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Sample records for cerrado sensu stricto

  1. Dispersal syndromes related to edge distance in cerrado sensu stricto fragments of central-western Brazil

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    André Vitor Fleuri Jardim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main selective forces affecting the fruiting strategies are related to the environment in which plants occur. As a savanna, microclimatic conditions should not vary in relation to distance from edge in cerrado sensu stricto fragments. Thus, we postulated that the importance of different dispersal syndromes would not vary towards the fragment core. Our aim was to test in four cerrado sensu stricto fragments in central Brazil whether the absolute density of anemo-, auto-, and zoochorous individuals varied in relation to edge distance. According to results, the absolute density of anemo-and autochorous individuals did not vary, whereas those of zoochorous individuals increased with edge distance, pointing out that there were other factors rather than abiotic conditions shifting zoochorous species to the interior of cerrado sensu stricto fragments.As principais forças seletivas que afetam as estratégias de frutificação estão relacionadas ao ambiente em que as plantas ocorrem. Como fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto são savânicos, as condições microclimáticas não devem variar em relação à distância da borda. Assim, postulamos que a importância das diferentes síndromes de dispersão não varia da borda ao interior de um fragmento de vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar, em quatro fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto (centro-oeste do Brasil, se a densidade absoluta de indivíduos anemo, auto e zoocóricos variava em função da distância da borda. Segundo nossos resultados, a densidade absoluta de indivíduos anemo e autocóricos não variou significativamente borda em direção ao interior dos fragmentos, enquanto que a dos indivíduos zoocóricos aumentou, indicando que existem outros fatores, que não as condições abióticas, deslocando as espécies zoocóricas para o interior dos fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto.

  2. Fitossociologia de cerrado sensu stricto no município de Abaeté-MG Phytosociology of the cerrado sensu stricto in Abaeté, MG, Brazil

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    Amilcar Walter Saporetti Jr

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O cerrado tem sido objeto de discussão de grupos temáticos que estudam a conservação de biodiversidade no Estado de Minas Gerais. São inúmeras as áreas de conservação com vegetação de cerrado das quais não se têm informações a respeito de sua composição florística e estrutura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar florística e fitossociologicamente uma área de cerrado sensu stricto, no município de Abaeté-MG. A área de estudo é um fragmento com 2 ha de cerrado sensu stricto, preservado como área de reserva da CAF-Santa Bárbara, situada nas coordenadas 19º05'S e 44º58'W, a uma altitude de 480 m, em leve depressão próxima de uma vereda. O clima pertence ao tipo Cwa pelo sistema de Köppen, com precipitação média anual de 1.400 mm. O solo é do tipo Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram instaladas 15 parcelas de 200 m² (10 x 20 m, distribuídas sistematicamente ao longo de trilhas, distanciadas 10 m entre si. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos lenhosos vivos com circunferência do caule ao nível do solo (CAS igual ou maior que 10 cm. O índice de Shannon foi de 3,590 e a equabilidade foi de 0,804, considerados comuns para cerrados bem conservados. Foram amostrados 1.339 indivíduos, sendo a composição florística constituída por 85 espécies, distribuídas em 44 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae com sete espécies, Annonaceae com cinco, Myrtaceae, Malpighiaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rubiaceae e Bignoniaceae com quatro, seguidas de Vochysiaceae e Leguminosae Papilionoideae com três. As espécies que apresentaram o maior valor de importância (VI foram Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (22,21, Myrcia lingua Berg (18,18 Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (17,91, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (17,58, Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (13,69 e Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (11,86.The cerrado has been a topic of discussion of thematic groups studying biodiversity

  3. Diversidade alfa e beta no cerrado sensu strictu da Chapada Pratinha, Brasil Alfa and Beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto

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    Maria Cristina Felfili

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O bioma cerrado possui uma das mais ricas floras dentre as savanas mundiais com mais de 6000 espécies, abrange uma vasta extensão territorial, contém as três maiores bacias hidrográficas sul americanas, e se destaca pela elevada biodiversidade. O objetivo deste trabalho, que faz parte do Projeto Biogeografia do Bioma Cerrado, foi analisar as diversidades alfa e beta em comunidades de cerrado sensu stricto. Foram amostrados o Parque Nacional de Brasília, a Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, a Area de Proteção Ambiental (APA Gama-Cabeça de Veado, Silvânia-GO, Paracatu-MG e Patrocínio-MG. A amostragem foi aleatória com 10 parcelas de 20x50m em cada área de estudo. Foram incluídas plantas lenhosas, exceto lianas, que tivessem no mínimo 5cm de diâmetro. Foi calculada a diversidade alfa pelo teste de Shannon & Wienner e o de Simpson. A diversidade beta foi calculada pelo índice de Whittaker que mede a mudança ou taxa de substituição na composição de espécies de um local para outro. Foi efetuada a curva espécie-área para as 60 parcelas amostradas e efetuada a classificação por TWINSPAN. O cerrado sensu stricto da Chapada Pratinha pode ser diferenciado em duas zonas fitogeográficas: Distrito Federal-Silvânia e Paracatu-Patrocínio. Estas coincidem com um zoneamento por sistemas de terra que classifica a primeira zona como terras altas em contraposição à segunda.The cerrado flora is one of the richest among the world's savannas with more than 6000 species. The cerrado covers a large territory, contains the three most important hydrographycal basins in South America and a high diversity. The objective of this work, that is part of the project Biogeography of the Cerrado Biome, was to analyse alfa and beta diversity in the cerrado sensu stricto. The sampled places were: Brasília National Park -- DF, Águas Emendadas Ecological Station -- DF, Environmentally protected Area of Gama-Cabeça de Veado -- DF, Silv

  4. Efeito do fogo na produção de frutos de Qualea parviflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae em cerrado sensu stricto

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    Alexandre Cesar Palermo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre os muitos efeitos causados por queimadas nas espécies arbóreas nativas do Cerrado, a alteração da produção de frutos tem destaque, pois implica diretamente na manutenção de populações locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o efeito de uma queimada prescrita na produção de frutos de Qualea parviflora Mart. em área de Cerrado sensu stricto em Brasília, DF. Foram utilizadas duas áreas de Cerrado sensu stricto, uma submetida a regime de queima bienal em agosto (queimada e outra protegida contra a queima há 14 anos (controle. Em cada área, 10 indivíduos reprodutivos foram selecionados e a sua produção de botões florais, flores e frutos, acompanhada durante 22 meses. Dois meses após uma queimada prescrita em 26 de agosto de 2008, a produção de estruturas reprodutivas foi maior na área queimada do que na área-controle. Contudo, a proporção de botões que geram flores e frutos ("fruit set" foi a mesma nas duas áreas. Na estação reprodutiva seguinte, um ano após a queima não houve produção de inflorescências na área queimada. No entanto, na área-controle a produção de frutos foi maior do que no período anterior. A ausência de produção de flores nos indivíduos da área queimada um ano após o fogo sugere que Q. parviflora pode necessitar de mais de um ano para retornar ao seu ciclo normal de reprodução, indicando que os efeitos de médio e de longo prazo devem ser considerados ao se usar o fogo como instrumento de manejo para redução do combustível em áreas de Cerrado.

  5. Dry biomass distribution in a cerrado sensu stricto site in Brazil central Distribuição de biomassa seca em um sítio de cerrado sensu stricto no Brasil central

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    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado has been the main source of firewood and charcoal in Brazil, but despite being one of the hot spots for conservation of the world's biodiversity, neither plantations of native species nor sustainable management has been adopted in the region. The aim of this work was to investigate the biomass distribution and the potential for energy production of the cerrado species. The study was conducted in a cerrado sensu stricto site at the Água Limpa Farm (15º 56'14'' S and 47º 46'08'' W in the Cerrado Biosphere Reserve. An area of 63.54ha was divided in 20 x 50m plots and, a random sample consisting of ten of these plots, representing 1.56% of the study-site, was assessed. All woody individuals from 5 cm diameter at 30 cm above ground level were identified and measured. Each individual was felled, the twigs thinner than 3cm were discarded while the larger branches and the trunks, both with bark, were weighted separately. After that, 2.5cm transverse sections of the trunk with bark were taken at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the length. A similar sample was also taken at the base of each branch. A total of 47 species in 35 genera and 24 families were found, with an average density of 673 individuals per ha. The diameter distribution showed a reversed-J shape with 67% of the individuals up to 13cm, while the maximum diameter was 32.30cm. Seven species represented 72% of the total biomass. In general, the species with higher production per tree were among those with higher production per ha. This content was distributed by diameter classes, reaching a maximum of 2.5ton/ha between 9 to 13cm and then, decreasing to 0.96 ton/ha between 29 to 33cm diameter. Carbon sequestering was 6.2ton/ha (until the actual stage of cerrado based on an average 50% carbon content in the dry matter. The heat combustion of the wood varied from 18,903kj/kg to 20,888kj/kg with an average of 19,942kj/kg. The smaller diameter classes fix more carbon due to the large

  6. Seed dispersal and predation of Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler (Combretaceae in a Cerrado sensu stricto, midwest Brazil

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    J. Farias

    Full Text Available Abstract The ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. We investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of Buchenavia tomentosa in the Serra Azul State Park (PESA. We estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. We carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. Fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 fruits.ha–1. B. tomentosa fruits were utilized by eight animal species. The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris was considered the main seed disperser. Leafcutter ants (Atta laevigata and Atta sexdens participated in the seed cleaning and occasionally dispersed seeds. The beetle Amblycerus insuturatus, blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna and red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus were considered pre-dispersal seed predators. The seeds manually cleaned presented higher germination rate (100% and speed index (4.2 seeds.d–1 than that of seeds with pulp. Germination of seeds found in tapirs’feces was 40%, while for the seeds without pulp it was 25%. The high abundance of B. tomentosa in the cerrado of PESA may be due to massive fruit production, low rates of seed predation, and efficient seed dispersal by tapirs, occurring before the rains which promote germination and recruitment of this species.

  7. Seed dispersal and predation of Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler (Combretaceae) in a Cerrado sensu stricto, midwest Brazil.

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    Farias, J; Sanchez, M; Abreu, M F; Pedroni, F

    2015-11-01

    The ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. We investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of Buchenavia tomentosa in the Serra Azul State Park (PESA). We estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. We carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. Fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 fruits.ha-1. B. tomentosa fruits were utilized by eight animal species. The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) was considered the main seed disperser. Leafcutter ants (Atta laevigata and Atta sexdens) participated in the seed cleaning and occasionally dispersed seeds. The beetle Amblycerus insuturatus, blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna) and red-and-green macaw (Ara chloropterus) were considered pre-dispersal seed predators. The seeds manually cleaned presented higher germination rate (100%) and speed index (4.2 seeds.d-1) than that of seeds with pulp. Germination of seeds found in tapirs'feces was 40%, while for the seeds without pulp it was 25%. The high abundance of B. tomentosa in the cerrado of PESA may be due to massive fruit production, low rates of seed predation, and efficient seed dispersal by tapirs, occurring before the rains which promote germination and recruitment of this species.

  8. Survey of vegetation and its diametric distribution in an area of cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest fragment at Dois Irmãos stream in the Area of Environmental Protection (APA of Cafuringa, Federal District, Brazil.

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    José Elias de Paula

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available All individual trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH of over 5cm, as well as the natural succession, were identified in 2,500m2 of the savannah (cerrado sensu stricto area and in 5,000m2 of the “Dois Irmãos” riparian forest vegetation (15º30’19”S and 48º06’18”W. The floristic composition of the cerrado sensu stricto was composed by 100 trees distributed in 25 species, and the riparian forest consisted of 155 trees distributed in 55 species. The natural regeneration was formed with 211 and 287 individuals in the cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest distributed into 38 and 55 species respectively. The basal areas of the trees occupied 3.40m2.ha-1 in the cerrado sensu stricto and 5.08m2.ha-1 in the riparian forest. The diametric distribution curves for both plant communities, adjusted by the Meyers equation, demonstrated a typical tendency of reversed-J shape with strongly antropic action in the 11 to 17cm diametric classes.

  9. Fenologia de Annona coriacea Mart. (Annonaceae em um fragmento de Cerrado sensu stricto em Rio Verde, Goiás (Nota Científica. Phenology of Annona coriacea Mart. (Annonaceae in a fragment of Cerrado sensu stricto in Rio Verde, Goiás (Scientific Note.

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    Michellia Pereira SOARES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos fenológicos são importantes para a compreensão da dinâmica das comunidades vegetais, para o entendimento da reprodução das espécies, da organização temporal dos recursos e da coevolução entre plantas e animais. Neste estudo, acompanhou-se a fenologia vegetativa e reprodutiva de 22 indivíduos de Annona coriacea Mart., durante 11 meses, em um fragmento de Cerrado sensu stricto no município de Rio Verde, Goiás, registrando-se os índices de atividade, intensidade e avaliando-se a sincronia das fenofases. A ocorrência da floração e brotamento no início das chuvas, a manutenção da produção de folhas adultas durante todo o período estudado e a maior intensidade de frutificação e senescência foliar durante a estiagem são estratégias características de uma planta adaptada à ocorrência de duas estações bem marcadas. Dessa forma, há indícios de que Annona coriacea responde à sazonalidade climática característica do Domínio Cerrado, já que a delimitação dos padrões fenológicos e da sazonalidade só é possível a partir de pelo menos dois anos de dados. Phenological studies are important for understanding the dynamics of plant communities, the reproduction of the species, the temporal organization of resources and coevolution between plants and animals. This study followed up the vegetative and reproductive phenology of 22 individuals of Annona coriacea Mart., for 11 months, in a fragment of Cerrado in Rio Verde, Goiás, recording activity and intensity index and evaluating the timing of phenophases. The occurrence of flowering and budding at the beginning of the rains, the continued production of mature leaves throughout the study period, and more intense fruiting and leaf senescence during drought are strategies proper of a plant adapted to the occurrence of two well-defined seasons. So, probably Annona coriacea responds to climatic seasonality characteristic of the Cerrado Domain because it is only

  10. Comparação da vegetação arbórea e características edáficas de um cerradão e um cerrado sensu stricto em áreas adjacentes sobre solo distrófico no leste de Mato Grosso, Brasil A comparison of the woody vegetation and soil characteristics of a cerradão and a Cerrado sensu stricto in adjacents areas on dystrophic soils in eastern Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Ben Hur Marimon Junior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Em alguns casos, cerrado sensu stricto e cerradão ocorrem lado a lado e sob condições edáficas e topográficas semelhantes. Como os fatores que contribuem para a ocorrência de cerradão nessas situações ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidos, o objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a composição florística e a fitossociologia de um cerradão e um cerrado sensu stricto no leste mato-grossense e verificar se maior fertilidade do solo estava contribuindo para a ocorrência do cerradão. Em cada comunidade foi realizado um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico em 50 parcelas de 10 m×10 m, onde foram medidas todas as árvores com diâmetro maior do que 5 cm a 30 cm do solo. Foram coletadas amostras de solos de um perfil de 2 m de profundidade em cada área e amostras superficiais (0-10 e 10-20 cm. As fitofisionomias foram distintas quanto a florística, estrutura e fitossociologia. A área basal (21,4 m² ha-1 e altura média (6,4 m do cerradão foram maiores do que as do cerrado sensu stricto (14,9 m² ha-1 e 3,7 m. No cerradão, as três espécies mais importantes foram Hirtella glandulosa Spreg., Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. e Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart., somando 29% do Índice do Valor de Importância (IVI total e no cerrado sensu stricto, foram Qualea parviflora Mart., Davilla elliptica A. St.-Hil. e Roupala montana Aubl., somando 20,5 do IVI total. Os solos sob ambas as fitofisionomias foram ácidos (pH 1,3 cmol c kg-1. A fertilidade do solo não apresentou diferenças para corroborar a hipótese de que a ocorrência do cerradão ao lado do cerrado sensu stricto era devida à maior fertilidade do solo. O solo sob o cerradão apresentou textura mais argilosa em todo o perfil, o que pode significar maior disponibilidade de água para as árvores durante todo o ano. Esse é um aspecto que merece investigações no futuro.Cerrado sensu stricto and cerradão often occur side by side under similar edaphic and topographic

  11. The phylogeny and taxonomic status of the Chlorocystini (sensu stricto) (Homoptera, Tibicinidae)

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    Boer, de A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The “Baeturia and related genera complex”, as defined earlier (De Boer, 1990) by shared aedeagal characters, is identified as the tribe Chlorocystini (sensu stricto). The Prasiini (sensu stricto) are identified as the sister group of the Chlorocystini (sensu stricto), while the genus Muda is recogni

  12. Análise da estrutura de uma comunidade lenhosa em área de cerrado sensu stricto no município de Senador Modestino Gonçalves, norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil A woody community structure in a cerrado sensu stricto area of the municipality of Senador Modestino Gonçalves, north of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Andreza Viana Neri

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de conhecer a estrutura de uma comunidade arbórea de uma área de Cerrado, fez-se um estudo fitossociológico no Município de Senador Modestino Gonçalves. Para tal foram delimitadas 30 parcelas de 10 x 20m para levantamento dos dados, utilizando-se como critério de inclusão os indivíduos com circunferência do tronco à altura do solo (CAS = 10 cm. Foram encontradas 91 espécies de 38 famílias. As espécies que se destacaram como as mais importantes foram Qualea grandiflora, Eriotheca pubescens, Caryocar brasiliense, Byrsonima coccolobaefolia, Myrsine guianensis, Qualea parviflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Plathymenia reticulata e Lafoensia pacari. Essas 10 espécies representaram 49,32% do VI e 51,26% dos indivíduos amostrados. A área não apresentou espécie com dominância marcante, como mostrou o valor de equabilidade (J'= 0,80. Além de se destacar pela riqueza, o cerrado estudado destacou-se também pelos altos valores de densidade (6.476,67 ind/ha, de área basal (28,93 m²/ha e pelo alto índice de diversidade (H'=3,61.The aim of this work was to study the phytossociological structure of a tree community in a cerrado fragment located in Senador Modestino Gonçalves, MG. A total of 30 10x20m stands of tree individuals with stem circumferences at the soil level = 10cm were sampled, being found 91 species belonging to 38 families. The most important species were Qualea grandiflora, Eriotheca pubescens, Caryocar brasiliense, Byrsonima coccolobaefolia, Myrsine guianensis, Qualea parviflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Plathymenia reticulata and Lafoensia pacari. These species represented 49.32% of the importance value and 51.26% of the individuals. Besides standing out for its richness, the studied cerrado fragment also outstood out for its high tree density, biomass and diversity.

  13. Distribuição vertical dos sistemas de polinização bióticos em áreas de cerrado sentido restrito no Triângulo Mineiro, MG, Brasil Vertical distribution of biotic pollination systems in cerrado sensu stricto in the Triângulo Mineiro, MG, Brazil

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    Cláudia Inês da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alguns fatores podem influenciar a distribuição dos recursos florais e sistemas de polinização bióticos nos ecossistemas, como por exemplo, o clima, a altitude, a região geográfica, fragmentação de áreas naturais e as diferenças na composição florística na estratificação vertical. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a distribuição dos sistemas de polinização bióticos na estratificação vertical em fragmentos de cerrado sentido restrito no Triângulo Mineiro. Não houve diferença significativa (χ²0,05,9 =14,17; p = 0,12 na riqueza florística geral entre os fragmentos, nem quando comparada em separado para cada estrato (arbóreo, arbustivo, herbáceo e liana, estando o estrato arbustivo mais bem representado. Da mesma forma, não houve diferenças significativas entre fragmentos quanto aos sistemas de polinização (χ²0,05,21 =13,80; p = 0,8778, sendo a polinização por abelhas mais comum, correspondendo ao menos 85% das espécies de plantas em cada fragmento. Em termos relativos, as plantas polinizadas por abelhas foram dominantes em todos os estratos, chegando a 100% das lianas e herbáceas em alguns fragmentos. Neste estudo, com base na composição florística e distribuição dos sistemas de polinização na estratificação vertical, podemos caracterizar um mosaico vertical no cerrado sentido restrito, que tem implicações na sustentabilidade das comunidades no cerrado, assim como os mosaicos horizontais de fitofisionomias.Several factors can influence the distribution of floral resources and pollination systems in ecosystems, such as climate, altitude, geographic region, fragmentation of natural areas and differences in floristic composition along the vertical stratification. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of the vertical stratification of biotic pollination systems in cerrado (sensu stricto fragments in the Triângulo Mineiro. There was no significant difference (χ²0.05,9=14.17; P = 0.12 in

  14. Microdiversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in Australia.

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    Alvarez Rojas, C A; Ebi, D; Gauci, C G; Scheerlinck, J P; Wassermann, M; Jenkins, D J; Lightowlers, M W; Romig, T

    2016-07-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) is now recognized as an assemblage of cryptic species, which differ considerably in morphology, development, host specificity (including infectivity/pathogenicity for humans) and other aspects. One of these species, E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), is now clearly identified as the principal agent causing cystic echinococcosis in humans. Previous studies of a small section of the cox1 and nadh1 genes identified two variants of E. granulosus s.s. to be present in Australia; however, no further work has been carried out to characterize the microdiversity of the parasite in its territory. We have analysed the sequence of the full length of the cox1 gene (1609 bp) from 37 isolates of E. granulosus from different hosts and geographic regions of Australia. The analysis shows that seven haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. not previously described were found, together with five haplotypes known to be present in other parts of the world, including the haplotype EG01 which is widespread and present in all endemic regions. These data extend knowledge related to the geographical spread and host range of E. granulosus s.s. in a country such as Australia in which the parasite established around 200 years ago.

  15. [Pedagogical training in stricto sensu graduate programs in public health].

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    Corrêa, Guilherme Torres; Ribeiro, Victoria Maria Brant

    2013-06-01

    The scope of this research is to discuss the relevance and need for pedagogical training of university lecturers in the Public Health field. The contention is that college teaching is a practice that requires specific training, since it is characterized by complex elements that transcend the mastery of given content. Considering stricto sensu graduate studies as an important stage in the training of future university lecturers, an attempt was made to identify and analyze the subjects and practices of pedagogical training in academic masters and doctorate programs in Public Health. To achieve the research aim, this work was based on Pierre Bourdieu's field theory and on Tomaz Tadeu da Silva's curriculum theory. Results indicate that the programs do not consider the aspect of teacher training as a major issue. With regard to the Public Health field approximately 61% of masters and 38% of doctorate programs have pedagogical training subjects/practices. Furthermore, there is a tendency for technical-instrumental training, which is in line with the history of the Public Health field. The conclusion is that there is a need to develop a culture that values college and graduate Public Health teaching, considering the complexity of pedagogical practice in all its dimensions.

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS Triticum, SENSU LATO AND SENSU STRICTO, BASED ON SPIKE AND GRAIN MORPHOLOGY

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    Hristo P. STOYANOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of the present classifications of species of the genus Triticum associates mainly with several plant morphological factors such as fragility of the spikes spindle, grains threshability, grain sphericity, shape and position of glumes, lemmas and paleas and awns, compactness, etc. Special attention is paid to the factor "cultural/wild" form, the ploidy and the genomic constitution of the species, often supported by molecular data which provides considerable comfort in disclosing phylogenetic features in a particular taxonomic unit. Such taxonomic determination is associated with certain disadvantages. It is not sufficiently focused on the spike morphology related to the reproductive apparatus of the plant, and also the causes of phylogenetic differentiation of certain parameters, such as spike branching, multiple spikelets, as well as the ratios of quantitative properties. The existing classifications do not give a precise answer to the taxonomic position of amphidiploids in the genus Triticum, and also for those obtained from hybrid combinations with genera Aegilops, Secale, Haynaldia, Hordeum, Elymus, Leymus, Elytrigia, Agropyron, as transitional and similar forms. Based on studies of spike and grain morphology of a large number of representatives of the genus Triticum and other interspecific and intergeneric amphidiploid forms, a classification of the genus sensu lato and sensu stricto is composed. Sensu stricto, genus Triticum covers all existing wild and cultivated known wheat forms, together with interspecific artificial synthetic forms. Sensu lato, the genus includes intergeneric hybrids, for which a specific generic epithet was coined - ×Triticum, and also a specific epithet, consistent with the originator of the amphidiploid. Special attention was paid to species and amphidiploids with the genus Aegilops. Classification sensu strictissimo was also formulated where the genus Triticum brings together only diploid species

  17. A novel zoonotic genotype related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Marion; Woldeyes, Daniel; Gerbi, Banchwosen Mechal; Ebi, Dennis; Zeyhle, Eberhard; Mackenstedt, Ute; Petros, Beyene; Tilahun, Getachew; Kern, Peter; Romig, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences of a novel genotype (GOmo) related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto are described from a metacestode isolate retrieved from a human patient in southwestern Ethiopia. Phylogenetically, the genotype is positioned within the E. granulosus sensu stricto/Echinococcus felidis cluster, but cannot easily be allocated to either species. Based on different mitochondrial DNA markers, it is closest to the haplotype cluster that currently defines the species E. granulosus sensu stricto (which includes variants showing the widely cited G1, G2 and G3 sequences), but is clearly not part of this cluster. Pairwise distances between GOmo and E. granulosus sensu stricto are in the range of those between the most distant members of the Echinococcus canadensis complex (G6-10) that were recently proposed as separate species. At this stage, we prefer to list GOmo informally as a genotype rather than giving it any taxonomic rank because our knowledge rests on a single isolate from a dead-end host (human), and its lifecycle is unknown. According to data on molecularly characterised Echinococcus isolates from this region, GOmo has never been found in the usual livestock species that carry cystic echinococcosis and the possibility of a wildlife source of this newly recognised zoonotic agent cannot be excluded. The discovery of GOmo adds complexity to the already diverse array of cystic echinococcosis agents in sub-Saharan Africa and challenges hypotheses on the biogeographical origin of the E. granulosus sensu stricto clade.

  18. [Serological diagnosis of sporotrichosis using an antigen of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto mycelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Primavera; Ostos, Ana; Franquiz, Nohelys; Roschman-González, Antonio; Zambrano, Edgar A; Mendoza, Mireya

    2015-06-01

    We developed and analyzed an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in order to detect antibodies in sera from sporotrichosis patients. We used a crude antigen of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, obtained from the mycelial phase of the fungi. Positive sera were analyzed by other serological techniques such as double immunodiffusion (IGG) and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). The assay was validated by using sera from patients with other pathologies such as: histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, lupus and healthy individuals as negative controls. For the Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto antigen, we found a 100% of specificity by every technique and sensitivity higher than 98% with IDD, CIE and ELISA. Our results show a high sensitivity and specificity for the Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto antigen, so it can be used for IDD, CIE and ELISA. The results suggest that this antigen could be used in conjunction with other conventional tests for differential diagnosis and may be useful for monitoring the disease progression and response to treatment.

  19. Effectiveness of synthetic versus natural human volatiles as attractants for Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu stricto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Females of the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, use human volatiles to find their blood-host. Previous work has shown that ammonia, lactic acid, and aliphatic carboxylic acids significantly affect host orientation and attraction of this species, In the current study, th

  20. Estrutura de um cerrado strico sensu na Gleba Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis Alessandra Tomaselli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Cerrado ocupa aproximadamente 23% do território brasileiro e 70% do bioma correspondem a cerrado stricto sensu (s.s., sendo relevantes os estudos que buscam o entendimento da estrutura da vegetação nessas áreas. Com esse objetivo, foram estudadas cinco parcelas (10×25m em um hectare de cerrado s.s., amostrando-se todos os indivíduos com perímetro no nível do solo igual ou acima de 3cm (exceto lianas e indivíduos mortos. Alguns parâmetros fitossociológicos foram analisados, assim como a distribuição de classes de diâmetro dos indivíduos amostrados e a estrutura vertical. Foram amostradas 1.747 indivíduos, distribuídos em 75 espécies, pertencentes a 31 famílias. A densidade total absoluta encontrada foi de 13.976 ind.ha-1 e a área basal total, de 4,902m². Leguminosae foi a família com o maior número de espécies (16. As espécies que apresentaram os maiores valores de Índice do Valor de Importância (IVI foram Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Altschul, Myrcia guianensis (Aubl. DC., Xylopia aromatica (Lm. Mart., Ouratea spectabilis (Mart. Engl. e Pouteria ramiflora (Mart. Radlk. O Índice de Shannon encontrado foi de 3,623. A distribuição de classes de diâmetro apresentou curva na forma de "J" invertido, estando a maioria dos indivíduos na primeira classe. A área estudada não apresentou estratos bem definidos, estando a maioria dos indivíduos entre 1 e 3m de altura.

  1. Molecular phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with soil of the savanna-like Cerrado vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirino, Betania F; Pappas, Georgios J; Tagliaferro, Andrea C; Collevatti, Rosane G; Neto, Eduardo Leonardecz; da Silva, Maria Regina S S; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Krüger, Ricardo H

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian savanna-like vegetation of Cerrado is rapidly being converted to pasture and agricultural fields. A 16S rDNA-based approach was taken to study the bacterial community associated with the soil of a native cerrado area (sensu stricto) and an area that has been converted to pasture. The bacterial group most abundantly identified in cerrado sensu stricto soil was the alpha-Proteobacteria while in cerrado converted to pasture the Actinobacteria were the most abundant. Rarefaction curves indicate that the species richness of cerrado sensu stricto is greater than that of cerrado converted to pasture. Furthermore, lineage-through-time plots show that the expected richness of species present in cerrado sensu stricto soil is approximately 10 times greater than that of cerrado converted to pasture.

  2. Bread, beer and wine: yeast domestication in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Delphine; Legras, Jean-Luc

    2011-03-01

    Yeasts of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto species complex are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO(2) via fermentation. They have been used for thousands years by mankind for fermenting food and beverages. In the Neolithic times, fermentations were probably initiated by naturally occurring yeasts, and it is unknown when humans started to consciously add selected yeast to make beer, wine or bread. Interestingly, such human activities gave rise to the creation of new species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex by interspecies hybridization or polyploidization. Within the S. cerevisiae species, they have led to the differentiation of genetically distinct groups according to the food process origin. Although the evolutionary history of wine yeast populations has been well described, the histories of other domesticated yeasts need further investigation.

  3. Differentiation of females in Sergentomyia sensu stricto (Diptera: Psychodidae) using scanning electron microscopy of pharyngeal armatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdennbi, I; Bombard, S; Braverman, Y; Pesson, B

    1996-03-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of external ornamentation and internal armature of the pharynx was used to identify females of Sergentomyia sensu stricto. Five species from the eastern Mediterranean basin were compared; S. minuta clearly was separated from species of the fallax-group. Within the fallax-group, S. fallax was distinguished readily by its heart-shaped pharynx and the difference in armature between the dorsal and lateral plates.

  4. Effectiveness of disinfectants used in hemodialysis against both Candida orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis sensu stricto biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Regina Helena; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Gomes Martins, Carlos Henrique; Fusco Almeida, Ana Marisa; Pienna Soares, Christiane; Soares Mendes-Giannini, Maria José

    2013-05-01

    Biofilms have been observed in the fluid pathways of hemodialysis machines. The impacts of four biocides used for the disinfection of hemodialysis systems were tested against Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and Candida orthopsilosis biofilms generated by isolates obtained from a hydraulic circuit that were collected in a hemodialysis unit. Acetic acid was shown to be the most effective agent against Candida biofilms. Strategies for effective disinfection procedures used for hemodialysis systems should also seek to kill and inhibit biofilms.

  5. Discrimination between E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus Using a Multiplex PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Cong-Nuan Liu; Zhong-Zi Lou; Li Li; Hong-Bin Yan; David Blair; Meng-Tong Lei; Jin-Zhong Cai; Yan-Lei Fan; Jian-Qiu Li; Bao-Quan Fu; Yu-Rong Yang; McManus, Donald P; Wan-Zhong Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s), E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus are commonly found co-endemic on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, and an efficient tool is needed to facilitate the detection of infected hosts and for species identification. Methodology/Principal Findings A single-tube multiplex PCR assay was established to differentiate the Echinococcus species responsible for infections in intermediate and definitive hosts. Primers specific for E. gra...

  6. A comparison of Mg/Ca ratios in Globigerinoides ruber (white): sensu stricto versus a mixture of genotypes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.S.

    Mg/Ca ratios were measured in core AAS9/21 from the eastern Arabian Sea (EAS), on two sets of planktonic foraminifera, one with a mixture of Globigerinoides ruber genotypes (sensu stricto and sensu lato) and the second which contained only G. ruber...

  7. Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuxia; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Li, Jianling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8%), C. orthopsilosis (7.9%) and C. metapsilosis (14.3%). The signs and symptoms of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis sensu lato, including itching, erythema and abnormal discharge, were milder than those caused by C. albicans. None of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole or itraconazole. The resistance rates of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were 2.3, 1.5, 3.1 and 0.8%, respectively. Both C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. albicans were susceptible to nystatin. The mycological eradication rate at follow-up days 7-14 and 30-35 were 77.8% (49/63) and 76.2% (48/63), respectively, when treated with various antifungal agents and regimens. We conclude that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were present in the vaginal samples of VVC patients. The symptoms and signs of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis are milder than those caused by C. albicans. The antifungal susceptibility and therapeutic efficacy in patients colonised by C. parapsilosis sensu lato were similar to those observed in C. albicans-colonised patients.

  8. Analysis of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis virulence in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo-Giraldo, Diana M; Matínez-Alvarez, José A; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Franco, Bernardo; Almeida, Ricardo S; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-03-01

    The study of the host-pathogen interaction is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying adhesion, colonization and tissue damage by pathogens. This is usually achieved by performing in vivo studies using small mammals, such as rats, mice and guinea pigs. Nowadays, the mouse models of systemic or subcutaneous infection are the gold standard assays to analyze the virulence of members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. There are, however, invertebrates that have been recently used as alternative hosts to assess the virulence of both bacteria and fungi, and among them, larvae of Galleria mellonella are popular because they are easy to breed, and require non-specialized facilities to maintain the colony. Here, we assessed the use of G. mellonella larvae to test the virulence of S. schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis strains, and found that infection with yeast-like cells, but not with conidia or germlings, reproduces the virulence data generated in the mouse model of infection. Furthermore, with this insect model we could classify the virulence of some strains as low, intermediate or high, in line with the observations in the mammalian model. Therefore, G. mellonella is suitable, and a new alternative, to test virulence of both S. schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis.

  9. STRICTO SENSU POST-GRADUATION PROGRAMME NURSING: THE OPINION OF UNDERGRADUATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Maria Leite Meirelles Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Objetivo: Conhecer o entendimento dos graduandos de Enfermagem de uma Universidade Pública de Pernambuco sobre a contribuição de um Programa Associado de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Enfermagem. Métodos: Estudo descritivo-exploratório qualitativo. Foram entrevistados trinta estudantes de enfermagem nos meses de agosto a novembro de 2009. Os dados foram apresentados utilizando-se a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo. Resultado: Foram evidenciadas três Idéias Centrais: Conhecimento sobre o Programa Associado de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Enfermagem da UPE; contribuição para a prática profissional e o interesse em ingressar. Conclusão: O entendimento da proposta de fortalecimento das pesquisas e de uma articulação destas com as tecnologias e práticas profissionais vem requerer um redirecionamento na filosofia das IES, tendo a incumbência de despertar o mais precocemente, entre seus graduandos o interesse e a habilidade por pesquisar, sedimentando sua formação na busca contínua de conhecimentos, na renovação dos saberes, na inquietação por investigar objetos de estudo instrumentalizadores do agir profissional em saúde.

  10. Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yee-Chun; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Kuo-Wei; Lii, Joanne; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Li, Shu-Ying

    2010-11-01

    Candida parapsilosis was recently reclassified into 3 closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. Variation in susceptibility characteristics and prevalence of the 3 genomic species could have therapeutic and epidemiologic implications. The aim of this study is to characterize the genetic and antifungal susceptibility profiles of 97 C. parapsilosis isolates from 71 patients. Among the 71 nonduplicate isolates, 85.9% (61/71) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 5.6% (4/71) as C. metapsilosis, and 8.5% (6/71) as C. orthopsilosis species based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The delineation of these 3 species is concordant with that achieved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of BssHII restriction fragments at 75% similarity. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed that most isolates were susceptible to flucytosine, azoles, amphotericin B, and echinocandins, whereas 3 C. metapsilosis isolates from 1 patient showed resistance and susceptible-dose dependence to fluconazole. The C. metapsilosis isolates exhibited significantly higher MIC values to both fluconazole and voriconazole than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. On the other hand, the C. metapsilosis isolates showed significantly lower MIC values on 24 h to caspofungin than those of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis. For micafungin, the isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto had significantly higher MIC values on 24 h than those of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Compared to Candida albicans, mutations from proline to alanine were identified on the hot spot 1 of Fks1 in all these C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates regardless of their MIC levels. Some of the C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates expressed the isoleucine to valine substitution on the hot spot 2 region. However, the amino acid variations in these isolates did not correlate to their MIC

  11. [The production of knowledge regarding gestational hypertension in the stricto sensu graduate nursing studies in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marialda; Monticelli, Marisa; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Costa, Roberta

    2012-08-01

    This documental study analyzed the Brazilian production of stricto sensu nursing graduate programs related to gestational hypertension. The data source used was the Brazilian Nursing Association Theses and Dissertations Database. The survey located 14 studies produced between 1979-2008, produced mainly in the Southeast region between 1996 and2008. The analytical process revealed a concern with the subjectivity of pregnant women and with aspects regarding nursing care. Furthermore, it showed that most studies used a qualitative methodology supported by nursing theories. The experience lived by pregnant women with hypertension is marked by negative feelings and socioeconomic problems, and is also affected by how the family is organized. The culture of pregnant women with hypertension is disregarded and they receive care in a context in which the disease is the priority. In conclusion, despite some scientific advancements, this topic has not raised the interest it deserves among nurses attending graduate study programs.

  12. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bagagli, Eduardo; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes

    2014-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease of man and animals caused by traumatic implantation of propagules into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Pathogenic species includes S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa and S. luriei. The disease is remarkable for its occurrence as sapronoses and/or zoonosis outbreaks in tropical and subtropical areas; although, the ecology of the clinical clade is still puzzling. Here, we describe an anamorphic Sporothrix strain isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow, which was located in a hyper endemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil. This isolate was identified as S. schenckii sensu stricto (Clade IIa) based on morphological and physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of calmodulin sequences. We then discuss the role of the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus as a natural carrier of Sporothrix propagules to better understand Sporothrix sources in nature and reveal essential aspects about the pathogen's eco-epidemiology.

  13. A resiliência humana no ambiente acadêmico de cursos stricto sensu

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Este estudo surgiu do interesse de compreender de que maneira se dá a questão da resiliência no ambiente acadêmico de pós-graduação stricto sensu, no qual os indivíduos são confrontados com demandas de alta dedicação e esforço que exigem a conformação a um novo modelo de realização de atividades. Como estratégia de pesquisa utilizou-se o estudo comparativo de casos, mediante método de coleta qualitativa empírica, com corte temporal transversal. Selecionaram-se duas antigas e conceituadas inst...

  14. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

    2014-05-28

    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas.

  15. Demonstration of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto infection in ticks from the northeast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Pérez, G; Vargas, M; Solórzano-Santos, F; Rivera, A; Polaco, O J; Alvarado, L; Muñóz, O; Torres, J

    2009-05-01

    Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato infection has been confirmed in clinical cases in the northeast of Mexico; however, the bacterium has not been identified as infecting the tick vector Ixodes, Amblyomma and Dermacentor ticks were collected from mammals and plants in northeastern Mexico and examined for Borrelia. Eighteen of 214 ticks were PCR-positive for the fla and 16S rRNA genes and 15 for the ospA gene. Southern blotting with a fla probe and sequencing of ospA genes confirmed infection with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. These findings, together with reports of indigenous cases, fulfil the criteria that allow northeastern Mexico to be considered as a zone endemic for Lyme disease.

  16. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF GYMNODINIUM AUREOLUM (DINOPHYCEAE): TOWARD A FURTHER REDEFINITION OF GYMNODINIUM SENSU STRICTO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert

    2001-01-01

    of Gymnodinium, G. fuscum (Ehrenberg) Stein and certain other Gymnodinium species. The nuclear pores were restricted to these chambers. In the flagellar apparatus a nuclear fibrous connective linked the longitudinal microtubular root and the nucleus. This structure had so far been observed only in Gymnodinium...... spp. and in the heterotrophic species Actiniscus pentasterias (Ehrenberg) Ehrenberg, Nematodinium armatum (Dogiel) Kofoid et Swezy and Polykrikos kofoidii Chatton. Another unusual feature of G. aureolum was the presence of a striated fiber in the longitudinal flagellum, a feature previously only found...... in Ceratium furca (Ehrenberg) Claparède et Lachmann and C. tripos (O.F. Müller) Nitzsch. Gymnodinium aureolum also possessed a prominent ventral protrusion associated with the peduncle and containing electron opaque material. It is concluded that G. aureolum belongs to the Gymnodinium sensu stricto group...

  17. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles.

  18. The optimum cut-off value to differentiate Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from other species of E. granulosus sensu lato using larval rostellar hook morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, S V; Pierangeli, N B; Pianciola, L A; Mazzeo, M; Lazzarini, L E; Debiaggi, M F; Bergagna, H F J; Basualdo, J A

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is one of the most important helminth zoonoses in the world; it affects both humans and livestock. The disease is endemic in Argentina and highly endemic in the province of Neuquén. Considerable genetic and phenotypic variation has been demonstrated in E. granulosus, and ten different genotypes (G1-G10) have been identified using molecular tools. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato may be considered a species complex, comprised of E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-G10). In endemic areas, the characterization of cystic echinococcosis molecular epidemiology is important in order to apply adequate control strategies. A cut-off value for larval large hook total length to distinguish E. granulosus sensu stricto isolates from those produced by other species of the complex was defined for the first time. Overall, 1780 larval hooks of 36 isolates obtained from sheep (n= 11, G1), goats (n= 10, G6), cattle (n= 5, G6) and pigs (n= 10, G7) were analysed. Validation against molecular genotyping as gold standard was carried out using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimum cut-off value was defined as 26.5 μm. The proposed method showed high sensitivity (97.8%) and specificity (91.1%). Since in most endemic regions the molecular epidemiology of echinococcosis includes the coexistence of the widely distributed E. granulosus sensu stricto G1 strain and other species of the complex, this technique could be useful as a quick and economical tool for epidemiological and surveillance field studies, when fertile cysts are present.

  19. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zait, Houria; Kouidri, Mokhtaria; Grenouillet, Florence Elisabeth; Umhang, Gérald; Millon, Laurence; Hamrioui, Boussad; Grenouillet, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In Algeria, previous studies investigated genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in animals and identified E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) genotypes G1 and G3 whereas Echinococcus canadensis genotype G6 was only reported from dromedary cysts. Molecular data on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) were limited. We implemented a large genotyping study of hydatid cysts from humans and livestock animals to specify CE's molecular epidemiology and the genetic diversity in Algeria. Fifty-four human CE cysts from patients predominantly admitted in surgical units from Mustapha Hospital, Algiers, and 16 cysts from livestock animals gathered in two geographically distinct slaughterhouses, Tiaret and Tamanrasset, were collected. Molecular characterization was performed using sequencing of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI). In humans, G1 of E. granulosus s.s. was the main genotype (90.7 %); four samples (7.4 %) were characterized as E. granulosus s.s. G3 and one cyst as E. canadensis G6 (1.8 %). This molecular confirmation of E. canadensis G6 human infection in Algeria was observed in a Tuareg female living in a desertic area in Tamanrasset. All cysts from sheep, cattle, and goat were identified as E. granulosus s.s. G1 and the two cysts originating from dromedary as E. canadensis G6. Twenty concatenated haplotypes (COI + NDI) were characterized. Among E. granulosus s.s., one haplotype (HL1) was highly predominant in both humans and animals cysts (71.6 %). This study revealed main occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. in humans and livestock animals, with description of a predominant shared haplotype corresponding to the main worldwide observed haplotype E.granulosus s.s. G1. E. canadensis G6 was limited to South Algeria, in dromedary as well as in human.

  20. In Vitro Activities of Amphotericin B, Terbinafine, and Azole Drugs against Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Aspergillus terreus Sensu Stricto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mariana S.; Rojas, Florencia D.; Cattana, María E.; Sosa, María de los Ángeles; Iovannitti, Cristina A.; Giusiano, Gustavo E.

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal susceptibilities of 40 clinical and environmental isolates of A. terreus sensu stricto to amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were determined in accordance with CLSI document M38-A2. All isolates had itraconazole and voriconazole MICs lower than epidemiologic cutoff values, and 5% of the isolates had amphotericin B MICs higher than epidemiologic cutoff values. Terbinafine showed the lowest MICs. No significant differences were found when MICs of clinical and environmental isolates were compared. PMID:25824228

  1. A review of ceratocystis sensu stricto with special reference to the species complexes c. coerulescens and c. fimbriata.

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Montoya, Mauricio; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    El género Ceratocystis sensu stricto incluye un alto número de hongos fitopatógenos de plantas angiospermas y gimnospermas en diversas regiones del mundo. Entre las principales enfermedades causadas por estos hongos se destacan los marchitamientos vasculares, manchado de maderas, chancros y pudriciones radiculares, de tallos y frutos. Muchas especies producen metabolitos volátiles con olores que atraen una amplia variedad de insectos a los tejidos vegetales infectados, sin embargo, el grado d...

  2. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure analysis of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto complex based on mitochondrial DNA signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sharma

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity and population genetics of the Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto complex were investigated based on sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Total 81 isolates of hydatid cyst collected from ungulate animals from different geographical areas of North India were identified by sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (coxi gene. Three genotypes belonging to E. granulosus sensu stricto complex were identified (G1, G2 and G3 genotypes. Further the nucleotide sequences (retrieved from GenBank for the coxi gene from seven populations of E. granulosus sensu stricto complex covering 6 continents, were compared with sequences of isolates analysed in this study. Molecular diversity indices represent overall high mitochondrial DNA diversity for these populations, but low nucleotide diversity between haplotypes. The neutrality tests were used to analyze signatures of historical demographic events. The Tajima's D test and Fu's FS test showed negative value, indicating deviations from neutrality and both suggested recent population expansion for the populations. Pairwise fixation index was significant for pairwise comparison of different populations (except between South America and East Asia, Middle East and Europe, South America and Europe, Africa and Australia, indicating genetic differentiation among populations. Based on the findings of the present study and those from earlier studies, we hypothesize that demographic expansion occurred in E. granulosus after the introduction of founder haplotype particular by anthropogenic movements.

  3. Helicobacter heilmannii sensu stricto-related gastric ulcers: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kawakubo, Masatomo; Akamatsu, Taiji; Koide, Naohiko; Ogiwara, Naoko; Kubota, Seiko; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Ota, Hiroyoshi

    2014-03-28

    A spiral bacterium (SH9), morphologically different from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), was found in a 62-year-old woman's gastric mucosa. Gastroscopic examination revealed multiple gastric ulcers near the pyloric ring; mapping gastric biopsy showed mild mononuclear infiltration with large lymphoid follicles in the antrum, without corpus atrophy. Urea breath test and H. pylori culture were negative, but Giemsa staining of biopsies revealed tightly coiled bacteria that immunostained with anti-H. pylori antibody. Sequencing of SH9 16S rRNA and the partial urease A and B subunit genes showed that the former sequence had highest similarity (99%; 1302/1315 bp) to Helicobacter heilmannii (H. heilmannii) sensu stricto (H. heilmannii s.s.) BC1 obtained from a bobcat, while the latter sequence confirmed highest similarity (98.3%; 1467/1493 bp) to H. heilmannii s.s. HU2 obtained from a human. The patient was diagnosed with multiple gastric ulcers associated with H. heilmannii s.s. infection. After triple therapy (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and lansoprazole) with regimen for eradicating H. pylori, gastroscopy showed ulcer improvement and no H. heilmannii s.s. upon biopsy.

  4. Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto in Dogs and Jackals from Caspian Sea Region, Northern Iran

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    Shirzad GHOLAMI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from dogs and jackals in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, and using partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1.Methods: E. granulosus isolates (n = 15 were collected from 42 stray dogs and 16 jackals found in south of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. After morphological study, the isolates were genetically characterized using consensus sequences (366bp of the cox1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 nucleotide sequence data was performed using a Bayesian Inference approach.Results: Four different sequences were observed among the isolates. Two genotypes [G1 (66.7% and G3 (33.3%] were identified among the isolates. The G1 sequences indicated three sequence profiles. One profile (Maz1 had 100% homology with reference sequence (AN: KP339045. Two other profiles, designated Maz2 and Maz3, had 99% homology with the G1 genotype (ANs: KP339046 and KP339047. A G3 sequence designated Maz4 showed 100% homology with a G3 reference sequence (AN: KP339048.Conclusion: The occurrence of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus sensu stricto as a frequent genotype in dogs is emphasized. This study established the first molecular characterization of E. granulosus in the province.

  5. Echinococcus equinus and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from the United Kingdom: genetic diversity and haplotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Lett, Wai San; Lahmar, Samia; Buishi, Imad; Bodell, Anthony J; Varcasia, Antonio; Casulli, Adriano; Beeching, Nicholas J; Campbell, Fiona; Terlizzo, Monica; McManus, Donald P; Craig, Philip S

    2015-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Europe including the United Kingdom. However, information on the molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus spp. from the United Kingdom is limited. Echinococcus isolates from intermediate and definitive animal hosts as well as from human cystic echinococcosis cases were analysed to determine species and genotypes within these hosts. Echinococcus equinus was identified from horse hydatid isolates, cysts retrieved from captive UK mammals and copro-DNA of foxhounds and farm dogs. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) was identified from hydatid cysts of sheep and cattle as well as in DNA extracted from farm dog and foxhound faecal samples, and from four human cystic echinococcosis isolates, including the first known molecular confirmation of E. granulosus s.s. infection in a Welsh sheep farmer. Low genetic variability for E. equinus from various hosts and from different geographical locations was detected using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), indicating the presence of a dominant haplotype (EQUK01). In contrast, greater haplotypic variation was observed for E. granulosus s.s. cox1 sequences. The haplotype network showed a star-shaped network with a centrally placed main haplotype (EgUK01) that had been reported from other world regions.

  6. Physiological behaviour of gliotoxigenic Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto isolated from maize silage under simulated environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, V; Vergara, L Díaz; Aminahuel, C; Pereyra, C; Pena, G; Torres, A; Dalcero, A; Cavaglieri, L

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions play a key role in fungal development. During the silage production process, humidity, oxygen availability and pH vary among lactic-fermentation phases and among different silage sections. The aim of this work was to study the physiological behaviour of gliotoxicogenic Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated from maize silage under simulated natural physicochemical conditions - different water activities (a(W)), temperatures (Tº), pH and oxygen pressure - on the growth parameters (growth rate and lag phase) and gliotoxin production. The silage was made with the harvested whole maize plant that was chopped and used for trench-type silo fabrication. Water activity and pH of the silage samples were determined. Total fungal counts were performed on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar and Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar. The morphological identification of A. fumigatus was performed with different culture media and at different growth temperature to observe microscopic and macroscopic characteristics. Gliotoxin production by A. fumigatus was determined by HPLC. All strains isolated were morphologically identified as A. fumigatus. Two A. fumigatus strains isolated from the silage samples were selected for the ecophysiological study (A. fumigatus sensu stricto RC031 and RC032). The results of this investigation showed that the fungus grows in the simulated natural physicochemical conditions of corn silage and produces gliotoxin. The study of the physiological behaviour of gliotoxigenic A. fumigatus under simulated environmental conditions allowed its behaviour to be predicted in silage and this will in future enable appropriate control strategies to be developed to prevent the spread of this fungus and toxin production that leads to impairment and reduced quality of silage.

  7. First insights into the genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeljak, Zoran; Boufana, Belgees; Interisano, Maria; Vidanovic, Dejan; Kulisic, Zoran; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection which is endemic in Serbia where it is subject to mandatory reporting. However, information on the incidence of the disease in humans and prevalence of hydatid infection in livestock remains limited. We used sequenced data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) mitochondrial gene to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) from intermediate hosts from Serbia. We also compared our generated nucleotide sequences with those reported for neighbouring European countries. Echinococcus canadensis was molecularly confirmed from pig and human hydatid isolates. E. granulosus (G1) was confirmed from sheep and cattle hydatid isolates as well as the first molecular confirmation in Serbia of E. granulosus G2 in sheep and E. granulosus G3 in sheep and cattle hydatid isolates. The Serbian E. granulosus (s.s.) parsimony network displayed 2 main haplotypes (SB02 and SB05) which together with the neutrality indices were suggestive of bottleneck and/or balancing selection. Haplotype analysis showed the presence of the common E. granulosus haplotype described from other worldwide regions. Investigation of the pairwise fixation (Fst) index suggested that Serbian populations of E. granulosus (s.s.) from sheep and cattle hosts showed moderate genetic differentiation. Six of the Serbian haplotypes (SB02-SB07) were shared with haplotypes from Bulgaria, Hungary and/or Romania. Further studies using a larger number of hydatid isolates from various locations across Serbia will provide more information on the genetic structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) within this region.

  8. Pós-graduação Stricto Sensu em Enfermagem no Brasil: avanços e perspectivas

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    Carmen Gracinda Silvan Scochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Enfermagem é campo de conhecimento específico e prática social que se consolida e se fortalece como ciência. No Brasil, tem se desenvolvido em função do aumento e qualificação dos programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar um resgate histórico da Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu de Enfermagem no Brasil e refletir sobre sua evolução, avanços, desafios e perspectivas futuras. Explora-se a criação dos cursos de pós-graduação stricto sensu, destacando os movimentos para se construir a cultura da pós-graduação acadêmica e profissional na Enfermagem. Apresenta-se a trajetória histórica da sua consolidação, expansão, conquista da excelência e visibilidade internacional ao longo de quatro décadas e apontam-se os desafios e as perspectivas futuras. Constata-se que a pós-graduação na área vem contribuindo para o avanço e consolidação do conhecimento científico, tecnológico e de inovação em Enfermagem e saúde, tendo como filosofia, o respeito à diversidade e o livre debate de ideias, a elevação da qualidade de vida e saúde e a efetivação do exercício da cidadania.

  9. Sphaerospora sensu stricto: taxonomy, diversity and evolution of a unique lineage of myxosporeans (Myxozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Pavla; Fiala, Ivan; Jirků, Miloslav; Cinková, Martina; Caffara, Monica; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Atkinson, Stephen Douglas; Bartholomew, Jerri Lee; Holzer, Astrid Sibylle

    2013-07-01

    Myxosporeans (Myxozoa) are eukaryotic parasites, primarily of fish, whose classification is in a state of flux as taxonomists attempt to synthesize the traditional morphology-based system with emerging DNA sequence-based phylogenies. The genus Sphaerospora Thélohan, 1892, which includes pathogenic species that cause significant impacts on fisheries and aquaculture, is one of the most polyphyletic taxa and exemplifies the current challenges facing myxozoan taxonomists. The type species, S. elegans, clusters within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade, members of which share similar tissue tropism and long insertions in their variable rRNA gene regions. However, other morphologically similar sphaerosporids lie in different branches of myxozoan phylogenetic trees. Herein, we significantly extend taxonomic sampling of sphaerosporids with SSU+LSU rDNA and EF-2 sequence data for 12 taxa including three representatives of the morphologically similar genus Polysporoplasma Sitjà-Bobadilla et Álvarez-Pellitero, 1995. These taxa were sampled from different vertebrate host groups, biogeographic realms and environments. Our phylogenetic analyses and statistical tests of single and concatenated datasets revealed Sphaerospora s. s. as a strongly supported monophyletic lineage, that clustered sister to the whole myxosporean clade (freshwater+marine lineages). Generally, Sphaerospora s. s. rDNA sequences (up to 3.7 kb) are the longest of all myxozoans and indeed metazoans. The sphaerosporid clade has two lineages, which have specific morphological, biological and sequence traits. Lineage A taxa (marine Sphaerospora spp.) have a single binucleate sporoplasm and shorter AT-rich rDNA inserts. Lineage B taxa (freshwater/brackish Sphaerospora spp.+marine/brackish Polysporoplasma spp.) have 2-12 uninucleate sporoplasms and longer GC-rich rDNA inserts. Lineage B has four subclades that correlate with host group and habitat; all Polysporoplasma species, including the type species

  10. Discrimination between E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus Using a Multiplex PCR Assay.

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    Cong-Nuan Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Infections of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus are commonly found co-endemic on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, and an efficient tool is needed to facilitate the detection of infected hosts and for species identification.A single-tube multiplex PCR assay was established to differentiate the Echinococcus species responsible for infections in intermediate and definitive hosts. Primers specific for E. granulosus, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus were designed based on sequences of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1 genes, respectively. This multiplex PCR accurately detected Echinococcus DNA without generating nonspecific reaction products. PCR products were of the expected sizes of 219 (nad1, 584 (nad5 and 471 (cox1 bp. Furthermore, the multiplex PCR enabled diagnosis of multiple infections using DNA of protoscoleces and copro-DNA extracted from fecal samples of canine hosts. Specificity of the multiplex PCR was 100% when evaluated using DNA isolated from other cestodes. Sensitivity thresholds were determined for DNA from protoscoleces and from worm eggs, and were calculated as 20 pg of DNA for E. granulosus and E. shiquicus, 10 pg of DNA for E. multilocularis, 2 eggs for E. granulosus, and 1 egg for E. multilocularis. Positive results with copro-DNA could be obtained at day 17 and day 26 after experimental infection of dogs with larval E. multilocularis and E. granulosus, respectively.The multiplex PCR developed in this study is an efficient tool for discriminating E. granulosus, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus from each other and from other taeniid cestodes. It can be used for the detection of canids infected with E. granulosus s.s. and E. multilocularis using feces collected from these definitive hosts. It can also be used for the identification of the Echinococcus metacestode larva in intermediate

  11. REVISIÓN DE Ceratocystis sensu stricto CON ESPECIAL REFERENCIA A LOS COMPLEJOS DE LAS ESPECIES C. coerulescens Y C. fimbriata A REVIEW OF Ceratocystis sensu stricto WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE SPECIES COMPLEXES C. coerulescens AND C. fimbriata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marín Montoya

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Ceratocystis sensu stricto incluye un alto número de hongos fitopatógenos de plantas angiospermas y gimnospermas en diversas regiones del mundo. Entre las principales enfermedades causadas por estos hongos se destacan los marchitamientos vasculares, manchado de maderas, chancros y pudriciones radiculares, de tallos y frutos. Muchas especies producen metabolitos volátiles con olores que atraen una amplia variedad de insectos a los tejidos vegetales infectados, sin embargo, el grado de asociación entre los insectos y las diferentes especies de Ceratocystis es altamente variable, presentandose asociaciones mutualistas tales como aquellas entre C. polonica, C. laricicola y C. rufipenni e insectos escolítidos, así como también relaciones no específicas como en los casos de C. paradoxa, C. fagacearum y C. fimbriata con nitidúlidos, moscas y diversos coleópteros. El alto grado de similitud morfológica encontrada entre estos hongos hace difícil la definición de los límites entre las especies de Ceratocystis. Durante la pasada década, la utilización de estudios filogenéticos basados en comparaciones de DNA ha contribuido sustancialmente a clarificar la taxonomía de este grupo de hongos, así por ejemplo, dichos estudios han permitido concluir que algunas especies de Ceratocystis realmente representan complejos de especies crípticas. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo principal proveer una introducción a los estudios experimentales desarrollados para las especies de Ceratocystis sensu stricto y brevemente discutir aspectos relacionados con los denominados hongos ophiostomatoides.The genus Ceratocystis sensu stricto Ellis & Halst. includes many economically important plant pathogens of both angiosperms and gymnosperms, worldwide. Diseases caused by these fungi include vascular wilts, sap stains on logs and lumber, stem cankers and rots of roots, stems and fruits. Most Ceratocystis species are well adapted to dispersal by

  12. Behavioural responses of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to components of human breath, sweat and urine depend on mixture composition and concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Host-seeking behaviour of the anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is mediated predominantly by olfactory cues. Several hundreds of odour components have been identified from human emanations, but only a few have been proven to act as attractants or syne

  13. The effect of aliphatic carboxylic acids on olfaction-based host-seeking of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2009-01-01

    The role of aliphatic carboxylic acids in host-seeking response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was examined both in a dual-choice olfactometer and with indoor traps. A basic attractive blend of ammonia + lactic acid served as internal standard odor. Single carboxylic acids w

  14. Identification of candidate volatiles that affect the behavioural response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to an active kairomone blend: laboratory and semi-field assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Bukovinszkine Kiss, G.; Otieno, B.; Mbadi, P.A.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting the lives of millions of people. Existing tools such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual sprays are not only effective, but also have limitations as a

  15. Synergism between ammonia, lactic acid and carboxylic acids as kairomones in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2005-01-01

    Host odours play a major role in the orientation and host location of blood-feeding mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, which is the most important malaria vector in Africa, is a highly anthropophilic mosquito species, and the host-seeking behaviour of the females of this mosquito is

  16. First molecular evidence of the simultaneous human infection with two species of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato: Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Ksia, Amine; Lamiri, Rachida; Mekki, Mongi; Nouri, Abdellatif; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease especially in Tunisia which is one of the most endemic countries in the Mediterranean area. The etiological agent, Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, implies dogs and other canids as definitive hosts and different herbivore species as intermediate hosts. Human contamination occurs during the consumption of parasite eggs passed in the environment through canid feces. Hydatid cysts coming from a child operated for multiple echinococcosis were collected and analyzed in order to genotype and to obtain some epidemiological molecular information. Three targets, ribosomal DNA ITS1 fragment, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxydase subunit 1 (CO1) genes, were amplified and analyzed by RFLP and sequencing approach. This study presents the first worldwide report in human of a simultaneous infection with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype G1) and Echinococcus canadensis (genotype G6) species. This is also the first report of the presence of E. canadensis in the Tunisian population which argues in favor of a greater importance of this species in human infestation in Tunisia than previously believed.

  17. Groundwater recharge in different physiognomies of the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T. S.; Leite, M.; Mattos, T.; Wendland, E.; Nearing, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2014, several cities of southeastern Brazil have grappled with their worst drought in nearly 80 years. To improve water availability in this region, the Brazilian government has studied the possibility of increasing groundwater use, mainly in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS), the largest (~1.2 million km2) transnational boundary groundwater reservoir in South America. Approximately one half of the outcrop areas of the GAS are located in the Cerrado biome, the main agricultural expansion region in Brazil. Large areas of Cerrado vegetation have been converted into farmland in recent years; however, little attention has been paid to the consequences of this land cover and land use change on groundwater recharge. In this study we assessed groundwater recharge in different physiognomies of the Cerrado located in an outcrop area of the GAS. Water table fluctuations were measured from October 2011 through August 2013, by 64 monitoring wells distributed on five physiognomies of the undisturbed Cerrado. We used 20 (2.2±0.3 m), 20 (4.3±1.4 m), 14 (4.7±1.9 m), 9 (6.2±0.7 m), and 1 (42 m) monitoring wells (and average depth of wells) for "campo limpo" (cerrado grassland), "campo sujo" (shrub cerrado), "campo cerrado" (shrub cerrado), "cerrado sensu stricto" (wooded cerrado), and "cerrado sensu stricto denso" (cerrado woodland), respectively. Recharge was computed for each well using the Water Table Fluctuation method. The measured precipitation for hydrological years 2011-12 and 2012-13 were 1247 mm and 1194 mm, respectively. We found values of average annual recharge of 363 mm, 354 mm, 324 mm, and 315 mm for "campo limpo", "campo sujo","campo cerrado", and "cerrado sensu stricto", respectively. We did not find changes in the water table level in the one well located in the "cerrado sensu stricto denso". The water table in this well was 35 m deep; therefore, the amount of water that eventually reached the saturated zone was not enough to cause a rapid change in the

  18. Reprint of "Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A. nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles.

  19. Pós-graduação stricto sensu em anestesiologia: experiência de dez anos na UNESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reinaldo Cerqueira Braz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O número de Programas de Pós-Graduação em Anestesiologia stricto sensu existente no país ainda é muito pequeno. Com a finalidade de incentivar a pós-graduação em Anestesiologia no Brasil, é apresentada a experiência acumulada em dez anos de atividades do programa da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP. CONTEÚDO: O Programa de Pós-Graduação em Anestesiologia stricto sensu da UNESP foi credenciado pela CAPES, desde a sua criação em 1994, nos Cursos de Mestrado e Doutorado. O Programa é desenvolvido em três Áreas de Concentração: Risco e Proteção de Órgãos e Sistemas em Anestesia e Cirurgia; Qualidade e Segurança em Anestesiologia; e Modelos Clínicos e Experimentais em Terapia Antálgica, com as suas respectivas linhas de pesquisa, em número de 14. O número de alunos regulares do Programa é compatível com o número de orientadores (12, com proporção média de três alunos por orientador. Desde o seu início até setembro de 2004, ocorreram 45 Dissertações de Mestrado e 24 de Doutorado, perfazendo 69 defesas, a maioria com bolsas e financiamentos de Órgãos de Fomento à Pesquisa. Após a conclusão do doutorado, 65% dos alunos têm atividade de docência e pesquisa em instituições públicas e privadas do ensino universitário do país. A maioria das publicações do programa tem sido realizada em revistas nacionais com Qualis A, com menor número de publicações em revistas internacionais Qualis A ou B. O programa recebeu da CAPES o conceito 4,0 numa escala de 1 a 7, em suas três últimas avaliações. CONCLUSÕES: O programa tem se desenvolvido muito bem nos 10 anos de sua existência, alcançando os principais objetivos, como a formação de professores e pesquisadores na área de Anestesiologia para as instituições universitárias do país.

  20. Seed dispersal and predation of Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler (Combretaceae) in a Cerrado sensu stricto, midwest Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, J.; Sanchez, M; Abreu,M. F.; F. Pedroni

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ecology of seed dispersal is critical to understand the patterns of distribution and abundance of plant species. We investigated seed dispersal aspects associated with the high abundance of Buchenavia tomentosa in the Serra Azul State Park (PESA). We estimated fruit production and conducted fruit removal experiments. We carried out diurnal and nocturnal observations on frugivory as well as germination tests. Fruiting occurred in the dry season and totaled 1,365,015 ± 762,670 frui...

  1. Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2012-09-10

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime.

  2. Microarray analyses of inflammation response of human dermal fibroblasts to different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.

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    Frédéric Schramm

    Full Text Available In Lyme borreliosis, the skin is the key site of bacterial inoculation by the infected tick, and of cutaneous manifestations, erythema migrans and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. We explored the role of fibroblasts, the resident cells of the dermis, in the development of the disease. Using microarray experiments, we compared the inflammation of fibroblasts induced by three strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto isolated from different environments and stages of Lyme disease: N40 (tick, Pbre (erythema migrans and 1408 (acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. The three strains exhibited a similar profile of inflammation with strong induction of chemokines (CXCL1 and IL-8 and IL-6 cytokine mainly involved in the chemoattraction of immune cells. Molecules such as TNF-alpha and NF-κB factors, metalloproteinases (MMP-1, -3 and -12 and superoxide dismutase (SOD2, also described in inflammatory and cellular events, were up-regulated. In addition, we showed that tick salivary gland extracts induce a cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts and that OspC, essential in the transmission of Borrelia to the vertebrate host, was not responsible for the secretion of inflammatory molecules by fibroblasts. Tick saliva components could facilitate the early transmission of the disease to the site of injury creating a feeding pit. Later in the development of the disease, Borrelia would intensively multiply in the skin and further disseminate to distant organs.

  3. Behavioral Finance: an investigation based on the prospect theory and the investor profile of portuguese stricto sensu graduate students

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    Fabricio Luis Colognese Haubert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral Finance is a new area of study that seeks to analyze the psychological aspects of individuals in making financial decisions. Studies in this area are intended to verify assumptions made by more traditional theories, in particular, the rationality of economic agents, and they aim to improve the economic and financial model through the incorporation of evidence on investor irrationality. In this context, the objective of this article is to understand the behavior of portuguese post-graduate students to its operations in investments based on behavioral finance. In order to learn about the behavioral profile of investors and prospective investors, a survey was conducted to collect quantitative data using a questionnaire comprising 15 questions for 130 stricto sensu graduate students of Lisbon – Portugal. It was possible to identify the predominant conservative and moderate profiles. It was observed that students showed risk aversion in the field of gains and risk propensity in the field of losses. So it is possible to say that the reflection effect occurred in this study.

  4. Canine echinococcosis: genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, B; Lett, W; Lahmar, S; Griffiths, A; Jenkins, D J; Buishi, I; Engliez, S A; Alrefadi, M A; Eljaki, A A; Elmestiri, F M; Reyes, M M; Pointing, S; Al-Hindi, A; Torgerson, P R; Okamoto, M; Craig, P S

    2015-11-01

    Canids, particularly dogs, constitute the major source of cystic echinococcosis (CE) infection to humans, with the majority of cases being caused by Echinococcus granulosus (G1 genotype). Canine echinococcosis is an asymptomatic disease caused by adult tapeworms of E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Information on the population structure and genetic variation of adult E. granulosus is limited. Using sequenced data of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) we examined the genetic diversity and population structure of adult tapeworms of E. granulosus (G1 genotype) from canid definitive hosts originating from various geographical regions and compared it to that reported for the larval metacestode stage from sheep and human hosts. Echinococcus granulosus (s.s) was identified from adult tapeworm isolates from Kenya, Libya, Tunisia, Australia, China, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom and Peru, including the first known molecular confirmation from Gaza and the Falkland Islands. Haplotype analysis showed a star-shaped network with a centrally positioned common haplotype previously described for the metacestode stage from sheep and humans, and the neutrality indices indicated population expansion. Low Fst values suggested that populations of adult E. granulosus were not genetically differentiated. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities for E. granulosus isolates from sheep and human origin were twice as high as those reported from canid hosts. This may be related to self-fertilization of E. granulosus and/or to the longevity of the parasite in the respective intermediate and definitive hosts. Improved nuclear single loci are required to investigate the discrepancies in genetic variation seen in this study.

  5. The mode of action of spatial repellents and their impact on vectorial capacity of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

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    Sheila B Ogoma

    Full Text Available Malaria vector control relies on toxicity of insecticides used in long lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. This is despite evidence that sub-lethal insecticides reduce human-vector contact and malaria transmission. The impact of sub-lethal insecticides on host seeking and blood feeding of mosquitoes was measured. Taxis boxes distinguished between repellency and attraction inhibition of mosquitoes by measuring response of mosquitoes towards or away from Transfluthrin coils and humans. Protective effective distance of coils and long-term effects on blood feeding were measured in the semi-field tunnel and in a Peet Grady chamber. Laboratory reared pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes were used. In the taxis boxes, a higher proportion of mosquitoes (67%-82% were activated and flew towards the human in the presence of Transfluthrin coils. Coils did not hinder attraction of mosquitoes to the human. In the semi-field Tunnel, coils placed 0.3 m from the human reduced feeding by 86% (95% CI [0.66; 0.95] when used as a "bubble" compared to 65% (95% CI [0.51; 0.76] when used as a "point source". Mosquitoes exposed to coils inside a Peet Grady chamber were delayed from feeding normally for 12 hours but there was no effect on free flying and caged mosquitoes exposed in the semi-field tunnel. These findings indicate that airborne pyrethroids minimize human-vector contact through reduced and delayed blood feeding. This information is useful for the development of target product profiles of spatial repellent products that can be used to complement mainstream malaria vector control tools.

  6. Molecular evidence for bicontinental hybridogenous genomic constitution in Lepidium sensu stricto (Brassicaceae) species from Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummenhoff, Klaus; Linder, Peter; Friesen, Nikolai; Bowman, John L; Lee, Ji-Young; Franzke, Andreas

    2004-02-01

    Lepidium sensu stricto (s.s.) (Brassicaceae) (ca. 150 species) is distributed worldwide with endemic species on every continent. It is represented in Australia and New Zealand by 19 and seven native species, respectively. In the present study we used a nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) phylogeny in comparison with a cpDNA phylogeny to unravel the origin of Australian/New Zealand species. Although phylogenetic relationships within Lepidium s.s. were not fully resolved, the cpDNA data were in agreement with a Californian origin of Lepidium species from Australia/New Zealand. Strongly conflicting signals between the cp- and nuclear DNA phylogenetic analysis clearly indicated hybridogenous genomic constitution of Australian Lepidium s.s. species: All 18 studied Australian/New Zealand Lepidium s.s. species examined shared a Californian cpDNA type. While eleven Australian/New Zealand species appeared to harbor a Californian ITS type, a group of seven species shared a South African ITS type. This pattern is most likely explained by two trans-oceanic dispersals of Lepidium from California and Africa to Australia/New Zealand and subsequent hybridization followed by homogenization of the ribosomal DNA either to the Californian or South African ITS type in the two different lineages. Calibration of our molecular trees indicates a Pliocene/Pleistocene origin of Lepidium in Australia/New Zealand. Low levels of cpDNA and ITS sequence divergence and unresolved topologies within Australian/New Zealand species suggest a rapid and recent radiation of Lepidium after the hybridization event. This coincides with dramatic climatic changes in that geological epoch shaping the composition of the vegetation.

  7. The Mode of Action of Spatial Repellents and Their Impact on Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoma, Sheila B.; Ngonyani, Hassan; Simfukwe, Emmanuel T.; Mseka, Antony; Moore, Jason; Maia, Marta F.; Moore, Sarah J.; Lorenz, Lena M.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria vector control relies on toxicity of insecticides used in long lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying. This is despite evidence that sub–lethal insecticides reduce human–vector contact and malaria transmission. The impact of sub–lethal insecticides on host seeking and blood feeding of mosquitoes was measured. Taxis boxes distinguished between repellency and attraction inhibition of mosquitoes by measuring response of mosquitoes towards or away from Transfluthrin coils and humans. Protective effective distance of coils and long-term effects on blood feeding were measured in the semi–field tunnel and in a Peet Grady chamber. Laboratory reared pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes were used. In the taxis boxes, a higher proportion of mosquitoes (67%–82%) were activated and flew towards the human in the presence of Transfluthrin coils. Coils did not hinder attraction of mosquitoes to the human. In the semi–field Tunnel, coils placed 0.3 m from the human reduced feeding by 86% (95% CI [0.66; 0.95]) when used as a “bubble” compared to 65% (95% CI [0.51; 0.76]) when used as a “point source”. Mosquitoes exposed to coils inside a Peet Grady chamber were delayed from feeding normally for 12 hours but there was no effect on free flying and caged mosquitoes exposed in the semi–field tunnel. These findings indicate that airborne pyrethroids minimize human–vector contact through reduced and delayed blood feeding. This information is useful for the development of target product profiles of spatial repellent products that can be used to complement mainstream malaria vector control tools. PMID:25485850

  8. Experimental Infection of Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto with Two Portuguese African Swine Fever Virus Strains. Study of Factors Involved in the Dynamics of Infection in Ticks.

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    Rita Ribeiro

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a frequently devastating hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs and wild boar and Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto argasid ticks are the only biological vectors of African swine fever virus (ASFV known to occur in Europe. Recently this disease emerged in Eastern Europe and Russian Federation, showing a huge potential for a rapid spread between countries. There is some risk of re-emergence of ASF in the countries where these ticks exist, that can contribute for the persistence of infection and compromise control measures. In this study we aimed to identify factors that determine the probability of infection and its dynamics in the tick vector Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto, with two Portuguese strains of ASFV. Our results suggest that these ticks have a high likelihood of excreting the two haemadsorbing ASF viruses of different host origins and that, in field surveys, the analysis of adults and 5th nymphal stage can provide the best chance of detecting virus infection. The results also indicate that infection of pigs with highly virulent ASF viruses will promote higher rates of infection and a higher likelihood for virus excretion by ticks. Nevertheless, there is also a risk, although lower, that ticks can become infected on pigs that have overcome the acute phase of infection, which was simulated in our study by membrane feeding ticks with low titres of virus. We believe these results can be valuable in designing and interpreting the results of ASF control programmes, and future work can also be undertaken as our dataset is released under open access, to perform studies in risk assessment for ASFV persistence in a region where O. erraticus sensu stricto ticks are present.

  9. Experimental Infection of Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto with Two Portuguese African Swine Fever Virus Strains. Study of Factors Involved in the Dynamics of Infection in Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rita; Otte, Joachim; Madeira, Sara; Hutchings, Geoff H; Boinas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a frequently devastating hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs and wild boar and Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto argasid ticks are the only biological vectors of African swine fever virus (ASFV) known to occur in Europe. Recently this disease emerged in Eastern Europe and Russian Federation, showing a huge potential for a rapid spread between countries. There is some risk of re-emergence of ASF in the countries where these ticks exist, that can contribute for the persistence of infection and compromise control measures. In this study we aimed to identify factors that determine the probability of infection and its dynamics in the tick vector Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto, with two Portuguese strains of ASFV. Our results suggest that these ticks have a high likelihood of excreting the two haemadsorbing ASF viruses of different host origins and that, in field surveys, the analysis of adults and 5th nymphal stage can provide the best chance of detecting virus infection. The results also indicate that infection of pigs with highly virulent ASF viruses will promote higher rates of infection and a higher likelihood for virus excretion by ticks. Nevertheless, there is also a risk, although lower, that ticks can become infected on pigs that have overcome the acute phase of infection, which was simulated in our study by membrane feeding ticks with low titres of virus. We believe these results can be valuable in designing and interpreting the results of ASF control programmes, and future work can also be undertaken as our dataset is released under open access, to perform studies in risk assessment for ASFV persistence in a region where O. erraticus sensu stricto ticks are present.

  10. First case of peritoneal cystic echinococcosis in a domestic cat caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype 1) associated to feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Castro, Oscar F; Crampet, Alejandro; Bartzabal, Álvaro; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Grimm, Felix; Deplazes, Peter

    2014-04-01

    A new cystic echinococcosis case in a cat in Uruguay is reported herein. The cat was taken to a veterinary clinic in Rocha city, Uruguay, due to dyspnea, constipation and abdominal enlargement. During surgery a large quantity of cysts was retrieved from the abdominal cavity. The cysts were morphologically studied and confirmed as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (genotype 1) by molecular tools using cytochrome oxidase submit 1 and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene as target genes. Moreover, for the first time a coinfection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was detected. FIV-induced immunosuppression could be a determining factor in the development of cystic echinococcosis in cats.

  11. Institucionalização do Conhecimento em Sustentabilidade Ambiental pelos Programas de Pós-gradução Stricto Sensu em Administração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Machado Junior

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the process of institutionalization and legitimization of knowledge in research-oriented (stricto sensu management programs in the field of environmental sustainability by proposing and applying a theoretical model based on Berger and Luckmann. Berger and Luckmann’s sociology of knowledge, a theoretical interpretation of phenomena that develop in society, is used as the basis for the construction of a research model for institutionalization and legitimization processes. The research presents different methodological approaches that are inherently complementary, with a predominance of quantitative techniques, characterizing social network analysis as a mixed-methods approach. The research shows that collaborative networks formed by stricto sensu management programs contribute to the institutionalization and legitimization of knowledge in environmental sustainability. Bibliometrics and data mining techniques identified which authors have published works that are institutionalized and legitimized. The results show that the model developed by Berger and Luckmann allows the identification of authors and institutions that have institutionalized or legitimized the production of knowledge in environmental sustainability, something that can be applied in other scientific fields.

  12. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M B; Diaz-Soltero, H; Claps, L E; Saracho Bottero, A; Triapitsyn, S; Hasson, E; Logarzo, G A

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens.

  13. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M. B.; Diaz-Soltero, H.; Claps, L. E.; Saracho Bottero, A.; Triapitsyn, S.; Hasson, E.; Logarzo, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s. showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  14. A review of the Polystira clade--the Neotropic's largest marine gastropod radiation (Neogastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae sensu stricto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jonathan A; Rawlings, Timothy A

    2014-11-18

    The Polystira clade (here comprising Polystira and Pleuroliria) is a poorly known but hyper-diverse clade within the neogastropod family Turridae (sensu stricto). It has extensively radiated within the tropics and subtropics of the Americas, to which it is endemic. In this paper we present a synthetic overview of existing information on this radiation together with new information on estimated species diversity, systematic relationships, a species-level molecular phylogenetic analysis and preliminary macroecological and diversification analyses, to serve as a platform for further study. We currently estimate that about 300 species (122 extant) are known from its 36 million year history but this number will undoubtedly increase as we extend our studies. We discuss the relationships of Polystira to other Neotropical Turridae (s.s.) and examine the taxonomy and systematics of the geologically oldest described members of the clade. To aid taxonomic description of shells we introduce a new notation for homologous major spiral cords. Focusing on key publications, we discuss in detail the changing historical understanding of the taxonomy of the clade and the relationships of its component genus-level taxa: Polystira Woodring, 1928, Pleuroliria de Gregorio, 1890, Josephina Gardner, 1945 and Oxytropa Glibert, 1955. We designate a neotype for Pleurotoma (Pleuroliria) supramirifica de Gregorio, 1890, to stabilize our understanding of this, the type species of Pleuroliria. Application of the name Oxytropa is restricted to the type species. The genus Polystira is conchologically re-described and for the first time we synthesize available information on the anatomy, feeding and toxinology, reproduction and life history, larval modes and life habits, and geographic and bathymetric ranges of its species. We give an updated list of the 19 formally described living species and present the pitfalls of the currently poor species-level taxonomy of Polystira using case examples. We

  15. [Genotypic identification and distribution patterns of Candida parapsilosis complex species (C.parapsilosis sensu stricto, C.metapsilosis and C.orthopsilosis) isolated from clinical samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci Güler, Nejla; Tosun, Ilknur; Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Buruk, Kurtuluş; Aydın, Faruk

    2011-10-01

    Candida parapsilosis, which has recently gained increasing importance, is the second most common fungal pathogen isolated from clinical specimens. C.parapsilosis strains exhibiting genetic heterogeneity were previously considered as a complex of three genetically different groups (group I, II, III). However, they have recently been reclassified as new species and named as C.parapsilosis sensu stricto (Grup I), C.orthopsilosis (Grup II) and C.metapsilosis (Grup III). In the present study we aimed to identify C.parapsilosis complex species by PCR-RFLP (Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment lenght polymorphism) method and to determine the distribution of new species isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 68 samples (44 blood, 10 urine, 5 wound, 2 paracentesis fluids, 2 tympanocentesis samples and one of each cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneal fluid, surgical material, oral lesion and nail sample) in which C.parapsilosis had been isolated and identified with API 20C AUX (bioMérieux, France) between October 2005 - July 2009 in the Microbiology Laboratory of Karadeniz Technical University Hospital, in Trabzon, Turkey, were included in the study. Yeast genomic DNA was extracted using the "High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit" (Roche Diagnostic, USA) and amplification of SADH gene was performed by using specific primers (S1-F sense; 5'-GTTGATGCTGTTGGATTGT-3' ve S1-R antisense; 5'-CAATGCCAAATCTCCCAA-3') with PCR. RFLP method was then applied by digesting PCR product (716 bp) with BanI enzyme (Fermentas, USA). In our study 98.5% (67/68) of the isolates were identified as C.parapsilosis sensu stricto, and 1.5% (1/68) was identifed as C.orthopsilosis, whereas no C.metapsilosis strains were detected. The strain identified as C.orthopsilosis was from a urine specimen and all the blood culture isolates were C.parapsilosis sensu stricto. In conclusion, the inability to differentiate C.parapsilosis complex species by phenotypical and routine tests leads to lack of

  16. A formação pedagógica no ensino superior e o papel da pós-graduação stricto sensu The pedagogical formation in higher education and the role of stricto sensu graduate studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Torres Corrêa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolvemos este trabalho com base na ideia de que ser docente no ensino superior não é apenas uma questão de domínio de conteúdo, de expertise em determinado campo. A prática pedagógica em tal nível de ensino é complexa, contextualizada, muitas vezes imprevisível e se configura por escolhas éticas e políticas. Nesse sentido, entendemos que a docência demanda um processo formativo que pode ter como fase inicial a pós-graduação stricto sensu. A partir de tal discussão, estabelecemos como objetivo estudar o modo como a formação pedagógica é tratada no âmbito das políticas públicas para o ensino superior, mais especificamente no que tange à pós-graduação stricto sensu. Para tanto, valemo-nos de dois referenciais metodológicos: a teoria dos campos de Pierre Bourdieu e a análise crítica do discurso de Norman Fairclough. A compreensão da pós-graduação como um campo científico e a análise do Plano Nacional de Pós-Graduação indicaram que esse nível de formação superior está basicamente voltado para a acumulação de capital científico e para a formação de habitus científico, tudo isso em meio a um silêncio sobre a dimensão do ensino no fazer e ser docente. Concluímos que há a necessidade de desenvolver uma cultura de valorização do ensino na universidade, processo este que pode ter na valorização de um capital pedagógico e na formação de um habitus pedagógico na pós-graduação stricto sensu uma fase de grande relevância.This work was developed based on the idea that being a higher education teacher is not just a question of having command of contents, of having expertise in a given field. The pedagogical practice at that level is complex, contextualized, often unpredictable, and is shaped by ethical and political choices. In this sense, we understand that teaching demands a formative process that may have as its initial stage stricto sensu graduate studies. From such discussions we have

  17. Postgrado Stricto Sensus del Departamento de Enfermería de la Universidad de Concepción: Concepción, Chile Pós-graduação Stricto Sensu do Departamento de Enfermagem da Universidad de Concepción: Concepción, Chile Stricto Sensu graduate program at the Nursing Department of Concepción University: Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paravic

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Artículo que relata la trayectoria e historia del Postgrado Stricto Sensus del Departamento de Enfermería de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Concepción. Concepción, Chile. Describe el diseño curricular de los programas , sus líneas de investigación , el producto que se quiere obtener y su impacto, así como el proceso para llegar a la aprobación del primer programa de Doctorado en Enfermería en Chile.Este artigo relata a trajetória histórica da Pós-Graduação stricto sensu do Departamento de Enfermagem da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Concepción, Chile. Descreve o desenho curricular dos programas, suas linhas de investigação, o produto que se pretende obter e seu impacto, assim como o processo para a aprovação do primeiro programa de Doutorado em Enfermagem do Chile.This article reports on the trajectory and history of the stricto sensu graduate program offered at the Nursing Department of Concepción University Medical School, Concepción, Chile. It describes the curricular design of its programs, its research lines, the desired product and its impact, as well as the process to arrive at the approval of the first Ph.D. program in nursing in Chile.

  18. Depicting the Discrepancy between Tri Genotype and Chemotype on the Basis of Strain CBS 139514 from a Field Population of F. graminearum Sensu Stricto from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Tomasz; Buśko, Maciej; Bilska, Katarzyna; Ostrowska-Kołodziejczak, Anna; van Diepeningen, Anne D.; Perkowski, Juliusz; Stenglein, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on a field population of F. graminearum sensu stricto from Argentina revealed an atypical panel of strains identified through PCR genotyping as 15ADON genotypes, but producing high levels of 3ADON. Based on representative strain CBS 139514, we asked if the discrepancy between the trichothecene genotype and chemotype might result from an inter-chemotype recombination of the chemotype-determining genes. To answer this, we sequenced the complete core Tri gene cluster (around 30,200 bp) from this strain and compared its sequence to sequence data of typical type B trichothecene genotypes/chemotypes. Sequence alignment showed that CBS 139514 has an identical sequence within the entire core Tri cluster to the 15ADON genotype. The revealed discrepancy underlines the need for using both molecular and chemical methods for reliable characterization of toxigenic strains of Fusarium. PMID:27845742

  19. Depicting the Discrepancy between Tri Genotype and Chemotype on the Basis of Strain CBS 139514 from a Field Population of F. graminearum Sensu Stricto from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kulik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on a field population of F. graminearum sensu stricto from Argentina revealed an atypical panel of strains identified through PCR genotyping as 15ADON genotypes, but producing high levels of 3ADON. Based on representative strain CBS 139514, we asked if the discrepancy between the trichothecene genotype and chemotype might result from an inter-chemotype recombination of the chemotype-determining genes. To answer this, we sequenced the complete core Tri gene cluster (around 30,200 bp from this strain and compared its sequence to sequence data of typical type B trichothecene genotypes/chemotypes. Sequence alignment showed that CBS 139514 has an identical sequence within the entire core Tri cluster to the 15ADON genotype. The revealed discrepancy underlines the need for using both molecular and chemical methods for reliable characterization of toxigenic strains of Fusarium.

  20. [Nucleotide sequence analysis of a species specific probe by an inserted fragment from recombinant plasmid pCX7 of L. interrogans sensu stricto serovar lai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, B; Xiao, J; Yan, Z; Shen, C; Li, S; Fang, Z

    1998-12-01

    The etiological agents of leptospirosis are the pathogenic leptospires (L. interrogans sensu lato) which can be divided into 223 serovars organized into 23 serogroups. The serovar remains the basic taxon, but serotyping may now be accomplished and recognized by acceptable methods. Complementary molecular approaches are being used extensively to assess genetic relatedness amongst leptospires with restriction endonuclese analysis (REA), pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DNA-DNA hybridization as well established tools. However, the method is cumbersome and unsuitable for routine application. To develop a sensitive and specific method for identification of pathogenic leptospires, a genomic library of L. interrogans sensu stricto serovar lai was constructed with the plasmid vector pUC9. A recombinant plasmid, designated pCX7 which has homologous fragment of pathogenic leptospires was screened from the bank. pCX7 could recognize pathogenic leptospiral DNA fragment 1.7 kb of strain 017 without cross hybridization to nonpathogenic leptospiral DNA. Inserted fragment of pCX7 DNA sequencing was performed by Dr. Yan Zhengxin (Max-Plank-Institut fur Biology, Tubingen, Germany). Insert fragment was cloned into pBluescript and sequenced by using ABI(Applied Bio. Systems, Model 373A). Nucleotide sequences were analyzed by Dr. Xiao Jianguo (Texas University Medical School and School of Public Health, Center for Infectious Diseases) using a suit of computer program (NIH). One open reading frame of 306 nucleotids were identified. There were identifiable initiation codons, terminators, pribnow box and sextama box within the sequenced regions. These results further confirmed that the little homology between L. interrogans sensu strito and L. borgpeterseni serovar javanica, L. inadai serovar ranarun and serovar manhao (L. genomospecies 2), L. biflexa serovar patoc, L. illini. pCX7 DNA probe could provide a base for identification and classification of leptospires.

  1. Contribuições da pós-graduação stricto sensu para o aprendizado da docência de professores de contabilidade

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    Marcelo Marchine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inserida no campo da Docência no Ensino Superior, esta investigação teve por objetivo compreender quais contribuições mestrados e doutorados forneceram para professores-contadores universitários em termos de aprendizado dos saberes necessários para o exercício profissional da docência. A revisão de literatura abordou questões relativas à formação e desenvolvimento profissional de professores do ensino superior, aos saberes docentes na perspectiva de Tardif (2012, à formação para pesquisa e para o ensino e ao papel da pós-graduação stricto sensu na formação do professor de contabilidade, resgatando resultados de pesquisas já realizadas no âmbito da contabilidade. Metodologicamente a investigação teve orientação qualitativa como estratégia geral. A coleta de dados se deu por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas aplicadas a 12 professores dos cursos de Ciências Contábeis de uma universidade pública estadual. As análises foram realizadas fundamentando-se na Análise Textual Discursiva, método que se situa entre a Análise de Conteúdo e a Análise do Discurso. Como principal resultado, apurou-se que a percepção que têm sobre contribuição da pós-graduação para seus processos formativos docentes está relacionada mais com aprendizagem e atualização de conteúdos disciplinares específicos do que com o aprendizado de outros saberes necessários ao exercício docente. Percepção essa que se alinha a resultados de estudos sobre cursos de stricto sensu e aprendizagem da docência. Sobre os demais saberes profissionais docentes, há ausência nos discursos dos investigados sobre terem tido algum contato formal com eles (em disciplinas ou estágios docentes no decurso da realização dos seus mestrados e doutorados.

  2. Phylogenomic analyses of clostridia and identification of novel protein signatures that are specific to the genus Clostridium sensu stricto (cluster I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S; Gao, Beile

    2009-02-01

    The species of Clostridium comprise a very heterogeneous assemblage of bacteria that do not form a phylogenetically coherent group. It has been proposed previously that only a subset of the species of Clostridium that form a distinct cluster in the 16S rRNA tree (cluster I) should be regarded as the true representatives of the genus Clostridium (i.e. Clostridium sensu stricto). However, this cluster is presently defined only in phylogenetic terms, and no biochemical, molecular or phenotypic characteristic is known that is unique to species from this cluster. We report here phylogenomic and comparative analyses based on sequenced clostridial genomes in an attempt to bridge this gap and to clarify the evolutionary relationships among species of clostridia. In phylogenetic trees for species of clostridia based on concatenated sequences for 37 highly conserved proteins, the species of Clostridium cluster I formed a strongly supported clade that was separated from all other clostridia by a long branch. Several other Clostridium species that are not part of this cluster grouped reliably with other species of clostridia in a number of well-resolved clades. Our comparative genomic analyses have identified three conserved indels in three highly conserved proteins (a 4 aa insert in DNA gyrase A, a 1 aa deletion in ATP synthase beta subunit and a 1 aa insert in ribosomal protein S2) that are unique to the species of Clostridium cluster I and are not found in any other bacteria. blastp searches on various proteins in the genomes of Clostridium tetani E88 and Clostridium perfringens SM101 have also identified more than 10 proteins that are found uniquely in the cluster I species. These results provide evidence that the species of Clostridium cluster I not only are phylogenetically distinct but also share many unique molecular characteristics. These newly identified molecular markers provide useful tools to define and circumscribe the genus Clostridium sensu stricto in more

  3. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado

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    Pais Mara Patrícia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechanisms in different habitat physiognomies. The defensive mechanisms and the nutritional traits of a cerrado plant, Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae, were compared along a vegetation gradient. Toughness, as well as water, nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, and tannin contents were measured in young and mature leaves of D. vinosum collected in campo cerrado, cerrado sensu stricto (s.s. and cerradão. Plants from cerrado s.s. and cerradão were of better nutritional quality but also had higher tannin contents than campo cerrado plants. Some type of compensation mechanism could have been selected to provide an optimum investment in defense, according to limitations imposed by water deficits in the habitat.

  4. Aspectos da ecologia de arecaceae em áreas de cerrado Sensu Stricto do Distrito Federal, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Em resposta à estacionalidade climática dos ambientes, as espécies vegetais possuem mecanismos que tornam possível sua sobrevivência e reprodução durante o período desfavorável ao desenvolvimento. Sítios ativos ou sumidouros de recursos (folhas e gemas foliares, flores e gemas florais) competem por água, nutrientes e metabólitos dentro da planta, levando a uma distribuição temporal das funções como produção de flores e folhas. O resultado disto é a geração de um padrão fenológico típico da es...

  5. The mitochondrial genome of Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto (Nematoda: Enoplea): considerable economization in the length and structural features of encoded genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Jones, J; Armstrong, M; Lamberti, F; Moens, M

    2005-12-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the plant parasitic nematode Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto has been determined. At 12626bp it is the smallest metazoan mitochondrial genome reported to date. Genes are transcribed from both strands. Genes coding for 12 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 17 putative tRNAs (with the tRNA-C, I, N, S1, S2 missing) are predicted from the sequence. The arrangement of genes within the X. americanum mitochondrial genome is unique and includes gene overlaps. Comparisons with the mtDNA of other nematodes show that the small size of the X. americanum mtDNA is due to a combination of factors. The two mitochondrial rRNA genes are considerably smaller than those of other nematodes, with most of the protein encoding and tRNA genes also slightly smaller. In addition, five tRNAs genes are absent, lengthy noncoding regions are not present in the mtDNA, and several gene overlaps are present.

  6. A produção de conhecimento sobre hipertensão gestacional na pós-graduação stricto sensu da enfermagem brasileira

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    Marialda Martins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa documental que analisou a produção brasileira da pós-graduação stricto sensu em enfermagem relacionada à hipertensão gestacional. Para tal, utilizou-se como fonte de pesquisa o Banco de Teses e Dissertações da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem. Identificaram-se 14 estudos produzidos entre 1979-2008, cuja produção concentrou-se na região sudeste, entre 1996-2008. O processo analítico revelou a preocupação com a subjetividade das gestantes e com aspectos voltados à assistência de enfermagem. Mostrou, também, que a maioria dos estudos envolveu metodologia qualitativa e sob sustentação de teorias de enfermagem. A experiência vivida pelas gestantes hipertensas é marcada por sentimentos negativos, por problemas socioeconômicos e é influenciada pela forma de organização familiar. A cultura das gestantes hipertensas é desconsiderada e elas são assistidas em um contexto no qual a doença é prioridade. Conclui-se que, apesar de alguns avanços científicos, o tema não tem despertado o interesse merecido entre os enfermeiros que cursam pós-graduação.

  7. [Profile of the demand for stricto sensu graduate programs offered by the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Cecília Puntel de; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; Bueno, Sonia Maria Villela; Cassiani, Silvia Helena de Bortolli; Saeki, Toyoko; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Santana, Mary Elizabeth de

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed at describing and analyzing the profile of the demand for stricto sensu graduate programs--master and doctoral degree offered by the University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing from 1975 to 2002. Data were collected through the records of the students enrolled in the programs. The sample consisted of 979 students: 210 from the Psychiatric Nursing Program, 375 from the Fundamental Nursing Program, 203 from the Public Health Program and 189 from the Interunit Doctoral Program. The majority were women, married, with an average age of 32 years (master) and 38 years (doctoral). 93% were nurses. 60% came from universities and 25.6% from health services. 11.3% were not working, besides the ones that recently graduated. 71.2% were from the South East of Brazil, 9.8% from the South, 6.9% from the Central-Western region, 6.8% from the North East and 18% from the North. The foreign students correspond to 3.4%. Findings reinforce the graduate policies adopted by the college with respect to expected student profile.

  8. Filosofia buberiana e a produção da pós-graduação Stricto Sensu brasileira: revisão integrativa

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    Diego Schaurich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Revisão integrativa que objetivou caracterizar a produção do conhecimento da Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu brasileira que se desenvolveu à luz da filosofia de Martin Buber. A coleta de dados ocorreu no Banco de Teses da CAPES e 66 produções compuseram a amostra. O período de 2003 a 2007 agrupou a maioria dos estudos que foram defendidos em programas de Educação e Psicologia. A maior parte foi produzida na região Sudeste e focada nas temáticas processo ensino-aprendizagem e sexualidade humana. Conclui-se que a utilização deste referencial, por sua abrangência e complexidade, tem servido a diferentes disciplinas do conhecimento no subsídio a distintos objetos de investigação. Ainda, configura uma alternativa à saúde e à Enfermagem para o desenvolvimento do cuidado relacional-dialógico e humanístico.

  9. High-resolution melting analysis (HRM) for differentiation of four major Taeniidae species in dogs Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mansoureh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Rostami, Sima; Shamsaddini, Saeedeh; Mirbadie, Seyed Reza; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2016-07-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Taenia include several species of important parasites with considerable medical and veterinary significance. Accurate identification of these species in dogs is the prerequisite of any prevention and control program. Here, we have applied an efficient method for differentiating four major Taeniid species in dogs, i.e., Taenia hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is simpler, less expensive, and faster technique than conventional DNA-based assays and enables us to detect PCR amplicons in a closed system. Metacestode samples were collected from local abattoirs from sheep. All the isolates had already been identified by PCR-sequencing, and their sequence data were deposited in the GenBank. Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting mitochondrial cox1 and ITS1 genes was used to differentiate taeniid species. Distinct melting curves were obtained from ITS1 region enabling accurate differentiation of three Taenia species and E. granulosus in dogs. The HRM curves of Taenia species and E .granulosus were clearly separated at Tm of 85 to 87 °C. In addition, double-pick melting curves were produced in mixed infections. Cox1 melting curves were not decisive enough to distinguish four taeniids. In this work, the efficiency of HRM analysis to differentiate four major taeniid species in dogs has been demonstrated using ITS1 gene.

  10. Use of habitats by non-volant small mammals in Cerrado in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Filho, M; Frieiro-Costa, F; Ignácio, Á R A; Silva, M N F

    2012-11-01

    Non-volant small mammals are organisms capable of yielding precise information on richness, abundance and species composition variations related to the use of habitats. The aim of this research was to compare these variations in Cerrado sensu stricto, Palm Forest, Gallery Forest and Rocky Field. From May 1999 to February 2000, we surveyed non-volant small mammals (hence small mammals) in Serra das Araras Ecological Station. We captured 218 individuals and recaptured 62 individuals, belonging to 21 taxa, 13 rodents and eight marsupials, in a total of 13200 trap-nights. Capture success was 1.7%. We observed higher richness of small mammals in forested areas (Gallery Forest and Palm Forest) than in open areas (Rocky Field and Cerrado sensu stricto). The Palm Forest had the highest richness of marsupials, possibly due to the quality of a specific niche. The Rocky Field had the smallest richness, but with very high abundance of few species, mainly Thrichomys pachyurus and Monodelphis domestica. Forest habitats had similar species composition. The open habitats, Cerrado sensu stricto and Rocky Field, had a distinct species composition between them, and also when compared to forested areas. Different species are exclusive or showed preference for specific habitats. The protection of horizontally heterogeneous biomes, such as Cerrado, has a fundamental importance to the maintenance of the regional diversity of the small mammal community of Central Brazil.

  11. Comparison of Growth of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto at Five Different Temperatures.

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    Gorana Veinović

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, a fastidious bacterium that replicates slowly and requires special conditions to grow in the laboratory. Borrelia isolation from clinical material is a golden standard for microbiological diagnosis of borrelial infection. Important factors that affect in vitro borrelia growth are temperature of incubation and number of borrelia cells in the sample. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of temperature on borrelia growth and survival by evaluation and comparison of growth of 31 different borrelia strains at five different temperatures and to determine the influence of different inoculums on borrelia growth at different temperatures. Borreliae were cultured in the MKP medium; the initial and final number of spirochetes was determined by dark field microscopy using Neubauer counting chamber. The growth of borrelia was defined as final number of cells/mL after three days of incubation. For all three Borrelia species, the best growth was found at 33°C, followed by 37, 28, and 23°C, while no growth was detected at 4°C (P0.05, respectively. Inoculum had statistically significant influence on growth of all three Borrelia species at all tested temperatures except at 4°C.

  12. Genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing affect survival and assortative mating but not overall mating success in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Doug; Touré, Mahamoudou; Sacko, Adama; Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Traoré, Sékou F; Tripet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies.

  13. Characterization of virulence profile, protein secretion and immunogenicity of different Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolates compared with S. globosa and S. brasiliensis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; dos Santos, Priscila Oliveira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Sasaki, Alexandre Augusto; Burger, Eva; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-04-01

    A comparative study about protein secretion, immunogenicity and virulence was performed in order to characterize and to compare eight Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolates. For virulence characterization, a murine model, based on survival assay and CFU counting was used. S. brasiliensis and S. globosa, a highly virulent and a non-virulent isolates, respectively were used as external controls. Exoantigen profiles showed different secreted molecules; the 46- and 60-kDa molecules were commonly secreted by all three species. The S. schenckii s. str. isolates could be classified as non-virulent or presenting low, medium or high virulence, based on survival times after infection and recovery of viable fungi. The humoral response profiles of mice infected with S. schenckii s. str., S. globosa and S. brasiliensis were heterogeneous; five virulent isolates (S. schenckii s. str., n = 4 and S. brasiliensis, n = 1) had in common the recognition of the 60-kDa molecule by their respective antisera, suggesting that this antigen may be involved in virulence. Furthermore, the 110-kDa molecule was secreted and recognized by antisera from four virulent isolates (S. schenckii s. str., n = 3 and S. brasiliensis, n = 1), so there is a possibility that this molecule is also related to virulence. Our findings reveal different degrees of virulence in S. schenckii s. str. isolates and suggest the correlation of protein secretion and immunogenicity with virulence of S. schenckii complex. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of S. schenckii s. str. and improve the knowledge about immunogenicity and protein profiles in S. schenckii complex.

  14. The effect of aliphatic carboxylic acids on olfaction-based host-seeking of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegange, Renate C; Qiu, Yu Tong; Bukovinszkiné-Kiss, Gabriella; Van Loon, Joop J A; Takken, Willem

    2009-08-01

    The role of aliphatic carboxylic acids in host-seeking response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was examined both in a dual-choice olfactometer and with indoor traps. A basic attractive blend of ammonia + lactic acid served as internal standard odor. Single carboxylic acids were tested in a tripartite blend with ammonia + lactic acid. Four different airflow stream rates (0.5, 5, 50, and 100 ml/min) carrying the compounds were tested for their effect on trap entry response in the olfactometer. In the olfactometer, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, pentanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, and tetradecanoic acid increased attraction relative to the basic blend. While several carboxylic acids were attractive only at one or two flow rates, tetradecanoic acid was attractive at all flow rates tested. Heptanoic acid was attractive at the lowest flow rate (0.5 ml/min), but repellent at 5 and 50 ml/min. Mixing the air stream laden with these 7 carboxylic acids together with the headspace of the basic blend increased attraction in two quantitative compositions. Subtraction of single acids from the most attractive blend revealed that 3-methylbutanoic acid had a negative effect on trap entry response. In the absence of tetradecanoic acid, the blend was repellent. In assays with MM-X traps, both a blend of 7 carboxylic acids + ammonia + lactic acid (all applied from low density polyethylene-sachets) and a simple blend of ammonia + lactic acid + tetradecanoic acid were attractive. The results show that carboxylic acids play an essential role in the host-seeking behavior of An. gambiae, and that the contribution to blend attractiveness depends on the specific compound studied.

  15. Behavioral finance: a study based on the theory of the prospectus and investor profile of students of courses Stricto Sensu the big Florianópolis Finanças comportamentais: um estudo com base na teoria do prospecto e no perfil do investidor de estudantes de cursos stricto sensu da grande Florianópolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Luis Colognese Haubert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral Finance is a new area of study that seeks to analyze the psychological aspects of individuals in making financial decisions. Studies in this area are intended to verify assumptions made by more traditional theories, in particular, the rationality of economic agents, and they aim to improve the economic and financial model through the incorporation of evidence on investor irrationality. In this context, the objective of this article is to understand the behavior of students of post-graduate studies as to its operations in investment based on behavioral finance. In order to learn about the behavioral profile of investors and prospective investors, a survey was conducted to collect quantitative data using a questionnaire comprising 15 questions for 94 students in the strict sense of Florianopolis metropolitan area. It was possible to identify the predominant conservative profile. It was observed that students showed risk aversion in the field of gains and risk propensity in the field of losses. So it is possible to say that the reflection effect occurred in this study.Finanças Comportamentais representa uma nova área de estudo que busca analisar os aspectos psicológicos dos indivíduos no processo de tomada de decisões financeiras. Estudos nessa área buscam verificar premissas assumidas pelas teorias mais tradicionais, em particular a da racionalidade dos agentes econômicos, tendo como objetivo aperfeiçoar o modelo econômico-financeiro por meio da incorporação de evidências sobre a irracionalidade do investidor. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste artigo é compreender o comportamento dos estudantes de pós-graduação stricto sensu quanto à sua atuação em investimentos com base nas finanças comportamentais. A fim de obter informações sobre o perfil comportamental de investidores e futuros investidores, foi realizada uma pesquisa quantitativa para coleta de dados com uso de um questionário composto de 15 quest

  16. Comparative molecular analyses of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains B31 and N40D10/E9 and determination of their pathogenicity

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    Chan Kamfai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lyme disease in the United States is caused primarily by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto while other species are also prevalent in Europe. Genetic techniques have identified several chromosomal and plasmid-borne regulatory and virulence factors involved in Lyme pathogenesis. B31 and N40 are two widely studied strains of B. burgdorferi, which belong to two different 16 S-23 S rRNA spacer types (RST and outer surface protein C (OspC allelic groups. However, the presence of several known virulence factors in N40 has not been investigated. This is the first comprehensive study that compared these two strains both in vitro and using the mouse model of infection. Results Phylogenetic analyses predict B31 to be more infectious. However, our studies here indicate that N40D10/E9 is more infectious than the B31 strain at lower doses of inoculation in the susceptible C3H mice. Based-upon a careful analyses of known adhesins of these strains, it is predicted that the absence of a known fibronectin-glycosaminoglycan binding adhesin, bbk32, in the N40 strain could at least partially be responsible for reduction in its binding to Vero cells in vitro. Nevertheless, this difference does not affect the infectivity of N40D10/E9 strain. The genes encoding known regulatory and virulence factors critical for pathogenesis were detected in both strains. Differences in the protein profiles of these B. burgdorferi strains in vitro suggest that the novel, differentially expressed molecules may affect infectivity of B. burgdorferi. Further exacerbation of these molecular differences in vivo could affect the pathogenesis of spirochete strains. Conclusion Based upon the studies here, it can be predicted that N40D10/E9 disseminated infection at lower doses may be enhanced by its lower binding to epithelial cells at the site of inoculation due to the absence of BBK32. We suggest that complete molecular analyses of virulence factors followed by their evaluation

  17. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fernandez-Triana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world’s best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica –including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5. Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI mitochondrial gene, information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae, ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae

  18. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  19. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  20. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil Duas cochonilhas mirmecófilas, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae e Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, coabitando no interior de ramos de Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae em área de Cerrado do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.O coccídeo Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 e o pseudococcídeo Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 são registrados coabitando no interior de galhos de Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, ambos atendidos pela formiga Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Essa interação foi observada em uma região de Cerrado sensu stricto, na Universidade Federal de São Carlos, UFSCar, Brasil. A. oecocordia é registrada pela primeira vez para o Brasil.

  1. Fator de impacto e pós-graduação stricto sensu em alimentos, nutrição e ciência e tecnologia de alimentos Impact factor and stricto sensu post graduation in foods, nutrition and science and food technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Afonso Jordão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar a relação entre o fator de impacto de publicações e o conceito da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior para os programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu envolvidos com Alimentos e Nutrição, foram selecionados 39 programas do triênio 2001-2003, de 4 Comitês (Agrárias, Alimentos, Medicina II e Nutrição e Zootecnia. Apesar de a publicação científica ser muito valorizada, sua aplicação na conceituação de programas é limitada. Uma correlação muito pobre (r²= 0,0611 entre o conceito atribuído ao programa e a média anual de fator de impacto por docente, por programa, foi encontrada. Por outro lado, 48,6% dos artigos produzidos no triênio 2001-2003 por esses programas foram enviados para periódicos não indexados pelo Institute of Scientific Information. Houve, nos programas de pós-graduação analisados neste período, 1149 (51% trabalhos publicados em 231 revistas não indexadas na base Institute of Scientific Information, e 1216 (49% trabalhos publicados em 331 periódicos indexados no Institute of Scientific Information. Esses dados sugerem a necessidade de aprimorar a avaliação da produção intelectual na área de Alimentos e Nutrição, no sentido de ajustar as medidas de produção para reconhecer as particularidades da produção científica dessa área. É preciso, também, desenvolver mecanismos de inclusão da medida de fator de impacto de publicações nacionais.Aiming to analyze the relationship between the impact factor of publications and the concept of graduate nutrition and food programs, 39 programs were selected from the years 2001-2003 from 4 Committees (Agrarian, Foods, Medicine II and Nutrition and Zootechny. Even though scientific publications are highly valued, their application in the conceptualization of programs is very limited. A very poor correlation (r²= 0.0611 between the concept given to the program and the annual mean of the impact

  2. Programas de pós-graduação Stricto Sensu em contabilidade: sua contribuição na formação de professores e pesquisadores = Graduate programs in Stricto Sensu accounting: its contribution to teachers and researchers development

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    André Luiz Comunelo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre a formação de professores e pesquisadores em Contabilidade importam no processo de desenvolvimento do ensino. Com o aumento da demanda destes profissionais e da oferta de cursos de graduações, o docente e o pesquisador devem estar preparados para enfrentar novos desafios. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo foi desenvolvido com objetivo de verificar a contribuição dos Programas de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Contabilidade em nível de mestrado quanto à formação de professores e pesquisadores. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida sob as formas qualitativa e quantitativa, utilizando-se de dados secundários e de análise de conteúdo para atingir o objetivo proposto. A análise de dados pautou-se em 6 PPGs, contemplando 115 mestres em Contabilidade que concluíram o curso no ano de 2004. Foram analisadas as suas publicações e atuação profissional nos cinco anos subsequentes, ou seja, até 2009. Os resultados apontam que os PPGs no período em estudo estavam voltados basicamente para a formação de professores, pois 104 mestres atuam na docência. Ainda, demonstrou que o destino destes professores eram as instituições de ensino superior privadas e para o curso de Ciências Contábeis. No processo de formação pedagógica, todos os programas possuíam a disciplina de Metodologia do Ensino Superior, sendo alguns de forma obrigatória e outros, optativa. No entanto, os dados da pesquisa mostraram que no período estudado, os programas não contribuíram significativamente para a formação de pesquisadores, pois estes estavam centrados na formação de docentes, evidenciada pela baixa publicação dos egressos dos programas e pela concentração em determinados egressos.Studies on the training of teachers and researchers in accounting matter in the process of development of education. With the increasing demand of these professionals and the supply of graduate courses, the teacher and the researcher must be prepared to face

  3. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.

  4. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira de Castro, Alinne; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture. PMID:26849674

  5. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna Soils.

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    Alinne Pereira de Castro

    Full Text Available The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  6. Microbial Diversity in Cerrado Biome (Neotropical Savanna) Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Sartori da Silva, Maria Regina Silveira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; da Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado, the largest savanna region in South America, is located in central Brazil. Cerrado physiognomies, which range from savanna grasslands to forest formations, combined with the highly weathered, acidic clay Cerrado soils form a unique ecoregion. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal RNA genes was combined with shotgun metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic composition and potential functions of soil microbial communities in four different vegetation physiognomies during both dry and rainy seasons. Our results showed that changes in bacterial, archaeal, and fungal community structures in cerrado denso, cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, and gallery forest soils strongly correlated with seasonal patterns of soil water uptake. The relative abundance of AD3, WPS-2, Planctomycetes, Thermoprotei, and Glomeromycota typically decreased in the rainy season, whereas the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased. In addition, analysis of shotgun metagenomic data revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with iron acquisition and metabolism, dormancy, and sporulation during the dry season, and an increase in the relative abundance of genes related to respiration and DNA and protein metabolism during the rainy season. These gene functional categories are associated with adaptation to water stress. Our results further the understanding of how tropical savanna soil microbial communities may be influenced by vegetation covering and temporal variations in soil moisture.

  7. Green tea proanthocyanidins cause impairment of hormone-regulated larval development and reproductive fitness via repression of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, insulin-like peptide and cytochrome P450 genes in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanjom, Steven G.; Mutunga, James M.; Njeru, Sospeter N.; Bargul, Joel L.

    2017-01-01

    Successful optimization of plant-derived compounds into control of nuisance insects would benefit from scientifically validated targets. However, the close association between the genotypic responses and physiological toxicity effects mediated by these compounds remains underexplored. In this study, we evaluated the sublethal dose effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs) sourced from green tea (Camellia sinensis) on life history traits of Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) mosquitoes with an aim to unravel the probable molecular targets. Based on the induced phenotypic effects, genes selected for study targeted juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis, signal transduction, oxidative stress response and xenobiotic detoxification in addition to vitellogenesis in females. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure of larval stages (L3/L4) to sublethal dose of 5 ppm dramatically extended larval developmental period for up to 12 days, slowed down pupation rates, induced abnormal larval-pupal intermediates and caused 100% inhibition of adult emergence. Further, females exhibited significant interference of fecundity and egg hatchability relative to controls (p reproductive fitness thus could be potentially used for controlling populations of malaria vectors. PMID:28301607

  8. O custo socioeconômico da pós-graduação stricto sensu: uma análise na percepção de mestres em contabilidade

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    Tiago Guimarães Barth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A teoria do capital humano sugere que níveis mais altos de instrução geram retornos econômicos maiores. Os custos socioeconômicos, para o mestrado, são importantes na mensuração adequada de possíveis retornos, e podem ser utilizados como evidências para tomada de decisão pelos usuários. O objetivo é avaliar o custo, no âmbito pessoal socioeconômico, da pós-graduação stricto sensu, segundo a percepção de seus egressos. O levantamento avalia, por grupos, as situações de custos. Os custos totais variaram entre 0,58 e 7,18, média ponderada de 3,46 salários mínimos mensais. Os custos de oportunidade mostraram-se graves nos casos de bolsistas de dedicação exclusiva, pois correspondem ao dobro do valor da bolsa. A alta dedicação de tempo necessária durante o curso desencadeia diversos custos sociais.

  9. Interception of rainfall and surface runoff in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarso Oliveira, Paulo; Wendland, Edson; Nearing, Mark; Perea Martins, João

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado plays a fundamental role in water resources dynamics because it distributes fresh water to the largest basins in Brazil and South America. In recent decades, the native Cerrado vegetation has increasingly been replaced by agricultural crops and pasture. These land cover and land use changes have altered the hydrological processes. Meanwhile, little is known about the components of the water balance in the Brazilian Cerrado, mainly because the experimental field studies in this region are scarce or nonexistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate two hydrological processes under native Cerrado vegetation, the canopy interception (CI) and the surface runoff (R). The Cerrado physiognomy was classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" with an absolute density of 15,278 trees ha-1, and a basal area of 11.44 m2 ha-1. We measured the gross rainfall (P) from an automated tipping bucket rain gauge (model TB4) located in a tower with 11 m of height on the Cerrado. Throughfall (TF) was obtained from 15 automated tipping bucket rain gauges (model Davis) spread below the Cerrado vegetation and randomly relocated every month during the wet season. Stemflow (SF) was measured on 12 trees using a plastic hose wrapped around the trees trunks, sealed with neutral silicone sealant, and a bucket to store the water. The canopy interception was computed by the difference between P and the sum of TF and SF. Surface runoff under undisturbed Cerrado was collected in three plots of 100 m2(5 x 20 m) in size and slope steepness of approximately 0.09 m m-1. The experimental study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2013. We found TF of 81.0% of P and SF of 1.6% of P, i.e. the canopy interception was calculated at 17.4% of P. There was a statistically significant correlation (p 0.8. Our results suggest that the rainfall intensity, the characteristics of the trees trunks (crooked and twisted) and stand structure are the main factors that have influenced

  10. Análise do processo de exame de grau na pós-graduação stricto sensu Analysis of the process of viva voce in graduate programs of degree by research

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    Silvana Pezzi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem por objetivo contribuir para o aprofundamento das discussões acerca da qualidade da pós-graduação stricto sensu no âmbito nacional, a partir de um de seus elementos constituintes: o exame de grau. O exame de grau é discutido de forma teórica, por meio da análise sistematizada de pesquisas nacionais e internacionais relacionadas com o tema. Primeiramente, são discutidos os propósitos de mestrados e doutorados, analisados os objetivos dos exames de grau, investigados os procedimentos e os critérios adotados na avaliação dos exames de grau, apontando seus pontos de vulnerabilidade. A seguir, sistematizam-se e analisam-se as variáveis relacionadas à subjetividade dos elementos decisórios de cada examinador e as influências externas às quais a banca está envolta. Em sua conclusão, ressalta-se o alto nível de heterogeneidade associado ao conhecimento e à percepção dos padrões esperados para a formação de um mestre e um doutor, que influencia sistemicamente no processo de exame de grau. Por fim, os temas sugeridos para a continuação da pesquisa visam buscar maior consistência nos procedimentos de avaliação dos exames de grau e uma avaliação mais equitativa do pós-graduando, contribuindo para a qualidade da pós-graduação stricto sensu.The article aims at contributing to further the discussion about the quality of graduate programs of degree by research in this country, taking into account one of its constitutive elements: the viva voce. The viva is discussed in a theoretical manner through the systematized analysis of national and international studies related to the theme. Firstly, the article discusses the purposes of master and doctorate programs, the objectives of the viva, its procedures and criteria, and then it points out its vulnerable aspects. The variables related to the subjectivity of the decision elements of each examiner are then analyzed, as well as the external influences surrounding the

  11. Docência universitária: uma análise das disciplinas na área da formação pedagógica oferecidas pelos programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu em Ciências Contábeis

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto José Miranda

    2010-01-01

    O presente estudo tem como tema a docência universitária no âmbito do ensino de Contabilidade. É investigada a formação pedagógica oferecida pelos programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu mediante disciplinas relacionadas ao ensino. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo realizado por meio de uma pesquisa documental na base de dados da Capes, relativo às avaliações dos programas de Mestrado e Doutorado no ano de 2006. Verificou-se que entre os dezoito Programas de Mestrado e os três de Doutorado ex...

  12. Floristic composition of the cerrado in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, southeastern Brazil

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    Batalha Marco Antônio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a 1225 ha area, composed mainly of cerrado, in Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil (21°36-38'S, 47°36-39'W. In three cerrado physiognomies (campo cerrado -- a wooded savanna, cerrado sensu stricto -- a woodland, and cerradão -- a tall woodland, we collected all vascular plants in reproductive stage, and identified them to species level. We found 360 species, representing 236 genera and 69 families. The richest families were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. The savanna physiognomies were richer than the forest one. The ratio between herbaceous and woody species was approximately 2:1. We analysed the whole flora and its two components separately, woody and herbaceous, comparing them with other disjunct cerrado areas. We obtained similarity values (Sørensen index from 0.47 to 0.81, which showed that the 3 diversity of the cerrado was higher in the herbaceous component than in the woody one.

  13. Comparação de métodos para a observação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e endofíticos do tipo dark septate em espécies nativas de Cerrado Comparision of methods to visualise arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungi in native Cerrado species

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    Kelly da Silva Coutinho Detmann

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available As espécies vegetais de Cerrado sensu stricto apresentam estratégias adaptativas às condições edáficas e climáticas de altos investimentos em fotoassimilados, nutrientes e água para sua estruturação. A simbiose entre fungos e raízes de plantas é uma importante adaptação radicular que auxilia as plantas na absorção de nutrientes e água do solo, sendo determinantes para a sobrevivência no Cerrado. Com o objetivo de estudar fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs e fungos endofíticos do tipo dark septate (DSEFs nas raízes de algumas espécies arbóreas e herbáceas, nativas do Cerrado sensu stricto, foram testados diferentes métodos para melhor observação das estruturas fúngicas em simbiose. O melhor método de clarificação foi observado quando as raízes foram autoclavadas a 121 °C em KOH 2 %, por 20 min, e com a subseqüente transferência para solução nova de KOH 2 %, por 24 h, em temperatura ambiente. Este procedimento foi repetido e, em seguida, essas amostras foram imersas em H2O2 2 % por 2 h. Os arbúsculos foram observados com maiores detalhes após a inclusão em resina, seccionamento e coloração com azul-de-toluidina. Todas as espécies avaliadas encontravam-se colonizadas por FMAs, e apenas em Xylopia aromatica não se observaram os DSEFs. As espécies herbáceas apresentaram maiores freqüências de colonização micorrízica do que as arbóreas. O caráter generalista dos FMAs e DSEFs observado nas espécies vegetais do Cerrado sensu stricto sugere a importância dessas simbioses como mecanismo adaptativo às condições de Cerrado.Plant species in sensu stricto Cerrado have adaptive strategies to soil and climatic adversities that require high investment of nutrients, water and photoassimilates. The mutualistic fungi - plant root symbiosis is an important adaptation by which plants can improve soil nutrients and water acquisition and it can be determinant for plant survival in Cerrado conditions. The aim

  14. Análise comparativa da florística e fitossociologia da vegetação arbórea do cerrado sensu stricto na Chapada Pratinha, DF - Brasil Comparative analysis of floristics and plant sociology in the "cerrado" arboreal vegetacion sensu stricto in the Chapada Pratinha, DF-Brazil

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    Jeanini Maria Felfili

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram selecionadas seis áreas de estudo, Estação Ecológica de Aguas Emendadas-DF, Parque Nacional de Brasília-DF, APA Gama-Cabeça do Veado-DF, Silvânia-GO, Paracatu-MG e Patrocínio-MG na Chapada Pratinha (15-20º S e 46-49º W, três delas em unidades de conservação e três fora delas. Em cada área foram amostradas 10 parcelas de 1000 m² (20x50m. Todas as árvores a partir de 5 cm de diâmetro na base do tronco foram medidas e identificadas. A florística e a fitossociologia de cada área foi analisada e estas foram comparadas entre si pelos índices de similaridade de Sørense e de Morisita. No total foram encontradas 139 espécies e 42 famílias sendo que apenas 22 espécies foram comuns a todas as áreas. Leguminosae e Vochysiaceae apresentaram valores de importância elevados em todas as áreas. As densidades por ha variaram de 664 a 1396. Os índices de diversidade de Shannon variaram de 3,11 a 3.56. As similaridades foram altas pelo índices de Sorensen, de 0,5 a 0,7, porém baixas pelo de Morisita quando se comparou as áreas de Paracatu e Patrocínio com as demais áreas. Foi concluído que as diferenças florísticas e principalmente estruturais foram elevadas entre estas duas áreas que são mais distantes e se situam a menores altitudes do que aquelas situadas nas unidades de conservação existentes na chapada sendo sugerida a criação de novas unidades nestes Municípios.Six sites were surveyed at Chapada Pratinha in Brazil (15-20º S e 46-49º W. Three of them were localized in conservation units in the Federal District and the others were in Silvania-GO, Paracatu-MG e Patroci'nio-MG. Ten plots of 1000 m2 (20x50m were sampled in each site. The minimum diameter for measurement of the woody plants was 5 cm at 0.30 m from the ground level. Floristic composition, importance value index and Shannon's diversity index were analyzed for each area. Sørense's and Morisita's similarity indices were used to compare the six sites. There were 139 species belonging to 42 families. Of these, only 22 species were common to all areas. Only Leguminosae and Vochysiaceac had high importance values for all areas. The number of trees/ha ranged from 664 to 1396. Shannon's diversity index ranged from 3.11 to 3.56. Similarities were high for Sørense's index but low when Paracatu and Patroci'nio were compared to the other areas using Morisita's index. The existing conservation units do not include all structural and floristic diversity of the region, and therefore, the creation of new units in the last two areas is suggested.

  15. Mites from Cerrado fragments and adjacent soybean crops: does the native vegetation help or harm the plantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, José M; Lofego, Antonio C; Nuvoloni, Felipe M; Navia, Denise

    2014-12-01

    Aiming to recognize the distribution patterns of the mite fauna in soybean crops and to determine the existence of similarity in the composition of species between Cerrado fragments and these plantations, samplings were carried out in 10 areas located in Brazilian Mid-Western and Southeastern regions. Each area was comprised of one fragment of Cerrado sensu stricto and one adjacent soybean crop plantation, with simultaneous samplings carried out on both of them. From the total sampled species, 111 were recorded in the Cerrado and 25 in soybean crops. About 68 % were common in both environments and only eight were exclusively found in soybean. All the species of Phytoseiidae recorded in soybean were also found in the Cerrado. The tetranychid mite Mononychellus planki (McGregor) was the most abundant species (96.3 % of the total individuals) and the only one recorded in every sampled crop. The main occurrence of M. planki was verified in soybean crops using the transgenic cultivar ANTA 82. In general terms, it has been observed that Cerrado fragments do not shelter pest species that may attack soybean and can contribute to the increase of possible predator species in this agroecosystem.

  16. Using remote sensing images for stratification of the cerrado in forest inventories

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    Sérgio Teixeira da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing imagery can be a very useful auxiliary tool for native forests inventory. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the stratification of a cerrado (Brazilian savanna patch based on visual image interpretation techniques as well as to compare the errors from two sampling designs, the Stratified Random Sampling (SRS and the Systematic Sampling (SS.The study area corresponds to a cerrado sensu stricto patch located in the municipality of Papagaios, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The cerrado wood volumes were obtained from a forest inventory field campaign where 32 plots were measured systematically. The study area was stratified based on a visual interpretation of a Landsat 5 TM image, and the strata formed were: “Strata I”, “Strata II”, “Strata III”, water and riparian forests. There was a reduction of 43% on the inventory errors using the SS estimators compared to the inventory errors using the SRS estimators. We concluded that the stratification based on image interpretation techniques was efficient since there was a reduction on the cerrado inventory errors.

  17. Insect folivory in Didymopanax vinosum (Apiaceae in a vegetation mosaic of Brazilian cerrado

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    E. M. Varanda

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Didymopanax vinosum (Apiaceae to insect herbivores was investigated in three sites of a cerrado mosaic - composed of campo cerrado (a grassland with scattered trees and shrubs, cerradão (a tall woodland and cerrado sensu stricto (intermediate between the two - situated in Cerrado Pé-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil. We also examined the relationship of folivory with the composition and abundance of the insect herbivore fauna, and with several nutritional and defensive plant characteristics (water, nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, tannin leaf contents, and leaf toughness. We collected insects associated with D. vinosum every month, and we measured leaf damage every three months. In general, the annual folivory differed among sites. It reached the highest rates in site 1 and site 3: 7.33 and 8.5 percent, respectively. Only 1.32 percent of annual folivory was observed in site 2. These levels resulted from the higher abundance, in sites 1 and 3, of the thrips Liothrips didymopanacis (Phlaeothripidae, the most abundant herbivore sampled, responsible for more than 90 percent of the observed damage. However, no significant relationship was found between insect activity and the chemical and physical composition of the leaves. Our findings suggest that, at least in this species, other chemical compounds or variables related to plant apparency and resource availability to herbivores (e.g. plant architecture might play a more decisive role in the spatial variation of folivory than the nutritional and defensive traits that were analyzed.

  18. [Habitat heterogeneity, richness and structure of assemblages of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in areas of cerrado in the Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso state, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo J da; Diniz, Soraia; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2010-01-01

    Ecological theory of habitat heterogeneity and limited niche-similarity assumes that more heterogeneous environments provide a greater amount and diversity of resources than simple environments, resulting in a greater diversity of species. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the habitat heterogeneity on the richness of dung beetles and to examine the spatial patterns of assemblage structure in relation to patterns of habitat heterogeneity. Dung beetles were collected using pitfall traps without bait in 30 points distributed in an area of cerrado sensu lato, in the region of Tangará da Serra, MT, Brazil, including areas of cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, cerradão and gallery forest. A total of 1,291 dung beetles were collected, distributed in 16 genera and 29 species. Overall habitat heterogeneity exerted a negative effect on patterns of dung beetles richness. Higher levels of species richness were observed in areas of cerrado campo sujo, while the areas of gallery forest were the most species poor. Regarding assembly structure, it was found that the dung beetles were separated into two major groups, one formed by the presence of specialized species in forest areas and other composed of species that occurred predominantly in cerrado. In conclusion, it was found that habitat complexity influenced the distribution of dung beetles, but the level of turnover in species composition along the heterogeneity gradient was relatively weak.

  19. Effects of environmental conditions associated to the cardinal orientation on the reproductive phenology of the cerrado savanna tree Xylopia aromatica (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Maria Gabriela G; Souza, Regina M; Reys, Paula; Morellato, Leonor P C

    2011-09-01

    The Brazilian cerrado has undergone an intense process of fragmentation, which leads to an increase in the number of remnants exposed to edge effects and associated changes on environmental conditions that may affect the phenology of plants. This study aimed to verify whether the reproductive phenology of Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae) differs under different light conditions in a cerrado sensu stricto (a woody savanna) of southeastern Brazil. We compared the reproductive phenology of X. aromatica trees distributed on east and south cardinal faces of the cerrado during monthly observations, from January 2005 to December 2008. The east face had a higher light incidence, higher temperatures and canopy openness in relation to south face. X. aromatica showed seasonal reproduction at both faces of the cerrado, but the percentage of individuals, the synchrony and duration of phenophases were higher at the east face. The study demonstrated the influence of the environmental conditions associated to the cardinal orientation of the cerrado faces on the phenological pattern of X. aromatica. Similar responses may be observed for other species, ultimately affecting patterns of floral visitation and fruit production, which reinforces the importance of considering the cardinal direction in studies of edge effects and fragmentation.

  20. Taxonomy and distribution pattern of the African rain forest butterfly genus Euphaedra Hübner sensu stricto with the description of three new subspecies of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and one of E. sarcoptera (Butler (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae, Adoliadini

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    Tomasz Pyrcz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Updated data on the distribution, ecology and taxonomy of Euphaedra cyparissa (Cramer and Euphaedra sarcoptera (Butler are presented. Three new subspecies of E. cyparissa and one of E. sarcoptera are described and their geographic distribution is presented. The monophyly of the genus Euphaedra sensu Hecq is assessed based on morphological, in particular male and female genitalia, and behavioural traits. Possible evolutionary reasons for the convergence of colour pattern between the sympatric subspecies of E. cyparissa and E. sarcoptera are discussed.

  1. The water balance components of undisturbed tropical woodlands in the Brazilian cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T. S.; Wendland, E.; Nearing, M. A.; Scott, R. L.; Rosolem, R.; da Rocha, H. R.

    2015-06-01

    Deforestation of the Brazilian cerrado region has caused major changes in hydrological processes. These changes in water balance components are still poorly understood but are important for making land management decisions in this region. To better understand pre-deforestation conditions, we determined the main components of the water balance for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso". We developed an empirical model to estimate actual evapotranspiration (ET) by using flux tower measurements and vegetation conditions inferred from the enhanced vegetation index and reference evapotranspiration. Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, surface runoff, and water table level were assessed from ground measurements. We used data from two cerrado sites, Pé de Gigante (PDG) and Instituto Arruda Botelho (IAB). Flux tower data from the PDG site collected from 2001 to 2003 were used to develop the empirical model to estimate ET. The other hydrological processes were measured at the field scale between 2011 and 2014 at the IAB site. The empirical model showed significant agreement (R2 = 0.73) with observed ET at the daily timescale. The average values of estimated ET at the IAB site ranged from 1.91 to 2.60 mm day-1 for the dry and wet seasons, respectively. Canopy interception ranged from 4 to 20 % and stemflow values were approximately 1 % of the gross precipitation. The average runoff coefficient was less than 1 %, while cerrado deforestation has the potential to increase that amount up to 20-fold. As relatively little excess water runs off (either by surface water or groundwater), the water storage may be estimated by the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration. Our results provide benchmark values of water balance dynamics in the undisturbed cerrado that will be useful to evaluate past and future land-cover and land-use changes for this region.

  2. Docência universitária: uma análise das disciplinas na área da formação pedagógica oferecidas pelos programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu em Ciências Contábeis

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    Gilberto José Miranda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como tema a docência universitária no âmbito do ensino de Contabilidade. É investigada a formação pedagógica oferecida pelos programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu mediante disciplinas relacionadas ao ensino. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo realizado por meio de uma pesquisa documental na base de dados da Capes, relativo às avaliações dos programas de Mestrado e Doutorado no ano de 2006. Verificou-se que entre os dezoito Programas de Mestrado e os três de Doutorado existentes no Brasil, em 2008, em apenas dois (Mestrados existe a obrigatoriedade de se cursar disciplinas didático-pedagógicas, os quais apresentam as menores cargas horárias. Entre as três dimensões da Didática evidenciadas por Candau et al. (2005, foi constatado que a dimensão técnica é a que mais aparece nas ementas das disciplinas. Foi percebida ausência da dimensão humana na análise dos conteúdos ementados. As relações envolvendo professor e aluno, o apoio a discentes com dificuldades, a afetividade em sala de aula, a emocionalidade e o aluno como sujeito do processo ensino/aprendizagem não aparecem nas ementas. A dimensão sociopolítica aparece em determinados momentos, mas a preocupação está centrada em questões institucionais (currículo e legislação sobre ensino superior.

  3. Effects of environmental conditions associated to the cardinal orientation on the reproductive phenology of the cerrado savanna tree Xylopia aromatica (Annonaceae

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    Maria Gabriela G. Camargo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian cerrado has undergone an intense process of fragmentation, which leads to an increase in the number of remnants exposed to edge effects and associated changes on environmental conditions that may affect the phenology of plants. This study aimed to verify whether the reproductive phenology of Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae differs under different light conditions in a cerrado sensu stricto (a woody savanna of southeastern Brazil. We compared the reproductive phenology of X. aromatica trees distributed on east and south cardinal faces of the cerrado during monthly observations, from January 2005 to December 2008. The east face had a higher light incidence, higher temperatures and canopy openness in relation to south face. X. aromatica showed seasonal reproduction at both faces of the cerrado, but the percentage of individuals, the synchrony and duration of phenophases were higher at the east face. The study demonstrated the influence of the environmental conditions associated to the cardinal orientation of the cerrado faces on the phenological pattern of X. aromatica. Similar responses may be observed for other species, ultimately affecting patterns of floral visitation and fruit production, which reinforces the importance of considering the cardinal direction in studies of edge effects and fragmentation.O cerrado brasileiro vem sofrendo um processo intenso de fragmentação, que levou ao aumento de remanescentes sujeitos aos efeitos de borda e a alterações nas condições ambientais que podem afetar a fenologia das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a fenologia reprodutiva de Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae difere sob diferentes condições de luz em um cerrado sensu stricto no sudeste do Brasil. Comparamos a fenologia reprodutiva de árvores de X. aromatica distribuídas nas faces leste e sul do cerrado, observadas mensalmente de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2008. A face leste apresentou

  4. Candida parapsilosis (sensu lato) isolated from hospitals located in the Southeast of Brazil: Species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and virulence attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziccardi, Mariangela; Souza, Lucieri O P; Gandra, Rafael M; Galdino, Anna Clara M; Baptista, Andréa R S; Nunes, Ana Paula F; Ribeiro, Mariceli A; Branquinha, Marta H; Santos, André L S

    2015-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis (sensu lato), which represents a fungal complex composed of three genetically related species - Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, has emerged as an important yeast causing fungemia worldwide. The goal of the present work was to assess the prevalence, antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence traits in 53 clinical isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis (sensu lato) obtained from hospitals located in the Southeast of Brazil. Species forming this fungal complex are physiologically/morphologically indistinguishable; however, polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism of FKS1 gene has solved the identification inaccuracy, revealing that 43 (81.1%) isolates were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 10 (18.9%) as C. orthopsilosis. No C. metapsilosis was found. The geographic distribution of these Candida species was uniform among the studied Brazilian States (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo). All C. orthopsilosis and almost all C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (95.3%) isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Nevertheless, one C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to fluconazole and another one was resistant to caspofungin. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates exhibited higher MIC mean values to amphotericin B, fluconazole and caspofungin than those of C. orthopsilosis, while C. orthopsilosis isolates displayed higher MIC mean to itraconazole compared to C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Identical MIC mean values to voriconazole were measured for these Candida species. All the isolates of both species were able to form biofilm on polystyrene surface. Impressively, biofilm-growing cells of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis exhibited a considerable resistance to all antifungal agents tested. Pseudohyphae were observed in 67.4% and 80

  5. STRATEGY AND PLANNING - PROJECT FOR MONITORING STRICTO SENSU POSTGRADUATE ALUMNI

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    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES has been contributing to the development of post-graduate studies in Brazil, through its system of evaluation. Lately, CAPES signaled the importance of follow the professional performance of the alumni as a way to measure the quality of courses. One difficulty reported by institutions that intend to recognize the trajectory of its graduates is to compile a lot of isolated and outdated data. In order to structure the data collection and to assist educational managers in decision making, we propose the development of a system that enables the evolution of the students and alumni professional career, in order to diagnose the influence of the courses. Based on literature review, this study presents an analysis and makes recommendations about the Monitoring Alumni Project planning. As a result, it is expected that the analysis will serve as a driver for conducting the project, aiming to contribute to the academic reflections, and in practice, contribute to improve educational projects quality.

  6. Characterization of virulence properties in the C. parapsilosis sensu lato species.

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    Tibor Németh

    Full Text Available The C. parapsilosis sensu lato group involves three closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Although their overall clinical importance is dramatically increasing, there are few studies regarding the virulence properties of the species of the psilosis complex. In this study, we tested 63 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 12 C. metapsilosis and 18 C. orthopsilosis isolates for the ability to produce extracellular proteases, secrete lipases and form pseudohyphae. Significant differences were noted between species, with the C. metapsilosis strains failing to secrete lipase or to produce pseudohyphae. Nine different clinical isolates each of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were co-cultured with immortalized murine or primary human macrophages. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates showed a significantly higher resistance to killing by primary human macrophages compared to C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates. In contrast, the killing of isolates by J774.2 mouse macrophages did not differ significantly between species. However, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates induced the most damage to murine and human macrophages, and C. metapsilosis strains were the least toxic. Furthermore, strains that produced lipase or pseudohyphae were most resistant to macrophage-mediated killing and produced the most cellular damage. Finally, we used 9 isolates of each of the C. parapsilosis sensus lato species to examine their impact on the survival of Galleriamellonella larvae. The mortality rate of G. mellonella larvae infected with C. metapsilosis isolates was significantly lower than those infected with C. parapsilosis sensu stricto or C. orthopsilosis strains. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that C. metapsilosis is indeed the least virulent member of the psilosis group, and also highlight the importance of pseudohyphae and secreted lipases during fungal

  7. Characterization of virulence properties in the C. parapsilosis sensu lato species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Tibor; Tóth, Adél; Szenzenstein, Judit; Horváth, Péter; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Tóth, Renáta; Papp, Csaba; Hamari, Zsuzsanna; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Gácser, Attila

    2013-01-01

    The C. parapsilosis sensu lato group involves three closely related species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Although their overall clinical importance is dramatically increasing, there are few studies regarding the virulence properties of the species of the psilosis complex. In this study, we tested 63 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 12 C. metapsilosis and 18 C. orthopsilosis isolates for the ability to produce extracellular proteases, secrete lipases and form pseudohyphae. Significant differences were noted between species, with the C. metapsilosis strains failing to secrete lipase or to produce pseudohyphae. Nine different clinical isolates each of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were co-cultured with immortalized murine or primary human macrophages. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates showed a significantly higher resistance to killing by primary human macrophages compared to C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates. In contrast, the killing of isolates by J774.2 mouse macrophages did not differ significantly between species. However, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates induced the most damage to murine and human macrophages, and C. metapsilosis strains were the least toxic. Furthermore, strains that produced lipase or pseudohyphae were most resistant to macrophage-mediated killing and produced the most cellular damage. Finally, we used 9 isolates of each of the C. parapsilosis sensus lato species to examine their impact on the survival of Galleriamellonella larvae. The mortality rate of G. mellonella larvae infected with C. metapsilosis isolates was significantly lower than those infected with C. parapsilosis sensu stricto or C. orthopsilosis strains. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that C. metapsilosis is indeed the least virulent member of the psilosis group, and also highlight the importance of pseudohyphae and secreted lipases during fungal-host interactions.

  8. Fitossociologia de uma área de cerrado denso na RECOR-IBGE, Brasília-DF Phytosociology of an area of "cerrado denso" at the RECOR-IBGE, Brasília-DF, Brazil

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    Luciana A. Z. Andrade

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi amostrada uma área de 10ha de cerrado denso da RECOR-IBGE, Brasília-DF. Nesta foram estabelecidas parcelas experimentais de um projeto para o estudo do efeito do fogo na vegetação do cerrado com um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Este levantamento foi efetuado antes da aplicação dos tratamentos visando conhecer a composição florística e estrutura da vegetação original. Foram incluídos todos os indivíduos lenhosos e aqueles não-lenhosos pertencentes à família Velloziaceae, com diâmetro mínimo de 5cm, presentes em cinco parcelas de 1000m². Foram medidas as alturas e os diâmetros a 30cm do solo de cada indivíduo. Ao todo foram amostrados 982 indivíduos, pertencentes a 63 espécies e a 34 famílias. Cerca de 47% das famílias foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Apenas 16 espécies foram comuns a todas as cinco parcelas. A diversidade da área foi alta (H'= 3,53 e a similaridade entre as parcelas segundo índice de Sørensen foi também alta. As espécies Sclerolobium paniculatum, Eremanthus glomerulatus, Schefflera macrocarpum, Ouratea hexasperma, Vochysia thyrsoidea, Guapira noxia, Caryocar brasiliense, Vellozia squamata, Qualea grandiflora e Emmotum nitens apresentaram os maiores valores de importância. As estimativas de densidade e de área basal por hectare foram de 1964 indivíduos e 13,28m², respectivamente. A diversidade foi equivalente a de outras áreas de cerrado sensu stricto na região, mas a densidade e a área basal foram mais elevadas.This survey was conducted within a randomized block experiment set up in the RECOR - DF aiming to study the effect of fire in the cerrado. The sampling was conducted prior to the application of any treatments to assess the original status of the cerrado denso (dense savanna woodland at the site. All woody individuals plus non-woody Velloziaceae over 5cm diameter were included in the sample which consisted of five 1000m² (20 x 50m plots. Height and diameter at 30

  9. Runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Tarso S.; Nearing, Mark; Wendland, Edson

    2015-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a large and important economic and environmental region that is experiencing major loss of its natural landscapes due to pressures of food and energy production, which has caused large increases in soil erosion. However the magnitude of the soil erosion increases in this region is not well understood, in part because scientific studies of surface runoff and soil erosion are scarce or nonexistent in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation. In this study we measured natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" and bare soil to compute the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover and management factor (C-factor) to help evaluate the likely effects of land use change on soil erosion rates. Replicated data on precipitation, runoff, and soil loss on plots (5 x 20 m) under bare soil and cerrado were collected for 55 erosive storms occurring in 2012 and 2013. The measured annual precipitation was 1247.4 mm and 1113.0 mm for 2012 and 2013, resulting in a rainfall erosivity index of 4337.1 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 and 3546.2 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, for each year respectively. The erosive rainfall represented 80concentrated in the wet season, which generally runs from October through March. In the plots on bare soil, the runoff coefficient for individual rainfall events (total runoff divided by total rainfall) ranged from 0.003 to 0.860 with an average value and standard deviation of 0.212 ± 0.187. Moreover, the runoff coefficient found for the bare soil plots (~20infiltration capacity. In forest areas the leaf litter and the more porous soil tend to promote the increase of infiltration and water storage, rather than rapid overland flow. Indeed, runoff coefficients ranged from 0.001 to 0.030 with an average of less than 1under undisturbed cerrado. The soil losses measured under bare soil and cerrado were 15.68 t ha-1yr-1 and 0.24 t ha-1 yr-1 in 2012, and 14.82 t ha-1 yr-1, 0.11 t ha-1

  10. Dinâmica de distribuição de fontes de capitais científicos entre docentes / pesquisadores de um programa de pós- graduação Stricto- Sensu de uma universidade pública Dynamics of distribution of sources of scientific capital among teachers / researchers of a Master's and Doctorate's degree program of a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Teixeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Situando- se no contexto das universidades e, mais especificamente, da pós- graduação, o presente estudo visa analisar, de forma exploratória, a dinâmica de distribuição de capitais científicos entre docentes de um programa de pós- graduação Stricto Sensu de uma universidade pública. De forma específica, como os docentes distribuem suas atividades entre aquelas que lhes permitem acumular capital científico puro (como as publicações e contribuições acadêmicas para o campo do conhecimento e capital científico institucional (como a ocupação de cargos que lhes conferem o poder de decisão dentro do campo da ciência. Foi considerada a abordagem de Bourdieu (2003; 2004a; 2004b relativamente ao campo científico, por esta permitir a apreensão dessa dinâmica de distribuição de capitais, que são tipos específicos de poder. A abordagem foi quantitativa e qualitativa, utilizando pesquisa documental nos currículos Lattes de vinte e três docentes participantes do referido programa, que se situa em uma cidade de Minas Gerais (Brasil, sendo da área de Ciências Sociais Aplicadas. Como principais resultados, a dinâmica demonstra (1 que os docentes ocupam, em sua maioria, posições medianas dentro da distribuição de capitais; (2 há a dificuldade de acumulação expressiva de ambos os tipos de capitais por parte de um pesquisador; (3 não houve uma polarização entre os docentes baseada em forte acumulação de um dos capitais, e fraca acumulação de outro; e (4 há maior facilidade de conversão de capital institucional em capital científico puro.In the context of universities and more specifically, of graduate school, this study aims to analyze, in an exploratory way, the dynamics of scientific capital distribution among teachers of a Master's and Doctorate's degree program at a public university. Specifically, how teachers are distributed among those activities that allow them to accumulate pure scientific capital (such

  11. Strictu sensu post-graduation in anesthesiology: experience of ten years at Universidade Estadual Paulista

    OpenAIRE

    José Reinaldo Cerqueira Braz; Pedro Thadeu Galvão Vianna; Yara Marcondes Machado Castiglia; Luiz Antonio Vane; Flávio Massone; Lino Lemonica; Gladys Bastos de Castro

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O número de Programas de Pós-Graduação em Anestesiologia stricto sensu existente no país ainda é muito pequeno. Com a finalidade de incentivar a pós-graduação em Anestesiologia no Brasil, é apresentada a experiência acumulada em dez anos de atividades do programa da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). CONTEÚDO: O Programa de Pós-Graduação em Anestesiologia stricto sensu da UNESP foi credenciado pela CAPES, desde a sua criação em 1994, nos Cursos de Mestrado e Do...

  12. Variación fenotípica de plantas del Cerrado (Sabana brasileña frente a la heterogeneidad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Variación fenotípica de plantas del Cerrado brasileño frente a la heterogeneidad ambiental - Este artículo es una revisión bibliográfica que presenta una síntesis comparando datos de cinco estudios desarrollados previamente, describiendo la variación de los caracteres vegetativos y reproductivos de siete especies de plantas en una Reserva Ecológica en Uberlândia, Minas Gerais (Brasil; 18º55'S; 48º17'O. La variación fenotípica fue investigada en un ecotono, donde el afloramiento de nacientes formaba una vereda en un área ocupada por la vegetación del cerrado sensu stricto (sabana brasileña. Todas las poblaciones de plantas analizadas presentaron algún tipo de alteración morfológica en respuesta a la heterogeneidad ambiental, caracterizando subpoblaciones, aspecto que sugiere un aumento de la variabilidad tanto de caracteres vegetativos como reproductivos. Existe una forma singular en la cual cada planta responde a los patrones edáficos de humedad encontrados en el ecotono. Además, los ajustes fenotípicos actúan de manera amplia, asociando las diversas características del organismo en un complejo proceso integrante.

  13. Diet of two sympatric insectivores bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in the Cerrado of Central Brazil Dieta de duas espécies simpátricas de morcegos insetívoros no Cerrado do Brasil Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera and Homoptera (1/7. The diet of M. nigricans included all the main orders consumed by E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively and one other order: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera were collected only in bats captured in gallery forest. There is 80% of overlap in the diet of these two species. Predation on species of Scarabeidae, Hesperiidae, Sphingidae and Saturniidae families confirms bats potential as biological control agents of pests in agricultural ecosystems.Foi examinado o hábito alimentar das espécies de Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 por meio de análise de amostras fecais coletadas em animais capturados em área de cerrado sensu stricto e matas de galeria, na APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Um total de 20 amostras fecais foi analisado, sendo sete de E. furinalis e 13 de M. nigricans. A dieta de E. furinalis incluiu seis ordens de insetos: Coleoptera (5/7 (presença na amostra total, Lepidoptera e Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera e Homoptera (1/7. A dieta de M. nigricans incluiu todas as ordens consumidas por E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively e uma ordem a mais: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera e Orthoptera só foram amostrados para morcegos capturados em mata de galeria. Há 80% de sobreposição na dieta destas duas espécies. A predação sobre espécies das fam

  14. Florística e estrutura de comunidades arbóreas em cerrados de Rondônia,Brasil Flora and structure of tree communities in dry savannas in Rodônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izildinha Souza Miranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O cerrado constitui o segundo maior e mais diverso bioma brasileiro, configurando um heterogêneo mosaico fisionômico e florístico. Mais de seis mil espécies de fanerógamas são reportadas para o cerrado do Brasil Central. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de descrever e analisar a flora e a estrutura de quatro comunidades de árvores dos cerrados sensu latu do município de Vilhena, Rondônia, Brasil. As áreas estudadas foram: cerradão (Área 1, campo sujo (Área 2 e duas comunidades do cerrado sensu stricto (Áreas 3 e 4. Em cada área foi posicionado aleatoriamente um transecto de 10 x 1000 m (1 ha, dividido em 100 parcelas de 10 X 10 m. Todas as plantas vivas e mortas com circunferência do tronco e" 10 cm ao nível do solo foram registradas. O cerradão apresentou a maior riqueza específica, estrutura de tamanho e área basal. As percentagens de árvores mortas foram mais altas nas áreas de cerradão e campo sujo, com ocorrência de fogo recente. As famílias mais importantes foram Vochysiaceae, Ochnaceae, Clusiaceae, Malpighiaceae e Melastomataceae. As espécies mais importantes foram Qualea multiflora, Byrsonima crassifolia (área 1, Eugenia sp., Miconia sp.1 (área 2, Ouratea hexasperma, Caraipa savannarum (área 3, Ouratea hexasperma, Pouteria sp.3 (área 4. A maioria das espécies ocorre somente em uma área, sugerindo que a priorização de áreas para conservação deve envolver todo o mosaico de cerrados existentes. A mortalidade associada ao fogo é diferenciada entre as áreas, talvez induzida pelo grau de flamabilidade, recorrência do fogo e de fatores históricos do uso da terra.The Neotropical savannas, locally called "cerrado", are Brazil's second largest and diverse biome, constituting a heterogeneous physiognomic and floristic mosaic from which more than 6,000 species have been reported to date. This study describes and analyzes the floras and structures of four tree communities from dry savannas in the municipality of

  15. Whole genome sequence of an unusual Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W. G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.

    2011-03-01

    Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives warrant its candidacy for new-species status. We suggest that this isolate should be named 'Borrelia finlandensis.'

  16. Pteridologische aantekeningen, 3, De eikvaren (Polypodium vulgare L. sensu lato) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders-Groeneveld, J.; Segal, S.

    1967-01-01

    Pteridological Notes, 3 The genus Polypodium in the Netherlands Both Polypodium vulgare L. (sensu stricto) and P. interjectum Shivas occur in the Netherlands. Most of the differential characters reported in the literature overlap one another rather broadly, so that it is often necessary to use a ’sy

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil.

  18. Molecular characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated in the area of Belgrade, Serbia Caracterização molecular de cepas de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isoladas na região de Belgrado, Sérvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta S. Ristanovic

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of the molecular characterization and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated in Serbia. Isolates A1, A2 and M1, from Ixodes ricinus, belong to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, while isolate K1 from Apodemus flavicollis is a mixture of Borrelia afzelii and B. burgdorferi s.s.Trata-se do primeiro relato de identificação e caracterização molecular de cepas de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isoladas na região de Belgrado, Sérvia. As cepas A1, A2 e M1, isoladas de Ixodes ricinus, pertencem à Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, enquanto a cepa K1, isolada de Apodemus flavocollis é uma mistura de Borrelia afzelii e B. burgdorferi s.s.

  19. Geographical and genospecies distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA detected in humans in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kerry L; Leydet, Brian F; Threlkeld, Clifford

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the cause of illness in human patients primarily in the southern USA with suspected Lyme disease based on erythema migrans-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated Lyme borreliosis. The study also included some patients from other states throughout the USA. Several PCR assays specific for either members of the genus Borrelia or only for Lyme group Borrelia spp. (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato), and DNA sequence analysis, were used to identify Borrelia spp. DNA in blood and skin biopsy samples from human patients. B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was found in both blood and skin biopsy samples from patients residing in the southern states and elsewhere in the USA, but no evidence of DNA from other Borrelia spp. was detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis of partial flagellin (flaB) gene sequences, strains that clustered separately with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia americana or Borrelia andersonii were associated with Lyme disease-like signs and symptoms in patients from the southern states, as well as from some other areas of the country. Strains most similar to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. americana were found most commonly and appeared to be widely distributed among patients residing throughout the USA. The study findings suggest that human cases of Lyme disease in the southern USA may be more common than previously recognized and may also be caused by more than one species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. This study provides further evidence that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is not the only species associated with signs and/or symptoms consistent with Lyme borreliosis in the USA.

  20. Effects of fire on soil nitrogen dynamics and microbial biomass in savannas of Central Brazil Efeitos do fogo na dinâmica do nitrogênio no solo e biomassa microbiana em área de Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Bielefeld Nardoto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effects of fire on net N mineralization and soil microbial biomass in burned and unburned cerrado stricto sensu sites. The study was carried out from April 1998 to April 2000. The pH values were significantly higher in the burned site while soil moisture content was significantly higher in the unburned site (PO objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do fogo sobre as taxas de mineralização líquida de N e biomassa microbiana do solo em áreas de cerrado stricto sensu. O estudo foi realizado entre abril de 1998 e abril de 2000. O pH foi maior na área queimada enquanto o teor de umidade do solo foi maior na área sem queima (P<0,05. A razão C/N do solo foi de 22/1. A concentração de N nítrico disponível ficou entre 1,5 e 2,8 mg kg-1 de matéria seca enquanto a de N amoniacal variou entre 3 e 34 mg kg-1 de matéria seca na área queimada e entre 3 e 22 mg kg-1 de matéria seca na área sem queima. A concentração de N amoniacal aumentou significativamente após o fogo (P<0,05. Pequenos acúmulos de N nítrico no solo ocorreram somente durante curto período na estação chuvosa. A biomassa microbiana teve seu pico máximo em novembro de 1998, chegando a 850 mg kg-1 de C no solo da área queimada. Os dados indicam que o pico da atividade microbiana ocorreu no início das chuvas, com um período inicial de imobilização seguido de mineralização líquida. Ambas as áreas apresentaram um mesmo padrão de mineralização/imobilização, mas com menor produção anual de N mineral na área queimada (14,7 kg ha-1 por ano na área sem queima e 3,8 kg ha-1 por ano na área queimada, um ano após a queima.

  1. Diversity of shrub tree layer, leaf litter decomposition and N release in a Brazilian Cerrado under N, P and N plus P additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan Baiocchi Jacobson, Tamiel, E-mail: tamiel@unb.br [Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF 70919-970 (Brazil); Cunha Bustamante, Mercedes Maria da, E-mail: mercedes@unb.br [Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF 70919-970 (Brazil); Rodrigues Kozovits, Alessandra, E-mail: kozovits@icep.ufop.br [Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF 70919-970 (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This study investigated changes in diversity of shrub-tree layer, leaf decomposition rates, nutrient release and soil NO fluxes of a Brazilian savanna (cerrado sensu stricto) under N, P and N plus P additions. Simultaneous addition of N and P affected density, dominance, richness and diversity patterns more significantly than addition of N or P separately. Leaf litter decomposition rates increased in P and NP plots but did not differ in N plots in comparison to control plots. N addition increased N mass loss, while the combined addition of N and P resulted in an immobilization of N in leaf litter. Soil NO emissions were also higher when N was applied without P. The results indicate that if the availability of P is not increased proportionally to the availability of N, the losses of N are intensified. - Highlights: > Simultaneous addition of N and P affected richness and diversity of the shrub-tree layer of a Brazilian savanna more significantly than addition of N or P separately. > Leaf litter decomposition rates increased in P and NP plots but did not differ in N plots in comparison to control plots. N addition increased N mass loss, while the combined addition of N and P resulted in an immobilization of N in leaf litter. Soil NO emissions were also higher when N was applied without P. > The results indicated that if increases in N deposition in Cerrado ecosystems are not accompanied by P additions, higher N losses through leaching and gas emissions can occur with other ecosystem impacts. - Shrub-tree diversity and functioning of Brazilian savanna are affected by increasing nutrient availability.

  2. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  3. Fitossociologia e similaridade florística entre trechos de Cerrado sentido restrito em interflúvio e em vale no Jardim Botânico de Brasília, DF Phytossociology and floristic similarity between plateau and valley `Cerrado` woody vegetation in the Brasília Botanic Gardens, Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Souza da Fonseca

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a composição florística, densidade e área basal do componente lenhoso do cerrado sentido restrito em duas situações num gradiente topográfico, designadas interflúvio (I e vale (V, no Jardim Botânico de Brasília, DF. Foram alocadas em cada área 10 parcelas permanentes de 20x50m para amostragem de todos os indivíduos com diâmetro basal DB(30cm> 5cm. A classificação por UPGMA (Índices de Sørensen e Morisita foi usada para a avaliação da similaridade entre parcelas. A análise da fitossociologia mostrou que as espécies mais importantes no interflúvio foram: Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.Hil Baill., Miconia ferruginata DC. e Dalbergia miscolobium Benth., enquanto que no vale foram: Eriotheca pubescens (Mart. & Zucc. Schott & Endl., Ouratea hexasperma (A. St.-Hil. Baill. e Schefflera macrocarpa (Seem D.C. Frodin. Os índices de similaridade variaram entre 0,26 a 0,81 (Sørensen e 0,06 a 0,92 (Morisita. A classificação por UPGMA indicou dois grupos principais, que coincidiram com as posições no relevo: interflúvio e vale. Os resultados salientaram a topografia como forte determinante na distribuição de algumas das populações e comunidades lenhosas, por meio de sua influência na variação da profundidade do lençol freático, que afetou a composição florística, a densidade (I/V=1.219/956 ind.ha-1 e a área basal (I/V=8,56/5,64m².ha-1 nos Cerrados sentido restrito de interflúvio (I e vale (V estudados.This study aims to check differences in the floristic composition and structure of the woody vegetation of the cerrado (sensu stricto in two distinct topographic positions, Interfluve (I and Valley Slope (V area in the Brasília Botanic Gardens, Federal District, Brazil. In each area ten 20x50m permanent plots were located to survey individuals, basal diameter BD(30cm > 5cm. UPGMA classification (Sørensen and Morisita similarity indices was used to assess similarity among plots

  4. Cerrado remisión de V. en saltarregla cerrado.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Definición del término Cerrado remisión de V. en saltarregla cerrado. en el diccionario Dicter. [EN] Definition of the word Cerrado remisión de V. en saltarregla cerrado. in the dictionary Dicter.

  5. Geoecological drivers of cerrado heterogeneity and 13C natural abundance in oxisols after land-use change Fatores geoecológicos das diferentes formações de cerrados - uma hipótese baseada em abundância natural de 13C e fotografia aérea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Neufeldt

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The 13C natural abundance technique was applied to study C dynamics after land-use change from native savanna to Brachiaria, Pinus, and Eucalyptus in differently textured Cerrado Oxisols. But due to differences in the d13C signatures of subsoils under native savanna and under introduced species, C substitution could only be calculated based on results of cultivated soils nearby. It was estimated that after 20 years, Pinus C had replaced only 5 % of the native C in the 0-1.2 m layer, in which substitution was restricted to the top 0.4 m. Conversely, after 12 years, Brachiaria had replaced 21 % of Cerrado C to a depth of 1.2 m, where substitution decreased only slightly throughout the entire profile. The high d13C values in the subsoils of the cultivated sites led to the hypothesis that the natural vegetation there had been grassland rather than Cerrado sensu stricto, in spite of the comparable soil and site characteristics and the proximity of the studied sites. The hypothesis was tested using aerial photographs of 1964, which showed that the cultivated sites were located on a desiccated runoff head. The vegetation shift to a grass-dominated savanna formation might therefore have occurred in response to waterlogging and reduced soil aeration. A simple model was developed thereof, which ascribes the different Cerrado formations mainly to the plant-available water content and soil aeration. Soil fertility is considered of minor significance only, since at the studied native savanna sites tree density was independent of soil texture or nutrient status.A abundância natural de 13C foi utilizada para estudar a dinâmica de carbono em latossolos de textura média e argilosa após plantação de pastagens (Brachiaria decumbens e reflorestamentos (Pinus caribaea e Eucalyptus citriodora. Considerando as diferenças de d13C nos subsolos das savanas nativas e das espécies introduzidas, pôde-se calcular a substituição de carbono somente para os solos

  6. Diversidad genética en las especies del complejo Saccharomyces sensu stricto de fermentaciones tradicionales.

    OpenAIRE

    Arias García, José Armando

    2008-01-01

    RESUMEN El género Saccharomyces incluye tanto especies naturales como especies de levaduras que se utilizan en fermentaciones industriales y tradicionales. Algunas bebidas fermentadas, como son el Pulque y la Chicha, se obtienen mediante un proceso tradicional desarrollado durante el Neolítico americano en las civilizaciones precolombinas mesoamericanas y andinas. Por ello, las levaduras que participan en estos procesos de fermentación han estado aisladas de las poblaciones vínicas del res...

  7. AFLP markers support separation of Solanum nodiflorum from Solanum americanum sensu stricto (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manoko, M.L.K.; Berg, R.G. van den; Feron, R.M.C.; Weerden, G.M. van der; Mariani, C.

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed at examining the relationships between the African material of Solanum americanum (also designated as S. nodiflorum), accessions of this taxon from other geographical areas, and American S. americanum using AFLP markers. 96 individuals representing 39 accessions of S. americanum

  8. The spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sogoba

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the biology and ecology and the high level of genetic polymorphism of malaria vectors in Africa highlight the value of mapping their spatial distribution to enhance successful implementation of integrated vector management. The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes in Mali, to assess their association with climate and environmental covariates, and to produce maps of their spatial distribution. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models were fitted to identify environmental determinants of the relative frequencies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis species and to produce smooth maps of their geographical distribution. The frequency of An. arabiensis was positively associated with the normalized difference vegetation index, the soil water storage index, the maximum temperature and the distance to water bodies. It was negatively associated with the minimum temperature and rainfall. The predicted map suggests that, in West Africa, An. arabiensis is concentrated in the drier savannah areas, while An. gambiae s.s. prefers the southern savannah and land along the rivers, particularly the inner delta of Niger. Because the insecticide knockdown resistance (kdr gene is reported only in An. gambiae s.s. in Mali, the maps provide valuable information for vector control. They may also be useful for planning future implementation of malaria control by genetically manipulated mosquitoes.

  9. New hybrids between Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeast species found among wine and cider production strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masneuf, I; Hansen, J.; Groth, C;

    1998-01-01

    Two yeast isolates, a wine-making yeast first identified as a Mel(+) strain (ex. S. uvarum) and a cider-making yeast, were characterized for their nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, Electrophoretic karyotyping analyses, restriction fragment length polymorphism maps of PCR-amplified MET2 gene...... as different sequences of the OLI1 gene. The sequence of the OLI1 gene from the wine hybrid strain appeared to be the same as that of the S. cerevisiae gene, whereas the OLI1 gene of the cider hybrid strain its equally divergent from both putative parents, S. bayanus and S, cerevisiae, Some fermentative...

  10. Genome Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma harzianum sensu stricto TR274

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindorff, Andrei S.; Noronha, Elilane F.; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert W.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2015-03-17

    Biological control is a complex process which requires many mechanisms and a high diversity of biochemical pathways. The species of Trichoderma harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against many plant pathogens. To gain new insights into the biocontrol mechanism used by T. harzianum, we sequenced the isolate TR274 genome using Illumina. The assembly was performed using AllPaths-LG with a maximum coverage of 100x. The assembly resulted in 2282 contigs with a N50 of 37033bp. The genome size generated was 40.8 Mb and the GC content was 47.7%, similar to other Trichoderma genomes. Using the JGI Annotation Pipeline we predicted 13,932 genes with a high transcriptome support. CEGMA tests suggested 100% genome completeness and 97.9% of RNA-SEQ reads were mapped to the genome. The phylogenetic comparison using orthologous proteins with all Trichoderma genomes sequenced at JGI, corroborates the Trichoderma (T. asperellum and T. atroviride), Longibrachiatum (T. reesei and T. longibrachiatum) and Pachibasium (T. harzianum and T. virens) section division described previously. The comparison between two Trichoderma harzianum species suggests a high genome similarity but some strain-specific expansions. Analyses of the secondary metabolites, CAZymes, transporters, proteases, transcription factors were performed. The Pachybasium section expanded virtually all categories analyzed compared with the other sections, specially Longibrachiatum section, that shows a clear contraction. These results suggests that these proteins families have an important role in their respective phenotypes. Future analysis will improve the understanding of this complex genus and give some insights about its lifestyle and the interactions with the environment.

  11. Cases of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto Isolated from Polish Patients: Imported or Indigenous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dybicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cases of nine Polish patients with diagnosed cystic echinococcosis (CE were examined. A total of nine isolates obtained postoperatively were investigated using PCR and sequencing. The mitochondrial region of nad1 gene was amplified. This PCR and sequencing analysis revealed the presence of Echinococcus canadensis G7 in seven patients and E. granulosus G1 in two patients. These data demonstrate that E. canadensis is the predominant causative agent of human cystic echinococcosis in Poland. E. granulosus G1 detection in Polish patients suggests that the parasite was imported; however it does not exclude the possibility that these cases could have been of Polish origin.

  12. Cases of Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto Isolated from Polish Patients: Imported or Indigenous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybicz, Monika; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Dąbrowska, Julia; Chomicz, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    The cases of nine Polish patients with diagnosed cystic echinococcosis (CE) were examined. A total of nine isolates obtained postoperatively were investigated using PCR and sequencing. The mitochondrial region of nad1 gene was amplified. This PCR and sequencing analysis revealed the presence of Echinococcus canadensis G7 in seven patients and E. granulosus G1 in two patients. These data demonstrate that E. canadensis is the predominant causative agent of human cystic echinococcosis in Poland. E. granulosus G1 detection in Polish patients suggests that the parasite was imported; however it does not exclude the possibility that these cases could have been of Polish origin.

  13. Proteins differentially expressed in conidia and mycelia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yubin; Guo, Qingfeng; Tu, Jie; Li, Xiaoxia; Meng, Lixue; Cao, Liping; Dong, Dong; Qiu, Junzhi; Guan, Xiong

    2013-07-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is a well-characterized entomopathogenic fungus that attacks a variety of insects. Its conidia are involved in its propagation and also in its infection of host insects. To investigate the protein expression profiles and to identify the proteins related to development and pathogenesis, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of the conidia and mycelia of an M. anisopliae strain (Ma1291). The analysis used 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We detected 898 ± 37 protein spots in conidia and 1072 ± 24 in mycelia of strain Ma1291. A comparison of the 2 protein-expression profiles indicated that only 28% of protein spots were common to both developmental stages. Finally, we identified 30 proteins (19 from conidia and 11 from mycelia). The identified proteins exclusive to conidia were those involved in protective processes, appressorium formation, and degradation of the host cuticle (protease PR1H). The identified proteins exclusive to mycelia included major proteins participating in biosynthetic and energy metabolism, such as UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase and heat shock protein 70. This research provides the first proteomic analysis of different developmental stages of M. anisopliae, and the results should facilitate clarification of the molecular basis of these epigenetic variations.

  14. Nucleotide polymorphisms and protein structure changes in the Fg16 gene of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto

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    Mostafa Abedi-Tizaki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important causes of wheat scab in different parts of the world. This fungus is able to produce widespread trichothecene mycotoxins such as nivalenol (NIV and deoxynivalenol (DON which are harmful for both human and animals. The Fg16 target is located in chromosome 1 of the F. graminearum genome coding for a hypothetical protein whose function is not yet known. The Fg16 gene is involved in lipid biosynthesis and leads to sexual development during colonization in wheat stalks. This gene is used to detect F. graminearum and determine the lineage of F. graminearum complex species. In the present study, polymerase chain reaction–single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR–SSCP and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation in 172 F. graminearum s.s. isolates. The PCR reaction forced the amplification of 410-bp fragments of Fg16. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (T82C and A352T and one amino acid exchange (C65S with three patterns (TA/TA, CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes were found in the Fg16 gene fragment. Two haplotypes, 1A and 1B, were identified within F. graminearum s.s. populations in northern and western regions of Iran. Two different secondary structures of protein were predicted for CT/CT and TA/CT genotypes of Fg16 gene. The average diversity levels detected were relatively high (He: 0.3238; Heu: 0.334; Ho: 0.2894; mean PIC: 0.514; mean Shannon's information index: 0.4132; mean number of alleles per locus: 1.473. On the basis of the obtained results, it was revealed that the Fg16 gene had a high degree of polymorphism that can be considered for future control programming strategies and thus the associations between the SSCP patterns with different traits of F. graminearum such as wheat colonization, perithecium formation on stalk tissues and lineage discrimination should be investigated.

  15. Net radiation estimated by remote sensing in Cerrado areas in the Upper Paraguay River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausto, Marcos Alves; Machado, Nadja Gomes; de Souza Nogueira, José; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2014-01-01

    The Cerrado is a heterogeneous landscape which is shrinking due to deforestation, giving rise to managed ecosystems. The land cover changes alter net radiation (Rn), which determines the quantity of available energy to the energy balance partition. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the spatial pattern of the vegetation indices, albedo, and land surface temperature (LST) and (2) to evaluate the Rn estimated by Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) images over Cerrado areas in the Upper Paraguay River Basin. We estimated the vegetation indices, albedo, LST, and Rn of five selected vegetation types. The values estimated by Landsat 5 TM images had seasonal variations with higher values of the vegetation indices and lower values of the albedo and the LST during the wet season. The riparian and Cerrado strictu sensu had higher values of vegetation indices and lower albedo and LST than grasslands. The Rn estimated by Landsat 5 TM images was highly correlated with the measured Rn. The Rn had a seasonal pattern, following the solar radiation, with higher values during the wet season and varied spatially with higher values in the riparian forest and Cerrado strictu sensu and lower in the grasslands. This study showed the applicability of the Landsat 5 TM images to estimate Rn, which can help to understand the heterogeneity in the study area.

  16. Differential sensitivity of the species of Candida parapsilosis sensu lato complex against statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenzenstein, Judit; Gácser, Attila; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Farkas, Zoltán; Nagy, Katalin; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Márki-Zay, János; Pfeiffer, Ilona

    2013-10-01

    Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are human fungal pathogens with clinical importance. The recently reclassified three closely related species have significant variation in virulence, clinical prevalence and susceptibility characteristics to different antifungal compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of atorvastatin and fluvastatin against C. metapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. parapsilosis. Susceptibility tests showed that C. parapsilosis was the most sensitive while C. orthopsilosis was the least susceptible species to both drugs. On the basis of the differential sensitivity, we developed a simple, reliable and highly cost-effective plate assay to distinguish these closely related species. Applying this method, 54 isolates belonging to the C. parapsilosis sensu lato complex deposited in Szeged Microbial Collection could be sorted into the three species with 100 % probability.

  17. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato from farm animals in Egypt.

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    Said Amer

    Full Text Available Little is known on the diversity and public health significance of Echinococcus species in livestock in Egypt. In this study, 37 individual hydatid cysts were collected from dromedary camels (n=28, sheep (n=7 and buffalos (n=2. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces/germinal layer of individual cysts and amplified by PCR targeting nuclear (actin II and mitochondrial (COX1 and NAD1 genes. Direct sequencing of amplicons indicated the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis (G6 genotype in 26 of 28 camel cysts, 3 of 7 sheep cysts and the 2 buffalo derived cysts. In contrast, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype was detected in one cyst from a camel and 4 of 7 cysts from sheep, whereas Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype was detected in one cyst from a camel. This is the first identification of E. ortleppi in Egypt.

  18. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato from farm animals in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said; Helal, Ibrahim B; Kamau, Evelyne; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on the diversity and public health significance of Echinococcus species in livestock in Egypt. In this study, 37 individual hydatid cysts were collected from dromedary camels (n=28), sheep (n=7) and buffalos (n=2). DNA was extracted from protoscoleces/germinal layer of individual cysts and amplified by PCR targeting nuclear (actin II) and mitochondrial (COX1 and NAD1) genes. Direct sequencing of amplicons indicated the presence of Echinococcus canadenesis (G6 genotype) in 26 of 28 camel cysts, 3 of 7 sheep cysts and the 2 buffalo derived cysts. In contrast, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel and 4 of 7 cysts from sheep, whereas Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype) was detected in one cyst from a camel. This is the first identification of E. ortleppi in Egypt.

  19. Homogeneous Inflammatory Gene Profiles Induced in Human Dermal Fibroblasts in Response to the Three Main Species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb, Mariam; Carpentier, Wassila; Cagnard, Nicolas; Nadaud, Sophie; Grillon, Antoine; Barthel, Cathy; De Martino, Sylvie Josiane; Jaulhac, Benoît; Boulanger, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    In Lyme borreliosis, the skin is the key site for bacterial inoculation by the infected tick and for cutaneous manifestations. We previously showed that different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto isolated from tick and from different clinical stages of the Lyme borreliosis (erythema migrans, and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans) elicited a very similar transcriptional response in normal human dermal fibroblasts. In this study, using whole transcriptome microarray chips, we aimed to compare the transcriptional response of normal human dermal fibroblasts stimulated by 3 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains belonging to 3 main pathogenic species (B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto) in order to determine whether “species-related” inflammatory pathways could be identified. The three Borrelia strains tested exhibited similar transcriptional profiles, and no species-specific fingerprint of transcriptional changes in fibroblasts was observed. Conversely, a common core of chemokines/cytokines (CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL6, CXCL10, IL-6, IL-8) and interferon-related genes was stimulated by all the 3 strains. Dermal fibroblasts appear to play a key role in the cutaneous infection with Borrelia, inducing a homogeneous inflammatory response, whichever Borrelia species was involved. PMID:27706261

  20. Caracterização palinológica de espécies de Amaryllidaceae sensu stricto ocorrentes no nordeste brasileiro Pollen characterization of Amaryllidaceae sensu stricto species from northeastern Brazil

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    Anderson Alves-Araújo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve com objetivo realizar as descrições polínicas de espécies nordestinas de Amaryllidaceae s.s. e Alliaceae e relacioná-las visando a sua delimitação taxonômica. Foram analisadas as espécies: Griffinia espiritensis Ravenna var. bahiana Preuss & Meerow, Griffinia gardneriana (Herb. Ravenna, Habranthus itaobinus Ravenna, Habranthus robustus Herb, ex Sweet, Habranthus sylvaticus Herb., Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam. Kuntze, Hippeastrum stylosum Herb., Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury Zephyranthes cândida (Lindl. Herb, e Nothoscordum pernambucanum Ravenna. As descrições foram feitas a partir da análise de grãos de pólen acetolisados (ou não observados em microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura, os quais foram obtidos de espécimes recém-coletados. Todas as espécies apresentaram grãos de pólen em mônades, heteropolar-bilaterais, monossulcados e âmbito elíptico/elipsoidal. Foram detectadas características diagnosticas com relação ao padrão de ornamentação, destacando Hippeastrum stylosum Herb, e Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury por possuírem grãos de pólen com calotas equatoriais. As características polínicas analisadas foram suficientemente relevantes para a delimitação específica dentre os táxons analisados.The pollen of Amaryllidaceae s.s. and Alliaceae species from northeastern Brazil is described and related to taxonomic delimitation. The species analyzed were: Griffinia espiritensis Ravenna var. bahiana Preuss & Meerow, Griffinia gardneriana (Herb. Ravenna, Habranthus itaobinus Ravenna, Habranthus robustus Herb, ex Sweet, Habranthus sylvaticus Herb., Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam. Kuntze, Hippeastrum stylosum Herb., Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury, Zephyranthes cândida (Lindl. Herb, and Nothoscordum pernambucanum Ravenna. Descriptions of acetolyzed and non-treated pollen grains from fresh specimens were based on analysis in light and scanning electron microscopy. All species presented pollen grains in heteropolar and bilateral, monossulcate and elliptic/ellipsoidal monads. Exine sculpture patterns showed many divergent features; Hippeastrum stylosum Herb, and Hymenocallis littoralis Salisbury had pollen grains with equatorial calotas where exine ornamentation is different. The pollen features analyzed were relevant to species delimitation among the taxons.

  1. Taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romig, T; Ebi, D; Wassermann, M

    2015-10-30

    Echinococcus granulosus, formerly regarded as a single species with a high genotypic and phenotypic diversity, is now recognised as an assemblage of cryptic species, which differ considerably in morphology, development, host specificity (including infectivity/pathogenicity for humans) and other aspects. This diversity is reflected in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and has led to the construction of phylogenetic trees and hypotheses on the origin and geographic dispersal of various taxa. Based on phenotypic characters and gene sequences, E. granulosus (sensu lato) has by now been subdivided into E. granulosus sensu stricto (including the formerly identified genotypic variants G1-3), Echinococcus felidis (the former 'lion strain'), Echinococcus equinus (the 'horse strain', genotype G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (the 'cattle strain', genotype G5) and Echinococcus canadensis. The latter species, as recognised here, shows the highest diversity and is composed of the 'camel strain', genotype G6, the 'pig strain', genotype G7, and two 'cervid strains', genotypes G8 and G10. There is debate whether the closely related G6 and G7 should be placed in a separate species, but more morphological and biological data are needed to support or reject this view. In this classification, the application of rules for zoological nomenclature led to the resurrection of old species names, which had before been synonymised with E. granulosus. This nomenclatural subdivision of the agents of cystic echinococcosis (CE) may appear inconvenient for practical applications, especially because molecular tools are needed for identification of the cyst stage, and because retrospective data on 'E. granulosus' are now difficult to interpret without examination of voucher specimens. However, the increased awareness for the diversity of CE agents - now emphasised by species names rather than genotype numbers - has led to a large number of recent studies on this issue and a rapid increase of knowledge

  2. MULTIPLE ENZYME RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS FOR HIGH RESOLUTION DISTINCTION OF PSEUDOMONAS (SENSU STRICTO) 16S RRNA GENES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas specific 16S rDNA PCR amplification and multiple enzyme restriction fragment length polymorphism (MERFLP) analysis using a single digestion mixture of Alu I, Hinf I, Rsa I, and Tru 9I distinguished 150 published sequences and reference strains of authentic Pseudomonas...

  3. Outer Surface Protein C Peptide Derived from Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto as a Target for Serodiagnosis of Early Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, Paul M.; Seedarnee, Rudra; Sambir, Mariya; Callister, Steven M.; Imparato, Josephine A.

    2013-01-01

    Current serodiagnostic assays for Lyme disease are inadequate at detecting early infection due to poor sensitivity and nonspecificity that arise from the use of whole bacteria or bacterial proteins as assay targets; both targets contain epitopes that are cross-reactive with epitopes found in antigens of other bacterial species. Tests utilizing peptides that contain individual epitopes highly specific for Borrelia burgdorferi as diagnostic targets are an attractive alternative to current assays. Using an overlapping peptide library, we mapped linear epitopes in OspC, a critical virulence factor of B. burgdorferi required for mammalian infection, and confirmed the results by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We identified a highly conserved 20-amino-acid peptide epitope, OspC1. Via ELISA, OspC1 detected specific IgM and/or IgG in 60 of 98 serum samples (62.1%) obtained from patients with erythema migrans (early Lyme disease) at the time of their initial presentation. By comparison, the commercially available OspC peptide PepC10 detected antibody in only 48 of 98 serum samples (49.0%). In addition, OspC1 generated fewer false-positive results among negative healthy and diseased (rheumatoid arthritis and positive Rapid Plasma Reagin [RPR+] test result) control populations than did PepC10. Both highly specific and more sensitive than currently available OspC peptides, OspC1 could have value as a component of a multipeptide Lyme disease serological assay with significantly improved capabilities for the diagnosis of early infection. PMID:23365204

  4. Diversity of commensal Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolated from the common sow bug (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecicka, Izabela; Mahillon, Jacques

    2006-04-01

    Although Bacillus cereus sensu lato are important both from an ecological and an economical point of view, little is known about their population structure, ecology, and relationships with other organisms. In the present work, the genotypic similarity of arthropod-borne B. cereus s.l. isolates, and their symbiotic relationship with the host are assessed. Bacilli of this group were recovered from the digestive tracts of sow bugs (Porcellio scaber) collected in three closely located sites. Their genotypic diversity was investigated using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) following the whole-genome DNA digestions with NotI and AscI, and PCR amplification of virulence genes. The majority of the sow-bug Bacillus cereus sensu stricto isolates originating from the same but also from different sites displayed identical PFGE patterns, virulence gene content and enterotoxicity, indicating strong genetic and genomic relationships. The sow-bug Bacillus mycoides/Bacillus pseudomycoides strains displayed a higher diversity. The isopod-B. cereus s.l. relationship was also evaluated using antibiotic-resistant derivatives of B. cereus s.s., B. mycoides/B. pseudomycoides and Bacillus thuringiensis reintroduced into sow bugs. Both spores and vegetative cells of B. cereus s.l. were recovered from sow bugs over a 30-day period, strongly suggesting that these bacteria are natural residents of terrestrial isopods.

  5. Real-time PCR-based identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species in ticks collected from humans in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briciu, Violeta T; Meyer, Fabian; Sebah, Daniela; Tăţulescu, Doina F; Coroiu, Georgiana; Lupşe, Mihaela; Carstina, Dumitru; Mihalca, Andrei D; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Klier, Christiane; Huber, Ingrid; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-09-01

    The aims of our study were to determine (i) which tick species bite humans in Romania and (ii) the prevalence of Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi genospecies in these ticks. All ticks collected from patients who presented to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases Cluj Napoca in spring/summer 2010 were morphologically identified by an entomologist and tested for B. burgdorferi genospecies prevalence by a real-time PCR assay targeting the hbb gene and melting curve analysis. Out of 532 ticks, 518 were Ixodes ricinus, 10 Dermacentor marginatus, and 3 Haemaphysalis spp. ticks, and one unidentified tick due to destruction. Since evaluation of the hbb PCR revealed that it was not possible to differentiate between B. spielmanii/B. valaisiana and B. garinii/B. bavariensis, sequencing of an 800-bp fragment of the ospA gene was performed in these cases. Out of 389 investigated ticks, 43 were positive by hbb PCR for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. The positive samples were 42 Ixodes ricinus (11.1% B. burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence) and the one unidentified tick. Species identification revealed the presence of mainly B. afzelii, but also of B. garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana, and B. lusitaniae. In 4 samples, differentiation between B. spielmanii/B. valaisiana was impossible. Our study shows that the most relevant human pathogenic B. burgdorferi genospecies - predominantly B. afzelii - are present in ticks collected from Romanian patients.

  6. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes infecting humans--review of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Romig, Thomas; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variability in the species group Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is well recognised as affecting intermediate host susceptibility and other biological features of the parasites. Molecular methods have allowed discrimination of different genotypes (G1-10 and the 'lion strain'), some of which are now considered separate species. An accumulation of genotypic analyses undertaken on parasite isolates from human cases of cystic echinococcosis provides the basis upon which an assessment is made here of the relative contribution of the different genotypes to human disease. The allocation of samples to G-numbers becomes increasingly difficult, because much more variability than previously recognised exists in the genotypic clusters G1-3 (=E. granulosus sensu stricto) and G6-10 (Echinococcus canadensis). To accommodate the heterogeneous criteria used for genotyping in the literature, we restrict ourselves to differentiate between E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-3), Echinococcus equinus (G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-7, G8, G10). The genotype G1 is responsible for the great majority of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide (88.44%), has the most cosmopolitan distribution and is often associated with transmission via sheep as intermediate hosts. The closely related genotypes G6 and G7 cause a significant number of human infections (11.07%). The genotype G6 was found to be responsible for 7.34% of infections worldwide. This strain is known from Africa and Asia, where it is transmitted mainly by camels (and goats), and South America, where it appears to be mainly transmitted by goats. The G7 genotype has been responsible for 3.73% of human cases of cystic echinococcosis in eastern European countries, where the parasite is transmitted by pigs. Some of the samples (11) could not be identified with a single specific genotype belonging to E. canadensis (G6/10). Rare cases of human cystic echinococcosis have been identified as having been caused by

  7. Estabelecimento e desenvolvimento de Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. em duas fitofisionomias típicas dos cerrados do Brasil Central Establishment and development of Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. in two typical savanna physiognomies of Central Brazil

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    Vívian S. Braz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available As formações savânicas do Brasil Central caracterizam-se por uma camada rasteira contínua, em que predominam gramíneas, entrecortada por uma camada de arbustos e árvores de densidade variável. Dalbergia miscolobium Benth. é uma leguminosa arbórea típica dos cerrados do Planalto Central. Este estudo examinou os efeitos da seca, disponibilidade de luz, herbivoria e fogo no estabelecimento e crescimento dessa espécie no campo sujo (estrato herbáceo contínuo com árvores e arbustos esparsos e no cerrado sensu stricto, onde a vegetação arbustivoarbórea é mais densa. Mudas foram transplantadas nas duas fitofisionomias, sendo acompanhadas mensalmente as variações na altura, produção de folhas e percentagem da área foliar removida por herbivoria, ao longo de cinco anos (1993-1998. A mortalidade ocorreu principalmente durante a época chuvosa. A seca sazonal não foi um importante fator de mortalidade. Número maior de mudas sobreviveu no campo sujo. Estas mudas não foram mortas por uma queimada ao final da seca de 1994, enquanto várias morreram no cerrado. O crescimento da parte aérea foi lento, em torno de 2,2cm/ano no campo sujo e 3,1cm/ano no cerrado, ocorrido principalmente na estação chuvosa. A maioria das mudas apresentou lesões necróticas de cor preta nas folhas, causada pelo ataque do fungo Phoma sp. A queda das folhas ocorreu durante a estação seca e o número máximo de folhas foi alcançado do meio para o final da época chuvosa, sempre seguido por um pico na herbivoria. Dados de disponibilidade de luz sugerem que plantas com folhas horizontais a 5cm do solo, atingiriam em média apenas 32% da capacidade máxima de assimilação de CO2, devido ao sombreamento. Entretanto, aumento da altura da planta de 5 para 50cm, onde não há mais sombreamento do estrato herbáceo, dobraria os valores estimados de assimilação de CO2 Assim sendo, o desenvolvimento desta espécie seria limitado pela disponibilidade de água e

  8. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

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    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  9. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  10. Presence of host-seeking Ixodes ricinus and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the Northern Apennines, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragagli, Charlotte; Mannelli, Alessandro; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Bisanzio, Donal; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Grego, Elena; Martello, Elisa; Selmi, Marco; Tomassone, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Host-seeking ticks were collected in the Northern Apennines, Italy, by dragging at 35 sites, at altitudes ranging from 680 and 1670 m above sea level (asl), from April to November, in 2010 and 2011. Ixodes ricinus (4431 larvae, 597 nymphs and 12 adults) and Haemaphysalis punctata (11,209 larvae, 313 nymphs, and 25 adults) were the most abundant species, followed by Haemaphysalis sulcata (20 larvae, five nymphs, and 13 adults), Dermacentor marginatus (42 larvae and two adults) and Ixodes hexagonus (one nymph). Greatest numbers of ticks were collected at locations characterised by southern exposure and limestone substratum, at altitudes <1400 m asl; I. ricinus was most abundant in Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) wood, whereas H. punctata was mostly collected in hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) wood and on exposed rocks. Ixodes ricinus was also found up to 1670 m asl, in high stand beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood. The overall prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in 294 host-seeking I. ricinus nymphs was 8.5 %. Borrelia garinii was the most frequently identified genospecies (64.0 % of positive nymphs), followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. lusitaniae. Based upon the comparison with the results of previous studies at the same location, these research findings suggest the recent invasion of the study area by the tick vector and the agents of Lyme borreliosis.

  11. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

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    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  12. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato GENOTYPES IN DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK AND HUMANS IN GOLESTAN PROVINCE, IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Tanzifi, Asal; Rostami, Sima; Rostami, Masoomeh; Fasihi Harandi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a globally parasitic zoonosis caused by larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus. This study investigated E. granulosus genotypes isolated from livestock and humans in the Golestan province, northern Iran, southeast of the Caspian sea, using partial sequencing data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1) mitochondrial genes. Seventy E. granulosus isolates were collected from animals in slaughterhouses: 18 isolates from sheep, 40 from cattle, nine from camels, two from buffaloes and one from a goat, along with four human isolates (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues) from CE patients of provincial hospitals. All isolates were successfully analysed by PCR amplification and sequencing. The sequence analysis found four E. granulosus genotypes among the 74 CE isolates: G1 (78.3%), G2 (2.7%), G3 (15%) and G6 (4%). The G1-G3 complex genotype was found in all of the sheep, goat, cattle and buffalo isolates. Among the nine camel isolates, the frequency of G1-G3 and G6 genotypes were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. All four human CE isolates belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto. This study reports the first occurrence of the G2 genotype in cattle from Iran and confirms the previously reported G3 genotype in camels in the same country.

  13. Diferenças florísticas e estruturais entre fitofisionomias do cerrado em Assis, SP, Brasil

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    Eduardo da Silva Pinheiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A classificação das fitofisionomias tem-se constituído em desafio entre os pesquisadores da vegetação de cerrado, seja por não haver critérios florísticos ou quantitativos claros para sua separação, seja pelas alterações que sofrem ao longo do tempo. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar três tipos fitofisionômicos de cerrado na Estação Ecológica de Assis, bem como verificar se são florística e, ou, estruturalmente distintos, buscando-se as melhores variáveis para caracterizá-los. A área amostral compreendeu 30 parcelas permanentes de 20 x 50 m, sendo 10 parcelas para cada um dos tipos fisionômicos: cerrado típico, cerrado denso e cerradão, em que foram identificadas e medidas as árvores com diâmetro à altura do peito > 5 cm. As três fitofisionomias de cerradoestudadas mostraram-se estruturalmente distintas em classes de área basal, cobertura de copas e altura das maiores árvores. O melhor descritor para classificar as fitofisionomias, por ser facilmente mensurável e pouco variável com o critério de inclusão, é a área basal (m² ha-1. Floristicamente, as fitofisionomias savânicas (cerradotípico e cerrado denso não se diferenciam, quer seja analisando apenas a presença e ausência das espécies, quer seja analisando a importância relativa das espécies na comunidade (fitossociologia. Em síntese, há três fitofisionomias distintas, mas a flora se diferencia apenas entre o cerradão e as fitofisionomias savânicas. A análise das espécies exclusivas de cada fitofisionomia quanto à tolerância à sombra, com base na literatura, indicou que a baixa disponibilidade de luz sob as copas no cerradão pode ter sido o fator condicionante da diferenciação entre esta e as demais fitofisionomias do cerrado lato sensu.

  14. Short-term community dynamics in seasonal and hyperseasonal cerrados

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    MV. Cianciaruso

    Full Text Available In South America, the largest seasonal savanna region is the Brazilian cerrado. Our aim was to study temporal changes in some community descriptors, such as floristic composition, richness, species density, plant density, and cylindrical volume, in a seasonal cerrado, comparing it to a nearby hyperseasonal cerrado. In four different seasons, we placed randomly ten 1 m² quadrats in each vegetation form and sampled all the vascular plants. Seasonal changes in floristic composition, species density, and plant density were less pronounced in the seasonal than in the hyperseasonal cerrado. Floristic similarity between the vegetation forms was lower when the hyperseasonal cerrado was waterlogged. Richness and species density were higher in the seasonal cerrado, which reached its biomass peak at mid rainy season. The hyperseasonal cerrado, in turn, reached its biomass peak at early rainy season and, despite the waterlogging, maintained it until late rainy season. In the hyperseasonal cerrado, waterlogging acts as an environmental filter restricting the number of cerrado species able to withstand it. The seasonal cerrado community was more stable than the hyperseasonal one. Our results corroborated the idea that changes in the environmental filters will affect floristic composition and community structure in savannas.

  15. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

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    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  16. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

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    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  17. The Text of Aristotle's De Sensu and De Memoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    2008-01-01

    An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts.......An examination of alle the manuscripts of the period 10th-14th centuries, which contain the Aristotelian treatises De Sensu and De Memoria. The article establishes a stemma codicum that includes alle these manuscripts....

  18. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, F A O; Oliveira, E G

    2013-05-01

    Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna) area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences) of Miconia albicans (SW.) Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS), shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE) and woodlands (cerradão, CD). As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  19. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAO Silveira

    Full Text Available Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences of Miconia albicans (SW. Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS, shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE and woodlands (cerradão, CD. As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  20. Synthesis of Th17 cytokines in the culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

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    Sambor Grygorczuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective. [/b]Th17 lymphocytes and their cytokines, interleukin 17A (IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22, participate in the response to extracellular bacteria and in the autoimmunity and may be engaged in the pathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis. Concentrations were measured of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 in the supernatant of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC culture stimulated with [i]Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato[/i] ([i]B. burgdorferi[/i]. [b]Materials and method.[/b] The study group consisted of 13 patients with early disseminated and late Lyme borreliosis and a control group of 7 healthy persons. PBMC cultures were stimulated for 48 hours with [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]spirochetes of three pathogenic species: [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] sensu stricto, B. afzelii or B. garinii, in the multiplicity of infection 10:1. Concentrations of Th17 cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22, as well as Th2/immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 were measured with ELISA assays. [b]Results. [/b]Expression of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 increased under stimulation, simultaneously with the increased IL-10 expression. Concentration of IL-17F tended to be lower in early neuroborreliosis than in late Lyme borreliosis and than in controls. [i]B. afzelii[/i] elicited higher expression of IL-17A than the other two species. [b]Conclusions.[/b] IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 are synthesized simultaneously by PBMC stimulated with [i]B. burgdorferi[/i]. There is no antagonism between Th17 response and IL-10 expression. The role of Th17 cytokines seems to differ depending on the clinical stage of Lyme borreliosis and on the [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] species.

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erica A; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Fedorova, Natalia; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Vaughn, Charles; Lane, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla), a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species) that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.

  2. Large scale spatial risk and comparative prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes pacificus.

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    Kerry Padgett

    Full Text Available Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss, the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n=70 and nymphal (n=36 Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%. These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America.

  3. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica A Newman

    Full Text Available Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s. in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla, a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.

  4. The heterogeneity, distribution and environmental associations of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, in Scotland

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    Marianne eJames

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious humandisease caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex of bacteria with reported cases increasing in many areas of Europe and North America. To understand the drivers of disease risk and the distribution of symptoms which may improve mitigation and diagnostics, here we characterise the genetics, distribution and environmental associations of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies across Scotland. In Scotland reported Lyme borreliosis cases have increased almost 10-fold since 2000 but the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is so far unstudied. Using a large survey of over 2200 Ixodes ricinus tick samples collected from birds, mammals and vegetation across 25 sites we identified four genospecies: B. afzelii (48%, B. garinii (36% B. valaisiana (8% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (7%, and one mixed genospecies infection. Surprisingly, 90% of the sequence types were novel and, importantly, up to 14% of samples were mixed intra-genospecies co-infections, suggesting tick co-feeding, feeding on multiple hosts or multiple infections in hosts. B. garinii (hosted by birds was considerably more genetically diverse than B. afzelii (hosted by small mammals, as predicted since there are more species of birds than small mammals and birds can import strains from mainland Europe. Higher proportions of samples contained B. garinii and B. valaisiana in the west, while B. afzelii and B. garinii were significantly more associated with mixed/deciduous than with coniferous woodlands. This may relate to the abundance of transmission hosts in different regions and habitats. These data on the genetic heterogeneity within and between Borrelia genospecies are a first step to understanding pathogen spread and could help explain the distribution of patient symptoms which may aid local diagnosis. Understanding the environmental associations of the pathogens is critical for rational policy making for disease risk mitigation and

  5. Environmental Contamination by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato Eggs in Relation to Slaughterhouses in Urban and Rural Areas in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-02-01

    Hydatidosis has become a real concern for health care institutions and animal rearers in Tunisia. The Tunisian endemicity is aggravated by the growing number of dogs and the difficulty of getting rid of contaminated viscera because of the lack of equipment in most slaughterhouses. Therefore, microscopic and molecular tools were applied to evaluate the role of slaughterhouses in canine infection and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) egg dissemination. Exposure risk to E. granulosus s. l. eggs in urban and rural areas was explored in order to implant preventive and adapted control strategies. Microscopic examinations detected taeniid eggs in 152 amongst 553 fecal samples. The copro-PCR demonstrated that 138 of 152 taeniid samples analyzed were positive for E. granulosus s. l. DNA. PCR-RFLP demonstrated that all isolated samples belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.). An important environmental contamination index (25.0%) by E. granulosus s. l. eggs was demonstrated. The average contamination index from the regions around slaughterhouses (23.3%; 95% CI: 17.7-28.9%) was in the same range as detected in areas located far from slaughterhouses (26.0%, 95% CI: 21.3-30.8%). Echinococcosis endemic areas were extended in both rural (29.9%, 95% CI: 24.8-34.9%) and urban locations (18.1%, 95% CI: 13.0-22.9%). The pathogen dissemination is related neither to the presence/absence of slaughterhouses nor to the location in urban or rural areas, but is probably influenced by human activities (home slaughtering) and behavior towards the infected viscera.

  6. Quantitative detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in erythema migrans skin lesions using internally controlled duplex real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Maria; Traweger, Andreas; Lusa, Lara; Stupica, Dasa; Maraspin, Vera; Barrett, P Noel; Strle, Franc; Livey, Ian

    2013-01-01

    B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. bavariensis are the principal species which account for Lyme borreliosis (LB) globally. We have developed an internally controlled duplex quantitative real time PCR assay targeting the Borrelia 16S rRNA and the human RNAseP genes. This assay is well-suited for laboratory confirmation of suspected cases of LB and will be used to assess the efficacy of a vaccine against LB in clinical trials. The assay is highly specific, successfully detecting DNA extracted from 83 diverse B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains representing all major species causing LB, while 21 unrelated microbial species and human genomic DNA tested negative. The assay was highly reproducible and sensitive, with a lower limit of detection of 6 copies per PCR reaction. Together with culture, the assay was used to evaluate paired 3 mm skin biopsy samples taken from 121 patients presenting with solitary erythema migrans (EM) lesion. PCR testing identified more positive biopsy samples than culture (77.7% PCR positive versus 55.1% culture positive) and correctly identified all specimens scored as culture positive. OspA-based typing identified the majority of isolates as B. afzelii (96.8%) and the bacterial load was significantly higher in culture positive biopsies than in culture negative biopsies (Phistory of LB (P = 0.10). This is the first quantitative PCR study of human skin biopsies predominantly infected with B. afzelii and the first study to demonstrate a clear relationship between clinical symptoms in B. afzelii-infected patients and Borrelia burden.

  7. A novel PCR-RFLP assay for molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and closely related species in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Amani, Hizem; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis, due to Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.), currently affects three million people, especially in low-income countries and results in high livestock production loss. DNA-based methods demonstrated genetic variability of E. granulosus s. l., and five species were recognized to belong to the complex, including E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s) (genotypes G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (genotype G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (genotype G5), Echinococcus canadensis (genotypes G6-G10), and the lion strain Echinococcus felidis. The characterization of Echinococcus species responsible for human and animal echinococcosis is crucial to adapt the preventive measures against this parasitic disease. The sequencing approach is the gold standard for genotyping assays. Unfortunately, developing countries do not often have access to these techniques. Based on in silico RFLP tools, we described an accurate PCR-RFLP method for Echinococcus spp. characterization. The double digestion with the HaeIII and HinfI restriction enzymes of the PCR product from nad1 gene (1071 bp) led to a clear discrimination between E. granulosus s. l. and most closely related species (Echinococcus shiquicus and Echinococcus multilocularis).Molecular procedures and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the efficiency and the reproducibility of this simple and fast PCR-RFLP method. This technique is proved useful for fresh/unfixed and FF-PET tissues and enables large-scale molecular epidemiological screening in developing countries.

  8. Children's Perceptions of Brazilian Cerrado Landscapes and Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizerril, Marcelo X. A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author evaluated Brazilian students' environmental perceptions of Cerrado (savanna-like vegetation). The author administered tests of knowledge and perception of the Cerrado biome's wildlife to students of different social classes. The students (age range: 11-17 years) generally exhibited low identification with the region, and…

  9. Mapeamento semidetalhado do uso da terra do Bioma Cerrado Semidetailed land use mapping in the Cerrado

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    Edson Eyji Sano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi mapear o uso da terra do Bioma Cerrado na escala de 1:250.000. As seguintes classes de uso da terra foram consideradas: culturas agrícolas, pastagens cultivadas, reflorestamentos, áreas urbanas e áreas de mineração. A metodologia envolveu a segmentação de imagens do satélite Landsat, a classificação visual dos segmentos e a análise da exatidão global do mapa final. Aproximadamente 39,5% do Cerrado apresentaram algum tipo de uso de terra. Pastagens cultivadas e culturas agrícolas foram as classes predominantes, com 26,5 e 10,5%, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to map the land use in Cerrado at the 1:250,000 scale. The following classes of land use were considered: croplands, planted pasturelands, reforestations, urban settlements and mining areas. The methodological approach involved Landsat image segmentation, visual classification of the segments and analysis of the global accuracy of the final map. Approximately 39.5% of Cerrado presented some type of land use activity. Planted pasturelands and croplands were the dominant classes, with 26.5 and 10.5%, respectively.

  10. Soil characteristics of a hyperseasonal cerrado compared to a seasonal cerrado and a floodplain grassland: implications for plant community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, P K; Batalha, M A

    2006-05-01

    Savannas may be divided according to their seasonality into semi-seasonal, seasonal, hyperseasonal, or marshy savannas. Hyperseasonal savannas are characterized by the alternation of two contrasting stresses during each annual cycle, one induced by drought and fire and the other, by waterlogging. In South America, the largest savanna region is the Brazilian cerrado, in which there are few hyperseasonal areas that become waterlogged in the rainy season. The cerrado soils are generally well drained, but in central Brazil there is a small cerrado area in which the soil is poorly drained and which becomes waterlogged in the middle of the rainy season, allowing the appearance of a hyperseasonal cerrado. As long as soil is important in the ecology of the cerrado vegetation, we asked whether the waterlogging in this hyperseasonal cerrado implied that there were differences in soil characteristics in relation to a seasonal cerrado, which is not waterlogged in the rainy season, and to a floodplain grassland, which remains waterlogged throughout the year. In each environment, we randomly selected ten points, in which we collected soil samples in the mid-rainy season for chemical and granulometric analyses. For all variables, we found significant differences among the three environments, at least at one of the depths. Nevertheless, when we took into account all the variables together, we observed that the soils under the hyperseasonal and seasonal cerrados were similar and both were different to the soil under the floodplain grassland. The soil under the floodplain grassland was related to larger amounts of clay, silt, organic matter, phosphorus, aluminium, aluminium saturation, cation exchange capacity, and sum of bases, whereas soils under hyperseasonal and seasonal cerrados were related to higher pH values, base saturation, calcium, magnesium, and sand. As long as the soil under both cerrados was chemically and physically similar, the duration of waterlogging in the

  11. Gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto avoid ovipositing in Bermuda grass hay infusion and it’s volatiles in two choice egg-count bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Eneh, LK; Okal, MN; Borg-Karlson, AK; Fillinger, U; Lindh, JM

    2016-01-01

    Background A number of mosquito species in the Culex and Aedes genera prefer to lay eggs in Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) hay infusions compared to water alone. These mosquitoes are attracted to volatile compounds from the hay infusions making the infusions effective baits in gravid traps used for monitoring vectors of arboviral and filarial pathogens. Since Bermuda grass is abundant and widespread, it is plausible to explore infusions made from it as a potential low cost bait for outdoor ...

  12. Definition of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto (Acari, Tenuipalpidae), with redescription of Tenuipalpus caudatus (Dugès) and description of a new species from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    We discuss the taxonomic history of the genus Tenuipalpus Donnadieu and re-describe Tenuipalpus caudatus (Dugès) (= T. palmatus Donnadieu) based on specimens from Portugal intercepted at the United States ports of entry, and references including photographic records of the neotype of T. caudatus. In...

  13. A Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados nos estudos de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu da Enfermagem brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Miranda da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo documental e quantitativo, que objetivou identificar as teses e dissertações defendidas nos Programas de Pós- Graduação em Enfermagem do Brasil que utilizaram o referencial metodológico da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados (TFD e analisar os aspectos epistemológicos destacados. Os dados foram coletados no Banco de Teses da CAPES, no recorte temporal entre 1996 a 2010. Foram levantados 99 resumos. Realizou-se a leitura analítica dos mesmos para constituição do tema ou problema da pesquisa e do enquadramento teórico. O maior número de produção foi em 2005, na soma dos dois níveis acadêmicos, e 54% das defesas foram sediadas na USP. As áreas temáticas mais expressivas foram: Saúde da Criança/Adolescente; Gestão em Saúde/Enfermagem; Saúde Coletiva e Saúde da Mulher. O principal referencial teórico utilizado foi o Interacionismo Simbólico. A TFD compreende uma metodologia que pode ser empregada na enfermagem, capaz de contribuir no desenvolvimento de novas investigações para o seu aprimoramento contínuo.

  14. A 3D Analysis of Flight Behavior of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Malaria Mosquitoes in Response to Human Odor and Heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzen, J.; Spoor, C.W.; Grieco, F.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Beeuwkes, J.; Brugge, van S.P.; Kranenbarg, S.; Noldus, L.; Leeuwen, van J.L.; Takken, W.

    2013-01-01

    Female mosquitoes use odor and heat as cues to navigate to a suitable landing site on their blood host. The way these cues affect flight behavior and modulate anemotactic responses, however, is poorly understood. We studied in-flight behavioral responses of females of the nocturnal malaria mosquito

  15. Biological control of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto, causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat, using formulated antagonists under field conditions in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palazzini, Juan M.; Alberione, Enrique; Torres, Adriana; Donat, Christina; Kohl, Jurgen; Chulze, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat in humid and semi-humid regions of the world. The biocontrol effect of two bacterial strains on FHB incidence, severity and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumu

  16. ESTRUTURA FITOSSOCIOLÓGICA DE UM FRAGMENTO DE CAATINGA SENSU STRICTO 30 ANOS APÓS CORTE RASO, PETROLINA-PE, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO TAVARES CALIXTO JÚNIOR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried in a fragment of two hectares of hiperxerofila caatinga that it suffered clearcutting has 30 years and since then recovers without anthropic intervention at the Experimental Station of Embrapa Semiarido, Petrolina, PE. The objective was to evaluate the floristic composition and phytosociological structure, obtaining data to compare with other areas of caatinga (in different stages of succession and then get subsidies to better understand the characterization of the successional environments of caatinga. The vegetation survey was carried out by the method of the plots, where 10 sample units of 8.0 x 40 m were plotted at random in the area. All individuals with DBH G 3 cm were inventoried, and the BHD are measured and total height of them. We recorded 16 species belonging to 13 genera and 8 families, a total of 436 individuals with AB = 7.28 m²/ha-1, and DA = 1350 ind/ha. The Shannon index of diversity (H' was 1.39 nat.ind.-1 and equability of Pielou (J ', equal to 0.50, both are considered low. The species with highest importance value (VI and more prominent with respect to all parameters analyzed was Mimosa tenuiflora with 284 individuals distributed in all plots, DR = 65.5%, DoR = 69.6%, VC = 67.5% and VI = 49.8%. Thus, any attempt to characterize the structure of this community, have strong influence of the presence of indicator species of vegetation that is disturbed and the early stage of ecological succession.

  17. Intraspecific concerted evolution of the rDNA ITS1 in Anopheles farauti sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) reveals recent patterns of population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, James E; Dowton, Mark; Cooper, Robert D; Beebe, Nigel W

    2008-10-01

    We examined the intraindividual variation present in the first ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of Anopheles farauti to determine the level of divergence among populations for this important malarial vector. We isolated 187 clones from 70 individuals and found regional variation among four internal tandem repeats. The data were partitioned prior to analysis given the presence of a paralogous ITS2 sequence, called the 5'-subrepeat, inserted in the ITS1 of most clones. A high level of homogenization and population differentiation was observed for this repeat, which indicates a higher rate of turnover relative to the adjacent 'core' region. Bayesian analysis was performed using several substitutional models on both a combined and a partitioned data set. On the whole, the ITS1 phylogeny and geographic origin of the samples appear to be congruent. Some interesting exceptions indicate the spread of variant repeats between populations and the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Our data clearly demonstrate concerted evolution at the intraspecific level despite intraindividual variation and a complex internal repeat structure from a species that occupies a continuous coastal distribution. A high rate of genomic turnover in combination with a high level of sequence divergence appears to be a major factor leading to its concerted evolution within these populations.

  18. Caracterização de dois estratos da vegetação em uma área de cerrado no município de Brotas, SP, Brasil

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    Durigan Giselda

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizaram-se dois estratos da vegetação de uma área de cerca de 300 ha de cerrado stricto sensu, localizada no município de Brotas, SP, quanto à sua estrutura e diversidade, pelo método de parcelas. Para amostragem do estrato arbóreo (diâmetro mínimo de 5 cm, medido a 50 cm acima do nível do solo, foi amostrada área total de 5000 m² (250 x 20 m, divididos em 50 parcelas contíguas de 10 x 10 m (100 m². Para o estrato inferior (altura < 50 cm e diâmetro do caule inferior a 5 cm, a área total de amostragem foi de 500 m², distribuídos em 50 sub-parcelas de 10 x 1 m (10 m², demarcadas dentro de cada uma das parcelas maiores. Determinou-se a cobertura do estrato arbóreo pelo método de interceptação de linhas e o índice de agregação das espécies e da comunidade, segundo Payandeh. Foram identificadas, no total, 78 espécies (36 famílias. O estrato arbóreo apresentou densidade de 1150 ind/ha, 7,2 m²/ha de área basal e 19,6 % de cobertura. Foram amostradas, neste estrato, 44 espécies (27 famílias, com H=3,02 e os indivíduos da comunidade como um todo apresentaram-se agregados (P=4,26. As espécies de maior valor de importância no estrato superior, em ordem decrescente, foram: Acosmium subelegans, Aspidosperma tomentosum, Eriotheca gracilipes, Styrax ferrugineus e Tabebuia ochracea. No estrato inferior, com densidade de 10.220 ind/ha, foram amostradas 61 espécies (32 famílias, destacando-se, em ordem decrescente de densidade relativa: Campomanesia adamantium, Bromelia balansae, Attalea geraensis, Xylopia aromatica e Ocotea pulchella. A comunidade apresentou-se também agregada no estrato inferior (P=3,89 e obteve-se índice de diversidade (H' de 3,32. Algumas espécies abundantes no estrato arbóreo, como Styrax ferrugineus, Eriotheca gracilipes, Piptocarpha rotundifolia e Annona crassiflora, não foram amostradas no estrato inferior, sugerindo a existência de restrições aos processos naturais de reprodução e

  19. Lantana camara L. (sensu lato: an enigmatic complex

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    Neha Goyal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lantana camara L., considered among the world’s worst invaders is in identity crisis and contentiously referred as Lantana camara L. (sensu lato. Taxonomic ambiguity in L. camara L. (sensu lato, a species complex is one of the grim caveats behind incompetence of its management efforts. Recognizing the extent of variability within the complex, we aim to highlight the need to circumscribe its composition to bring effective management and control efforts into practice. There is a need for clear terminology to examine weedy, naturalized and/or invasive complex constituents that have been placed under the contentious umbrella of ‘L. camara L. (sensu lato’. The time is ripe for invasion ecologists, cytogeneticists and conservationists to collaboratively focus on disentangling the complex and integrate their knowledge and expertise into management and control programs.

  20. High-rate evolution of Saccharomyces sensu lato chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spirek, M.; Yang, J.; Groth, C.

    2003-01-01

    Forty isolates belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu lato complex were analyzed for one nuclear and two mitochondrial sequences, and for their karyotypes. These data are useful for description and definition of yeast species based on the phylogenetic species concept. The deduced phylogenetic relat...

  1. A FLORA DO CERRADO E SUAS FORMAS DE APROVEITAMENTO UTILIZATION OF CERRADO FLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Santos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para colher informações sobre as formas de utilização do cerrado, realizou-se um levantamento por meio de questionários aplicados nas regiões do país onde ocorre esse tipo de vegetação. As informações solicitadas foram: nome comum, local de ocorrência, época de floração, frutificação, partes utilizáveis e seu aproveitamento geral. Encontrou-se um número superior a 170 espécies que são utilizadas das mais diferentes formas. As famílias que se destacam em número de espécies são, em ordem decrescente: Leguminosae, Palmae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Compositae, Vochysiaceae, Annonaceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae, Convolvulaceae, Boraginaceae, Moraceae, Dilleniaceae, Guttiferae, Gentianaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Colchospermaceae, Bromeliaceae, Tiliacea, e Sapotaceae, entre outras de menor utilização.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cerrado; flora nativa; flora do cerrado; savana; savana flora.

    The uses of Brazilian cerrado vegetation were surveyed by means of a questionnaire, requesting common name, local of occurrence, flowering and fruitage time, usable parts and general utilization. Over 170 species were found, with a wide variety of uses. In decreasing order, the most frequent families were: Leguminosae, Palmae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Compositae, Vochysiaceae, Annonaceae, Sapindaceae, Myrtaceae, Convolvulaceae, Boraginaceae, Moraceae,

  2. Espécies de Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota do litoral centro-sul do estado de São Paulo III: Grupos químicos equinocárpico e stíctico Species of Parmotrema sensu strict (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota from the central-southern coast of São Paulo state II: Chemical groups equinocarpic and stictic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Navarro Benatti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento das espécies pertencentes aos gêneros de grandes parmélias do litoral centro-sul do Estado de São Paulo revelou a ocorrência de sete espécies de Parmotrema sensu stricto (talos foliosos de lobos arredondados em geral com mais de 0,5 cm larg. com margens inferiores não rizinadas contendo como constituintes químicos medulares os ácidos equinocárpico ou stíctico. São tipicamente reconhecidos pela forte cor amarela que resulta dos testes de coloração com hidróxido de potássio. São apresentados chave de identificação, descrições, comentários e ilustrações baseados em material brasileiro.In a survey of the species pertaining to genera of large parmeliae occurring in the coastal areas of the central-southern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil, seven species of Parmotrema sensu stricto (foliose thalli with rounded lobes usually more than 0.5 mm wide with nude lower margins containing equinocarpic or stictic acids as the main medullar substances were found. These are typically recognized by the strong yellow- staining potassium hydroxide spot test. An identification key, descriptions, comments, and illustrations based on Brazilian material are provided for these species.

  3. Espécies de Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota do litoral centro-sul do Estado de São Paulo: II. Grupos químicos norstíctico e salazínico Species of Parmotrema sensu strict (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota of the south-central- coast of São Paulo state: II. Chemical groups norstictic and salazinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pinto Marcelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento das espécies pertencentes aos gêneros de grandes parmélias do litoral centro-sul do Estado de São Paulo revelou a ocorrência de nove espécies de Parmotrema sensu stricto (talos foliosos de lobos arredondados em geral com mais de 0,5 cm larg. com margens inferiores não rizinadas contendo como constituintes químicos medulares os ácidos norstíctico ou salazínico. São tipicamente reconhecidos pela cor amarela que se torna avermelhada resultante dos testes de coloração com hidróxido de potássio. São apresentados uma chave de identificação, descrições, comentários e ilustrações, baseados em material brasileiro.In a survey of the species pertaining to genera of large parmeliae occurring in the coastal areas of south-central São Paulo state, Brazil, nine species of Parmotrema sensu stricto (foliose thalli with rounded lobes usually more than 0,5 mm wide with nude lower margins containing norstictic or salazinic acids as main medullar substances were found. These are typically recognized by the yellow then red staining potassium hydroxide spot tests. Identification key, descriptions, comments, and illustrations based on Brazilian material are provided for these species.

  4. Carbono da biomassa microbiana em solo cultivado com soja sob diferentes sistemas de manejo nos Cerrados Microbial biomass carbon in soil cultivated with soybean, under different management systems in Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Sueli Sivek Perez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o carbono da biomassa microbina de solo, cultivado com soja em diferentes sistemas de manejo. Os sistemas de manejo foram semeadura direta, uma gradagem, subsolagem e duas gradagens, realizadas num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em cinco profundidades (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 e 30-40 cm e em quatro épocas (antes do preparo do solo, 30 dias após a germinação, floração e após a colheita da soja. Foram coletadas, também, amostras de solo na mesma profundidade e na mesma época, em uma área de vegetação nativa (Cerrado sensu strictu, adjacente ao experimento. A subsolagem apresentou os maiores valores de carbono aos 30 dias após a germinação (865,7 mg kg-1 de solo. Este valor foi reduzido para 80,3 mg kg-1 de solo na floração. Os valores de carbono na semeadura direta mantiveram-se mais estáveis, principalmente na camada de 0-20 cm. As camadas de 0-5 e 5-10 cm apresentaram diferença na maioria das épocas estudadas e das demais camadas. A subsolagem mostrou o menor valor do carbono orgânico do solo, após a colheita da soja. Não houve correlação entre a relação carbono da biomassa microbiana/carbono orgânico e os nutrientes do solo na subsolagemThe aim of this study was to quantify soil microbial biomass carbon in a soybean crop under different soil management systems no-tillage, single harrowing, subsoiling and two harrowing, on a clay Red-Yellow Latossol in the Cerrado region. Soils were studied at five depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm. Four periods were observed before soil preparation; 30 days after germination; flowering stage and after harvesting soybean plants. The same measurements were taken under the same conditions in an area of native cerrado vegetation, adjacent to the experiment (Cerrado sensu strictu. Subsoiling showed highest carbon values 30 days after germination (865.7 mg kg-1 of soil. This was reduced to less

  5. Atividade antioxidante de frutas do cerrado Antioxidant activity of cerrado fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roesler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora (araticum, Solanum lycocarpum (lobeira, Eugenia dysenterica (cagaita, Caryocar brasilense (pequi e Swartzia langsdorfii (banha de galinha são frutas do bioma cerrado, conhecidas e consumidas principalmente por populações nativas dessa região. Nesse estudo, as diferentes frações dos frutos acima descritos (polpa, semente e casca foram avaliadas por meio de extratos aquosos e etanólicos. Alguns extratos mostraram altíssimos conteúdos de compostos fenólicos e foram escolhidos para avaliação do potencial em seqüestrar radicais livres por meio do modelo 2,2 difenil-1-picril hidrazil (DPPH. Os melhores resultados foram: extrato aquoso e etanólico de casca de pequi (IC50 igual a 9,44 e 17,98 µg.mL-1 respectivamente, extrato etanólico de sementes de cagaita (IC50 igual a 14,15 µg.mL-1, extrato etanólico de sementes e casca de araticum (IC50 igual a 30,97 e 49,18 µg.mL-1, respectivamente. Este é o primeiro estudo que avalia o potencial em seqüestrar radicais livres de frações de frutas do cerrado. Os resultados indicam que os extratos possuem grande potencial antioxidante e estudos adicionais são necessários para avaliar essa propriedade dos extratos como uma aplicação sustentável dos recursos do cerrado nos setores farmacêuticos, cosméticos e nutricionais.Annona crassiflora (araticum, Solanum lycocarpum (lobeira, Eugenia dysenterica (cagaita, Caryocar brasilense (pequi and Swartzia langsdorfii (banha de galinha are tropical fruits consumed mainly by native people in the Brazilian Cerrado (second biggest biome of Brazil. In this study, pulp, seed and peel of the fruits were extracted using ethanol and water. Some of the extracts showed a high content of total phenols and were screened for their potential as antioxidants using the in vitro model 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH. The best results were found for aqueous and ethanolic extracts of pequi peel (IC50 of 9,44 and 17,98 µg.mL-1 respectively

  6. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Tiancheng; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. However, to realize one advanced control function of thermal flux, one needs to design one sophisticated, multilayered and inhomogeneous thermal structure with different composition/shape at different regions of one device. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is al...

  7. Quantitative detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in erythema migrans skin lesions using internally controlled duplex real time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O'Rourke

    Full Text Available B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. bavariensis are the principal species which account for Lyme borreliosis (LB globally. We have developed an internally controlled duplex quantitative real time PCR assay targeting the Borrelia 16S rRNA and the human RNAseP genes. This assay is well-suited for laboratory confirmation of suspected cases of LB and will be used to assess the efficacy of a vaccine against LB in clinical trials. The assay is highly specific, successfully detecting DNA extracted from 83 diverse B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains representing all major species causing LB, while 21 unrelated microbial species and human genomic DNA tested negative. The assay was highly reproducible and sensitive, with a lower limit of detection of 6 copies per PCR reaction. Together with culture, the assay was used to evaluate paired 3 mm skin biopsy samples taken from 121 patients presenting with solitary erythema migrans (EM lesion. PCR testing identified more positive biopsy samples than culture (77.7% PCR positive versus 55.1% culture positive and correctly identified all specimens scored as culture positive. OspA-based typing identified the majority of isolates as B. afzelii (96.8% and the bacterial load was significantly higher in culture positive biopsies than in culture negative biopsies (P<0.001. The quantitative data also enabled relationships between Borrelia burden and patient symptoms to be evaluated. The bacterial load was significantly higher among patients with systemic symptoms than without (P = 0.02 and was significantly higher for biopsies retrieved from patients with EM lesions with central clearing (P<0.001. 16S copy numbers were moderately lower in samples from patients reporting a history of LB (P = 0.10. This is the first quantitative PCR study of human skin biopsies predominantly infected with B. afzelii and the first study to demonstrate a clear relationship between clinical symptoms in B. afzelii

  8. The mammalian faunas endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.; Marinho-Filho, Jader

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We undertook a comprehensive, critical review of literature concerning the distribution, conservation status, and taxonomy of species of mammals endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga, the two largest biomes of the South American Dry-Diagonal. We present species accounts and lists of species, which we built with criteria that, in our opinion, yielded results with increased scientific rigor relative to previously published lists – e.g., excluding nominal taxa whose statuses as species have been claimed only on the basis of unpublished data, incomplete taxonomic work, or weak evidence. For various taxa, we provided arguments regarding species distributions, conservation and taxonomic statuses previously lacking in the literature. Two major findings are worth highlighting. First, we unveil the existence of a group of species endemic to both the Cerrado and the Caatinga (i.e., present in both biomes and absent in all other biomes). From the biogeographic point of view, this group, herein referred to as Caatinga-Cerrado endemics, deserves attention as a unit – just as in case of the Caatinga-only and the Cerrado-only endemics. We present preliminary hypotheses on the origin of these three endemic faunas (Cerrado-only, Caatinga-only, and Caatinga-Cerrado endemics). Secondly, we discovered that a substantial portion of the endemic mammalian faunas of the Caatinga and the Cerrado faces risks of extinction that are unrecognized in the highly influential Red List of Threatened Species published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). “Data deficient” is a category that misrepresents the real risks of extinction of these species considering that (a) some of these species are known only from a handful of specimens collected in a single or a few localities long ago; (b) the Cerrado and the Caatinga have been sufficiently sampled to guarantee collection of additional specimens of these species if they were abundant; (c) natural habitats of

  9. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond. PMID:25974383

  10. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-05-14

    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond.

  11. Mapping the Cerrado vegetation classes using Rapid Eye imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Davis, F. W.; Nackoney, J.; Antunes Daldegan, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Cerrado biome is a world's important biodiversity hotspot. Its natural vegetation is being severely converted by agriculture and pasture, with a large risk to be reduced into small fragments. The Cerrado is the second largest biome of South America and is considered the most floristically diverse savanna in the world. Its vegetation is divided into three major physiognomies: grassland, forest and savanna. The main objective of this study is to classify the major vegetation classes of the Cerrado and its converted areas. A very common issue faced by scientists when using remote sensing to map the Cerrado's vegetation is finding some confusion between the vegetation and the converted areas. It is believed that satellites with a finer spatial resolution would help improve the classification of this biome. In order to test this hypothesis, we have selected the RapidEye 3A imagery for the year 2012 to use in this work. Decision Trees method were tested in this work to classify the vegetation classes with an effective result. Mapping the Cerrado classes and its converted areas is very important to understand and develop studies to monitor its land use change and prioritize areas for conservation.

  12. Seasonality effect on the allelopathy of cerrado species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Gatti

    Full Text Available The Brazilian cerrado presents strong climate seasonality. During the dry season, plants may be exposed to stressful situations, such as a soil surface water deficit, that stimulate their chemical defenses. However, the seasonality effect on the production of allelopathic compounds of cerrado plant species is poorly understood. In this study, the phytotoxic activities of common native cerrado plants were evaluated during rainy and dry seasons. Crude leaves extracts (10% concentration: weight/volume, with dry leaves and distilled water from eleven species were tested on lettuce and sesame germination. The negative effects on germination percentages, rates and informational entropies of the target species were higher when submitted to plant extracts from the dry season, where the germination rate was the most sensible parameter. The higher sensibility of lettuce and the germination rate parameter showed this difference. Only two exceptions had higher effects for rainy season extracts; one species showed higher negative effects on germination informational entropy of lettuce and another species on the germination rate of sesame. Thus, increases in the allelopathic activity were seen in the majority of the studied cerrado plant species during the dry season. These distinct responses to stressful situations in a complex environment such as the Brazilian cerrado may support the establishment and survival of some species.

  13. Seasonality effect on the allelopathy of cerrado species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, A B; Takao, L K; Pereira, V C; Ferreira, A G; Lima, M I S; Gualtieri, S C J

    2014-08-01

    The Brazilian cerrado presents strong climate seasonality. During the dry season, plants may be exposed to stressful situations, such as a soil surface water deficit, that stimulate their chemical defenses. However, the seasonality effect on the production of allelopathic compounds of cerrado plant species is poorly understood. In this study, the phytotoxic activities of common native cerrado plants were evaluated during rainy and dry seasons. Crude leaves extracts (10% concentration: weight/volume, with dry leaves and distilled water) from eleven species were tested on lettuce and sesame germination. The negative effects on germination percentages, rates and informational entropies of the target species were higher when submitted to plant extracts from the dry season, where the germination rate was the most sensible parameter. The higher sensibility of lettuce and the germination rate parameter showed this difference. Only two exceptions had higher effects for rainy season extracts; one species showed higher negative effects on germination informational entropy of lettuce and another species on the germination rate of sesame. Thus, increases in the allelopathic activity were seen in the majority of the studied cerrado plant species during the dry season. These distinct responses to stressful situations in a complex environment such as the Brazilian cerrado may support the establishment and survival of some species.

  14. Electronic Library of Embrapa Cerrados: user study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Salviati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper presents the results of research conducted with Electronic Library users – website, created in 2004 by Embrapa Cerrados, that organizes, stores, and provides full text of the technical scientific production published by the Institution. Objective: To explore the user profile and to make an accurate assessment of the website. Methodology: Data collection of demographic aspects; habits; and search features: navigation, loading time of pages, help, layout and terminology by an online survey. Analysis by SPSS software - Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: The main users are students and agronomists, young people up to 30 years old, coming from the Federal District, belonging to universities and high schools wishing to update knowledge. After, appear the users of public agencies; private companies; Embrapa; agribusiness; federal government; schools; associations and non-governmental organizations; rural extension; cooperatives and syndicates. These users have no difficulties to use the service. Conclusions: The service works well, but some suggestions are useful to improve it. In addition, little demand coming from farms, ranches, rural extension services, cooperatives and syndicates indicates the need to design new products and services oriented to such public.

  15. Establishment of Multiple Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat Analysis Assay for Genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Detected in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin; HOU Xue Xia; GENG Zhen; ZHAO Rui; WAN Kang Lin; HAO Qin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Human Lyme Borreliosis (LB), which is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi), has been identified as a major arthropod-borne infectious disease in China. We aimed to develop a multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) assay for the genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi strains detected in China. Methods B. garinii PBi complete 904.246 kb chromosome and two plasmids (cp26 and lp54) were screened by using Tandem Repeats Finder program for getting potential VNTR loci, the potential VNTR loci were analyzed and identified with PCR and the VNTR loci data were analyzed and MLVA clustering tree were constrcted by using the categorical coefficient and the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA). Results We identified 5 new VNTR loci through analyzing 47 potential VNTR loci. We used the MLVA protocol to analyse 101 B. burgdorferi strains detected in China and finally identified 51 unique genotypes in 4 major clusters including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (B.b.s.s), B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. valaisiana, consistent with the current MLSA phylogeny studies. The allele numbers of VNTR-1, VNTR-2, VNTR-3, VNTR-4, and VNTR-5 were 7, 3, 9, 7, and 6. The Hunter-Gaston index (HGI) of five VNTR loci were 0.79, 0.22, 0.77, 0.71, and 0.67, respectively. The combined HGI of five VNTR loci was 0.96. Clustering of the strains of Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang was confirmed, and this situation was consistent with the close geographical distribution of those provinces. Conclusion The MLVA protocol esytablished in this study is easy and can show strains’ phylogenetic relationships to distinguish the strains of Borrelia species. It is useful for further phylogenetic and epidemiological analyses of Borrelia strains.

  16. Mapping Fire Scars in the Brazilian Cerrado Using AVHRR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavka, C. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Brass, J. A.; Rezendez, A.; Alexander, S.; Guild, L. S.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian cerrado, or savanna, spans an area of 1,800,000 square kilometers on the great plateau of Central Brazil. Large fires covering hundreds of square kilometers, frequently occur in wildland areas of the cerrado, dominated by grasslands or grasslands mixed with shrubs and small trees, and also within area in the cerrado used for agricultural purposes, particularly for grazing. Smaller fires, typically extending over arm of a few square kilometers or less, are associated with the clewing of crops, such as dry land rice. A method for mapping fire scars and differentiating them from extensive areas of bare sod with AVHRR bands 1 (.55 -.68 micrometer) and 3 (3.5 - 3.9 micrometers) and measures of performance based on comparison with maps of fires with Landsat imagery will be presented. Methods of estimating total area burned from the AVHRR fire scar map will be discussed and related to land use and scar size.

  17. Genetic variability within Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies established by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer in ixodes ricinus ticks from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derdáková, Markéta; Beati, Lorenza; Pet'ko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Fish, Durland

    2003-01-01

    In Europe the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is represented by five distinct genospecies: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, and Borrelia lusitaniae. These taxonomic entities are known to differ in their specific associations with vertebrate hosts and to provoke distinct clinical manifestations in human patients. However, exceptions to these rules have often been observed, indicating that strains belonging to a single genospecies may be more heterogeneous than expected. It is, therefore, important to develop alternative identification tools which are able to distinguish Borrelia strains not only at the specific level but also at the intraspecific level. DNA from a sample of 370 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in the Czech Republic was analyzed by PCR for the presence of a approximately 230-bp fragment of the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer of Borrelia spp. A total of 20.5% of the ticks were found to be positive. The infecting genospecies were identified by analyzing the amplified products by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method with restriction enzyme MseI and by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The two methods were compared, and PCR-SSCP analysis appeared to be a valuable tool for rapid identification of spirochetes at the intraspecific level, particularly when large samples are examined. Furthermore, by using PCR-SSCP analysis we identified a previously unknown Borrelia genotype, genotype I-77, which would have gone unnoticed if RFLP analysis alone had been used.

  18. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects.

  19. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Tarso S.; Nearing, Mark A.; Moran, M. Susan; Goodrich, David C.; Wendland, Edson; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2014-09-01

    We assess the water balance of the Brazilian Cerrado based on remotely sensed estimates of precipitation (TRMM), evapotranspiration (MOD16), and terrestrial water storage (GRACE) for the period from 2003 to 2010. Uncertainties for each remotely sensed data set were computed, the budget closure was evaluated using measured discharge data for the three largest river basins in the Cerrado, and the Mann-Kendall test was used to evaluate temporal trends in the water balance components and measured river discharge. The results indicate an overestimation of discharge data, due mainly to the overestimation of rainfall by TRMM version 6. However, better results were obtained when the new release of TRMM 3B42 v7 was used instead. Our results suggest that there have been (a) significant increases in average annual evapotranspiration over the entire Cerrado of 51 ± 15 mm yr-1, (b) terrestrial water storage increases of 11 ± 6 mm yr-1 in the northeast region of the Brazilian Cerrado, and (c) runoff decreases of 72 ± 11 mm yr-1 in isolated spots and in the western part of the State of Mato Grosso. Although complete water budget closure from remote sensing remains a significant challenge due to uncertainties in the data, it provides a useful way to evaluate trends in major water balance components over large regions, identify dry periods, and assess changes in water balance due to land cover and land use change.

  20. Curve number estimation from Brazilian Cerrado rainfall and runoff data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Curve Number (CN) method has been widely used to estimate runoff from rainfall events in Brazil, however, CN values for use in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) are poorly documented. In this study we used experimental plots to measure natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff under undisturbed Cerr...

  1. Bird communities in two fragments of Cerrado in Itirapina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, M; Dias, M M

    2010-08-01

    The Cerrado domain is a mosaic of vegetation types at the local scale, and this environmental heterogeneity leads to high regional bird diversity. Therefore, we aimed to survey quantitative and qualitatively the bird fauna of two fragments of Cerrado and to compare them with an adjacent protected area (Estação Ecológica de Itirapina), in order to assess the heterogeneity of bird diversity in the region. The present study was conducted during 12 months from October 2006 to September 2007 in the municipality of Itirapina, Southeastern Brazil. Altogether we recorded 210 bird species. Fifty-six of them had never been detected in Estação Ecológica de Itirapina, and eleven species are new records for the whole Itirapina region. The list also includes six species that are endangered in Sao Paulo State and five endemic species of the Cerrado domain. Most species were recorded in less than 50% of the visits and exhibited low relative abundance. Primarily insectivorous species were the most common, followed by omnivores. Frugivorous birds were poorly represented. Carnivores were more abundant than usually observed in fragments. The similarity among fragments was higher than between fragments and the protected area. Considering the vegetation heterogeneity in the Cerrado domain, our results reinforce the importance of conserving fragments in order to sample this diversity.

  2. Soil organic matter dynamics in a cerrado oxisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the second largest biome in the country, spreading over 23 % of the national territory. In the last three decades, it has increasingly contributed to the national production, being responsible in 1995 for 25% of the national agricultural production and sheltering 40% of the

  3. Vector Capability of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, J A; Maggenti, A R

    1989-10-01

    Seven field populations of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato from California's major agronomic areas were tested for their ability to transmit two nepoviruses, including the prune brownline, peach yellow bud, and grapevine yellow vein strains of tomato ringspot virus and the bud blight strain of tobacco ringspot virus. Two field populations transmitted all isolates, one population transmitted all tomato ringspot virus isolates but failed to transmit bud blight strain of tobacco ringspot virus, and the remaining four populations failed to transmit any virus. Only one population, which transmitted all isolates, bad been associated with field spread of a nepovirus. As two California populations of Xiphinema americanum sensu lato were shown to have the ability to vector two different nepoviruses, a nematode taxonomy based on a parsimony of virus-vector relationship is not practical for these populations. Because two California populations of X. americanum were able to vector tobacco ringspot virus, commonly vectored by X. americanum in the eastern United States, these western populations cannot be differentiated from eastern populations by vector capability tests using tobacco ringspot virus.

  4. Mapping of Phytoecological Units of the ’Cerrados’ of the Central Plateaus of Brazil,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mapping of phytoecological units in the Region of Cerrado , of Brazil, has the purpose of giving a global view of the result obtained through the...mapping of a big extension of the country’s vegetation cover, where predominates the ’ cerrado ’. The phytoecological units represent the close links...which, besides several ’ cerrado ’ physiognomies, some forests were found. On the north of the area it occurs the contact between the dominium of the

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Stomoxys calcitransagainst Beauveria bassiana sensu lato isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rodrigues de Moraes

    Full Text Available This study had the aims of evaluating the antimicrobial characteristics of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae larvae against the fungal isolates CG138, CG228 and ESALQ986 of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato (Balsamo-Crivelli Vuillemin, 1912 (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae. S. calcitrans eggs, larvae and pupae were exposed to these same isolates. Statistical analysis showed that the immature stages of S. calcitrans were not susceptible to the fungal isolates used, regardless of the exposure method. Diffusion test on solid culture medium reveled that macerated S. calcitrans larvae exposed to isolate CG138 reduced CG138 fungal development. The analysis of the chromatographic profiles indicated that the macerate or mucus of larvae of the control group and the groups exposed to the isolate CG138 presented different profiles. Reduced development of the isolate CG138 on the larvae cuticle was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Fraccionamientos Cerrados Residenciales, Productores de Inseguridad Urbana Subjetiva

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Isabel Galaviz Mosqueda; Reyna Valladares Anguiano; Martha Chávez

    2014-01-01

    Independientemente del tamaño, de la importancia o las particularidades de las ciudades y sus sociedades, las condiciones de aislamiento y encerramiento sociourbano de los fraccionamientos cerrados residenciales de clase alta enfatizan aspectos subjetivos de inseguridad urbana como percepción de riesgo, imaginarios del miedo y sentimientos de inseguridad. Con método descriptivo-correlacional o estrategia no experimental mixta, este estudio muestra el impacto de lo mencionado en la vida cot...

  7. Spatial heterogeneity of soils of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Codolo de Lucena

    Full Text Available In areas of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Brazil, the soil displays features which are inherent to the processes of soil formation, both of the Central Plateau and the Pantanal Plain. Given this premise, the area should be noteworthy for its high level of edaphic heterogeneity. The present study aimed to determine the physical, chemical and physico-hydric attributes that best explain the heterogeneity of soils in areas of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone, and to assess whether these attributes differ between the studied fragments and between the Cerrado soils of the Central Plateau and of the Pantanal Plain. One hundred and sixty soil samples were collected and 11 profiles described for five areas of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone (15º43' S, 56º04' W. The following classes were identified: typic Concretionary Petric Plinthosol; typic Lithoplintic Petric Plinthosol; typic dystrophic Yellow Latosol; dystrophic Yellow Latosol with plinthite, the last three not yet having been described for this region. The chemical attributes CEC, M, OM, K, P, Mg, Ca and Mn explained 40.49% of the variability of the soils in the region under study, whether differing or not between the studied fragments. Spatial distribution of the attributes varied between random and aggregated, with the chemical attributes CEC, K, Ca and Mg being similar to soils of the Pantanal Plain. Whereas Al, P and Mn, as well as the hydric variables, were similar to the Plateau. On the other hand, the average organic matter content, pH, gravel and pebbles, were characteristic of both the Plateau and the Plain.

  8. Hyphomycetes on the Vochysiaceae from the Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelo-Silva, Denise; Dianese, José C

    2003-01-01

    New hyphomycetes are described in association with leaves of native plants of the family Vochysiaceae, as part of studies of cerrado fungi. Six new species are described belonging to genera Alternaria (A. qualeae sp. nov.), Janetia (J. salvertiae sp. nov.), Passalora (P. qualeae sp. nov.) and Periconiella (P. longispora sp. nov., P. qualeae-grandiflorae sp. nov. and P. campo-grandensis sp. nov.). A key to the species of Periconiella on Qualea is provided.

  9. Scarabaeoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera no Cerrado brasileiro: estado atual do conhecimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Luçardo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Besouros pertencentes à superfamília Scarabaeoidea ocupam habitats variados, possuem hábitos alimentares diversificados, desempenham importante papel ecológico e diversas espécies apresentam importância agrícola. No entanto, estudos com esse grupo na região do Cerrado são escassos. Nesta revisão realizou-se um levantamento dos artigos publicados nos últimos 30 anos a respeito dos Scarabaeoidea no Cerrado. Foram recuperados 64 artigos, realizados em nove unidades da federação, que focavam quatro temas principais: espécies praga, aspectos bioecológicos, biodiversidade e importância ecológica, e técnicas e metodologias de coleta de Scarabaeoidea. Os resultados desta revisão indicam que poucos estudos foram realizados com os Scarabaeoidea no Cerrado brasileiro nas últimas décadas frente à importância e diversidade desse grupo de insetos.

  10. Pedology and plant physiognomies in the Cerrado, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Andreza V; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Souza, Agostinho L; Ferreira, Walnir G; Meira-Neto, João A A

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out in Paraopeba National Reserve. It aims to classify and evaluate the soil of the studied area and to verify the influence of soil attributes on vegetation by testing the following hypotheses: 1) under woodland physiognomies (Cerradão) the soil fertility is higher and the Al content lower; 2) open savanna occurs only in areas with high Al contents. For this purpose, representative soils in the Paraopeba National Reserve were mapped, identified, and samples from five profiles were analyzed. The environmental gradient was easily observed by principal components analyses, where the differences between the sites were highlighted. The Spearman correlation was used to verify the hypothesis. The correlation between vegetation (basal area, density, and richness) and soil (K, Ca2+, and Al3+) was statistically significant. The hypotheses were accepted, but hypothesis 1 only partially. Soil features seem to have an influence on the Cerrado phytophysiognomies and structure. Available phosphorous was an important factor for the maintenance of woodland Cerrado. Also, exchangeable Al3+ plays a major role in the establishment of different Cerrado physiognomies in Paraopeba National Reserve.

  11. Species convergence into life-forms in a hyperseasonal cerrado in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I A; Batalha, M A

    2008-05-01

    Whether the functional structure of ecological communities is deterministic or historically contingent is still quite controversial. However, recent experimental tests did not find effects of species composition variation on trait convergence and therefore the environmental constraints should play the major role on community convergence into functional groups. Seasonal cerrados are characterized by a sharp seasonality, in which the water shortage defines the community functioning. Hyperseasonal cerrados experience additionally waterlogging in the rainy season. Here, we asked whether waterlogging modifies species convergences into life-forms in a hyperseasonal cerrado. We studied a hyperseasonal cerrado, comparing it with a nearby seasonal cerrado, never waterlogged, in Emas National Park, central Brazil. In each area, we sampled all vascular plants by placing 40 plots of 1 m(2) plots in four surveys. We analyzed the species convergences into life-forms in both cerrados using the Raunkiaer's life-form spectrum and the index of divergence from species to life-form diversity (IDD). The overall life-form spectra and IDDs were not different, indicating that waterlogging did not affect the composition of functional groups in the hyperseasonal cerrado. However, there was a seasonal variation in IDD values only in the hyperseasonal cerrado. As long as we did not find a seasonal variation in life-form diversity, the seasonal variation of convergence into life-forms in the hyperseasonal cerrado was a consequence of the seasonal variation of species diversity. Because of high functional redundancy of cerrado plants, waterlogging promoted a floristic replacement without major changes in functional groups. Thus, waterlogging in the hyperseasonal cerrado promoted seasonal changes in species convergence into life-forms by reducing species diversity.

  12. Bayesian inference towards the resolution of molecular evolution:application to the "Trichoderma harzianum sensu lato" clade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Druzhinina I S; Kubicek C P

    2004-01-01

    or T. harzianum formed either a proliferating megaclade (three loci combined tree) or appeared as several independent branches on the star-like phylograrm (ITS1 and 2 and large tef1a intron) . However most terminal clacles had a high posterior probability and thus fulfilled the criterion to consider their member isolates as a phylogenetic species. The clade containing the ex-neotype strain of T. harzianum included exclusively clonally propagating isolates from temperate climates, and was clearly distinguished from all other "H. lixii/T. harzianum" lineages by multivariate analysis of phenotype microarray data. We propose that only this lineage should be regarded as T. harzianum sensu stricto, and that the other lineages be regarded as T.harzianum sensu lato until phenetic characters have been defined which allow their description as separate taxa.

  13. Groundwater recharge decrease with increased vegetation density in the Brazilian Cerrado 2322

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately one half of the outcrop areas of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) are located in the Cerrado biome, the main agricultural expansion region in Brazil. Large areas of cerrado vegetation have been converted into farmland in recent years; however, little attention has been paid to the cons...

  14. Areas of climate stability of species ranges in the Brazilian Cerrado

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terribile, Levi Carina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza; Bastos Araujo, Miguel;

    2012-01-01

    uncertainties and to identify climatically stable areas, working with Cerrado tree species as a model organism. Ecological niche models were generated for 18 Cerrado tree species and their potential distributions were projected into past and future. Analyses of the sources of uncertainties in ensembles...

  15. Tillage effects on soil organic matter in density fractions of a Cerrado Oxisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.; Buurman, P.

    2003-01-01

    Reclamation of Brazilian cerrados (savannas) has been intensified in the last decades, with implications for soil quality and soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics. Studying the impact of different tillage systems is essential to define better strategies for land use in Cerrado, which may favor C seque

  16. Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as a host of ixodid ticks, lice, and Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) in California state parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert S; Kucera, Thomas F; Barrett, Reginald H; Mun, Jeomhee; Wu, Chunling; Smith, Vincent S

    2006-10-01

    Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) were evaluated as potential hosts of ixodid ticks, lice, and Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato [s.l.]) in three state parks in Sonoma County, California, USA, during 2003 and 2004. In total, 113 birds were collected, 50 (44.2%) of which were found to be infested by 361 ixodid ticks representing three species: the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus, n=248), the rabbit tick (Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, n=112), and one American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis). Year-round the prevalence of all ticks combined was unrelated to the age or sex of turkeys, and the prevalence of infestation by I. pacificus (35.4%) was significantly higher than it was for either H. leporispalustris (14.2%) or D. variabilis (0.9%). The proportion of the two prevalent tick species differed significantly by life stage with 86.3% of the I. pacificus and 82.1% of the H. leporispalustris enumerated being nymphs and larvae, respectively. Three species of lice were collected, including the chicken body louse Menacanthus stramineus (12.5% of total), Chelopistes meleagridis (37.5% of total), and Oxylipeurus polytrapezius (50% of total). The records for all three ticks are the first ever from wild turkeys, and those for the lice are the first from this host in the far-western United States. Wild turkeys potentially were exposed to the feeding activities of I. pacificus nymphs infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. as 15% of host-seeking nymphs (n=200) collected in woodlands used by turkeys as roosting or foraging areas were infected mainly with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). However, only one (1%) of 90 turkey blood specimens tested by PCR contained B. burgdorferi s.s., and four in vitro, complement-protein assays demonstrated that domestic turkey serum is moderately bacteriolytic for this spirochete. Taken together, these findings indicate that wild turkeys are important avian hosts of I. pacificus nymphs

  17. Rickettsial infection in ticks from wild birds from Cerrado and the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso, midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Dirceu G de S; Melo, Andréia L T; Martins, Thiago F; Alves, Alvair da S; Pacheco, Thábata dos A; Pinto, Letícia B; Pinho, João B; Labruna, Marcelo B; Dutra, Valéria; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C

    2015-09-01

    The involvement of different species of ticks and wild animals, such as birds, play an important role in the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. Birds may serve as reservoirs for some tick-borne diseases, and may carry and spread hematophagous ectoparasites mechanically. This study aimed to show the diversity of ticks on birds and molecular detection of rickettsial infection in ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, two similar Brazilian biomes characterized by hydrological seasons. During two years, August 2012 to May 2014, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in total of 14 visits for collecting samples, distributed in all hydrological seasons. A total of 674 birds were captured representing 113 species from 26 families. In total, 71 birds were parasitized (10.5%), and 155 ticks of the following 7 tick species (in decreasing order of prevalence) were identified: Amblyomma longirostre Koch, Amblyomma nodosum Neumann, Amblyomma cajennense Fabricius sensu lato (s.l.), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones, Amblyomma ovale Koch, and Amblyomma triste Koch. Among free-living ticks collected in the environment, A. cajennense s.l. was the most common. This is the first occurrence of O. mimon on birds, and of A. triste on Passeriformes in Brazil. Molecular analyses revealed that 6 A. longirostre ticks were infected by 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', whereas 1 A. nodosum was infected by a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent, previously reported as Rickettsia sp. strain NOD. Spotted fever group (SFG) agents were, for the first time, reported in ticks from birds captured in Pantanal biome, and the potential involvement of these agents as human pathogens should be considered in further studies.

  18. Habitat use by Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata) in a Cerrado in southeastern Brazil: implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegae, M F; Levy, G; Freitas, S R

    2012-11-01

    The Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata) is a small insectivore endemic to the Cerrado. We examine the habitat use of this bird in a preserved Cerrado area in southeastern Brazil. Despite its occurrence in grassland with shrubs, the species used these areas less frequently than expected. The Collared Crescentchest mainly used areas of campo cerrado, but it was not recorded in a disturbed one. The common occurrence of exotic grass (U. decumbens) and cattle grazing may have brought about factors for its occurrence. However, the preference for native grasses may indicate an adverse indirect relationship against its occurence as there is competition between native and exotic grasses in the Cerrado. The presence of the Collared Crescentchest included the highest density of tall shrubs (>1 m) and native grasses. Conservation of the species should involve preserved areas of campo cerrado with a dominance of native grasses and tall shrubs.

  19. Habitat use by Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata in a Cerrado in southeastern Brazil: implications for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF. Kanegae

    Full Text Available The Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata is a small insectivore endemic to the Cerrado. We examine the habitat use of this bird in a preserved Cerrado area in southeastern Brazil. Despite its occurrence in grassland with shrubs, the species used these areas less frequently than expected. The Collared Crescentchest mainly used areas of campo cerrado, but it was not recorded in a disturbed one. The common occurrence of exotic grass (U. decumbens and cattle grazing may have brought about factors for its occurrence. However, the preference for native grasses may indicate an adverse indirect relationship against its occurence as there is competition between native and exotic grasses in the Cerrado. The presence of the Collared Crescentchest included the highest density of tall shrubs (>1 m and native grasses. Conservation of the species should involve preserved areas of campo cerrado with a dominance of native grasses and tall shrubs.

  20. Flora arbórea da bacia do rio Tibagi (Paraná, Brasil: Celastrales sensu Cronquist Tree flora of the Tibagi river basin (Paraná, Brazil: Celastrales sensu Cronquist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Gorne Viani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou, por meio de coleções de herbários, os representantes arbóreos da ordem Celastrales sensu Cronquist, encontrados na bacia do rio Tibagi, estado do Paraná, Brasil. Esta bacia hidrográfica, subdividida em três zonas de norte para sul, baixo Tibagi (BT, médio Tibagi (MT e alto Tibagi (AT, apresenta diferentes condições ambientais e tipos de vegetação ao longo de sua extensão. A ordem Celastrales está representada na bacia estudada por 15 espécies arbóreas, pertencentes às famílias Aquifoliaceae, Celastraceae e Icacinaceae. Icacinaceae conta com apenas duas espécies, Citronella gongonha e C. paniculata, sendo a primeira distinta pelo ovário glabro e folhas geralmente com espinhos. Aquifoliaceae contém seis espécies: Ilex brasiliensis, I. brevicuspis, I. chamaedryfolia, I. dumosa, I. paraguariensis e I. theezans, que ocorrem preferencialmente no AT e MT e se distinguem pela dimensão, revestimento, ápice e margem da folha e pela morfologia das sépalas. Celastraceae está representada por sete espécies pertencentes a dois gêneros, Plenckia populnea, espécie de cerrado, encontrada apenas no MT e seis espécies de Maytenus (M. aquifolia, M. dasyclada, M. evonymoides, M. ilicifolia, M. robusta e M. salicifolia, com distinção baseada principalmente no tipo de margem e dimensão das folhas, forma do ramo e número de flores por inflorescência.A study of the tree species of the order Celastrales sensu Cronquist from the Tibagi river basin, Paraná state, Brazil, is presented, based on herbarium material. This basin is subdivided into three zones, from north to south: lower Tibagi (BT, mid Tibagi (MT and upper Tibagi (AT, each with different environmental conditions and vegetation types. The order Celastrales is represented in the basin by 15 tree species belonging to three families: Aquifoliaceae, Celastraceae and Icacinaceae. Icacinaceae has only two species, Citronella gongonha and C. paniculata. The

  1. A proposal for the classification of biological weapons sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsa, Lajos

    2014-12-01

    Due to historical and legislation reasons, the category of bioweapons is rather poorly defined. Authors often disagree on involving or excluding agents like hormones, psychochemicals, certain plants and animals (such as weeds or pests) or synthetic organisms. Applying a wide definition apparently threatens by eroding the regime of international legislation, while narrow definitions abandon several important issues. Therefore, I propose a category of 'biological weapons sensu lato' (BWsl) that is defined here as any tool of human aggression whose acting principle is based on disciplines of biology including particularly microbiology, epidemiology, medical biology, physiology, psychology, pharmacology and ecology, but excluding those based on inorganic agents. Synthetically produced equivalents (not necessarily exact copies) and mock weapons are also included. This definition does not involve any claim to subject all these weapons to international legislation but serves a purely scholarly purpose. BWsl may be properly categorized on the base of the magnitude of the human population potentially targeted (4 levels: individuals, towns, countries, global) and the biological nature of the weapons' intended effects (4 levels: agricultural-ecological agents, and non-pathogenic, pathogenic, or lethal agents against humans).

  2. Ruptura bronquial secundaria a traumatismo torácico cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda, Enrique; AZABACHE, Verónica; FRANCHI, Luis Miguel; BAZAN, Noé

    2013-01-01

    Las rupturas bronquiales como consecuencia de traumatismo cerrado de tórax son eventos raros (1,2). Por su rareza y por el hecho de tener dos modos diferentes de presentación pueden dilatar considerablemente el diagnóstico. Dependiendo de su localización anatómica y extensión pueden ser: a) extrapleurales, sin manifestación clínica importante que permita el diagnóstico temprano; y b) intrapleurales, donde el aire escapa al espacio pleural y con la inserción del drenaje torácico, se establece ...

  3. A taxonomic synopsis of South American Cyanogomphini Carle with description of Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. from the Cerrado of Brazil (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ângelo Parise; Almeida, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira De

    2016-02-09

    A synopsis of Cyanogomphini Carle, 1986 (sensu Belle 1996), including all species currently under the genera Cyanogomphus Selys, 1873, and Tibiagomphus Belle, 1992, is provided. Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. (Holotype ♂ deposited in DZRJ: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Jaboticatubas municipality, Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, collecting site "Córrego das Pedras" 19°22'17"S, 43°36'03"W, 766 m a.s.l., 12.XII.2011, A.P.M. Santos & D.M. Takiya leg.) is described and illustrated based on four males and two females from Minas Gerais and São Paulo States, southeastern Brazil. The new species is most similar to C. waltheri Selys, 1873, from which it can be distinguished by its smaller size; larger pale areas on mesepisternum; pale dorsal surface of metathoracic tibia; larger distal concavity on epiproct, with laterodistal projection, in lateral view forefinger-shaped; and occurrence in Cerrado province. Five species are recognized in Cyanogomphini, and for each one a synonymy, diagnoses, identification key and maps of distribution are presented. The status of sibling taxa Tibiagomphus uncatus (Fraser, 1947) and T. noval (Rodrigues Capítulo, 1985), as well as the Agriogomphus-complex of genera are also discussed.

  4. Understanding patterns of land-cover change in the Brazilian Cerrado from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espírito-Santo, Mário M; Leite, Marcos E; Silva, Jhonathan O; Barbosa, Rômulo S; Rocha, André M; Anaya, Felisa C; Dupin, Mariana G V

    2016-09-19

    Clearing tropical vegetation impacts biodiversity, the provision of ecosystem services, and thus ultimately human welfare. We quantified changes in land cover from 2000 to 2015 across the Cerrado biome of northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. We assessed the potential biophysical and socio-economic drivers of the loss of Cerrado, natural regeneration and net cover change at the municipality level. Further, we evaluated correlations between these land change variables and indicators of human welfare. We detected extensive land-cover changes in the study area, with the conversion of 23 446 km(2) and the natural regeneration of 13 926 km(2), resulting in a net loss of 9520 km(2) The annual net loss (-1.2% per year) of the cover of Cerrado is higher than that reported for the whole biome in similar periods. We argue that environmental and economic variables interact to underpin rates of conversion of Cerrado, most severely affecting more humid Cerrado lowlands. While rates of Cerrado regeneration are important for conservation strategies of the remaining biome, their integrity must be investigated given the likelihood of encroachment. Given the high frequency of land abandonment in tropical regions, secondary vegetation is fundamental to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services. Finally, the impacts of Cerrado conversion on human welfare likely vary from local to regional scales, making it difficult to elaborate land-use policies based solely on socio-economic indicators.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'.

  5. Discrimination And Biophysical Characterization Of Brazilian Cerrado Physiognomies With Eo-1 Hyperspectral Hyperion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoaki; Huete, Alfredo R.; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Sano, Edson E.

    2004-01-01

    The savanna, typically found in the sub-tropics and seasonal tropics, are the dominant vegetation biome type in the southern hemisphere, covering approximately 45% of the South America. In Brazil, the savanna, locally known as "cerrado," is the most intensely stressed biome with both natural environmental pressures (e.g., the strong seasonality in weather, extreme soil nutrient impoverishment, and widespread fire occurrences) and rapid/aggressive land conversions (Skole et al., 1994; Ratter et al., 1997). Better characterization and discrimination of cerrado physiognomies are needed in order to improve understanding of cerrado dynamics and its impact on carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Brazilian cerrado biome. Satellite remote sensing have been known to be a useful tool for land cover and land use mapping (Rougharden et al., 1991; Hansen et al., 2000). However, attempts to discriminate and classify Brazilian cerrado using multi-spectral sensors (e.g., Landsat TM) and/or moderate resolution sensors (e.g., NOAA AVHRR NDVI) have often resulted in a limited success due partly to small contrasts depicted in their multiband, spectral reflectance or vegetation index values among cerrado classes (Seyler et al., 2002; Fran a and Setzer, 1998). In this study, we aimed to improve discrimination as well as biophysical characterization of the Brazilian cerrado physiognomies with hyperspectral remote sensing. We used Hyperion, the first satellite-based hyperspectral imager, onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) platform.

  6. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-02-23

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  7. Diversity of soil fungal communities of Cerrado and its closely surrounding agriculture fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; Pappas, Georgios; Kurokawa, Adriane Silva; Neto, Eduardo Leonardecz; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2008-08-01

    Cerrado is a savanna-like region that covers a large area of Brazil. Despite its biological importance, the Cerrado has been the focus of few microbial diversity studies. A molecular approach was chosen to characterize the soil fungal communities in four areas of the Cerrado biome: a native Cerrado, a riverbank forest, an area converted to a soybean plantation, and an area converted to pasture. Global diversity of fungal communities in each area was assessed through Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis which revealed remarkable differences among the areas studied. Sequencing of approximately 200 clones containing 18S rDNA sequences from each library was performed and, according to the genetic distance between sequences, these were assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A total of 75, 85, 85, and 70 OTUs were identified for the native Cerrado, riverbank forest, pasture, and soybean plantation, respectively. Analysis of sequences using a similarity cutoff value of 1% showed that the number of OTUs for the native Cerrado area was reduced by 35%; for the soybean plantation, a reduction by more than 50% was observed, indicating a reduction in fungal biodiversity associated with anthropogenic activity. This is the first study demonstrating the anthropogenic impact on Cerrado soil fungal diversity.

  8. O ESTUDO DOS INDICADORES NATURAIS NA FLORA DO CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Divina da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O bioma cerrado forma um relevante conjunto de ecossistemas com cerca de 2.000.000 Km2 e sua vegetação detém um terço da biodiversidade brasileira, criando-se uma tradição de usos dos recursos vegetais em diferentes formas. Robert Boyle, em 1663 estudando os extratos naturais de plantas, verificou que estes, modificavam a cor das soluções, caracterizando assim a sua acidez, porém somente no início do século XX, Wilstäter e Robinson relacionaram os extratos das antocianinas aos pigmentos das flores em função da sua acidez ou alcalinidade do meio. Neste contexto, foi realizada uma avaliação entre os professores de Química, da rede pública do município de Inhumas, a fim de se avaliar a aplicabilidade de plantas do cerrado como indicadores naturais.

  9. Medicinal species with gastroprotective activity found in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, José L R; Rodrigues, Oscar R L; de Sousa, Fábio B; Fajemiroye, James O; Galdino, Pablinny M; Florentino, Iziara F; Costa, Elson A

    2015-06-01

    Peptic and/or duodenal ulcers are characterized by diverse acute and chronic ulcerative lesions that commonly arise in any portion of the gastric mucosa that is exposed to the aggressive action of gastric acid. The pathophysiology of peptic ulcers has been attributed to an imbalance between aggressive and protective factors. In Brazil, medicinal plants are commonly used to treat this ailment. A country with great biodiversity, Brazil is considered a rich source of therapeutic products. There have been popular and pharmacological reports on the medicinal relevance of the Brazilian cerrado plant species, including Ananas ananassoides, Celtis iguanaea, Encholirium spectabile, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Lafoensia pacari, Qualea grandiflora, Qualea parvifora, Mouriri pusa, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum paniculatum, Serjania erecta, and Vochysia tucanorum, in the treatment of stomach disorders. The aim of the present review was to report on some of the Brazilian cerrado plants that are used in folk medicine because of their gastroprotective potential and to encourage novel studies in the search and preservation of plants with this therapeutic potential.

  10. Fauna de morcegos em remanescentes urbanos de Cerrado em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Cláudia Márcia Marily; Fischer,Erich; Pulchério-Leite,Atenise

    2010-01-01

    Campo Grande é a maior cidade do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, localizada no domínio do Cerrado, um hotspot de biodiversidade. A fauna de morcegos urbanos tem sido pouco estudada no Brasil, principalmente em cidades na região do Cerrado. O principal objetivo aqui é descrever a composição, a riqueza e a diversidade da fauna de morcegos em remanescentes de Cerrado na região urbana de Campo Grande. Amostragens de morcegos foram feitas entre março e agosto de 2009 em oito parques urbanos com auxí...

  11. Use of LANDSAT images to study cerrado vegetation. [Mato Grosso Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Channel 5 and 7 LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000 made during passes in the dry and rainy seasons were used to select the optimal season for cerrado characterization in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The study area is located around the cities of Campo Grande and Tres Lagoas, a region being used for reforestation and rangeland activities. Imagery acquired during the dry season permitted a good discrimination between "cerrado" (woodsy pasture) vegetation and reforestation. In relation to the altered areas, only the recently modified area presented good discrimination of cerrado vegetation. Imagery of the rainy season did not provide a reasonable separation between cerrado and reforestation areas but the altered area could be easily discriminated.

  12. Sinopse taxonômica de Boraginaceae sensu lato A. Juss. no Estado de Alagoas, Brasil Taxonomic synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato A. Juss. in Alagoas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no tratamento sinóptico da família Boraginaceae sensu lato no Estado de Alagoas, Nordeste do Brasil. Foram encontrados três gêneros e 23 espécies: Cordia, com 13 espécies e Heliotropium e Tournefortia, representados por cinco espécies cada. São fornecidas chaves para o reconhecimento de gêneros e espécies, bem como ilustrações, dados de distribuição e hábitat.This work consists of a synoptic treatment for the family Boraginaceae sensu lato in Alagoas state, located in Northeast Brazil. Three genera and 23 species were found: Cordia with 13 species, Heliotropium and Tournefortia with five species each. Keys for determining genera and species are given, as well as illustrations, distribution data and habitat.

  13. On the margins of soy farms : traditional populations and selective environmental policies in the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Eloy, Ludivine; Aubertin, Catherine; Toni, Fabiano; Lucio, Silvia; Bosgiraud, Marion

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In the Cerrado, the expansion of soybean cultivation since the 1990s has coincided withthe strengthening of environmental regulations. We analyze how the two mainenvironmental policies – Protected Areas and the Forest Code – have played out at theground level in western Bahia state. These policies in Cerrado have not been designedto curb the expansion of this agricultural frontier. These norms have, on the contrary,accommodated this expansion because the way environmen...

  14. Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A M S; De Paula, J E; Degallier, N; Molez, J E; Espindola, L S

    2006-06-01

    One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extract from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 microg/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (>65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these Dugeutia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 microg/ml, respectively. Annona crassiflora and Cybistax antisyphilitica showed activity at 23.06 and 27.61 microg/ml. The larvicidal properties of these species are described for the first time, and may prove to be promising in active chemical compound isolation.

  15. Anatomia comparada do lenho de Tabebuia aurea (Bignoniaceae) e Tocoyena formosa (Rubiaceae) que ocorrem no cerrado e na caatinga

    OpenAIRE

    Dória, Larissa Chacon [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The cerrado and caatinga are Brazilian phytogeographic domains which differ mainly in relation to latitude, temperature, water availability and soil conditions. Thus, in order to verify anatomical strategies, our goal was compare the wood anatomy of Tabebuia aurea (Bignoniaceae) and Tocoyena formosa (Rubiaceae) occurring in cerrado and caatinga to test whether anatomical differences occur and whether individuals belonging to caatinga exhibit a greater degree of xeromorphism. In cerrado we col...

  16. The ecology of Lyme borreliosis risk : interactions between lxodes ricinus, rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian

    2016-01-01

    The sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) is widespread throughout Europe and can transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), which can cause Lyme borreliosis and B. miyamotoi, the agent of Borrelia miyamotoi disease in humans. Borrelia afzelii is the most common genospeci

  17. Studies on Barbula consanguinea (Thw. & Mitt.) Jaeg. sensu Eddy : a pan-tropical species

    OpenAIRE

    Sollman, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Barbula consanguinea (Thw. & Mitt.) Jaeg. sensu Eddy is considered as a pan-tropical species. This taxon is reported new for several central African countries, the Arabian peninsula, and Middle America. This variable species is shortly discussed and compared with (most) related taxa. Hymenostylium crispulum Broth. & Par. and Barbula obscura Sull. (= Barbula wrightii Sauerb.) are considered as synonyms of Barbula consanguinea.

  18. Multilocus sequence typing of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato confirms previously described genomospecies and permits rapid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2002, severe leaf spotting on parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) has occurred in Monterey County, California. One of two different pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato were isolated from diseased leaves from seven distinct outbreaks and twice from the same outbreak (2002 and 2009). Frag...

  19. Ability to cause erythema migrans differs between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Tijsse-Klasen (Ellen); N. Pandak (Nenad); P. Hengeveld (Paul); K. Takumi (Katsuhisa); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); H. Sprong (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The variety of characteristic and non-specific clinical manifestations is partially explained by its genetic diversity. We investigated the ability of B. burgdorferi sl isolates to cause eryth

  20. Forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noojipady, Praveen; Morton, C. Douglas; Macedo, N. Marcia; Victoria, C. Daniel; Huang, Chengquan; Gibbs, K. Holly; Edson Bolfe, L.

    2017-02-01

    Land use, land use change, and forestry accounted for two-thirds of Brazil’s greenhouse gas emissions profile in 2005. Amazon deforestation has declined by more than 80% over the past decade, yet Brazil’s forests extend beyond the Amazon biome. Rapid expansion of cropland in the neighboring Cerrado biome has the potential to undermine climate mitigation efforts if emissions from dry forest and woodland conversion negate some of the benefits of avoided Amazon deforestation. Here, we used satellite data on cropland expansion, forest cover, and vegetation carbon stocks to estimate annual gross forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado biome. Nearly half of the Cerrado met Brazil’s definition of forest cover in 2000 (≥0.5 ha with ≥10% canopy cover). In areas of established crop production, conversion of both forest and non-forest Cerrado formations for cropland declined during 2003–2013. However, forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion increased over the past decade in Matopiba, a new frontier of agricultural production that includes portions of Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Gross carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado averaged 16.28 Tg C yr‑1 between 2003 and 2013, with forest-to-cropland conversion accounting for 29% of emissions. The fraction of forest carbon emissions from Matopiba was much higher; between 2010–2013, large-scale cropland conversion in Matopiba contributed 45% of total Cerrado forest carbon emissions. Carbon emissions from Cerrado-to-cropland transitions offset 5%–7% of the avoided emissions from reduced Amazon deforestation rates during 2011–2013. Comprehensive national estimates of forest carbon fluxes, including all biomes, are critical to detect cross-biome leakage within countries and achieve climate mitigation targets to reduce emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry.

  1. Potential impacts of climate change on biogeochemical functioning of Cerrado ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M M C; Nardoto, G B; Pinto, A S; Resende, J C F; Takahashi, F S C; Vieira, L C G

    2012-08-01

    The Cerrado Domain comprises one of the most diverse savannas in the world and is undergoing a rapid loss of habitats due to changes in fire regimes and intense conversion of native areas to agriculture. We reviewed data on the biogeochemical functioning of Cerrado ecosystems and evaluated the potential impacts of regional climate changes. Variation in temperature extremes and in total amount of rainfall and altitude throughout the Cerrado determines marked differences in the composition of species. Cerrado ecosystems are controlled by interactions between water and nutrient availability. In general, nutrient cycles (N, P and base cations) are very conservative, while litter, microbial and plant biomass are important stocks. In terms of C cycling, root systems and especially the soil organic matter are the most important stocks. Typical cerrado ecosystems function as C sinks on an annual basis, although they work as source of C to the atmosphere close to the end of the dry season. Fire is an important factor altering stocks and fluxes of C and nutrients. Predicted changes in temperature, amount and distribution of precipitation vary according to Cerrado sub-regions with more marked changes in the northeastern part of the domain. Higher temperatures, decreases in rainfall with increase in length of the dry season could shift net ecosystem exchanges from C sink to source of C and might intensify burning, reducing nutrient stocks. Interactions between the heterogeneity in the composition and abundance of biological communities throughout the Cerrado Domain and current and future changes in land use make it difficult to project the impacts of future climate scenarios at different temporal and spatial scales and new modeling approaches are needed.

  2. Concordance between phylogeographical and biogeographical patterns in the Brazilian Cerrado: diversification of the endemic tree Dalbergia miscolobium (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Renan Milagres Lage; Ribeiro, Renata Acácio; Lemos-Filho, José Pires; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the phylogeography of species of the Cerrado, the largest savanna biome of South America. Here we aimed to investigate the phylogeographical structure of Dalbergia miscolobium, a widespread tree from the Cerrado, and to verify its concordance with plant phylogeographical and biogeographical patterns so far described. A total of 287 individuals from 32 populations were analyzed by sequencing the trnL intron of the chloroplast DNA and the internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Analysis of population structure and tests of population expansion were performed and the time of divergence of haplotypes was estimated. Twelve and 27 haplotypes were identified in the cpDNA and nrDNA data, respectively. The star-like network configuration and the mismatch distributions indicated a recent spatial and demographic expansion of the species. Consistent with previous tree phylogeographical studies of Cerrado trees, the cpDNA also suggested a recent expansion towards the southern Cerrado. The diversity of D. miscolobium was widespread but high levels of genetic diversity were found in the Central Eastern and in the southern portion of Central Western Cerrado. The combined analysis of cpDNA and nrDNA supported a phylogeographic structure into seven groups. The phylogeographical pattern showed many concordances with biogeographical and phylogeographical studies in the Cerrado, mainly with the Cerrado phytogeographic provinces superimposed to our sampling area. The data reinforced the uniqueness of Northeastern and Southeastern Cerrados and the differentiation between Eastern and Western Central Cerrados. The recent diversification of the species (estimated between the Pliocene and the Pleistocene) and the 'genealogical concordances' suggest that a shared and persistent pattern of species diversification might have been present in the Cerrado over time. This is the first time that an extensive 'genealogical concordance' between

  3. ESTUDO DE CASO: PARCERIA COOXUPÉ/NESPRESSO NO CERRADO MINEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANESIRO, Lidiane Aparecida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the partnership between the Swiss Company Nespresso and the Cooxupé Cooperative for the production of specialty coffee in the cerrado savannah, where the ones cooperatedCooxupé are the providers of these cafes. There were applied questionnaires for some producers with objectives question to evaluate to assess the difficulties in producing specialty coffee, to meet social demands, today almost mandatory when referring to products of high quality, is, generally know what you think of this partnership between the Cooperative Cooxupé and Nespresso. A search of bibliographic data was also used for reasons of this study. The results showed that the partnership was accepted by the producers, this partnership must be maintained and enhanced and that it should clarify the producers of the importance of investing in the environment. It can be verified that this work comes to be for the improvement of the partnership among the two companies involved in the study, and to conclude that the partnership was well accepts for the suppliers, could be perfected every year.Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a parceria firmada entre a Cooperativa Cooxupé e a Empresa suíça Nespresso para a produção de cafés especiais no cerrado mineiro, onde os próprios cooperados daCooxupé são os fornecedores destes cafés. Foram aplicados questionários com questões objetivas aos produtores da cooperativa com o intuito de avaliar as dificuldades em produzir cafés especiais, de cumprirem exigências sócio-ambientais, hoje praticamente obrigatórias quando se refere a produtos de qualidade, e saber o que acham desta parceria entre sua Cooperativa e a Nespresso. A pesquisa de dados bibliográficos também foi usada parafundamentação deste estudo. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a parceria foi aceita pelos produtores; que tal parceria tem que ser mantida e aprimorada e que se deve esclarecer os produtores da importância em se

  4. Identifying hydrological responses of micro-catchments under contrasting land use in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    R. L. B. Nobrega

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the Brazilian Cerrado biome has been affected by intense land-use change, particularly the conversion of natural forest to agricultural land. Understanding the environmental impacts of this land-use change on landscape hydrological dynamics is one of the main challenges in the Amazon agricultural frontier, where part of the Brazilian Cerrado biome is located and where most of the deforestation has occurred. This study uses empirical data from field measurements to characterize controls on hydrological processes from three first-order micro-catchments 2 in the Cerrado biome. These micro-catchments were selected on the basis of predominant land use including native cerrado vegetation, pasture grass with cattle ranching, and cash crop land. We continuously monitored precipitation, streamflow, soil moisture, and meteorological variables from October 2012 to September 2014. Additionally, we determined the physical and hydraulic properties of the soils, and conducted topographic surveys. We used these data to quantify the water balance components of the study catchments and to relate these water fluxes to land use, catchment physiographic parameters, and soil hydrophysical properties. The results of this study show that runoff coefficients were 0.27, 0.40, and 0.16 for the cerrado, pasture, and cropland catchments, respectively. Baseflow is shown to play a significant role in streamflow generation in the three study catchments, with baseflow index values of more than 0.95. The results also show that evapotranspiration was highest in the cerrado (986 mm yr−1 compared to the cropland (828 mm yr−1 and the pasture (532 mm yr−1. However, discharges in the cropland catchment were unexpectedly lower than that of the cerrado catchment. The normalized discharge was 55 % higher and 57 % lower in the pasture and cropland catchments, respectively, compared with the cerrado catchment. We attribute this finding to the differences in soil

  5. The vascular flora of the cerrado in Emas National Park (Central Brazil: a savanna flora summarized

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    Marco Antônio Batalha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian cerrado may be divided in two main phytogeographic sectors: one characterized by Piptocarpha rotundifolia, in which the Emas National Park (ENP is located, and other characterized by Curatella americana. We carried out a floristic survey in ENP, which allowed an assessment of the taxonomic composition, taxa size, and similarity with other sites for the ENP's vascular flora. We compared the ENP's flora with southeastern outlying cerrado sites, also in the Piptocarpha sector, and with general floristic patterns in the cerrado vegetation. The distribution of species per family in ENP was significantly different from that obtained for each component of the general cerrado flora. The herbaceous component was characterized by an overproportion of Myrtaceae and an underproportion of Orchidaceae and Lythraceae; and the woody component, by an overproportion of Myrtaceae and Nyctaginaceae. When compared with outlying cerrado sites, the ENP was quite distinct, not only at species level, but also at family level.O cerrado pode ser dividido em dois principais setores fitogeográficos: um caracterizado por Piptocarpha rotundifolia, em que o Parque Nacional das Emas (PNE está localizado, e outro caracterizado por Curatella americana. Realizamos um levantamento florístico no PNE, que nos permitiu determinar a composição taxonômica de sua flora vascular e sua similaridade com outros sítios. Comparamos a flora do PNE com sítios disjuntos de cerrado, também no setor Piptocarpha, e com padrões florísticos gerais do cerrado. A distribuição de espécies por família foi significativamente diferente daquela obtida para cada componente da flora do cerrado. O componente herbáceo-subarbustivo se caracterizou pela super-representação de Myrtaceae e pela sub-representação de Orchidaceae e Lythraceae; e o componente arbustivo-arbóreo, pela super-representação de Myrtaceae e Nyctaginaceae. Quando comparado aos sítios disjuntos, o PNE se

  6. Identifying hydrological responses of micro-catchments under contrasting land use in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, R. L. B.; Guzha, A. C.; Torres, G. N.; Kovacs, K.; Lamparter, G.; Amorim, R. S. S.; Couto, E.; Gerold, G.

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, the Brazilian Cerrado biome has been affected by intense land-use change, particularly the conversion of natural forest to agricultural land. Understanding the environmental impacts of this land-use change on landscape hydrological dynamics is one of the main challenges in the Amazon agricultural frontier, where part of the Brazilian Cerrado biome is located and where most of the deforestation has occurred. This study uses empirical data from field measurements to characterize controls on hydrological processes from three first-order micro-catchments Cerrado biome. These micro-catchments were selected on the basis of predominant land use including native cerrado vegetation, pasture grass with cattle ranching, and cash crop land. We continuously monitored precipitation, streamflow, soil moisture, and meteorological variables from October 2012 to September 2014. Additionally, we determined the physical and hydraulic properties of the soils, and conducted topographic surveys. We used these data to quantify the water balance components of the study catchments and to relate these water fluxes to land use, catchment physiographic parameters, and soil hydrophysical properties. The results of this study show that runoff coefficients were 0.27, 0.40, and 0.16 for the cerrado, pasture, and cropland catchments, respectively. Baseflow is shown to play a significant role in streamflow generation in the three study catchments, with baseflow index values of more than 0.95. The results also show that evapotranspiration was highest in the cerrado (986 mm yr-1) compared to the cropland (828 mm yr-1) and the pasture (532 mm yr-1). However, discharges in the cropland catchment were unexpectedly lower than that of the cerrado catchment. The normalized discharge was 55 % higher and 57 % lower in the pasture and cropland catchments, respectively, compared with the cerrado catchment. We attribute this finding to the differences in soil type and topographic

  7. Ultrastructure of Spironucleus salmonis n. comb. (formerly Octomitus salmonis sensu Moore 1922, Davis 1926, and Hexamita salmonis sensu Ferguson 1979), with a guide to spironucleus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynton, Sarah L; Fard, M Reza Saghari; Jenkins, John; Ferguson, Hugh W

    2004-07-05

    Diplomonad flagellates can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality in fishes, particularly in farmed salmonids. Diagnosis using only light microscopy is limited, and species cannot be confirmed. We therefore undertook a comprehensive transmission electron microscopy study of 20 trophozoites from the intestine of farmed juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from Northern Ireland (reported as Hexamita salmonis by Ferguson in 1979). Re-assignment to the genus Spironucleus was determined based on the anteriorly tapering and intertwined elongate nuclei, anterior-medial kinetosomes, and the presence of a flagellar pocket. At the species level we observed a tri-radiate pattern of microtubules in the opening of the asymetrical striated lamina, comprising 3 to 5 microtubules following the edge of the flagellar pocket, 3 radiating away from the opening of the striated lamina, and 4 to 5 curving over the striated lamina. We observed electron-dense plaques adjacent to the kinetosomes, electron-dense bodies, numerous free ribosomes, aggregations of glycogen, bowl-shaped membranous structures, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and a novel distinctive pyriform sac of densely packed free ribosomes at the posterior of the cell (8-shaped in transverse section, and delineated by furrowed endoplasmic reticulum). We now propose to rename H. salmonis sensu Ferguson (1979) Spironucleus salmonis. Our review of the morphology of Octomitus salmonis illustrated by Moore (1922a,b) and Davis (1926), has shown that this organism also belongs to the genus Spironucleus. We synonymise H. salmonis sensu Ferguson (1979) with O. salmonis sensu Moore (1922) and Davis (1926), and rename them S. salmonis. An expanded diagnostic guide, including new cytoplasmic elements, is presented for the 4 species of Spironucleus from fishes (S. barkhanus, S. salmonis, S. torosa and S. vortens). We recommend that type descriptions of diplomonads be based on organisms taken directly from the host rather

  8. A year in a Cerrado wet grassland: a non-seasonal island in a seasonal savanna environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciaruso, M V; Batalha, M A

    2008-08-01

    In some Cerrado regions where the water table is superficial and soils are hydromorphic, we may find wet grasslands. We studied temporal changes in some community descriptors, such as species density, plant density, basal area, and cylindrical volume in a Cerrado wet grassland in four different seasons of the year. We also compared the species richness and composition of the wet grassland with a hyperseasonal cerrado, and a seasonal cerrado. We found significant differences among the seasons only for species density. Chao-Sørensen similarity values varied from 0.86 to 0.99 and, in the wet grassland, were not different among the seasons. On the contrary, similarity values between the wet grassland and hyperseasonal and seasonal cerrados were low. Species richness was lower in the wet grassland and higher in the seasonal cerrado. As long as savannas are highly dynamic on all temporal and spatial scales, the wet grassland stability, at least in a short-term view, introduces an important heterogeneity in regional scale. Wet grasslands are also important in the Cerrado domain to increase b-diversity, since they are floristically dissimilar with cerrado vegetation.

  9. The 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle': application in a cerrado site

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    CA Gadotti

    Full Text Available Researchers may alter the ecology of their studied organisms, even carrying out apparently beneficial activities, as in herbivory studies, when they may alter herbivory damage. We tested whether visit frequency altered herbivory damage, as predicted by the 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle'. In a cerrado site, we established 80 quadrats, in which we sampled all woody individuals. We used four visit frequencies (high, medium, low, and control, quantifying, at the end of three months, herbivory damage for each species in each treatment. We did not corroborate the 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle', since visiting frequency did not alter herbivory damage, at least when the whole plant community was taken into account. However, when we analysed each species separately, four out of 11 species presented significant differences in herbivory damage, suggesting that the researcher is not independent of its measurements. The principle could be tested in other ecological studies in which it may occur, such as those on animal behaviour, human ecology, population dynamics, and conservation.

  10. Plants from Brazilian Cerrado with potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

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    Paula Monteiro Souza

    Full Text Available The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05 tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC₅₀ value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC₅₀ value of 13.14 µg/mL. Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations.

  11. Antileishmanial and trypanocidal activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants

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    Mariana Laundry de Mesquita

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The side effects and the emerging resistance to the available drugs against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis led to the urgent need for new therapeutic agents against these diseases. Thirty one extracts of thirteen medicinal plants from the Brazilian Cerrado were therefore evaluated in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua was the most active against both L. donovani and T. cruzi. Fifteen extracts were active against promastigotes of L. donovani with concentrations inhibiting 50% of parasite growth (IC50 between 0.1-10 µg/ml, particularly those of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae, Himatanthus obovatus (Apocynaceae, Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae, Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae, and Serjania lethalis (Sapindaceae. With regard to amastigotes of T. cruzi, extracts of A. crassiflora, Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae, and C. sylvestris var. lingua were active with IC50 values between 0.3-10 µg/ml. Bioassay fractionations of the more active extracts are under progress to identify the active antiparasite compounds.

  12. Antileishmanial and trypanocidal activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Mariana Laundry de; Desrivot, Julie; Bories, Christian; Fournet, Alain; Paula, José Elias de; Grellier, Philippe; Espindola, Laila Salmen

    2005-11-01

    The side effects and the emerging resistance to the available drugs against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis led to the urgent need for new therapeutic agents against these diseases. Thirty one extracts of thirteen medicinal plants from the Brazilian Cerrado were therefore evaluated in vitro for their antiprotozoal activity against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua was the most active against both L. donovani and T. cruzi. Fifteen extracts were active against promastigotes of L. donovani with concentrations inhibiting 50% of parasite growth (IC50) between 0.1-10 microg/ml, particularly those of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae), Himatanthus obovatus (Apocynaceae), Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae), Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae), and Serjania lethalis (Sapindaceae). With regard to amastigotes of T. cruzi, extracts of A. crassiflora, Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae), and C. sylvestris var. lingua were active with IC50 values between 0.3-10 microg/ml. Bioassay fractionations of the more active extracts are under progress to identify the active antiparasite compounds.

  13. Morphological characterization of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. cork from brazilian cerrado

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    Polliana D`Angelo Rios

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Kielmeyera coriacea Mart., known as “pau-santo”, is mentioned in the literature as the main tree species which produces cork of the Brazilian Cerrado. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphological aspect of Kielmeyera coriacea (“pau-santo” cork cells through its microscopic structure and to compare it with the cellular morphology of Quercus suber (cork oak, which is the main cork producing species worldwide. The bark from three trees of the species Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. was collected randomly at points 1.30 m above the ground, with four repetitions per sample. Samples came from native stands situated in the region of Luminárias - MG, Brazil. The study of morphological characteristics was conducted by counting the number of sides of the cells, and measuring the dimensions of the cells from images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Images were analyzed using the LEOUIF software. The distribution in faces and edges of cork cells from Kielmeyera coriacea, was observed to have from 4 to 8 sides, with a predominance of hexagonal cells, similar to Quercus suber. The averages of height and thickness of the cell walls were 40 to 70 µm and 1.5 to 2.0 µm respectively, indicating cells from an early growth season. Both height and thickness were observed to be greater than those present in Quercus suber

  14. Qualidade de um solo sob diferentes usos e sob Cerrado nativo Soil quality under different uses and native Cerrado

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    Ricardo Araújo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso sustentável do solo tem-se constituído em tema de crescente relevância, em face do aumento das atividades antrópicas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade do solo em área de Cerrado nativo e em áreas sob diferentes usos, foram amostradas camadas de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo sob quatro tipos de ocupação: pastagem natural, pastagem cultivada, cultivo convencional com culturas anuais e florestamento de pínus. As áreas estão localizadas na Fazenda Água Limpa, DF. Foram avaliados os seguintes atributos de qualidade do solo: densidade do solo, resistência mecânica à penetração, taxa de infiltração de água, teor de matéria orgânica, capacidade de troca catiônica, C total da biomassa microbiana e respiração basal. Com base nos dados obtidos, foi organizado um diagrama comparativo e calculado um índice da qualidade do solo para cada tipo de uso. Os resultados evidenciaram relação estreita e inversa entre a qualidade do solo e a intensidade de uso a que as áreas foram submetidas. Mediante análise desses atributos e da elaboração de um modelo comparativo, foi possível avaliar o nível de degradação do solo em função do uso de cada área.Sustainable soil use is becoming increasingly relevant given the increase of anthropic activities. In order to evaluate the soil quality, soil samples were collected from five areas: natural Cerrado (reference, native pasture, planted pasture, annual crops under conventional tillage and pine forest. The areas are located in the Federal District, Brazil, in a clayey Red Yellow Latosol (Acrustox. The following soil quality attributes were measured: bulk density, mechanical resistance to penetration, water infiltration rate, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, carbon of microbial biomass and basal respiration. Based on the obtained data a comparative diagram was drawn and a soil quality index calculated for each type of use. The results showed a close inverse

  15. Isolation, cultivation, and in vitro susceptibility testing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: A review

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    Veinović Gorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. The agents of Lyme borreliosis are borrelia, bacteria of the family Spirochaetaceae, which are grouped in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex. Borreliae are fastidious, slow-growing and biochemically inactive bacteria that need special attention and optimal conditions for cultivation. The isolation of Borrelia from clinical material and their cultivation is a time-consuming and demanding procedure. Cultivation lasts from 9 up to 12 weeks, which is much longer than is necessary to grow most other human bacterial pathogens. Although B. burgdorferi sensu lato is susceptible to a wide range of antimicrobial agents in vitro, up to now the susceptibility of individual Borrelia species to antibiotics is defined only partially. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175011

  16. Establishment of a minor groove binder-probe based quantitative real time PCR to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and differentiation of Borrelia spielmanii by ospA-specific conventional PCR

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    Strube Christina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes as vector. For identification of Borrelia infections in ticks a TaqMan™ minor groove binder (MGB probe-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR was established targeting the 5S-23S intergenic spacer. Extension to a duplex qPCR included an Ixodes spp. positive control to verify successful DNA isolation. Besides qPCR, an ospA-specific conventional PCR for species-specific identification of B. spielmanii was established. Afterwards 1000 I. ricinus flagged in the city of Hanover, Germany, were investigated for B. burgdorferi sl infections followed by species identification. Furthermore, I. hexagonus ticks were investigated to proof applicability of the PCRs. Results Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR identifying B. burgdorferi sl in ticks was able to detect 1-10 copies per reaction. B. spielmanii ospA-specific conventional PCR was also highly specific and showed no cross reactions with the other tested Borrelia species. From 1000 hanoveranian ticks 24.3% were positive compared to only 7.4% positives by dark-field microscopy. Related to tick stage 1.7% larvae, 18.1% nymphs, and 34.6% adults were positive. The most frequent species was B. garinii, followed by B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, B. valaisiana and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss. 70.6% of I. ricinus were mono-infected, whereas 28.0% and 1.4% were infected with two and three Borrelia species, respectively. From 232 I. hexagonus collected from hedgehogs in different sites of Germany, qPCR detected 5.7% to be infected with B. burgdorferi sl, which were identified as B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. spielmanii. Conclusions The evaluated qPCR to detect B. burgdorferi sl in Ixodes spp. is highly specific and sensitive. As a duplex qPCR including detection of Ixodes spp. DNA it is the first DNA based technique incorporating a control for successful DNA isolation from

  17. Episodic nitrous oxide soil emissions in Brazilian savanna (cerrado) fire-scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, A. D.; Crill, P. M.; Harriss, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonally burned cerrados of Brazil are the largest savanna-type ecosystem of South America and their contribution to the global atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20) budget is unknown. Four types of fire-scarred cerrado along a vegetation gradient from grassland to forest were investigated during the wet season of 1992/93. The effect of fire and subsequent water additions on epiodic emissions of N2O and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O concentrations were studied for several months. Additionally, the effect on episodic emissions of N2O of nitrate and glucose additions to a cerrado soil after fire and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O mixing ratios were determined. Finally, N2O episodic emissions in cerrado converted to corn, soybean, and pasture fields were investigated during one growing/wet season. Results showed N2O consumption/emission for the four fire-scared savanna ecosystems, for nitrogen and carbon fertilization, and for agriculture/pasture ranging from -0.3 to +0.7, 1.8 to 9.1, and 0.5 to 3.7 g N2O-N ha(exp -1) d(exp -1), respectively. During the wet season the cerrado biome does not appear to be a major source of N2O to the troposphere, even following fire events. However, the results of this study suggest that conversion of the cerrado to high input agriculture, with liming and fertilization, can increase N2O emissions more than ten fold.

  18. Selection of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato isolates as microbial control agents against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussenbaum, A L; Lecuona, R E

    2012-05-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main pest of cotton in the Americas. The aim of this work was to evaluate isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato virulent against A. grandis. Screening was performed to evaluate the pathogenicity of 28 isolates of M. anisopliae s.l. and 66 isolates of B. bassiana s.l. against boll weevil adults. To select the isolates, LC(50) values of the most virulent isolates were calculated, and compatibility between the fungi and insecticides was studied. In addition, the effects of these isolates on the feeding behavior of the adults were evaluated. Isolates Ma 50 and Ma 20 were the most virulent against A. grandis and their LC(50) values were 1.13×10(7) and 1.20×10(7) conidia/ml, respectively. In addition, these isolates were compatible with pyrethroid insecticides, but none with endosulfan. On the other hand, infected females reduced the damage caused by feeding on the cotton squares and their weight gain. This shows that entomopathogenic fungi cause mortality in the insects, but also these fungi could influence the feeding behavior of the females. In summary, these results indicate the possibility of the use of M. anisopliae s.l. as a microbiological control agent against boll weevils. Also, this species could be included in an Integrated Pest Management program.

  19. Fenologia da gravioleira (Annona muricata) em área de cerrado do Amapá, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,Tânia Brito do; GAZEL FILHO,Aderaldo B.; SANTOS,Jackson de A. dos

    2002-01-01

    O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a fenologia de graviola (Annona muricata L.) cultivada em área de cerrado do Amapá. Foram escolhidas quatro plantas, ao acaso, de seis progênies de graviola, da coleção do Campo Experimental do Cerrado, no Centro de Pesquisa Agroflorestal do Amapá (CPAF-Embrapa). As progênies avaliadas foram a graviola A, graviola B, FAO II, Morada, Lisa e plantas oriundas da matriz 415 (M-415) da coleção do Centro de Pesquisa ...

  20. The first species of Aplastodiscus endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Hylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneck, Bianca V. M.; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A.; Brandão, Reuber A.; Cruz, Carlos A. G.; Haddad, Célio F. B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the Aplastodiscus perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome. In addition, its geographical distribution and conservation status are discussed. PMID:28138301

  1. Conserving Biogeography: Habitat Loss and Vicariant Patterns in Endemic Squamates of the Cerrado Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Pietro L H; Machado, Ricardo B; Nogueira, Cristiano de C

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the threat levels and impacts of habitat loss over the Cerrado Squamate fauna. The region is under severe habitat loss due to mechanized agriculture, accelerated by changes in the Brazilian National Forest Code. The Squamate fauna of the Cerrado is rich in endemics and is intrinsically associated with its surrounding microhabitats, which make up a mosaic of phitophysiognomies throughout the region. Herein we evaluate current conservation status of Squamate biogeographic patterns in the Brazilian Cerrado, the single savanna among global biodiversity hotspots. To do so, we first updated point locality data on 49 endemic Squamates pertaining to seven non-random clusters of species ranges in the Cerrado. Each cluster was assumed to be representative of different biogeographic regions, holding its own set of species, herein mapped according to their extent of occurrence (EOO). We then contrasted these data in four different scenarios, according to the presence or absence of habitat loss and the presence or absence of the current protected area (PA) cover. We searched for non-random patterns of habitat loss and PA coverage among these biogeographic regions throughout the Cerrado. Finally, with the species EOO as biodiversity layers, we used Zonation to discuss contemporary PA distribution, as well as to highlight current priority areas for conservation within the Cerrado. We ran Zonation under all four conservation scenarios mentioned above. We observed that habitat loss and PA coverage significantly differed between biogeographic regions. The southernmost biogeographic region is the least protected and the most impacted, with priority areas highly scattered in small, disjunct fragments. The northernmost biogeographic region (Tocantins-Serra Geral) is the most protected and least impacted, showing extensive priority areas in all Zonation scenarios. Therefore, current and past deforestation trends are severely threatening biogeographic patterns in

  2. Ephemeroporus quasimodo sp. nov. (Crustacea: Cladocera: Chydoridae), a new species from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoor-Loureiro, Lourdes M A

    2014-06-19

    A new species of Chydoridae cladoceran (Crustacea: Cladocera: Chydoridae) is described from the Cerrado (a Brazilian tropical savanna ecoregion), Central Brazil. Ephemeroporus quasimodo sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus in a high dorsal keel on carapace and posterior part of the head shield, which resembles a hunchback. Parthenogenetic females, ephippial females and males are described, including details of trunk limb morphology. The species is endemic to shallow wetlands found in the Cerrado, where pristine conditions are preserved. Some questions on genus morphology and taxonomic status of Ephemeroporus species occurring in Brazil are discussed.

  3. Using Landsat 8 Image Time Series for Crop Mapping in a Region of Cerrado, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, H.; Sanches, I. D.; Körting, T. S.; Fonseca, L. M. G.; Luiz, A. J. B.; Formaggio, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to classify agricultural land use in a region of the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) biome using a time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from Landsat 8 OLI. Phenological metrics extracted from EVI time series, a Random Forest algorithm and data mining techniques are used in the process of classification. The area of study is a region in the Cerrado in a region of the municipality of Casa Branca, São Paulo state, Brazil. The results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of phenological parameters obtained from time series of OLI vegetation indices for agricultural land use classification.

  4. USING LANDSAT 8 IMAGE TIME SERIES FOR CROP MAPPING IN A REGION OF CERRADO, BRAZIL

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    H. Bendini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to classify agricultural land use in a region of the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna biome using a time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from Landsat 8 OLI. Phenological metrics extracted from EVI time series, a Random Forest algorithm and data mining techniques are used in the process of classification. The area of study is a region in the Cerrado in a region of the municipality of Casa Branca, São Paulo state, Brazil. The results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of phenological parameters obtained from time series of OLI vegetation indices for agricultural land use classification.

  5. Detection of tick blood parasites in Egypt using PCR assay II- Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, Fatma K; El-Samie-Abd, Emtithal M; Gabre, Refaat M; El Hussein, Hala

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the etiologic agent of Lyme borrelosis (LB), was determined for the first time in Egypt by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Questing 5243 hard and soft ticks were collected from animal farms throughout Giza Governorate. DNA from 500 individual tick species was extracted and PCR was performed. Primers verified from the sequence of German strain Pko of Borrelia afzelii were used. Fragments of 642 bp were generated and sequenced. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) was 28% of examined soft and hard ticks. High infection rate (66%) of B. burgdorferi s.l. was observed in both nymph and adult soft ticks Ornithodoros savignyi. Beside, the role of hard ticks as potential vectors of Lyme disease in Egypt, where the infection rate was between 0.0-50.0%. Sequence analysis of PCR product of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato shares high degree of similarity in sequence compared to similar species in GenBank.

  6. Aplicações da cultura de tecidos vegetais em fruteiras do Cerrado Applications of tissue culture techniques in Brazilian Cerrado fruit trees

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    Hernane Fernandes Pinhal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, percebe-se uma preocupação em relação às plantas do cerrado, com grande enfoque nas fruteiras em função de suas características e usos. Apesar de ser uma área ainda pouco explorada, é crescente o número de estudos dessas espécies nativas, dentre eles, os que abrangem as técnicas de cultura de tecidos. Isso se deve uma vez que essa ferramenta biotecnológica permite a propagação de espécies com dificuldade de germinação, minimiza o problema de sementes recalcitrantes, promove a produção de mudas em larga escala, complementa bancos de germoplasma e facilita as trocas de materiais genéticos. Dessa maneira, esta revisão visa a sumarizar o histórico e panorama atual das aplicações da cultura de tecidos em fruteiras do cerrado, proporcionando sustentação para novos estudos.Currently, it's been given a huge concern to the cerrado plants, focusing on fruit trees due to their characteristics and uses. Despite being a fairly unexplored area, the number of studies on these native species has increased, especially those involving tissue culture techniques. That's because this biotechnological tool provides the propagation of species with germination difficulty, reduces problems of recalcitrant seeds, promotes large scale seedling production, complements germplasm banks and facilitates the exchange of genetic materials. Therefore, this review summarizes the history and current situation of tissue culture techniques applied to Brazilian Cerrado fruit trees, providing support to further studies.

  7. Produtividade da soja no cerrado influenciada pelas fontes de enxofre Soybean grain yield in cerrado region influenced by sulphur sources

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    Dirceu Luiz Broch

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O enxofre é um componente de proteínas e aminoácidos em plantas, sendo exigido em boa quantidade por leguminosas, pelo alto acúmulo de proteínas nessas espécies. Com isso, este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a influência de diferentes fontes de enxofre sobre a produtividade de grãos na cultura da soja. O experimento foi instalado na área experimental da Fundação MS, em Maracajú, MS, em três anos consecutivos no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, submetidas à análise de variância conjunta. Foram implantadas as cultivares BRS-133 (2002/03 e 2003/04 e CD 202 (2004/05. Como tratamento foram avaliados: as adições de enxofre na forma de superfosfato simples, MAP sulfurado + Sulfurgran, Sulfurgran, enxofre elementar, gesso granulado, Fosmag 509M6, gesso agrícola a lanço e testemunha, sem a aplicação. A soja responde à aplicação de enxofre em solos das regiões do cerrado brasileiro, sendo necessária, na maioria das vezes, a fertilização com este nutriente para obtenção de altas produtividades. A grande maioria das fontes de enxofre utilizadas foi eficiente em fornecer este nutriente para a soja, com destaque para a aplicação de MAP Sulfurado + Sulfurgran, Formag 509M6 e gesso agrícola a lanço, que promoveram as melhores produtividades de grãos. O enxofre elementar não foi eficiente em disponibilizar S para a cultura.Sulphur is a component of protein and aminoacids in plants, being required in an expressive amount by leguminous, as function of high protein levels in these plants. Then, this work aimed to verify the influence of different sulphur sources on soybean grain yield. The experiment was carried out at the experimental area of Fundação MS, Maracajú, MS, in three consecutive years in a randomized block design with four replications, submitted to variance analysis of group experiments. The cultivars used were BRS-133 (2002/03 and 2003/04 and CD 202 (2004/05. As treatments, it was

  8. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart, Brazil’s Native Fruit

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    Fernanda R. Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD. Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  9. Atributos físicos, químicos e biológicos de um Latossolo de cerrado em plantio de espécies florestais Physical, chemical and biological attributes of a cerrado Oxisol under different forest species

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Gomes da Silva; Iêda de Carvalho Mendes; Fábio Bueno Reis Junior; Marcelo Ferreira Fernandes; José Teodoro de Melo; Eiyti Kato

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto de plantios florestais nos atributos físicos, químicos e biológicos de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo de cerrado. Amostras de solo foram coletadas à profundidade de 0 a 10 cm, em áreas cultivadas há mais de 20 anos com pínus (Pinus tecunumanii), eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis) ou carvoeiro (Sclerolobium paniculatum). Uma área adjacente de cerrado nativo foi incluída como referência do solo original. Foram observados, em relação ao cerrado, aumento...

  10. Macroecologia de mamíferos neotropicais com ocorrência no Cerrado Macroecology of neotropical mammals with occurrence in the brazilian "Cerrado"

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    Cleiber Marquez Vieira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The macroecological approach has been used recently to analyze correlations between ecological variables in large taxonomic groups, at continental scales. A positive relationship between body weight and geographic range size has been described as a poligonal space envelope form, that can be explained by ecological and evolutionary constraints. However, these variables can be disturbed by spatial and phylogenetic autocorrelation effects. In this work, the relationship between body weight and geographic range size was analyzed for 80 species of Neotropical mammals present in the Brazilian "cerrado". Spatial and taxonomic effects were tested using a linear trend surface analysis and an ANOVA (at level of order, combined in a generalized model. Around 61% of variation in geographic range size and 69% of variation in body weight in mammals of the "cerrado" can be explained simultaneously by spatial and taxonomic effects. The analysis of residuals of the generalized model showed that positive correlation between variables persist even after removing these effects. Thus, variation and covariation of traits in the mammals of the brazilian "cerrado" agree with the general macroecological pattern proposed for another taxonomic groups such as mammals, birds and snakes worldwilde.

  11. Incidence, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Toxin Profiles of Bacillus cereus sensu lato Isolated from Korean Fermented Soybean Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Kwang-Yeop; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hong-Seok; Choi, Da-Som; Choi, In-Soo; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Korean fermented soybean products, such as doenjang, kochujang, ssamjang, and cho-kochujang, can harbor foodborne pathogens such as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (B. cereus sensu lato). The aim of this study was to characterize the toxin gene profiles, biochemical characteristics, and antibiotic resistance patterns of B. cereus sensu lato strains isolated from Korean fermented soybean products. Eighty-eight samples of Korean fermented soybean products purchased from retails in Seoul were tested. Thirteen of 26 doenjang samples, 13 of 23 kochujang samples, 16 of 30 ssamjang samples, and 5 of 9 cho-kochujang samples were positive for B. cereus sensu lato strains. The contamination level of all positive samples did not exceed 4 log CFU/g of food (maximum levels of Korea Food Code). Eighty-seven B. cereus sensu lato strains were isolated from 47 positive samples, and all isolates carried at least one enterotoxin gene. The detection rates of hblCDA, nheABC, cytK, and entFM enterotoxin genes among all isolates were 34.5%, 98.9%, 57.5%, and 100%, respectively. Fifteen strains (17.2%) harbored the emetic toxin gene. Most strains tested positive for salicin fermentation (62.1%), starch hydrolysis (66.7%), hemolysis (98.9%), motility test (100%), and lecithinase production (96.6%). The B. cereus sensu lato strains were highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin, penicillin, cefepime, imipenem, and oxacillin. Although B. cereus sensu lato levels in Korean fermented soybean products did not exceed the maximum levels permitted in South Korea (<10(4) CFU/g), these results indicate that the bacterial isolates have the potential to cause diarrheal or emetic gastrointestinal diseases.

  12. The length of the dry season may be associated with leaf scleromorphism in cerrado plants

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    MARCELO C. SOUZA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite limitations of low fertility and high acidity of the soils, the cerrado flora is the richest amongst savannas. Many cerrado woody species show sclerophyllous leaves, which might be related to the availability of water and nutrients in the soil. To better understand the function and structure of cerrado vegetation within its own variations, we compared two cerrado communities: one in its core region in central Brazil (Brasília, DF and the other on its southern periphery (Itirapina, SP. We contrasted the length of the dry season, soil fertility rates, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg and the specific leaf area (SLA between these communities. The dry season was shorter on the periphery, where the soil was more fertile although more acidic. Plants from the periphery showed higher SLA and higher leaf concentrations of N, P, Ca and Mg. We propose that the higher SLA of plants from the periphery is related to the shorter dry season, which allows better conditions for nutrient uptake.

  13. Initial growth of Schizolobium parahybae in Brazilian Cerrado soil under liming and mineral fertilization

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    Ademilson Coneglian

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High prices and the scarcity of hardwoods require the use of alternative wood sources, such as the Guapuruvu (Schizolobium parahybae, an arboreal species native to the Atlantic Forest, which has fast growth and high market potential. However, there is no information on its cultivation in the Brazilian Cerrado. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the contribution of mineral fertilization and liming in a Cerrado soil on the initial growth of Schizolobium parahybae. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, with 4 treatments (Cerrado soil; soil + liming; soil + fertilizer; and soil + fertilizer + liming and 15 replicates. The following variables were analyzed: plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, total, shoot, leaf, root and stem dry matter, and root/shoot ratio. The obtained data were subjected to the analysis of variance, Tukey test and regression analysis. During the initial growth, Schizolobium parahybae can be cultivated in a Brazilian Cerrado soil only under mineral fertilization, with no need for soil liming.

  14. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species

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    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself.

  15. Prevalence and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidians from three distinct cerrado habitats in Brazil.

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    Nayara O Belo

    Full Text Available Habitat alteration can disrupt host-parasite interactions and lead to the emergence of new diseases in wild populations. The cerrado habitat of Brazil is being fragmented and degraded rapidly by agriculture and urbanization. We screened 676 wild birds from three habitats (intact cerrado, disturbed cerrado and transition area Amazonian rainforest-cerrado for the presence of haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus to determine whether different habitats were associated with differences in the prevalence and diversity of infectious diseases in natural populations. Twenty one mitochondrial lineages, including 11 from Plasmodium and 10 from Haemoproteus were identified. Neither prevalence nor diversity of infections by Plasmodium spp. or Haemoproteus spp. differed significantly among the three habitats. However, 15 of the parasite lineages had not been previously described and might be restricted to these habitats or to the region. Six haemosporidian lineages previously known from other regions, particularly the Caribbean Basin, comprised 50-80% of the infections in each of the samples, indicating a regional relationship between parasite distribution and abundance.

  16. Approche d'un grand espace: la maille municipale des Cerrados brésiliens

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    Philippe WANIEZ

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available L'espace des Cerrados brésiliens est en cours de colonisation. Le système d'information SISECSO facilite l'analyse des transformations économiques et sociales de ce territoire. Le film de la formation de la maille municipale est une première approche originale.

  17. Seed germination and seedling growth of two Pseudobombax species (Malvaceae) with contrasting habitats from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Rodrigues, Clesnan; Oliveira, Paulo Eugênio; Ranal, Marli Aparecida

    2011-12-01

    Pseudobombax tomentosum and P. longiflorum are common trees in the Cerrado region, but the former species is more common in forest edges while the later is present in open cerrado areas. This work aimed to investigate differences in seed germination and seedling growth in these species, from seed collected from Cerrado areas in Central Brazil. For this, a seed germination experiment was designed and included four replicates with 25 seeds per species; seeds were randomly distributed in the germination chamber. To evaluate initial seedling growth, seedlings height was measured up to 67 days after seedling emergence; besides, some of these seedlings were grown for biomass evaluation during nine months. Results showed that seeds of the two species had the same germinability (near 100%) and mean germination time (ca. 12 days). However, P. longiflorum showed a more spread seed germination through time, with higher values of coefficient of variation in germination time and uncertainty index; and lower values of synchronization than P. tomentosum. The two species showed basically the same growth pattern, but lower values for height of apical meristem, diameter of underground structures (mostly roots), dry mass of shoots, underground structure and total mass of seedlings in P. tomentosum were obtained, compared to P. longiflorum. Both species allocated more dry mass to underground structures in detriment of shoot. This probably allows resprouting behavior which prevents hydric stress and detrimental fire action typical of the open Cerrado areas.

  18. Prevalence and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidians from three distinct cerrado habitats in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Nayara O; Pinheiro, Renato T; Reis, Elivânia S; Ricklefs, Robert E; Braga, Érika M

    2011-03-08

    Habitat alteration can disrupt host-parasite interactions and lead to the emergence of new diseases in wild populations. The cerrado habitat of Brazil is being fragmented and degraded rapidly by agriculture and urbanization. We screened 676 wild birds from three habitats (intact cerrado, disturbed cerrado and transition area Amazonian rainforest-cerrado) for the presence of haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) to determine whether different habitats were associated with differences in the prevalence and diversity of infectious diseases in natural populations. Twenty one mitochondrial lineages, including 11 from Plasmodium and 10 from Haemoproteus were identified. Neither prevalence nor diversity of infections by Plasmodium spp. or Haemoproteus spp. differed significantly among the three habitats. However, 15 of the parasite lineages had not been previously described and might be restricted to these habitats or to the region. Six haemosporidian lineages previously known from other regions, particularly the Caribbean Basin, comprised 50-80% of the infections in each of the samples, indicating a regional relationship between parasite distribution and abundance.

  19. Changes in organic carbon stocks upon land use conversion in the Brazilian Cerrado: A review. Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle-Bayer, L.; Batjes, N.H.; Bindraban, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on changes in carbon stocks upon land use conversion in the Brazilian Cerrado. First, we briefly characterize the savanna ecosystem and summarize the main published data on C stocks under natural conditions. The effects of increased land use pressure in the Cerra

  20. The length of the dry season may be associated with leaf scleromorphism in cerrado plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcelo C; Franco, Augusto C; Haridasan, Mundayatan; Rossatto, Davi R; de Araújo, Janaína F; Morellato, Leonor P C; Habermann, Gustavo

    2015-09-01

    Despite limitations of low fertility and high acidity of the soils, the cerrado flora is the richest amongst savannas. Many cerrado woody species show sclerophyllous leaves, which might be related to the availability of water and nutrients in the soil. To better understand the function and structure of cerrado vegetation within its own variations, we compared two cerrado communities: one in its core region in central Brazil (Brasília, DF) and the other on its southern periphery (Itirapina, SP). We contrasted the length of the dry season, soil fertility rates, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg and the specific leaf area (SLA) between these communities. The dry season was shorter on the periphery, where the soil was more fertile although more acidic. Plants from the periphery showed higher SLA and higher leaf concentrations of N, P, Ca and Mg. We propose that the higher SLA of plants from the periphery is related to the shorter dry season, which allows better conditions for nutrient uptake.

  1. Polyembryony in Melastomataceae from Brazilian Cerrado: multiple embryos in a small world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Rodrigues, C; Oliveira, P E

    2012-09-01

    Polyembryony has been commonly associated with apomixis in the angiosperms and seems to be more common than expected, even in biomes where sexual reproduction processes are predominant. Recent studies in Cerrado, the Neotropical savannas of Central Brazil, showed high frequencies of apomixis and polyembryony and indicated these processes as reproductive and evolutionary alternatives for plants in these areas. In this sense, we investigated the occurrence of polyembryony and its relationships with ecological (season and type of dispersal, ploidy, species distribution and breeding system) and taxonomic (tribe) factors in the Melastomataceae, a mostly tropical family already known for its high frequency of apomixis and very common in Cerrado. We collected seeds from 69 populations of 53 species, which were sown in germination chambers. After seed germination, the presence and number of seedlings per seed were evaluated as a method to estimate polyembryony. We encountered 18 species (33.96%) with polyembryony (more than one seedling, or gemellar seedlings, originated per seed) concentrated in species of the tribe Miconieae (64%) and Microlicieae (16.67%), but absent in Melastomeae. Monoembryony was present only in sexual species, while all apomictic species were polyembryonic. In Miconia, the polyembryony was correlated with polyploidy, and monoembryony with diploid species. Polyembryony was more common among species with wide distribution in the Cerrado region, which indicates that the presence of gemellar seedlings is important for establishment and survival of the group in the Cerrado biome.

  2. Occurrence of invertebrate-pathogenic fungi in a Cerrado ecosystem in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity of microorganisms in natural environments is threatened worldwide by human activities. In a protected area of Cerrado, Goiás State, Brazil, naturally occurring invertebrate-pathogenic fungi were isolated from soils, slurries and water samples collected during the dry season in 2...

  3. A contribution to the identification of charcoal origin in Brazil II - Macroscopic characterization of Cerrado species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Nisgoski, Silvana; Oliveira, Julia S; Marcati, Carmen R; Ballarin, Adriano W; Muñiz, Graciela I B

    2016-05-13

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the richest savanna in the world. It is also one of the biomes more threatened in the country and a hotspot for conservation priorities. The main causes of deforestation in Cerrado are agricultural practices, livestock and charcoal production. Although charcoal has a minor impact, its consumption represents the deforestation of 16.000 Km² of the Cerrado. To contribute for the biomes's conservation it is very important to improve forestry supervision. Thus, in this work we present the macroscopic characterization of charcoal from 25 Cerrado's species. We simulate the real conditions of forest controllers by using the magnifications of 10x, 25x and 65x. Likewise, the charcoals micrographs are all of transverse sections due to the larger amount of anatomical information. We also analyzed texture, brightness, vitrification, ruptures and some special features. The species present several differences in their anatomical structure. Although some of them are very unique, this work does not intent to identify charcoals only by macroscopic analyses. But it might give directions to future identification of genera or species. It also provides knowledge for government agents to verify the documents of forestry origin by fast analyzing a sample of charcoal itself.

  4. Very low mitochondrial variability in a stingless bee endemic to cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Rute Magalhães; de Oliveira Francisco, Flávio; Françoso, Elaine; Santiago, Leandro Rodrigues; Arias, Maria Cristina

    2013-03-01

    Partamona mulata is a stingless bee species endemic to cerrado, a severely threatened phytogeographical domain. Clearing for pasture without proper soil treatment in the cerrado facilitates the proliferation of termite ground nests, which are the nesting sites for P. mulata. The genetic consequences of these changes in the cerrado environment for bee populations are still understudied. In this work, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 48 colonies of P. mulata collected throughout the species' distribution range by sequencing two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome B. A very low polymorphism rate was observed when compared to another Partamona species from the Atlantic forest. Exclusive haplotypes were observed in two of the five areas sampled. The sharing of two haplotypes between collection sites separated by a distance greater than the flight range of queens indicates an ancient distribution for these haplotypes. The low haplotype and nucleotide diversity observed here suggests that P. mulata is either a young species or one that has been through population bottlenecks. Locally predominant and exclusive haplotypes (H2 and H4) may have been derived from local remnants through cerrado deforestation and the expansion of a few colonies with abundant nesting sites.

  5. Cryptic lineages and Pleistocene population expansion in a Brazilian Cerrado frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Cynthia P A; Haddad, Célio F B; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2012-02-01

    Diversification of South American species endemic to open habitats has been attributed to both Tertiary events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. Nonetheless, phylogeographical studies of taxa in these regions are few, precluding generalizations about the timing and processes leading to differentiation and speciation. We inferred population structure of Hypsiboas albopunctatus, a frog widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado. Three geographically distinct lineages were recovered in our phylogeny. The Chapada dos Guimarães (CG) clade was the first to diverge from other populations and contains multiple haplotypes from a single population in western Cerrado, probably representing a cryptic species. The southeast clade (SE) includes populations along the southeastern limit of the range within the historical distribution of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Finally, the Central Cerrado (CC) group includes haplotypes from the interior of Brazil that are paraphyletic relative to the SE clade. Analyses of historical demography indicate significant population expansion in the CC and SE populations, likely associated with colonization of newly formed open habitats. The divergence of populations in the CG clade occurred in the late Miocene, concordant with the uplift of the central Brazilian plateau. Divergence of the SE clade from the CC occurred during the mid-Pleistocene. Thus, both Tertiary geological events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations promoted divergences among lineages. Our study reveals a complex history of diversification in the Cerrado, a morphoclimatic domain highly threatened because of anthropogenic habitat alteration. We identified surprisingly deep divergences in a widely distributed frog, indicating that the Cerrado is not a barrier-free habitat and that its diversity is likely underestimated.

  6. Bee communities (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) of the "Cerrado" ecosystem in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andena, S R; Nascimento, F S; Bispo, P C; Mechi, M R; Mateus, S; Bego, L R

    2009-07-07

    Five surveys of the bee communities in four "Cerrado" ecosystem reserves in São Paulo State were compared for species richness and similarity. These areas are fragment vegetation reser-ves located in the Cerrado Corumbataí Reserve (Corumbataí), Jataí Ecological Park (Luiz Antônio), Cajuru (Cajuru), and Vassununga State Park - "Gleba de Cerrado de Pé-de-Gigante" (Santa Rita do Passa Quatro). The methodology consisted of capturing bees foraging on flowers along transects, though with small differences between surveys. These "cerrado" areas have a large number of species of native bees, which are important pollinators in several Brazilian ecosystems. The community of bees varied among these different fragments. Based on 500 individuals (standardized by rarefaction), Cajuru, Corumbataí 1 and Corumbataí 2 were the areas with highest species richness, and Jataí and Pé-de-Gigante had the lowest species richness in the bee communities. The bee faunas of Corumbataí 2 and Pé-de-Gigante had the highest similarity, forming a group with the bee fauna of Cajuru. The bee faunas of Corumbataí 1 and Jataí were isolated from this group. We found that the bee species richness and similarity found in these "cerrado" areas cannot be explained by general factors such as the size of the fragment, the species richness of plants and the distance between the areas. Therefore, we suppose that local factors that differ among areas, such as interactions between populations, and competition and interference from surrounding areas influence and determine bee species richness and similarity in these reserves.

  7. Hydrological impacts of land-use change and agricultural policy in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, M.; Coe, M. T.; Soares-Filho, B.; Ferreira, L. G.; Panday, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Land-use change and climate variability are two of the most important forces driving changes to the surface water and energy balance in tropical ecosystems. Our analysis combines satellite-derived data on rainfall (CRU), evapotranspiration (MOD16), soil water storage (GRACE), and land cover (MOD12Q1) to understand the effect of past (2000-2012) land cover changes and climate variability on the water balance of the Brazilian Cerrado (savannah woodlands). Based on these historical relationships, we examine potential future land-use transitions from native Cerrado to pasturelands and mechanized agriculture, using the Brazilian Water Agency's (ANA) 12th order watersheds as our unit of analysis. In the Cerrado, these watersheds constitute nearly 37,500 units (mean area ~5,400 ha) and serve as a useful proxy for property-level land-use decisions. Our future scenarios evaluate the potential ramifications of recent changes in the Brazilian Forest Code, which we estimate may allow for legal deforestation of an additional 40 × 2 million hectares of native Cerrado. Our analysis indicates that historical land-cover changes have already caused a significant decrease in evapotranspiration, leading to a three-fold increase in discharge in small watersheds and a nearly 25% increase in large river basins like the Tocantins-Araguaia. As global demand for agricultural commodities continues to rise, it is likely that large-scale conversion of the Cerrado will continue or accelerate in the coming decade. Our research suggests that the cumulative impact of such large-scale land cover change may shift the water balance sufficiently to alter regional precipitation and deplete groundwater stores. Future research will focus on understanding the potential feedbacks of these large-scale hydrological changes on regional climate and agricultural productivity.

  8. Mapping Large-Scale Mechanized Agriculture Across the Brazilian Cerrado Between 2001-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, S. A.; Mustard, J. F.; VanWey, L.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is a global commodities powerhouse. Over the last decade, dynamic changes in agricultural development and land transformations occurred within Brazil's tropical savanna region, the cerrado. This interdisciplinary study uses remote sensing tools to map land cover across more than 3.6 million km2 of cerrado and statistical methods to characterize drivers of this land-cover change. We use the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index 16-day data product and a decision-tree algorithm, proven highly accurate in Mato Grosso (Spera et al. 2014) and here modified for the broader cerrado region, to characterize crop type, cropping frequency, expansion, and abandonment of large-scale mechanized agriculture during the 2001-2013 period. The algorithm exploits phenological differences between forest, pasture and cerrado, and mechanized agriculture. It is parameterized to distinguish between crop rotations in Mato Grosso, Goias, and the new agricultural frontier spanning Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, and Bahia (MaToPiBa). Training and validation data were collected using Google's Earth Engine. We map single-cropped soy, corn, and cotton; double-cropped soy/corn and soy/cotton rotations; and irrigated agriculture across these six Brazilian cerrado states. We find that while double cropping dominates in Mato Grosso and Goias, single cropping is still the dominant form of mechanized agriculture in the burgeoning MaToPiBa region. In western Bahia alone, preliminary results show agriculture has expanded by almost 350,000 ha and double cropping has increased by almost 40,000 ha. With MaToPiBa touted as Brazil's latest and last agricultural frontier, we predict that the region will experience a transition similar to that of Mato Grosso during the 2000s—an expansion and intensification of agriculture—which may beget unprecedented ramifications on regional climate processes that can then affect ecosystem health and the economic feasibility of cultivating rain-fed export crops.

  9. VERBENACEAE SENSU LATO EM UM TRECHO DA ESEC RASO DA CATARINA, BAHIA, BRASIL

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    JOSÉ IRANILDO MIRANDA DE MELO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work carried out a floristic-taxonomic survey of the family Verbenaceae sensu lato in a stretch at the Ecological Station Raso da Catarina, Bahia State, Brazil. Four genera and six species were recorded: Aegiphila, with one species (A. sellowiana Cham.; Lantana, with one species (L. fucata Lindl.; Lippia, with three species (L. gracilis Schauer, Lippia cf. schomburgkiana Schauer and L. thymoides Mart. & Schauer and Stachytarpheta, with one species (S. caatingensis S. Atkins. A key for recognition of the species, descriptions and illustrations, beyond data about flowering and fruiting, geographical distribution and habitat are provided.

  10. First record of Mesoclemmys tuberculata (Reptilia, Testudines, Chelidae in the Cerrado area of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil

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    Adriano Lima Silveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesoclemmys tuberculata is a turtle species that is distributed in northeastern Brazil, recorded mainly in the Caatinga and at some localities in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. In this paper we report the first species record in an area of Cerrado of Minas Gerais state, and it is the only known state record in a specific location. During field sampling, a specimen of M. tuberculata was collected in the municipality of João Pinheiro, northwest state, in a Cerrado nuclear area in the São Francisco river basin. The locality of this record is the southern and western limits of M. tuberculata’s known distribution, as well as the most inland locality of species record in the Cerrado biome.

  11. Florística do cerrado na Reserva Biológica de Moji Guaçu, SP

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Foi analisada uma área de 343,42 ha situada em mancha disjunta do cerrado, no Município de Moji Guaçu (Reserva Biológica de Moji Guaçu), São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil (22º15'-16'S e 47º08'-12'W). A área do cerrado estudada apresenta predomínio de fisionomias abertas, que vão do campo cerrado ao cerrado senso restrito. Foram amostradas as plantas vasculares em fase reprodutiva, em dezenove excursões de coletga, com intervalos de 30-45 dias, quando eram anotados dados fenológicos e as formas de ...

  12. Mites (Arachnida, Acari) on Astronium fraxinifolium Schott (Anacardiaceae) from the Cerrado remnants associated with nickel mining areas

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Karine,; Araújo, Fernanda,; De Lima, Edgar,; Daud, Rodrigo,

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The Cerrado biome suffers constant impacts mainly due to agricultural activities, which can reduce food resources and habitats for many plant-dwelling mites, including important species to agriculture, such as predators. However, the mite fauna from this biome are still poorly known. Here, we present a checklist of mite species on Astronium fraxinifolium Schott, a Brazilian plant species threatened with extinction, from the Cerrado remnants associated with nickel minin...

  13. Circuito cerrado para una industria sostenible, aportaciones del sector cementero

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    Zaragoza, A.

    2010-03-01

    de recursos y las emisiones a la atmósfera. El producto debe incorporar características sostenibles tales como la posibilidad de ser reciclado y/o valorizado en algún momento de su ciclo de vida y, así, poder ser reintroducido de nuevo en la actividad industrial. De esta manera, el producto se convierte en la piedra angular de un sistema de producción en “circuito cerrado” que implique a todos los sectores industriales en el concepto de reciclaje de productos y residuos y que minimice la huella del proceso. El sector cementero debe seguir incidiendo en las posibilidades de reciclado de los materiales fabricados con cemento, además de los utilizados propiamente en su fabricación, y, sobre todo, se debe seguir profundizando en la relación entre Ciclo de Vida y reciclaje, lo que proporcionará al sector una metodología y unas herramientas útiles para reducir el impacto ambiental y reforzar sus contribuciones sociales y económicas. Por ello el sector está haciendo esfuerzos para la puesta en marcha de una industria en circuito cerrado en la que se reutilicen materiales y energía, minimizando al máximo su afección en el entorno, a la vez que se está trabajando en una conceptualización de este modelo de producción en cadena, que implique a todos los sectores industriales en el reciclado de materiales. Prueba de este compromiso son los acuerdos firmados con FER y Sigrauto para el aprovechamiento de vehículos fuera de uso y con UNESID para la valorización de residuos siderúrgicos, así como el proyecto Pressure para la gestión integral de residuos industriales.

  14. Comparative Genomics of Listeria Sensu Lato: Genus-Wide Differences in Evolutionary Dynamics and the Progressive Gain of Complex, Potentially Pathogenicity-Related Traits through Lateral Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Matteo; Caruso, Marta; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Manzari, Caterina; Fraccalvieri, Rosa; Goffredo, Elisa; Latorre, Laura; Miccolupo, Angela; Padalino, Iolanda; Santagada, Gianfranco; Chiocco, Doriano; Pesole, Graziano; Horner, David S; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-07-15

    Historically, genome-wide and molecular characterization of the genus Listeria has concentrated on the important human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and a small number of closely related species, together termed Listeria sensu strictu. More recently, a number of genome sequences for more basal, and nonpathogenic, members of the Listeria genus have become available, facilitating a wider perspective on the evolution of pathogenicity and genome level evolutionary dynamics within the entire genus (termed Listeria sensu lato). Here, we have sequenced the genomes of additional Listeria fleischmannii and Listeria newyorkensis isolates and explored the dynamics of genome evolution in Listeria sensu lato. Our analyses suggest that acquisition of genetic material through gene duplication and divergence as well as through lateral gene transfer (mostly from outside Listeria) is widespread throughout the genus. Novel genetic material is apparently subject to rapid turnover. Multiple lines of evidence point to significant differences in evolutionary dynamics between the most basal Listeria subclade and all other congeners, including both sensu strictu and other sensu lato isolates. Strikingly, these differences are likely attributable to stochastic, population-level processes and contribute to observed variation in genome size across the genus. Notably, our analyses indicate that the common ancestor of Listeria sensu lato lacked flagella, which were acquired by lateral gene transfer by a common ancestor of Listeria grayi and Listeria sensu strictu, whereas a recently functionally characterized pathogenicity island, responsible for the capacity to produce cobalamin and utilize ethanolamine/propane-2-diol, was acquired in an ancestor of Listeria sensu strictu.

  15. Ulex parviflorus sensu lato (Genisteae, Leguminosae en la zona centro de Portugal

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    Cubas, Paloma

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A group of gorses growing in Central Portugal has been traditionally identified as Ulex parviflorus Pourret sensu lato. The study of these plants reveáls important differences in morphological characters such as size, ramification, colour and indumentum of shoots, the type, disposition and indumentum of primary and secondary spines, and the dimensions, shape and indumentum of the calyx. Based on these morphological characteristics, as well as chromosome number, ecological requirements and geographic distribution, the plants are now ascribed to the following taxa: U. airensis sp. nov., U. australis subsp. welwitschianus stat. & comb. nov., U. eriocladus C. Vicioso and U. jussiaei WebbEn la zona centro de Portugal crece un conjunto de tojos que han sido tradicionalmente identificados como Ulex parviflorus Pourret sensu lato. Sin embargo, estas plantas presentan diferencias morfológicas en el porte, ramificación, color e indumento de ejes y ramas, en el tipo, disposición e indumento de las espinas primarias y secundarias y en las dimensiones, forma e indumento del cáliz. Estos caracteres morfológicos, el número cromosómico, los requerimientos ecológicos y el área geográfica permiten adscribir estas plantas a los siguientes táxones: U. airensis sp. nov., U. australis subsp. welwitschianus stat. & comb. nov., U. eriocladus C. Vicioso y U. jussiaei Webb.

  16. First isolation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J H; Kollars, T M; Chandler, F W; James, A M; Masters, E J; Lane, R S; Huey, L O

    1998-01-01

    Five Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from Missouri are described. This represents the first report and characterization of such isolates from that state. The isolates were obtained from either Ixodes dentatus or Amblyomma americanum ticks that had been feeding on cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) from a farm in Bollinger County, Mo., where a human case of Lyme disease had been reported. All isolates were screened immunologically by indirect immunofluorescence by using monoclonal antibodies to B. burgdorferi-specific outer surface protein A (OspA) (antibodies H3TS and H5332), B. burgdorferi-specific OspB (antibody H6831), Borrelia (genus)-specific antiflagellin (antibody H9724), and Borrelia hermsii-specific antibody (antibody H9826). Analysis of the isolates also involved a comparison of their protein profiles by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Finally, the isolates were analyzed by PCR with six pairs of primers known to amplify selected DNA target sequences specifically found in the reference strain B. burgdorferi B-31. Although some genetic variability was detected among the five isolates as well as between them and the B-31 strain, enough similarities were found to classify them as B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  17. VARIABLES THAT INFLUENCE STUDENTS’ CHOICE OF DISTANCE EDUCATION LATO SENSU GRADUATE BUSINESS PROGRAMS

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    Eduardo Mendes Nascimento

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Scriven’s User-Focused Evaluation Theory, the general objective in this study was to identify and analyze the degree of importance Brazilian students attribute to the variables that influence them when choosing distance education lato sensu graduate business programs. The research is classified as descriptive and an electronic questionnaire was used to survey the data, involving 354 students from distance education lato sensu graduate business programs distributed across different Brazilian locations. The questionnaire included 16 variables, which the students were expected to score from 0 to 10. The results indicated that 04 variables obtained a mean score superior to 9, and that flexibility was the main factor the respondents considered in the choice of a distance education program. This evidences that the possibility to structure the program according to their available time is fundamental for the students. Nevertheless, having a trained teaching staff (second most influential variable and a curriculum appropriate to their pedagogical needs (fourth are also essential characteristics. Finally, the respondents indicated the cost as the third most important variable. Some authors even consider it decisive in the students’ choice as distance education programs are frequently cheaper than in-class programs. In addition, it was verified that women score the investigated internal variables higher than men. In addition, the location of the support hub appeared as a determinant variable in the choice of the program.

  18. Levantamento florístico no cerrado de Pedregulho, SP, Brasil Floristic inventory of cerrado at Pedregulho, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Denise Sasaki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Em Pedregulho, município do extremo nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, ocorrem fragmentos de cerrado considerados floristicamente distintos dos demais remanescentes paulistas. Nesse estudo, foi realizado um levantamento florístico em Pedregulho, abordando duas regiões geologicamente distintas: o Parque Estadual das Furnas do Bom Jesus e o distrito de Estreito. Em cada uma, delimitaram-se duas parcelas de 50×50 m, totalizando um hectare, onde foram encontradas 65 famílias e 379 espécies de angiospermas. Coletas em áreas adjacentes totalizaram 71 famílias e 443 espécies. As duas regiões estudadas têm baixa similaridade florística entre si. A distribuição geográfica das espécies é analisada e oito padrões são delimitados para aquelas cuja distribuição no Estado de São Paulo é restrita à região de Pedregulho.Pedregulho municipality in the far northeastern region of São Paulo state has fragments of cerrado vegetation thought to be floristically distinct from other cerrado remmants in the state. In this study, a floristic survey was carried out at Pedregulho, focusing on two geologically distinct regions: Furnas do Bom Jesus State Park and the Estreito district. In each region, 50×50 m plots were set up for a total sample area of 1 hectare, where 65 families and 379 angiosperm species were recorded. Collecting efforts in adjacent areas resulted in a total of 71 families and 443 species. The two study areas had low floristic similarity. Geographic species distribution was analyzed and eight patterns were defined for those species restricted to the Pedregulho region in São Paulo.

  19. Rhizobium strains competitiveness on bean nodulation in Cerrado soils Capacidade competitiva de estirpes de Rhizobium na nodulação do feijoeiro em solos de Cerrado

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    Ruy Raposeiras

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify the most competitive and effective Rhizobium strains in order to increase common bean yield by nitrogen fixation as alternative or complementation to the nitrogen fertilization. Competitiveness tests were lead in axenic conditions, in Cerrado soil pots and in three field experiments, with native Rhizobium strains that were previously identified, according to their effectiveness and genetic variability. The identification of strains in nodules was performed using serological tests (axenic conditions - agglutination and enzyme linked immunosorbent (Elisa assays - and random amplified polymorfic DNA (RAPD (Cerrado soil. Plant yield was determined using the dry weight (greenhouse conditions, total N and grain yield (field experiments. Among the analyzed Rhizobium strains, native strain SLA 2.2 and commercial strain CIAT 899 were the dominant nodules in plants of the most productive plots, presenting yield productivity similar or higher to those obtained in treatments where 20 kg ha-1 of N were applied.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as estirpes de Rhizobium mais efetivas e competitivas, a fim de maximizar a produtividade do feijoeiro por meio da fixação de nitrogênio, como alternativa à adubação nitrogenada. Foram conduzidos testes de competitividade em condições axênicas, em vasos com solo do Cerrado e em três experimentos de campo, com estirpes de Rhizobium nativas, previamente selecionadas quanto à efetividade e à variabilidade genética. A identificação das estirpes nos nódulos foi efetuada por meio das técnicas de aglutinação e ensaio imunoabsorvente de ligação de enzimas (Elisa, em condições de casa de vegetação, e pela técnica de DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso (RAPD, em solo de Cerrado. A produtividade das plantas foi determinada pela produção de matéria seca, teor de N e produção de grãos (condições de campo. A estirpe nativa SLA 2.2 e a estirpe

  20. Using Remote Sensing and Random Forest to Assess the Conservation Status of Critical Cerrado Habitats in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Jason Reynolds

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s Cerrado is a highly diverse ecosystem and it provides critical habitat for many species. Cerrado habitats have suffered significant degradation and decline over the past decades due to expansion of cash crops and livestock farming across South America. Approximately 1,800,000 km2 of the Cerrado remain in Brazil, but detailed maps and conservation assessments of the Cerrado are lacking. We developed a land cover classification for the Cerrado, focusing on the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, which may also be used to map critical habitat for endangered species. We used a Random Forest algorithm to perform a supervised classification on a set of Landsat 8 images. To determine habitat fragmentation for the Cerrado, we used Fragstats. A habitat connectivity analysis was performed using Linkage Mapper. Our final classification had an overall accuracy of 88%. Our classification produced higher accuracies (72% in predicting Cerrado than existing government maps. We found that remaining Cerrado habitats were severely fragmented. Four potential corridors were identified in the southwest of Mato Grosso do Sul, where large Cerrado patches are located. Only two large patches remain in Mato Grosso do Sul: one within the Kadiwéu Indian Reserve, and one near the southeastern edge of the Pantanal-dominated landscape. These results are alarming for rare species requiring larger tracts of habitat such as the giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus.

  1. Caracterização da diversidade microbiológica de solo do Cerrado de Minas Gerais por eletroforese em gel de gradiente desnaturante (DGGE)

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Vanessa Alvarenga

    2014-01-01

    O Cerrado é considerado o segundo maior bioma do país em área. Dentre os estados que fazem parte deste bioma Cerrado, o estado de Minas Gerais possui 57% de Cerrado sendo caracterizados por solos com alta acidez, baixa fertilidade, níveis elevados de ferro e alumínio. Há poucos estudos sobre a diversidade microbiana dos solos do Cerrado. A aplicação de técnicas moleculares vem sendo frequentemente empregada para detectar e identificar os microrganismos em ambientes naturais. Neste estudo, a c...

  2. Effects of environmental factors on community structure of Leptophlebiidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Cerrado streams, Brazil

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    Leandro S. Brasil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effects of environmental factors on abundance, species richness, and functional group richness of Leptophlebiidae in 16 sampling points along four Cerrado streams. Across three periods of 2005, we collected 5,492 larvae from 14 species in stream bed substrate. These species belong to three functional feeding groups: scrapers, filtering collectors and shredders. The abundance and species richness were not affected by water quality, but habitat quality related to presence of riparian vegetation had positive effects on the abundance of shredders. Our results add important information on the natural history of the species and functional groups of aquatic insects and also provide relevant data for the monitoring and conservation of streams in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  3. Natural history of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae in a Cerrado region of northeastern Brazil

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    Francisco Dal Vechio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhardt & Luetken, 1861 is a microteiid lizard widely distributed in the open areas of South America. Little is known about its ecology and reproductive biology. Here, we analyzed aspects of the natural history of a population of M. maximiliani from a Cerrado area in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil. Our results suggest that the reproductive activity of M. maximiliani might be seasonal in the Cerrado, since reproductive females were observed only in the dry season, whereas reproductive males were present in both seasons. Vitellogenic follicles and oviductal eggs were found simultaneously in one female, suggesting that females may produce more than one clutch per season. Sexual dimorphism was observed in body shape, and individuals were mainly restricted to a typical savanna physiognomy. The diet consisted of small arthropods, including spiders, crickets and cockroaches as the most important items.

  4. Plant phenology, resource seasonality and climate change in a Brazilian cerrado savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez de Camargo, Maria Gabriela; de Camargo Guaraldo, André; Reys, Paula; Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato, Leonor

    2010-05-01

    Plant phenology, the study of recurring events and its relationship to climate, contributes with key information for the understanding of forest dynamics and plant resource availability to the fauna. Plant reproduction and growth are affected by proximate factors such as precipitation, temperature and photoperiod, ecological factors such as plant-animal interaction, for instance pollination and seed dispersal, and by phylogeny. Therefore, phenological changes may have enormous consequences for both, plants and animals depending upon the periodical availability of plant resources. The Brazilian tropical savannas, the cerrado, is a highly diverse vegetation with around 70% of the woody flora relaying on animal vectors for pollination and seed dispersal. We consider the cerrado savanna a good model to investigate shifts on tropical phenology and climate change. This vegetation presents a very seasonal phenology shaped by the climate characterized by the alternation of a hot, wet season and a dry, cooler one. The onset of leafing, flowering and fruiting is defined by the duration and intensity of the dry season, and changes on precipitation patterns and dryness may likely affect the plant species reproductive pattern as well as the resource availability to the fauna. In that context, we are carrying out a long-term project to investigate the phenology of growth and reproduction of a cerrado savanna woody community in Southeastern Brazil. Our aim is to understand the cerrado savanna long-term phenological patterns, its relationship to local climate, and whether phenological shifts over time may occur due to variations on climate. We are collecting data on crop size, species abundance and fruit consumption by birds to understand the fruit-frugivore network. Additionally, analyses are underway to explore the relationship among fruit season, fruit production, color and nutritional contents, and the activity of frugivores. Our final goal is to verify at which extension

  5. Desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de jatobazeiro do cerrado em Aquidauana-MS

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    Edilson Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A busca por uma alimentação saudável tem aumentado o consumo de frutas e hortaliças, proporcionando maior aceitação das fruteiras do cerrado no mercado. Visando à obtenção de mudas de qualidade, este trabalho avaliou a formação de mudas do jatobazeiro-do-cerrado em diferentes ambientes protegidos e substratos, na UEMS, Aquidauana, no período de novembro de 2008 a março de 2009. Foram utilizados três ambientes protegidos: estufa plástica de polietileno transparente, viveiro de tela de sombreamento e viveiro telado com malha termorrefletora; e seis substratos: solo, Plantmax®, fibra de coco fina, fibra de coco chips, vermiculita e composto orgânico. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com esquema de parcelas subdivididas (split-plot e dez repetições. Houve interação entre ambiente de cultivo e substrato na formação de mudas de jatobá-do-cerrado. Na estufa agrícola, indica-se a utilização do Plantmax® e, nos telados, recomenda-se a vermiculita. O Plantimax® promoveu crescimento uniforme das mudas, em todos ambientes, especialmente na estufa agrícola. O substrato com 100% de composto orgânico não é indicado na formação de mudas de jatobá-do-cerrado. O Índice de Qualidade de Dickson é um bom indicador do padrão de qualidade das mudas.

  6. Cryptic lineages and diversification of an endemic anole lizard (Squamata, Dactyloidae) of the Cerrado hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Werneck, Fernanda P; Giugliano, Lilian G; Santos, Marcella G; Fenker, Jéssica; Sousa, Lucas; D'Angiolella, Annelise B; Dos Santos, Adriana R; Strüssmann, Christine; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Dorado-Rodrigues, Tainá F; Gamble, Tony; Colli, Guarino R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is a wide Neotropical savanna with tremendously high endemic diversity. Yet, it is not clear what the prevalent processes leading to such diversification are. We used the Cerrado-endemic lizard Norops meridionalis to investigate the main abiotic factors that promoted genetic divergence, the timings of these divergence events, and how these relate to cryptic diversity in the group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 21 sites of N. meridionalis to generate species tree, divergence time estimations, and estimate species limits. We also performed population-level analysis and estimated distribution models to test the roles of niche conservatism and divergence in the group diversification. We found that N. meridionalis is composed by at least five cryptic species. Divergence time estimations suggest that the deepest branches split back into the early-mid Miocene, when most of the geophysical activity of the Cerrado took place. The deep divergences found in N. meridionalis suggest that beta anoles invaded South America much earlier than previously thought. Recent published evidence supports this view, indicating that the Panama gap closed as early as 15 mya, allowing for an early invasion of Norops into South America. The spatial pattern of diversification within N. meridionalis follows a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent across several species of vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado. Also, we found evidence for non-stationary isolation by distance, which occurs when genetic differentiation depends on space. Our preliminary data in two out of five lineages suggest that niche conservatism is an important mechanism that promoted geographic fragmentation in the group.

  7. Diversity of nutcracking tool sites used by Sapajus libidinosus in Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Francisco Dyonísio C; Cardoso, Raphael Moura; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Izar, Patrícia; Villar, Daniell Nunes A; Marquezan, Rogério F

    2015-05-01

    Cracking nuts with tools is a behavior documented in a small number of populations of tufted capuchins, mainly in semi-arid Caatinga and Caatinga-Cerrado transitional environments of northeastern Brazil. Only one of these populations inhabits the less arid Cerrado in Central Brazil, where environments are composed of a heterogeneous mosaic of fields, savannas and forest formations. We conducted surveys in 10 of 20 localities where nutcracking by capuchins was reported by the local inhabitants in the Cerrrado of Northern Goiás and Tocantins. Our purpose was to evaluate nutcracking sites (anvils and associated hammers and nuts) based on indirect evidence of extensive pounding of nuts and seeds. Nutcracking was confirmed at all 10 surveyed localities. A total of 270 sites were identified. Surveyed localities included areas that were ecologically similar to those where capuchins crack nuts in Caatinga, as well as less arid localities with more typical Cerrado habitat. Anvils and hammers were made of materials including quartz, limestone, sandstone and wood, and displayed a wider range of sizes (i.e., 60-3,750 g for hammers' weight) than reported at previously studied localities. Nuts of seven genera were found in association with anvils and hammers. We conclude that nutcracking by capuchins are not restricted to arid environments and argue that the occurrence and diversity of nutcracking tool sites result from complex interactions of environmental variables (e.g., availability of food and mineral resources, density of canopy cover) and social variables (e.g., spatial cohesiveness and tolerance among group members) that need to be examined through long-term research of habituated groups. Localities in the Cerrado of Northern Goiás and Tocantins vary considerable in the ecological conditions faced by wild groups, and therefore offer the opportunity to examine these interactions.

  8. Structure of pond vegetation of a vereda in the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira,Suzana Neves; POTT,Arnildo; Pott,Vali Joana; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This is the first report on aquatic macrophytes in ponds of veredas (palm swamps) in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). We studied a pond in a vereda in Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul state, central-western Brazil, during drought and flood periods to assess plant community structure and the relationship between species distribution and water depth. Sampling was carried out in five permanent transects, along which we placed sampling units of 1 m2 quadrats every 5 m. We estimated visually t...

  9. Bird predation on nest of a social wasp in Brazilian cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Henriques, Raimundo Paulo; Torre Palma, Alexandre Ramlo

    2015-01-01

    Birds are rarely observed preying upon wasps' nests (Bertoni 1911, Rau 1941, AIvarez del Toro 1950, Skutch 1959, Windsor 1976). Many of the observations are recorded in tropical forest on nests of Polybia and Metapolybia. In this note we present the first observations on the predation by the curIcrestedjay (Cyanocorax cristatellus) upon the nest of a social wasp (Apoica pallens) in cerrados of Central Brazil. Birds are rarely observed preying upon wasps' nests (Bertoni 1911, Rau 1941, AIva...

  10. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  11. Storage in cerrado soil and germination of Psychotria vellosiana (Rubiaceae seeds

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    C. G. Araújo

    Full Text Available The regeneration of plant communities from seed depends, to a large extent, on the capacity of the seed remaining viable in the soil. The viability and germination of artificially buried Psychotria vellosiana seeds in cerrado soil were studied, with the purpose of discovering some physio-ecological aspects of dispersed seeds and evaluating their potential to constitute a soil seed bank. Seed samples were placed in nylon envelopes and buried in the soil of a Cerrado reserve at two different depths and sites. Buried seeds were retrieved periodically and tested for germination along with dry-stored seeds. In general, there was a reduction in seed germination with storage time, both in soil and dry stored conditions, and in some assays exhumed seeds germinated faster than dry stored ones. In general the soil storage favoured seed viability of ungerminated seeds as compared to dry stored ones, with the seeds remaining partially viable after 10 months of storage. The lack of germination of viable seeds suggests that seeds showed true dormancy and/or required an extended time to germinate. It was observed that some seeds had germinated while buried and such in situ germination tended to increase with rainfall. The water availability in the soil might be a limiting factor for successful germination of P. vellosiana in the field, and the seeds may constitute a persistent soil seed bank in the cerrado as dispersed seeds remain viable in the soil until the following period of seed dispersal.

  12. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of leaf infusions of Myrtaceae species from Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, L K; Imatomi, M; Gualtieri, S C J

    2015-11-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying new antioxidants from plant materials. Several studies have emphasized the antioxidant activity of species belonging to the Myrtaceae family. However, there are few reports on these species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). In this study, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 12 native Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado were evaluated (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia dysenterica, Eugenia klotzschiana, Hexachlamys edulis, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, and Psidium laruotteanum). Antioxidant potential was assessed using the antioxidant activity index (AAI) by the DPPH method and total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. There was a high correlation between TPC and AAI values. Psidium laruotteanum showed the highest TPC (576.56 mg GAE/g extract) and was the most potent antioxidant (AAI = 7.97, IC50 = 3.86 µg·mL-1), with activity close to that of pure quercetin (IC50 = 2.99 µg·mL-1). The extracts of nine species showed IC50 of 6.24-8.75 µg·mL-1. Most species showed TPC and AAI values similar to or higher than those for Camellia sinensis, a commonly consumed tea with strong antioxidant properties. The results reveal that the analyzed Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado possess high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Thus, they are a potential source of new natural antioxidants.

  13. LEAF MICROMOPHOMETRY OF PALICOUREA RIGIDA KUNTH. (RUBIACEAE FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO AND CAMPO RUPESTRE ENVIRONMENTS

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    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate qualitative and quantitative leaf anatomical traits of Palicourea rigida Kunth. (Rubiaceae species occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado and Campo Rupestre ecosystems. Anatomical analysis was performed in fresh or fixed leaves processed with usual plant microtechnique. Leaves showed uniseriate epidermis in petiole and leaf blade which contains uniseriate nonglandular tricomes (tector type occurring only over the vascular bundles. Likewise, paracytic stomata were found only in abaxial side of the leaf surface. The mesophyll contains uniseriate palisade parenchyma and multiseriate spongy parenchyma (nine layers which showed cells with different morphology and size. Crystal idoblasts of different types were observed in both the petiole and leaf blade. Collateral vascular bundles were found both in the petiole and leaf blade. Leaf venation type was pinnate, campylodromous or brochydodromous. The micromorphometric analysis showed significant differences from plants of different environments for all leaf characteristics and Cerrado plants showed higher means for all evaluated traits. Therefore, the influence of environments may had modulated morphological responses in P. rigida, since no difference was found in the type or distribution of leaf tissues in Cerrado or Campo Rupestre.

  14. Convergence beyond flower morphology? Reproductive biology of hummingbird-pollinated plants in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Maruyama, P K; Oliveira, P E

    2016-03-01

    Convergent reproductive traits in non-related plants may be the result of similar environmental conditions and/or specialised interactions with pollinators. Here, we documented the pollination and reproductive biology of Bionia coriacea (Fabaceae), Esterhazya splendida (Orobanchaceae) and Ananas ananassoides (Bromeliaceae) as case studies in the context of hummingbird pollination in Cerrado, the Neotropical savanna of Central South America. We combined our results with a survey of hummingbird pollination studies in the region to investigate the recently suggested association of hummingbird pollination and self-compatibility. Plant species studied here differed in their specialisation for ornithophily, from more generalist A. ananassoides to somewhat specialist B. coriacea and E. splendida. This continuum of specialisation in floral traits also translated into floral visitor composition. Amazilia fimbriata was the most frequent pollinator for all species, and the differences in floral display and nectar energy availability among plant species affect hummingbirds' behaviour. Most of the hummingbird-pollinated Cerrado plants (60.0%, n = 20), including those studied here, were self-incompatible, in contrast to other biomes in the Neotropics. Association to more generalist, often territorial, hummingbirds, and resulting reduced pollen flow in open savanna areas may explain predominance of self-incompatibility. But it is possible that mating system is more associated with the predominance of woody hummingbird plants in the Cerrado plant assemblage than to the pollination system itself.

  15. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of leaf infusions of Myrtaceae species from Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Takao

    Full Text Available Abstract There is considerable interest in identifying new antioxidants from plant materials. Several studies have emphasized the antioxidant activity of species belonging to the Myrtaceae family. However, there are few reports on these species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna. In this study, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 12 native Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado were evaluated (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia dysenterica, Eugenia klotzschiana, Hexachlamys edulis, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, and Psidium laruotteanum. Antioxidant potential was assessed using the antioxidant activity index (AAI by the DPPH method and total phenolic content (TPC by the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. There was a high correlation between TPC and AAI values. Psidium laruotteanum showed the highest TPC (576.56 mg GAE/g extract and was the most potent antioxidant (AAI = 7.97, IC50 = 3.86 µg·mL−1, with activity close to that of pure quercetin (IC50 = 2.99 µg·mL−1. The extracts of nine species showed IC50 of 6.24–8.75 µg·mL−1. Most species showed TPC and AAI values similar to or higher than those for Camellia sinensis, a commonly consumed tea with strong antioxidant properties. The results reveal that the analyzed Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado possess high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Thus, they are a potential source of new natural antioxidants.

  16. Bat flies on phyllostomid hosts in the Cerrado region: component community, prevalence and intensity of parasitism

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    Alan Eriksson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Streblidae flies are specialised parasites of bat hosts, mainly phyllostomids. There is a high richness of streblids in the savannah-like Cerrado region; however, there is little quantitative data available in parasitological indices. Here, we describe the component community, prevalence and intensity of a streblid infestation on a phyllostomid bat assemblage in Serra da Bodoquena, a Cerrado region in Southwest Brazil. We conducted surveys by capturing and inspecting bat hosts during the seven-month period between October 2004-December 2005. All the ectoparasites found on the bats were collected in the field and then counted and identified in the laboratory. We captured 327 bats belonging to 13 species, of which eight species were parasitized by 17 species of streblids. Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina were infested with seven streblid species, whereas the other bat species were infested with four or fewer streblid species. Megistopoda proxima and Aspidoptera falcata flies were found on Sturnira lilium, and Trichobius joblingi was the most prevalent fly on C. perspicillata. Megistopoda aranea and Aspidoptera phyllostomatis were highly prevalent and had a high intensity of infestation on Artibeus planirostris. Overall comparisons of the available data suggest that the component communities of streblids vary more between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest phytogeographical regions than between localities within the same phytogeographical region.

  17. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss

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    Oliveira Antonio F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90m g.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene revealed lowefficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga, T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  18. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Antonio F M; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Salatino, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90 microg.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone) and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene) revealed low efficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro) is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga), T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado) is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  19. Rodent species as natural reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in different habitats of Ixodes ricinus in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassner, F.; Takken, W.; Plas, C.; Kastelein, P.; Hoetmer, A.J.; Holdinga, M.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2013-01-01

    Rodents are natural reservoirs for human pathogenic spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi complex [B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)], and the pathogens are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans in The Netherlands. B. burgdorferi s.l. infection prevalence in questing ticks, rodents, and ti

  20. Sporothrix schenckii Sensu Lato identification in fragments of skin lesion cultured in NNN medium for differential diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Paes, Rodrigo Almeida; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino Figueredo; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Eighty-nine patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis were referred for differential diagnosis. Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato was isolated in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle + Schneider media in 98% of 64 patients with final diagnosis of sporotrichosis. This medium may be suitable for diagnosis of sporotrichosis in areas where cutaneous leishmaniasis is also endemic.

  1. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans sensu lato in Ecuador provides new insight into the origin of this important plant pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adler, N.E.; Erselius, L.J.; Chacón, G.M.; Flier, W.G.; Ordonez, M.E.; Kroon, L.P.N.M.; Forbes, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    The metapopulation structure of Phytophthora infestans sensu lato is genetically diverse in the highlands of Ecuador. Previous reports documented the diversity associated with four putative clonal lineages of the pathogen collected from various hosts in the genus Solanum. This paper simultaneously a

  2. Dinâmica das populações bacterianas em solos de Cerrados Dynamic of bacterial populations from Cerrado soils

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    João Carlos Pereira

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos ambientes tropicais, os Cerrados destacam-se pelo seu potencial agrícola. Apesar das funções dos microrganismos no crescimento das plantas e na produtividade das culturas, existem poucas informações dos efeitos resultantes do manejo do solo, na ecologia microbiana. Neste estudo, foram avaliados os efeitos das condições ambientais e das práticas agrícolas sobre as populações bacterianas. As densidades das populações em solos com vegetação nativa foram variáveis e diferenciadas. Em Sete Lagoas, MG, as populações de actinomicetos variaram de 1,7 a 50 X 10(4 UFC/g de solo seco, enquanto em Planaltina as densidades das populações bacterianas em solo com primeiro e segundo ano de cultivo de soja foram semelhantes, mas superiores ao solo com vegetação nativa. A utilização agrícola deste solo não resultou em desequilíbrios acentuados das populações de actinomicetos provenientes de esporos e hifas. As relações esporos/hifas variaram de 1,1 a 5,8. Na rizosfera da soja, os coeficientes de correlação entre as populações de actinomicetos com as demais populações bacterianas foram significativos. Os resultados evidenciam que as práticas agrícolas utilizadas na introdução da cultura da soja em solos de Cerrados pode influenciar o equilíbrio das populações na comunidade bacteriana.Among tropical environments, Cerrados stand out because of its agriculture potencial. Although microorganisms play an important role on soil sustainability and crop production, few information is available on the effects of soil management systems on Cerrado's microbial ecology. In this study the effects of environmental conditions and soil management practices on bacterial populations were evaluated. Bacterial population densities in soil under native vegetation were variable and diferentiated. Actinomycetes densities varied from 1.7 to 50 X 10(4 CFU/g dry soil in Sete Lagoas region, Brazil, whereas bacterial populations in both the

  3. Flora e aspectos auto-ecológicos de um encrave de cerrado na chapada do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil Flora and autecology's aspects of a disjunction cerrado at Araripe plateau, Northeastern Brazil

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    Itayguara Ribeiro da Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa conhecer a composição e riqueza florística, os padrões fenológicos reprodutivos, as síndromes de dispersão e as formas de vida das espécies de uma disjunção de cerrado em clima semi-árido, na chapada do Araripe, Estado do Ceará. Foram encontradas 107 espécies e 41 famílias. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Malpighiaceae foram as mais ricas em espécies. Foi feita a distribuição geográfica de 47 espécies arbustivas e arbóreas em 27 listagens de cerrados brasileiros. Doze espécies apresentaram ampla distribuição geográfica e 13 foram registradas apenas neste trabalho. Cerca de 76% das espécies floresceram e frutificaram no período chuvoso. As síndromes de dispersão predominantes foram: zoocoria, autocoria e anemocoria. O espectro biológico foi predominantemente constituído por fanerófitos (50,7%, hemicriptófitos (14,9% e caméfitos (13,1%. O cerrado estudado apresentou menor riqueza taxonômica que os cerrados contínuos e comportamento das fenofases reprodutivas, percentagem de síndromes de dispersão e formas de vida similares.This study subject to investigate the floristic composition and richness, the reproductive phenological patterns, the dispersal syndromes and life forms of species of a disjunt cerrado in semiarid climate at Araripe plateau during a one year period. We found 107 species and 41 families. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae, Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Malpighiaceae showed the largest number of species. For 47 of the woody species found, we studied the geographical distribution based on 27 papers of the Brazilian cerrados. Twelve species are of widespread occurence in the cerrado, and 13 are restricted to the Araripe plateau. Zoocory, autocory, and anemocory are the predominant syndromes of dispersal. The predominant life forms were phanerophytes (50.7%, hemicriptophytes (14.9% and camephytes (13.1%. The cerrado of Araripe have lower species richness

  4. Mapping fire events in the transition of Amazon and Cerrado biome using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Daldegan, G.; Roberts, D. A.; Peterson, S.; Ribeiro, F.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract to AGU Fire is considered one of the determinant factors that have shaped Cerrado biome, the Brazilian Savanna, considered the most biodiverse savanna in the world. At the same time, fire has not acted a major role during the evolution of the Amazon Forest due to the strong capacity it has to resist burning. Recently, with the expansion of the agricultural activities in the central Brazil, about 49% of the Cerrado has been converted to other uses and as deforestation vector runs towards the Amazon Forest it modifies the natural moist microclimate in the edges of the forest, increasing the likelihood of wildfires. Every year these ecosystems suffer with several fire events responsible for large burned areas, causing losses of biomass, biodiversity, soil nutrients, and releasing tons of CO2 that help climate change. The occurrence of fires has a direct relationship with the climate of the central portion of the south american continent, charaterized by a two seasons regime, wet and dry, each one lasting around 6 months. In this region is located the ecotone of these two majors Brazilians ecosystems. In the Cerrado biome fire is often used to manage pasture, stimulating the regrowth of natural grasses used as pasture and also to open new areas for agriculture. There are researches showing that people have been traditionally using fire as a lower cost way to manage their lands for different purposes. In the Amazon forest the cycle of deforestation started around the 60's with incentives from the federal government to populate the region in the middle of the last century, and most recently by the progress of the commodities prices, such as soybean and sugar-cane, that has occupied vast areas of the Cerrado and is marching towards the forest. In the Amazon, fire is frequently used to further open the areas that were previously logged selectively and then converted to agricultural uses.Given the ecological importance of the Amazon Forest and Cerrado biome and the

  5. Curve Number estimation from rainfall-runoff data in the Brazilian Cerrado Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. S.; Nearing, M.; Rodrigues, D. B.; Panachuki, E.; Wendland, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; meanwhile, it is experiencing major losses of its natural landscapes due to the pressures of food and energy production, which has caused changes in hydrological processes. To evaluate these changes hydrologic models have been used. The Curve Number (SCS-CN) method has been widely employed to estimate direct runoff from a given rainfall event, however, there are some uncertainties for estimating this parameter, particularly for use in areas with native vegetation. The objectives of this study were to measure natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff under native Cerrado vegetation and under the main crops found in this biome, and derive associated CN values from five methods. We used six plots of 5 x 20 m (100 m2) in size, with three replications of undisturbed Cerrado and three under bare soil (Ortic Quartzarenic Neosol, hydrological soil class A) and 10 plots of 3.5 x 22.15 m (77.5 m2), with two replications for pasture, soy, millet, sugarcane and bare soil (Dystrophic Red Argisol, hydrological soil class B). Plots were monitored between October 2011 and April 2013. The five methods used to obtain CN values were median, geometric mean, arithmetic mean, nonlinear, least squares fit, and standard asymptotic fit. We found reasonable results for CN calibration for the undisturbed Cerrado only by using the nonlinear least squares fit. CN obtained from the standard table values was not adequate to estimate runoff for this condition. The standard table and the five CN methods presented satisfactory results for the other land covers studied. From our results we can suggest the best CN values for each land cover: Cerrado 49.8 (47.9-51.1), bare soil class-A 83.9 (74.4-93.4), bare soil class-B 88.3 (81.7-94.8), pasture 73.7 (62.9-84.5), soy 83.5 (80.6-86.4), millet 73.9 (67.4-80.4) and sugarcane 83.9 (80.6-87.3). These CN values and ranges provide guidance for

  6. Land-use and environmental changes in the Cerrados of South-Eastern Mato Grosso -- Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecchi, Rosana Cristina

    The human-induced changes of the Earth's land surfaces have been unprecedented, with outcomes often indicating degradation and loss of environmental quality. Mato Grosso State in Brazil, location of the study area, underwent extensive land-use and land-cover changes in recent decades with the rates, patterns and consequences poorly documented until now. In this context, the aim of the present research is to propose a multidisciplinary approach for quantifying historical land-use and environmental changes in the southeast part of this State, where the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savannas) has been intensively converted into agricultural lands. The methodology includes three parts: remote sensing change detection, land vulnerability mapping, and identification of key environmental indicators. Land-use/cover information was extracted from a temporal remote sensing dataset using an object-oriented classification approach, and the changes quantified employing a post-classification method. In addition, the study area was assessed for its vulnerabilities, focusing mainly on erosion risks, wetlands, and areas with limited or no suitability for crops. Finally, key environmental indicators were identified from the preceding steps and analyzed within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Pressure-State-Response (PSR) framework. The results provided an improved mapping of the Cerrados natural vegetation conversion into crops and pastures, and indicate that the Cerrado vegetation was intensively converted and also became more fragmented in the time frame studied. Between 1985 and 2005 the area lost approximately 6491 km 2 of Cerrados (42 %). Modeling based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation indicated significant increase in erosion risk from 1985 to 2005 mainly related to the increase in crop areas and the crops' encroachment into more fragile lands. The identification of environmental indicators rendered complex environmental information more

  7. Coleopteran and Lepidopteran Hosts of the Entomopathogenic Genus Cordyceps sensu lato

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    Bhushan Shrestha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomophthoralean and ascomycetous fungi are the two major groups known to parasitize arthropods in almost every terrestrial habitat of the earth. Within Ascomycota, Cordyceps sensu lato is a large genus with more than 400 spp. described on numerous orders of Arthropoda. Among the hosts of Cordyceps, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera are the two major orders. Out of the estimated 200 Cordyceps spp. recorded on coleopteran and lepidopteran hosts, we have documented 92 spp. based on the available information of their host species. Among coleopteran hosts, Scarabaeidae and Elateridae are the two major families. Similarly, among lepidopterans, Hepialidae is the largest host family. Cordyceps militaris shows the widest host range, extending to 2 orders, 13 families, and 32 spp. We hope such accumulative work will be useful as a quick reference for interested biologists, forest ecologists, biocontrol researchers, and fungal and insect taxonomists to apprehend host range and host specificities of Cordyceps fungi.

  8. Pollen Morphology of Eight Genera of the Subtribe Mutisiinae Less. sensu Bremer (Compositae) from Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na-Na LIN; Hong WANG; De-Zhu LI; Stephen BLACKMORE

    2005-01-01

    The pollen morphology of 28 species and one variety representing eight genera of the subtribe Mutisiinae Less. sensu Bremer (Compositae) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy. The pollen grains are usually radically symmetrical, isopolar, and tricolporate. The shape varies from spheroidal to subprolate in equatorial view and is three-lobed circular in polar view. Based on exine sculpturing observed under SEM, the pollen grains can be divided into three types: (i) type Ⅰ, with macrogranulate sculpture; (ii) type Ⅱ, with a finely granulate sculpture; and (iii) type Ⅲ, with spiny sculpture.The palynological data showed that the Macroclinidium Maxim. was remarkably distinguished from those of the other seven genera. The variation of pollen characteristics within the Mutisiinae in Asia is little at species level, but it proves some useful information for studying the relationships among genera and it has an important significance in further understanding the evolutionary history of Mutisiinae.

  9. A taxonomic revision of the Neoserica (sensu lato calva group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini

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    Wangang Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The species of the Neoserica (sensu lato calva group are revised. Neoserica calva Frey, 1972, comb. n. is redescribed. Thirteen new species are described from China and South Korea: Neoserica ailaoshanica sp. n., N. anonyma sp. n., N. calvoides sp. n., N. gulinqingensis sp. n., N. koelkebecki sp. n., N. liangi sp. n., N. luxiensis sp. n., N. menghaiensis sp. n., N. mengi sp. n., N. taipingensis sp. n., N. zheijangensis sp. n., N. zhibenshanica sp. n., and N. zongyuani sp. n. A key to Sericini genera with multilamellate antenna and species groups of Neoserica of mainland Asia as well as a key to species of the N. calva group are provided. A map of species distribution is given, habitus and male genitalia are illustrated.

  10. Millenial-scale climatic and vegetation changes in a northern Cerrado (Northeast, Brazil) since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Ceccantini, Gregorio; Gouveia, Susy E. M.; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Pessenda, Luiz C. R.; Ribeiro, Adauto S.

    2006-05-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, lacustrine sediments started to be deposited with the beginning of the deglaciation at ca 19,000 cal yr BP. At this time the region of Lake Caço was dominated by sparse and shrubby vegetation with dominance of steppic grasses in a poor sandy soil. The landscape did not present any ecological characteristics of a modern Cerrado. However single pollen grains of two Cerrado indicators, Byrsonima and Mimosa, suggest that some Cerrado species were able to survive under the prevailing arid climate, probably as small shrubs. After 15,500 cal yr BP, a sudden increase in the moisture rates is evidenced with the progressive expansion of rainforest showing successive dominance of various associations of taxa. The development of the forest stopped abruptly at the end of the Pleistocene between 12,800 and 11,000 cal yr BP, as attested by strong fires and the expansion of Poaceae. In the early Holocene an open landscape with a relatively high level of water in the lake preceded the progressive expansion of Cerrado species towards a denser forested landscape; fires are recorded from then on, resulting in the physiognomy of the Cerrado we know today. Late Pleistocene paleoenvironmental records from northern Brazil reflect the interplay between insolation forcing of two hemispheres with the local components represented by the interannual shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone and the influence of seasonal equatorwards polar air incursions.

  11. Study of the cerrado vegetation in the Federal District area from orbital data. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Aoki, H.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The physiognomic units of cerrado in the area of Distrito Federal (DF) were studied through the visual and automatic analysis of products provided by Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) of LANDSAT. The visual analysis of the multispectral images in black and white, at the 1:250,000 scale, was made based on the texture and tonal patterns. The automatic analysis of the compatible computer tapes (CCT) was made by means of IMAGE-100 system. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) the delimitation of cerrado vegetation forms can be made by the visual and automatic analysis; (2) in the visual analysis, the principal parameter used to discriminate the cerrado forms was the tonal pattern, independently of the year's seasons, and the channel 5 gave better information; (3) in the automatic analysis, the data of the four channels of MSS can be used in the discrimination of the cerrado forms; and (4) in the automatic analysis, the four channels combination possibilities gave more information in the separation of cerrado units when soil types were considered.

  12. Recent assembly of the Cerrado, a neotropical plant diversity hotspot, by in situ evolution of adaptations to fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marcelo F; Grether, Rosaura; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Skema, Cynthia; Pennington, R Toby; Hughes, Colin E

    2009-12-01

    The relative importance of local ecological and larger-scale historical processes in causing differences in species richness across the globe remains keenly debated. To gain insight into these questions, we investigated the assembly of plant diversity in the Cerrado in South America, the world's most species-rich tropical savanna. Time-calibrated phylogenies suggest that Cerrado lineages started to diversify less than 10 Mya, with most lineages diversifying at 4 Mya or less, coinciding with the rise to dominance of flammable C4 grasses and expansion of the savanna biome worldwide. These plant phylogenies show that Cerrado lineages are strongly associated with adaptations to fire and have sister groups in largely fire-free nearby wet forest, seasonally dry forest, subtropical grassland, or wetland vegetation. These findings imply that the Cerrado formed in situ via recent and frequent adaptive shifts to resist fire, rather than via dispersal of lineages already adapted to fire. The location of the Cerrado surrounded by a diverse array of species-rich biomes, and the apparently modest adaptive barrier posed by fire, are likely to have contributed to its striking species richness. These findings add to growing evidence that the origins and historical assembly of species-rich biomes have been idiosyncratic, driven in large part by unique features of regional- and continental-scale geohistory and that different historical processes can lead to similar levels of modern species richness.

  13. Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado in south-western Brazil

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    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80 within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23 were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled 33, belonging to nine orders and 16 families. In the Cerrado, 31 species were recorded in habitats; of these, 25 were found dead on roads. In the Atlantic Forest ecoregions, however, we found 21 species in habitats, 16 of which were also found dead on roads. There was no overall significant difference between ecoregions for frequencies of occurrence in habitats or for roadkills, but there were differences between individual species. Hence, anteaters were mostly recorded in the Cerrado ecoregion, whereas caviomorph rodents tended to be more frequent in the Atlantic Forest ecoregion (seen mainly by roadkills. The greater number of species (overall and threatened and the greater abundance of species records in the Cerrado suggest that this ecoregion has a greater biodiversity and is better conserved than the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, south-western Brazil.

  14. Postgrado Stricto Sensus del Departamento de Enfermería de la Universidad de Concepción: Concepción, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Paravic,Tatiana

    2004-01-01

    Artículo que relata la trayectoria e historia del Postgrado Stricto Sensus del Departamento de Enfermería de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Concepción. Concepción, Chile. Describe el diseño curricular de los programas , sus líneas de investigación , el producto que se quiere obtener y su impacto, así como el proceso para llegar a la aprobación del primer programa de Doctorado en Enfermería en Chile.

  15. Análise faunística de abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea coletadas no cerrado do Estado de São Paulo - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1315 Faunistic analysis of bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea collected in São Paulo’s Savanna, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1315

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    Luis Carlos Marchini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento das abelhas foi realizado, quinzenalmente, de agosto/2000 a julho/2001, em duas áreas de cerrado do Câmpus da USP/Pirassununga, Estado de São Paulo, com o objetivo de comparar a diversidade de abelhas entre as áreas. A primeira área, “Cerradão”, apresenta vegetação alcançando de 15 a 20 m de altura e a segunda, “Cerrado senso strictu”, possui flora arbustiva. Nas duas áreas, foram percorridas trilhas, onde os insetos eram coletados com redes entomológicas. Foram coletadas 511 abelhas, sendo 200 referentes ao Cerradão e 311 ao Cerrado sensu strictu, classificadas em 51 espécies. O Quociente de Similaridade entre as áreas é 55,1% e a Porcentagem de Similaridade é 66,6%, com apenas 19 espécies comuns. Na primeira área, as espécies predominantes foram Apis mellifera, Scaptotrigona sp. gr. Depilis, Tetrapedia rugulosa e Exomalopsis sp., e, na segunda, foram Apis mellifera, Trigona hyalinata, Trigona spinipes e Ceratina (Crewella sp., embora as áreas sejam bem próximasThe survey of bees was carried out every two weeks from August 2000 to July 2001, in two savanna areas of Pirassununga, São Paulo State, Brazil, with the aim of comparing the bees diversity between the areas. The first area, Cerradão (an extensive tract of waste land shows vegetation between 15 to 20 m high and the second, Savanna is characterized by arboreal flora. The visiting insects were collected on both areas, with entomological net. The 511 collected specimens were classified in 51 species, being 200 from Cerradão and 311 from Savanna. The Similarity Quotient between the areas is 55.1% and the Similarity Percentage is 66.6%, with only 19 species in common for both areas. The predominant species for the first area were: Apis mellifera, Scaptotrigona sp. gr. Depilis, Tetrapedia rugulosa and Exomalopsis sp., and for the second were: Apis mellifera, Trigona hyalinata, Trigona spinipes and Ceratina (Crewella sp., although the areas are

  16. The insect gall collection of the Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro: biome cerrado, rupestrian fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Rodrigues, A R; Ascendino, S H S; Boggi, M

    2014-08-01

    An inventory of the insect gall from Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) was elaborated based on samples of the collection of the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Data on localities and host plants were obtained from the labels and information about the gall morphology (plant organ of occurrence, shape, and presence of trichomes) by observing the samples. The galling species was determined based on the literature. The collection includes 131 morphotypes of galls from Cerrado, obtained from 71 host plant species distributed in 50 genera and 30 botanical families (Table 1). All galls were collected in rupestrian fields (a rare vegetation physiognomy of the Brazilian Cerrado) in the state of Minas Gerais. As the collection comprises a great diversity of insect galls, it can be considered representative of this physiognomy.

  17. In vitro investigation of Brazilian Cerrado plant extract activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei gambiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charneau, Sébastien; de Mesquita, Mariana Laundry; Bastos, Izabela Marques Dourado; Santana, Jaime Martins; de Paula, José Elias; Grellier, Philippe; Espindola, Laila Salmen

    2016-06-01

    The threatened Brazilian Cerrado biome is an important biodiversity hotspot but still few explored that constitutes a potential reservoir of molecules to treat infectious diseases. We selected eight Cerrado plant species for screening against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum, human intracellular stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and bloodstream forms of T. brucei gambiense, and for their cytotoxicity upon the rat L6-myoblast cell line. Bioassays were performed with 37 hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts prepared from different plant organs. Activities against parasites were observed for 24 extracts: 9 with anti-P. falciparum, 4 with anti-T. cruzi and 11 with anti-T. brucei gambiense activities. High anti-protozoal activity (IC50 values Cerrado conservation and sustainable development.

  18. Ajuste do modelo Chistiansen-Hargreaves para estimativa da evapotranspiração do feijão no cerrado Chistiansen-Hargreaves model adjustment for estimating evapotranspiration of bean crop in the Cerrado region

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    Omar C. Rocha

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Os produtores de feijão da região do Cerrado contam com apenas uma tecnologia, já estabelecida, para o manejo das irrigações: a tensiometria. Muito embora essa metodologia tenha alto potencial de uso não tem sido amplamente adotada pelos produtores, razão pela qual a utilização de modelos de estimativa de evapotranspiração tem se mostrado bastante aplicável à realidade da região. Assim, este trabalho tem o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho do modelo Chistiansen-Hargreaves na estimativa da evapotranspiração da cultura do Feijão Preto, no período seco do Cerrado brasileiro, almejando colocar à disposição dos produtores um modelo ajustado, que permita um manejo eficiente da irrigação no sistema produtivo da região. A evapotranspiração do feijoeiro foi medida com um lisímetro de pesagem. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Cerrados, localizada em Planaltina, DF, Brasil. Quando calculado com coeficientes de cultura determinados na pesquisa e testado com o termo energético ajustado (S0 = 0,5 o modelo apresentou ótimo desempenho podendo, nesta condição, ser empregado com segurança no manejo de irrigação.Bean producers from the Brazilian Cerrado region have only one technology for the irrigation management: the measurement of the water tension in the soil through the use of tensiometers. Although this methodology has high potential, it has not been widely adopted by the producers. Thus, the utilization of models to estimate evapotranspiration estimate has shown to be applicable to the Cerrado region. So, this paper aims to evaluate the performance of the Chistiansen-Hargreaves model to estimate evapotranspiration of black bean crop in the dry season of the Brazilian Cerrado region. It also aims to provide producers an the adjusted model to estimate evapotranspiration which permit an efficient management for the agricultural irrigated system of the Cerrado region. The evapotranspiration of the black bean crop was

  19. Dieta e comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis e S. islerorum (Aves, Tyrannidae) em um cerrado do Brasil central Diet and foraging behavior of Suiriri affinis and S. islerorum (Aves, Tyrannidae) in a central Brazilian cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo E. Lopes

    2005-01-01

    Foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis (suiriri-do-cerrado) e S. islerorum (suiriri-da-chapada), duas espécies de Tyrannidae que ocorrem em sintopia nos cerrados do Brasil central. Durante o ano de 2003 foram registradas 188 observações de forrageamento para S. affinis e 150 para S. islerorum. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as duas espécies em relação à altura e substrato de forrageamento, fitofisionomia utilizada e densidade da folhagem no local d...

  20. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

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    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  1. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna, the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell. Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam. DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng., to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.No Cerrado brasileiro (savana neotropical, o desenvolvimento de sistemas subterrâneos que produzem gemas, como estruturas adaptativas contra o fogo e períodos de seca, pode compreender um importante suprimento de gemas para esse ecossistema, como já demonstrado nos campos brasileiros e nas pradarias norte-americanas. Espécies de Asteraceae tanto do estrato lenhoso, quanto do herbáceo têm órgãos que acumulam carboidratos, reforçando a estratégia adaptativa dessas plantas a diferentes condições ambientais. Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a morfo

  2. Seed rain generated by bats under Cerrado's pasture remnant trees in a Neotropical savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J; Santos, A A

    2015-11-01

    In this study we described the seed rain generated by bats under four Cerrado's tree species common within pastures, Buchenavia tomentosa, Couepia grandiflora, Licania humilis and Qualea grandiflora. We analyzed the similarity among the four tree species in terms of seed rain composition, and compared the number of seeds and seed species deposited under them. Besides that, we assessed the relationship between seed rain intensity and the density of each tree species. Then, we randomly selected 10 mature trees of each species to sample seed rain. We recorded a total of 4892 bat dispersed seeds from 11 species. Also, we observed that along the year seed deposition varied substantially under all trees. At least two seed sub-communities could be distinguished according to tree species used by bats as feeding roost. One related to Couepia grandiflora and Licania humilis, and the other to Buchenavia tomentosa and Qualea grandiflora trees. The variability of seed rain composition in any particular tree and the range of actual seed fall into a particular species indicate patchiness in seed rain, and the overall results appear to be consistent in terms of a substantial and diverse seed rain generated by bats in a highly anthropized landscape. This is the first study concerning seed dispersal by bats in modified Brazilian Cerrado, one of the most endangered biomes in the world. In this respect, by preserving a dense and diverse collection of remnant trees within today's pastures may, potentially, contribute to a faster Cerrado recovery in extensive areas that can be reclaimed for restoration in the future.

  3. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is <7 my old and exhibits several ecologically diverse life forms. Eight subtribes of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Ageratinae, Alomiinae, Ayapaninae, Critoniinae, Disynaphiinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae and Hebecliniinae) and 16 genera (Ageratum, Agrianthus, Austroeupatorium, Bejaranoa, Chromolaena, Critonia, Disynaphia, Grazielia, Hatschbachiella, Heterocondylus, Koanophyllon, Lasiolaena, Neocabreria, Praxelis, Stylotrichium, and Symphyopappus) were found to be polyphyletic. We attribute incongruities between the molecular phylogenetic results and the current classification of the tribe mostly to convergent evolution of morphological characters traditionally used in the classification of the tribe. We used these phylogenetic results to suggest changes to the classification of some subtribes and genera of Eupatorieae that occur in Brazil.

  4. Landscape structure in the expansion area of deforestation of the Brazilian Cerrado in Minas Gerais

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, A. D.; Streher, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome and is listed as one of the hotspots for biodiversity conservation priority. The biome provides important ecosystem services such as maintenance of the biodiversity, water cycle and carbon storage, and your preservation is essential to protecting the Amazon Rainforest. Although its importance, it was heavily affected by deforestation, with a loss of about 49% of its original native cover by the year of 2010. In Minas Gerais state, the remaining Cerrado original cover is very expressive, shaped by a mosaic of phytophysionomies, comprising grassland, savanna and forest. The great species diversity and endemism in these landscapes, associated with changes imposed by man over time, caused major environmental damage in this biome. Recently, new deforestation fronts have been identified throughout the Brazilian Cerrado, including Minas Gerais State. This study aimed to analyze the landscape structure in front of expansion in this state, as a subsidy for the establishment of guidelines for future biodiversity conservation and landscape planning. The study site comprised the sub basins of the Paracatú River (SF7) and Middle São Francisco (SF9). The analyses were performed based on land use, mapped through remote sensing techniques, resulting in 18 classes of land use. The most important results of the calculated indices showed that the study area is highly fragmented, with most of the remaining patches small, with large perimeter and strong edge effect, favoring biodiversity loss. Moreover, the biological flow in the study area is hindered by the presence of few fragments into a predetermined radius of 10 km. It has been found that less than 30% of the native vegetation remnant in the area, making all existing fragments relevant to conservation. Finally, the landscape metrics analyzed showed that there is a high level of environmental risk determining low support existing biodiversity in the landscape.

  5. First report of Ditylenchus gallaeformans in Miconia albicans from the Brazilian Cerrado, State of Goiás

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    Rodrigo Vieira da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae, whose common name is canela-de-velha, is a native plant of the tropical region that is abundant in the Cerrado biome. A nematode species was found parasitizing M. albicans, causing severe deformation and gall-like structures on the infected leaves and inflorescences. Morphological, morphometric and molecular characterizations identified the nematode as Ditylenchus gallaeformans. This nematode has great potential as a biocontrol agent of plants in the family Melastomataceae, which are invasive weeds in ecosystems of the Pacific Islands. This is the first report of D. gallaeformans parasitizing M. albicans in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás.

  6. Dieta e comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis e S. islerorum (Aves, Tyrannidae) em um cerrado do Brasil central

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo E. Lopes

    2005-01-01

    Foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento de Suiriri affinis (suiriri-do-cerrado) e S. islerorum (suiriri-da-chapada), duas espécies de Tyrannidae que ocorrem em sintopia nos cerrados do Brasil central. Durante o ano de 2003 foram registradas 188 observações de forrageamento para S. affinis e 150 para S. islerorum. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as duas espécies em relação à altura e substrato de forrageamento, fitofisionomia utilizada e densidade da folhagem no local d...

  7. NUEVAS FORMAS DE PRODUCCIÓN URBANA: EMPRENDIMIENTOS CERRADOS METEPEC, ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    María Estela Orozco Hernández; Guadalupe Hoyos Castillo; Yolanda Marin Origel

    2010-01-01

    En la perspectiva de los habitantes de los emprendimientos cerrados de alto nivel económico, las bardas perimetrales, la vigilancia y el confort, son los garantes de la seguridad y la exclusividad ante los riesgos que provienen del exterior. En Metepec, las inmobiliarias en alianza con el sector público han capitalizado estás necesidades para producir novedosas formas urbanas insertas en un proceso mercantil selectivo, el cual se manifi esta en la conformación de variados estilos de vida, bas...

  8. Nuevas formas de producción urbana: Emprendimientos cerrados Metepec, Estado de México

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    María Estela Orozco Hernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En la perspectiva de los habitantes de los emprendimientos cerrados de alto nivel económico, las bardas perimetrales, la vigilancia y el confort, son los garantes de la seguridad y la exclusividad ante los riesgos que provienen del exterior. En Metepec, las inmobiliarias en alianza con el sector público han capitalizado estás necesidades para producir novedosas formas urbanas insertas en un proceso mercantil selectivo, el cual se manifiesta en la conformación de variados estilos de vida, basados en la individualidad y en la distancia social.

  9. UN CICLO CERRADO: EL PATRIMONIO NOBILIARIO CONSTRUIDO EN LA CIUDAD DE MURCIA

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    Francisco Calvo García-Tornel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia en el tejido urbano de la ciudad de Murcia de las viviendas o palacios de la nobleza, está directamente relacionado con la evolución patrimonial de este grupo social. Cerrado el ciclo en el que el poder social nobiliario fue decisivo en la vida regional, su memoria se conserva básicamente a través de sus casas-palacio, un patrimonio histórico y, en buena medida, también artístico que ha sufrido una suerte muy desigual hasta el presente.

  10. Los fraccionamientos cerrados en México, una expresión de ‘anticiudad’

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Rodríguez, Ana Paola

    2016-01-01

    Las ciudades mexicanas tienden hacia una nueva expresión de segregación urbana en forma de fraccionamientos cerrados. Desde una perspectiva urbanística, este trabajo explora su generalización a través de los posibles factores detonantes. La ciudad estadounidense influye significativamente en el urbanismo mexicano; dicha relación es visible por ejemplo en sus modelos de baja densidad, ciudad del automóvil, segregación socio-espacial y arquitectura securitaria. Sin embargo, la desigualdad socia...

  11. Fertility and acidity status of latossolos (oxisols under pasture in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Pedro R.S. Vendrame

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado region, with over 50 million hectares of cultivated pasture, provides 55% of Brazilian beef production. Previous investigations have shown that about 70-80% of this pasture is affected by some kind of degradation, leading to low productivity. However, until now, few surveys have been carried out on a regional scale. The aim of the present work is both to assess the fertility and acidity levels of Cerrado soils under pasture and compare the variability of the soils characteristics on a regional scale. Two soil depths were sampled in different places within the studied area: (1 a surface horizon (0.0-0.2 m in order to evaluate its fertility and acidity status for pasture, and (2 a subsurface horizon (0.6-0.8 m, used for classification. Most of soils had levels of nutrients below the reference values for adequate pasture development. Whatever the texture, about 90% of soils had low or very low availability of phosphorus. Only 7 to 14% of soils had low pH, high exchangeable aluminum, and aluminum saturation above the critical acidity level. Except for nitrogen, no significant difference was found between Latossolos Vermelhos and Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos.A região do Cerrado, com 50 milhões de hectares de pastagens cultivadas, responde por 55% da carne bovina produzida no Brasil. Há estimativas indicando que entre 70 e 80% destas pastagens apresentam algum grau de degradação, o que leva a baixa produtividade. No entanto, até o presente, poucos trabalhos foram desenvolvidos em escala regional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fertilidade e a acidez de Latossolos sob pastagens na região do Cerrado e comparar a variabilidade das características dos solos em escala regional. A amostragem foi realizada em duas profundidades, superficial (0,0-0,2 m para avaliação da fertilidade e acidez e subsuperficial (0,60,8 m, utilizada para classificar os solos. A maioria dos solos apresentou teores de nutrientes abaixo do recomendado

  12. NUEVAS FORMAS DE PRODUCCIÓN URBANA: EMPRENDIMIENTOS CERRADOS METEPEC, ESTADO DE MÉXICO

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    María Estela Orozco Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la perspectiva de los habitantes de los emprendimientos cerrados de alto nivel económico, las bardas perimetrales, la vigilancia y el confort, son los garantes de la seguridad y la exclusividad ante los riesgos que provienen del exterior. En Metepec, las inmobiliarias en alianza con el sector público han capitalizado estás necesidades para producir novedosas formas urbanas insertas en un proceso mercantil selectivo, el cual se manifi esta en la conformación de variados estilos de vida, basados en la individualidad y en la distancia social.

  13. Nesting habits of Centris (Hemisiella) dichrootricha (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Northern Cerrado of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Gracy C. A.; Carreira, Léa M. M.; Rêgo, Márcia M. C.; Patrícia M. C. Albuquerque

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical bee Centris (Hemisiella) dichrootricha is a solitary bee that nests in pre-existing cavities that occur in the rain forest. This study describes the nesting biology of C. dichrootricha and its preference for nesting in Cerrado and gallery forest habitats. The study was conducted from January 2012 and December 2013, in Mirador State Park in the municipality of Formosa da Serra Negra, Maranhão State, Brazil. For this, wooden trap-nests of 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 mm in diameter w...

  14. Biologia reprodutiva de Suiriri affinis e S. islerorum (Aves: Tyrannidae) no cerrado do Brasil central

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Esteves Lopes; Miguel Ângelo Marini

    2005-01-01

    A biologia reprodutiva de Suiriri affinis (suiriri-do-cerrado) e S. islerorum (suiriri-da-chapada) é descrita pela primeira vez. O ninho de S. affinis é em forma de cesto raso, sendo construído com fibras vegetais e forrado por painas, sendo todas essas camadas firmemente unidas por grande quantidade de teia de aranha. O seu exterior é ornamentado com liquens e fragmentos de folhas secas. O ninho é apoiado pela base e laterais entre dois ou mais ramos divergentes. Embora superficialmente simi...

  15. Occurrence of Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato co-infections in ticks collected from humans in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietze, A; Strube, C; Beyerbach, M; Schnieder, T; Goethe, R

    2011-06-01

    Bartonella (B.) henselae is the zoonotic agent of cat scratch disease. B. henselae has been associated with therapy-resistant Lyme disease in humans suggesting that B. henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato might be transmitted concurrently by ticks. In the present study we found that 16 (6.9%) of 230 Ixodes ricinus collected from humans harboured DNA of Bartonella spp. Fifteen positive ticks were infected with B. henselae and one tick with B. clarridgeiae. Twenty-five percent of the 16 Bartonella positive ticks were co-infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Our data show that B. henselae is present in Ixodes ricinus and that ticks may serve as source of infection for humans.

  16. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of effective Rhizobium sp. associated with beans cultivated in brazilian cerrado soils Caracterização, via RAPD, de estirpes efetivas de Rhizobium sp associadas ao feijoeiro cultivado em solos de cerrado no Brasil

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    Isnia Aparecida de Oliveira

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient bean nodulating Rhizobium strains, isolated from different Brazilian cerrado soils, were characterized by RAPD. This study showed great genetic heterogeneity among R. tropici and R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains and allowed the constitution of genetic clusters, besides indicating the most suitable primers for this characterization. The groups of genetically distinct strains can be used in competitiveness studies to select appropriate Rhizobium strains for bean inoculation in cerrado soils.Estirpes de Rhizobium eficientes na nodulação do feijoeiro, isoladas de diferentes solos da região do cultivo dessa leguminosa nos cerrados brasileiros, foram caracterizadas via RAPD. Esse estudo mostrou grande heterogeneidade genética entre as estirpes de R. tropici e R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli testadas e permitiu a definição de grupos genéticos, além de indicar os "primers" mais adequados para essa caracterização. Os grupos de estirpes geneticamente distintas podem ser usados em estudos de competitividade, importantes para obtenção de resultados positivos na inoculação dessa leguminosa em solos de cerrado.

  17. Structures of xyloglucans in primary cell walls of gymnosperms, monilophytes (ferns sensu lato) and lycophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yves S Y; Harris, Philip J

    2012-07-01

    Little is known about the structures of the xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of vascular plants (tracheophytes) other than angiosperms. Xyloglucan structures were examined in 13 species of gymnosperms, 13 species of monilophytes (ferns sensu lato), and two species of lycophytes. Wall preparations were obtained, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide, and the extracts treated with a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1→4)-β-glucanase preparation. The oligosaccharides released were analysed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles from the gymnosperm walls were similar to those from the walls of most eudicotyledons and non-commelinid monocotyledons, indicating that the xyloglucans were fucogalactoxyloglucans, containing the fucosylated units XXFG and XLFG. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles for six of the monilophyte species were similar to those of the gymnosperms, indicating they were also fucogalactoxyloglucans. Phylogenetically, these monilophyte species were from both basal and more derived orders. However, the profiles for the other monilophyte species showed various significant differences, including additional oligosaccharides. In three of the species, these additional oligosaccharides contained arabinosyl residues which were most abundant in the profile of Equisetum hyemale. The two species of lycophytes examined, Selaginella kraussiana and Lycopodium cernuum, had quite different xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles, but neither were fucogalactoxyloglucans. The S. kraussiana profile had abundant oligosaccharides containing arabinosyl residues. The L. cernuum profile indicated the xyloglucan had a very complex structure.

  18. Update of phylogenetic and genetic diversity of Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Gamboa, Lucía; Martínez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Flisser, Ana

    2016-03-01

    Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato causes subcutaneous mycosis. In this article we analysed its phylogeny and genetic diversity using calmodulin DNA sequences deposited in GenBank database. Population genetics indices were calculated, plus phylogenetic and haplotype network trees were built. Five clades with high values of posterior probability, 47 haplotypes and high diversity in the complex were found. Analysis of partial calmodulin sequences alignment revealed conserved and polymorphic regions that could be used as reference for taxonomic identification. The use of population genetics analysis allowed understanding the phylogenetic proximity of S. schenckii s. str. and S. brasiliensis; scarce genetic flow among them with low migration index and high ancestry coefficient was found. Similarly, S. globosa, S. mexicana and S. pallida sequences showed highly differentiated species with no genetic exchange. The phylogenetic tree suggests that S. mexicana shared a common ancestor with S. pallida; while S. globosa and S. brasiliensis are more related to S. schenckii s. str. and showed less haplotype diversity and restrictions in geographic distribution. In the haplotype network tree S. schenckii s. str. species displayed worldwide distribution without dispersion centres; while S. brasiliensis and S. globosa, exhibited Brazil and Euro-Asia as dispersion centres, respectively. Our data suggest that S. schenckii complex has been submitted to a divergent evolution process, probably due to the pressure of the environment and of the host. In contrast, S. brasiliensis could have been submitted to purifying selection or expansion process.

  19. The order Corallinales sensu lato (Rhodophyta in the Iberian Atlantic: current state of knowledge

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    Juan Lugilde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the order Corallinales sensu lato in the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula is presented with the aim of assessing its current state of knowledge in comparison with adjacent areas (British Isles-Atlantic France, Macaronesia and Iberian Mediterranean. According to the information compiled from more than 250 publications, herbarium data and manuscripts, we concluded that Atlantic Iberian coralline algae have been poorly studied, which resulted in only 49 species reported. By contrast, Macaronesia is the most species-rich region (91, followed by Spanish Mediterranean (67 and the British Isles-Atlantic France (61. In the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula, 17 species occurred commonly (present in more than 50% of the coastline, particularly those corresponding to the genera Amphiroa, Jania, Lithophyllum, Mesophyllum, and Phymatolithon. Instead, the genera Harveylithon, Hydrolithon, Leptophytum, Lithothamnion, Neogoniolithon and Pneophyllum have been occasionally reported. In the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula and adjacent regions, the epilithic growth-form was dominant, followed by the epiphytic, epizoic and the unattached (maerl/rodoliths; besides, sciaphilous taxa were more abundant than photophilous species. The low intertidal and shallow subtidal harbour a high diversity of coralline algae, as well as semi-exposed coasts or areas affected by currents. The present study confirms that studies on the Atlantic Iberian coralline algae are scarce, and that further research on this group is required.

  20. Assessment of the efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Bruce; Daly, Sean; Dumont, Pascal; Drag, Marlene; Larsen, Diane

    2014-04-02

    Two studies were conducted to confirm that a single oral dose of the novel insecticide/acaricide afoxolaner is efficacious against existing infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato in dogs and can control re-infestation for up to 35 days. Each study utilized 16 purpose bred adult dogs using a controlled randomized block design. One or two days prior to treatment, all dogs were infested with 50 unfed adult ticks. On Day 0 one group was treated with an oral chewable formulation of afoxolaner at a dose as close as possible to the minimum dose of 2.5mg/kg. Weekly re-infestations with 50 adult unfed ticks were repeated for five weeks. Forty-eight hours after treatment and after each re-infestation, the number of remaining live ticks on each dog was counted. Treatment with afoxolaner resulted in efficacies of 98.8-100% within 48 h on existing tick infestations, while the efficacy against new tick infestations was >95.7% over five weeks.

  1. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of the pulp of Jatobá-do-cerrado

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    Daniela Granja ARAKAKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oxygen metabolism in cells causes the production of free radicals, which produce damage, including changes in cell structure and function. Antioxidants are substances that, at low concentrations, slow down or prevent oxidation. Fruits and vegetables contribute to the dietary supply of these compounds. The flora of the Cerrado in Brazil has shown to have high levels of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to characterize the antioxidant activity of the pulp of jatobá-do-cerrado in vitro and in vivo.In vitro antioxidant activity of the aqueous, ethanol and aqueous acetone extracts was evaluated by the DPPH method. We determined total phenols by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and tannins by the Folin-Denis method.In vivo antioxidant potential of the aqueous acetone extract was evaluated by the TBARS technique. The aqueous acetone extract had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the aqueous and ethanol extracts. The same pattern occurred in the extraction of phenols and in the extraction of tannins. In vivo administration of the aqueous acetone extract inhibited lipid peroxidation compared to the control group. The inhibition of peroxidation has increased by elevating the dosage concentration of the extracts, demonstrating a significant antioxidant potential in vivo as well as in vitro.

  2. Prediction of soil shear strength in agricultural and natural environments of the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Barboza da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop uni- and multivariate models to predict maximum soil shear strength (τmax under different normal stresses (σn, water contents (U, and soil managements. The study was carried out in a Rhodic Haplustox under Cerrado (control area and under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. Undisturbed soil samples were taken in the 0.00-0.05 m layer and subjected to increasing U and σn, in shear strength tests. The uni- and multivariate models - respectively τmax=10(a+bU and τmax=10(a+bU+cσn - were significant in all three soil management systems evaluated and they satisfactorily explain the relationship between U, σn, and τmax. The soil under Cerrado has the highest shear strength (τ estimated with the univariate model, regardless of the soil water content, whereas the soil under conventional tillage shows the highest values with the multivariate model, which were associated to the lowest water contents at the soil consistency limits in this management system.

  3. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Pereira Da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Savannah, known as "Cerrado," has an extensive biodiversity, but it is under explored. Among the native vegetables is the jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart., a legume with great potential for exploration for its content of dietary fiber. Legumes are an important source of nutrient compounds, such as phenolic compounds and vitamins that have antioxidant properties. This study aimed at determining the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the jatobá flour. The jatobá flour showed high fiber content (insoluble and soluble fiber 47.8 and 12.8 g.100 g- 1, respectively, significant amounts of carotenoids such as beta-carotene and lutein, and some minerals such as calcium: 145 mg.100 g- 1, magnesium: 125 mg.100 g- 1, and potassium: 1352 mg.100 g- 1. The jatobá flour extracted with different solvents (water, methanol, and acetone exhibited antioxidant activity by the DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC methods. The solvent used in the extraction affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Acetone extraction produced the best results. Therefore, the jatobá flour is an ingredient that can be used to develop new products with properties that promote health.

  4. Anatomical and morphological modifications in response to flooding by six Cerrado tree species

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    Adilson Serafim de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are common in the Cerrado (Brazilian savannas biome, however flooding of these wetlands impairs growth and development of most plants. We evaluated flood tolerance of typical Cerrado trees. Seedlings of Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae, Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae, Handroanthus chrysotrichus (Bignoniaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva (Anacardiaceae, Kielmeyera coriacea (Calophyllaceae and Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae were flooded up to the stem base for 30 days. Stems with cortical cracks, secondary aerenchyma and hypertrophic lenticels were observed in flooded plants of M. urundeuva,H. chrysotrichus and T. rosea while adventitious roots were formed in flooded plants of T. rosea and H. chrysotrichus. However, only T. rosea developed aerenchyma in the root cortex. K. coriacea and A. macrocarpon were the most sensitive to flooding, showing a decrease in survival and necrosis of the leaves and roots. C. langsdorffii and M. urundeuva were less sensitive to flooding, although reductions in root biomass and symptoms of necrosis of the roots were noticeable in flooded seedlings. Flooded M. urundeuva seedlings also had a decrease in total leaf area, leaf biomass, total biomass and in stem growth. Flooding affected root development and reduced stem growth of H. chrysotrichus with symptoms of necrosis of the leaves and roots. T. rosea was the only species where symptoms of injury from flooding were not evident.

  5. Fertility and acidity status of latossolos (oxisols) under pasture in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Pedro R S; Brito, Osmar R; Guimarães, Maria F; Martins, Eder S; Becquer, Thierry

    2010-12-01

    The Cerrado region, with over 50 million hectares of cultivated pasture, provides 55% of Brazilian beef production. Previous investigations have shown that about 70-80% of this pasture is affected by some kind of degradation, leading to low productivity. However, until now, few surveys have been carried out on a regional scale. The aim of the present work is both to assess the fertility and acidity levels of Cerrado soils under pasture and compare the variability of the soils characteristics on a regional scale. Two soil depths were sampled in different places within the studied area: (1) a surface horizon (0.0-0.2 m) in order to evaluate its fertility and acidity status for pasture, and (2) a subsurface horizon (0.6-0.8 m), used for classification. Most of soils had levels of nutrients below the reference values for adequate pasture development. Whatever the texture, about 90% of soils had low or very low availability of phosphorus. Only 7 to 14% of soils had low pH, high exchangeable aluminum, and aluminum saturation above the critical acidity level. Except for nitrogen, no significant difference was found between Latossolos Vermelhos and Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos.

  6. Smoke and fire characteristics for cerrado and deforestation burns in Brazil - BASE-B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. E.; Susott, R. A.; Kauffman, J. B.; Babbitt, R. E.; Cummings, D. L.; Dias, B.; Holben, B. N.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Setzer, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    Five test fires were performed during August and September 1990 in the cerrado (savannalike region) in central Brazil (three fires) and tropical moist forest (two fires) in the eastern Amazon. This paper details the gases released, the ratios of the gases to each other and to particulate matter, fuel loads, and the fraction consumed (combustion factors), and the fire behavior associated with biomass consumption. Models are presented for evaluating emission factors for CH4, CO2, CO, H2, and particles less than 2.5 micron diam (PM2.5) as a function of combustion efficiency. The ratio of carbon released as CO2 (combustion efficiency) for the cerrado fires averaged 0.94 and for the deforestation fires it decreased from 0.88 for the flaming phase to less than 0.80 during the smoldering phase of combustion. For tropical ecosystems, emissions of most products of incomplete combustion are projected to be lower than previous estimates for savanna ecosystems and somewhat higher for fires used for deforestation purposes.

  7. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-02

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects.

  8. Functional Process Zones Characterizing Aquatic Insect Communities in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Simião-Ferreira, J; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2016-04-01

    Stream ecology studies see to understand ecological dynamics in lotic systems. The characterization of streams into Functional Process Zones (FPZ) has been currently debated in stream ecology because aquatic communities respond to functional processes of river segments. Therefore, we tested if different functional process zones have different number of genera and trophic structure using the aquatic insect community of Neotropical streams. We also assessed whether using physical and chemical variables may complement the approach of using FPZ to model communities of aquatic insects in Cerrado streams. This study was conducted in 101 streams or rivers from the central region of the state of Goiás, Brazil. We grouped the streams into six FPZ associated to size of the river system, presence of riparian forest, and riverbed heterogeneity. We used Bayesian models to compare number of genera and relative frequency of the feeding groups between FPZs. Streams classified in different FPZs had a different number of genera, and the largest and best preserved rivers had an average of four additional genera. Trophic structure exhibited low variability among FPZs, with little difference both in the number of genera and in abundance. Using functional process zones in Cerrado streams yielded good results for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera communities. Thus, species distribution and community structure in the river basin account for functional processes and not necessarily for the position of the community along a longitudinal dimension of the lotic system.

  9. Three new species of Proceratophrys Miranda-Ribeiro 1920 from Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Odontophrynidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Reuber Albuquerque; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Vaz-Silva, Wilian; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio

    2013-12-20

    Based on the analyses of specimens collected at several areas in the Cerrado domain from Central Brazil and others housed in scientific collections and on specimens collected at the type-locality, herein we describe three new species belonging to the P. cristiceps group: Proceratophrys bagnoi sp. nov., from UHE Serra da Mesa power plant (13°49'47.5"S, 48°19'17"W; 570 m a.s.l.; WGS84 datum), Municipality of Minaçu, State of Goiás; Proceratophrys branti sp. nov., from Jalapão, Municipality of Mateiros (05o15'25"S, 48o12'00"W; 109 m a.s.l.; WGS84 datum), State of Tocantins; and Proceratophrys dibernardoi sp. nov., Municipality of Mineiros (17o33'52"S, 52o33'20"W; 803 m a.s.l.; WGS84 datum), State of Goiás. The diversity of Proceratophrys in Brazilian Cerrado is still underscored and several species will be described in the following years.

  10. Effect of brushwood transposition on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a cerrado area

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    Paula Cristina Benetton Vergílio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of ecological restoration techniques can be monitored through biological indicators of soil quality such as the leaf litter arthropod fauna. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect of brushwood transposition transferred from an area of native vegetation to a disturbed area, on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a degraded cerrado area. The arthropod fauna of four areas was compared: a degraded area with signal grass, two experimental brushwood transposition areas, with and without castor oil plants, and an area of native cerrado. In total, 7,660 individuals belonging to 23 taxa were sampled. Acari and Collembola were the most abundant taxa in all studied areas, followed by Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Symphyla. The brushwood transposition area without castor oil plants had the lowest abundance and dominance and the highest diversity of all areas, providing evidence of changes in the soil community. Conversely, the results showed that the presence of castor oil plants hampered early succession, negatively affecting ecological restoration in this area.

  11. Major constituents of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the Caatinga and Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A F; Salatino, A

    2000-01-01

    The epicuticular waxes of leaves of four species (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) from the Caatinga, (a semi-arid ecosystem of Northeast Brazil) and four species (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) from the Cerrado, (a savanna ecosystem covering one third of the Brazilian territory), were analyzed. Six species contained a high content (above 60 microg x cm(-2)) of wax, four of them from the Caatinga. Triterpenoids and n-alkanes were the most frequent and abundant constituents found in the species from both habitats. The distribution of n-alkanes predominated by homologues with 27, 29, 31 and 33 carbon atoms, displayed no consistent differences between species from the two habitats. Lupeol, beta-amyrin, epifriedelinol and ursolic acid were the triterpenoids found. Triterpenoids clearly predominate over alkanes in the waxes from the Cerrado species. The waxes of two evergreen species from the Caatinga yielded n-alkanes as predominant constituents. A comparison of foliar epicuticular waxes of native plants from ecosystems with different hydric constraints is discussed.

  12. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b, E-mail: kapo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.b [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), MG (Brazil); Siqueira, Maria Celia, E-mail: mc.ufscar@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires, E-mail: eleonora.deschamps@meioambiente.mg.gov.b [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente (FEAM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Gestao de Residuos Solidos; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de, E-mail: davidf.agro@hotmail.co, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos

    2009-09-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific {sup 226}Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  13. Cultivo de cianobacterias para la producción de bioplasticos en un fotobioreactor tubular cerrado alimentado con digestado

    OpenAIRE

    Torrado Rufete, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo se determinarán las condiciones optimas de cultivo de cianobacterias para la producción de bioplasticos. Para el desarrollo del cultivo se utilizará un fotobioreactor tubular cerrado alimentado con digestado diluido con agua residual tratada

  14. Diameter growth rates in tropical dry forests: contributions to the sustainable management of forests in the Bolivian Cerrado biogeographical province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, L.; Villalba, R.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth ring variations were used to provide the rates in diameter growth for seven tree species in the Bolivian Cerrado biogeographical province. Ten to 50 trees were measured per species. Ring width measurements provided accurate data on the rates of tree growth. Variations in growth rates were det

  15. Quality of granola prepared with dried caju-do-cerrado (Anacardium othonianum Rizz) and baru almonds (Dipteryx alata Vog).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Priscila Laís C; Silva, Mara R

    2015-03-01

    The use of Brazilian Cerrado fruits and research into their nutritional potential are important for socioeconomic development and the sustainable preservation of the environment. The use of these fruits in products such as granola encourages the inclusion of healthier and more-natural foods in the diet. This study was undertaken to evaluate acceptability, microbiological, physical and nutritional characteristics and the stability of granola made from dried caju-do-cerrado and baru almonds. Granola containing Cerrado fruits had high levels of protein content (117.4 g/kg), dietary fiber (115.3 g/kg) and iron (32.1 mg/kg) and had lower moisture (57.0 g/kg), water activity (0.3), sodium (577.7 mg/kg), lipids (150.2 g/kg) and energy value (3952.2 kcal/kg) than did the control. After storage for 100 days, the granola presented adequate microbiological conditions, with acceptability scores higher than 7 assigned by 85.5 % to 95.2 % of the judges and a crunchy texture. The high nutritional potential of granola containing Cerrado fruits, coupled with its stability over 100 days of storage, may contribute to the appreciation and consumption of these fruits and meet the growing demand for healthier, more natural foods.

  16. [Dipterans of forensic interest in two vegetation profiles of cerrado in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Thiago A; Babata, Micaela L Y; De Souza, Carina M; De Sousa, Danielle; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia A; Mendes, Júlio

    2009-01-01

    Carrion breeding insects may be of great utility in crimes briefing. Studies on forensic entomology are restricted to few localities in Brazil and very few of them were done in the cerrado vegetation (a type of Savannah) until now. This work aimed to survey the main species of dipterans associated with the decomposition process of Sus scrofa and the insect succession pattern in carcasses in the Cerrado. The study was carried out in the dry and humid season of the year, in two cerrado vegetation profiles in Uberlândia, MG. Two pig carcasses were placed in each vegetation profile and time period of the year. The decomposition process was slower and insects were more abundant in the dry season. Differences in temperature, air humidity and pluvial precipitation seemed to be the main physical factors responsible for the differences in the time of decomposition of the pig carcasses between the two seasons. Fourteen species of dipterans (59,467 specimens) bred in the decomposing carcasses. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) was the species more abundantly breed in the two periods. The other species that breed in the carcasses were: C. putoria (Wiedemann), Hemilucilia segmentaria(Fabricius), Lucilia eximia(Wiedemann) (Calliphoridae), Peckia (Pattonella) intermutans(Walker), Peckia (Squamatoides) trivitatta(Curran), Sarcodexia lambens(Wiedemann) (Sarcophagidae), Musca domestica(L.), Ophyra aenescens(Wiedemann), Stomoxys calcitransL. (Muscidae), Fannia pusio(Wiedemann), Fannia sp. (Fanniidae), Hermetia illuscens L. (Stratiomyidae) and Phoridae sp. The Cerrado of this region presents many dipterans potential forensic indicators.

  17. Aggregation studied by laser diffraction in relation to plowing and liming in the Cerrado region in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, R.; Buurman, P.; Griethuysen, van C.; Ayarza, M.; Vilela, L.; Zech, W.

    1999-01-01

    In the Cerrado savanna region in Brazil, the effects of different land use on axisol aggregation were studied using laser diffraction grain size analyses. The topsoil of plowed systems had significantly lower amount of macroaggregates (2000-194 μm) and a significantly higher amount of soil in the mi

  18. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Pr...

  19. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  20. The seasonal carbon and water balances of the Cerrado environment of Brazil: Past, present, and future influences of land cover and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Arielle Elias; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Coe, Michael T.

    2016-07-01

    The Brazilian savanna (known as Cerrado) is an upland biome made up of various vegetation types from herbaceous to arboreal. In this paper, MODIS remote sensing vegetation greenness from the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and evapotranspiration (ET) data for the 2000-2012 period were analyzed to understand the differences in the net primary productivity (NPP-proxy), carbon, and the evaporative flux of the major Cerrado natural and anthropic landscapes. The understanding of the carbon and evaporative fluxes of the main natural and anthropic vegetation types is of fundamental importance in studies regarding the impacts of land cover and land use changes in the regional and global climate. The seasonal dynamics of EVI and ET of the main natural and anthropic vegetation types of the Cerrado biome were analyzed using a total of 35 satellite-based samples distributed over representative Cerrado landscapes. Carbon and water fluxes were estimated for different scenarios, such as, a hypothetical unconverted Cerrado, 2002 and 2050 scenarios based on values derived from literature and on the PROBIO land cover and land use map for the Cerrado. The total growing season biomass for 2002 in the Cerrado region was estimated to be 28 gigatons of carbon and the evapotranspiration was 1336 gigatons of water. The mean estimated growing season evapotranspiration and biomass for 2002 was 576 Gt of water and 12 Gt of carbon for pasture and croplands compared to 760 Gt of water and 15 Gt of carbon for the Cerrado natural vegetation. In a modeled future scenario for the year 2050, the ET flux from natural Cerrado vegetation was 394 Gt less than in 2002 and 991 Gt less than in an unconverted scenario, with only natural vegetation, while the carbon was 8 Gt less than in 2002 and 21 Gt less than in this hypothetical pre-conversion Cerrado. On the other hand, the sum of the pasture and cropland ET flux increased by 405 Gt in 2050 relative to 2002 and the carbon by 11 Gt of carbon. Given the

  1. Resiliência socioespacial na expansão canavieira do cerrado goiano: a cidade rural de Maurilândia/GO

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Arlete Mendes da

    2014-01-01

    Esse trabalho intitulado Resiliência socioespacial na expansão canavieira do Cerrado goiano: a cidade rural de Maurilândia/GO teve como tema as contradições na área de expansão canavieira no Cerrado Goiano e suas dualidades. O principal objetivo foi compreender a resiliência socioespacial como processo de valorização humana e espacial no que tange à existência (resistência) e coexistência dos sujeitos nos lugares invadidos pela cana no Cerrado de Goiás e na cidade rural de Maurilândia/GO. A...

  2. Combining multiple models to predict the geographical distribution of the Baru tree (Dipteryx alata Vogel) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabout, J C; Soares, T N; Diniz-Filho, J A F; De Marco Júnior, P; Telles, M P C; Naves, R V; Chaves, L J

    2010-11-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a biome of great biodiversity, but detailed information about the diversity and distribution of species in this region is still insufficient for both testing ecological hypotheses and for conservation purposes. Among native plants in the Cerrado, Dipteryx alata Vogel (commonly known as the "Baru" tree), has a high potential for exploitation. The aims of this paper were to predict the potential spatial distribution of D. alata in the Brazilian Cerrado utilising five different niche modelling techniques. These techniques usually provide distinct results, so it may be difficult to choose amongst them. To adjust for this uncertainty, we employ an ensemble forecasting approach to predict the spatial distribution of the Baru tree. We accumulated a total of 448 occurrence points and modelled the subsequent predicted occurrences using seven climatic variables. Five different presence-only ecological niche modelling techniques (GARP, Maxent, BIOCLIM, Mahalanobis Distance and Euclidean Distance) were used and the performance of these models was compared using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) and the Area Under the Curve (AUC). All models presented AUC values higher than 0.68, and GARP presented the highest AUC value, whereas Euclidean Distance presented the lowest. The ensemble forecasting approach suggested a high suitability for the occurrence of the Baru tree in the Central-Western region of the Brazilian Cerrado. Our study demonstrated that modelling species distribution using ensemble forecasting can be an important computational tool for better establishing sampling strategies and for improving our biodiversity knowledge to better identify priority areas for conservation. For the Baru tree, we recommend priority actions for conservation in the central region of the Cerrado Biome.

  3. Atributos físicos, químicos e biológicos de um Latossolo de cerrado em plantio de espécies florestais Physical, chemical and biological attributes of a cerrado Oxisol under different forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gomes da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto de plantios florestais nos atributos físicos, químicos e biológicos de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo de cerrado. Amostras de solo foram coletadas à profundidade de 0 a 10 cm, em áreas cultivadas há mais de 20 anos com pínus (Pinus tecunumanii, eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis ou carvoeiro (Sclerolobium paniculatum. Uma área adjacente de cerrado nativo foi incluída como referência do solo original. Foram observados, em relação ao cerrado, aumentos na densidade do solo sob pínus e eucalipto, redução na macroporosidade sob pínus, menores teores de matéria orgânica sob pínus e eucalipto, além de decréscimos no pH e na saturação por bases e incremento da saturação por alumínio nos cultivos com pínus e carvoeiro. O carbono da biomassa microbiana sob pínus, eucalipto e carvoeiro foi aproximadamente a metade do carbono sob cerrado. Atividades de fosfatase ácida e arilsulfatase foram inibidas pelo pínus e estimuladas pelo carvoeiro. Entre os reflorestamentos avaliados, o pínus promoveu a redução mais acentuada da qualidade do solo de cerrado. As variáveis microbiológicas foram as mais sensíveis em detectar o efeito dos diferentes reflorestamentos na qualidade do solo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact forest plantations on physical, chemical and microbiological attributes a cerrado Oxisol. Soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth from sites cultivated with pinus (Pinus tecunumanii, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis and carvoeiro (Sclerolobium paniculatum for over 20 years. An adjacent native cerrado area was used as a reference of the original soil conditions. It was observed in relation to the native cerrado: increases in soil density under pinus and eucalyptus, reduction in the macroporosity under pinus, lower organic matter contents under pinus and eucalyptus, besides decreases in the soil pH and in the base saturation under pinus and carvoeiro along

  4. Clinical characteristics associated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato skin culture results in patients with erythema migrans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Clinical characteristics associated with isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from skin have not been fully evaluated. To gain insight into predictors for a positive EM skin culture, we compared basic demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data in 608 culture-proven and 501 culture-negative adult patients with solitary EM. A positive Borrelia spp. skin culture was associated with older age, a time interval of >2 days between tick bite and onset of the skin lesion, EM ≥ 5 cm in diameter, and location of the lesion on the extremities, whereas several other characteristics used as clinical case definition criteria for the diagnosis of EM (such as tick bite at the site of later EM, information on expansion of the skin lesion, central clearing were not. A patient with a 15-cm EM lesion had almost 3-fold greater odds for a positive skin culture than patients with a 5-cm lesion. Patients with a free time interval between the tick bite and onset of EM had the same probability of a positive skin culture as those who did not recall a tick bite (OR=1.02; however, the two groups had >3-fold greater odds for EM positivity than patients who reported a tick bite with no interval between the bite and onset of the lesion. In conclusion, several yet not all clinical characteristics used in EM case definitions were associated with positive Borrelia spp. skin culture. The findings are limited to European patients with solitary EM caused predominantly by B. afzelii but may not be valid for other situations.

  5. Retreat and extinction of the Late Pleistocene cave bear ( Ursus spelaeus sensu lato)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Mateusz; Popović, Danijela; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Marciszak, Adrian; Urbanowski, Mikołaj; Nadachowski, Adam; Mackiewicz, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The cave bear ( Ursus spelaeus sensu lato) is a typical representative of Pleistocene megafauna which became extinct at the end of the Last Glacial. Detailed knowledge of cave bear extinction could explain this spectacular ecological transformation. The paper provides a report on the youngest remains of the cave bear dated to 20,930 ± 140 14C years before present (BP). Ancient DNA analyses proved its affiliation to the Ursus ingressus haplotype. Using this record and 205 other dates, we determined, following eight approaches, the extinction time of this mammal at 26,100-24,300 cal. years BP. The time is only slightly earlier, i.e. 27,000-26,100 cal. years BP, when young dates without associated collagen data are excluded. The demise of cave bear falls within the coldest phase of the last glacial period, Greenland Stadial 3. This finding and the significant decrease in the cave bear records with cooling indicate that the drastic climatic changes were responsible for its extinction. Climate deterioration lowered vegetation productivity, on which the cave bear strongly depended as a strict herbivore. The distribution of the last cave bear records in Europe suggests that this animal was vanishing by fragmentation into subpopulations occupying small habitats. One of them was the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland in Poland, where we discovered the latest record of the cave bear and also two other, younger than 25,000 14C years BP. The relatively long survival of this bear in karst regions may result from suitable microclimate and continuous access to water provided by deep aquifers, indicating a refugial role of such regions in the Pleistocene for many species.

  6. Allelopathic evidence in Brachiaria decumbens and its potential to invade the Brazilian Cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gorgone Barbosa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to look for evidence of allelochemicals in B. decumbens, in parts of the plant from where they could easily be released to the environment. The germination inhibition of Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (standard species and Melinis minutiflora, another invasive African grass, was tested using B. decumbens germinating seeds and aqueous leachates of the roots, green and senescent leaves, at 5, 10 and 20% w/v. Both the germinating seeds and the aqueous leachates of B. decumbens reduced the germination of the species tested; the effectiveness of the aqueous leachates increased according to concentration. Apparently, the competitive advantage of B. decumbens in the cerrados could be amplified via allelopathy.Invasão biológica é uma das maiores causas atuais da perda de biodiversidade. Várias espécies que se tornam invasoras produzem substâncias fitotóxicas que aumentam sua capacidade competitiva; assim, a alelopatia é uma estratégia capaz de potencializar o sucesso de invasão. Brachiaria decumbens, uma gramínea africana, invadiu os cerrados brasileiros e representa, atualmente, uma séria ameaça à biota regional. Neste ensaio, verificamos a presença de aleloquímicos em partes de B. decumbens das quais poderiam ser facilmente liberados para o ambiente. Testamos a inibição da germinação de Phalaris canariensis, Lactuca sativa (espécies padrão e Melinis minutiflora (outra gramínea africana invasora usando sementes de B. decumbens e soluções aquosas lixiviadas de suas raízes, folhas verdes e folhas senescentes, a 5, 10 e 20% de peso do material por volume de água. Tanto as sementes como as soluções lixiviadas de decumbens reduziram a germinação das outras espécies; a eficiência dos lixiviados aumentou de acordo com a concentração da solução. Acreditamos que a grande vantagem competitiva de B. decumbens no cerrado possa ser amplificada pela alelopatia.

  7. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francinaldo S

    2012-06-01

    The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees were collected monthly from October 2007 to May 2009, in the Reserva Florestal da Itamacaoca belonging to the Companhia de Agua e Esgoto do Maranhão, in Chapadinha municipality, Maranhão State. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol and vanillin were utilized, between 07:00 and 17:00hr, to attract the euglossine males. Cotton balls were dampened with the scents and suspended by a string on tree branches 1.5m above soil level, set 8m from one another. The specimens were captured with entomological nets, killed with ethyl acetate and transported to the laboratory to be identified. A total of 158 individuals and 14 species of bees were recorded. The genus Eulaema was the most representative group of euglossine bees in relation to the total number of the sampled individuals, accounting for 50.6% of bees followed by Euglossa (26.6%), Eufriesea (15.2%) and Exaerete (7.6%). The most frequent species were Eulaema nigrita (27.8%), Eulaema cingulara (19%) and Euglossa cordata (18.3%). Many species typical of forested environments were found in samples, like Euglossa avicula, Euglossa violaceifrons and Eulaema meriana, emphasizing the role played by the Gallery Forests as bridge sites to connect the two great biomes of Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. The occurrence of Exaerete guaykuru represents the second record of this species for the Neotropical region, and both records coming from the Gallery Forest zones. The male euglossine bees were sampled mainly in the dry season, where 62.5% of the

  8. Compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutas nativas do cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Silveira Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As frutas nativas do cerrado têm despertado ultimamente interesse crescente, devido às suas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais aliadas ao potencial para agregar valor e conservar a biodiversidade deste bioma. Muitos compostos fenólicos apresentam capacidade antioxidante de neutralizar a atividade de radicais livres gerados no organismo, que estão associados a diversas doenças crônico-degenerativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de três soluções extratoras (acetona a 70 %, etanol a 95 % e metanol a 99,8 % e determinar os teores de compostos fenólicos em 10 espécies de frutas nativas do cerrado, utilizando o método de Folin-Ciocalteou para compostos fenólicos totais e o método da vanilina para taninos condensados. A acetona a 70 % mostrou-se como o melhor solvente extrator de compostos fenólicos totais e taninos condensados em frutos de Pouteria gardneriana, Eugenia dysenterica, E. klostzchiana, E. punicifolia, Plinia edulis, Campomanesia sp., fenólicos totais de Brosimium gaudichaudii e taninos condensados de Jaracatia spinosa. O etanol a 95 % foi mais eficiente na extração de fenólicos totais de Jaracatia spinosa e taninos condensados de Brosimium gaudichaudii; o metanol a 99,8 % foi mais eficiente na extração de taninos condensados de Eugenia dysenterica. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais variaram entre 90 e 327 mg de ácido gálico equivalente por 100g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. punicifolia, respectivamente. Os teores de taninos condensados variaram entre 4 e 291 mg de catequina equivalente por 100 g de polpa para as espécies E. dysenterica e E. calcyna, respectivamente. As espécies de frutas do cerrado, avaliadas neste estudo, podem ser consideradas boas fontes de compostos fenólicos totais, sendo que a natureza específica dos diferentes tipos deve ser avaliada em estudos futuros.

  9. Gated communities in Latin American cities Barrios cerrados en ciudades latinoamericanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Demajo Meseguer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban space in many Latin American cities is proliferating these last decades in a gated community form, being defined as enclosed housing developments, with controlled access and security devices. The search for security, the contact with nature and exclusivity are some common features of these urbanizations. These features are usually presented by advertising agencies as vital needs for this modern society. Development of gated communities entails consequences associated with urban space fragmentation, privatization of public space, social segregation and lack of a community belonging sense; hence the need to question these types of developments and to intervene to modify them. Interventions, both aimed to redirect the emerging urban model and to carry out specific actions in the already existing gated communities, should bet on following traditional neighborhood models. This article pretends to analyze the gated communities’ phenomenon occurring in Latin America, detecting it consequences and proposing possible intervention measures.

    El espacio urbano de algunas ciudades latinoamericanas está proliferando, en las últimas décadas, en forma de barrios cerrados; entendidos como áreas de viviendas cerradas, con acceso controlado y dispositivos de seguridad. La búsqueda de la seguridad, el contacto con la naturaleza y la exclusividad son algunos rasgos comunes de estos barrios que, en muchos casos, la publicidad trata de convertir en necesidades vitales para la sociedad. Los barrios cerrados llevan consigo consecuencias relacionadas con la fragmentación del espacio urbano, la privatización del espacio público, la segregación social y el sentimiento de comunidad; de ahí, la necesidad de cuestionarse este tipo de emprendimientos y de intervenir sobre ellos. Las intervenciones, ya sean dirigidas a redireccionar el modelo urbano emergente, como actuaciones puntuales en BC ya existentes, deberían apostar por seguir modelos de barrio

  10. Ruderal plants in remaining Cerrado areas: floristic survey, origin and mycorrhization

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Neto, Maria; de Cássia Brassaloti Otsubo, Helena; Luciene Maltoni, Kátia; Rodrigues Cassiolato, Ana Maria

    2015-04-01

    The urbanization process creates new ecosystems that harbor flora which has specialized in living in anthropogenically altered environments, since the advent of agriculture and urbanization. Plant specialization in new ecosystems has been due to accelerated population growth and extensive occupied spaces on the planet surface. This study was looking at the floristic survey and origin, as well as arbuscular mycorrhization of ruderal plants, in remaining Cerrado areas in the city of Três Lagoas-MS, Brazil. It was also to expand knowledge about native and introduced vegetation in anthropogenic environments. The survey was conducted for a year. From all species ruderal plants founded, plants from 49 species were collected with the purpose of this study and report the occurrence or not of AM colonization, by classifying root colonization, of the species as: very high; high; medium; low and absent when presented a index of colonization> 80%, 79-50%, 49-20%, 19-1% and 0%, respectively. Two hundred sixty-six species, distributed into 53 botanical families were found. The flora of Três Lagoas-MS is composed of native and exotic plants (82.72% from the Americas and 17.28% from the Old World and Australia). There were 220 species native to the America's, but the largest amount (60.45%) were Brazil native growing plants. Smaller percentage of this (28.63%) was found to come from the cerrado, which indicates that the ruderal vegetation was well represented by native species. Of the 49 species chosen for verification of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, 27 exhibited very high colonization; two were high; two were medium; eleven were low and seven species showed no mycorrhizal colonization, leading to the conclusion that most ruderal plants showed mycorrhizal colonization. The soil fertility, for both area, were considered higher than the typical cerrado, and by the average number of AMF spores (152 per 100 g of dry soil-1) may not even be considered degraded. This urban

  11. Pristine aquatic systems in a Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Bárbara Medeiros; de Mendonça-Galvão, Luciana

    2014-12-01

    The maintenance of limnological monitoring programs in the Cerrado Domain is crucial as a provision of useful information about temporal variations in land use and their respective water quality responses, considering its importance as water source for different Brazilian hydrographic basins. The purpose of this research was to describe limnological variables of low-order lotic systems located in the Cerrado Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site (Environmental Protection Area (APA) Gama and Cabeça de Veado, Federal District of Brazil). Altogether, nine different streams were considered in this study. Samplings were conducted between 2010 and 2012, concentrated in the dry and rainy seasons. The sampling sites were generally characterized by low nutrient concentrations (e.g., medians, TP = 14.8 μg L(-1), TN = 20.0 μg L(-1), NO3 = 13.8 μg L(-1)) and slightly acidic waters (median, pH = 5.3), with quite low electrical conductivity values (median = 6.4 μS cm(-1)). However, water quality degradation as a response to diffuse pollution was reported in some sampling points (e.g., Onça and Gama streams), expressed by relatively higher N and P concentrations, which were probably highlighted by the good water quality of the data set as whole. Although there was a trend to higher values of nitrogen forms during the dry season, significant statistical differences between the seasonal periods were reported only for the variables temperature and dissolved silica, which were higher in the dry and rainy season, respectively. The streams located in the preserved areas inside the ecological stations of APA Gama and Cabeça de Veado can still be considered good examples of reference lotic systems in the Cerrado Domain; notwithstanding, this study reported incipient signs of water quality degradation which cannot be overlooked in future limnological monitoring.

  12. Influence of cerrado fragments in the distribution of mites in rubber tree crop; Influencia de fragmentos de cerrado na distribuicao de acaros em seringal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demite, Peterson R. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Animal; Plantacoes E. Michelin Ltda., Itiquira, MT (Brazil)]. E-mail: peterson_demite@yahoo.com.br; Feres, Reinaldo J.F. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia e Botanica]. E-mail: reinaldo@ibilce.unesp.br

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study was to verify whether fragments of cerrado influence the composition of the mite fauna on rubber trees. Five transects distant 50 m, being the first in the edge near the native areas and the last 200 m inside the crop, were established in each rubber tree crop in southern State of Mato Grosso. In each transect five plants were chosen, and seven leaves were collected from each plant. During one year, 25 quantitative samplings were conducted in two rubber tree crops. The lowest number of phytophagous mites occurred in the transect closer to the native vegetation, and the highest number, in the most distant from the native vegetation. The largest diversity was also observed in the transect closer to the neighboring vegetation. Ten species of predatory mites were also registered in neighboring native areas. These data suggest the movement of predatory mites from the native areas to the mono culture. These natural areas can possibly supply alternative food and habitat for natural enemies of phytophagous mites in the period of food scarceness in the rubber tree crop. The presence of native areas close to culture areas should be taken into account in the elaboration of programs of ecological management of pests. (author)

  13. Qualidade física de um Latossolo Vermelho sob sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária no Cerrado Soil physical quality under crop-livestock management systems in a Cerrado Oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robélio Leandro Marchão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária sobre atributos físico-hídricos do solo e avaliar o potencial uso desses atributos como indicadores da qualidade física de um Latossolo. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas camadas 0-5, 10-15, 20-25 e 40-45 cm. Todos os sistemas de uso e manejo do solo alteraram significativamente a densidade, umidade volumétrica, resistência à penetração, porosidade total, macroporosidade, microporosidade efetiva e água prontamente disponível do solo. Foram observados incrementos na resistência à penetração e na densidade do solo em todos os sistemas em comparação ao cerrado nativo. A compactação resultante do pisoteio animal durante quatro anos da fase pastagem, nos sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária, não atingiu valores críticos, que pudessem limitar cultivos anuais subseqüentes. A porosidade total e a macroporosidade foram maiores no cerrado e nos sistemas em plantio direto em relação aos em preparo convencional. Os atributos avaliados são indicadores confiáveis da qualidade físico-hídrica do solo.The objective of this work was to analyze the effect of integrated crop-livestock systems on soil hydraulic properties, and test the potential use of these properties as physical quality indicators of a Cerrado Oxisol. The field study was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil, considering soil layers of: 0-5, 10-15, 20-25 and 40-45 cm. Crop-livestock systems caused significant changes in soil bulk density, volumetric soil-water content, soil penetration resistance, total porosity, macroporosity, effective microporosity, unsaturated pores and available water. An increase was observed in both soil resistance and bulk density for all systems in comparison to the cerrado. However, higher soil resistance did not appear as a limiting factor for annual crops growth in a rotation sequence. Total porosity and macroporosity were

  14. Comparative transcriptomics reveal host-specific nucleotide variation in entomophthoralean fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    -off influencing the capacity to infect alternate hosts. Here, we investigate host adaptation in two morphologically indistinguishable and closely related obligate specialist insect-pathogenic fungi from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, Entomophthora muscae sensu stricto and E. muscae sensu lato, pathogens...

  15. Megaproyectos residenciales vallados en la periferia: ¿Barrios cerrados autosuficientes o nuevas ciudades?

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    Rodrigo Hidalgo D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las tendencias recientes de expansión Metropolitana en Santiago están marcadas por el diseño de grandes proyectos inmobiliarios que se comienzan a reproducir bajo la modalidad de ciudades valladas. A través del estudio del marco jurídico que ha dado a lugar a dichas intervenciones y del análisis de los primeros proyectos en marcha, la interrogante principal del trabajo apunta a confrontar si este tipo de emprendimientos es sólo una variante más de lo que son los barrios cerrados actuales o bien si ellos corresponden a las nuevas ciudades del futuro.

  16. Reproductive biology and food habits of Pseudoboa nigra (Serpentes: Dipsadidae from the Brazilian cerrado

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    Renata de Paula Orofino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein we provide data on body size, sexual size dimorphism,reproductive cycle, and food habits of the pseudoboini snake Pseudoboa nigra, which is distributed mainly in central South America throughout the Cerrado domain. Based on dissections of 147 preserved specimens, it is shown that females attain, and mature at,larger body sizes than males. There is no significant sexual dimorphism in head length, but males have longer tails relative to their body sizes. Vitellogenesis, egg-laying, and sperm production occur throughout the year, but males do not exhibit long-term sperm storage. The main prey of P. nigra is lizards; there is no evidence of ontogenetic change or sex differences in the diet of this species.

  17. Growth and photosynthetic capacity in two woody species of cerrado vegetation under different radiation availability

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    Ronquim Carlos Cesar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings of two woody species of cerrado vegetation, Copaifera langsdorffii and Eriotheca gracilipes, were studied under three different radiation availability (100, 80 and 30% transmittance. Full solar radiation brought about more biomass, higher total leaf area, higher maximal photosynthesis per crown on area or on mass bases and higher photosynthetic capacity on area bases. Only the photosynthetic capacity values on leaf mass bases were higher in both species under low radiation availability (80 and 30% transmittance. The differences of accumulated biomass appeared more clearly after 4 months of sowing but the root/shoot dry biomass ratio and height were maintained constant for both species independently of the available radiation. Cultivated under full solar radiation both species will be able to cover more suitable the two processes during seedling's phase: growth and defense.

  18. Production and partial characterization of extracellular proteinases from Streptomyces malaysiensis, isolated from a Brazilian cerrado soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Rodrigo P; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia M; Souza, Rodrigo F; Branquinha, Marta H; Bon, Elba P S; Pereira-Jr, Nei; Coelho, Rosalie R R

    2005-11-01

    Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3, isolated from a Brazilian cerrado soil, showed proteolytic activities detected by gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum proteinase production was obtained when using 2.5% wheat bran and 0.1% yeast extract in the culture medium, after 5 days incubation at 30 degrees C. The enzymatic complex degraded gelatin optimally at pH 7.0, and under these conditions eight proteolytic bands (four serine-proteinases and four metaloproteinases), ranging from 20 to 212 kDa, were detected on the culture supernatant filtrates. In addition, a 35-kDa proteinase was thermostable at 60 degrees C for 120 min. These results point out to the applicability of gelatin zymograms in the characterization of crude enzymatic complexes. According to our results, this enzymatic complex could be used for biotechnological applications.

  19. Construction and validation of two metagenomic DNA libraries from Cerrado soil with high clay content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Quirino, Betania Ferraz; Allen, Heather; Williamson, Lynn L; Handelsman, Jo; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique

    2011-11-01

    A challenge of metagenomic studies is in the extraction and purification of DNA from environmental samples. The soils of the Cerrado region of Brazil present several technical difficulties to DNA extraction: high clay content (>55% w/w), low pH (4.7) and high iron levels (146 ppm). Here we describe for the first time the efficient recovery and purification of microbial DNA associated with these unusual soil characteristics and the construction and validation of two metagenomic libraries: a 150,000 clones library with insert size of approximately 8 kb and a 65,000 clones library with insert size of approximately 35 kb. The construction of these metagenomic libraries will allow the biotechnological exploitation of the microbial community present in the soil from this endangered biome.

  20. Estudo fitoquímico de espécies arbóreas do cerrado

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    Carla Soares Godinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar os constituintes químicos dos extratos de folhas e cascas de sete espécies arbóreas do Cerrado, isto é, materiais vegetais compostos de folhas e cascas de plantas adultas de Brosimum gaudichauddi, Eugenia dysenterica, Astronium fraxinifolium, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum paniculatum e Anacardium humile. Os procedimentos para extração e identificação dos constituintes químicos foram adotados em função da classe química. Assim, observaram-se resultados positivos para flavonóides, taninos, antraquinonas, alcalóides, catequinas, saponinas, polissacarídeos, e ácidos orgânicos. A. humile foi a única planta a apresentar todas as substâncias analisadas. As espécies arbóreas estudadas apresentaram alto potencial medicinal e farmacológico.

  1. Seasonality of pathogenic fungi in mites of rubber tree plantations adjacent to fragments of Cerrado

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    PR. Demite

    Full Text Available Fungi are the most frequently observed pathogens of mite populations, helping to control them on different crops. Twenty-five samples of leaves were collected from rubber tree plantations adjacent to two fragments of Cerrado vegetation. Each rubber tree plantation had 25 plants selected for sampling and seven leaves from around each tree top were collected up to seven to eight meters above ground. Approximately 250 individuals of Calacarus heveae Feres, Phyllocoptruta seringueirae Feres, and Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, collected randomly, were mounted from each plantation. Hirsutella thompsoni Fisher was observed on all three mites and T. heveae was the most infected species. The highest infestation levels occurred from November to February (rainy season. In the dry season, infestation levels were below 5%. Hirsutella thompsonii has potential to be used as mycoacaricide during the rainy season.

  2. Influência do ambiente em cultivares de feijoeiro-comum em cerrado com baixa altitude

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    Helton Santos Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi identificar genótipos de feijoeiro-comum com alta adaptabilidade e estabilidade de produção e verificar a ocorrência de interação genótipos x ambientes (GxA para diferentes caracteres em algumas regiões de cerrado com baixa altitude no Estado do Mato Grosso. Foram realizados 12 ensaios em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em épocas de semeadura da seca e do inverno, no Estado do Mato Grosso, em 2008 e 2009. Os ensaios foram compostos por 19 genótipos com seis diferentes tipos de grãos. Foram obtidos dados de produtividade de grãos, reação à mancha angular, ciclo, tolerância ao acamamento e massa de cem grãos, e realizadas as análises de variância. Os dados de produtividade foram analisados quanto à estabilidade e adaptabilidade pelo método proposto por Annicchiarico. Foi observada interação GxA para todas as características avaliadas. A correlação entre a produtividade dos genótipos nas duas épocas de semeadura foi intermediária (0,48 (p<0,0375, mostrando que o desempenho dos genótipos nessas épocas é razoavelmente coincidente. As cultivares BRS Estilo, de grãos carioca e BRS Esplendor e BRS Campeiro, de grãos pretos, reúnem alta adaptabilidade, estabilidade e produtividade de grãos nas épocas de semeadura da seca e do inverno em regiões de cerrado de baixa altitude no Estado do Mato Grosso.

  3. Abdominal closed trauma in children. Trauma abdominal cerrado en el niño.

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    Rogelio Rodríguez Castillo

    Full Text Available Blunt abdominal trauma constitutes 90% approximately of the abdominal injuries in children. Due to the augmented size of the child trunk in relation to their extremities, the abdominal lesions are extremely frequents. The abdominal trauma is present in 20-30% of the patients with serious trauma. It's the second cause of death for accidents after the cranial traumatism in the pediatric patient. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Blunt Abdominal Trauma, approved by consensus in the 2nd National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Manzanillo, Cuba, September 31 - October 3, 2002.

    El trauma abdominal cerrado constituye aproximadamente el 90 % de los traumatismos abdominales en niños. Debido al tamaño aumentado del tronco del niño en relación con sus extremidades las lesiones abdominales son extremadamente frecuentes. El trauma abdominal está presente en el 20-30 % de los pacientes con trauma grave. Es la segunda causa de muerte por accidentes, después del traumatismo craneal, en el paciente pediátrico. Se presenta la Guía de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas para trauma abdominal cerrado, aprobada por consenso en el 2º Taller Nacional de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas en Cirugía Pediátrica (Manzanillo, 31 de septiembre al 3 de octubre del 2002.

  4. Soil, land use time, and sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Brazilian Cerrado region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, Kleber; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Formaggio, Antonio Roberto; de Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira E Cruz

    2017-02-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado area is in rapid decline because of the expansion of modern agriculture. In this study, we used extensive field data and a 30-year chronosequence of Landsat images (1980-2010) to assess the effects of time since conversion of Cerrado into agriculture upon soil chemical attributes and soybean/corn yield in the Alto do Rio Verde watershed. We determined the rates of vegetation conversion into agriculture, the agricultural land use time since conversion, and the temporal changes in topsoil (0-20 cm soil depth) and subsurface (20-40 cm) chemical attributes of the soils. In addition, we investigated possible associations between fertilization/over-fertilization and land use history detected from the satellites. The results showed that 61.8% of the native vegetation in the Alto do Rio Verde watershed was already converted into agriculture with 31% of soils being used in agriculture for more than 30 years. While other fertilizers in cultivated soils (e.g., Ca(+2), Mg(+2), and P) have been compensated over time by soil management practices to keep crop yield high, large reductions in C org (38%) and N tot (29%) were observed in old cultivated areas. Furthermore, soybean and cornfields having more than 10 years of farming presented higher values of P and Mg(+2) than the ideal levels necessary for plant development. Therefore, increased risks of over-fertilization of the soils and environmental contamination with these macronutrients were associated with soybean and cornfields having more than 10 years of farming, especially those with more than 30 years of agricultural land use.

  5. Diversity and distribution of extra-floral nectaries in the cerrado savanna vegetation of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudouris, John; Queenborough, Simon A

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Throughout evolutionary history, plants and animals have evolved alongside one another. This is especially apparent when considering mutualistic relationships such as between plants with extra-floral nectaries (EFNs, glands on leaves or stems that secrete nectar) and the ants that visit them. Ants are attracted by the nectar and then protect the plant against destructive herbivores. The distribution of these plants is of particular interest, because it can provide insights into the evolutionary history of this unique trait and the plants that possess it. In this study, we investigated factors driving the distribution of woody plants with EFNs in the cerrado vegetation of Brazil. Location. Brazil Methods. We used a database detailing the incidence of 849 plant species at 367 cerrado sites throughout Brazil. We determined which species possessed EFNs and mapped their distributions. We tested for correlations between the proportion of EFN species at each site and (i) three environmental variables (mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, and the precipitation in the driest quarter of the year), (ii) a broad soil classification, and (iii) the total species diversity of each site. Results. We found a wide range in the proportion of EFN species at any one site (0-57%). However, whilst low diversity sites had wide variation in the number of EFN species, high diversity sites all had few EFN species. The proportion of EFN species was positively correlated with absolute latitude and negatively correlated with longitude. When accounting for total species diversity, the proportion of EFN species per site was negatively correlated with precipitation in the driest quarter of the year and positively correlated with temperature range. Main Conclusions. These results suggest either that herbivore pressure may be lower in drier sites, or that ants are not as dominant in these locations, or that plant lineages at these sites were unable to evolve EFNs.

  6. Composição de carotenoides em passifloras do cerrado

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    Daniele Cristina Wondracek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar, por HPLC, a composição qualitativa e quantitativa de carotenoides em maracujás do cerrado. Frutos procedentes de acessos nativos de quatro espécies (Passiflora cincinnata, P. nitida, P. setacea e P. edulis foram analisados, utilizando, como referência, o maracujá-amarelo comercial (P. edulis. As polpas de maracujá apresentaram neoxantina, violaxantina, cis-violaxantina, anteraxantina, luteína, zeaxantina, β-criptoxantina, poli-cis-caroteno, prolicopeno, cis-ζ-caroteno, trans-ζ-caroteno, trans-β-caroteno, 13-cis-β-caroteno e fitoflueno. Em geral, os teores de carotenoides entre as espécies e entre os acessos da mesma espécie foram significativamente diferentes. A espécie P. edulis apresentou o maior número de carotenoides, com diferença entre os acessos. Em um acesso de P. edulis comercial, foi encontrado o trans-β-caroteno como o carotenoide principal (7,8±0,8 µg g-1 e no outro o trans-ζ-caroteno (11,4±0,4 µg g-1. Dois acessos de P. edulis nativos do Cerrado apresentaram cis-ζ-caroteno como carotenoide majoritário (6,28±0,15 µg g-1 e 12,1±0,7 µg g-1, casca amarela e roxa, respectivamente. O perfil de carotenoides em frutos de espécies de maracujá apresentou diversidade de composição, com potencial de uso para melhoramento genético para agregar maior valor ao produto e estimular o seu consumo.

  7. SISTEMA COMPUTARIZADO EN LAZO CERRADO PARA EL SUMINISTRO DE LA ANESTESIA INTRAVENOSA

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    Alberto Vanegas-Saavedra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de suministro de la anestesia total intravenosa en lazo cerrado es una técnica reciente que ofrece ventajas sobre las técnicas actuales como la estabilidad intraoperatoria y la menor y más segura dosificación. OBJETIVO: El objetivo general de este artículo es el de resumir los hallazgos sobre un nuevo método computarizado sencillo, en lazo cerrado, para suministrar la anestesia total intravenosa de forma automatizada y segura bajo la supervisión permanente del Anestesiólogo. Este sistema se ha desarrollado para la administración de anestesia intravenosa implementando varios subsistemas. Un modelo multicompartimental de distribución de fármacos en el paciente, un algoritmo para determinar la curva de velocidades del hipnótico (propofol a infundir, un protocolo de comunicación para establecer las velocidades de infusión y un lazo de realimentación para controlar la profundidad hipnótica mediante el índice biespectral. RESULTADO: El resultado final ha sido el desarrollo de un instrumento de fácil uso, con una interfaz interactiva, que facilita la operación anestésica por parte del anestesiólogo valiéndose de un computador convencional y un monitor de profundidad hipnótica. CONCLUSIÓN: Se ha implementado una herramienta informática dotada de un modelo farmacocinético multicompartimental de gran interés académico y clínico, que tal y como se ha demostrado de forma cuantitativa, proporciona idénticos resultados a los ofrecidos por equipos comerciales; con importantes ventajas adicionales como una interfaz de usuario interactiva y la posibilidad de administrar anestesia total intravenosa.

  8. Cultivo de cachama blanca en altas densidades y en dos sistemas cerrados

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    Germán Poleo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia de la cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus, a cultivos en altas densidades en sistemas cerrados. Novecientos alevines de 44,3±26 g de peso, se distribuyeron en seis tanques de concreto, con 4,8 m³ de agua. Tres tanques presentaron cero recambio de agua (SCR, y en otros tres, el agua se hizo circular a través de un bioclarificador (SRA. Ambos tratamientos presentaron fuerte aireación para mantener los sólidos en suspensión y suministrar aire. Los peces se alimentaron a saciedad con pienso comercial por 192 días. Los parámetros de calidad de agua como: oxígeno disuelto, amonio total, nitritos, nitratos, alcalinidad, dureza, temperatura y pH, se midieron semanalmente. Los peces en el SCR crecieron a una tasa de 2,34±0,05 g por día, y tuvieron conversión alimenticia de 1,5±0,06, densidad final de 12,96±0,53 kg m-3, y peso final de 449,5±99 g. En el SRA, los peces crecieron 2,33±0,03 g por día, con conversión alimenticia de 1,6±0,07, densidad final de 12,13±1,12 kg m-3, y peso final de 446,5±10 g. La cachama blanca puede ser cultivada en sistemas cerrados con cero recambio de agua en altas densidades.

  9. Seroprevalence against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and occurence of antibody co-expression with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Berzina, Inese; Matise, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is commonly diagnosed in humans in Latvia, but up to date no studies have been performed to investigate its prevalence in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate if seroprevalence against B. burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) and co-expression of antibodies against B.burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum is higher in dogs with clinical suspicion of tick-borne diseases compared to healthy dogs. Findings Venous blood was taken from healthy dogs (n=441) an...

  10. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  11. Behavioral observations of grazing sheep in the Cerrado biome of Federal DistrictObservações comportamentais de ovinos em pastejo no bioma Cerrado do Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juaci Vitória Malaquias

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of animal behavior under grazing in different biomes is an alternative to increase production because it identifies possibilities of strategic interventions in the management. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the average time of grazing, ruminating and leisure are related to the position (station/decubitus, to the location (sun or shade, as well as the influence of gender in these interactions in Santa Inês sheep in Cerrado from Federal District, Brazil. To obtain the data, the behavior of the animals was assessed by visual observations at ten-minute intervals over a period of ten hours on two consecutive days. From the data obtained were analysis of variance and comparisons between means by Tukey test with significance level of 5%. The result of this study showed that the average time of grazing, ruminating and leisure in Santa Inês sheep, are related to the position (station/decubitus and location (sun and shade. No significant differences were identified in relation to time spent in the activity of grazing, ruminating and leisure between Santa Inês sheep males and females. O conhecimento do comportamento animal sob pastejo em diferentes biomas é uma alternativa para o incremento na produção, pois identifica possibilidades de intervenções estratégicas no manejo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar se o tempo médio de pastejo, ruminação e ócio estão relacionados com a posição (estação/decúbito, com o local (sob sol ou sombra, bem como a influência do sexo nestas interações em ovinos da raça Santa Inês no bioma Cerrado do Distrito Federal. Para a obtenção dos dados, o comportamento dos animais foi avaliado por observações visuais em intervalos de dez minutos num período de dez horas, em dois dias consecutivos. A partir dos dados obtidos foram realizadas as análises de variância e comparações entre as médias pelo teste de Tukey com nível de significância de 5%. O resultado deste

  12. Acarofauna da cafeicultura de cerrado em Patrocínio, Minas Gerais Acarofauna of cerrado's coffee crops in Patrocínio, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Spongoski

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. na região de cerrado do Estado de Minas Gerais, mais especificamente no Alto Paranaíba, está se desenvolvendo com muito sucesso. As doenças e pragas vêm causando redução na produtividade e na qualidade do café produzido. Os ácaros fitófagos fazem parte deste problema, pois causam danos econômicos. Sendo assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo o levantamento da acarofauna em cafeeiros daquela região. Foram feitas quatro amostragens de folhas, ramos e frutos, sendo duas no período das águas e duas no período de seca em 2002 e 2003. Foram identificadas três famílias de ácaros fitófagos, quatro de ácaros predadores e quatro de ácaros generalistas. As espécies de ácaros encontradas foram: Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Tenuipalpidae; Oligonychus sp. (Tetranychidae; Tarsonemus confusus Ewing, 1939, Fungitarsonemus sp., Daidalotarsonemus sp., Phytonemus sp. (Tarsonemidae; Lorrya formosa Cooreman, 1958, Lorrya sp. (Tydeidae; Parapronematus acaciae Baker, 1965 (Iolinidae; Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959, Euseius citrifolius Denmark e Muma, 1970, Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant, 1959 (Phytoseiidae; Asca sp. (Ascidae; Bdella sp. (Bdellidae; Zetzellia sp. (Stigmaeidae, e espécimes da família Acaridae e da subordem Oribatida não identificadas. Trata-se do primeiro relato da ocorrência da espécie T. confusus em cafeeiro. Da família Tarsonemidae foram encontradas três novas espécies, e da família Iolinidae um novo gênero, para posterior descrição.The coffee (Coffea arabica L. growing in Cerrado areas of Patrocínio, State of Minas Gerais, more specifically in the region of Alto Paranaíba, have been expanding with success. Coffee diseases and pests result in reduction of the productivity and quality. Phytophagous mites are among the pests that cause economic damage. Therefore, this work had as objective the study of the mite fauna on coffee plants in those areas. Four surveys were

  13. Crescimento e resistência à seca de leucena em solo de cerrado Growth and drought resistence of leucaena in "cerrado" soil

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    Sonia Cristina Juliano Gualtieri de Andrade Perez

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas envasadas de Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (De Witt foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação sob 30% de sombreamento artificial, em solo de cerrado, com adição de 0, 750, 1.500 e 3.000 kg ha-1 de NPK (4-14-8. Aos 180 dias após a emergência (DAE, as plantas crescidas em solo sem adubo químico apresentaram os menores valores de taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR = 0,028 g g-1 dia-1, biomassa total (5,2 g, taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL= 4,2.10-4 g cm-2 dia-1, e não produziram nem flores nem vagens. Entre as plantas cultivadas em solo fertilizado, as que receberam maiores quantidades de adubo químico apresentaram maiores valores de biomassa total e área foliar, a partir de 90 DAE. Porém, os maiores valores de TCR (43,92.10-4 g g-1 dia-1 e TAL (15,01 g cm-2 dia-1 foram obtidos nas plantas crescidas em solo com 750 kg ha-1 de NPK. A presença de flores e vagens nas plantas que receberam 1.500 e 3.000 kg ha-1 de NPK ocorreu a partir dos 120 DAE, e aos 150 DAE se iniciou o processo de abscisão foliar nos vegetais crescidos em todos os tratamentos, com conseqüente redução da área foliar, TAL e TCR. Na presença de estresse hídrico simulado, as plantas com 90 DAE mostraram-se mais resistentes que as de 30 dias. Porém, nos dois casos, as plantas mais tolerantes à dessecação foram as crescidas em solo com maiores teores de NPK, e um ajuste osmótico auxiliou as plantas a sobreviverem durante o período da seca.Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (De Witt plants were cultivated in a growth chamber, with 30% of artificial shading and in "cerrado" soil fertilized or not with addition of 0, 750, 1,500 and 3,000 kg ha-1 NPK, in Brazil.. At 180 days after emergence, plants grown in soil without fertilization presented the lowest values of relative growth rate (TCR= 0.028 g g-1 day-1, total biomass (5.2 g, net assimilation rate (TAL = 4.2.10-4 g cm-2 day-1 and did not produce neither flowers or fruit. Among plants grown in fertilized soil, the

  14. Occurrence of white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera, in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal, Brazil Ocorrência de Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Cerrado do Distrito Federal

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    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors cite Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 as occurring in all the Brazilian territory. In spite of that, there are no reports of capture sites for D. youngi in the literature for Distrito Federal or Cerrado of Central Brazil. Here we report the first precise record of this species for Central Brazil, rural area of Distrito Federal, and provide information on its biology, conservation and distribution in Brazil, according to our data and information from the literature.A espécie Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 é considerada por alguns autores como ocorrendo para todo o Brasil incluindo o bioma Cerrado e área rural do Distrito Federal. No entanto não há na literatura nenhum registro do local de coleta dessa espécie para essas regiões. Reportamos aqui o primeiro registro no Cerrado do Brasil Central, área rural do Distrito Federal, e alguns dados sobre a biologia, conservação e distribuição geográfica da espécie no Brasil, de acordo com dados desse trabalho e da literatura.

  15. Seed dispersal and spatial distribution of Attalea geraensis (Arecaceae) in two remnants of Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjorne de Almeida, Lilian; Galetti, Mauro

    2007-09-01

    The seed dispersal system of Attalea geraensis (Arecaceae), an acaulescent palm, was investigated during one year in two Cerrado fragments in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. A. geraensis had inflorescences and infrutescences throughout the year. Two scatter-hoarding rodents (the spiny rat, Clyomys bishopi and agoutis, Dasyprocta azarae) were identified as seed predators/dispersers, able to move seeds up to 30 m from the palms, although most of the fruits (57.5%) were dispersed less than 2 m. The removal rates were high and after 20 days, 97.2% of the fruits were removed. Fruit fate was not related to fruit mass, length and diameter. The application of Morisita's index showed a more clumped distribution of adults in the smaller fragment, probably because of the absence of agoutis. Higher seed removal by rodents in the large Cerrado remnant may decrease seed predation by beetles.

  16. Yeasts from native Brazilian Cerrado plants: Occurrence, diversity and use in the biocontrol of citrus green mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Eugenio Miranda; do Vale, Helson Mario Martins; Moreira, Geisianny Augusta Monteiro

    2015-11-01

    Yeasts are some of the most important postharvest biocontrol agents. Postharvest oranges frequently deteriorate due to green mould (Penicillium digitatum), which causes significant losses. The aims of this study were to determine the composition and diversity of yeasts on plants of the Brazilian Cerrado and to explore their potential for inhibiting citrus green mould. Leaves and fruit of Byrsonima crassifolia and Eugenia dysenterica were collected from Cerrado conservation areas, and thirty-five yeasts were isolated and identified by sequencing the D1-D2 domain of the rDNA large subunit (26S). The isolates represented the Aureobasidium, Meyerozyma, Candida, and Pichia genera. Three isolates identified as Aureobasidium pullulans exhibited potential for the control of P. digitatum in both in vitro and in vivo tests; these isolates reduced the incidence of disease and increased the storage time of fruit. Aureobasidium. pullulans has immense potential for the biological control of filamentous fungi.

  17. Do maravilhoso ao desencantamento: Olhares sobre a natureza no cerrado nos séculos XVIII e XIX

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    Pepita de Souza Afiune

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é analisar as representações diferenciadas sobre o cerrado goiano. No século XVIII, relatos de bandeirantes e colonizadores expressaram uma visão maravilhosa da natureza, como um lugar de riquezas expressas nas singularidades das formas geológicas. Já no século XIX, no contexto da emergência do racionalismo científico, o cerrado foi visto, tanto por viajantes-cientistas (como o austríaco Pohl, como por políticos-exploradores (como Taunay de modo desencantado, sendo enfatizado a sua pertinência para o desenvolvimento da ciência ou para o desenvolvimento econômico.

  18. Synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the Caatingas of the São Francisco River, Northeastern Brazil

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    Miranda de Melo, José Iranildo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a commented synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the basin of the lower-middle and lower stretches of the São Francisco River in Northeast Brazil (states of Pernambuco and Bahia. Five genera and 21 species were recorded: Euploca, with six species; Cordia, with five; Varronia, with four; and Heliotropium and Myriopus, represented by three species each. A new combination in the genus Myriopus is here proposed. Keys for the separation of genera and species as well as distributional and geographical data are provided.Este trabajo presenta una sinopsis comentada de la familia Boraginaceae sensu lato en la cuenca media y baja del río São Francisco, nordeste del Brasil (estados de Pernambuco y Bahía. Se reconocen cinco géneros y 21 especies: Euploca, con seis especies; Cordia, con cinco; Varronia, con cuatro y Heliotropium y Myriopus, representados por tres especies cada. Se propone una combinación nueva en el género Myriopus. Así mismo, se aportan claves para la separación de los géneros y especies y datos sobre la distribución geográfica y la ecología de las especies.

  19. Measurement of the Ecological Integrity of Cerrado Streams Using Biological Metrics and the Index of Habitat Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Deusiano Florêncio; Salazar, Ayala Eduardo; Machado, Mayana Mendes Dias; Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; de Morais, Paula Benevides

    2017-01-01

    Generally, aquatic communities reflect the effects of anthropogenic changes such as deforestation or organic pollution. The Cerrado stands among the most threatened ecosystems by human activities in Brazil. In order to evaluate the ecological integrity of the streams in a preserved watershed in the Northern Cerrado biome corresponding to a mosaic of ecosystems in transition to the Amazonia biome in Brazil, biological metrics related to diversity, structure, and sensitivity of aquatic macroinvertebrates were calculated. Sampling included collections along stretches of 200 m of nine streams and measurements of abiotic variables (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, and discharge) and the Index of Habitat Integrity (HII). The values of the abiotic variables and the HII indicated that most of the streams have good ecological integrity, due to high oxygen levels and low concentrations of dissolved solids and electric conductivity. Two streams showed altered HII scores mainly related to small dams for recreational and domestic use, use of Cerrado natural pasture for cattle raising, and spot deforestation in bathing areas. However, this finding is not reflected in the biological metrics that were used. Considering all nine streams, only two showed satisfactory ecological quality (measured by Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP), total richness, and EPT (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) richness), only one of which had a low HII score. These results indicate that punctual measures of abiotic parameters do not reveal the long-term impacts of anthropic activities in these streams, including related fire management of pasture that annually alters the vegetation matrix and may act as a disturbance for the macroinvertebrate communities. Due to this, biomonitoring of low order streams in Cerrado ecosystems of the Northern Central Brazil by different biotic metrics and also physical attributes of the riparian zone

  20. Temporal and spatial variation of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) caterpillar abundance in the cerrado of Brasilia, Brazil

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    Morais, Helena C.; Mangabeira, Jacimary A. [Universidade Federal de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Ecologia]. E-mail: morais@unb.br; Cabral, Berites C.; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade Federal de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: irdiniz@unb.br

    2007-11-15

    The caterpillars of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick feed on Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae) in the cerrado of the Distrito Federal, Brazil. They construct shelters by joining leaves of the plant where they feed and pupate. The caterpillars are parasitized by a wasp (Hymenoptera: Brachonidae), which emerges from the pupae. Caterpillar abundance and parasitism frequency were associated in an area of frequently burned cerrado (biennial fire) and in another area that burns sporadically (1987 and 1994). For S. cathosiota, the variation among years in a single area, with sporadic fires, was greater than the variation among areas with different fire regimes. Caterpillar abundance among years was significantly different in the area that burns sporadically (c{sup 2} = 24.06; df. = 1; P = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences on caterpillar abundance between areas for the same period (c{sup 2} 3.45; df. = 1; P = 0.063). Parasitism frequency was high, reaching 29% of the collected caterpillars, and did not differ among areas. The great temporal variation in abundance of lepidopteran caterpillars in the cerrado makes it difficult to determine the effects that fire exerts over this fauna. (author)

  1. Phenotypic plasticity to light of two congeneric trees from contrasting habitats: Brazilian Atlantic Forest versus cerrado (savanna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, F de V; Goulart, M F; Telles, S B Sá; Lovato, M B; Valladares, F; de Lemos-Filho, J P

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is a typically multi-layer tropical forest, while cerrado (savanna) is a patchy habitat with different physiognomy. Despite these differences, both habitats have high light heterogeneity. Functional traits of Dalbergia nigra and D. miscolobium from the Atlantic Forest and cerrado, respectively, were evaluated under shade (25% of full sunlight) and full sunlight in a nursery experiment. We hypothesised that both species should benefit from high phenotypic plasticity in relation to light. Plasticity was estimated using the relative distance phenotypic index (RDPI). D. miscolobium had lower shoot growth under both light conditions, suggesting it has low competitive capacity in the forest environment, which could explain its limited ability to expand over areas of Atlantic Forest. The studied species exhibited photoprotection strategies under high light and improved light capture under low light. Stomatal conductance, ETR(max) (maximum electron transport rate), PPFD(sat) (saturating photosynthetically active photon flux density), chlorophyll and carotenoid content had higher RDPI than stem morphological traits. Although both species showed considerable phenotypic plasticity, D. miscolobium had higher RDPI for eight of 11 evaluated traits. This high plasticity could be one of the factors that explain the occurrence of this species in a wide range of environmental conditions, from open grassland to dense woodlands, and it could also reflect its adaptation to high light. D. nigra also had considerable plasticity and good growth performance in both shade and full sunlight, but its absence in areas of cerrado suggests that factors other than light limit its occurrence in these habitats.

  2. Evidence of limited carbon sequestration in soils under no-tillage systems in the Cerrado of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeels, Marc; Marchão, Robelio Leandro; Neto, Marcos Siqueira; Ferreira, Eliann Garcia; Madari, Beata Emöke; Scopel, Eric; Brito, Osmar Rodrigues

    2016-02-24

    The Brazilian government aims at augmenting the area cropped under no-tillage (NT) from 32 to 40 million ha by 2020 as a means to mitigate CO2 emissions. We estimated soil carbon (C) sequestration under continuous NT systems in two municipalities in the Goiás state that are representative of the Cerrado. A chronosequence of NT fields of different age since conversion from conventional tillage (CT) was sampled in 2003 and 2011. Soil C levels of native Cerrado and pasture were measured for comparison. After about 11 to 14 years, soil C stocks under NT were highest and at the levels of those under natural Cerrado. Average annual rates of soil C sequestration estimated using the chronosequence approach were respectively 1.61 and 1.48 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) for the 2003 and 2011 sampling, and were higher than those observed using repeated sampling after eight years. The diachronic sampling revealed that the younger NT fields tended to show higher increases in soil C stocks than the older fields. Converting an extra 8 million ha of cropland from CT to NT represents an estimated soil C storage of about 8 Tg C yr(-1) during 10 to 15 years.

  3. Habitat use and home range of brown-nosed coati, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae) in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovati, Roberto Guilherme; Brito, Bernardo Alves de; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2010-09-01

    The brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua) is a carnivorous species found in all the Brazilian biomes, some of which are endangered areas. The aim of this work was to determine the habitat use and selection, home range and core area of N. nasua in the Cerrado biome, central region of Tocantins, Brazil. The study was carried out in an area of approximately 20 000ha from May 2000 to July 2002. A total of seven box traps were placed in the area for 13 months, three of 11 captured animals were followed and monitored by radio-tracking during 13 months. The monitoring was conducted once a day, three times a week using a car and walking through the study area (radio-tracking and visual contact). The results demonstrate that these three males used more frequently the gallery forest formation, followed by cerrado and wetlands. The use of gallery forest by these animals indicated an habitat selection (Proportion test, z=12.98, pcerrado percentage of habitat use. Besides, results also showed a gallery forest selection by adult (Proportion test z=13.62, pCerrado, that may support conservation efforts.

  4. Alien and endangered plants in the Brazilian Cerrado exhibit contrasting relationships with vegetation biomass and N : P stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannes, Luciola S; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Edwards, Peter J; Venterink, Harry Olde

    2012-11-01

    Although endangered and alien invasive plants are commonly assumed to persist under different environmental conditions, surprisingly few studies have investigated whether this is the case. We examined how endangered and alien species are distributed in relation to community biomass and N : P ratio in the above-ground community biomass in savanna vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado. For 60 plots, we related the occurrence of endangered (Red List) and alien invasive species to plant species richness, vegetation biomass and N : P ratio, and soil variables. Endangered plants occurred mainly in plots with relatively low above-ground biomass and high N : P ratios, whereas alien invasive species occurred in plots with intermediate to high biomass and low N : P ratios. Occurrences of endangered or alien plants were unrelated to extractable N and P concentrations in the soil. These contrasting distributions in the Cerrado imply that alien species only pose a threat to endangered species if they are able to invade sites occupied by these species and increase the above-ground biomass and/or decrease the N : P ratio of the vegetation. We found some evidence that alien species do increase above-ground community biomass in the Cerrado, but their possible effect on N : P stoichiometry requires further study.

  5. RELAÇÃO SOLO/VEGETAÇÃO EM AMBIENTE DE CERRADO SOBRE INFLUÊNCIA DO GRUPO URUCUIA

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    Renata Botelho Machado da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe Brazilian Cerrado vegetation comprises a mosaic of natural types, from open fields to savannas andforests. It is believed that the presence of different vegetation types in a region can be explained in part by thedirect relationship with the attributes present in the same soil. The present study investigated the relationshipbetween soil and vegetation in an area of Cerrado biome with influence of Urucuia Group. To do so, weconducted a survey of soils and vegetation in 1:50,000 scale in an area ofapproximately 32,000 hectareslocated in the tri-border region of Minas Gerais, Goiás and Bahia states, with the sandstone substrate ofUrucuia Group. The analytical results of soil classes were related to the present data of the physiognomiesthrough common statistical analysis and through the determination of the main components. The soils ofthe region reflected well the source material, with high percentages of sand, with a predominance of Oxisol Hapludox and Oxisol dystrophic, present in over 35% of the entire study area. The most common vegetationtype was Cerrado sense, restrict and typical. The principal component analysis indicated that the fine sand,clay and aluminum accounted for 93.7% of the variability of the relationship between soils and vegetationtype

  6. Sistemas agroflorestais e seus efeitos sobre os atributos químicos em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo do Cerrado piauiense Agroforestry systems and its effects on chemical attributes of an Ultisol in the 'Cerrado' of Piaui state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna de F. Iwata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, quantificar os efeitos dos Sistemas Agroflorestais com diferentes tempos de adoção e a agricultura de corte e queima sobre os atributos químicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo em áreas de cerrado do estado do Piauí. Em duas épocas climáticas foram estudados quatro sistemas: sistemas agroflorestais com seis e treze anos de adoção, agricultura de corte e queima e uma floresta nativa do cerrado. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em quatro profundidades para determinação dos atributos químicos. No solo sob os Sistemas Agroflorestais foram observados, em todas as camadas avaliadas, redução dos teores de Al3+ e H++Al3+ e aumento do pH, dos teores dos nutrientes e do carbono orgânico total em relação aos demais sistemas. No solo sob agricultura de corte e queima, verificou-se que apenas nas camadas superficiais a cinza depositada sobre o solo promoveu aumento dos nutrientes, exceto para o P, que foi maior em todas as camadas. Nos demais sistemas houve diminuição dos teores dos nutrientes no período chuvoso. Os sistemas agroflorestais promoveram aumento dos teores de nutrientes do solo e garantiram melhoria da qualidade química do solo em áreas de cerrado no estado do Piauí.This study aimed to quantify the effects of agroforestry systems (AFS, with different periods of adoption, and slash and burn agriculture (SB on the chemical attributes of an Ultisol in the 'Cerrado' of Piaui State, Brazil. In two distinct climatic seasons (dry and rainy four systems were studied: AFS with six (AFS6 and thirteen years (AFS13 of adoption, an area under SB and a native forest (NF, as a reference. In the AFS, in all depths, higher reduction in the Al3+ and H+ + Al3+ contents were observed as well as an increase of pH value and contents of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg and K and organic carbon in soil. In the soil under SB, only in superficial layers, the ash deposited on the soil caused an increase in contents of

  7. Caracterização química parcial da semente de jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. Partial chemical characterization of jatobá-do-cerrado seeds (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart.

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    Tatiana G. Matuda

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização química parcial da semente de jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart., a fim de avaliar o potencial de aproveitamento desta espécie e contribuir para a preservação de espécies nativas do cerrado, através da valorização de seus recursos naturais. A semente apresentou alto teor de fibras (85,31%, 9,05% de proteínas e 5,30% de lipídios (base seca. A análise de aminoácidos mostrou que a proteína, como outras leguminosas, tem os aminoácidos sulfurados e a treonina como aminoácidos limitantes. A fração lipídica apresentou 75% de ácidos graxos insaturados, sendo o ácido linoléico dominante (46,9%. Dentre os fatores antinutricionais estudados, os compostos fenólicos, com 48mg/g de farinha de jatobá desengordurada (base seca, mostraram teor acima do encontrado em outras leguminosas. A semente de jatobá mostrou-se pobre em macronutrinentes quando comparada a leguminosas utilizadas na alimentação, mas o alto teor de fibras, possivelmente constituídas de xiloglucanas e galactomananas, pode levar ao aproveitamento rentável destas sementes.The objective of this work was the partial chemical characterization of the jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. seed in order to evaluate the potential value as a food and/or feed source and to contribute to the preservation of Brazilian native species from "cerrado" through valorization of its natural resources. Jatobá-do-cerrado seeds had a high crude fiber content (85.31%, 9.05% of crude protein and 5.30% of total lipids (dry basis. Amino acids analysis showed that protein was deficient in sulfur amino acids and treonin and high in other essential amino acids. Lipid fraction showed 75% of unsaturated fatty acid and linoleic acid was dominant (46.9%. Amongst the studied antinutritional factors, total phenolics (48mg/Êg of defatted flour, dry basis was higher than in other leguminous seeds. However, despite the fact that

  8. Influência da granulometria e da mineralogia sobre a retenção do fósforo em latossolos sob pastagens no cerrado Influence of soil texture and mineralogy on phosphorus retention in cerrado oxisols under pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Néia Eberhardt

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens abrangem cerca de 50 milhões de hectares na região do Cerrado. Os Latossolos, ocupando aproximadamente a metade da área, são solos intemperizados, constituídos, principalmente de caulinita, óxidos de Fe e Al e estes óxidos têm grande influência na retenção de P. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores totais de P, assim como sua disponibilidade e retenção em Latossolos sob pastagens do Cerrado, e relacionar estes dados com suas características mineralógicas, granulométricas e químicas. As relações entre as características estudadas foram avaliadas por meio da análise de componentes principais e correlações de Pearson. O P disponível resina mostrou-se correlacionado negativamente com as características mineralógicas e granulométricas e positivamente com os teores de matéria orgânica do solo. Tanto os óxidos livres totais como os amorfos tiveram correlações negativas com o P remanescente (Prem. Os teores de gibbsita, goethita e hematita apresentaram correlações negativas com o Prem. Por outro lado, a caulinita não exerceu influência sobre o Prem, indicando a baixa participação desta na adsorção de P nos Latossolos do Cerrado. Observou-se correlação negativa entre o Prem e o C total, explicada pelo fato de o estoque de C aumentar linearmente com o conteúdo de argila e silte no solo. Os óxidos de Fe e Al foram os componentes mineralógicos que exerceram maior influência sobre o Prem.Pastures cover nearly 50 million hectares in the Cerrado region. The Oxisols, which cover approximately half this area, are highly weathered soils composed mainly of kaolinite, iron and aluminum oxides. Iron and aluminum oxides have a great influence on the retention of phosphorus (P in these soils. The aim of this study was to quantify the total phosphorus levels, as well as P availability and retention in Oxisols under pasture in the Cerrado region and to relate the data with soil mineralogical, textural

  9. TRAUMA OCULAR CERRADO: MANIFESTACIONES, MANEJO E IMPLICACIONES EN EL BOXEO Y EL FÚTBOL

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    Álvaro Rodríguez González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El trauma ocular cerrado según su grado puede ser ligero moderado o severo. En algunos casos permanece inadvertido o enmascarado y crea consecuencias por lo que debe ser investigado. El trauma tiene características y deja huellas, algunas evidentes y otras ocultas que pueden aparecer en la historia clínica o deben ser buscadas en el segmento anterior ocular en donde se pueden observar trastornos del reflejo pupilar, (incluye midriasis paralítica, laceraciones palpebrales, hemorragia orbitaria, hifema (hemorragia en cámara anterior y fracturas óseas, orbitaria o maxilofacial. En biomicroscopía, pueden observarse laceraciones corneanas, a veces sutiles, otras veces son cicatrices perforantes enmascaradas, acompañadas interiormente de sinequia anterior del iris a la cicatriz de la córnea. También, heridas corneanas recientes, diálisis del iris, a veces extensas en su base, con retroinserción angular de variable extensión y tunelización supracoroidea que inducen, bien a hipotonía ocular o a elevación de la tensión ocular y establecimiento de glaucomas. El trauma ocular cerrado es importante por haberse convertido en un problema de salud pública dadas sus implicaciones en niños, en trabajadores y en aficionados y profesionales en los deportes. 

    Palabras clave: Trauma ocular cerrado, heridas corneanas, biomicroscopía, síndrome del niño maltratado, contusión ocular.  

     

    CLOSED OCULAR TRAUMA

    CLINICAL FINDINGS,  MANAGEMENT AND IMPLICATIONS IN BOXING AND SOCCER

     

    ABSTRACT 

    Closed ocular trauma may be mild, moderate or severe. In some cases, it remains unnoticed or masked and leave sequelae, so it should be investigated. Ocular trauma has some characteristics and leave

  10. Radiological impact associated to the use of phosphogypsum in crops cultivated at the Cerrado region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Kerley A.P. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais], E-mail: kapo@cdtn.br; Menezes, Maria A.B.C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Div. de Tecnologia das Radiacoes. Servico de Reator e Irradiacoes], E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Taddei, Maria H.T. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/LAPOC), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radioquimica], E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br; Mello, Jaime W.V. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos], E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.br; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Meio Ambiente e Tecnicas Nucleares], E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the 'wet process', whereby sulfuric acid is reacted with phosphate rock to produce phosphoric acid. The Brazilian production of this material is around 12 million of tons per year which is stacked in piles at the same place where it is produced. Researches accomplished in several countries worldwide have demonstrated the potential use of PG in agriculture not only as a source for calcium and sulfur, but also as a conditioner for soils that contain high levels of aluminum. In Brazil, these studies are mainly focused on the application of phosphogypsum to the Cerrado region, the main agriculture region of the country. Taking into account the presence of natural radionuclides in this material and the fact that the mobility and bioaccumulation of these elements can vary significantly with changes in climate, a research project has been conducted in a partnership with the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Soil Department of Vicosa Federal University in order to investigate the radiological impact of using phosphogypsum in crops cultivated in Cerrado soils. For this purpose a set of greenhouse experiments have been conducted in two types of soil (one clayey and other sandy loam textured) to determine the transfer factor of natural radionuclides ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb) from soil to crops (lettuce, corn and soybean) and drainage waters. This paper aims to report preliminary results of the study, including the chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of the soil samples, and radioactivity concentration in both the applied PG and soil samples. The measurement of {sup 232}Th concentration has been carried out by neutron activation analysis, {sup 238}U by delayed neutron counting technique, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb by the method of radiochemical separation. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra (240 Bq.kg{sup -1}) and {sup 228}Ra

  11. Impactos do agrupamento do bambu Actinocladum verticillatum (Nees McClure ex Soderstr. (POACEAE sobre a vegetação lenhosa de duas fitofisionomias de Cerrado na transição Cerrado-Floresta Amazônica Impact of Actinocladum verticillatum (Nees McClure ex Soderstr. (POACEAE clumps on the woody vegetation in two Cerrado physiognomies in transition Cerrado & Floresta Amazônica, east of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Divino Vicente Silvério

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou os efeitos do agrupamento de uma espécie de bambu nativa do Cerrado (Actinocladum verticillatum sobre a composição florística, diversidade e estrutura da vegetação lenhosa de um cerradão e de um cerrado típico adjacentes no Parque Municipal do Bacaba, Nova Xavantina-MT. Foram instaladas 60 parcelas de 10x10 m, sendo 30 no cerradão e 30 no cerrado típico. Em cada fitofisionomia, foram instaladas 15 parcelas em um sítio sem bambu (SB e 15 em um sítio com cobertura estimada de folhagem de bambu superior a 90% (CB. Foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbustivo-arbóreos com diâmetro a 30 centímetros do solo (DAS ≥ 3 cm. Foi avaliada a riqueza, a diversidade de espécies, a similaridade florística, a distribuição de diâmetros e alturas e o índice de valor de importância das espécies (VI. De forma geral, os sítios CB das duas fitofisionomias apresentaram menores valores quanto ao número de indivíduos, espécies, gêneros, famílias, densidades e áreas basais em relação aos sítios SB, com redução mais acentuada nestes parâmetros no cerrado típico em relação ao cerradão. Os resultados sugerem que a ocupação do espaço e a redução da incidência luminosa causada pelas touceiras do bambu dificultam a germinação das sementes e o estabelecimento das plântulas de espécies arbustivo-arbóreas, selecionando as espécies mais tolerantes ao sombreamento modificando a composição florística e a estrutura da vegetação.This study evaluated the effects of a Cerrado native bamboo species (Actinocladum verticillatum clumps on the floristic composition, diversity and structure of the woody vegetation in two adjacent areas of “cerradão” and typical “cerrado” in the Bacaba Municipal Park, Nova Xavantina, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Sixty plots of 10 x 10 m were established, 30 in each forest physiognomy. In each physiognomy, 15 plots were placed in a bamboo-free site (SB and 15 in a site

  12. Spatial and temporal patterns of burned area over Brazilian Cerrado from 2005 to 2015 using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Renata; DaCamara, Carlos; Setzer, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Although Cerrado is a fire-dependent biome, current agriculture practices have significantly modified the native fire regime. Moreover, over the last decades, climate conditions, such as intensive droughts, have contributed to enhance the effects of anthropogenic activities, and consequently fire, over the region. For instance, during the 2010 extreme drought there was an increase of 100% in the number of fire pixels detected by just one polar orbiting satellite (information online at http://www.cptec.inpe.br/queimadas). A better characterization of spatial and temporal fire patterns over Cerrado is therefore crucial to uncover both climate and anthropogenic influences in this ecosystem. Additionally, information about the extent, location and time of burned areas (BA) over Cerrado is especially useful to a wide range of users, from government agencies, research groups and ecologists, to fire managers and NGOs. Instruments on-board satellites are the only available operational means to collect BA data at appropriated spatial and temporal scales and in a cost-effective way. Several global BA products derived from remote sensed information have been developed over the last years using a variety of techniques based on different spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions. Although presenting similar inter-annual variability, there are marked differences among the products both in magnitude and location of the area burnt. The development of regional algorithms which take into account local characteristics such as vegetation type, soil and climate is therefore an added value to the existing information. We present a monthly BA product (AQM) for Brazil based on information from MODIS 1km. The algorithm was specifically designed for ecosystems in Brazil and the procedure represents the first initiative of an automated method for BA monitoring using remote sensing information in the country. The product relies on an algorithm that takes advantage of the ability of MIR

  13. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and assessment of entomological risk index at localities in Belgrade

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    Krstić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The first case of human Lyme borreliosis (LB in Serbia was recorded in 1987. The number of reported LB cases has increased in the past decade. The aim of this study was to estimate the density of Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus ticks, the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi in them, and entomological risk index (ERI at 19 Belgrade localities which were grouped into three categories (forests, parkforests, parks. The values of ERI were compared with the number of tick bites in humans. Methods. Ticks were collected monthly by using the flag hours method and the infection rate was determined by using dark field microscopy. The ERI value was calculated for each locality where the ticks were collected. The related data about tick bites was obtained from the patient protocol of the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Results. The total number of collected ticks, the number of nymphs and the infection rates of the nymphs were significantly higher in forests (p < 0.05 than park-forests and parks. Statistically, the ERI value was significantly higher in forests than parks of Belgrade (χ2 = 7.78, p < 0.01. In March and July, the ERI value was also significantly higher in forests, than park-forests (p < 0.01 and parks (p < 0.01. May was the month with the highest ERI value in each ecological category (forests p < 0.05; park-forests p < 0.01; parks p < 0.001. However, the number of tick bites in humans did not correlate with ERI values. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that the risk of tick bite and human exposure to B. burgdorferi sensu lato is present at all selected localities in Belgrade. For a more comprehensive Lyme disease risk assessment the method of entomological risk index assessment should be combined with other methods, taking into consideration all tick stages and the behaviour and habits of people who may get infected B. burgdorferi sensu lato.

  14. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation ofsusceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicalsfrom a less susceptible host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as tick repellents. We report th...

  15. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M.; Arruda, Sandra F.; Dourado, Lívia P. S.; da Cunha, Marcela S. B.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  16. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart. Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver

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    Adriana M. Fustinoni-Reis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G, Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado, Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched, or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression.

  17. Variability in fruit and seed morphology among and within populations of Plathymenia (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) in areas of the Cerrado, the Atlantic forest, and transitional sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, M Figueiredo; Pires Lemos Filho, J; Lovato, M B

    2006-01-01

    Plathymenia reticulata is a tree species that occurs in two different Brazilian biomes, the Cerrado (a savannah environment), and the Atlantic Forest. In the present study, we evaluated morphological variation within and among five populations located in these vegetation types and in transitional sites in order to test the hypothesis that habitat selective pressures, being different in the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest, would cause adaptive differences in morphological traits in individuals occurring under these different circumstances. Thirteen morphological traits of fruits, seeds, and of the membranous endocarp were obtained from 30 fruits and 20 seeds from each of nine to 10 individuals per population. Significant variation was found for all traits while comparing individuals within populations, and most traits varied significantly among populations as well. Some traits differed significantly between forest and Cerrado populations, while transition sites showed intermediate patterns and higher within-population variation. Contrary to our hypothesis, variation in seed size and mass among populations from different habitats was not significant. However, as predicted, the membranous endocarp was shorter for the seeds from Cerrado populations than from the Atlantic Forest. These data suggest the existence of P. reticulata ecotypes from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest; the relevance to Plathymenia evolution and to its wide ecological distribution is discussed.

  18. A new species of Bachia Gray, 1845 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Eastern Brazilian Cerrado, and data on its ecology, physiology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mauro; Recoder, Renato Sousa; Camacho, Agustín; De Sena, Marco Aurélio; Navas, Carlos Arturo; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2013-02-19

    A new species of Bachia of the bresslaui group, Bachia geralista sp. nov., is described from Planalto dos Gerais, an old and partially dissected plateau extending along the Cerrados of Bahia, Minas Gerais and Tocantins states, Brazil. The new species is morphologically similar to B. bresslaui, with which it has been confused; however head scalation resembles other species from sandy spots within the Cerrado (B. psamophila and B. oxyrhina). Like in B. psamophila and B. oxyrhina, the shovel-shaped snout of the new species is highly prominent, a typical trait of psammophilous habits in other gymnophthalmids. The examination of specimens of B. bresslaui from several populations within the Cerrado revealed great variation among localities, leading to the reidentification of a specimen from Utiariti, Mato Grosso, previously referred to in the literature as the second record of B. bresslaui, as the recently described B. didactyla, suggesting that cryptic diversity might remain still undiscovered within this genus in the Cerrado. Despite occurring in a relatively open Cerrado, thermal physiology of Bachia geralista sp. nov. restricts its occurrence to shaded microhabitats within this habitat.

  19. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M; Arruda, Sandra F; Dourado, Lívia P S; da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A

    2016-02-17

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression.

  20. Soil Acidobacterial 16S rRNA Gene Sequences Reveal Subgroup Level Differences between Savanna-Like Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Brazilian Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catão, Elisa C P; Lopes, Fabyano A C; Araújo, Janaína F; de Castro, Alinne P; Barreto, Cristine C; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Quirino, Betania F; Krüger, Ricardo H

    2014-01-01

    16S rRNA sequences from the phylum Acidobacteria have been commonly reported from soil microbial communities, including those from the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) and the Atlantic Forest biomes, two biomes that present contrasting characteristics of soil and vegetation. Using 16S rRNA sequences, the present work aimed to study acidobacterial diversity and distribution in soils of Cerrado savanna and two Atlantic forest sites. PCA and phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the acidobacterial communities found in "Mata de galeria" forest soil samples from the Cerrado biome have a tendency to separate from the other Cerrado vegetation microbial communities in the direction of those found in the Atlantic Forest, which is correlated with a high abundance of Acidobacteria subgroup 2 (GP2). Environmental conditions seem to promote a negative correlation between GP2 and subgroup 1 (GP1) abundance. Also GP2 is negatively correlated to pH, but positively correlated to high Al(3+) concentrations. The Cerrado soil showed the lowest Acidobacteria richness and diversity indexes of OTUs at the species and subgroups levels when compared to Atlantic Forest soils. These results suggest specificity of acidobacterial subgroups to soils of different biomes and are a starting point to understand their ecological roles, a topic that needs to be further explored.

  1. A influência do sistema de avaliação da AACSB na gestão dos programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu em Administração nos Estados Unidos

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    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos percebe-se a preocupação das Instituições de Ensino Superior - IES no aprimoramento e monitoramento do desempenho dos seus cursos de pós-graduação, por meio de sistemas de avaliação. Para aprimorar o entendimento do sistema de avaliação da pós-graduação no Brasil, é importante estudar os sistemas de avaliação de países que possuem experiência em avaliação ao longo dos anos. O artigo tem como objetivo identificar a influência do sistema de avaliação da Association to Advance Collegiate School of Business (AACSB na gestão dos programas de pós-graduação em administração dos Estados Unidos. O método de pesquisa foi o estudo de casos múltiplos, em quatro programas de Pós-Graduação credenciados pela AACSB. Os principais resultados indicam que os programas utilizam o sistema da AACSB para assegurar o cumprimento de sua missão no contexto de cada programa atua. Os programas precisam atender a um padrão mínimo de qualidade, nos moldes do sistema ISO. Existe pouca exigência para produção científica por parte dos professores que podem ser credenciados com o perfil acadêmico ou profissional, respeitando os limites impostos pelo sistema. Existe uma grande exigência do sistema para que os programas atendam as necessidades dos stakeholders. Nesse sentido, a formação adequada do aluno e seu desenvolvimento profissional são tratados com profissionalismo pelos programas, pois parte importante de sua reputação é advinda da atuação do egresso do programa na sociedade.

  2. EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS AND LIME IN RICE IN CERRADO SOILS EFEITO DE MICRONUTRIENTES E CALCÁRIO NA CULTURA DO ARROZ EM SOLO DE CERRADO

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    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    statistically superior to the others. The analysis of variance showed a significant difference among the treatments at the 5% level. The Duncan test indicated that, in rela-tion to grain yield, the treatments fell into two categories. The T1 and T3 treatments gave low yields, and the T2, T4, T5 and T6, produ-ced higher yields. With regard to the intensity of leaf symptoms, the treatments fell into two groups. In the T1 and T3 treatments, the manifestations ware more intense than in the T2, T4 , T5, and T6 treatments. Though there was no significant difference, lime seems to ag-gravate the intensity of the leaf symptom. In the plots that received lime and did not receive zinc, grain yield was significantly lower.

    Desde o ano agrícola de 1966/67, nos arrozais cultivados em solos de cerrado de diversas regiões do Estado de Goiás, vem se observando a ocorrência de anormalidades caracterizadas pela cor marrom no limbo foliar, que se acentuam com o decorrer do ciclo vegetativo, permanecendo a coloração verde apenas na nervura principal e bordos. Geralmente os sintomas aparecem mais intensamente em "reboleiras", onde as plantas se apresentam com porte reduzido, podendo morrer, resultando em sensível queda de produção. Quando as plantas não perecem, o ciclo vegetativo é retardado. Observou-se que as manifestações aparecem frequentemente em arrozais que receberam calcário. No presente trabalho procurou-se estudar a causa de tais sintomas, através da observação do efeito de micronutrientes e calcário, adicionados ao solo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O experimento foi instalado em latossolo vermelho, com cobertura típica de campo cerrado, próximo a Goiânia. O cultivar usado foi o IAC 12/46, tendo sido as sementes desinfectadas com Neantina seco a 0,3%. A adubação foi feita no sulco de plantio, exceto a calagem que foi a lanço. Na

  3. Chloroplast diversity of Casearia grandiflora in the Cerrado of Piauí State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M F; Pereira, A A; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Araújo, A S F; Gomes, R L F; Valente, S E S; Oliveira, M E A; Lopes, A C A

    2017-02-16

    Casearia grandiflora (Salicaceae) is a typical Cerrado species adapted to disturbed environments, making it useful for restoration projects. Knowledge of genetic diversity is important for establishing conservation strategies for this species. This study aimed to compare chloroplast haplotype diversity and structure of C. grandiflora, under the assumption that protected areas hold greater genetic diversity than disturbed areas. The populations studied are from Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades Conservation Unit and from the surroundings of the city of Cocal de Telha, both located in the State of Piauí. Molecular analyses were performed with seven chloroplast microsatellite loci. The number of private haplotypes and haplotype diversity were higher in the conservation unit, which reinforces the importance of these areas in maintaining biodiversity. Analysis of molecular variance showed that most of the genetic variation is found within populations, with a moderate divergence between them (FST = 0.14). The Bayesian analysis and discriminant analysis of principal components suggested that populations are not structured, revealing that a set of individuals from Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades were more divergent within populations than between them. Since literature has little information on C. grandiflora, the results of this study provide important contribution to a better understanding of the specie's genetic diversity.

  4. Seed germination performances of Styrax species help understand their distribution in Cerrado areas in Brazil

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    Camila Kissmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this descriptive paper, we described germination responses of Styrax pohlii, S. camporum and S. ferrugineus seeds at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 °C. We also assessed the percentage germination (%G of S. pohlii seeds with different seed water contents because, as a forest species, it seems to have recalcitrant seed behavior. Intrigued by the capacity of seeds of this species to germinate directly from puddles formed on poorly drained soils of riparian forests, where it typically occurs, we also tested the effect of de-pulping fruits on germination of S. pohlii seeds under hypoxia and normoxia conditions. In addition, we checked whether distinct concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3 could break S. ferrugineus seed dormancy, a typical seed behavior of Cerrado species. No germination occurred at 5, 40 and 45 °C, regardless of the species. The optimal temperature for germination was 20 °C for S. pohlii and 25 °C for S. camporum. However, S. ferrugineus seeds showed a very low %G, regardless of the temperature, and GA3 could not consistently break possible physiological seed dormancy. For S. pohlii seeds, the higher the seed desiccation the lower the %G, and fruit pulp removal showed to be essential for seed germination. S. pohlii seeds germinated independently of oxygenation conditions.

  5. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation by Mimosa spp. in the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Fábio Bueno; Simon, Marcelo F; Gross, Eduardo; Boddey, Robert M; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Neto, Nicolau E; Loureiro, M de Fatima; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Scotti, Maria Rita; Chen, Wen-Ming; Norén, Agneta; Rubio, Maria C; de Faria, Sergio M; Bontemps, Cyril; Goi, Silvia R; Young, J Peter W; Sprent, Janet I; James, Euan K

    2010-06-01

    *An extensive survey of nodulation in the legume genus Mimosa was undertaken in two major biomes in Brazil, the Cerrado and the Caatinga, in both of which there are high degrees of endemicity of the genus. *Nodules were collected from 67 of the 70 Mimosa spp. found. Thirteen of the species were newly reported as nodulating. Nodules were examined by light and electron microscopy, and all except for M. gatesiae had a structure typical of effective Mimosa nodules. The endosymbiotic bacteria in nodules from all of the Mimosa spp. were identified as Burkholderia via immunolabelling with an antibody against Burkholderia phymatum STM815. *Twenty of the 23 Mimosa nodules tested were shown to contain nitrogenase by immunolabelling with an antibody to the nitrogenase Fe- (nifH) protein, and using the delta(15)N ((15)N natural abundance) technique, contributions by biological N(2) fixation of up to 60% of total plant N were calculated for Caatinga Mimosa spp. *It is concluded that nodulation in Mimosa is a generic character, and that the preferred symbionts of Brazilian species are Burkholderia. This is the first study to demonstrate N(2) fixation by beta-rhizobial symbioses in the field.

  6. Estimation of gross primary production of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest by remote sensing techniques

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    Maísa Caldas Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross primary production (GPP of ecosystems is an important variable in the study of global climate change. Generally, the GPP has been estimated by micrometeorological techniques. However, these techniques have a high cost of implantation and maintenance, making the use of orbital sensor data an option to be evaluated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD17A2 product and the vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM to predict the GPP of the Amazon-Cerrado transitional forest. The GPP predicted by MOD17A2 (GPP MODIS and VPM (GPP VPM were validated with the GPP estimated by eddy covariance (GPP EC. The GPP MODIS, GPP VPM and GPP EC have similar seasonality, with higher values in the wet season and lower in the dry season. However, the VPM performed was better than the MOD17A2 to estimate the GPP, due to use local climatic data for predict the light use efficiency, while the MOD17A2 use a global circulation model and the lookup table of each vegetation type to estimate the light use efficiency.

  7. Assessment of toxic potential of Cerrado fruit seeds using Artemia salina bioassay

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    Raíza Cavalcante Fonseca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemia salina bioassay was used to assess toxicity of seeds and kernels of Brazilian fruits from cerrado (central high plains region and other inner regions of the country. Water extracts of the kernels were filtered and added to Artemia cultures containing ten individuals per mL. Dose - response curves were constructed, and LD50 values were calculated. Pure potassium cyanide standard was used to draw a calibration curve for comparison to detect the presence of cyanide in the samples tested. Extracts of the seeds of araticum, mangaba, cagaita, jatobá, and tucumã were found toxic to Artemia salina, and some of the dose - response curves were very similar in shape to those obtained with pure potassium cyanide standards, while the samples of baru, cajá-manga, siriguela, trauma, and veludo showed no toxicity at all. The Guignard test, specific for cyanide detection, showed negative results in all toxic samples, suggesting the presence of other toxic compounds rather than cyanide. The comparison of araticum dose - response curve with those of other annonaceous fruits suggests the presence acetogenins as the main toxic compounds in the seeds. These results could be useful to prevent poisoning by industrial derivatives of the fruits studied.

  8. COMPOSITION OF MEDIUM AND LARGE MAMMALS IN FOREST RESERVE IN THE CERRADO OF BRAZIL CENTRAL

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    Rodrigo Jose Viana Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge about fauna location and distribution is very important for animal biology understanding. Conservation Units are relevant to biodiversity when considering factors such as hunting, agricultural expansion and forest fires. The conservation of native vegetation fragments under more suitable management plans, recovery areas and surveys are essential to the mammals preservation. This study aimed to survey the mammals of medium and large size of the Brasilia National Forest Area 1. To carry out this study it was performed weekly rounds in search for direct and indirect mammals traces existing at forest reserve. It is reported the presence of 27 species in the study area. According to the IUCN Red List, four species are vulnerable to extinction: tapir (Tapirus terrestris, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus and oncilla (Leopardus guttulus. Two species were recorded nearly threatened species: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and pampas deer (Ozotocerus bezoarticus. Also according to the same list, 48% (n=13 of species are declining in population trend and 26% (n=7 for this data is unknown. Differences in the area were observed, with mammal species presence associated to Cerrado vegetation types and in distribution of records over the period.