveu aumento dos nutrientes, exceto para o P, que foi maior em todas as camadas. Nos demais sistemas houve diminuição dos teores dos nutrientes no período chuvoso. Os sistemas agroflorestais promoveram aumento dos teores de nutrientes do solo e garantiram melhoria da qualidade química do solo em áreas de cerrado no estado do Piauí.This study aimed to quantify the effects of agroforestry systems (AFS, with different periods of adoption, and slash and burn agriculture (SB on the chemical attributes of an Ultisol in the 'Cerrado' of Piaui State, Brazil. In two distinct climatic seasons (dry and rainy four systems were studied: AFS with six (AFS6 and thirteen years (AFS13 of adoption, an area under SB and a native forest (NF, as a reference. In the AFS, in all depths, higher reduction in the Al3+ and H+ + Al3+ contents were observed as well as an increase of pH value and contents of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg and K and organic carbon in soil. In the soil under SB, only in superficial layers, the ash deposited on the soil caused an increase in contents of

  11. Radiological impact associated to the use of phosphogypsum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid is reacted with phosphate rock to produce phosphoric acid. The Brazilian production of this material is around 12 million of tons per year which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches accomplished in several countries worldwide have demonstrated the potential use of PG in agriculture not only as a source for calcium and sulfur, but also as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of aluminum. In Brazil, these studies are mainly focused on the application of phosphogypsum to the Cerrado region, the main agriculture region of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted in a partnership with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Soil Department of Vicosa Federal University in order to investigate the radiological impact of using phosphogypsum in crops cultivated in Cerrado soils. For this purpose a set of greenhouse experiments have been conducted in two types of soil (one clayey and other sandy loam textured) to determine the transfer factor of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb) from soil to crops (lettuce, corn and soybean) and drainage waters. This paper aims to report preliminary results of the study, including the chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of the soil samples, and radioactivity concentration in both the applied PG and soil samples. The measurement of 232Th concentration has been carried out by neutron activation analysis, 238U by delayed neutron counting technique, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb by the method of radiochemical separation. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra (240 Bq.kg-1) and 228Ra (224 Bq.kg-1) in PG were below the maximum level recommended by CNEN which is 1000 Bq

  12. The Rare ospC Allele L of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto, Commonly Found among Samples Collected in a Coastal Plain Area of the Southeastern United States, Is Associated with Ixodes affinis Ticks and Local Rodent Hosts Peromyscus gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2013), s. 1403-1406. ISSN 0099-2240 Grant ostatní: NIH(US) R37AI-24899 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : lyme disease * genetic diversity * scapularis tick * Acari * North Carolina * heterogenity * polymorphism * cultivation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.952, year: 2013

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of burned area over Brazilian Cerrado from 2005 to 2015 using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Renata; DaCamara, Carlos; Setzer, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Although Cerrado is a fire-dependent biome, current agriculture practices have significantly modified the native fire regime. Moreover, over the last decades, climate conditions, such as intensive droughts, have contributed to enhance the effects of anthropogenic activities, and consequently fire, over the region. For instance, during the 2010 extreme drought there was an increase of 100% in the number of fire pixels detected by just one polar orbiting satellite (information online at http://www.cptec.inpe.br/queimadas). A better characterization of spatial and temporal fire patterns over Cerrado is therefore crucial to uncover both climate and anthropogenic influences in this ecosystem. Additionally, information about the extent, location and time of burned areas (BA) over Cerrado is especially useful to a wide range of users, from government agencies, research groups and ecologists, to fire managers and NGOs. Instruments on-board satellites are the only available operational means to collect BA data at appropriated spatial and temporal scales and in a cost-effective way. Several global BA products derived from remote sensed information have been developed over the last years using a variety of techniques based on different spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions. Although presenting similar inter-annual variability, there are marked differences among the products both in magnitude and location of the area burnt. The development of regional algorithms which take into account local characteristics such as vegetation type, soil and climate is therefore an added value to the existing information. We present a monthly BA product (AQM) for Brazil based on information from MODIS 1km. The algorithm was specifically designed for ecosystems in Brazil and the procedure represents the first initiative of an automated method for BA monitoring using remote sensing information in the country. The product relies on an algorithm that takes advantage of the ability of MIR

  14. Impactos do agrupamento do bambu Actinocladum verticillatum (Nees McClure ex Soderstr. (POACEAE sobre a vegetação lenhosa de duas fitofisionomias de Cerrado na transição Cerrado-Floresta Amazônica Impact of Actinocladum verticillatum (Nees McClure ex Soderstr. (POACEAE clumps on the woody vegetation in two Cerrado physiognomies in transition Cerrado & Floresta Amazônica, east of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divino Vicente Silvério

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou os efeitos do agrupamento de uma espécie de bambu nativa do Cerrado (Actinocladum verticillatum sobre a composição florística, diversidade e estrutura da vegetação lenhosa de um cerradão e de um cerrado típico adjacentes no Parque Municipal do Bacaba, Nova Xavantina-MT. Foram instaladas 60 parcelas de 10x10 m, sendo 30 no cerradão e 30 no cerrado típico. Em cada fitofisionomia, foram instaladas 15 parcelas em um sítio sem bambu (SB e 15 em um sítio com cobertura estimada de folhagem de bambu superior a 90% (CB. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbustivo-arbóreos com diâmetro a 30 centímetros do solo (DAS ≥ 3 cm. Foi avaliada a riqueza, a diversidade de espécies, a similaridade florística, a distribuição de diâmetros e alturas e o índice de valor de importância das espécies (VI. De forma geral, os sítios CB das duas fitofisionomias apresentaram menores valores quanto ao número de indivíduos, espécies, gêneros, famílias, densidades e áreas basais em relação aos sítios SB, com redução mais acentuada nestes parâmetros no cerrado típico em relação ao cerradão. Os resultados sugerem que a ocupação do espaço e a redução da incidência luminosa causada pelas touceiras do bambu dificultam a germinação das sementes e o estabelecimento das plântulas de espécies arbustivo-arbóreas, selecionando as espécies mais tolerantes ao sombreamento modificando a composição florística e a estrutura da vegetação.This study evaluated the effects of a Cerrado native bamboo species (Actinocladum verticillatum clumps on the floristic composition, diversity and structure of the woody vegetation in two adjacent areas of “cerradão” and typical “cerrado” in the Bacaba Municipal Park, Nova Xavantina, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Sixty plots of 10 x 10 m were established, 30 in each forest physiognomy. In each physiognomy, 15 plots were placed in a bamboo-free site (SB and 15 in a site

  15. Optimization of the Esperanza window trap for the collection of the African onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toé, Laurent D; Koala, Lassane; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Traoré, Bizini M; Sanfo, Moussa; Kambiré, Sié Roger; Cupp, Eddie W; Traoré, Soungalo; Yameogo, Laurent; Boakye, Daniel; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2014-09-01

    A simple inexpensive trap (Esperanza window trap) was shown recently to collect significant numbers of Simulium ochraceum sensu lato, a major vector of Onchocerca volvulus in Mesoamerica. Here, we report studies optimizing this trap for the collection of Simulium damnosum s.l., the major vector of O. volvulus in Africa. A shortened, blue and black striped version of the Esperanza window trap, when baited with a combination of CO2 and worn trousers, rivalled human landing collections in the number of S. damnosum s.l. females collected. Traps baited with a commercially available human skin lure and CO2 resulted in collections that were not significantly different than those obtained from traps baited with worn trousers and CO2. This suggests that the Esperanza window trap may offer a replacement for human landing collections for monitoring onchocerciasis transmission in Africa. PMID:24794201

  16. Genetic Diversity of Phytophthora infestans sensu lato in Ecuador Provides New Insight Into the Origin of This Important Plant Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, N E; Erselius, L J; Chacón, M G; Flier, W G; Ordoñez, M E; Kroon, L P N M; Forbes, G A

    2004-02-01

    ABSTRACT The metapopulation structure of Phytophthora infestans sensu lato is genetically diverse in the highlands of Ecuador. Previous reports documented the diversity associated with four putative clonal lineages of the pathogen collected from various hosts in the genus Solanum. This paper simultaneously analyzes diversity of the complete collection of isolates, including a large number that had not yet been reported. This analysis confirmed the existence of three pathogen populations, which all appear to be clonal lineages, and that correspond to those previously reported as US-1, EC-1, and EC-3. No evidence was found from the analyses of recently collected isolates that would contradict earlier reports about these three lineages. In contrast, new data from a group of isolates from several similar hosts caused us to modify the previous description of clonal lineage EC-2 and its previously proposed hosts, S. brevifolium and S. tetrapetalum. Given the uncertainty associated with the identification of these hosts, which all belong to the section Anarrhichomenum, we refer to them as the Anarrhichomenum complex, pending further taxonomic clarification. New pathogen genotypes associated with the Anarrhichomenum complex were isolated recently that are A1 mating type and Ia mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype, and therefore differ from the previously described EC-2 lineage, which is A2 and Ic, respectively. Because of uncertainty on host identification, we do not know if the new genotypes are limited to one host species and therefore represent yet another host-adapted clonal lineage. For now, we refer to the new genotypes and previously described EC-2 genotypes, together, as the pathogen group attacking the Anarrhichomenum complex. Two A2 isolates identical to the previously described EC-2 archetype were collected from severely infected plants of pear melon (S. muricatum). Pear melon is generally attacked by US-1, and this is the first clear case we have documented in

  17. Karyomorphology of six taxa in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) in Egypt and their genetic relationships by Giemsa C-banding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdy Hussein ABD EL-TWAB; Ahmad Mohammad M. MEKAWY; Mohammad Saad EL-KATATNY

    2012-01-01

    Giemsa C-banding was applied to the chromosome complements of six diploid species belonging to six genera in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) distributed in Egypt.Four types of C-banding distribution were observed in the taxa as follows:(i) negative C-banding in Anacyclus monanthos (L.) Thell.; (ii) all bands in terminal regions in Achilleafragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.Bip,which showed 32 bands on 18 chromosomes; (iii)all eight bands at centromeric regions on eight chromosomes in Matricaria recutita L.; and (iv) bands at terminal and centromeric regions in Brocchia cinerea Vis.(12 terminal and six centromeric bands on 12 chromosomes),Cotula barbata DC.(four terminal,six centromeric,and eight short arm bands on 16 chromosomes),and Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass.ex Spach.(eight terminal on the short arms and four large bands in centromeric regions on 12chromosomes).

  18. Predators of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in wetlands, western Kenya: confirmation by polymerase chain reaction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Shin-Ya; Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Juma, Duncan; Sonye, Gorge; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-09-01

    Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine whether mosquito predators in wetland habitats feed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) larvae. Aquatic mosquito predators were collected from six wetlands near Lake Victoria in Mbita, Western Kenya. This study revealed that the whole positive rate of An. gambiae s.l. from 330 predators was 54.2%. The order of positive rate was the highest in Odonata (70.2%), followed by Hemiptera (62.8%), Amphibia (41.7%), and Coleoptera (18%). This study demonstrates that the polymerase chain reaction method can determine whether aquatic mosquito predators feed on An. gambiae s.l. larvae if the predators have undigested An. gambiae s.l. in their midgut or stomach. PMID:20939371

  19. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M; Arruda, Sandra F; Dourado, Lívia P S; da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  20. Association patterns of ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae, Argasidae) of small mammals in Cerrado fragments, western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Martins, Thiago F; Krawczak, Felipe S; Labruna, Marcelo B; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2015-03-01

    The present study describes ticks associated with small mammals and analyzes the aggregation patterns according to seasonal and host variations in the Cerrado biome, central-western Brazil. Small mammals were systematically captured in 54 woodland fragments from February 2012 to July 2013. A total of 1,040 animals belonging to eight marsupial and 12 rodent species were captured; 265 animals were parasitized by eight tick species (in decreasing order of abundance): Ornithodoros mimon, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma parkeri, and Ixodes amarali. With few exceptions, collected ticks were larvae and nymphs. Among the more abundant animals, the marsupial Didelphis albiventris showed the highest tick prevalence (84.4 %), mean abundance (19.2), mean intensity (22.8), richness of ticks species (n = 7), and total abundance of ticks (n = 2,457). Amblyomma sculptum and O. mimon were the most generalist species, collected on four host species. Fifteen new tick-host associations are reported for the first time. Most ticks showed higher prevalence and mean intensity in the dry season, regardless of host species. Overall, tick prevalence and mean intensity of infestation were significantly associated with host gender. Finally, the importance of the large number of records of the argasid O. mimon is discussed. PMID:25633262

  1. Uso do solo e cultivares de arroz consorciados com braquiária no Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação dos novos cultivares de arroz, em consórcio com o capim marandu (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, no sistema de semeadura direta, poderá possibilitar a identificação de materiais mais adaptados a esse sistema, sem redução da produtividade de grãos da cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de cultivares de arroz de terras altas, em sistemas de cultivo solteiro e consorciado com capim marandu (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, em dois sistemas de manejo do solo (convencional, PC, e sistema semeadura direta, SSD. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial 2 (sistemas de cultivo x 2 (sistemas de manejo do solo x 5 (cultivares. O experimento foi conduzido na região de Cerrado, no município de Ipameri-GO. O consórcio de cultivares de arroz de terras altas Primavera, BRSMG Curinga, Caiapó e BRS Bonança com capim marandu não afetou a produtividade de grãos da cultura. Os cultivares de arroz Primavera, BRSMG Curinga e Caiapó podem ser cultivados, tanto no SSD quanto no PC sem afetar a produtividade de grãos da cultura. A produção de biomassa seca do capim marandu foi afetada pelo consórcio com cultivares de arroz de terras altas.

  2. Phenolic composition and antiparasitic activity of plants from the Brazilian Northeast "Cerrado".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Júnior, João Tavares; de Morais, Selene Maia; Gomez, Celeste Vega; Molas, Cathia Coronel; Rolon, Miriam; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Morais Oliveira, Cícera Datiane; Tintino, Saulo Relison; Henrique Douglas, Melo Coutinho

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the antiparasitic and cytotoxic activities of three plant species from the Cerrado biome, Northeastern Brazil. Significant antiparasitic inhibition was observed against Trypanosoma cruzi (63.86%), Leishmania brasiliensis (92.20%) and Leishmania infantum (95.23%) when using ethanol extract from leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae), at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. However, low levels of inhibition were observed when assessing leishmanicidal and trypanocidal (Clone CL-B5) activities of crude ethanol extracts from leaves and bast tissue of Luehea paniculata (Malvaceae) and leaves and bark of Prockia crucis (Salicaceae) at a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The extracts revealed the presence of phenolic acids such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid, as well as flavonoids such as rutin, luteolin, apigenin and quercetin - the latter detected only in G. ulmifolia. G. ulmifolia extract displayed higher leishmanicidal activity probably due to the presence of quercetin, a potent known leishmanicidal compound. A cytotoxicity test indicated values over 50% at the highest concentration (1000 μg/mL) for all natural products, which were considered cytotoxic. This points out the need for further tests to enable future in vivo trials, including antineoplastic activity on human tumor cells. PMID:27081371

  3. Influence of cerrado fragments in the distribution of mites in rubber tree crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to verify whether fragments of cerrado influence the composition of the mite fauna on rubber trees. Five transects distant 50 m, being the first in the edge near the native areas and the last 200 m inside the crop, were established in each rubber tree crop in southern State of Mato Grosso. In each transect five plants were chosen, and seven leaves were collected from each plant. During one year, 25 quantitative samplings were conducted in two rubber tree crops. The lowest number of phytophagous mites occurred in the transect closer to the native vegetation, and the highest number, in the most distant from the native vegetation. The largest diversity was also observed in the transect closer to the neighboring vegetation. Ten species of predatory mites were also registered in neighboring native areas. These data suggest the movement of predatory mites from the native areas to the mono culture. These natural areas can possibly supply alternative food and habitat for natural enemies of phytophagous mites in the period of food scarceness in the rubber tree crop. The presence of native areas close to culture areas should be taken into account in the elaboration of programs of ecological management of pests. (author)

  4. Land-use in Amazonia and the Cerrado of Brazil: State of Knowledge and GIS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.

    1997-01-01

    We have assembled datasets to strengthen the LargeScale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These datasets can now be accessed through the Woods Hole Research Center homepage (www.whrc.org), and will soon be linked to the Pre-LBA homepages of the Brazilian Space Research Institute's Center for Weather and Climate Prediction (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, INPE/CPTEC) and through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL/DMC). Some of the datasets that we are making available involved new field research and/or the digitization of data available in Brazilian government agencies. For example, during the grant period we conducted interviews at 1,100 sawmills across Amazonia to determine their production of sawn timber, and their harvest intensities. These data provide the basis for the first quantitative assessment of the area of forest affected each year by selective logging (Nepstad et al, submitted to Nature). We digitized the locations of all of the rural households in the State of Para that have been mapped by the Brazilian malaria combat agency (SUCAM). We also mapped and digitized areas of deforestation in the state of Tocantins, which is comprised largely of savanna (cerrado), an ecosystem that has been routinely excluded from deforestation mapping exercises.

  5. Element analysis by PIXE of environmental samples of the Brazilian Cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vast region in the Brazilian central plateau is characterized by a flora denominated Cerrado and a somewhat peculiar fauna. An area of about 13 km2 in this region is maintained as an ecological reserve. A number of scientists, including biologists, chemists, geologists, botanists and physicists are involved in several research projects in this ecological reserve. The present paper deals only with the contribution to the study of soil and particulate matter suspended in natural springs and rainwater of the area, by using the PIXE technique as an analytical tool to determine the metal concentrations in these materials. The concentrations of titanium, zinc, chromium, copper and calcium in relation to iron have been determined in samples of soil and suspended materials in springwater to serve as a basis for future comparisons with similar samples from several origins. Variations in the concentrations of potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, nickel, copper and zinc in relation to iron have been monitored in the suspended matter found in rainwater collected within the area

  6. Nut density and removal in Syagrus loefgrenii Glassman (Arecaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2016-04-19

    In this study, I tested the effect of Syagrus loefgrenii nut number on the removal intensity by rodents across seasons. Also, I assessed both S. loefgrenii fruit production, and dispersion pattern to analyze the relationship between these parameters and nut removal. Trials were performed (autumn, winter, spring, and summer), in which endocarps were placed inside trays (5, 15, and 40 endocarps) in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). Syagrus loefgrenii exhibited clumped distribution, although its local density had no correlation with endocarp removal rate. Despite of variations, S. loefgrenii fruit production had no seasonal difference, although, high proportions of endocarps were year round removed. This mostly results from nearly complete endocarp loss in depots of 5 and 15, while the opposite occurred in those of 40. Hence, the intensity of removal consistently decreases with endocarp number, so that endocarp removal conformed to negative distance-dependence. As this palm exhibit clumped distribution and, in principle, fruit asynchronously, if, at least, a group of neighboring stems bore fruits simultaneously, an enhanced number of nuts might be available at a given site. Therefore, seeds within a dense S. loefgrenii fruit patch might experience high survival rates due to satiation of post dispersal seed predators. PMID:27097083

  7. SOIL ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS IN PRESERVED AND DISTURBED WETLANDS OF THE CERRADO BIOME

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    Ricardo Fernandes de Sousa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Veredas are humid tropical ecosystems, generally associated to hydromorphic soils and a shallow water table. The soils of these ecosystems are affected by the use of the areas around these veredas. The objective of this study was to determine soil organic matter (SOM fractions in veredas adjacent to preserved (native savanna and disturbed environments (agricultural areas and pastures in the Cerrado biome. Soil samples were collected from the 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers along reference lines drawn along the relief following the upper, middle and lower positions of one of the slopes, in the direction of the draining line of the vereda. The soil analysis determined: total soil OC, total nitrogen and C:N ratio; C and N contents and C:N ratio in particulate and mineral-associated fractions (of SOM; fulvic acids, humic acids and humin fractions and ratio between humic and fulvic acids. The agricultural use around the veredas induced changes in the SOM fractions, more pronounced in the lower part of the slope. In the soil surface of this part, the OC levels in the humic substances and the particulate fraction of SOM, as well as total soil OC were reduced in the vereda next to crop fields.

  8. The role of Pteridium arachnoideum(Kaulf) on the seed bank of the endangered Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, R O; Alday, J G; Marrs, R H; Matos, D M S

    2016-02-01

    The native bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum) often occurs in mono-specific stands in the Brazilian Cerrado, and this dominance can impact on both the above-ground vegetation and soil seed bank. This study investigated how invasion by this species over a 20-year period changed the seed bank and the relationship between the seed bank and litter mass. We extracted soil samples from three replicated invaded and uninvaded sites, and followed seedling emergence for six months. We collected the above-ground biomass and litter of P. arachnoideum in ten 1m2 plots from three invaded sites. There was no difference between invaded and uninvaded areas in seed bank richness, diversity or overall abundance. The most abundant family was the Melastomataceae, followed by the Poaceae. The Melastomataceae was more abundant in uninvaded sites, but the most common species of this family (Tibouchinastenocarpa) was not affected. The grasses were more common in invaded sites in the rainy season and were affected by heterogeneity in the litter layer. The seed bank could play a role in the recovery of these invaded areas, but the presence of weeds and invasive grasses could constrain their use as a management strategy. PMID:26871749

  9. Determinação do potencial antioxidante in vitro de frutos do Cerrado brasileiro

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    Mônica Lopes Morais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extratos em metanol e acetona de diferentes espécies do Cerrado, semente de Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil (Lobeira, polpa de Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC. (Murici, epicarpo e mesocarpo de Caryocar brasiliense Cambess (Pequi e pendúculo de Cipocereus minensis F. Ritter (Quiabo-da-lapa foram submetidos a ensaios antioxidantes in vitro para avaliar a capacidade de sequestrar os radicais orgânicos DPPH e ABTS.+, reduzir o ferro (FRAP e/ ou inibir a peroxidação lipídica (β-caroteno. Todas as amostras apresentaram considerável atividade antioxidante, embora em diferentes proporções, destacando-se o mesocarpo de Caryocar brasiliense como o responsável pela maior atividade antioxidante por captura de radicais livres (DPPH e ABTS e poder de redução do metal (FRAP e o pendúnculo de Cipocereus minensis frente à inibição da peroxidação lipídica (B-caroteno. Os frutos estudados podem ser considerados fontes potenciais de antioxidantes naturais e podem ser explorados como aditivos alimentares promissores para a prevenção de doenças, bem como para a manutenção da saúde.

  10. Potential use of zeolites in attenuation water deficit in cerrado latosol

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    Samara Martins Barbosa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The improvements of hydro-physical conditions of the Cerrado Biome soils are extremely important in the view point of agricultural limitations in seasons of poor rainfall distribution and drought period. Against this background, we emphasize the potential use zeolites as soil conditioners, because they are minerals that have large interconnected voids that give them a high degree of hydration with ease to retain and release water. This study aimed to characterize the water retention in dystroferric Red Latosol, as well as the mineral zeolite, beyond their mixtures in order to investigate about ability of this mineral increasing the water availability range of Latosol for plants. The completely randomized experiment consisted of treatments based on mixtures of zeolite:Latosol in the proportion 2,5: 97,5%; 5:95%; 10:90% and 20:80%, respectively. In order to determination of water retention curve was established the water content in the following potential matric: -1, -2, -4, -6, -10 kPa suction units and -33, -100 kPa in chambers Richards and -500 the -1500 kPa in thermocouple psychrometer WP4-T in soil samples. Was fitted the van Genuchten model by nonlinear regression procedures of software SWRC, to experimental data. The addition of zeolite promoted changes in pore intermediates distribution of Latosol, enhancing water release for plants.

  11. Assessment of toxic potential of Cerrado fruit seeds using Artemia salina bioassay

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    Raíza Cavalcante Fonseca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemia salina bioassay was used to assess toxicity of seeds and kernels of Brazilian fruits from cerrado (central high plains region and other inner regions of the country. Water extracts of the kernels were filtered and added to Artemia cultures containing ten individuals per mL. Dose - response curves were constructed, and LD50 values were calculated. Pure potassium cyanide standard was used to draw a calibration curve for comparison to detect the presence of cyanide in the samples tested. Extracts of the seeds of araticum, mangaba, cagaita, jatobá, and tucumã were found toxic to Artemia salina, and some of the dose - response curves were very similar in shape to those obtained with pure potassium cyanide standards, while the samples of baru, cajá-manga, siriguela, trauma, and veludo showed no toxicity at all. The Guignard test, specific for cyanide detection, showed negative results in all toxic samples, suggesting the presence of other toxic compounds rather than cyanide. The comparison of araticum dose - response curve with those of other annonaceous fruits suggests the presence acetogenins as the main toxic compounds in the seeds. These results could be useful to prevent poisoning by industrial derivatives of the fruits studied.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations. PMID:24031956

  13. Roadkill hotspots in a protected area of Cerrado in Brazil: planning actions to conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno H Saranholi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Here we aimed to identify the main points of animal death by roadkill in the view of helping mitigation plans and reducing the impact over the local fauna of a protected area. Materials and methods. We surveyed the roads around a protected area of Cerrado (São Paulo, Brazil from May 2012 to August 2013. We recorded the local of roadkills, biometric and morphologic data of the animals, and collected samples of tissue for molecular species confirmation. Results. Thirty-one roadkilled animals were registered, including threatened species: Leopardus pardalis; Cuniculus paca and Chrysocyon brachyurus. Most roadkills were represented by mammals (54.8% and reptiles (38.7%, and the mortality rate was 1.46 animals/km/year. Three roadkill hotspots were detected, suggesting that they were important points of animal crossing, probably because of the existence of natural remnant vegetation and intersection of roads by riparian vegetation. Conclusions. This work provided strong evidence of the most critical points where mitigation strategies should be immediately implemented and highlighted the importance of detecting roadkill hotspots and the species or taxonomic groups more affected, helping to elaborate effective actions that can improve fauna conservation.

  14. Radiochemical Characterization of Phosphogypsum for its Use in Agriculture in Cerrado, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study involved phosphogypsum (PG), a NORM by-product from the so-called 'wet process' for the manufacture of phosphate fertilizer. Since it contains U and Th series radionuclides, P2O5 and trace metals, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of radionuclide transfer and to evaluate whether PG in soil contributes significantly to human exposure to natural sources. In greenhouse experiments, PG, soil, soil treated with PG (for lettuce, corn and soya bean cultivation), as well as leached water samples, were analysed for key radionuclides (238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po). The average 226Ra activity in PG (0.252 ± 0.026 Bq/g) was below the limit of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The values of 228Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po were within an order of magnitude of the 226Ra value. Transfer factors varied from 0.00094 to 0.34. In general, the radionuclide mobility in soil was low and demonstrated the viability of PG as a soil amendment in the agriculture of the Cerrado region. (author)

  15. Feeding ecology of Ara ararauna (Aves, Psittacidae at firebreaks in western Cerrado, Brazil

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    Dárius Pukenis Tubelis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify food items of the Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna flocks foraging at firebreaks in western Cerrado, Brazil. Also, I discuss ecological aspects of macaw feeding activities at firebreaks. Two 3,500ha portions of Emas National Park were selected for observations. The sites were mosaics of woodland savanna and shrubby grassland, crossed and bordered by firebreaks and adjacent unsealed roads. A total of 76 foraging flocks of macaws were recorded at firebreaks between September 2006 and February 2007. Seven plant species were identified as food items. Seeds of a shrub species (Anacardium humile were the most often consumed resource. Parts of other plant species were sometimes consumed. Macaws perched in tree canopies to consume their young apical parts, young leaves, flowers and parts of branches. The frequency of consumption of parts of shrubs was significantly higher than that of trees. At Emas National Park, numerous Blue-and-yellow Macaw flocks are attracted to firebreaks mainly by fruiting A. humile patches. Their foraging activities often damage reproductive and young parts of shrubs and trees.

  16. Antioxidant properties of species from the Brazilian cerrado by different assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to screen the antioxidant activity of medicinal plant extracts from the Brazilian cerrado, through other methods than the total phenolic content and its correlation with the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts of ten species were evaluated through three antioxidant assays, in vitro, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total antioxidant activity and reducing power; and by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method the total phenolic content was determined. Ethanolic extracts of Stryphnodendron obovatum, Cecropia pachystachya and Duguetia furfuraceae showed strong antioxidant activity (IC50<5 µg mL-1 in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay; the species Vernonia phosphorea, Hymenaea stignocarpa and Jacaranda ulei may also be highlighted. These results were confirmed in the assays of total antioxidant capacity and reducing power. The extracts of S. obovatum and V. phosphorea showed an abundant phenolic content; therefore, the phenolic content may play a role in the antioxidant activity. These two species, traditionally used in Brazil, showed great power in these assay systems and may be a promising source for the development of natural antioxidants and future candidates for phytochemical and pharmacological studies in related diseases.

  17. Yield and quality of elephant grass biomass produced in the cerrados region for bioenergy Produção e qualidade da biomassa de capim-elefante produzido em ambiente dos cerrados para fins energéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilner A. Flores

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two genotypes of elephant grass, fertilized with and without N, for biomass production for energy use under the edaphoclimatic conditions of the Cerrado. The genotypes Roxo and Paraíso, grown in a field experiment in a Latosol in the Cerrado region were evaluated for biomass yield, nitrogen accumulation, C:N and stem:leaf ratios, fibre, ash and P and K contents and calorific value. The accumulated dry biomass ranged from 30 to 42 Mg ha-1 and showed no response to nitrogen fertilization with the lowest biomass obtained by the genotype Paraíso and the highest by Roxo. The total N accumulation followed the same pattern as for dry matter, ranging from 347 to 539 kg N ha-1. C:N and stem:leaf ratio of the biomass produced did not vary with treatments. The fibre contents were higher in genotype Paraíso and the highest levels of ash in the genotype Roxo. The K content in the biomass was higher in genotype Roxo and P did not vary between genotypes. The calorific value averaged 18 MJ kg-1 of dry matter and did not vary with the levels of N in leaves and stems of the plant. Both genotypes, independent of N fertilization, produced over 30 Mg ha-1 of biomass under Cerrado conditions.O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho de dois genótipos de capim‑elefante para produção de biomassa para uso energético, em condições edafoclimáticas do Cerrado, fertilizados, ou não, com N. Avaliaram-se os rendimentos de biomassa, o acúmulo de nitrogênio, as relações C/N e colmo/folha, os teores de fibra, as cinzas da biomassa, os teores de K e P da biomassa e poder calorífico dos genótipos Paraíso e Roxo, cultivados em Latossolo, na região de Cerrado. A biomassa seca acumulada variou de 30 a 42 Mg ha-1, não havendo resposta à fertilização nitrogenada, sendo os menores obtidos com o genótipo Paraíso, e os maiores, com o Roxo. A acumulação total de N seguiu o mesmo

  18. Riqueza de espécies de emberizídeos e conflitos iqueza de conservação no Cerrado brasileiro = Emberizidae species richness and conservation conflicts in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Souza Barreto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes variáveis têm sido utilizadas para indicar conflitos entre interesses socioeconômicos e conservação da biodiversidade. Neste contexto, esforços para amenizar a crescente perda de diversidade estão sendo baseados nas análises dos conflitos entre conservação e desenvolvimento humano, uma vez que existem, cada vez mais, evidências de que as áreas de maior importância para a conservação podem também apresentar elevadas densidades populacionais humanas. Contudo, para o Cerrado, isso pode não ser verdade em decorrência dos avanços tecnológicos associados à ocupação humana. Assim, o objetivodeste trabalho foi verificar se a densidade populacional humana (H revela conflitos de conservação no Cerrado. Utilizou-se, como medida de biodiversidade, a riqueza de espécies de emberizídeos (aves: Passeriformes, divida em três grupos distintos, de acordo com aextensão de ocorrência das espécies e variáveis ligadas ao modo de ocupação do bioma. Verificou-se, por meio de regressões múltiplas, que a densidade humana não foi o melhor indicador de conflitos de conservação. Índices ligados à agricultura moderna e à pecuáriaforam melhores indicadores para os três grupos de espécies. Deste modo, a partir da riqueza de emberizídeos, a utilização de H, em modelos de seleção de unidades de conservação pode ser equivocada. Para o Cerrado, variáveis ligadas à agricultura moderna e à pecuária devem ser consideradas durante o planejamento sistemático de conservação.Several variables have been used to indicate conflicts betweensocioeconomic interests and biodiversity conservation. Thus, efforts to minimize biodiversity losses are being based on the analysis of such conflicts, since there is more and more evidence that important sites to conservation could support high population densitiesand their impacts. However, in the Cerrado this might not be true due to the technological progress associated with human

  19. Construção coletiva de uma trilha ecológica no cerrado: pesquisa participativa em educação ambiental Collective construction of an ecological track in cerrado: participative research in environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lacorte Cazoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os muitos temas ambientais que podem ser problematizados pela Educação Ambiental encontra-se a proteção aos ecossistemas. Definiu-se como tema, num projeto de Educação Ambiental, o Cerrado, bioma amplamente degradado por ações antrópicas e que faz parte do ambiente natural de Botucatu, interior de São Paulo. Com o objetivo de despertar um olhar crítico-ambiental, visando a integração do ambiente natural e urbano, o projeto, realizado com alunos da 8ª série do Ensino Fundamental, teve como eixo a construção de uma Trilha Ecológica no Cerrado. Todo o processo de planejamento, realização e avaliação da trilha foi participativo: os participantes estudaram as características do Cerrado; identificaram, na área, as espécies remanescentes; discutiram as condições de conservação da área, e tomaram decisões sobre a construção da trilha como recurso educativo. Problematizaram, coletivamente, a interação comunidade-ambiente, articulando consciência ambiental e ação educativa, concluindo sobre o potencial desencadeador deste recurso para reflexões sobre temas socioambientais. O grupo teve a oportunidade de vivenciar um trabalho educativo com crianças da educação infantil, concretizando a trilha como recurso didático-pedagógico na aproximação "visitantes-educandos-ambiente".Among many subjects that could be debated by environmental education, we could mention the preservation of natural resources. We define the Cerrado, which is a biome largely degraded by human actions and part of the natural environment of Botucatu SP, as theme for an environmental education project. With the intention of creating special ecological attention that aims at the integration of natural and urban environments, this project, that was done with students from the 8 grade of Fundamental School, was concerned with the creation of an Ecological Track in the Cerrado. All the processes of planning, realization and analysis of the

  20. Dieta e comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis e S. islerorum (Aves, Tyrannidae em um cerrado do Brasil central Diet and foraging behavior of Suiriri affinis and S. islerorum (Aves, Tyrannidae in a central Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo E. Lopes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis (suiriri-do-cerrado e S. islerorum (suiriri-da-chapada, duas espécies de Tyrannidae que ocorrem em sintopia nos cerrados do Brasil central. Durante o ano de 2003 foram registradas 188 observações de forrageamento para S. affinis e 150 para S. islerorum. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as duas espécies em relação à altura e substrato de forrageamento, fitofisionomia utilizada e densidade da folhagem no local do ataque. O comportamento e a direção do ataque, a espécie de planta e a distância de vôo não diferiram entre as espécies. A análise de 26 conteúdos estomacais de membros do gênero revelou o consumo exclusivo de artrópodes. A baixa porcentagem de observações de forrageamento direcionadas a frutos (apenas 7% e 9%, respectivamente confirmou o caráter insetívoro do gênero.The foraging behavior of Suiriri affinis (Campo Suiriri and S. islerorum (Chapada Flycatcher, two sintopic Tyrant Flycatchers in the Central Brazilian Cerrado (tropical savanna was studied. During 2003, 188 feeding bouts of S. affinis and 150 of S. islerorum were registered. Differences between the two species in the feeding height, foraging substrate, phytophysiognomy used, and foliage density at the point of foraging observation were found. The attack methods, attack direction, distance of flight, and plant species used did not differ between both species. The analysis of 26 stomach contents of members of this genus revealed only arthropods. The low percentage of feeding bouts directed to fruits (only 7% and 9%, respectively confirmed the insectivorous character of this genus.

  1. NATURAL SUPPRESSIVENESS TO Rhizoctonia solani OF DIFFERENT SOILS ON CERRADOS FROM THE STATE OF GOIÁS SUPRESSIVIDADE DE DIFERENTES SOLOS A Rhizoctonia solani, NOS CERRADOS DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

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    Gilmarcos de Carvalho Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out at greenhouse in order to evaluate the occurrence of natural suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani of soils on cerrados. A complete randomized experimental design was used with ten soils and three replications for treatment, evaluating final stand, sick plantets percentage and disease severity in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results indicated suppressiveness to R. solani in soils from Goianésia growed with sugar cane and two soils from Orizona with natural vegetation and pasture respectively.

    KEY-WORDS: Supressive soils; Phaseolus vulgaris.

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido nas instalações da Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, no município de Santo Antônio de Goiás (GO, com o objetivo de se comparar solos provenientes de diferentes localidades quanto à supressividade a um isolado de Rhizoctonia solani. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, com dez tratamentos (solos de diferentes origens e três repetições. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e foram avaliados stand final, porcentagem de plântulas doentes e severidade da doença. Os resultados indicam que os solos provenientes de Goianésia (GO, cultivados com cana-de-açúcar, e dois dos solos provenientes de Orizona (GO, sendo um de cerrado natural e outro cultivado com pastagem, apresentaram características de supressividade à R. solani, agente causal da podridão radicular do feijoeiro.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cerrados; solos supressivos; feijoeiro.

  2. Transfer function-noise modeling and spatial interpolation to evaluate the risk of extreme (shallow) water-table levels in the Brazilian Cerrados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzione, Rodrigo L.; Knotters, Martin; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; von Asmuth, Jos R.; Camara, Gilberto

    2010-12-01

    Water regimes in the Brazilian Cerrados are sensitive to climatological disturbances and human intervention. The risk that critical water-table levels are exceeded over long periods of time can be estimated by applying stochastic methods in modeling the dynamic relationship between water levels and driving forces such as precipitation and evapotranspiration. In this study, a transfer function-noise model, the so called PIRFICT-model, is applied to estimate the dynamic relationship between water-table depth and precipitation surplus/deficit in a watershed with a groundwater monitoring scheme in the Brazilian Cerrados. Critical limits were defined for a period in the Cerrados agricultural calendar, the end of the rainy season, when extremely shallow levels (attention with respect to water-management and land-use planning.

  3. Phosphorus in chronosequence of burnt sugar cane in Brazilian cerrado: humic acid analysis by {sup 31}P NMR; Fosforo em cronossequencia de cana-de-acucar queimada no cerrado goiano: analise de acidos humicos por RMN de {sup 31}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Celeste Q.; Pereira, Marcos G.; Garcia, Andreas C., E-mail: mgervasiopereira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Perin, Adriano; Gazolla, Paulo R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Goiano, Rio Verde, GO (Brazil); Gonzalez, Antonio P. [Universidade de Coruna, ES (Spain). Faculdad de Ciencias

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify, with the use of {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy, organic P species in humic acids (HA) in samples from Oxisol cultivated in chronosequence with sugar cane, pasture and Cerrado. The main forms of P-type found were orthophosphate, monoester-P (phosphate sugars) and P-diester (orthophosphate). The {sup 31}P NMR technique proved capable of identifying changes in the areas studied as a function of sugar cane burning time. In areas with 1 and 5 years of burnt cane, a decrease in recalcitrant organic P in humic acids indicated the need for use of P-humic substances for plant nutrition (author)

  4. Breeding biology and distyly in Palicourea rigida H. B. & K. (Rubiaceae) in the Cerrados of Central Brazil Biologia reprodutiva e distilia em Palicourea rigida H. B. & K. (Rubiaceae) em Cerrados do Brasil Central

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana de Oliveira Machado; Ana Palmira Silva; Helder Consolaro; Mariluza A. Granja e Barros; Paulo Eugênio Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Distyly is a floral polymorphism more common among the Rubiaceae than in any other angiosperm group. Palicourea rigida is a typically distylous species of the Rubiaceae widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrados. This work aimed to study the floral biology and breeding system of P. rigida in order to verify if there wasasymmetry between floral morphs. The work was carried out at Fazenda Água Limpa, Brasília-DF, from 1993 to 1995; and at Serra Caldas Novas State Park-Goias and in Clube Caça ...

  5. ESTABILIDADE DE ÁCIDO ASCÓRBICO EM PSEUDOFRUTOS DE CAJU-DO-CERRADO REFRIGERADOS E CONGELADOS STABILITY OF ASCORBIC ACID IN REFRIGERATED AND FROZEN CERRADO CASHEW APPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanne Oliveira; Jeanne Silva Oliveira; Maria Sebastiana Silva; Mara Reis Silva

    2007-01-01

    O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a estabilidade da vitamina C em pseudofruto de caju-do-cerrado, refrigerado e congelado, em diferentes tempos de armazenamento e embalagens. Os pseudofrutos foram provenientes de dois locais (lotes 1 e 2), tendo sido acondicionados em embalagens de polietileno opacas e transparentes. O lote 1 foi subdivido em duas porções, sendo que uma porção foi refrigerada (4°C) e a outra c...

  6. Que as águas voltem a minar nas minas (dos) gerais: os cerrados pedem socorro! May the water mine again in the mines of Minas Gerais: the cerrado ask for help!

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Nicolau Santos da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho objetiva analisar os impactos sociais e ambientais nos Cerrados do Alto Vale Jequitinhonha e do Norte de Minas Gerais, causados pelos projetos e empreendimentos capitalistas implantados a partir da segunda metade do século XX. Busca-se avaliar, de forma breve, como se deu o processo de modernização com a entrada de capital nesses territórios mineiros, especificamente em algumas comunidades rurais dos municípios de Minas Novas, Campo Azul e Japonvar. Para isso, a metodologia de p...

  7. Efeito de extratos de plantas do Cerrado em Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Effect of Cerrado plant extracts on Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André A. M. Coelho

    2009-01-01

    triatomines. Thus, the insecticidal activity of 83 Cerrado plant extracts belonging to 35 species were assayed on first instar nymphs of Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler, 1894 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, species found in Mexico. For the extract application on triatomines, 50 μg of the extract were topically applied in duplicate on dorsal tergites of ten insects. Insects topically treated with acetone, ethanol, as well as insects with no treatment were used as controls. Triatomines were observed over a 28-day period. The extracts showed no insect mortality, however, fruit hexane and stem bark ethanolic extracts of Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae inhibited the rate of ecdysis in D. maxima (40% and 25%, respectively. These preliminary data suggest that this extracts should be chemically investigated and monitored through biological assays in order to determine the components, so that it may be used as a molecular model or as biorational compounds for use in insect control programmes.

  8. Phosphogypsum applications in the cerrado agriculture and his radiological implications; Aplicacao do fosfogesso na agricultura do cerrado e suas implicacoes radiologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de

    2008-07-01

    phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - Not Dangerous, Not Inert, Not Corrosive and Not Reactive. The soil samples analyzed as were acids, with low content of organic matter and high potential acidity. The average of specific activity for {sup 226}Ra in phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq.kg{sup -1}) was below of the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq.kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. Although the most of the results of mean specific activity of radionuclides present in samples of lettuce present values below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), the Transfer Factors were estimated for those conditions in which the mean specific activity proved to be superior to MDA. The values ranges from 1.8 10{sup -3} to 2.3 10{sup -2} for {sup 232}Th; 3.5 10{sup -2} to 4.1 10{sup -2} for {sup 226}Ra, 2.4 10{sup -1} to 3.2 10{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra and 3.5 10{sup -2} to 8.5 10{sup -2} for {sup 210}Po, depending on the type of soil used in the planting of the vegetables. In general, the results obtained in the present study indicated that the mobility of radionuclides in both studied soils was low. The effective doses committed calculated well below the limit of 1 mSv.year{sup -1} established by ICRP, for the public in general (4,3 10{sup -3} mSv for the experiments in loamy soil and 7,5 10{sup -3} mSv for the experiments in sandy soil). It is possible to conclude that from the point of view of the radiological protection, the data obtained in this work demonstrated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum in agriculture of the Cerrado, Brazil. (author)

  9. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.

  10. Phenotypic plasticity to light of two congeneric trees from contrasting habitats: Brazilian Atlantic Forest versus cerrado (savanna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, F de V; Goulart, M F; Telles, S B Sá; Lovato, M B; Valladares, F; de Lemos-Filho, J P

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is a typically multi-layer tropical forest, while cerrado (savanna) is a patchy habitat with different physiognomy. Despite these differences, both habitats have high light heterogeneity. Functional traits of Dalbergia nigra and D. miscolobium from the Atlantic Forest and cerrado, respectively, were evaluated under shade (25% of full sunlight) and full sunlight in a nursery experiment. We hypothesised that both species should benefit from high phenotypic plasticity in relation to light. Plasticity was estimated using the relative distance phenotypic index (RDPI). D. miscolobium had lower shoot growth under both light conditions, suggesting it has low competitive capacity in the forest environment, which could explain its limited ability to expand over areas of Atlantic Forest. The studied species exhibited photoprotection strategies under high light and improved light capture under low light. Stomatal conductance, ETR(max) (maximum electron transport rate), PPFD(sat) (saturating photosynthetically active photon flux density), chlorophyll and carotenoid content had higher RDPI than stem morphological traits. Although both species showed considerable phenotypic plasticity, D. miscolobium had higher RDPI for eight of 11 evaluated traits. This high plasticity could be one of the factors that explain the occurrence of this species in a wide range of environmental conditions, from open grassland to dense woodlands, and it could also reflect its adaptation to high light. D. nigra also had considerable plasticity and good growth performance in both shade and full sunlight, but its absence in areas of cerrado suggests that factors other than light limit its occurrence in these habitats. PMID:21972934

  11. Parametrização do modelo 3-PG para eucalipto na região do cerrado de Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Jarbas Silva Borges; Júlio César Lima Neves; Helton Maycon Lourenço; Nairam Félix de Barros; Sharlles Cristhian Moreira Dias

    2012-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050986623O modelo 3-PG é uma ferramenta eficaz para determinação do potencial produtivo de florestas de eucalipto. No entanto, as parametrizações deste modelo, hoje disponíveis, produzem resultados subestimados quando aplicadas à região do Cerrado de Minas Gerais. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi parametrizar o modelo 3-PG para plantios de eucalipto localizados na região do Cerrado de Minas Gerais. Para isso, foram utilizados dados de povoamentos de híbr...

  12. Enraizamento in vitro de catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell.) Stell. ex de Souza), uma planta medicinal do Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    A.V.V. SOUZA; F.J.V. OLIVEIRA; B.W. Bertoni; S.C. França; A.M.S. Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de otimizar o protocolo para enraizamento in vitro de Anemopaegma arvense, planta medicinal do Cerrado em risco de extinção e conhecida popularmente como catuaba, a qual é amplamente utilizada na medicina popular. Brotações cultivadas in vitro foram inoculadas em meio de cultura MS/2 liquido e MS sólido suplementado com diferentes concentrações de auxinas, poliaminas ou dithiothreitol (DTT). As avaliações foram realizadas quanto à porcentagem de enra...

  13. AVALIAÇÃO DA GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE CAGAITA (Eugenia dysenterica DC) NATIVA DO CERRADO BRASILEIRO

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ícaro Gonçalves; Previero, Conceição Aparecida; Parente, Hugo Victor Meneses; Campelo, Pedro Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Estudos relacionados à desenvoltura de germinação e produção de espécies nativas são essenciais, uma vez que garantem a preservação delas, consequentemente alavancam as questões socioambientais e culturais das comunidades. É nesse intuito que este presente estudo teve como proposta avaliar a germinação de sementes da cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica DC.), espécie frutífera, nativa do Cerrado brasileiro, apreciada pela população, por se tratar de um fruto com potencial diverso. Por ser uma espécie...

  14. Variabilidade genética de cajuzinho-do-cerrado (Anacardium humile St. Hill. por meio de marcadores rapd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel dos Santos Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nativo do Cerrado brasileiro e com alta variabilidade morfológica, o cajuzinho-do-cerrado (Anacardium humile St. Hill. apresenta frutos de grande aceitação pelas populações locais, os quais atraem por suas características peculiares, como tamanho, sabor único e potencial para uso sustentável por produtores e pela indústria. A produção de sementes limitada, acarretada pela baixa polinização e pela alta predação por animais e insetos, dificulta a propagação da espécie. O conhecimento da variabilidade genética do cajuzinho-do-cerrado é importante para maximizar o uso de seus recursos genéticos para futuros programas de melhoramento e de conservação da espécie. No presente trabalho, a variabilidade genética de 122 acessos de A. humile procedentes de 11 municípios (procedências do Cerrado de Goiás e Mato Grosso, foi estimada por meio de marcadores RAPD. As similaridades genéticas foram estimadas a partir da matriz binária, tendo sido processadas análises de agrupamento e de dispersão gráfica a partir da matriz de distâncias. Os iniciadores com maior expressão foram OPA11 e 08. Os dez iniciadores utilizados geraram 157 bandas, sendo 156 polimórficas (99 %, com média de 15,6 bandas/ iniciadores. Grande variabilidade dentro de municípios foi detectada, sendo o polimorfismo superior a 90 %, exceto da procedência de Jataí-GO. A distância entre acessos variou de 0,138 a 0,561, com média de 0,370, sendo os menores valores registrados entre os acessos de Mineiros-GO, e Serranópolis-GO. Os acessos de Caiapônia-GO, e Santo Antônio do Descoberto-GO, foram os mais distantes geneticamente. A dissimilaridade total entre acessos variou de 0,103 a 0,796, com médias de 0,390. Os acessos 87 e 114 de Serranópolis-GO, e Santo Antônio do Descoberto-GO, respectivamente, foram os mais distantes geneticamente, demonstrando a importância dessas procedências no enriquecendo do banco de germoplasma da espécie.

  15. Predation on artificial nests by marmosets of the genus Callithrix (Primates, Platyrrhini) in a Cerrado fragment in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Vinícius de Almeida; Anderson da Silva Lucindo; Thiago Vernaschi Vieira da Costa; Hugo Medeiros Garrido de Paula

    2013-01-01

    Although the causes of decline in bird populations in forest fragments are not well known, nest predation seems to play a major role in these events. A way to estimate the relative importance of predation for the reproduction of native birds is the use of artificial nests. Here, there is a report on the high rates of predation on artificial nests by two marmoset species from the genus Callithrix, C. pennicillata and C. jacchus, as well as their hybrid derivatives, in a Cerrado fragment in the...

  16. Circumstantial evidences for mimicry of scorpions by the neotropical gecko Coleodactylus brachystoma (Squamata, Gekkonidae in the Cerrados of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuber Albuquerque Brandão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few records of invertebrates mimicry by reptiles. In the Cerrados of central Brazil, the small Coleodactylus brachystoma is an endemic species common in the islands and margins of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam reservoir. When cornered, this lizard folds the tail over the body exposing the pale-orange ventral surface. Lizard behavior, tail length and color pattern confer to this lizard a strong resemblance with syntopic buthid scorpions Rhopalurus agamenon, Tytius matogrossensis, and Anantheris balzani. Lizards and scorpions share the same tail color, size, and shape. Ecologically, they use the same microhabitats, are exposed to the same potential predators, and present similar behaviors when threatened.

  17. Phosphorus in chronosequence of burnt sugar cane in Brazilian cerrado: humic acid analysis by 31P NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to identify, with the use of 31P NMR spectroscopy, organic P species in humic acids (HA) in samples from Oxisol cultivated in chronosequence with sugar cane, pasture and Cerrado. The main forms of P-type found were orthophosphate, monoester-P (phosphate sugars) and P-diester (orthophosphate). The 31P NMR technique proved capable of identifying changes in the areas studied as a function of sugar cane burning time. In areas with 1 and 5 years of burnt cane, a decrease in recalcitrant organic P in humic acids indicated the need for use of P-humic substances for plant nutrition (author)

  18. Host plants of insect-induced galls in areas of cerrado in the state of Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Santos de Araújo; Isadora Portes Abraham Silva; Benedito Baptista dos Santos; Vera Lúcia Gomes-Klein

    2013-01-01

    Most studies of the interactions between plants and gall-inducing (galling) insects have focused on the entomological aspects, few having addressed the diversity of galls in relation to the characteristics of the host plants. The objective of this study was to analyze the richness and composition of the community of host plants of galls in areas of cerrado (savanna) in the state of Goiás, Brazil. To that end, we inventoried the galls in different regions of the state and within various types ...

  19. ABELHAS EUGLOSSINA (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE ASSOCIADAS À MONOCULTURA DE EUCALIPTO NO CERRADO MATO-GROSSENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva do Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a composição de abelhas Euglossina em três áreas distintas, com monocultura de eucalipto de diferentes idades, utilizando a vegetação nativa como controle, com base nos aspectos de riqueza e abundância. O trabalho foi realizado em três propriedades particulares, localizadas na região Sudoeste de Mato Grosso, em monocultura de eucaliptos de diferentes idades e vegetação nativa (Cerrado. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, de dezembro de 2011 a março de 2012, utilizando-se seis essências: eugenol, eucaliptol, vanilina, benzoato de benzila, salicitato de metila e acetato de benzila, das 8 às 16 h. Foram coletados 430 espécimes, de quatro gêneros e 18 espécies. Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, Euglossa melanotricha Moure, 1967 e Eulaema cingulata Fabricius, 1804 foram as espécies mais abundantes e comuns a todas as áreas estudadas. A área com maior abundância de abelhas foi ApS (166 indivíduos e com maior riqueza, a Tol (14 espécies. A composição de espécies foi semelhante nas áreas analisadas, e a abundância apresentou dissimilaridade entre a Tol e as áreas SanR e ApS. A área AC (área-controle apresentou maior abundância (147 e riqueza (n = 15 em relação à monocultura de eucalipto.

  20. Environmental flow in the River Ondas basin in Bahia, Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Castro, Elis Regina Rodrigues; Moreira, Michel Castro; da Silva, Demetrius David

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to estimate the environmental flow of a water basin located in the Brazilian Cerrado using the bidimensional model River2D. The study was carried out in a stretch of the lower portion of the River Ondas in the western part of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To carry out the ecohydrological modeling, the following were used: topobathymetry, hydraulic characterization, the streamflows with the probability of non-exceedances (Q50, Q60, Q70, Q80, Q90, and Q95), and the Habitat Suitability Index for species of the genus Hypostomus. In the River2D, the weighted usable areas (WUAs) pertaining to the streamflows associated with different non-exceedances were simulated for the later construction of optimization and identification matrices of the streamflows that maximize the habitat area throughout the year. For juvenile Hypostomus, WUA increased as streamflow increased, with higher values associated with Q50. For adult specimens, lower WUA values were observed associated with Q50, while higher values were associated with Q95, which shows a preference for lower streamflows. The environmental flows found for the stretch of the River Ondas varied over the course of the year. The lowest environmental flows were observed in September (30.31 m(3) s(-1)) and October (29.98 m(3) s(-1)), while the highest were observed in February (44.22 m(3) s(-1)) and March (43.16 m(3) s(-1)). The environmental flow regime obtained restricts the water availability in the basin, for the purpose of water capture, which shows the importance of ecohydrological studies in forming a basis for water resource management actions. PMID:26718949

  1. Elevated CO2 Atmosphere Minimizes the Effect of Drought on the Cerrado Species Chrysolaena obovata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Vanessa F; Silva, Emerson A; Carvalho, Maria A M

    2016-01-01

    Chrysolaena obovata stores inulin in the rhizophores, associated with drought tolerance. While crop plants are widely studied concerning the interactive effects of high [CO2] and drought, few studies reported these effects in native species. Here, we evaluated the combined effects of these factors on water status and fructan metabolism in C. obovata, a native Cerrado species. Two lots of plants were kept at 380 and 760 ppm CO2 in open-top chambers. In each, [CO2] plants were divided into four groups and cultivated under different water availability: irrigation with 100 (control), 75 (low), 50 (medium), and 25% (severe drought) of the water evapotranspirated in the last 48 h. In each, water treatment plants were collected at 0, 9, 18, and 27 days. On day 27, all plants were re-watered to field capacity and, after 5 days, a new sampling was made. Water restriction caused a decrease in plant moisture, photosynthesis, and in enzymes of fructan metabolism. These changes were generally more pronounced in 25% plants under ambient [CO2]. In the later, increases in the proportion of hexoses and consequent modification of the fructan chain sizes were more marked than under high [CO2]. The results indicate that under elevated [CO2], the negative effects of water restriction on physiological processes were minimized, including the maintenance of rhizophore water potential, increase in water use efficiency, maintenance of photosynthesis and fructan reserves for a longer period, conditions that shall favor the conservation of this species in the predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:27379114

  2. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Vynne

    Full Text Available Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguar (Panthera onca, and puma (Puma concolor. We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for

  3. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L; Machado, Ricardo B; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  4. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Caio TCC

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane, next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA and denitrifying (nirK genes, greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil

  5. In vitro schistosomicidal activity of some brazilian cerrado species and their isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Nayanne Larissa; Uchôa, Camila Jacintho de Mendonça; Cintra, Lucas Silva; de Souza, Herbert Cristian; Peixoto, Juliana Andrade; Silva, Claudia Peres; Magalhães, Lizandra Guidi; Gimenez, Valéria Maria Meleiro; Groppo, Milton; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; da Silva Filho, Ademar Alves; Andrade E Silva, Márcio Luís; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Pauletti, Patrícia Mendonça; Januário, Ana Helena

    2012-01-01

    Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. (Melastomataceae), Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae), Struthanthus syringifolius (Mart.) (Loranthaceae), and Schefflera vinosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) Frodin (Araliaceae) are plant species from the Brazilian Cerrado whose schistosomicidal potential has not yet been described. The crude extracts, fractions, the triterpenes betulin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were evaluated in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms and the bioactive n-hexane fractions of the mentioned species were also analyzed by GC-MS. Betulin was able to cause worm death percentage values of 25% after 120 h (at 100 μM), and 25% and 50% after 24 and 120 h (at 200 μM), respectively; besides the flavonoid quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside promoted 25% of death of the parasites at 100 μM. Farther the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside at 100 μM exhibited significantly reduction in motor activity, 75% and 87.5%, respectively. Biological results indicated that crude extracts of R. montana, S. vinosa, and M. langsdorffii and some n-hexane and EtOAc fractions of this species were able to induce worm death to some extent. The results suggest that lupane-type triterpenes and flavonoid monoglycosides should be considered for further antiparasites studies. PMID:22924053

  6. In Vitro Schistosomicidal Activity of Some Brazilian Cerrado Species and Their Isolated Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Nayanne Larissa; Uchôa, Camila Jacintho de Mendonça; Cintra, Lucas Silva; de Souza, Herbert Cristian; Peixoto, Juliana Andrade; Silva, Claudia Peres; Magalhães, Lizandra Guidi; Gimenez, Valéria Maria Meleiro; Groppo, Milton; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; da Silva Filho, Ademar Alves; Andrade e Silva, Márcio Luís; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Pauletti, Patrícia Mendonça; Januário, Ana Helena

    2012-01-01

    Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. (Melastomataceae), Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae), Struthanthus syringifolius (Mart.) (Loranthaceae), and Schefflera vinosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) Frodin (Araliaceae) are plant species from the Brazilian Cerrado whose schistosomicidal potential has not yet been described. The crude extracts, fractions, the triterpenes betulin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were evaluated in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms and the bioactive n-hexane fractions of the mentioned species were also analyzed by GC-MS. Betulin was able to cause worm death percentage values of 25% after 120 h (at 100 μM), and 25% and 50% after 24 and 120 h (at 200 μM), respectively; besides the flavonoid quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside promoted 25% of death of the parasites at 100 μM. Farther the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside at 100 μM exhibited significantly reduction in motor activity, 75% and 87.5%, respectively. Biological results indicated that crude extracts of R. montana, S. vinosa, and M. langsdorffii and some n-hexane and EtOAc fractions of this species were able to induce worm death to some extent. The results suggest that lupane-type triterpenes and flavonoid monoglycosides should be considered for further antiparasites studies. PMID:22924053

  7. In Vitro Schistosomicidal Activity of Some Brazilian Cerrado Species and Their Isolated Compounds

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    Nayanne Larissa Cunha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. (Melastomataceae, Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae, Struthanthus syringifolius (Mart. (Loranthaceae, and Schefflera vinosa (Cham. & Schltdl. Frodin (Araliaceae are plant species from the Brazilian Cerrado whose schistosomicidal potential has not yet been described. The crude extracts, fractions, the triterpenes betulin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2-α-L-rhamnopyranoside were evaluated in vitro against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms and the bioactive n-hexane fractions of the mentioned species were also analyzed by GC-MS. Betulin was able to cause worm death percentage values of 25% after 120 h (at 100 μM, and 25% and 50% after 24 and 120 h (at 200 μM, respectively; besides the flavonoid quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside promoted 25% of death of the parasites at 100 μM. Farther the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-β-D-rhamnoside at 100 μM exhibited significantly reduction in motor activity, 75% and 87.5%, respectively. Biological results indicated that crude extracts of R. montana, S. vinosa, and M. langsdorffii and some n-hexane and EtOAc fractions of this species were able to induce worm death to some extent. The results suggest that lupane-type triterpenes and flavonoid monoglycosides should be considered for further antiparasites studies.

  8. Elevated CO2 Atmosphere Minimizes the Effect of Drought on the Cerrado Species Chrysolaena obovata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Vanessa F.; Silva, Emerson A.; Carvalho, Maria A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Chrysolaena obovata stores inulin in the rhizophores, associated with drought tolerance. While crop plants are widely studied concerning the interactive effects of high [CO2] and drought, few studies reported these effects in native species. Here, we evaluated the combined effects of these factors on water status and fructan metabolism in C. obovata, a native Cerrado species. Two lots of plants were kept at 380 and 760 ppm CO2 in open-top chambers. In each, [CO2] plants were divided into four groups and cultivated under different water availability: irrigation with 100 (control), 75 (low), 50 (medium), and 25% (severe drought) of the water evapotranspirated in the last 48 h. In each, water treatment plants were collected at 0, 9, 18, and 27 days. On day 27, all plants were re-watered to field capacity and, after 5 days, a new sampling was made. Water restriction caused a decrease in plant moisture, photosynthesis, and in enzymes of fructan metabolism. These changes were generally more pronounced in 25% plants under ambient [CO2]. In the later, increases in the proportion of hexoses and consequent modification of the fructan chain sizes were more marked than under high [CO2]. The results indicate that under elevated [CO2], the negative effects of water restriction on physiological processes were minimized, including the maintenance of rhizophore water potential, increase in water use efficiency, maintenance of photosynthesis and fructan reserves for a longer period, conditions that shall favor the conservation of this species in the predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:27379114

  9. Bradyrhizobium ingae sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Inga laurina grown in Cerrado soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Krisle; De Meyer, Sofie E; Rouws, Luc F M; Farias, Eliane N C; dos Santos, Marco A O; O'Hara, Graham; Ardley, Julie K; Willems, Anne; Pitard, Rosa Maria; Zilli, Jerri E

    2014-10-01

    Root-nodule bacteria were isolated from Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd. growing in the Cerrado Amazon region, State of Roraima, Brazil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of six strains (BR 10250(T), BR 10248, BR 10249, BR 10251, BR 10252 and BR 10253) showed low similarities with currently described species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of five housekeeping genes (dnaK, glnII, gyrB, recA and rpoB) revealed Bradyrhizobium iriomotense EK05(T) to be the closest type strain (97.4% sequence similarity or less). Chemotaxonomic data, including fatty acid profiles [with the major components C16:0 and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω6c/C18:1ω7c)], the slow growth rate and carbon compound utilization patterns supported the assignment of our strains to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Results from DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological traits differentiated our strains from the closest related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Sequences of symbiosis-related genes for nodulation (nodC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) grouped together with those of B. iriomotense EK05(T) and Bradyrhizobium sp. strains BR 6610 (used as a commercial inoculant for Inga marginata in Brazil) and TUXTLAS-10 (previously observed in Central America). Based on these data, the six strains represent a novel species, for which the name Bradyrhizobium ingae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BR 10250(T) ( = HAMBI 3600(T)). PMID:25013231

  10. Biomass Burning Emissions in the Cerrado of Brazil Computed with Remote Sensing Data and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane S.; Brass, James A.; Chatfield, Robert B.; Hlavka, Christine A.; Riggan, Philip J.; Setzer, Alberto; Pereira, Joao A. Raposo; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Biomass burnin is a common force in much of the developing tropical world where it has wide-ranging environmental impacts. Fire is a component of tropical deforestation and is 0 p often used to clear broad expanses of land for shifting agriculture and cattle ranching. Frequent burning in the tropical savannas is a distinct problem from that of primary forest. In Brazil, most of the burning occurs in the cerrado which occupies approximately 1,800,000 km2, primarily on the great plateau in central Brazil. Wildland and agricultural fires are dramatic sources of regional air pollution in central Brazil. Biomass burning is an important source of a large number of trace gases including greenhouse gases and other chemically active species. Knowledge of trace gas emissions from biomass burning in Brazil is limited by a number of factors, most notably relative emission factors for gases from specific fire types/fuels and accurate estimates of temporal and spatial distribution and extent of fire activity. Estimates of trace gas emissions during September 1992 will be presented that incorporates a digital map of vegetation classes, pyrogenic emission factors calculated from ground and aircraft missions, and Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) fire products derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The regional emissions calculated from National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) AVHRR estimates of fire activity will provide an independent estimate for comparison with results obtained by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator - Atlantic (TRACE-A) experiments.

  11. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil

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    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Este trabalho apresenta uma lista de insetos decompositores associados a carcaças de pequeno porte de dois répteis e de um anfíbio, encontrados em áreas de matas de galeria e de cerrado sensu stricto em unidades de conservação do Distrito Federal. Foram encontradas sete espécies de insetos associados a essas carcaças, sendo cinco sarcofagídeos, um califorídeo e uma vespa parasitóide Braconidae. Lucilia eximia e Peckia (Pattonella intermutans foram as espécies mais abundantes, corroborando com outros estudos que sugerem que estas espécies apresentam especializações para a colonização de carcaças menores.

  12. Comparative transcriptional profiling of Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains during growth in CO2-bicarbonate and aerobic atmospheres.

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    Karla D Passalacqua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacillus species are spore-forming bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and display a range of virulent and avirulent phenotypes. This range is particularly evident in the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group; where closely related strains cause anthrax, food-borne illnesses, and pneumonia, but can also be non-pathogenic. Although much of this phenotypic range can be attributed to the presence or absence of a few key virulence factors, there are other virulence-associated loci that are conserved throughout the B. cereus group, and we hypothesized that these genes may be regulated differently in pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report transcriptional profiles of three closely related but phenotypically unique members of the Bacillus cereus group--a pneumonia-causing B. cereus strain (G9241, an attenuated strain of B. anthracis (Sterne 34F(2, and an avirulent B. cereus strain (10987--during exponential growth in two distinct atmospheric environments: 14% CO(2/bicarbonate and ambient air. We show that the disease-causing Bacillus strains undergo more distinctive transcriptional changes between the two environments, and that the expression of plasmid-encoded virulence genes was increased exclusively in the CO(2 environment. We observed a core of conserved metabolic genes that were differentially expressed in all three strains in both conditions. Additionally, the expression profiles of putative virulence genes in G9241 suggest that this strain, unlike Bacillus anthracis, may regulate gene expression with both PlcR and AtxA transcriptional regulators, each acting in a different environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown that homologous and even identical genes within the genomes of three closely related members of the B. cereus sensu lato group are in some instances regulated very differently, and that these differences can have important implications for virulence. This study

  13. Mancha foliar em capim-elefante no Cerrado do Brasil Central causada por Bipolaris maydi Leaf spot in elephantgrass in the Cerrado Region of Central Brazil caused by Bipolaris maydis

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    Maria José d´Avila Charchar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Bipolaris maydis (Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake Shoemaker foi consistentemente isolado de plantas de Pennisetum purpureum Schum., com sintomas de manchas foliares, no Cerrado, em 2005 e 2006. Testes de patogenicidade em mudas sadias de capim-elefante, em casa de vegetação, e o subseqüente reisolamento do fungo confirmaram que B. maydis era o agente causal das lesões foliares observadas. Os primeiros sintomas apareceram dois dias após a inoculação. Onze outras espécies de gramíneas foram suscetíveis ao fungo.Bipolaris maydis (Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake Shoemaker was consistently isolated from elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. showing leaf spot symptoms in the Cerrado of Central Brazil in 2005 and 2006. Pathogenicity tests, under greenhouse conditions, and subsequent re-isolation of B. maydis from artificially infected elephant grass seedlings confirmed that this fungus was the causal agent of the disease. First symptoms of leaf spot appeared two days after inoculation. Eleven other grass species proved to be susceptible to the fungus.

  14. Characterization of the spore-forming Bacillus cereus sensu lato group and Clostridium perfringens bacteria isolated from the Australian dairy farm environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dréan, Paul; McAuley, Catherine M.; Moore, Sean C.; Fegan, Narelle; Fox, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group and Clostridium perfringens are spore-forming bacteria often associated with food spoilage and which can cause emetic and diarrheal syndromes in humans and ruminants. This study characterised the phenotypes and genotypes of 50 Bacillus cereus s. l. isolates and 26 Clostridium perfringens isolates from dairy farms environments in Victoria, Australia. Results Five of the seven B. cereus s. l. species were isolated, and analysis of the population d...

  15. Environmental Impact of Using Phlebiopsis gigantea in Stump Treatment Against Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato and Screening Root Endophytes to Identify Other Novel Control Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Terhonen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) cover large areas in boreal regions with significant economic importance to Finnish forest industry. Approximately 15% of the spruce trees felled in Finland are rotten and thus commercially less valuable. The majority of this conifer wood decay is due to the root and butt rot pathogen Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. Extensive logging of conifer forests has changed the environment into favouring this pathogen in stands where it o...

  16. Subjective health complaints are not associated with tick bites or antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in blood donors in western Norway: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background There is controversy about chronic health consequences of tick-borne infections, especially Lyme borreliosis. This study aims to assess whether general function, physical fitness and subjective health complaints are associated with tick bites or antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in blood donors. Methods Sera from 1,213 blood donors at four different blood banks in Sogn and Fjordane county in western Norway were obtained during January to June 2010, and analysed for s...

  17. Subjective health complaints are not associated with tick bites or antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in blood donors in western Norway: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hjetland, Reidar; Reiso, Harald; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Nilsen, Roy M; Grude, Nils; Ulvestad, Elling

    2015-01-01

    Background There is controversy about chronic health consequences of tick-borne infections, especially Lyme borreliosis. This study aims to assess whether general function, physical fitness and subjective health complaints are associated with tick bites or antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in blood donors. Methods Sera from 1,213 blood donors at four different blood banks in Sogn and Fjordane county in western Norway were obtained during January to June 2010, and analysed for spec...

  18. Subjective health complaints are not associated with tick bites or antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in blood donors in western Norway: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hjetland, Reidar; Reiso, Harald; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Grude, Nils; Ulvestad, Elling

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is controversy about chronic health consequences of tick-borne infections, especially Lyme borreliosis. This study aims to assess whether general function, physical fitness and subjective health complaints are associated with tick bites or antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in blood donors. Methods: Sera from 1,213 blood donors at four different blood banks in Sogn and Fjordane county in western Norway were obtained during January to June 2010, and analysed for...

  19. Detection of four species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Rijpkema, S G; Herbes, R. G.; Verbeek-De Kruif, N.; Schellekens, J. F.

    1996-01-01

    Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were investigated for their value as sentinel animals for Lyme borreliosis in the Netherlands. Serum was obtained from 114 roe deer, and 513 Ixodes ricinus, predominantly females (72%), were obtained from 47 animals (41%). The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a total of 190 ticks, comprising 106 engorged ticks and 84 non-engorged ticks. Borrelia DNA was detected in 24 engorged ticks (23%) and 26 non-engorged ...

  20. The first morphometric and phylogenetic perspective on molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in stray dogs in a hyperendemic Middle East focus, northwestern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shariatzadeh, Seyyed Ali; Spotin, Adel; Gholami, Shirzad; Fallah, Esmaeil; Hazratian, Teimour; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Montazeri, Fattaneh; Moslemzadeh, Hamid Reza; SHAHBAZI, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydatidosis is considered to be a neglected cyclo-zoonotic disease in Middle East countries particularly northwestern Iran which is caused by metacestode of tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. Human hydatidosis is a high public health priority in the area, however there is little known from a morphometric and phylogenetic perspective on molecular epidemiology of adult Echinococcus spp. in Iranian stray dogs. Methods 80 dogs (38 males and 42 females) were collected during J...

  1. A molecular phylogeny of the Dactylogyridae sensu Kritsky & Boeger (1989) (Monogenea) based on the D1-D3 domains of large subunit rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simková, A; Matejusová, I; Cunningham, C O

    2006-07-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on the partial large subunit rDNA (LSU) sequences of polyonchoinean monogeneans belonging to the Dactylogyridea and Monocotylidea were generated to investigate relationships among various subfamilies of the Dactylogyridae sensu Kritsky & Boeger, 1989. Monophyly of the Dactylogyridae was supported by all analyses performed. Status of the Ancyrocephalidae sensu Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1978 and Ancyrocephalinae sensu Kritsky & Boeger, 1989 was revised based on the present data. All phylogenetic analyses indicated polyphyletic origins of the Ancyrocephalidae and Ancyrocephalinae. Freshwater species of Ancyrocephalinae (Actinocleidus, Ancyrocephalus, Cleidodiscus and Urocleidus) and Ancylodiscoidinae (Thaparocleidus) collected from the fish in European waters were positioned at the base of the Dactylogyridae. The Dactylogyrinae formed a monophyletic group, sister to a clade including the Pseudodactylogyrinae and the tropical and subtropical Ancyrocephalinae. Analyses including only data set on Dactylogyridea were focused on relationships between representatives of the Asian and European Dactylogyrus species. Dactylogyrus species formed a monophyletic group, and the parasite colonization appeared to follow the dispersal history of the Cyprinidae from Asia to Europe. Three lineages of Dactylogyrus species were recognized: the first including species specific to hosts of Asian origin, the second by Dactylogyrus species from Chinese fish hosts, and the third included Dactylogyrus species from European cyprinids and one species from a percid host. The position of D. cryptomeres from Gobio gobio seems to be unresolved. PMID:16515727

  2. On the routes of Social Psychology in Brazil Sobre os rumos da Psicologia Social no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Pereira de Sá

    2013-01-01

    Considering the different paths of knowledge production that Social psychologists have run in Brazil, the text makes a distinction between a stricto sensu Social Psychology and the lato sensu one. The stricto sensu Social Psychologycomprises the trends found in the historical development of the discipline and in scientific modernity: the mainstream "psychological" Social Psychology; the European "sociological" Social Psychology; the "micro-sociological" perspectives, since Mead. The lato sens...

  3. Arthropods associated with pig carrion in two vegetation profiles of Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Thiago Augusto Rosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Forensic Entomology research has been concentrated in only a few localities of the "Cerrado" vegetation, the Brazilian Savannah. The present study had, as its objective, an examination of the diversity of arthropod fauna associated with the carcasses of Sus scrofa (Linnaeus in this biome. The study was conducted during the dry and humid periods in two Cerrado vegetation profiles of the State of Minas Gerais. The decaying process was slower and greater quantities of arthropods were collected during the dry period. Insects represented 99% of 161,116 arthropods collected. The majority of these were Diptera (80.2% and Coleoptera (8.8%. The entomofauna belong to 85 families and at least 212 species. Diptera were represented by 31 families and at least 132 species. Sarcophagidae (Diptera and Scarabaeidae (Coleoptera were the richest groups. Oxysarcodexia (Sarcophagidae presented the largest number of attracted species, however none of these species bred in the carcasses. The Coleoptera collected belong to at least 50 species of 21 families. Among these species, Dermestes maculatus and Necrobia rufipes were observed breeding in the carcasses. This study showed species with potential importance for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI, indicative of seasonal and environmental type located.

  4. Cover plants and mineral nitrogen: effects on organic matter fractions in an oxisol under no-tillage in the cerrado

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    Isis Lima dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cover plants are essential for the sustainability of no-tillage systems in tropical regions. However, information on the effects of these plants and N fertilization on soil organic matter fractions is still scarce. This study evaluated the effect of cover crops with different chemical composition and of N topdressing on the labile and humified organic matter fractions of an Oxisol of the Cerrado (savanna-like vegetation. The study in a randomized complete block design was arranged in split-plots with three replications. Four cover species were tested in the plots and the presence or absence of N topdressing in the subplot. The following cover species were planted in succession to corn for eight years: Urochloa ruziziensis; Canavalia brasiliensis M. ex Benth; Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp; and Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. In general, the cultivation of U. ruziziensis increased soil C levels, particularly of C in the humic acid and particulate organic C fractions, which are quality indicators of soil organic matter. The C in humic substances and mineral organic C accounted for the highest proportions of total organic C, demonstrating the strong interaction between organic matter, Fe and Al oxides and kaolinite, which are predominant in these weathered soils of the Cerrado.

  5. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF JATOBÁ-DO-CERRADO (HYMENAEA STIGONOCARPA Mart. FLOUR AND ITS EFFECT ON GROWTH OF RATS

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    Ângela Giovana BATISTA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of jatobá-do-cerrado fl our and its effects on rat´s growth. The chemical composition of the fl our was determined according to AOAC. The PER, NPR, food effi ciency ratio (FER, food conversion ratio (FCR, dry matter digestibility (DMD and fecal output were evaluated by an assay in which animals were fed according the AIN- 93 diet: casein (CAS diet and another having 50% of its protein source from jatobá fl our (JAT. Chemical analysis showed signifi cant amounts of crude fi bre and minerals (potassium, magnesium, calcium and zinc in the fl our. The CAS group ate more and gained more weight than JAT group (p0.05. Faeces moisture and dried weight for JAT were higher, which corroborated its lower DMD (p<0.05. Although JAT group had to intake more diet to promote weight gain, the protein utilization was acceptable. Therefore, further studies are necessary for better understand nutrient and phytochemical composition, their bioavailability, and metabolic effects of jatobá-do-cerrado fl our.

  6. Enzymatic and antagonistic potential of bacteria isolated from typical fruit of Cerrado in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Cristina Ferreira Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has great biodiversity, which is observed in the Cerrado biome of the tropical Brazilian savanna. The objectives of this study were to isolate and identify bacteria from Psychotria hoffmannseggiana with potential cellulase and pectinase production and with antagonistic activity against Aspergillus carbonarius, an Ochratoxin A (OTA producer. Ripe fruit were collected in the region of Passos City in the preserved Cerrado area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Serial dilutions were performed, and the bacteria isolated were biochemically characterized and identified by sequencing. To analyze the production of enzymes, the bacteria were cultivated in CMC and pectinase media. The better enzyme producers were optimized for production. Assays on the antagonistic activity for growth and sporulation were carried out in co-culture (bacteria and filamentous fungi. TLC was performed to verify the mycotoxin production. The predominant microbiota were Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Some isolates showed potential for enzymatic and antagonistic activity, especially the isolate identified as Lysinibacillus fusiformis. This species was a better producer of cellulases (maximum activity: 103.1 mg glucose min.-1 mg-1 protein. In conclusion, the bacteria isolated from Psychotria hoffmannseggiana showed biotechnological potential for agro-industry and the environmental aspect.

  7. Estimating of gross primary production in an Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest using MODIS and Landsat imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danelichen, Victor H M; Biudes, Marcelo S; Velasque, Maísa C S; Machado, Nadja G; Gomes, Raphael S R; Vourlitis, George L; Nogueira, José S

    2015-09-01

    The acceleration of the anthropogenic activity has increased the atmospheric carbon concentration, which causes changes in regional climate. The Gross Primary Production (GPP) is an important variable in the global carbon cycle studies, since it defines the atmospheric carbon extraction rate from terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) using local meteorological data and remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat 5 TM reflectance from 2005 to 2008. The GPP was estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) calculated by MODIS and Landsat 5 TM images. The GPP estimates were compared with measurements in a flux tower by eddy covariance. The GPP measured in the tower was consistent with higher values during the wet season and there was a trend to increase from 2005 to 2008. The GPP estimated by VPM showed the same increasing trend observed in measured GPP and had high correlation and Willmott's coefficient and low error metrics in comparison to measured GPP. These results indicated high potential of the Landsat 5 TM images to estimate the GPP of Amazon-Cerrado Transitional Forest by VPM. PMID:26221990

  8. Uma nova espécie do gênero Atractus wagler, 1928 (Colubridae: Dipsadinae do Cerrado do Brasil Central

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    Nelson Jorge da Silva Jr

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Atractus edioi sp. n. é descrita para a região da usina hidrelétrica Cana Brava, localizada no extremo norte do Estado de Goiás, município de Minaçu, dentro dos limites do ecossistema Cerrado no Brasil Central. Esta espécie se distingue das outras espécies de Atractus pela combinação da fórmula temporal 1+1, 5 supralabiais, supralabiais 2-3 margeando a órbita, 6 infralabiais, infralabiais 1-3 em contato com as gulares anteriores, 15 escamas nas fileiras dorsais e um padrão de coloração dorsal de manchas escuras sobre um fundo marrom-claro.Atractus edioi sp. n. is described from the region of the Cana Brava hydroelectric power plant, located on the extreme northern state of Goiás, municipality of Minaçu, within the limits of the Cerrado ecosystem of Central Brazil. It can be distinguished from other Atractus by the combination of a temporal formula 1+1, 5 supralabials, supralabials 2-3 bordering the orbit, 6 infralabials, infralabials 1-3 in contact with the anterior genials, 15 dorsal scales rows and a color pattern of dark colored spots on a ground color of the body.

  9. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Huete, A.; Genovese, V.; Bustamante, M.; Ferreira, L. Guimaraes; deOliveira, R. C., Jr.; Zepp, R.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Net ecosystem production (NEP) flux for atmospheric CO2 in the region for these years was estimated. Consistently high carbon sink fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems on a yearly basis were found in the western portions of the states of Acre and Rondonia and the northern portions of the state of Par a. These areas were not significantly impacted by the 2002-2003 El Nino event in terms of net annual carbon gains. Areas of the region that show periodically high carbon source fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere on yearly basis were found throughout the state of Maranhao and the southern portions of the state of Amazonas. As demonstrated though tower site comparisons, NEP modeled with monthly MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) inputs closely resembles the measured seasonal carbon fluxes at the LBA Tapajos tower site. Modeling results suggest that the capacity for use of MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data to predict seasonal uptake rates of CO2 in Amazon forests and Cerrado woodlands is strong.

  10. Viabilidade de escleródios de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e incidência de fungos antagonistas em solo de Cerrado

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    Leila de Castro Louback Ferraz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade de escleródios de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum foi avaliada durante oito meses em três solos de Cerrado cultivados. Escleródios produzidos "in vitro", mantidos em invólucros de náilon perfurados, foram enterrados a 5 cm de profundidade, em solos previamente fumigados ou não fumigados com brometo de metila. Após 10 dias de incubação, os escleródios foram examinados quanto à viabilidade e a presença de fungos antagônicos. A viabilidade foi estimada através do número de escleródios germinados 7 dias após plaqueamento em meio semi seletivo Neon-S. A viabilidade dos escleródios variou com o solo de Cerrado. Escleródios incubados em solos não fumigados com brometo de metila apresentaram menor viabilidade e maior presença de fungos antagônicos, indicando que estes solos contêm elementos supressivos de origem biológica. A viabilidade dos escleródios foi relacionada negativamente com a população de alguns microorganismos de solo. Nos tratamentos de maior incidência de Trichoderma spp. observou-se menor viabilidade de escleródios e solos fumigados suprimiram fortemente a ocorrência deste antagonista.

  11. Host plants of insect-induced galls in areas of cerrado in the state of Goiás, Brazil

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    Walter Santos de Araújo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of the interactions between plants and gall-inducing (galling insects have focused on the entomological aspects, few having addressed the diversity of galls in relation to the characteristics of the host plants. The objective of this study was to analyze the richness and composition of the community of host plants of galls in areas of cerrado (savanna in the state of Goiás, Brazil. To that end, we inventoried the galls in different regions of the state and within various types of vegetation formations, between 2005 and 2007. We registered 80 gall morphotypes in 58 species of host plants (30 families and 47 genera. The host family with highest diversity of galls was Fabaceae, with 17 morphotypes, followed by Styracaceae, with seven. In the cerrado, Fabaceae is the plant family with the highest number of species. Our results show that the composition of a plant community is a determinant of the distribution of galling insects. At the family or genus level, the presence of certain taxa increases the species richness of the population of galling insects.

  12. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes cf. neuquenensis and Ixodes sigelos ticks from the Patagonian region of Argentina.

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    Sebastian, Patrick S; Bottero, Maria Noelia Saracho; Carvalho, Luis; Mackenstedt, Ute; Lareschi, Marcela; Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in ixodid ticks from the Patagonia region in the south of Argentina. Therefore, ticks were collected on rodents in the provinces of Chubut, Río Negro and Santa Cruz. These ticks were identified as nymphs of Ixodes cf. neuquenensis and Ixodes sigelos. The B. burgdorferi s.l. infection was tested by a battery of PCR methods targeting the gene flagellin (fla) and the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region (IGS). Three pools of I. sigelos nymphs from Chubut and Santa Cruz provinces as well as one pool of I. cf. neuquenensis nymphs from Río Negro province were tested positive in the fla-PCR. The samples of I. sigelos were also positive for the IGS-PCR. Phylogenetically, the haplotypes found in the positive ticks belong to the B. burgdorferi s.l. complex, and they were closely related to Borrelia chilensis, a genospecies isolated from Ixodes stilesi in Chile. The pathogenic relevance of the Borrelia genospecies detected in both I. neuquenensis and I. sigelos is unknown. PMID:27372197

  13. Polysynovitis in a horse due to [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato infection – Case study

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    Fabrizio Passamonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the[i] Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors’ knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk.

  14. Morphological and ontogenetic stratification of abyssal and hadal Eurythenes gryllus sensu lato (Amphipoda: Lysianassoidea) from the Peru-Chile Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustace, Ryan M.; Ritchie, Heather; Kilgallen, Niamh M.; Piertney, Stuart B.; Jamieson, Alan J.

    2016-03-01

    The globally ubiquitous lysianassoid amphipod, Eurythenes gryllus, has been shown to consist of multiple genetically distinct cryptic taxa, with depth considered a major driver of speciation and morphological divergence. Here we examine morphological variation of E. gryllus sensu lato through a continuous depth distribution that spans from abyssal (3000-6000 m) into hadal depths (>6000 m) in the Peru-Chile Trench (SE Pacific Ocean). Three distinct morphospecies were identified: one was confirmed as being E. magellanicus (4602-5329 m) based on DNA sequence and morphological similarity. The other two morphologically distinct species were named based upon depth of occurrence; Abyssal (4602-6173 m) and Hadal (6173-8074 m). The three Eurythenes morphospecies showed vertical ontogenetic stratification across their bathymetric range, where juveniles were found shallower in their depth range and mature females deeper. Potential ecological and evolutionary drivers that explain the observed patterns of intra and inter-specific structure, such as hydrostatic pressure and topographical isolation, are discussed.

  15. Qualidade física de Latossolos Amarelos sob plantio direto na região do Cerrado piauiense

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    Rossanna Barbosa Pragana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado vem sendo alvo de exploração sem a devida preocupação com a manutenção dos recursos naturais, e os sistemas de produção têm se caracterizado pelo uso intensivo do solo. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito do plantio direto na alteração das características físicas de Latossolos Amarelos cultivados com soja. A pesquisa foi realizada na Serra do Quilombo, localizada no cerrado piauiense. Foram verificadas as alterações nos atributos do solo em decorrência da utilização agrícola, que foi iniciada com plantio convencional (PC, posteriormente substituído pelo sistema de plantio direto (PD. Foram amostrados solos com diferentes históricos de uso: PC7/PD8: sete anos de plantio convencional e oito de plantio direto; PC5/PD4: cinco anos de plantio convencional e quatro de plantio direto; PC3/PD3: três anos de plantio convencional e três de plantio direto; e CN: solo com cerrado nativo. As propriedades avaliadas foram: distribuição das frações granulométricas, argila dispersa em água, grau de floculação, relação silte/argila, densidade do solo e das partículas, porosidade total, macro e microporosidade. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e, como análise complementar, utilizaram-se técnicas multivariadas. Para identificação das características físicas semelhantes do solo, utilizou-se a técnica de análise multivariada denominada análise fatorial. Maiores valores de densidade do solo e de microporosidade foram observados nos sistemas PD, e de macroporosidade e porosidade total, no CN. Os resultados mostraram que a implementação do sistema plantio direto alterou o volume total de poros e a macroporosidade, porém estes apresentaram valores dentro da faixa considerada não restritiva. A análise fatorial possibilitou a visualização conjunta dos atributos do solo, sendo as propriedades densidade do solo, porosidade total e macroporosidade as que mais sofreram variação nos

  16. Crescimento inicial de Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae em diferentes condições de fertilidade em solo de cerrado Early development of Dimorphandra wilsonii (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae in Cerrado under different soil fertility conditions

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    Márcia Bacelar Fonseca

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. é uma espécie arbórea criticamente ameaçada de extinção. Foi descrita para áreas de maior fertilidade no Domínio do cerrado; entretanto, atualmente ocorre em áreas isoladas e de baixa fertilidade natural. Com o objetivo de avaliar a adaptação desta espécie a condições de oligotrofia, plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação em solo destas áreas oligotróficas, mas com diferentes níveis de fertilidade. A partir da análise de fertilidade do solo foram definidas as doses de macronutrientes (NPK e a dose de calcário a serem utilizadas nos tratamentos que se constituíram de dois níveis de calagem e três níveis de adubação. Após 220 dias do plantio, os tratamentos que aumentaram significativamente o crescimento foram aqueles que receberam adubação com a dose indicada de NPK em solo não corrigido pela calagem e aquele que teve o solo calado e adubado com duas vezes a dose indicada de NPK. A calagem por si só não promoveu maior crescimento, mas propiciou respostas crescentes de crescimento a níveis crescentes de disponibilidade de nutrientes. Foram encontrados nódulos radiculares em todos os tratamentos, e os resultados permitiram concluir que a espécie apresenta requerimento nutricional coerente com sua área de origem no Domínio do Cerrado. Também foi possível ressaltar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio, incomum em Caesalpinioideae, como estratégia adaptativa para crescimento em áreas com baixa oferta de nutrientes.Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK and lime doses to be used in

  17. Conversion of cerrado into agricultural land in the south-western Amazon: carbon stocks and soil fertility Conversão do cerrado em agricultura no sudoeste da Amazônia: estoques de carbono e fertilidade do solo

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    João Luís Nunes Carvalho

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use change and land management practices can modify soil carbon (C dynamics and soil fertility. This study evaluated the effect of tillage systems (no-tillage - NT and conventional tillage - CT on soil C and nutrient stocks in an Oxisol from an Amazonian cerrado following land use change. The study also identified relationships between these stocks and other soil attributes. Carbon, P, K, Ca and Mg stocks, adjusted to the equivalent soil mass in the cerrado (CE, were higher under NT. After adoption of all but one of the NT treatments, C stocks were higher than they were in the other areas we considered. Correlations between C and nutrient stocks showed positive correlations with Ca and Mg under NT due to continuous liming, higher crop residue inputs and lack of soil disturbance, associated with positive correlations with cation exchange capacity (CEC, base saturation and pH. The positive correlation (r = 0.91, p Mudanças de uso da terra e práticas de manejo modificam a dinâmica do C e a fertilidade do solo. Este estudo avaliou as implicações dos sistemas de cultivo (NT e CT nos estoques de C e de nutrientes e identificou inter-relações entre estes estoques e outros atributos da fertilidade do solo em Latossolo após a mudança do uso da terra no cerrado amazônico. Os estoques de C e de nutrientes (P, K, Ca e Mg ajustados pela massa equivalente do solo sob cerrado (CE, foram maiores principalmente sob NT. Após a adoção do NT, exceto em 2NT, os estoques de C foram maiores em relação às demais áreas avaliadas. Correlações entre estoques de C e de nutrientes revelaram algumas correlações positivas com Ca e Mg nas áreas sob NT, devido ao uso continuo de calcário, à maior quantidade de resíduos culturais e ao não revolvimento do solo, associado à correlações positivas com CTC, saturação por bases e pH. A correlação positiva (r = 0,91, p < 0,05 entre estoques de C e CTC em CE indica a importante contribuição da MOS

  18. Threats to the Cerrado remnants of the state of São Paulo, Brazil Ameaças a fragmentos de Cerrado no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Giselda Durigan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Patches of natural vegetation remaining in landscapes occupied by man are continuously under threat due to the edge effects and also to land use types around these remnants. The most frequent threats and land use types in the vicinity of 81 Cerrado (tropical savanna type fragments in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed in order to verify if the frequency of every type of disturbance to the natural ecosystem depends on the neighboring land use. The hypothesis of the study assumes that environmental threats are correlated with land use around protected areas. From the 81 areas, the most frequent human-induced land cover types around the Cerrado remnants were: pasture (recorded in 78% of the areas, sugarcane plantations (26%, roads (19%, annual crops and reforestation (14% each. The most frequent sources of threats were invasive grasses (35% of the areas partially or totally invaded and cattle (observed in 32% of the areas, followed by deforestation (21%, and fire (21%. The chi-square analysis revealed that, with the exception of deforestation, which does not depend on land use, all other threats are influenced by the neighboring land use. The occurrence of invasive grasses and fires are strongly favored by the presence of roads and urban areas. Sugarcane, reforestation, and permanent crops were the less impacting land use types found in the study area, when only considering impact frequency. These land use types have fire and weed control, and also exclude cattle, indirectly protecting natural ecosystems.Fragmentos remanescentes de vegetação natural em paisagens antropizadas sofrem ameaças permanentes, devido aos efeitos de borda e às atividades antrópicas nas áreas limítrofes. Para verificar a hipótese de que o tipo de ameaça ao ecossistema e a sua freqüência dependem do uso da terra no seu entorno, foram analisados 81 fragmentos de Cerrado no estado de São Paulo. Para cada fragmento foram registrados os tipos de perturba

  19. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils Conteúdo de radionuclídeos e metais pesados em amostras de fosfogesso, comparativamente ao de solos de cerrado

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    Vanusa Maria Feliciano Jacomino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogysum (PG or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - Not Dangerous, Not Inert, Not Corrosive and Not Reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific 226Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg-1 was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg-1 for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment.O fosfogesso ou "gesso agrícola" - um resíduo sólido da indústria de produção de fertilizantes fosfatados - é usado como condicionador de solos, em especial do solo da região do Cerrado, Brasil. Entretanto, esse material contém radionuclídeos naturais e metais que podem ser transferidos para o solo, as plantas e o lençol freático. Neste trabalho são apresentados e discutidos os resultados de análises químicas e físicas para caracterização do fosfogesso e compara seus resultados com aqueles

  20. Soil macrofauna under integrated crop-livestock systems in a Brazilian Cerrado Ferralsol Macrofauna edáfica em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária num Latossolo Vermelho do Cerrado

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    Robélio Leandro Marchão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with two tillage and two fertilization regimes, on the abundance and diversity of the soil macrofauna. Four different management systems were studied: continuous pasture (mixed grass; continuous crop; two crop-livestock rotations (crop/pasture and pasture/crop; and native Cerrado as a control. Macrofauna was sampled using a modified Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility method, and all individuals were counted and identified at the morphospecies level for each plot. A total of 194 morphospecies were found, distributed among 30 groups, and the most representative in decreasing order of density were: Isoptera, Coleoptera larvae, Formicidae, Oligochaeta, Coleoptera adult, Diplopoda, Hemiptera, Diptera larvae, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Lepidoptera, Gasteropoda, Blattodea and Orthoptera. Soil management systems and tillage regimes affected the structure of soil macrofauna, and integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with no-tillage, especially with grass/legume species associations, had more favorable conditions for the development of "soil engineers" compared with continuous pasture or arable crops. Soil macrofauna density and diversity, assessed at morphospecies level, are effective data to measure the impact of land use in Cerrado soils.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária, associados a dois tipos de preparo e de fertilização do solo, sobre a abundância e a diversidade da macrofauna edáfica. Quatro sistemas de manejo foram estudados: pastagem contínua de gramíneas; lavoura contínua de culturas anuais; dois sistemas integrados lavoura-pecuária (lavoura/pastagem e pastagem/lavoura; e Cerrado nativo (controle. A macrofauna foi avaliada pelo método "Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility" modificado e todos os indivíduos coletados nas parcelas foram contados e identificados ao nível de