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Sample records for cerium-doped hematite nanoparticles

  1. The effects of cerium doping on the size, morphology, and optical properties of α-hematite nanoparticles for ultraviolet filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardillo, Dean [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, AIIM Facility, University of Wollongong Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Konstantinov, Konstantin, E-mail: konstan@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, AIIM Facility, University of Wollongong Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Devers, Thierry [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, Institut de Physique, site de Chartres, Université d’Orléans (France)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Possible application of cerium-doped α-hematite as ultraviolet filter. • Nanoparticles obtained through co-precipitation technique using various cerium doping levels followed by annealing. • Comprehensive materials characterisation utilizing XRD, DSC/TGA, STEM, UV–vis spectroscopy. • Increasing cerium content reduces particle sizing and alters morphology. • Solubility of cerium in hematite seen between 5 and 10% doping, 10% cerium doping greatly enhances attenuation in ultraviolet region and increases optical bandgap. - Abstract: Metal oxide nanoparticles have potential use in energy storage, electrode materials, as catalysts and in the emerging field of nanomedicine. Being able to accurately tailor the desirable properties of these nanoceramic materials, such as particle size, morphology and optical bandgap (E{sub g}) is integral in the feasibility of their use. In this study we investigate the altering of both the structure and physical properties through the doping of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocrystals with cerium at a range of concentrations, synthesised using a one-pot co-precipitation method. This extremely simple synthesis followed by thermal treatment results in stable Fe{sub 2−x}Ce{sub x}O{sub y} nanoceramics resulting from the burning of any unreacted precursors and transformation of goethite-cerium doped nanoparticle intermediate. The inclusion of Ce into the crystal lattice of these α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles causes a significantly large reduction in mean crystalline size and alteration in particle morphology with increasing cerium content. Finally we report an increase optical semiconductor bandgap, along with a substantial increase in the ultraviolet attenuation found for a 10% Ce-doping concentration which shows the potential application of cerium-doped hematite nanocrystals to be used as a pigmented ultraviolet filter for cosmetic products.

  2. Cerium doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized by coprecipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu Carmen Steluta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports a simple coprecipitation adapted method for the synthesis of stable Ce substituted to Ca hydroxyapatite (HAp nanoparticles. The structural and morphological properties of Ce doped hydroxyapatite (Ce:HAp were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX. The optical properties of Ce doped hydroxyapatite were also investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, FT Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence analysis. The results of the XRD studies revealed the progressive increase in the a- and c-axes with increasing of Ce concentrations. In the FTIR studies of Ce:HAp powders a similar structure to hydroxyapatite was observed. IR and Raman wavenumbers and the peak strength of the bands associated to the P-O and O-H bonds decreases progressively with the increase of Ce concentration. All the emission maxima could be attributed to the 5d-4f transitions of Ce ions. The displacement of maximum emission bands with the increase of Cerium in the samples is in agreement with the results obtained by XRD studies. The Ce:HAp samples with xCe =0.03 and 0.05 exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and E. coli 714 bacterial strains compared to Ce:HAp samples with xCe =0 (pure HAp and 0.01.

  3. Biomineralization-Inspired Synthesis of Cerium-Doped Carbonaceous Nanoparticles for Highly Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shenqiang; Zhu, Xiaofang; Zhang, Lirong; Guo, Fan; Zhang, Miaomiao; Tan, Youwen; Gong, Aihua; Fang, Zhengzou; Ju, Huixiang; Wu, Chaoyang; Du, Fengyi

    2018-03-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles recently have received extensive attention in biomedical applications due to their excellent anti-oxidation performance. In this study, a simple, mild, and green approach was developed to synthesize cerium-doped carbonaceous nanoparticles (Ce-doped CNPs) using bio-mineralization of bull serum albumin (BSA) as precursor. The resultant Ce-doped CNPs exhibited uniform and ultrasmall morphology with an average size of 14.7 nm. XPS and FTIR results revealed the presence of hydrophilic group on the surface of Ce-doped CNPs, which resulted in excellent dispersity in water. The CCK-8 assay demonstrated that Ce-doped CNPs possessed favorable biocompatibility and negligible cytotoxicity. Using H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) as model, Ce-doped CNPs showed highly hydroxyl radical scavenging capability. Furthermore, flow cytometry and live-dead staining results indicated that Ce-doped CNPs protected cells from H2O2-induced damage in a dose-dependent effect, which provided a direct evidence for anti-oxidative performance. These findings suggest that Ce-doped CNPs as novel ROS scavengers may provide a potential therapeutic prospect in treating diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  4. Redox-induced reversible luminescence switching of cerium-doped upconversion nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanan [College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); International Laboratory for Adaptive Bio-nanotechnology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics (SINANO), Chinese Academy of Science, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xiao, Qingbo, E-mail: qbxiao2011@sinano.ac.cn [International Laboratory for Adaptive Bio-nanotechnology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics (SINANO), Chinese Academy of Science, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Jian [College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); International Laboratory for Adaptive Bio-nanotechnology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics (SINANO), Chinese Academy of Science, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xi, Yonglan [Laboratory for Agricultural Wastes Treatment and Recycling Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Science, Nanjing 210014 (China); Li, Fujin [International Laboratory for Adaptive Bio-nanotechnology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics (SINANO), Chinese Academy of Science, Suzhou 215123 (China); Feng, Yamin [College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); International Laboratory for Adaptive Bio-nanotechnology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics (SINANO), Chinese Academy of Science, Suzhou 215123 (China); Shi, Liyi [College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Lin, Hongzhen, E-mail: hzlin2010@sinano.ac.cn [International Laboratory for Adaptive Bio-nanotechnology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics (SINANO), Chinese Academy of Science, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Smart upconversion nanophosphors (UCNPs) that can be reversibly switched between two or more luminescent states by certain external stimuli have attracted considerable attention due to their great potential in biological applications. Here we report for the first time a type of redox-switchable UCNPs by codoping NaGdF{sub 4}:Yb/Er nanorods with the redox-active Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+} ion pairs. A reversible switching of their UC luminescence intensity was observed upon the variation of the surrounding redox environments. We show solid proof that the luminescence switching is caused by the tailoring of the NaGdF{sub 4} host crystal structure in response to changing redox state of the codoped cerium ions. A proof-of-concept example is further demonstrated by using these UCNPs for probing the dynamical variation of redox environments in biological tissues. - Highlights: • Synthesis of upconversion nanoparticles doped with Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+} ions. • The precise and reversible modification of crystal structure by redox reactions. • Tuning the upconversion luminescence by tailoring the crystal structure.

  5. Magnetic properties of hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bender Koch, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic properties of hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) particles with sizes of about 16 nm have been studied by use of Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements, and neutron diffraction. The nanoparticles are weakly ferromagnetic at temperatures at least down to 5 K with a spontaneous...... magnetization that is only slightly higher than that of weakly ferromagnetic bulk hematite. At T greater than or similar to 100 K the Mossbauer spectra contain a doublet, which is asymmetric due to magnetic relaxation in the presence of an electric field gradient in accordance with the Blume-Tjon model......, Simultaneous fitting of series of Mossbauer spectra obtained at temperatures from 5 K to well above the superparamagnetic blocking temperature allowed the estimation of the pre-exponential factor in Neel's expression for the superparamagnetic relaxation time, tau(0) = (6 +/- 4) X 10(-11) s and the magnetic...

  6. Characterization of hematite nanoparticles synthesized via two different pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soumya; Hendry, M. Jim

    2014-08-01

    Hematite is one of the most common and thermodynamically stable iron oxides found in both natural and anthropogenic systems. Owing to its ubiquity, stability, moderate specific surface area, and ability to sequester metals and metalloids from aquatic systems, it has been the subject of a large number of adsorption studies published during the past few decades. Although preparation techniques are known to affect the surface morphology of hematite nanoparticles, the effects of aging under environmentally relevant conditions have yet to be tested with respect to surface morphology, surface area, and adsorptive capacity. We prepared hematite via two different pathways and aged it under highly alkaline conditions encountered in many mill tailings settings. Crystal habits and morphologies of the hematite nanoparticles were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analyses were also conducted on the hematite nanoparticles before and after aging. The hematite synthesized via an Fe(III) salt solution (average particle size 37 nm) was morphologically and structurally different from the hematite synthesized via ferrihydrite aging (average particle size 144 nm). Overall, our data demonstrate that the crystallinity of hematite produced via ferrihydrite transformation is susceptible to morphological alterations/modifications. In contrast, the hematite formed via hydrolysis of an Fe(III) salt solution remains very stable in terms of structure, size, and morphology even under extreme experimental conditions.

  7. Cerium-doped scintillating fused-silica fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.

    2018-04-01

    We report on a set of measurements made on (scintillating) cerium-doped fused-silica fibers using high-energy particle beams. These fibers were uniformly embedded in a copper absorber in order to utilize electromagnetic showers as a source of charged particles for generating signals. This new type of cerium-doped fiber potentially offers myriad new applications in calorimeters in high-energy physics, tracking systems, and beam monitoring detectors for future applications. The light yield, pulse shape, attenuation length, and light propagation speeds are given and discussed. Possible future applications are also explored.

  8. Magnetic anisotropy and quantized spin waves in hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Stine Nyborg; Lefmann, Kim; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    2004-01-01

    We report on the observation of high-frequency collective magnetic excitations, (h) over bar omegaapproximate to1.1 meV, in hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanoparticles. The neutron scattering experiments include measurements at temperatures in the range 6-300 K and applied fields up to 7.5 T as well...... as polarization analysis. We give an explanation for the field- and temperature dependence of the excitations, which are found to have strongly elliptical out-of-plane precession. The frequency of the excitations gives information on the magnetic anisotropy constants in the system. We have in this way determined...

  9. Magnetic dynamics of weakly and strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bender Koch, Christian; Mørup, Steen

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic dynamics of two differently treated samples of hematite nanoparticles from the same batch with a particle size of about 20 nm have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy. The dynamics of the first sample, in which the particles are coated and dispersed in water, is in accordance with...... down by interparticle interactions and a magnetically split spectrum is retained at room temperature. The temperature variation or the magnetic hyperfine field, corresponding to different quantiles in the hyperfine field distribution, can be consistently described by a mean field model...... for "superferromagnetism" in which the magnetic anisotropy is included. The coupling between the particles is due to exchange interactions and the interaction strength can be accounted for by just a few exchange bridges between surface atoms in neighboring crystallites....

  10. Microstructural changes in porous hematite nanoparticles upon calcination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Rune; Knudsen, Kenneth D.; Molenbroek, Alfons M.

    2011-01-01

    This combined study using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and adsorption isotherm techniques demonstrates radical changes in the microstructure of porous hematite (-Fe2O3) nanoparticles upon calcination in air. TEM....... The change in microstructure also causes a reduction in the surface area as calculated by gaseous adsorption. The XRPD and SANS data show that the crystallite and SANS particle sizes are virtually unchanged by calcination at 623 K. Calcination at 973 K induces a significant alteration of the sample. The XRPD...... data reveal that the crystallite size increases significantly, and the SANS and adsorption isotherm studies suggest that the specific surface area decreases by a factor of 5–6. The TEM images show that the particles are sintered into larger agglomerates, but they also show that parts of the porous...

  11. Impact of environmental conditions on aggregation kinetics of hematite and goethite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chen-yang; Deng, Kai-ying; Li, Jiu-yu; Xu, Ren-kou

    2015-01-01

    Hematite and goethite nanoparticles were used as model minerals to investigate their aggregation kinetics under soil environmental conditions in the present study. The hydrodynamic diameters of hematite and goethite nanoparticles were 34.4 and 66.3 nm, respectively. The positive surface charges and zeta potential values for goethite were higher than for hematite. The effective diameter for goethite was much larger than for hematite due to anisotropic sticking of needle-shaped goethite during aggregation. Moreover, the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values of nanoparticles in solutions of NaNO 3 , NaCl, NaF, and Na 2 SO 4 were 79.2, 75.0, 7.8, and 0.5 mM for hematite and they were 54.7, 62.6, 5.5, and 0.2 mM for goethite, respectively. The disparity of anions in inducing hematite or goethite aggregation lay in the differences in interfacial interactions. NO 3 − and Cl − could decrease the zeta potential and enhance aggregation mainly through increasing ionic strength and compressing electric double layers of hematite and goethite nanoparticles. F − and SO 4 2− highly destabilized the suspensions of nanoparticles mainly through specific adsorption and then neutralizing the positive surface charges of nanoparticles. Specific adsorption of cations could increase positive surface charges and stabilize hematite and goethite nanoparticles. The Hamaker constants of hematite and goethite nanoparticles were calculated to be 2.87 × 10 −20 and 2.29 × 10 −20 J −1 , respectively. The predicted CCC values based on DLVO theory were consistent well with the experimentally determined CCC values in NaNO 3 , NaCl, NaF, and Na 2 SO 4 systems, which demonstrated that DLVO theory could successfully predict the aggregation kinetics even when specific adsorption of ions occurred

  12. Impact of environmental conditions on aggregation kinetics of hematite and goethite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen-yang, E-mail: cyxu@issas.ac.cn; Deng, Kai-ying; Li, Jiu-yu, E-mail: jyli@issas.ac.cn; Xu, Ren-kou, E-mail: rkxu@issas.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science (China)

    2015-10-15

    Hematite and goethite nanoparticles were used as model minerals to investigate their aggregation kinetics under soil environmental conditions in the present study. The hydrodynamic diameters of hematite and goethite nanoparticles were 34.4 and 66.3 nm, respectively. The positive surface charges and zeta potential values for goethite were higher than for hematite. The effective diameter for goethite was much larger than for hematite due to anisotropic sticking of needle-shaped goethite during aggregation. Moreover, the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values of nanoparticles in solutions of NaNO{sub 3}, NaCl, NaF, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were 79.2, 75.0, 7.8, and 0.5 mM for hematite and they were 54.7, 62.6, 5.5, and 0.2 mM for goethite, respectively. The disparity of anions in inducing hematite or goethite aggregation lay in the differences in interfacial interactions. NO{sub 3}{sup −} and Cl{sup −} could decrease the zeta potential and enhance aggregation mainly through increasing ionic strength and compressing electric double layers of hematite and goethite nanoparticles. F{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} highly destabilized the suspensions of nanoparticles mainly through specific adsorption and then neutralizing the positive surface charges of nanoparticles. Specific adsorption of cations could increase positive surface charges and stabilize hematite and goethite nanoparticles. The Hamaker constants of hematite and goethite nanoparticles were calculated to be 2.87 × 10{sup −20} and 2.29 × 10{sup −20} J{sup −1}, respectively. The predicted CCC values based on DLVO theory were consistent well with the experimentally determined CCC values in NaNO{sub 3}, NaCl, NaF, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} systems, which demonstrated that DLVO theory could successfully predict the aggregation kinetics even when specific adsorption of ions occurred.

  13. Synthesis, exploration of energy storage and electrochemical sensing properties of hematite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasami, Alamelu K. [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Bangalore 562112 (India); Department of Physics, Advanced Batteries Lab, National University of Singapore, 117542 (Singapore); Ravishankar, T.N.; Sureshkumar, K. [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Bangalore 562112 (India); Reddy, M.V.; Chowdari, B.V.R. [Department of Physics, Advanced Batteries Lab, National University of Singapore, 117542 (Singapore); Ramakrishnappa, T. [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Bangalore 562112 (India); Balakrishna, Geetha R., E-mail: br.geetha@jainuniversity.ac.in [Centre for Nano and Material Sciences, Jain University, Bangalore 562112 (India)

    2016-06-25

    Gel-combustion, solution combustion and molten salt methods were used to synthesize hematite nanoparicles. Two weight ratios of precursor (Ferric nitrate) to fuel (Cassava Starch) (1:0.5, 1:1) were used in gel-combustion technique. Ferric nitrate as a precursor and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid as fuel (in stoichiometric proportions) were used in the solution combustion method. Ferric oxalate was the precursor in molten salt method. The structural parameters of the hematite nanoparticles were studied by X-ray diffraction. The optical properties, including band gap studies were done by UV–Visible spectroscopy. The morphological studies were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope. The energy storage capacity of the molten salt method-hematite nanoparticles surpassed (920 mAhg{sup −1}) the others while the equal-weight- ratio-hematite nanoparticles synthesized by gel-combustion method exhibited better dopamine sensor properties. - Highlights: • Hematite nanoparticles were synthesized by gel, solution combustion and molten salt methods. • Gel-combustion involved the use of natural fuel extracted from the root tubers of Manihot esculenta. • Two ratios of fuel to precursors were attempted in gel combustion method. • The product formed from the equal weight ratio of fuel to precursor was a very good electrochemical dopamine sensor. • The product formed by molten salt method exhibited good battery behaviour (Li-ion battery).

  14. Synthesis, exploration of energy storage and electrochemical sensing properties of hematite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasami, Alamelu K.; Ravishankar, T.N.; Sureshkumar, K.; Reddy, M.V.; Chowdari, B.V.R.; Ramakrishnappa, T.; Balakrishna, Geetha R.

    2016-01-01

    Gel-combustion, solution combustion and molten salt methods were used to synthesize hematite nanoparicles. Two weight ratios of precursor (Ferric nitrate) to fuel (Cassava Starch) (1:0.5, 1:1) were used in gel-combustion technique. Ferric nitrate as a precursor and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid as fuel (in stoichiometric proportions) were used in the solution combustion method. Ferric oxalate was the precursor in molten salt method. The structural parameters of the hematite nanoparticles were studied by X-ray diffraction. The optical properties, including band gap studies were done by UV–Visible spectroscopy. The morphological studies were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope. The energy storage capacity of the molten salt method-hematite nanoparticles surpassed (920 mAhg"−"1) the others while the equal-weight- ratio-hematite nanoparticles synthesized by gel-combustion method exhibited better dopamine sensor properties. - Highlights: • Hematite nanoparticles were synthesized by gel, solution combustion and molten salt methods. • Gel-combustion involved the use of natural fuel extracted from the root tubers of Manihot esculenta. • Two ratios of fuel to precursors were attempted in gel combustion method. • The product formed from the equal weight ratio of fuel to precursor was a very good electrochemical dopamine sensor. • The product formed by molten salt method exhibited good battery behaviour (Li-ion battery).

  15. Efficient removal of trace antimony(III) through adsorption by hematite modified magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Chao; Ma, Zhiyao; Tong, Meiping, E-mail: tongmeiping@pku.edu.cn

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sb(III) adsorption capacity of MNP@hematite was twice that of commercial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • pH, ionic strength, coexisting anions and NOM did not inhibit Sb(III) removal. • MNP@hematite could remove trace Sb(III) and As(III) from water simultaneously. • Efficient removal of Sb(III) from real tap water was achieved. • MNP@hematite could be easily recycled with a magnet and could be used repeatedly. - Abstract: Hematite coated magnetic nanoparticle (MNP@hematite) was fabricated through heterogeneous nucleation technique and used to remove trace Sb(III) from water. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and alternating gradient magnetometry were utilized to characterize the prepared adsorbent. TEM image showed that MNP@hematite particles were spherical with size of 10–30 nm. With saturation magnetization of 27.0 emu/g, MNP@hematite particles could be easily separated from water with a simple magnetic process in short time (5 min). At initial concentration of 110 μg/L, Sb(III) was rapidly decreased to below 5 μg/L by MNP@hematite in 10 min. Sb(III) adsorption capacity of MNP@hematite was 36.7 mg/g, which was almost twice that of commercial Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The removal of trace Sb(III) was not obviously affected by solution pH (over a wide range from 3 to 11), ionic strength (up to 100 mM), coexisting anions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, carbonate, silicate, and phosphate, up to 10 mM) and natural organic matters (humic acid and alginate, up to 8 mg/L as TOC). Moreover, MNP@hematite particles were able to remove Sb(III) and As(III) simultaneously. Trace Sb(III) could also be effectively removed from real tap water by MNP@hematite. The magnetic adsorbent could be recycled and used repeatedly.

  16. Efficient removal of trace antimony(III) through adsorption by hematite modified magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Chao; Ma, Zhiyao; Tong, Meiping

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sb(III) adsorption capacity of MNP@hematite was twice that of commercial Fe 3 O 4 . • pH, ionic strength, coexisting anions and NOM did not inhibit Sb(III) removal. • MNP@hematite could remove trace Sb(III) and As(III) from water simultaneously. • Efficient removal of Sb(III) from real tap water was achieved. • MNP@hematite could be easily recycled with a magnet and could be used repeatedly. - Abstract: Hematite coated magnetic nanoparticle (MNP@hematite) was fabricated through heterogeneous nucleation technique and used to remove trace Sb(III) from water. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and alternating gradient magnetometry were utilized to characterize the prepared adsorbent. TEM image showed that MNP@hematite particles were spherical with size of 10–30 nm. With saturation magnetization of 27.0 emu/g, MNP@hematite particles could be easily separated from water with a simple magnetic process in short time (5 min). At initial concentration of 110 μg/L, Sb(III) was rapidly decreased to below 5 μg/L by MNP@hematite in 10 min. Sb(III) adsorption capacity of MNP@hematite was 36.7 mg/g, which was almost twice that of commercial Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The removal of trace Sb(III) was not obviously affected by solution pH (over a wide range from 3 to 11), ionic strength (up to 100 mM), coexisting anions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate, carbonate, silicate, and phosphate, up to 10 mM) and natural organic matters (humic acid and alginate, up to 8 mg/L as TOC). Moreover, MNP@hematite particles were able to remove Sb(III) and As(III) simultaneously. Trace Sb(III) could also be effectively removed from real tap water by MNP@hematite. The magnetic adsorbent could be recycled and used repeatedly

  17. Fabrication of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles using electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qingling; Wang, Zuobin, E-mail: wangz@cust.edu.cn; Chai, Xiangyu; Weng, Zhankun; Ding, Ran; Dong, Litong

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cathodic electrochemical deposition proposed to fabricate hematite nanoparticles. • Hematite nanoparticles were fabricated on indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrates. • The size and shape of nanoparticles were determined by deposition conditions. • The nanoparticles were well decentralized for different potential applications. • Electrochemical deposition is a useful approach in fabricating nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this work, cathodic electrochemical deposition was proposed to fabricate reproducible and homogeneous hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films. The α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, which were quasi-hexagonally shaped, were deposited in an aqueous mixture of FeCl{sub 2} and FeCl{sub 3} at the temperatures 16.5 °C, 40 °C and 60 °C. The electrochemically deposited α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles showed excellent stability and good crystallinity. The α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were characterized by Raman spectroscope and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to measure the size and shape of the nanoparticles. The experiment results have shown that the size and shape of nanoparticles were determined by electrochemical deposition conditions including the deposition time, current density, reaction temperature and solution concentration. The proposed electrochemical deposition method has been proven to be a cost-effective, environment friendly and highly efficient approach in fabricating well decentralized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles for different potential applications.

  18. Magnetite–hematite nanoparticles prepared by green methods for heavy metal ions removal from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.; Ali, S.M.; El-Dek, S.I.; Galal, A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The negatively charged cubic magnetite nanoparticles, prepared by the coprecipitation method in N 2 atmosphere, can adsorb up to 99% of the positively charged toxic heavy metal ions at a proper pH value. -- Highlights: • Mixed magnetite–hematite nanoparticles were synthesized via different routes. • Prepared samples were characterized by XRD, HRTEM, BET and magnetic hysteresis. • The material was employed as a sorbent for removal of some heavy metal ions from water. • The effects of pH and the contact time on the adsorption process were studied and optimized. -- Abstract: Mixed magnetite–hematite nanoparticles were synthesized via different routes such as, coprecipitation in air and N 2 atmosphere, citrate–nitrate, glycine–nitrate and microwave-assisted citrate methods. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), BET measurements and magnetic hysteresis. XRD data showed the formation of magnetite–hematite mixture with different compositions according to the synthesis method. The particle size was in the range of 4–52 nm for all the prepared samples. From HRTEM micrographs, it was found that, the synthesis method affects the moropholgy of the prepared samples in terms of crystallinity and porosity. The magnetite–hematite mixture was employed as a sorbent material for removal of some heavy metal ions from water such as lead(II), cadmium(II) and chromium(III). The effects of pH value and the contact time on the adsorption process were studied and optimized in order to obtain the highest possible adsorption efficiency of the magnetite–hematite mixture. The effect of the synthesis method of the magnetite–hematite mixture on the adsorption process was also investigated. It was found that samples prepared by the coprecipitation method had better adsorption efficiency than those prepared by other combustion methods

  19. An inelastic neutron scattering study of hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Klausen, Stine Nyborg; Lefmann, K

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic dynamics in nanocrystalline hematite by inelastic neutron scattering at the high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer IRIS at ISIS. Compared to previous inelastic neutron scattering experiments an improvement of the resolution function is achieved and more detailed...... moment at the antiferromagnetic Bragg reflection. We have studied different weightings of the particle size distribution. The data and their temperature dependence can with good agreement be interpreted on the basis of the Neel-Brown theory for superparamagnetic relaxation and a model for the collective...

  20. Preparation of cerium doped calcium pyrophosphate: Study of luminescent behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, I.B., E-mail: ivonne.berenice@gmail.com [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, 11500 México D.F., México (Mexico); Roman-Lopez, J. [CONACYT Research Fellow-Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Sosa, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09340 México D.F., México (Mexico); Díaz-Góngora, J.A.I [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, 11500 México D.F., México (Mexico); Azorín, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, 09340 México D.F., México (Mexico)

    2016-05-15

    Thermoluminescent (TL) and photoluminescent (PL) band emissions of cerium doped calcium pyrophosphate (Ca{sub 2}O{sub 7}P{sub 2}:Ce{sup 3+}) were studied. Wet precipitation method was used to synthesize calcium pyrophosphate, doped with Ce{sup 3+} (1.0 at%) impurities, from orthophosphoric acid and calcium acetate, as raw materials. The effect of temperature annealing at 800 and 900 °C was investigated. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to characterize both as-precipitated and annealed powders samples. The PL emission spectrum of samples annealed at 900 °C displayed characteristics 5d–4f transitions of Ce{sup 3+} at 333 nm and 360 nm. TL measurements were carried out on as-precipitated and annealed samples from room temperature (RT) up to 350 °C. The TL results of annealed samples showed complex TL glow curves, a linear response in the absorbed dose range of 0.5–5 Gy and a good reproducibility after 10 cycles of irradiation-readout. The complex TL glow curves of annealed samples were analyzed by the methods of T{sub max}–T{sub Stop}, Initial Rise (IR) and Computational Glow-Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) assuming a General Order Kinetic (GOK).

  1. Cerium doped lanthanum halides: fast scintillators for medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selles, O.

    2006-12-01

    This work is dedicated to two recently discovered scintillating crystals: cerium doped lanthanum halides (LaCl 3 :Ce 3+ and LaBr 3 :Ce 3+ ).These scintillators exhibit interesting properties for gamma detection, more particularly in the field of medical imaging: a short decay time, a high light yield and an excellent energy resolution. The strong hygroscopicity of these materials requires adapting the usual experimental methods for determining physico-chemical properties. Once determined, these can be used for the development of the industrial manufacturing process of the crystals. A proper comprehension of the scintillation mechanism and of the effect of defects within the material lead to new possible ways for optimizing the scintillator performance. Therefore, different techniques are used (EPR, radioluminescence, laser excitation, thermally stimulated luminescence). Alongside Ce 3+ ions, self-trapped excitons are involved in the scintillation mechanism. Their nature and their role are detailed. The knowledge of the different processes involved in the scintillation mechanism leads to the prediction of the effect of temperature and doping level on the performance of the scintillator. A mechanism is proposed to explain the thermally stimulated luminescence processes that cause slow components in the light emission and a loss of light yield. Eventually the study of afterglow reveals a charge transfer to deep traps involved in the high temperature thermally stimulated luminescence. (author)

  2. Effects of hematite and ferrihydrite nanoparticles on germination and growth of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaza Pariona

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Engineered iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-NPs have been used extensively for environmental remediation. It may cause the release IO-NPs to the environment affecting the functions of ecosystems. Plants are an important component of ecosystems and can be used for the evaluation of overall fate, transport and exposure pathways of IO-NPs in the environment. In this work, the effects of engineered ferrihydrite and hematite NPs on the germination and growth of maize are studied. The germination and growth of maize were done with treatments at different concentrations of hematite and ferrihydrite NPs, namely 1, 2, 4, and 6 g/L. Biological indicators of toxicity or stress in maize seedlings were not observed in treatments with engineered hematite and ferrihydrite NPs. In contrast, the NPs treatments increased the growth of maize and the chlorophyll content, except for hematite NPs at 6 g/L, where non-significant effects were found. The translocation of engineered ferrihydrite and hematite NPs in maize stems was demonstrated using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  3. Hematite/silver nanoparticle bilayers on mica--AFM, SEM and streaming potential studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morga, Maria; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena; Bielańska, Elżbieta

    2014-06-15

    Bilayers of hematite/silver nanoparticles were obtained in the self-assembly process and thoroughly characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and in situ streaming potential measurements. The hematite nanoparticles, forming a supporting layer, were 22 nm in diameter, exhibiting an isoelectric point at pH 8.9. The silver nanoparticles, used to obtain an external layer, were 29 nm in diameter, and remained negative within the pH range 3 to 11. In order to investigate the particle deposition, mica sheets were used as a model solid substrate. The coverage of the supporting layer was adjusted by changing the bulk concentration of the hematite suspension and the deposition time. Afterward, silver nanoparticle monolayers of controlled coverage were deposited under the diffusion-controlled transport. The coverage of bilayers was determined by a direct enumeration of deposited particles from SEM micrographs and AFM images. Additionally, the formation of the hematite/silver bilayers was investigated by streaming potential measurements carried out under in situ conditions. The effect of the mica substrate and the coverage of a supporting layer on the zeta potential of bilayers was systematically studied. It was established that for the coverage exceeding 0.20, the zeta potential of bilayers was independent on the substrate and the supporting layer coverage. This behavior was theoretically interpreted in terms of the 3D electrokinetic model. Beside significance for basic sciences, these measurements allowed to develop a robust method of preparing nanoparticle bilayers of controlled properties, having potential applications in catalytic processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Formation of complexes between hematite nanoparticles and a non-conventional galactomannan gum. Toward a better understanding on interaction processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Verónica M; Loosli, Fréderic; Santagapita, Patricio R; Buera, M Pilar; Stoll, Serge

    2015-11-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of hematite nanoparticles related to their size, surface area and reactivity make them useful for many applications, as well as suitable models to study aggregation kinetics. For several applications (such as remediation of contaminated groundwater) it is crucial to maintain the stability of hematite nanoparticle suspensions in order to assure their arrival to the target place. The use of biopolymers has been proposed as a suitable environmentally friendly option to avoid nanoparticle aggregation and assure their stability. The aim of the present work was to investigate the formation of complexes between hematite nanoparticles and a non-conventional galactomannan (vinal gum--VG) obtained from Prosopis ruscifolia in order to promote hematite nanoparticle coating with a green biopolymer. Zeta potential and size of hematite nanoparticles, VG dispersions and the stability of their mixtures were investigated, as well as the influence of the biopolymer concentration and preparation method. DLS and nanoparticle tracking analysis techniques were used for determining the size and the zeta-potential of the suspensions. VG showed a polydispersed size distribution (300-475 nm Z-average diameter, 0.65 Pdi) and a negative zeta potential (between -1 and -12 mV for pH2 and 12, respectively). The aggregation of hematite nanoparticles (3.3 mg/L) was induced by the addition of VG at lower concentrations than 2mg/L (pH5.5). On the other hand, hematite nanoparticles were stabilized at concentrations of VG higher than 2 mg/L. Several phenomena between hematite nanoparticles and VG were involved: steric effects, electrostatic interactions, charge neutralization, charge inversion and polymer bridging. The process of complexation between hematite nanoparticles and the biopolymer was strongly influenced by the preparation protocols. It was concluded that the aggregation, dispersion, and stability of hematite nanoparticles depended on biopolymer

  5. Magnetic hysteresis of cerium doped bismuth ferrite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Surbhi; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Cerium doping on the structural and magnetic properties of BiFeO 3 thin films have been investigated. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data and successive de-convolution of Raman scattering spectra of Bi 1−x Ce x FeO 3 (BCFO) thin films with x=0–0.20 reflect the single phase rhombohedral (R3c) formation for x<0.08, whereas concentration-driven gradual structural phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to partial tetragonal (P4mm) phase follows for x≥0.08. All low wavenumber Raman modes (<300 cm −1 ) showed a noticeable shift towards higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration, except Raman E-1 mode (71 cm −1 ), shows a minor shift. Sudden evolution of Raman mode at 668 cm −1 , manifested as A 1 -tetragonal mode, accompanied by the shift to higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration (x) affirm partial structural phase transition. Anomalous wasp waist shaped (M–H) hysteresis curves with improved saturation magnetization (M s ) for BCFO thin films is attributed to antiferromagnetic interaction/hybridization between Ce 4f and Fe 3d electronic states. The contribution of both hard and soft phase to the total coercivity is calculated. Polycrystalline Bi 0.88 Ce 0.12 FeO 3 thin film found to exhibit better magnetic properties with M s =15.9 emu/g without any impure phase. - Highlights: • Synthesis of single phase Bi 1−x Ce x FeO 3 thin films with (x=0–0.2) on cost effective corning glass and silicon substrates using CSD technique. • Structural modification studies using Rietveld refinement of XRD and de-convolution of Raman spectra revealed partial phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to tetragonal (P4mm) phase. • Possible reasons for origin of pinched magnetic behavior of BCFO thin films are identified. • Contribution of both hard and soft magnetic phase in coercivity of BCFO thin films is calculated and practical applications of such materials exhibiting pinching behavior are conferred

  6. Magnetic hysteresis of cerium doped bismuth ferrite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Surbhi [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi (India); Tomar, Monika [Physics Department, Miranda House, University of Delhi (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi (India)

    2015-03-15

    The influence of Cerium doping on the structural and magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} thin films have been investigated. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data and successive de-convolution of Raman scattering spectra of Bi{sub 1−x}Ce{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (BCFO) thin films with x=0–0.20 reflect the single phase rhombohedral (R3c) formation for x<0.08, whereas concentration-driven gradual structural phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to partial tetragonal (P4mm) phase follows for x≥0.08. All low wavenumber Raman modes (<300 cm{sup −1}) showed a noticeable shift towards higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration, except Raman E-1 mode (71 cm{sup −1}), shows a minor shift. Sudden evolution of Raman mode at 668 cm{sup −1}, manifested as A{sub 1}-tetragonal mode, accompanied by the shift to higher wavenumber with increase in doping concentration (x) affirm partial structural phase transition. Anomalous wasp waist shaped (M–H) hysteresis curves with improved saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) for BCFO thin films is attributed to antiferromagnetic interaction/hybridization between Ce 4f and Fe 3d electronic states. The contribution of both hard and soft phase to the total coercivity is calculated. Polycrystalline Bi{sub 0.88}Ce{sub 0.12}FeO{sub 3} thin film found to exhibit better magnetic properties with M{sub s}=15.9 emu/g without any impure phase. - Highlights: • Synthesis of single phase Bi{sub 1−x}Ce{sub x}FeO{sub 3} thin films with (x=0–0.2) on cost effective corning glass and silicon substrates using CSD technique. • Structural modification studies using Rietveld refinement of XRD and de-convolution of Raman spectra revealed partial phase transition from rhombohedral (R3c) to tetragonal (P4mm) phase. • Possible reasons for origin of pinched magnetic behavior of BCFO thin films are identified. • Contribution of both hard and soft magnetic phase in coercivity of BCFO thin films is calculated and practical

  7. Differential cellular responses in healthy mice and in mice with established airway inflammation when exposed to hematite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Åsa, E-mail: asa.gustafsson@foi.se [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Dept of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University (Sweden); Bergström, Ulrika [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Dept of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, SE-751 Uppsala (Sweden); Ågren, Lina [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Österlund, Lars [Dept of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 Uppsala (Sweden); Sandström, Thomas [Dept of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University (Sweden); Bucht, Anders [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Dept of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University (Sweden)

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory and immunological responses in airways and lung-draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), following lung exposure to iron oxide (hematite) nanoparticles (NPs). The responses to the hematite NPs were evaluated in both healthy non-sensitized mice, and in sensitized mice with an established allergic airway disease. The mice were exposed intratracheally to either hematite NPs or to vehicle (PBS) and the cellular responses were evaluated on days 1, 2, and 7, post-exposure. Exposure to hematite NPs increased the numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes in the airways of non-sensitized mice on days 1 and 2 post-exposure; at these time points the number of lymphocytes was also elevated in the LDLNs. In contrast, exposing sensitized mice to hematite NPs induced a rapid and unspecific cellular reduction in the alveolar space on day 1 post-exposure; a similar decrease of lymphocytes was also observed in the LDLN. The results indicate that cells in the airways and in the LDLN of individuals with established airway inflammation undergo cell death when exposed to hematite NPs. A possible explanation for this toxic response is the extensive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pro-oxidative environment of inflamed airways. This study demonstrates how sensitized and non-sensitized mice respond differently to hematite NP exposure, and it highlights the importance of including individuals with respiratory disorders when evaluating health effects of inhaled nanomaterials. - Highlights: • Hematite NPs induce differential responses in airways of healthy and allergic mice. • Hematite induced an airway inflammation in healthy mice. • Hematite induced cellular reduction in the alveolus and lymph nodes of allergic mice. • Cell death is possible due to extensive pro-oxidative environment in allergic mice. • It is important to include sensitive individuals when valuing health effects of NPs.

  8. Hematite Nanoparticles-Modified Electrode Based Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangeneh Kamali, Khosro; Alagarsamy, Pandikumar; Huang, Nay Ming; Ong, Boon Hoong; Lim, Hong Ngee

    2014-01-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by the solid transformation of ferrous hydroxide and ferrihydrite in hydrothermal condition. The as-prepared α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, PL, XRD, Raman, TEM, AFM, FESEM, and EDX analysis. The experimental results indicated the formation of uniform hematite nanoparticles with an average size of 45 nm and perfect crystallinity. The electrochemical behavior of a GC/α-Fe2O3 electrode was studied using CV and EIS techniques with an electrochemical probe, [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− redox couple. The electrocatalytic activity was investigated toward DA oxidation in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8) by varying different experimental parameters. The chronoamperometric study showed a linear response in the range of 0–2 μM with LoD of 1.6 μM for DA. Square wave voltammetry showed a linear response in the range of 0–35 μM with LoD of 236 nM for DA. PMID:25136664

  9. Hematite Nanoparticles-Modified Electrode Based Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Zangeneh Kamali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematite (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by the solid transformation of ferrous hydroxide and ferrihydrite in hydrothermal condition. The as-prepared α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, PL, XRD, Raman, TEM, AFM, FESEM, and EDX analysis. The experimental results indicated the formation of uniform hematite nanoparticles with an average size of 45 nm and perfect crystallinity. The electrochemical behavior of a GC/α-Fe2O3 electrode was studied using CV and EIS techniques with an electrochemical probe, [Fe(CN6]3−/4− redox couple. The electrocatalytic activity was investigated toward DA oxidation in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8 by varying different experimental parameters. The chronoamperometric study showed a linear response in the range of 0–2 μM with LoD of 1.6 μM for DA. Square wave voltammetry showed a linear response in the range of 0–35 μM with LoD of 236 nM for DA.

  10. Linking interfacial chemistry of CO2 to surface structures of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles: hematite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, Irina V; Ponnurangam, Sathish; Somasundaran, Ponisseril

    2013-05-14

    A better understanding of interaction with dissolved CO2 is required to rationally design and model the (photo)catalytic and sorption processes on metal (hydr)oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous media. Using in situ FTIR spectroscopy, we address this problem for rhombohedral 38 nm hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles as a model. We not only resolve the structures of the adsorbed carbonate species, but also specify their adsorption sites and their location on the nanoparticle surface. The spectral relationships obtained present a basis for a new method of characterizing the microscopic structural and acid-base properties (related to individual adsorption sites) of hydrated metal (hydr)oxide NPs using atmospherically derived CO2 as a probe. Specifically, we distinguish two carbonate species suggesting two principally different adsorption mechanisms. One species, which is more weakly adsorbed, has an inner-sphere mononuclear monodentate structure which is formed by a conventional ligand-exchange mechanism. At natural levels of dissolved carbonate and pH from 3 to 11, this species is attached to the most acidic/reactive surface cations (surface states) associated with ferrihydrite-like surface defects. The second species, which is more strongly adsorbed, presents a mixed C and O coordination of bent CO2. This species uniquely recognizes the stoichiometric rhombohedral {104} facets in the NP texture. Like in gas phase, it is formed through the surface coordination of molecular CO2. We address how the adsorption sites hosting these two carbonate species are affected by the annealing and acid etching of the NPs. These results support the nanosize-induced phase transformation of hematite towards ferrihydrite under hydrous conditions, and additionally show that the process starts from the roughened areas of the facet intersections.

  11. Prediction of the effects of size and morphology on the structure of water around hematite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnoli, D.; Gilbert, B.; Waychunas, G.A.; Banfield, J. F.

    2009-05-15

    Compared with macroscopic surfaces, the structure of water around nanoparticles is difficult to probe directly. We used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of particle size and morphology on the time-averaged structure and the dynamics of water molecules around two sizes of hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles. Interrogation of the simulations via atomic density maps, radial distribution functions and bound water residence times provide insight into the relationships between particle size and morphology and the behavior of interfacial water. Both 1.6 and 2.7 nm particles are predicted to cause the formation of ordered water regions close to the nanoparticle surface, but the extent of localization and ordering, the connectivity between regions of bound water, and the rates of molecular exchange between inner and outer regions are all affected by particle size and morphology. These findings are anticipated to be relevant to understanding the rates of interfacial processes involving water exchange and the transport of aqueous ions to surface sites.

  12. The impact of solution chemistry of electrolyte on the sorption of pentachlorophenol and phenanthrene by natural hematite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Fanfeng; He, Yan, E-mail: yhe2006@zju.edu.cn; Lian, Zhenghua; Xu, Jianming, E-mail: jmxu@zju.edu.cn

    2014-01-01

    Hematite nanoparticles (NPs) were studied as a sorbent for hydrophobic organic contaminants (OCs) under natural ambient conditions through specially designed contrasting solution chemistry of electrolyte. Ionizable pentachlorophenol (PCP) and non-ionizable phenanthrene (PHE) were selected as representative OCs. The sorption capacities of PCP and PHE were pH-dependent, and a larger amount of PCP was sorbed at pH values below its pK{sub a} (4.75). However, the PHE sorption capacity was higher at relatively high or low pHs (e.g. below 4.0 and above 10.0), possibly due to the larger available surface area of the hematite NPs, caused by the higher values of net charges and charge density. Changes in pH might thus affect the sorption of OCs by hematite NPs, through modification of the surface characteristics of the sorbent and the electronic properties of the sorbate molecules. The influence of different ionic strengths indicated that the amounts of PCP and PHE sorbed by hematite NPs decreased as a concentration function of different types of ions (e.g. Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2 +} and Ca{sup 2 +}), with the underlying mechanism possibly being due to four interactions i.e. hydrogen-bonding, competitive sorption by ions in the ambient solution, screening effects and aggregation effects. The results confirmed that the surface chemistry of hematite NPs, the chemical properties of PCP and PHE, and solution chemistry (e.g. pH and ionic strength) of the electrolyte all played an important role in PCP and PHE sorption by hematite NPs. By comparison of both sorption capacity and ecologic advantages, our results suggested that natural hematite NPs would be more competitive and efficient for PCP and PHE sorption than engineered NPs. This finding increases our knowledge regarding the environmental function of natural NPs (such as hematite NPs) for OC remediation through manipulating their interfacial behavior. - Highlights: •Hematite NPs was tested for PCP/PHE sorption under

  13. Interaction of Zn(II) with hematite nanoparticles and microparticles: Part 2. ATR-FTIR and EXAFS study of the aqueous Zn(II)/oxalate/hematite ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Juyoung; Trainor, Thomas P; Farges, François; Brown, Gordon E

    2009-05-19

    Sorption of Zn(II) to hematite nanoparticles (HN) (av diam=10.5 nm) and microparticles (HM) (av diam=550 nm) was studied in the presence of oxalate anions (Ox2-(aq)) in aqueous solutions as a function of total Zn(II)(aq) to total Ox2-(aq) concentration ratio (R=[Zn(II)(aq)]tot/[Ox2-(aq)]tot) at pH 5.5. Zn(II) uptake is similar in extent for both the Zn(II)/Ox/HN and Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)](tot)system than for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary and the Zn(II)/HN and Zn(II)/HM binary systems at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>4 mM. In contrast, Zn(II) uptake for the Zn(II)/HM binary system is a factor of 2 greater than that for the Zn(II)/Ox/HM and Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary systems and the Zn(II)/HN binary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]totternary system at both R values examined (0.16 and 0.68), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results are consistent with the presence of inner-sphere oxalate complexes and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes, and/or type A ternary complexes. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic results suggest that type A ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Zn-Ox) are present. In the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at R=0.15, ATR-FTIR results indicate the presence of inner-sphere oxalate and outer-sphere ZnOx(aq) complexes; the EXAFS results provide no evidence for inner-sphere Zn(II) complexes or type A ternary complexes. In contrast, ATR-FTIR results for the Zn/Ox/HN sample with R = 0.68 are consistent with a ZnOx(s)-like surface precipitate and possibly type B ternary surface complexes (i.e., >O2-Ox-Zn). EXAFS results are also consistent with the presence of ZnOx(s)-like precipitates. We ascribe the observed increase of Zn(II)(aq) uptake in the Zn(II)/Ox/HN ternary system at [Zn(II)(aq)]tot>or=4 mM relative to the Zn(II)/Ox/HM ternary system to formation of a ZnOx(s)-like precipitate at the hematite nanoparticle/water interface.

  14. Sensors based on Ag-loaded hematite (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles for methyl mercaptan detection at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garcia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensors based on Ag/α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been prepared by the coprecipitation method for sensing methyl mercaptan at room temperature. X-ray diffraction patterns of samples matched perfectly with characteristic peaks of hematite with no peaks assigned to Ag even at the highest concentration. STEM images and EDX analysis revealed the presence of Ag nanoparticles (from 2 to 5 nm which were highly dispersed onto α-Fe2O3 surface with an Ag/Fe ratio from 0.014 to 0.099. The Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the hematite surface. Sensing tests of Ag-loaded hematite nanoparticles showed much higher response signal than the unmodified sensor. Hematite loaded with 3%(Wt Ag showed the highest response with a linear dependence from 20 to 80 ppm. The sensor also depicted a good selectivity and stability during 4 days with short recovery time. The high dispersion of reduced Ag evaluated by XPS analysis played an important chemical role in the sensing mechanism that favored the contact of CH3SH with oxygen.

  15. Faradaic efficiency of O2 evolution on metal nanoparticle sensitized hematite photoanodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iandolo, Beniamino; Wickman, Björn; Seger, Brian

    2014-01-01

    in several studies, to the best of our knowledge no measurements of the Faradaic efficiency (FE) of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) have been reported for such systems. This work characterizes the FE on a model system consisting of ultra-thin films of hematite (Fe2O3) sensitized with Ti/Au nanodisks....... Compared to bare hematite references, sensitized samples showed significantly enhanced photocurrents as well as O-2 evolution. Experimental evidence suggests that the observed enhancement was not due to photocatalytic activity of the nanodisks. The FE has been determined to be 100%, within the experimental...... errors, for both sensitized and reference samples. Also, this work demonstrates that the sensitized samples were stable for at least 16 hours photocurrent testing. The concepts shown in this work are generally applicable to any situation in which a semiconductor has its water splitting performance...

  16. Study of cerium doped magnetite (Fe3O4:Ce)/PMMA nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padalia, Diwakar; Johri, U.C.; Zaidi, M.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the synthesis and properties of polymer nanocomposite material based on cerium doped magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) as filler material and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) as host matrix. The magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) particles were synthesized by co-precipitation route using stable ferrous and ferric salts with ammonium hydroxide as precipitating agent. Further, they doped by cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) non-stoichiometrically. The composite material was fabricated by solvent evaporation method. Here 2.4 GHz microwaves were used to study the effect of microwaves heating on polymerization. The phase and crystal structure is determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The average crystallite size of the composites varies from 28 to 35 nm. The chemical structure is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The magnetic and thermal properties are investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal study shows that the microwave heated samples possess higher glass transition temperature (T g ). The magnetic results suggest that coercivity (H C ) and squareness (M r /M s ) of the loop increases with increasing doping percent of cerium.

  17. Study of cerium doped magnetite (Fe 3O 4:Ce)/PMMA nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Diwakar; Johri, U. C.; Zaidi, M. G. H.

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents the synthesis and properties of polymer nanocomposite material based on cerium doped magnetite (Fe 3O 4) as filler material and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) as host matrix. The magnetite (Fe 3O 4) particles were synthesized by co-precipitation route using stable ferrous and ferric salts with ammonium hydroxide as precipitating agent. Further, they doped by cerium oxide (CeO 2) non-stoichiometrically. The composite material was fabricated by solvent evaporation method. Here 2.4 GHz microwaves were used to study the effect of microwaves heating on polymerization. The phase and crystal structure is determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The average crystallite size of the composites varies from 28 to 35 nm. The chemical structure is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The magnetic and thermal properties are investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal study shows that the microwave heated samples possess higher glass transition temperature ( Tg). The magnetic results suggest that coercivity ( HC) and squareness ( Mr/ Ms) of the loop increases with increasing doping percent of cerium.

  18. Assessment of the abatement of acelsulfame K using cerium doped ZnO as photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, P.; Gionco, C.; Giletta, M.; Kalaboka, M.; Sakkas, V.A.; Albanis, T.; Paganini, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Ce doped ZnO. • The abatement of ACE K is assessed in ultrapure water and in river water matrix. • Demonstrated higher degradation activity than P25 under visible light. • The degradation activity is less affected in river water than for P25. - Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the possibility to abate Acesulfame K, a persistent emerging contaminant, in aqueous media using zinc oxide based materials. For this purpose, bare and Ce-doped zinc oxide was prepared via an easy and cheap hydrothermal process using different cerium salts as precursors. Their photocatalytic performance was evaluated in different media, namely ultrapure and river water under both UV–vis and visible light. Commercial TiO_2 P25 was also employed and used as a reference photocatalyst for comparison purposes. The obtained results pointed out that cerium doped zinc oxide composites exhibit higher performance than TiO_2 P25, especially under visible light and in the presence of organic matter, when the activity of the latter is greatly depressed. In particular, ZnO doped with cerium (1%) was the most effective material, and could be a promising alternative to TiO_2 P25, especially in the treatment of natural waters.

  19. Iron insertion and hematite segregation on Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles obtained from sol-gel and hydrothermal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Reginaldo da S; Faria, Guilherme A; Giles, Carlos; Leite, Carlos A P; Barbosa, Herbert de S; Arruda, Marco A Z; Longo, Claudia

    2012-10-24

    Iron-doped TiO(2) (Fe:TiO(2)) nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method (with Fe/Ti molar ratio corresponding to 1, 3, and 5%), followed by hydrothermal treatment, drying, and annealing. A similar methodology was used to synthesize TiO(2) and α-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles. For comparison, a mixture hematite/titania, with Fe/Ti = 4% was also investigated. Characterization of the samples using Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data revealed that TiO(2) consisted of 82% anatase and 18% brookite; for Fe:TiO(2), brookite increased to 30% and hematite was also identified (0.5, 1.0, and 1.2 wt % for samples prepared with 1, 3, and 5% of Fe/Ti). For hematite/titania mixture, Fe/Ti was estimated as 4.4%, indicating the Rietveld method reliability for estimation of phase composition. Because the band gap energy, estimated as 3.2 eV for TiO(2), gradually ranged from 3.0 to 2.7 eV with increasing Fe content at Fe:TiO(2), it can be assumed that a Fe fraction was also inserted as dopant in the TiO(2) lattice. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra obtained for the Ti K-edge and Fe K-edge indicated that absorbing Fe occupied a Ti site in the TiO(2) lattice, but hematite features were not observed. Hematite particles also could not be identified in the images obtained by transmission electron microscopy, in spite of iron identification by elemental mapping, suggesting that hematite can be segregated at the grain boundaries of Fe:TiO(2).

  20. Observations of surface-mediated reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) on hematite nanoparticles by ATR FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Hilary P. [Florida International Univ., Applied Research Center, Miami, FL (United States); Powell, Brian A. [Clemson Univ., Dept. of Enviromental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Anderson, SC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that mineral surfaces may facilitate the reduction of plutonium though the mechanisms of the reduction are still unknown. The objective of this study is to use batch sorption and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments to observe the surface-mediated reduction of plutonium on hematite nanoparticles. These techniques allow for in situ measurement of reduction of plutonium with time and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of surface mediated reduction of plutonium. For the first time, ATR FT-IR peaks for Pu(VI) sorbed to hematite are measured at ∝ 916 cm{sup -1}, respectively. The decrease in peak intensity with time provides a real-time, direct measurement of Pu(VI) reduction on the hematite surface. In this work pseudo first order rate constants estimated at the high loadings (22 mg{sub Pu}/g{sub hematite}, 1.34 x 10{sup -6} M{sub Pu}/m{sup 2}) for ATR FT-IR are approximately 10 x slower than at trace concentrations based on previous work. It is proposed that the reduced rate constant at higher Pu loadings occurs after the reduction capacity due to trace Fe(II) has been exhausted and is dependent on the oxidation of water and possibly electron shuttling based on the semiconducting nature of hematite. Therefore, the reduction rate at higher loadings is possibly due to the thermodynamic favorability of Pu(IV)-hydroxide complexes.

  1. A Low-cost Beam Profiler Based On Cerium-doped Silica Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potkins, David Edward; Braccini, Saverio; Nesteruk, Konrad Pawel; Carzaniga, Tommaso Stefano; Vedda, Anna; Chiodini, Norberto; Timmermans, Jacob; Melanson, Stephane; Dehnel, Morgan Patrick

    A beam profiler called the Universal Beam Monitor (UniBEaM) has been developed by D-Pace Inc. (Canada) and the Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern (Switzerland). The device is based on passing 100 to 600 micron cerium-doped optical fibers through a particle beam. Visible scintillation light from the sensor fibers is transmitted over distances of tens of meters to the light sensors with minimal signal loss and no susceptibility to electromagnetic fields. The probe has an insertion length of only 70 mm. The software plots the beam intensity distribution in the horizontal and vertical planes, and calculates the beam location and integrated profile area, which correlates well with total beam current. UniBEaM has a large dynamic range, operating with beam currents of ∼pA to mA, and a large range of particle kinetic energies of ∼keV to GeV, depending on the absorbed power density. Test data are presented for H- beams at 25keV for 500 μA, and H+ beams at 18MeV for 50pA to 10 μA. Maximum absorbed power density of the optical fiber before thermal damage is discussed in relation to dE/dx energy deposition as a function of particle type and kinetic energy. UniBEaM is well suited for a wide variety of beamlines including discovery science applications, radio-pharmaceutical production, hadron therapy, industrial ion beam applications including ion implantation, industrial electron beams, and ion source testing.

  2. Structure, dielectric and electrical properties of cerium doped barium zirconium titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Hongjun; Hou Jungang; Qu Yuanfang; Shan Dan; Yao Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rare-earth doped barium zirconate titanate (BZT) ceramics, Ba(Zr 0.25 Ti 0.75 )O 3 + xCeO 2 , (x = 0–1.5 at%) were obtained by a solid state reaction route. ► Morphological analysis on sintered samples by scanning electron microscopy shows that the addition of rare-earth ions affects the growth of the grain and remarkably changes the grain morphology. ► The effect of rare-earth addition to BZT on dielectric and electrical properties is analyzed, demonstrating that the samples with x = 0.4 and x = 0.6 could be semiconducting in air atmosphere. - Abstract: Rare-earth doped barium zirconium titanate (BZT) ceramics, Ba(Zr 0.25 Ti 0.75 )O 3 + xCeO 2 , (x = 0–1.5 at%) were obtained by a solid state reaction route. Perovskite-like single-phase compounds were confirmed from X-ray diffraction data and the lattice parameters were refined by the Rietveld method. It is found that, integrating with the lattice parameters and the distortion of crystal lattice, there is an alternation of substitution preference of cerium ions for the host cations in perovskite lattice. Morphological analysis on sintered samples by scanning electron microscopy shows that the addition of rare-earth ions affects the growth of the grain and remarkably changes the grain morphology. The effect of rare-earth addition to BZT on dielectric and electrical properties is analyzed. High values of dielectric tunability are obtained for cerium doped BZT. Especially, the experimental results on the effect of the contents of rare-earth addition on the resistivity of BZT ceramics were investigated, demonstrating that the samples with x = 0.4 and x = 0.6 could be semiconducting in air atmosphere.

  3. Two-Step Hydrothermal Synthesis of Bifunctional Hematite-Silver Heterodimer Nanoparticles for Potential Antibacterial and Anticancer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Vu Thi; Tam, Le Thi; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Van Quy, Nguyen; Huy, Tran Quang; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, the development of composite nanostructures containing noble metal and magnetic nanocrystals has attracted much interest because they offer a promising avenue for multifunctional applications in nanomedicine and pharmacotherapy. In this work, we present a facile two-step hydrothermal approach for the synthesis of bifunctional heterodimer nanoparticles (HDNPs) composed of hematite nanocubes (α-Fe2O3 NCs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The formation and magnetic property of α-Fe2O3-Ag HDNPs was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. Interestingly, the hydrothermal-synthesized α-Fe2O3-Ag HDNPs were found to display significant antibacterial activity against three types of infectious bacteria. The cytotoxicity of α-Fe2O3-Ag nanocomposite against lung cancer A549 cell line was investigated and compared with that of pure α-Fe2O3 NCs and Ag-NPs. The obtained results reveal that the α-Fe2O3-Ag nanocomposite exhibited higher anticancer performance than that of pure Ag-NPs, whereas pure α-Fe2O3 NCs were not cytotoxic to the tested cells. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the α-Fe2O3-Ag nanocomposite was found at 20.94 μg/mL. With the aforementioned properties, α-Fe2O3-Ag HDNPs showed a high potential as a multifunctional material for advanced biomedicine and nanotherapy applications.

  4. Shape Evolution Synthesis of Monodisperse Spherical, Ellipsoidal, and Elongated Hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) Nanoparticles Using Ascorbic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, W.F.; Yu, Y.T.; Wang, M.X.; Liu, F.; Koopal, L.K.

    2014-01-01

    Spherical, ellipsoidal, and elongated hematite particles have been obtained via a simple chemical precipitation reaction of FeCl3 and NaOH in the presence of ascorbic acid,(AA). The effects of pH, molar ratio of AA/Fe(III), and time on the formation and shape of the hematite particles were

  5. Electro-catalytic oxidation of reactive Orange 107 using cerium doped oxides of Nd3+ nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkumar, K.; Muthukumar, M.; Mangalaraja, R.V.

    2011-01-01

    A new rare earth doped cerium oxide powder was used as a catalyst to investigate the removal of colour and TOC from simulated wastewater of Reactive Orange 107. The electro oxidation process was carried out in the reactor in presence of an electrolyte NaCl. Graphite electrode was used as anode and cathode and electrolysis were carried out at a current density of 34.96 mAcm -2 with a catalyst concentration of 0.05g L -1 . In order to find the efficiency of nanocatalyst, experiments were also conducted without catalyst. From the experiment, it was found that complete colour removal was achieved on electrocatalytic oxidation as well as electro oxidation. When comparing the above processes, catalytic oxidation shows more efficient than electro oxidation. With respect to the degradation of the dye, catalytic oxidation shows more TOC removal than the oxidation taken place without catalyst. It infers that even though the electro-catalytic oxidation process achieves complete decolouration but it does not achieve complete mineralisation. The FTIR and GCMS studies confirmed the formation of by-products. (author)

  6. Influence of Surface Effects on Magnetic Behavior of Hematite Nanoparticles Embedded in Porous Silica Matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeleňák, V.; Zeleňáková, A.; Kováč, J.; Vainio, U.; Murafa, Nataliya

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 30 (2009), s. 13045-13050 ISSN 1932-7447 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : drug-delivery * gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.224, year: 2009

  7. Stable High-Capacity Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Produced by Supersonic Spray Deposition of Hematite Nanoparticles and Self-Healing Reduced Graphene Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Gun; Joshi, Bhavana N.; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Gun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Seong, Il Won; Swihart, Mark T.; Yoon, Woo Young; Yoon, Sam S.

    2017-01-01

    Hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were supersonically sprayed onto copper current collectors to create high-performance, binder-free lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes. Supersonic spray deposition is rapid, low-cost, and suitable for large-scale production. Supersonic impact of rGO sheets and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the substrate produces compacted nanocomposite films with short diffusion lengths for Li + ions. This structure produces high reversible capacity and markedly improved capacity retention over many cycles. Decomposition of lithium oxide generated during cycling activates the solid electrolyte interface layer, contributing to high capacity retention. The optimal composition ratio of rGO to Fe 2 O 3 was 9.1 wt.%, which produced a reversible capacity of 1242 mAh g −1 after N = 305 cycles at a current density of 1000 mA g −1 (1C).

  8. Effect of cerium doping on the electrical properties of ultrathin indium tin oxide films for application in touch sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Saewon; Cho, Sanghyun; Song, Pungkeun

    2014-01-01

    The electrical and microstructure properties of cerium doped indium tin oxide (ITO:Ce) ultrathin films were evaluated to assess their potential application in touch sensors. 10 to 150-nm ITO and ITO:Ce films were deposited on glass substrates (200 °C) by DC magnetron sputtering using different ITO targets (doped with CeO 2 : 0, 1, 3, 5 wt.%). ITO:Ce (doped with CeO 2 : 3 wt.%) films with thickness < 25 nm showed lower resistivity than ITO. This lower resistivity was accompanied by a significant increase in the Hall mobility despite a decrease in crystallinity. In addition, the surface morphology and wetting properties improved with increasing Ce concentration. This is related to an earlier transition from an island structure to continuous film formation caused by an increase in the initial nucleation density. - Highlights: • 10 to 150-nm InSnO 2 (ITO) and ITO:Ce thin films were deposited by sputtering. • ITO:Ce films with thickness < 25 nm showed lower resistivity than ITO. • Hall mobility was strongly affected by initial film formation. • Surface morphology and wetting property improved with increasing Ce concentration. • Such behavior is related to an earlier transition to continuous film formation

  9. Study of cerium doped magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}:Ce)/PMMA nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padalia, Diwakar, E-mail: Padalia.diwakar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttrakhand (India); Johri, U.C. [Department of Physics, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttrakhand (India); Zaidi, M.G.H. [Supercritical Fluid Processing Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttrakhand (India)

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents the synthesis and properties of polymer nanocomposite material based on cerium doped magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) as filler material and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) as host matrix. The magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) particles were synthesized by co-precipitation route using stable ferrous and ferric salts with ammonium hydroxide as precipitating agent. Further, they doped by cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) non-stoichiometrically. The composite material was fabricated by solvent evaporation method. Here 2.4 GHz microwaves were used to study the effect of microwaves heating on polymerization. The phase and crystal structure is determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The average crystallite size of the composites varies from 28 to 35 nm. The chemical structure is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The magnetic and thermal properties are investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal study shows that the microwave heated samples possess higher glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). The magnetic results suggest that coercivity (H{sub C}) and squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s}) of the loop increases with increasing doping percent of cerium.

  10. Fabrication of cerium-doped β-Ga2O3 epitaxial thin films and deep ultraviolet photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhao; Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhi, Yusong; Zhang, Xuhui; Chen, Zhengwei; Chu, Xulong; Yang, Hujiang; Wu, Zhenping; Tang, Weihua

    2018-01-20

    High-quality cerium-doped β-Ga 2 O 3 (Ga 2 O 3 :Ce) thin films could be achieved on (0001)α-Al 2 O 3 substrates using a pulsed-laser deposition method. The impact of dopant contents concentration on crystal structure, optical absorption, photoluminescence, and photoelectric properties has been intensively studied. X-ray diffraction analysis results have shown that Ga 2 O 3 :Ce films are highly (2¯01) oriented, and the lattice spacing of the (4¯02) planes is sensitive to the Ce doping level. The prepared Ga 2 O 3 :Ce films show a sharp absorption edge at about 250 nm, meaning a high transparency to deep ultraviolet (DUV) light. The photoluminescence results revealed that the emissions were in the violet-blue-green region, which are associated with the donor-acceptor transitions with the Ce 3+ and oxygen vacancies related defects. A simple DUV photodetector device with a metal-semiconductor-metal structure has also been fabricated based on Ga 2 O 3 :Ce thin film. A distinct DUV photoresponse was obtained, suggesting a potential application in DUV photodetector devices.

  11. Cerium doped lanthanum halides: fast scintillators for medical imaging; Halogenures de lanthane dopes cerium des scintillateurs rapides pour l'imagerie medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selles, O

    2006-12-15

    This work is dedicated to two recently discovered scintillating crystals: cerium doped lanthanum halides (LaCl{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+} and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+}).These scintillators exhibit interesting properties for gamma detection, more particularly in the field of medical imaging: a short decay time, a high light yield and an excellent energy resolution. The strong hygroscopicity of these materials requires adapting the usual experimental methods for determining physico-chemical properties. Once determined, these can be used for the development of the industrial manufacturing process of the crystals. A proper comprehension of the scintillation mechanism and of the effect of defects within the material lead to new possible ways for optimizing the scintillator performance. Therefore, different techniques are used (EPR, radioluminescence, laser excitation, thermally stimulated luminescence). Alongside Ce{sup 3+} ions, self-trapped excitons are involved in the scintillation mechanism. Their nature and their role are detailed. The knowledge of the different processes involved in the scintillation mechanism leads to the prediction of the effect of temperature and doping level on the performance of the scintillator. A mechanism is proposed to explain the thermally stimulated luminescence processes that cause slow components in the light emission and a loss of light yield. Eventually the study of afterglow reveals a charge transfer to deep traps involved in the high temperature thermally stimulated luminescence. (author)

  12. Magnetic and structural properties of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pariona, N.; Camacho-Aguilar, K.I.; Ramos-González, R.; Martinez, Arturo I.; Herrera-Trejo, M.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites (NCs) with specific size, composition and properties were obtained in transformation reactions of 2-line ferrihydrite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the NCs consist of clusters of strongly aggregated nanoparticles (NPs) similarly to a “plum pudding”, where hematite NPs “raisins” are surrounded by ferrihydrite “pudding”. Magnetic measurements of the NCs correlate very well with TEM results; i.e., higher coercive fields correspond to greater hematite crystallite size. First order reversal curve (FORC) measurements were used for the characterization of the magnetic components of the NCs. FORC diagrams revealed that the NCs prepared at short times are composed by single domains with low coercivity, and NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min exhibited elongated distribution along the Hc axis. It suggested that these samples consist of mixtures of different kinds of hematite particles, ones with low coercivity and others with coercivity greater than 600 Oe. For NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min, Mossbauer spectroscopy revealed the presence of two sextets, which one was assigned to fine hematite particles and other to hematite particles with hyperfine parameters near to bulk hematite. The correlation of the structural and magnetic properties of the ferrihydrite/hematite NCs revealed important characteristics of these materials which have not been reported elsewhere. - Highlights: • Ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites were prepared. • The “plum pudding” morphology of the ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites was found. • The FORC diagrams of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites have been measured.

  13. Magnetic and structural properties of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pariona, N.; Camacho-Aguilar, K.I.; Ramos-González, R. [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav-Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila 25900 (Mexico); Martinez, Arturo I., E-mail: mtz.art@gmail.com [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav-Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila 25900 (Mexico); Herrera-Trejo, M. [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Cinvestav-Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila 25900 (Mexico); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Río de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    A rich variety of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites (NCs) with specific size, composition and properties were obtained in transformation reactions of 2-line ferrihydrite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that the NCs consist of clusters of strongly aggregated nanoparticles (NPs) similarly to a “plum pudding”, where hematite NPs “raisins” are surrounded by ferrihydrite “pudding”. Magnetic measurements of the NCs correlate very well with TEM results; i.e., higher coercive fields correspond to greater hematite crystallite size. First order reversal curve (FORC) measurements were used for the characterization of the magnetic components of the NCs. FORC diagrams revealed that the NCs prepared at short times are composed by single domains with low coercivity, and NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min exhibited elongated distribution along the Hc axis. It suggested that these samples consist of mixtures of different kinds of hematite particles, ones with low coercivity and others with coercivity greater than 600 Oe. For NCs prepared at times larger than 60 min, Mossbauer spectroscopy revealed the presence of two sextets, which one was assigned to fine hematite particles and other to hematite particles with hyperfine parameters near to bulk hematite. The correlation of the structural and magnetic properties of the ferrihydrite/hematite NCs revealed important characteristics of these materials which have not been reported elsewhere. - Highlights: • Ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites were prepared. • The “plum pudding” morphology of the ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites was found. • The FORC diagrams of ferrihydrite/hematite nanocomposites have been measured.

  14. Bioavailability of nanoparticulate hematite to Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusenko, Yevgeniy; Shipp, Jessie; Hamilton, George A.; Morgan, Jennifer L.L.; Keebaugh, Michael; Hill, Hansina; Dutta, Arnab; Zhuo, Xiaoding; Upadhyay, Nabin; Hutchings, James; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D.; Shock, Everett; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental effects and bioavailability of nanoparticulate iron (Fe) to plants are currently unknown. Here, plant bioavailability of synthesized hematite Fe nanoparticles was evaluated using Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) as a model. Over 56-days of growing wild-type A. thaliana, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had lower plant biomass, lower chlorophyll concentrations, and lower internal Fe concentrations than the Fe-treatment. Results for the no-Fe and nanoparticle-Fe treatments were consistently similar throughout the experiment. These results suggest that nanoparticles (mean diameter 40.9 nm, range 22.3–67.0 nm) were not taken up and therefore not bioavailable to A. thaliana. Over 14-days growing wild-type and transgenic (Type I/II proton pump overexpression) A. thaliana, the Type I plant grew more than the wild-type in the nanoparticle-Fe treatment, suggesting Type I plants cope better with Fe limitation; however, the nanoparticle-Fe and no-Fe treatments had similar growth for all plant types. -- Highlights: ► Iron nanoparticles were synthesized and assessed for bioavailability to Arabidopsis. ► Arabidopsis grew better in the presence of EDTA-bound iron than nanoparticulate iron. ► Arabidopsis grew the same in the presence of nanoparticulate iron compared to no iron. -- Synthesized iron nanoparticles were not bioavailable to Arabidopsis thaliana in agar nutrient media

  15. Interfacial Precipitation of Phosphate on Hematite and Goethite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption and subsequent precipitation of dissolved phosphates on iron oxides, such as hematite and goethite, is of considerable importance in predicting the bioavailability of phosphates. We used in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM to image the kinetic processes of phosphate-bearing solutions interacting with hematite or goethite surfaces. The nucleation of nanoparticles (1.0–4.0 nm in height of iron phosphate (Fe(III-P phases, possibly an amorphous phase at the initial stages, was observed during the dissolution of both hematite and goethite at the earliest crystallization stages. This was followed by a subsequent aggregation stage where larger particles and layered precipitates are formed under different pH values, ionic strengths, and organic additives. Kinetic analysis of the surface nucleation of Fe-P phases in 50 mM NH4H2PO4 at pH 4.5 showed the nucleation rate was greater on goethite than hematite. Enhanced goethite and hematite dissolution in the presence of 10 mM AlCl3 resulted in a rapid increase in Fe-P nucleation rates. A low concentration of citrate promoted the nucleation, whereas nucleation was inhibited at higher concentrations of citrate. By modeling using PHREEQC, calculated saturation indices (SI showed that the three Fe(III-P phases of cacoxenite, tinticite, and strengite may be supersaturated in the reacted solutions. Cacoxenite is predicted to be more thermodynamically favorable in all the phosphate solutions if equilibrium is reached with respect to hematite or goethite, although possibly only amorphous precipitates were observed at the earliest stages. These direct observations at the nanoscale may improve our understanding of phosphate immobilization in iron oxide-rich acid soils.

  16. Spherulitic (c-axis) Growth for Terrestrial (Mauna Kea, Hawaii) and Martian Hematite "blueberries"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2006-01-01

    Hematite concentrations observed by Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard Mars Global Surveyor were considered a possible indicator for aqueous processes on Mars. Observations made by Opportunity show that the hematite at Meridiani Planum is present as spherules ( blueberries) and their fragments. The internal structure of the hematite spherules is not discernable at the resolution limit (approx.30 m/pixel) of Opportunity s Microscopic Imager (MI). A terrestrial analog for martian hematite spherules are spherules from hydrothermally altered and sulfate-rich tephra from the summit region of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. The objective of this study is to determine the crystal growth fabric of the Mauna Kea hematite spherules using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and to relate that crystalline fabric to the observed TES signature of Meridiani Planum "blueberries." TEM analysis of Mauna Kea spherules exhibited a radial growth pattern consisting of "fibrous" hematite with the c-axis of hematite particles aligned along the elongation direction of the hematite fibers. The individual fibers appear to be made of coalesced nano-particles of hematite arranged with their c-axis oriented radially to form a spherical structure. Lattice fringes suggest long-range order across particles and along fibers. According to interpretations of thermal emission spectra for Meridian Planum hematite, the absence of a band at approx. 390/cm implies a geometry where c-face emission dominates. Because the c-face is perpendicular to the c-axis, this is precisely the geometry for the Mauna Kea spherules because the c-axis is aligned parallel to their radial growth direction. Therefore, we conclude as a working hypothesis that the martian spherules also have radial, c-axis growth pattern on a scale that is too small to be detected by the MER MI. Furthermore, by analogy with the Mauna Kea spherules, the martian blueberries could have formed during hydrothermal alteration of

  17. Green urea synthesis catalyzed by hematite nanowires in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, Noorhana; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia ur; Alqasem, Bilal; Fai Kait, Chong

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic activity of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanowires under the influence of magnetic field on urea synthesis is considered green. The adsorption and subsequent dissociative reaction of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases on the α-Fe 2 O 3 (111) nanowires were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The average adsorption energy is −4.12 kcal/mole at different sites. The adsorption of gases resulted in a difference in density and net spin of electrons from 68 to 120 and 0–21 respectively. In addition, it induces magnetic moment value of 36.33 µB, which confirms the enhanced magnetic behaviour of hematite. α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowires (NWs) synthesized by heating iron wire in a box furnace at (750−800) °C and as synthesized α-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles (NPs) were received to use as a catalyst in the magnetic reaction of urea synthesis. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) confirms the peaks of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe 2 O 3 and Raman spectrum analyses confirms the α-Fe 2 O 3 peaks at 410 cm −1 , 500 cm −1 and 616 cm −1 . The needle-like shape of hematite nanowires with length ranging from 16–25) μm and diameter from 74 to 145 nm confirmed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The magnetic properties of the nanowires exhibited different levels of saturation magnetization, for α-Fe 2 O 3 perpendicularly aligned direction (13.18 emu/g) and random direction (10.73 emu/g). Urea synthesis was done under magnetic field ranges from 0.0 to 2.5 T. The activation energy of α-Fe 2 O 3 NWs for urea production is lower than NPs in the range of 0–1 T, whereas it is reversed for higher magnetic induction values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of urea at the peaks of 1690–1600 cm −1 . This green urea employing magnetically induced method could be a contender to the Haber-Bosch process currently used by the current industry which utilizes high temperature and high pressure

  18. Oxygen vacancy doping of hematite analyzed by electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Jan; Klingebiel, Benjamin; Köhler, Florian; Nuys, Maurice; Flohre, Jan; Muthmann, Stefan; Kirchartz, Thomas; Carius, Reinhard

    2017-11-01

    Hematite (α -F e2O3 ) is known for poor electronic transport properties, which are the main drawback of this material for optoelectronic applications. In this study, we investigate the concept of enhancing electrical conductivity by the introduction of oxygen vacancies during temperature treatment under low oxygen partial pressure. We demonstrate the possibility of tuning the conductivity continuously by more than five orders of magnitude during stepwise annealing in a moderate temperature range between 300 and 620 K. With thermoelectric power measurements, we are able to attribute the improvement of the electrical conductivity to an enhanced charge-carrier density by more than three orders of magnitude. We compare the oxygen vacancy doping of hematite thin films with hematite nanoparticle layers. Thereby we show that the dominant potential barrier that limits charge transport is either due to grain boundaries in hematite thin films or due to potential barriers that occur at the contact area between the nanoparticles, rather than the potential barrier within the small polaron hopping model, which is usually applied for hematite. Furthermore, we discuss the transition from oxygen-deficient hematite α -F e2O3 -x towards the magnetite F e3O4 phase of iron oxide at high density of vacancies.

  19. Expediting the chemistry of hematite nanocatalyst for catalytic aquathermolysis of heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Munawar

    In upstream exploration and production of heavy and extra heavy oil, catalytic aquathermolysis is a process where steam (along with catalyst) is injected into the reservoir to improve oil production. The improvement of oil production has been associated with the reduction of heavy oil's viscosity due to the degradation of large hydrocarbon molecules (resin and asphaltene fractions) which mostly the result of desulphurization of organosulphur compounds. In this work, the potential of hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanoparticles, a nontoxic, inexpensive and the most stable phase of iron oxide, was investigated for aquathermolysis application. This dissertation encompasses the synthesis, surface modification, catalytic activity, and catalysis mechanism of hematite nanoparticles in aquathermolysis. In the first part of this study, a simple hydrothermal method was successfully developed to synthesize hematite nanoparticles with high purity and good crystallinity. Using this method, the size, crystal's growth rate, shape, and dispersity of the nanoparticles can be controlled by the amount of iron precursor, precipitation agent, temperature and reaction time. Furthermore, the surface chemistry of hematite nanoparticle was modified in order to improve particle dispersibility in hydrocarbon phase. Based on the result, oleic acid (OA) was successfully grafted on the surface of hematite nanoparticles by forming a monodentate interaction and changed the surface property of the nanoparticles from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. As the result, nanoparticles were able to be transferred from aqueous phase to non-polar phase, vice versa, depending on the amount of oleic acid used for modification. In the third part of this work, the catalytic activity and catalytic mechanism of hematite nanoparticles to catalyze desulphurization reaction were studied. It is found that hematite nanoparticles have a good catalytic activity to decompose a highly stable aromatic organosulphur compound, i

  20. Green urea synthesis catalyzed by hematite nanowires in magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahya, Noorhana, E-mail: noorhana_yahya@petronas.com.my; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia ur; Alqasem, Bilal; Fai Kait, Chong

    2017-04-15

    The catalytic activity of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowires under the influence of magnetic field on urea synthesis is considered green. The adsorption and subsequent dissociative reaction of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases on the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (111) nanowires were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The average adsorption energy is −4.12 kcal/mole at different sites. The adsorption of gases resulted in a difference in density and net spin of electrons from 68 to 120 and 0–21 respectively. In addition, it induces magnetic moment value of 36.33 µB, which confirms the enhanced magnetic behaviour of hematite. α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires (NWs) synthesized by heating iron wire in a box furnace at (750−800) °C and as synthesized α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (NPs) were received to use as a catalyst in the magnetic reaction of urea synthesis. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) confirms the peaks of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Raman spectrum analyses confirms the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} peaks at 410 cm{sup −1}, 500 cm{sup −1} and 616 cm{sup −1}. The needle-like shape of hematite nanowires with length ranging from 16–25) μm and diameter from 74 to 145 nm confirmed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The magnetic properties of the nanowires exhibited different levels of saturation magnetization, for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} perpendicularly aligned direction (13.18 emu/g) and random direction (10.73 emu/g). Urea synthesis was done under magnetic field ranges from 0.0 to 2.5 T. The activation energy of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NWs for urea production is lower than NPs in the range of 0–1 T, whereas it is reversed for higher magnetic induction values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of urea at the peaks of 1690–1600 cm{sup −1}. This green urea employing magnetically induced method could be a contender to the Haber-Bosch process

  1. A Ga2O3 underlayer as an isomorphic template for ultrathin hematite films toward efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Takashi; Brillet, Jérémie; Cornuz, Maurin; Le Formal, Florian; Tétreault, Nicolas; Sivula, Kevin; Grätzel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hematite photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting are often fabricated as extremely-thin films to minimize charge recombination because of the short diffusion lengths of photoexcited carriers. However, poor crystallinity caused by structural interaction with a substrate negates the potential of ultrathin hematite photoanodes. This study demonstrates that ultrathin Ga2O3 underlayers, which were deposited on conducting substrates prior to hematite layers by atomic layer deposition, served as an isomorphic (corundum-type) structural template for ultrathin hematite and improved the photocurrent onset of PEC water splitting by 0.2 V. The benefit from Ga2O3 underlayers was most pronounced when the thickness of the underlayer was approximately 2 nm. Thinner underlayers did not work effectively as a template presumably because of insufficient crystallinity of the underlayer, while thicker ones diminished the PEC performance of hematite because the underlayer prevented electron injection from hematite to a conductive substrate due to the large conduction band offset. The enhancement of PEC performance by a Ga2O3 underlayer was more significant for thinner hematite layers owing to greater margins for improving the crystallinity of ultrathin hematite. It was confirmed that a Ga2O3 underlayer was applicable to a rough conducting substrate loaded with Sb-doped SnO2 nanoparticles, improving the photocurrent by a factor of 1.4. Accordingly, a Ga2O3 underlayer could push forward the development of host-guest-type nanocomposites consisting of highly-rough substrates and extremely-thin hematite absorbers.

  2. Prolate spheroidal hematite particles equatorially belt with drug-carrying layered double hydroxide disks: Ring Nebula-like nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Ay Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new nanocomposite architecture is reported which combines prolate spheroidal hematite nanoparticles with drug-carrying layered double hydroxide [LDH] disks in a single structure. Spindle-shaped hematite nanoparticles with average length of 225 nm and width of 75 nm were obtained by thermal decomposition of hydrothermally synthesized hematite. The particles were first coated with Mg-Al-NO3-LDH shell and then subjected to anion exchange with salicylate ions. The resulting bio-nanohybrid displayed a close structural resemblance to that of the Ring Nebula. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the LDH disks are stacked around the equatorial part of the ellipsoid extending along the main axis. This geometry possesses great structural tunability as the composition of the LDH and the nature of the interlayer region can be tailored and lead to novel applications in areas ranging from functional materials to medicine by encapsulating various guest molecules.

  3. Prolate spheroidal hematite particles equatorially belt with drug-carrying layered double hydroxide disks: Ring Nebula-like nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedim Ay, Ahmet; Konuk, Deniz; Zümreoglu-Karan, Birgul

    2011-02-03

    A new nanocomposite architecture is reported which combines prolate spheroidal hematite nanoparticles with drug-carrying layered double hydroxide [LDH] disks in a single structure. Spindle-shaped hematite nanoparticles with average length of 225 nm and width of 75 nm were obtained by thermal decomposition of hydrothermally synthesized hematite. The particles were first coated with Mg-Al-NO3-LDH shell and then subjected to anion exchange with salicylate ions. The resulting bio-nanohybrid displayed a close structural resemblance to that of the Ring Nebula. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the LDH disks are stacked around the equatorial part of the ellipsoid extending along the main axis. This geometry possesses great structural tunability as the composition of the LDH and the nature of the interlayer region can be tailored and lead to novel applications in areas ranging from functional materials to medicine by encapsulating various guest molecules.

  4. Plasma spraying of cerium-doped YAG

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Kubát, J.; Pala, Zdeněk; Nevrlá, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 19 (2014), s. 2344-2351 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * water-stabilized plasma Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.647, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2014.251

  5. Densification of zirconia-hematite nanopowders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raming, T.P.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; van Zyl, W.E.; Verweij, H.

    2003-01-01

    The densification of dual-phase yttria-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) and -Fe2O3 (hematite) composite powders is described. Different powder synthesis methods, different forms of dry compaction processes, and two sinter methods (pressureless sintering and sinterforging) were

  6. Synthesis of core-shell hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoplates: Quantitative analysis of the particle structure and shape, high coercivity and low cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marin; Kopanja, Lazar; Panjan, Matjaz; Kralj, Slavko; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Stojanovic, Zoran

    2017-05-01

    Hematite core-shell nanoparticles with plate-like morphology were synthesized using a one-step hydrothermal synthesis. An XRPD analysis indicates that the sample consist of single-phase α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. SEM and TEM measurements show that the hematite sample is composed of uniform core-shell nanoplates with 10-20 nm thickness, 80-100 nm landscape dimensions (aspect ratio ∼5) and 3-4 nm thickness of the surface shells. We used computational methods for the quantitative analysis of the core-shell particle structure and circularity shape descriptor for the quantitative shape analysis of the nanoparticles from TEM micrographs. The calculated results indicated that a percentage of the shell area in the nanoparticle area (share [%]) is significant. The determined values of circularity in the perpendicular and oblique perspective clearly show shape anisotropy of the nanoplates. The magnetic properties revealed the ferromagnetic-like properties at room temperature with high coercivity HC = 2340 Oe, pointing to the shape and surface effects. These results signify core-shell hematite nanoparticles' for practical applications in magnetic devices. The synthesized hematite plate-like nanoparticles exhibit low cytotoxicity levels on the human lung fibroblasts (MRC5) cell line demonstrating the safe use of these nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

  7. Green urea synthesis catalyzed by hematite nanowires in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Noorhana; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia ur; Alqasem, Bilal; Fai Kait, Chong

    2017-04-01

    The catalytic activity of hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanowires under the influence of magnetic field on urea synthesis is considered green. The adsorption and subsequent dissociative reaction of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases on the α-Fe2O3 (111) nanowires were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The average adsorption energy is -4.12 kcal/mole at different sites. The adsorption of gases resulted in a difference in density and net spin of electrons from 68 to 120 and 0-21 respectively. In addition, it induces magnetic moment value of 36.33 μB, which confirms the enhanced magnetic behaviour of hematite. α-Fe2O3 nanowires (NWs) synthesized by heating iron wire in a box furnace at (750-800) °C and as synthesized α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) were received to use as a catalyst in the magnetic reaction of urea synthesis. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) confirms the peaks of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe2O3 and Raman spectrum analyses confirms the α-Fe2O3 peaks at 410 cm-1, 500 cm-1 and 616 cm-1. The needle-like shape of hematite nanowires with length ranging from 16-25) μm and diameter from 74 to 145 nm confirmed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The magnetic properties of the nanowires exhibited different levels of saturation magnetization, for α-Fe2O3 perpendicularly aligned direction (13.18 emu/g) and random direction (10.73 emu/g). Urea synthesis was done under magnetic field ranges from 0.0 to 2.5 T. The activation energy of α-Fe2O3 NWs for urea production is lower than NPs in the range of 0-1 T, whereas it is reversed for higher magnetic induction values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of urea at the peaks of 1690-1600 cm-1. This green urea employing magnetically induced method could be a contender to the Haber-Bosch process currently used by the current industry which utilizes high temperature and high pressure.

  8. Adsorption of aqueous silicate on hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.; Ticknor, K.V.

    1997-08-01

    During radioisotope sorption studies, adsorption of silicate from synthetic groundwaters by synthetic hematite was observed. To further investigate this observation, the adsorption of silicate onto hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) powder from a neutral, aqueous NaC1 solution (0.1 mol/dm 3 ), containing 2.56 x 10 -4 mol/dm 3 of Si added as Na 2 SiO 3 ·9H 2 O, was measured at ∼21 deg C. Equilibrium adsorption of silicate amounted to ∼1.93 μmol/m 2 (one Si(O,OH) 4 moiety per 86 A 2 ). It is important to take this adsorption into account when evaluating the ability of iron oxides to adsorb other species, especially anions, from groundwaters. Silicate adsorption is known to diminish the ability of iron oxides to adsorb other anions. (author)

  9. Aggregation Kinetics of Hematite Particles in the Presence of Outer Membrane Cytochrome OmcA of Shewanella oneidenesis MR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Anxu [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering; Liu, Feng [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering; Shi, Liang [China Univ. of Geoscience in Wuhan, Hubei (China). Dept. of Biological Sciences and Technology; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Juan [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering

    2016-09-20

    The aggregation behavior of 9, 36, and 112 nm hematite particles was studied in the presence of OmcA, a bacterial extracellular protein, in aqueous dispersions at pH 5.7 through time-resolved dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and circular dichroism spectra, respectively. At low salt concentration, the attachment efficiencies of hematite particles in all sizes first increased, then decreased, and finally remained stable with the increase of OmcA concentration, indicating the dominant interparticle interaction changed along with the increase in the protein-to-particle ratio. Nevertheless, at high salt concentration, the attachment efficiencies of all hematite samples gradually decreased with increasing OmcA concentration, which can be attributed to increasing steric force. Additionally, the aggregation behavior of OmcA-hematite conjugates was more correlated to total particle-surface area than primary particle size. It was further established that OmcA could stabilize hematite nanoparticles more efficiently than bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model plasma protein, due to the higher affinity of OmcA to hematite surface. This study highlighted the effects of particle properties, solution conditions, and protein properties on the complicated aggregation behavior of protein-nanoparticle conjugates in aqueous environments.

  10. Thickness Dependent on Photocatalytic Activity of Hematite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hua Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematite (Fe2O3 thin films with different thicknesses are fabricated by the rf magnetron sputtering deposition. The effects of film thicknesses on the photocatalytic activity of hematite films have been investigated. Hematite films possess a polycrystalline hexagonal structure, and the band gap decreases with an increase of film thickness. Moreover, all hematite films exhibit good photocatalytic ability under visible-light irradiation; the photocatalytic activity of hematite films increases with the increasing film thickness. This is because the hematite film with a thicker thickness has a rougher surface, providing more reaction sites for photocatalysis. Another reason is a lower band gap of a hematite film would generate more electron-hole pairs under visible-light illumination to enhance photocatalytic efficiency. Experimental data are well fitted with Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. The photocatalytic rate constant of hematite films ranges from 0.052 to 0.068 min-1. This suggests that the hematite film is a superior photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation.

  11. Dynamic rotor mode in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefmann, Kim; Jacobsen, H.; Garde, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental, numerical, and theoretical evidence for an unusual mode of antiferromagnetic dynamics in nanoparticles. Elastic neutron scattering experiments on 8-nm particles of hematite display a loss of diffraction intensity with temperature, the intensity vanishing around 150 K...

  12. Hematite nuclear fuel cycle facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company LLC ('Westinghouse') acquired a nuclear fuel processing plant at Hematite, Missouri ('Hematite', the 'Facility', or the 'Plant') in April 2000. The plant has subsequently been closed, and its operations have been relocated to a newer, larger facility. Westinghouse has announced plans to complete its clean-up, decommissioning, and license retirement in a safe, socially responsible, and environmentally sound manner as required by internal policies, as well as those of its parent company, British Nuclear Fuels plc. ('BNFL'). Preliminary investigations have revealed the presence of environmental contamination in various areas of the facility and grounds, including both radioactive contamination and various other substances related to the nuclear fuel processing operations. The disparity in regulatory requirements for radiological and nonradiological contaminants, the variety of historic and recent operations, and the number of previous owners working under various contractual arrangements for both governmental and private concerns has resulted in a complex project. This paper discusses Westinghouse's efforts to develop and implement a comprehensive decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) strategy for the facility and grounds. (author)

  13. Local structural order in nanostructured hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florez, J. M.; Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured α-Fe 2 O 3 powders were prepared by high-energy ball milling. The milling process spans grinding times from 30 min to 24 h. The as-milled samples were characterized by means of 57 Fe Moessbauer spectrometry, Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction data and particle size analysis. The obtained results evidence the presence of disordered hematite characterized by a hyperfine field distribution with a well-behaved dependence on the mean crystallite size for which the mean hyperfine field decreases asymptotically as the grain size decreases. A new relationship is proposed in order to describe such behavior. Finally the presence of superparamagnetic grains, the occurrence of a partial topotactic phase transformation into a spinel phase and tool induced contamination are also presented and discussed.

  14. Local structural order in nanostructured hematite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florez, J. M.; Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J., E-mail: jrestre@fisica.udea.edu.co [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica (Colombia)

    2005-09-15

    Nanostructured {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were prepared by high-energy ball milling. The milling process spans grinding times from 30 min to 24 h. The as-milled samples were characterized by means of {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectrometry, Rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction data and particle size analysis. The obtained results evidence the presence of disordered hematite characterized by a hyperfine field distribution with a well-behaved dependence on the mean crystallite size for which the mean hyperfine field decreases asymptotically as the grain size decreases. A new relationship is proposed in order to describe such behavior. Finally the presence of superparamagnetic grains, the occurrence of a partial topotactic phase transformation into a spinel phase and tool induced contamination are also presented and discussed.

  15. Boron adsorption on hematite and clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainer, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes experiments performed to determine the suitability of boron as a potential reactive tracer for use in saturated-zone C-well reactive tracer studies for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Experiments were performed to identify the prevalent sorption mechanism of boron and to determine adsorption of boron on hematite and clinoptilolite as a function of pH. These minerals are present in the Yucca Mountain tuff in which the C-well studies will be conducted. Evaluation of this sorption mechanism was done by determining the equilibration time of boron-mineral suspensions, by measuring changes in equilibrium to titrations, and by measuring electrophoretic mobility. Experiments were performed with the minerals suspended in NaCl electrolytes of concentrations ranging from 0.1 N NaCl to 0.001 N NaCl. Experimentalconditions included pH values between 3 and 12 and temperature of about 38 degrees C

  16. Influence of Lanthanum Doping on the Structural and Optical Properties of Hematite Nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, J. Sharmila; Dharma Roy, S. Dawn; Raj, A. Moses Ezhil

    2016-10-01

    Rare-earth elements are an attractive class of dopant elements, as they give easily trivalent cations that possibly altering the structure and other properties of the parent nanoparticles and creating multifunctional materials because of their f-electronic configurations. Herein, experimental evidence has been given for a better understanding of the factors that dictate the interactions of La doping on the structure and optical properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. For that, lanthanum doped hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were prepared by a facile solution method using iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) as starting precursor and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as reducing agent without templates at low temperature. As-prepared powders were subsequently calcined in air for 3 hr at 800 °C. Xray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to study the nanocrystal formation of α-Fe2O3 and Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectral information identified the chemical bond structure of the nanoparticles. Morphology study of the nanoparticles was identified using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the incorporated La content was recognized from the Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The optical absorption spectrum was recorded in the wavelength range of 200-2000 nm and the optical parameters such as absorption coefficient and optical band gap energy of pure and doped Fe2O3 nanoparticles were determined. Obtained results are interpreted by considering the impregnation of trivalent La cations that replaced Fe cations of the host structure.

  17. Spin orientation in solid solution hematite-ilmenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Erik; Frandsen, Cathrine; Lefmann, Kim

    2017-01-01

    temperature range below the Néel temperature and does not depend systematically on Ti-content. The results indicate that the out-of-plane spin component is an intrinsic feature of hematite itself, with an origin not yet fully understood, but consistent with group theory. This represents a major shift...... spectroscopy. The usually assumed magnetic structure of hematite within this temperature range is antiferromagnetic with the spins confined to the basal plane of the hexagonal structure; however, an out-of-plane spin component is allowed by the symmetry of the system and has been observed in recent studies......The spin orientation in synthetic hematite-ilmenite samples and in a sample of natural hematite was studied from room temperature to above the antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition (the Néel temperature; TN ≈ 600–950 K) by neutron powder diffraction and at room temperature by Mössbauer...

  18. Pristine and Al-doped hematite printed films as photoanodes of p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congiu, Mirko, E-mail: mirko.congiu@fc.unesp.br [UNESP–Univ. Estadual Paulista, POSMAT-Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Materiais (Brazil); De Marco, Maria L.; Bonomo, Matteo [DC-FC-UNESP–Univ. Estadual Paulista (Brazil); Nunes-Neto, Oswaldo [UNESP–Univ. Estadual Paulista, POSMAT-Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Materiais (Brazil); Dini, Danilo [DC-FC-UNESP–Univ. Estadual Paulista (Brazil); Graeff, Carlos F.O. [UNESP–Univ. Estadual Paulista, POSMAT-Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Materiais (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    We hereby propose a non-expensive method for the deposition of pure and Al-doped hematite photoanodes in the configuration of thin films for the application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The electrodes have been prepared from hematite nanoparticles that were obtained by thermal degradation of a chemical precursor. The particles have been used in the preparation of a paste, suitable for both screen printing and doctor blade deposition. The paste was then spread on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) to obtain porous hematite electrodes. The electrodes have been sensitized using N3 and D5 dyes and were characterized through current/voltage curves under simulated sun light (1 sun, AM 1.5) with a Pt counter electrode. Al-doping of hematite showed interesting changes in the physical and electrochemical characteristics of sensitized photoanodes since we could notice the growth of AlFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (hercynite) as a secondary crystal phase into the oxides obtained by firing the mixtures of two chemical precursors at different molar ratios. Pure and Al-doped hematite electrodes have been used in a complete n-type DSSCs. The kinetics of charge transfer through the interface dye/electrolyte was studied and compared to that of a typical p-type DSSC based on NiO photocathodes sensitized with erythrosine B. The results suggest a potential application of both Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AlFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} as photoanodes of a tandem DSSC.

  19. Magnetic clusters in ilmenite-hematite solid solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Cathrine; Burton, B. P.; Rasmussen, Helge Kildahl

    2010-01-01

    We report the use of high-field 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy to resolve the magnetic ordering of ilmenite-hematite [xFeTiO3−(1−x)Fe2O3] solid solutions with x>0.5. We find that nanometer-sized hematite clusters exist within an ilmenite-like matrix. Although both phases are antiferromagnetically...

  20. Incorporation of Uranium into Hematite during Crystallization from Ferrihydrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Ferrihydrite was exposed to U(VI)-containing cement leachate (pH 10.5) and aged to induce crystallization of hematite. A combination of chemical extractions, TEM, and XAS techniques provided the first evidence that adsorbed U(VI) (≈3000 ppm) was incorporated into hematite during ferrihydrite aggregation and the early stages of crystallization, with continued uptake occurring during hematite ripening. Analysis of EXAFS and XANES data indicated that the U(VI) was incorporated into a distorted, octahedrally coordinated site replacing Fe(III). Fitting of the EXAFS showed the uranyl bonds lengthened from 1.81 to 1.87 Å, in contrast to previous studies that have suggested that the uranyl bond is lost altogether upon incorporation into hematite. The results of this study both provide a new mechanistic understanding of uranium incorporation into hematite and define the nature of the bonding environment of uranium within the mineral structure. Immobilization of U(VI) by incorporation into hematite has clear and important implications for limiting uranium migration in natural and engineered environments. PMID:24580024

  1. The transformation of ferrihydrite into goethite or hematite, revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudennec, Yannick; Lecerf, Andre

    2006-01-01

    During the oxidation of iron, poorly crystallized phases are firstly formed: 2- and 6-line ferrihydrite, which presents for the last phase, a similarity with wustite FeO but also with hematite α-Fe 2 O 3 . Crystallization increases with time and the solid phase obtained is dependent on temperature and pH. Obviously, high temperature favours the formation of the oxide hematite α-Fe 2 O 3 . As for the pH factor, it is more complicated. Low and high values of pH (2-5 and 10-14) favour the formation of goethite α-FeOOH, while obtaining hematite is favoured at neutral pH (values around 7). Goethite or hematite are obtained either through a dissolution-crystallization process or in the solid state, through a topotactic transformation. Given the structural relationships observed between ferrihydrite and wustite and hematite, it is allowed to think that a structural continuity could exist between wustite Fe (1- x ) O and hematite via ferrihydrite

  2. Electro-oxidation of water on hematite: Effects of surface termination and oxygen vacancies investigated by first-principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellman, Anders; Iandolo, Beniamino; Wickman, Bjorn

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction on hydroxyl- and oxygen-terminated hematite was investigated using first-principle calculations within a theoretical electrochemical framework. Both pristine hematite and hematite containing oxygen vacancies were considered. The onset potential was determined to be 1...... on hematite occurs on the oxygen-terminated hematite, containing oxygen vacancies. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Surface Potential of Polycrystalline Hematite in Aqueous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Preočanin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface potential of polycrystalline hematite in aqueous sodium perchlorate environment as a function of pH was examined. Surface potential of hematite was obtained from measured electrode potential of a nonporous polycrystalline hematite electrode. Acidic solution was titrated with base, and the backward titration with acid was performed. Substantial hysteresis was obtained which enabled location of the point of zero potential and equilibrium values of surface potentials. The theoretical interpretation of the equilibrium data was performed by applying the surface complexation model and the thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the first and the second step of surface protonation was obtained as logK1∘=11.3;logK2∘=2.8.

  4. Non destructive Testing (NDT) of concrete containing hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Noor Azreen Masenwat; Suhairy Sani; Nasharuddin Isa; Mohamad Haniza Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    This paper described the results of Non-destructive ultrasonic and rebound hammer measurements on concrete containing hematite. Local hematite stones were used as aggregates to produce high density concrete for application in X-and gamma shielding. Concrete cube samples (150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm) containing hematite as coarse aggregates were prepared by changing mix ratio, water to cement ratio (w/c) and types of fine aggregate. All samples were cured in water for 7 days and then tested after 28 days. Density, rebound number(N) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of the samples were taken before compressed to failure. The measurement results are explained and discussed. (author)

  5. Memory effect of ball-milled and annealed nanosized hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercoff, P.G.; Bertorello, H.R.; Oliva, M.I.

    2007-01-01

    Fine particles of hematite (mean size 55 nm) were produced by ball milling a mixture of hematite and pure Fe and annealing at 1000 o C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy show that only α-Fe 2 O 3 is present in the final product, with lattice and Moessbauer parameters that correspond to bulk hematite. ZFC and FC magnetization measurements were performed from 5 to 300 K, at different applied fields. Two magnetic regimes were observed: one at low temperatures (≤100 K) that we ascribe to the magnetic moments in the outer shell of the particles that couple to the magnetic moments in the core, and another at higher temperature that corresponds to the Morin transition, finding that the Morin temperature is T M =246 K. The memory effect is clearly observed in magnetic measurements that start from different remanence states and explained as dependent on the ordering of the magnetic moments within the particles

  6. Synthesis, structural, optical and morphological characterization of hematite through the precipitation method: Effect of varying the nature of the base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassoued, Abdelmajid; Lassoued, Mohamed Saber; Dkhil, Brahim; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah

    2017-08-01

    Iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized using the precipitation synthesis method focusing only on (FeCl3, 6H2O), NaOH, KOH and NH4OH as raw materials. The impact of varying the nature of the base on the crystalline phase, size and morphology of α-Fe2O3 products was explored. XRD spectra revealed that samples crystallize in the rhombohedral (hexagonal) system at 800 °C.The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to detect the morphology of synthesized nanoparticles and specify their sizes. However, the Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy has permitted the observation of vibration band Fe-O. Raman spectroscopy was used not only to prove that we have synthesized hematite but also to identify their phonon modes. The Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) findings allow the thermal cycle determination of samples whereas Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) findings allow the phase transition temperature identification. Besides, the optical investigation revealed that samples have an optical gap of about 2.1 eV. Findings highlight that the nature of the agent precipitant plays a significant role in the morphology of the products and the formation of the crystalline phase. Hematite synthesis with the base NH4OH brought about much stronger, sharper and wider diffraction peaks of α-Fe2O3. The morphology of samples are spherical with a size of about 61 nm while the size of the nanoparticles of hematite which we have synthesized with NaOH and KOH is respectively of the order of 82 and 79 nm.

  7. Photosystem I-​based Biophotovoltaics on Nanostructured Hematite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocakoglu, K.; Krupnik, T.; van den Bosch, B.; Harputlu, E.; Gullo, M.P.; Olmos, J.D.J.; Yildirimcan, S.; Gupta, R.K.; Yakuphanoglu, F.; Barbieri, A.; Reek, J.N.H.; Kargul, J.

    2014-01-01

    The electronic coupling between a robust red algal photosystem I (PSI) associated with its light harvesting antenna (LHCI) and nanocrystalline n-​type semiconductors, TiO2 and hematite (α-​Fe2O3) is utilized for fabrication of the biohybrid dye-​sensitized solar cells (DSSC)​. PSI-​LHCI is

  8. Synthesis, morphology and microstructure of pomegranate-like hematite (α-Fe2O3) superstructure with high coercivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadic, Marin; Citakovic, Nada; Panjan, Matjaz; Stanojevic, Boban; Markovic, Dragana; Jovanovic, Đorđe; Spasojevic, Vojislav

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We found superior magnetic properties of the hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). ► TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure. ► Magnetic measurements display high coercivity H C = 4350 Oe at the room temperature. - Abstract: We found novel and superior magnetic properties of the hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) that originate from an internal microstructure of particles and strong inter-particle interactions between nanocrystal sub-units. The hematite particles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron (III) nitrate without any template or surfactant. The purity, size, crystallinity, morphology, microstructure and magnetic features of the as-prepared particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and SQUID magnetometry. An XRD study reveals a pure phase of α-Fe 2 O 3 whereas TEM shows α-Fe 2 O 3 spheres with a diameter of about 150 nm. RS also shows high quality and purity of the sample. Moreover, TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure and evidence that the spherical particles are composed of individual well-crystallized nanoparticle sub-units (self-assembled nanoparticles) with a size of about 20 nm. Magnetic measurements display hysteretic behavior at the room temperature with remanent magnetization M r = 0.731 emu/g, saturation magnetization M S = 6.83 emu/g and coercivity H C = 4350 Oe, as well as the Morin transition at T M = 261 K. These results and comparison with those in the literature reveal that the sample has extremely high coercivity. The magnetic properties of the sample are discussed in relation to morphology, internal microstructure, surface effects and exchange and dipole–dipole interactions.

  9. The Influence of Several Doped Ions on Gas Sensitivity of Hematite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The dehydrating activation energies of the hematite with several doped ions used for the alcohol sensor were determinated by thermogravimetric differential thermal analyzer (TG-DTA) and the grain size of the samples were observed with TEM. The hematites with different doping amounts of Sn4 + were investigated by Mossbauer spectrometer. It shows that the different doped ion is of influence for grain growth of the hematite. The decrease of grain size stemmed from the doped ion causes gas sensitivity for alcohol to increase and the dehydrating activation energy to decrease correspondingly. When the different amounts of Sn4 + is doped in hematite, the microstructure of the hematite can be influenced.

  10. Effect of magnetic starch on the clarification of hematite tailings wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tao; Wu, Xiqing

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic starch solution, synthesized by mixing the caustic starch, the Fe2+ solution (in some cases containing the Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ or Mg2+ ions) and H2O2 solution, was used as the flocculant to investigate its clarification effect on hematite tailings wastewater. Based on the clarification tests and adsorption analysis it was demonstrated that the magnetic starch produced better clarification effect than the caustic starch, and the adsorption of magnetic starch onto hematite tailings particles was also stronger than the caustic starch. AFM found that the magnetic interaction between magnetic seeds and hematite is characteristic of long range force and greatly strengthens the adsorption of magnetic seeds onto fine hematite for agglomeration. FTIR indicates the starch adsorbed onto the surfaces of hematite and magnetic seeds, thus acting as the bridging between hematite particles and magnetic seeds, resulting in an intensified coverage of the starch onto hematite and positive action in the clarification.

  11. Characterisation of cerium-doped lanthanum bromide scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etim, I. P.; Obu, J. A.; Ushie, J. O.

    2011-01-01

    LaBr 3 (Ce) crystals is one of the new scintillating detectors that has been developed in recent years which has proven to be superior to other scintillating materials in terms of resolution and efficiency. The energy resolution, intrinsic photo peak, total intrinsic and total absolute efficiency of this detector have been measured for a 25mm x 25mm Brillance T M 380 LaBr 3 (Ce) detector. The energy dependence of the resolution has been studied with a variety of gamma ray sources with variable energy range (122KeV-1408KeV). LaBr 3 (Ce) detector shows an excellent energy resolution of 2.6% (FWHM) at 662KeV photons ( 137 Cs source) at room temperature. A full-energy peak efficiency of 90.1-4.3% has been obtained for the 122 - 1408KeV energy range for a source-detector distance of 150mm.

  12. Role of nitrogen vacancies in cerium doped aluminum nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul, E-mail: abdulmajid40@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Asghar, Farzana [Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Rana, Usman Ali; Ud-Din Khan, Salah [Sustainable Energy Technologies Center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Yoshiya, Masato [Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Hussain, Fayyaz [Physics Department, Bahauddin Zakarya University, Multan (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar [Department of Mathematics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan)

    2016-08-15

    In this report, a systematic density functional theory based investigation to explain the character of nitrogen vacancies in structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Ce doped wurtzite AlN is presented. The work demonstrates the modification in the properties of the material upon doping thereby addressing dopant concentration and inter-dopant distance. The presence of anionic vacancy reveals spin polarization and introduction of magnetic character in the structure. The doping produced the magnetic character in the material which was of ferromagnetic nature in most cases except the situation when dopants separated by largest distance of 5.873 Å. The calculated values of total energy and exchange energy suggested the configuration including Ce{sub Al}–V{sub N} complex is more favorable and exhibits ferromagnetic ordering. - Highlights: • Ce doped AlN with and without nitrogen vacancy. • Dopant at nearest neighbor site introduce ferromagnetism. • Ce{sub Al}–V{sub N} complex is favorable in Ce:AlN.

  13. Role of nitrogen vacancies in cerium doped aluminum nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, Abdul; Asghar, Farzana; Rana, Usman Ali; Ud-Din Khan, Salah; Yoshiya, Masato; Hussain, Fayyaz; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    In this report, a systematic density functional theory based investigation to explain the character of nitrogen vacancies in structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Ce doped wurtzite AlN is presented. The work demonstrates the modification in the properties of the material upon doping thereby addressing dopant concentration and inter-dopant distance. The presence of anionic vacancy reveals spin polarization and introduction of magnetic character in the structure. The doping produced the magnetic character in the material which was of ferromagnetic nature in most cases except the situation when dopants separated by largest distance of 5.873 Å. The calculated values of total energy and exchange energy suggested the configuration including Ce Al –V N complex is more favorable and exhibits ferromagnetic ordering. - Highlights: • Ce doped AlN with and without nitrogen vacancy. • Dopant at nearest neighbor site introduce ferromagnetism. • Ce Al –V N complex is favorable in Ce:AlN.

  14. Magnetic interactions between nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2010-01-01

    We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state...... of nanoparticles. This collective state has many similarities to spin-glasses. In samples of aggregated magnetic nanoparticles, exchange interactions are often important and this can also lead to a strong suppression of superparamagnetic relaxation. The temperature dependence of the order parameter in samples...... of strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles or goethite grains is well described by a simple mean field model. Exchange interactions between nanoparticles with different orientations of the easy axes can also result in a rotation of the sub-lattice magnetization directions....

  15. The nature of hematite depression with corn starch in the reverse flotation of iron ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimali, Kaustubh; Atluri, Venkata; Wang, Yan; Bacchuwar, Sanket; Wang, Xuming; Miller, Jan D

    2018-08-15

    The function of corn starch and the significance of the order of addition of corn starch and mono ether amine in the reverse flotation of iron ore has been investigated. Understanding hematite depression with starch and the corresponding hydrophilic state involves consideration of adsorption with amine as well as flocculation of fine hematite. Captive bubble contact angle and micro-flotation experiments indicated that amine has an affinity towards both hematite and quartz, and that the role of starch is to hinder the adsorption of amine at the hematite surface so that flotation is inhibited. Micro-flotation results confirmed that quartz does not have affinity towards starch at pH 10.5. In addition to competitive adsorption, flocculation of fine hematite occurs and images from high resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT) and cryo-SEM reveal further detail regarding floc structure. These results provide substantial evidence that the fine hematite particles are flocculated in the presence of corn starch, and flocculation is dependent on the particle size of hematite, with greater flocculation for finer particles. Thus, starch is playing a dual role in the reverse flotation of iron ore, acting as a depressant by hindering amine adsorption at the hematite surface in order to maintain the hydrophilic surface state of hematite, and acting as a flocculant to aggregate fine hematite particles, which if not flocculated, could diminish the flotation separation efficiency by being transported to the froth phase during reverse flotation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

  17. Morphology and orientational behavior of silica-coated spindle-type hematite particles in a magnetic field probed by small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reufer, Mathias; Dietsch, Hervé; Gasser, Urs; Hirt, Ann; Menzel, Andreas; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2010-04-15

    Form factor and magnetic properties of silica-coated spindle-type hematite nanoparticles are determined from SAXS measurements with applied magnetic field and magnetometry measurements. The particle size, polydispersity and porosity are determined using a core-shell model for the form factor. The particles are found to align with their long axis perpendicular to the applied field. The orientational order is determined from the SAXS data and compared to the orientational order obtained from magnetometry. The direct access to both, the orientational order of the particles, and the magnetic moments allow one to determine the magnetic properties of the individual spindle-type hematite particles. We study the influence of the silica coating on the magnetic properties and find a fundamentally different behavior of silica-coated particles. The silica coating reduces the effective magnetic moment of the particles. This effect is enhanced with field strength and can be explained by superparamagnetic relaxation in the highly porous particles.

  18. Fine hematite particles of Martian interest: absorption spectra and optical constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, A C; Blanco, A; Fonti, S; Jurewicz, A; Orofino, V

    2005-01-01

    Hematite is an iron oxide very important for the study of climatic evolution of Mars. It can occur in two forms: red and grey, mainly depending on the granulometry of the samples. Spectra of bright regions of Mars suggest the presence of red hematite particles. Moreover the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), on board the Mars Global Surveyor mission, has discovered a deposit of crystalline grey hematite in Sinus Meridiani. TES spectra of that Martian region exhibit features at about 18, 23 and 33 μm that are consistent with hematite. Coarse grey hematite is considered strong evidence for longstanding water, while it is unknown whether the formation of fine-grained red hematite requires abundant water. Studies are needed in order to further characterize the spectral properties of the two kinds of hematite. For this reason we have analyzed a sample of submicron hematite particles in the 6.25-50 μm range in order to study the influence of particles size and shape on the infrared spectra. The optical constants of a particulate sample have been derived and compared with published data concerning bulk samples of hematite. Our results seem to indicate that particle shape is an important factor to take into account for optical constants derivation

  19. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of a Hematite-bearing Ridge on Mauna Kea, Hawaii: A Potential Mineralogical Process Analog for the Mount Sharp Hematite Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Hamilton, J. C.; Adams, M.; Fraeman, A. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Catalano, J. G.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity landed in Gale Crater in August 2012 and is currently roving towards the layered central mound known as Mount Sharp [1]. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) hyperspectral data indicate Mount Sharp contains an 5 km stratigraphic sequence including Fe-Mg smectites, hematite, and hydrated sulfates in the lower layers separated by an unconformity from the overlying anhydrous strata [1,2,3]. Hematite was initially detected in CRISM data to occur in the lower sulfate layers on the north side of the mound [2]. [3] further mapped a distinct hematite detection occurring as part of a 200 m wide ridge that extends 6.5 km NE-SW, approximately parallel with the base of Mount Sharp. It is likely a target for in-situ analyses by Curiosity. We document here the occurrence of a stratum of hematite-bearing breccia that is exposed on the Puu Poliahu cinder cone near the summit of Mauna Kea volcano (Hawaii) (Fig.1). The stratum is more resistant to weathering than surrounding material, giving it the appearance of a ridge. The Mauna Kea hematite ridge is thus arguably a potential terrestrial mineralogical and process analog for the Gale Crater hematite ridge. We are acquiring a variety of chemical and mineralogical data on the Mauna Kea samples, with a focus on the chemical and mineralogical information already available or planned for the Gale hematite ridge.

  20. Reductive Dissolution of Goethite and Hematite by Reduced Flavins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhi; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2013-10-02

    The abiotic reductive dissolution of goethite and hematite by the reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) and riboflavin (RBFH2), electron transfer mediators (ETM) secreted by the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella, was investigated under stringent anaerobic conditions. In contrast to the rapid redox reaction rate observed for ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite (Shi et al., 2012), the reductive dissolution of crystalline goethite and hematite was slower, with the extent of reaction limited by the thermodynamic driving force at circumneutral pH. Both the initial reaction rate and reaction extent increased with decreasing pH. On a unit surface area basis, goethite was less reactive than hematite between pH 4.0 and 7.0. AH2DS, the reduced form of the well-studied synthetic ETM anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), yielded higher rates than FMNH2 under most reaction conditions, despite the fact that FMNH2 was a more effective reductant than AH2DS for ferryhydrite and lepidocrocite. Two additional model compounds, methyl viologen and benzyl viologen, were investigated under similar reaction conditions to explore the relationship between reaction rate and thermodynamic properties. Relevant kinetic data from the literature were also included in the analysis to span a broad range of half-cell potentials. Other conditions being equal, the surface area normalized initial reaction rate (ra) increased as the redox potential of the reductant became more negative. A non-linear, parabolic relationship was observed between log ra and the redox potential for eight reducants at pH 7.0, as predicted by Marcus theory for electron transfer. When pH and reductant concentration were fixed, log ra was positively correlated to the redox potential of four Fe(III) oxides over a wide pH range, following a non-linear parabolic relationship as well.

  1. Template free fabrication of hollow hematite spheres via a one-pot polyoxometalate-assisted hydrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Baodong; Kang Zhenhui; Wang Enbo; Tian Chungui; Zhang Zhiming; Wang Chunlei; Song Yanli; Li Meiye

    2007-01-01

    Uniform hollow hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) spheres with diameter of about 600-700 nm and shell thickness lower than 100 nm are obtained by direct hydrothermal treatment of dilute FeCl 3 and tungstophosphoric acid H 3 PW 12 O 40 solution at 180 deg. C. The hollow spheres are composed of robust shells with small nanoparticles standing out of the surface and present a high-surface area and a weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The effect of concentration of H 3 PW 12 O 40 , reaction time and temperature for the formation of the hollow spheres are investigated in series of experiments. The formation of the hollow spheres may be ascribed to a polyoxometalte-assisted forced hydrolysis and dissolution process. - Graphical abstract: Uniform hollow hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) spheres with diameter of about 600-700 nm and shell thickness lower than 100 nm are obtained by direct hydrothermal treatment of dilute FeCl 3 and tungstophosphoric acid H 3 PW 12 O 40 solution at 180 deg. C. The hollow spheres present a high surface area and weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature

  2. Uranium nanoparticle synthesis from leaching solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, Z.; Sklodowska, A.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of uranium from leaching and bioleaching solutions is of great significance for an environment protection. In comparison with conventional separation techniques, synthesis of uranium nanoparticles has a number of benefits. It has been demonstrated that the uranium nanoparticles show high catalytic activity. In the present studies a variety of synthesis systems have been used for reduction of uranium from bioleaching solution. Among various catalytical templates the hematite Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles are most interest It was presented the report on development of synthesis method to produce nano structured Fe_2O_3 particles. The efficiency of hematite nanoparticles for adsorption of uranium ions from bioleaching solutions was investigated. Bacterial leaching is alternate technique used to extract uranium from mining wastes. The bioleaching process is environment friendly and gives the extraction yield of over 90%. The bioleaching solutions were obtained from bioleaching experiments using waste materials from different places at Lower Silesia (Kowary, Grzmiaca, Kopaniec, Radoniow). Chemoautotrophic bacteria were used for bioleaching tests. The significant adsorption capacity of U(VI) onto iron oxide and hydroxides (goethite, hematite, and magnetite) was observed. The sorption of U(VI) onto the hematite surface was connected with the chemical reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) by Fe"2"+ ions. The initial reaction system contained excess of Fe"2"+ ions which were used to reduce of U(VI). The reduction of U(VI) occurred at pH at the vicinity of pH=2.4. The colloid particles of hematite with UO_2 nanoparticles were obtained. The results of zeta potential measurements of hematite nanoparticles showed that at the ionic strength equals 10"-"3M NaCl, the average zeta potential was +32.4±3.5 mV at pH = 2.6. The interaction of hematite nanoparticles with the bioleaching solutions led to decrease of positive zeta potential to the value of 6.4± 2.7 mV. (author)

  3. Production and characterization of submicron hematite (α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kırcı, Burak; Ebin, Burçak; Gürmen, Sebahattin [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-12-16

    The ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method has been used to prepare submicron hematite (α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles using two different industrial pickling solutions of iron chloride (41 g/L FeCl{sub 2} and 54 g/L FeCl{sub 3}) Particles were obtained by thermal decomposition of generated aerosols from precursor solutions using 1.7 MHz ultrasonic atomizer. Reaction temperature was set up at 800 °C and aerosol droplets were carried into the heated zone by 0.7 L/min air flow rate. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies were used to determine the crystal structure and crystallite size of the particles. Results indicate that patterns correspond to hematite phase with rhombohedral crystal structure (space group: R3c). The crystallite sizes of particles prepared from FeCl{sub 2} and FeCl{sub 3} solutions that were calculated from Scherrer equation are 59 and 33 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) investigations give detailed information about particle size, morphology and composition. SEM micrographs show that hematite nanoparticles aggregate and formed spherical secondary particles in submicron range.

  4. Electrochemical preparation of hematite nanostructured films for solar hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebadzadeh T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting is a clean and promising technique for using a renewable source of energy, i.e., solar energy, to produce hydrogen. In this work electrochemical formation of iron oxyhydroxide and its conversion to hematite (α- Fe2O3 through thermal treatment have been studied. Oxyhydroxide iron compounds have been prepared onto SnO2/F covered glass substrate by potential cycling with two different potential sweep rate values; then calcined at 520 °C in air to obtain α-Fe2O3 nanostrutured films for their implementation as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell. X-ray diffraction analysis allowed finding that iron oxides films have nanocrystalline character. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that films have nanostructured morphology. The obtained results are discussed considering the influence of potential sweep rate employed during the preparation of iron oxyhydroxide film on optical, structural and morphological properties of hematite nanostructured films. Results show that films have acceptable characteristics as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell for hydrogen generation from water.

  5. Interaction of light with hematite hierarchical structures: Experiments and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distaso, Monica; Zhuromskyy, Oleksander; Seemann, Benjamin; Pflug, Lukas; Mačković, Mirza; Encina, Ezequiel; Taylor, Robin Klupp; Müller, Rolf; Leugering, Günter; Spiecker, Erdmann; Peschel, Ulf; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    Mesocrystalline particles have been recognized as a class of multifunctional materials with potential applications in different fields. However, the internal organization of nanocomposite mesocrystals and its influence on the final properties have not yet been investigated. In this paper, a novel strategy based on electrodynamic simulations is developed to shed light on how the internal structure of mesocrystals influences their optical properties. In a first instance, a unified design protocol is reported for the fabrication of hematite/PVP particles with different morphologies such as pseudo-cubes, rods-like and apple-like structures and controlled particle size distributions. The optical properties of hematite/PVP mesocrystals are effectively simulated by taking their aggregate and nanocomposite structure into consideration. The superposition T-Matrix approach accounts for the aggregate nature of mesocrystalline particles and validate the effective medium approximation used in the framework of the Mie theory and electromagnetic simulation such as Finite Element Method. The approach described in our paper provides the framework to understand and predict the optical properties of mesocrystals and more general, of hierarchical nanostructured particles.

  6. Adsorption of ions on hematite (α-Fe2O3) : a colloid-chemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwsma, A.

    1973-01-01

    This study is primarily intended to provide a better understanding of the adsorption of ions on hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). In addition, due attention is given to the relation between the ionic adsorption and the colloidal stability of hematite sols.

    Chapter 1. is concerned

  7. Immobilization of molecular cobalt electrocatalyst by hydrophobic interaction with hematite photoanode for highly stable oxygen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram

    2015-07-15

    A unique modification of a hematite photoanode with perfluorinated Co-phthalocyanine (CoFPc) by strong binding associated with hydrophobic interaction is demonstrated. The resultant molecular electrocatalyst – hematite photoanode hybrid material showed significant onset shift and high stability for photoelectrochemical oxidation evolution reaction (OER).

  8. Residual Energy Harvesting from Light Transients Using Hematite as an Intrinsic Photocapacitor in a Symmetrical Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Burgert; van Leeuwen, Nicole; Xie, Mengying; Adamaki, Vana; Bowen, Chris R.; de Araujo, Moises A.; Mascaro, Lucia H.; Cameron, Petra J.; Marken, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Hematite as a sustainable photoabsorber material offers a band gap close to 2 eV and photoanode characteristics, but usually requires additional catalysts to enhance surface redox chemistry during steady state light energy harvesting for water splitting. Here, for a highly doped hematite film,

  9. Immobilization of molecular cobalt electrocatalyst by hydrophobic interaction with hematite photoanode for highly stable oxygen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram; Morlanes, Natalia; Maloney, Edward; Rodionov, Valentin; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    A unique modification of a hematite photoanode with perfluorinated Co-phthalocyanine (CoFPc) by strong binding associated with hydrophobic interaction is demonstrated. The resultant molecular electrocatalyst – hematite photoanode hybrid material showed significant onset shift and high stability for photoelectrochemical oxidation evolution reaction (OER).

  10. In situ Ni-doping during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite for excellent photoelectrochemical performance of nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite p-n junction photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuan, Yi Wen; Ibrahim, Elyas; Chong, Meng Nan; Zhu, Tao; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Ocon, Joey D.; Chan, Eng Seng

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite (NiO/α-Fe2O3) p-n junction photoanodes synthesized from in situ doping of nickel (Ni) during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite were successfully demonstrated. A postulation model was proposed to explain the fundamental mechanism of Ni2+ ions involved, and the eventual formation of NiO on the subsurface region of hematite that enhanced the potential photoelectrochemical water oxidation process. Through this study, it was found that the measured photocurrent densities of the Ni-doped hematite photoanodes were highly dependent on the concentrations of Ni dopant used. The optimum Ni dopant at 25 M% demonstrated an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement as compared to bare hematite photoanode. This was attributed to the increased electron donor density through the p-n junction and thus lowering the energetic barrier for water oxidation activity at the optimum Ni dopant concentration. Concurrently, the in situ Ni-doping of hematite has also lowered the photogenerated charge carrier transfer resistance as measured using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is expected that the fundamental understanding gained through this study is helpful for the rational design and construction of highly efficient photoanodes for application in photoelectrochemical process.

  11. Hematite mining in the ancient Americas: Mina Primavera, A 2,000 year old Peruvian mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Kevin J.; Grados, Moises Linares; Eerkens, Jelmer W.; Edwards, Matthew J.

    2007-12-01

    Mina Primavera, a hematite (Fe2O3) mine located in southern Peru, was exploited beginning approximately 2,000 years ago by two Andean civilizations, the Nasca and Wari. Despite the importance of hematite in the material culture of the ancient Americas, few hematite mines have been reported in the New World literature and none have been reported for the Central Andes. An estimated 3,710 tonnes of hematite were extracted from the mine for over 1,400 years at an average rate of 2.65 tonnes per year, suggesting regular and extensive mining prior to Spanish conquest. The hematite was likely used as a pigment for painting pottery, and the mine demonstrates that iron ores were extracted extensively at an early date in the Americas.

  12. Nanostructured hematite thin films for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maabong, Kelebogile; Machatine, Augusto G. J.; Mwankemwa, Benard S.; Braun, Artur; Bora, Debajeet K.; Toth, Rita; Diale, Mmantsae

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured hematite thin films prepared by dip coating technique were investigated for their photoelectrochemical activity for generation of hydrogen from water splitting. Structural, morphological and optical analyses of the doped/undoped films were performed by X-ray diffraction, high resolution field emission-scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometry and Raman spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements of the films showed enhanced photoresponse and cathodic shift of the onset potential upon Ti doping indicating improved transfer of photoholes at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. Films doped with 1 at% Ti produced 0.72 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs RHE which is 2 times higher than current density for the pure film (0.30 mA/cm2, at 1.23 V vs RHE). Gas chromatography analysis of the films also showed enhanced hydrogen evolution at 1 at% Ti with respect to pure film.

  13. Disposal of coal and hematite dusts inhaled successively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heppleston, A G

    1958-01-01

    Rabbits and rats were exposed in a chamber to coal (20,000 and 10,000 particles/ml) and hematite (20,000 and 37,000 particles/ml) in succession to follow deposition and clearance by color. Exposures were 5 days/wk, 20 hr/day. Generally, there was dust widely but not uniformly distributed in peripheral alveoli, tending to aggregate and clump in more proximal alveoli with time. There was initial nonuniform distribution more uniform with exposure time. Aggregation mostly through phagocyte activities and more evident in rabbits than rats was observed. There was eventual mixing of two dusts inhaled up to 7 months apart. Dust deposited last is cleared first because of less tortuous route.

  14. Fixing arsenic contained in a gas phase using solid hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balladares, E.; Gonzalez, A.; Rarra, R.; Sanchez, M.

    2004-01-01

    Feasibility to obtain ferric arsenate starting from arsenic containing gas in contact with Fe 3 O 3 has been studied. Thermodynamic stability of the system Fe-As-O was analysed in order to verify conditions to form Fe x As y O z type compounds. Experiments were made using a hematite sample suspended in a thermogravimetric device. As 4 O 6 was generated starting from solid As 2 O 3 which was circulating through the iron oxide. Final samples were analysed chemically and by means of DRX, verifying the formation of FeAsO 4 , FeAsO 4 .2h 2 O and FeAsO 4 .(H 2 O) 2 in small quantities. Tests in porous bed and pellets were carried out, studying the effect of: porosity, temperature and oxygen potential. The largest conversion obtained was 10% at 800 degree centigrade, pO 2 =50% and porosity=0.883. (Author) 9 refs

  15. In situ Ni-doping during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite for excellent photoelectrochemical performance of nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite p-n junction photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phuan, Yi Wen, E-mail: phuan.yi.wen@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Elyas, E-mail: meibr2@student.monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Chong, Meng Nan, E-mail: Chong.Meng.Nan@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Sustainable Water Alliance, Advanced Engineering Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Zhu, Tao, E-mail: zhu.tao@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia); Lee, Byeong-Kyu, E-mail: bklee@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Nam-gu, Daehakro 93, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ocon, Joey D., E-mail: jdocon@up.edu.ph [Laboratory of Electrochemical Engineering (LEE), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Chan, Eng Seng, E-mail: chan.eng.seng@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor DE 47500 (Malaysia)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • NiO-hematite p-n junction photoanodes were fabricated via an in situ Ni-doping. • The fundamental mechanism of Ni{sup 2+} ions involved was elucidated. • The optimum Ni dopant was 25 M% for the highest photocurrent density. • It exhibited an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement. - Abstract: Nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite (NiO/α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) p-n junction photoanodes synthesized from in situ doping of nickel (Ni) during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite were successfully demonstrated. A postulation model was proposed to explain the fundamental mechanism of Ni{sup 2+} ions involved, and the eventual formation of NiO on the subsurface region of hematite that enhanced the potential photoelectrochemical water oxidation process. Through this study, it was found that the measured photocurrent densities of the Ni-doped hematite photoanodes were highly dependent on the concentrations of Ni dopant used. The optimum Ni dopant at 25 M% demonstrated an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement as compared to bare hematite photoanode. This was attributed to the increased electron donor density through the p-n junction and thus lowering the energetic barrier for water oxidation activity at the optimum Ni dopant concentration. Concurrently, the in situ Ni-doping of hematite has also lowered the photogenerated charge carrier transfer resistance as measured using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is expected that the fundamental understanding gained through this study is helpful for the rational design and construction of highly efficient photoanodes for application in photoelectrochemical process.

  16. In situ Ni-doping during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite for excellent photoelectrochemical performance of nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite p-n junction photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuan, Yi Wen; Ibrahim, Elyas; Chong, Meng Nan; Zhu, Tao; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Ocon, Joey D.; Chan, Eng Seng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NiO-hematite p-n junction photoanodes were fabricated via an in situ Ni-doping. • The fundamental mechanism of Ni"2"+ ions involved was elucidated. • The optimum Ni dopant was 25 M% for the highest photocurrent density. • It exhibited an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement. - Abstract: Nanostructured nickel oxide-hematite (NiO/α-Fe_2O_3) p-n junction photoanodes synthesized from in situ doping of nickel (Ni) during cathodic electrodeposition of hematite were successfully demonstrated. A postulation model was proposed to explain the fundamental mechanism of Ni"2"+ ions involved, and the eventual formation of NiO on the subsurface region of hematite that enhanced the potential photoelectrochemical water oxidation process. Through this study, it was found that the measured photocurrent densities of the Ni-doped hematite photoanodes were highly dependent on the concentrations of Ni dopant used. The optimum Ni dopant at 25 M% demonstrated an excellent photoelectrochemical performance of 7-folds enhancement as compared to bare hematite photoanode. This was attributed to the increased electron donor density through the p-n junction and thus lowering the energetic barrier for water oxidation activity at the optimum Ni dopant concentration. Concurrently, the in situ Ni-doping of hematite has also lowered the photogenerated charge carrier transfer resistance as measured using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is expected that the fundamental understanding gained through this study is helpful for the rational design and construction of highly efficient photoanodes for application in photoelectrochemical process.

  17. Cytochrome c interaction with hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, Carrick M. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)]. E-mail: carrick@uwyo.edu; Khare, Nidhi [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Lovelace, David M. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2006-02-15

    The interaction of metalloproteins such as cytochromes with oxides is of interest for a number of reasons, including molecular catalysis of environmentally important mineral-solution electron transfer reactions (e.g., dehalogenations) and photovoltaic applications. Iron reduction by bacteria, thought to be cytochrome mediated, is of interest for geochemical and environmental remediation reasons. As a baseline for understanding cytochrome interaction with ferric oxide surfaces, we report on the interaction of mitochondrial cytochrome c (Mcc), a well-studied protein, with hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) surfaces. Mcc sorbs strongly to hematite from aqueous solution in a narrow pH range corresponding to opposite charge on Mcc and hematite (between pH 8.5 and 10, Mcc is positively charged and hematite surfaces are negatively charged). Cyclic voltammetry of Mcc using hematite electrodes gives redox potentials characteristic of Mcc in a native conformational state, with no evidence for unfolding on the hematite surface. Atomic force microscopy imaging is consistent with a loosely attached adsorbate that is easily deformed by the AFM tip. In phosphate-containing solution, Mcc adhers to the surface more strongly. These results establish hematite as a viable material for electrochemical and spectroscopic characterization of cytochrome-mineral interaction.

  18. Control of Earth-like magnetic fields on the transformation of ferrihydrite to hematite and goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Dekkers, Mark J; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José; Roberts, Andrew P

    2016-07-26

    Hematite and goethite are the two most abundant iron oxides in natural environments. Their formation is controlled by multiple environmental factors; therefore, their relative concentration has been used widely to indicate climatic variations. In this study, we aimed to test whether hematite and goethite growth is influenced by ambient magnetic fields of Earth-like values. Ferrihydrite was aged at 95 °C in magnetic fields ranging from ~0 to ~100 μT. Our results indicate a large influence of the applied magnetic field on hematite and goethite growth from ferrihydrite. The synthesized products are a mixture of hematite and goethite for field intensities fields favour hematite formation by accelerating ferrimagnetic ferrihydrite aggregation. Additionally, hematite particles growing in a controlled magnetic field of ~100 μT appear to be arranged in chains, which may be reduced to magnetite keeping its original configuration, therefore, the presence of magnetic particles in chains in natural sediments cannot be used as an exclusive indicator of biogenic magnetite. Hematite vs. goethite formation in our experiments is influenced by field intensity values within the range of geomagnetic field variability. Thus, geomagnetic field intensity could be a source of variation when using iron (oxyhydr-)oxide concentrations in environmental magnetism.

  19. In-situ deposition of hematite (α-Fe2O3) microcubes on cotton cellulose via hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gili, M.; Latag, G.; Balela, M.

    2018-03-01

    Hematite microcubes with truncated edges have been successfully deposited on cotton cellulose via one-step hydrothermal process using anhydrous FeCl3 and glycine as Fe(III) precursor and chelating agent, respectively. The amount of glycine significantly affects the morphology and yield of hematite. The addition of 0.495 g of glycine to 50 ml of 0.1 M FeCl3 solution with 0.400 g of cotton resulted to hematite-deposited cellulose having ∼15% hematite content. The reduction of glycine to 0.247 g increased the amount of hematite on the surface of the cotton cellulose to ∼20% by weight. However, the hematite microcubes have a wide size distribution, with particle size in the range of 0.684 μm to 1.520 μm. Without glycine, hematite cannot be formed in the solution.

  20. Magnetic properties of nano-scale hematite, α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, studied by time-of-flight inelastic neutron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Adrian H. [The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Jacobsen, Henrik, E-mail: hjacobse@fys.ku.dk; Holm, Sonja L.; Lefmann, Kim [Nanoscience Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Stewart, J. Ross [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Jiao, Feng [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology, 150 Academy Street, Newark, Delaware 19716-3110 (United States); Jensen, Niels P. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Mutka, Hannu; Seydel, Tilo [The Institute Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Harrison, Andrew [The Institute Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); EaStCHEM, School of Chemistry and Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions, The King' s Buildings, The University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-28

    Samples of nanoscale hematite, α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with different surface geometries and properties have been studied with inelastic time-of-flight neutron scattering. The 15 nm diameter nanoparticles previously shown to have two collective magnetic excitation modes in separate triple-axis neutron scattering studies have been studied in further detail using the advantage of a large detector area, high resolution, and large energy transfer range of the IN5 TOF spectrometer. A mesoporous hematite sample has also been studied, showing similarities to that of the nanoparticle sample and bulk α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Analysis of these modes provides temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy coefficient along the c-axis, κ{sub 1}. This is shown to remain negative throughout the temperature range studied in both samples, providing an explanation for the previously observed suppression of the Morin transition in the mesoporous material. The values of this anisotropy coefficient are found to lie between those of bulk and nano-particulate samples, showing the hybrid nature of the mesoporous 3-dimensional structure.

  1. Utah Marbles and Mars Blueberries: Comparitive Terrestrial Analogs for Hematite Concretions on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M. A.; Beitler, B.; Parry, W. T.; Ormö, J.; Komatsu, G.

    2005-03-01

    Compelling comparisons show why Utah iron oxide-cemented "marbles" are a good analog for Mars hematite "blueberries". Terrestrial examples offer valuable models for interpreting the diagenetic history and importance of water on Mars.

  2. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Hematite (α-Fe2O3) Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansi Rani, B.; Mageswari, R.; Ravi, G.; Ganesh, V.; Yuvakkumar, R.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of processing parameters on the physicochemical properties of hematite α-Fe2O3 nanostructures was investigated. X-ray diffraction results revealed the hematite phase rhombohedral structure. Scanning electron microscope results explored nanospheres, nanohexagonal platelets, nanoellipsoids, distorted nanocubes, and interconnected platelets nanostructures. Rhombohedral single-phase hematite was confirmed through five Raman active modes. 2 P 3/2 (1) → 2 P 1/2 transition in photoluminescence spectra and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy band observed at 555 cm-1 revealed the hematite formation. The highest specific capacitance value of 151.09 F/g for scan rate of 10 mV/s was obtained for the hydrothermal-assisted product using an Fe(NO3)2·9H2O precursor in KOH electrolyte solutions.

  3. Termomagnetic investigations influence coal and organic carbon on transformation structure of hematite to magnetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudchenko N.O.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermomagnetic investigations of hematite into magnetite transformations by activated carbon and starch were carried-out using laboratory facility, that allows automatic registration of sample magnetization with the temperature (the rate of sample heating/cooling was 65-80°/min. It was shown, that reduction of hematite by starch occurs by the temperatures up to 650°С and leads to formation of magnetic material with saturation magnetization ~50 А*m2/kg. Reduction of hematite by activated coal in the same temperature range leads to formation of the product with saturation magnetization ~0,5 А*m2/kg. The problem of the development and introduction of new energy-efficient methods of enriching these types of iron ore, which can significantly increase the profitability of using oxidized iron ore in the creation of iron ore and iron ore solve the environmental problems of the regions. Thermomagnetic curves have received in magnetic hematite transformation product using as a reducing agent activated carbon ZL-302 and compare it with starch, proposed a method developed by us. It is shown that reduction of hematite to magnetite using coal ZL-302 is at a much higher temperature compared to starch. Recovery hematite by starch in the temperature range 400 ° -650 ° C results in a product with magnetization ~ 50 A * m2 / kg. Restoration of charcoal hematite in the same temperature range results in a product with magnetization ~ 0.5 A * m2 / kg, and when heated to 800 ° C magnetization increases to ~ 10 * m2 / kg. Thus, hematite ores starch recovery is less energy that can be used to develop new ways to get iron ore concentrates.

  4. Strontium-Doped Hematite as a Possible Humidity Sensing Material for Soil Water Content Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Baroni, Chiara; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prep...

  5. Dynamics of Magnetic Nanoparticles Studied by Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen

    1997-01-01

    We present the first triple-axis neutron scattering measurements of magnetic fluctuations in nanoparticles using an antiferromagnetic reflection. Both the superparamagnetic relaxation and precession modes in similar to 15 nm hematite particles are: observed. The results have been consistently...... analyzed on the basis of a simple model with uniaxial anisotropy and the Neel-Brown theory for the relaxation....

  6. Microbially induced separation of quartz from hematite using sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasan, M R Sabari; Natarajan, K A

    2010-07-01

    Cells and metabolic products of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans were successfully used to separate quartz from hematite through environmentally benign microbially induced flotation. Bacterial metabolic products such as extracellular proteins and polysaccharides were isolated from both unadapted and mineral-adapted bacterial metabolite and their basic characteristics were studied in order to get insight into the changes brought about on bioreagents during adaptation. Interaction between bacterial cells and metabolites with minerals like hematite and quartz brought about significant surface-chemical changes on both the minerals. Quartz was rendered more hydrophobic, while hematite became more hydrophilic after biotreatment. The predominance of bacterial polysaccharides on interacted hematite and of proteins on quartz was responsible for the above surface-chemical changes, as attested through adsorption studies. Surface-chemical changes were also observed on bacterial cells after adaptation to the above minerals. Selective separation of quartz from hematite was achieved through interaction with quartz-adapted bacterial cells and metabolite. Mineral-specific proteins secreted by quartz-adapted cells were responsible for conferment of hydrophobicity on quartz resulting in enhanced separation from hematite through flotation. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Solution chemistry of carbonate minerals and its effects on the flotation of hematite with sodium oleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Yin, Wan-zhong; Xue, Ji-wei; Yao, Jin; Fu, Ya-feng; Liu, Qi

    2017-07-01

    The effects of carbonate minerals (dolomite and siderite) on the flotation of hematite using sodium oleate as a collector were investigated through flotation tests, supplemented by dissolution measurements, solution chemistry calculations, zeta-potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The results of flotation tests show that the presence of siderite or dolomite reduced the recovery of hematite and that the inhibiting effects of dolomite were stronger. Dissolution measurements, solution chemistry calculations, and flotation tests confirmed that both the cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) and CO3 2- ions dissolved from dolomite depressed hematite flotation, whereas only the CO3 2- ions dissolved from siderite were responsible for hematite depression. The zeta-potential, FTIR spectroscopic, and XPS analyses indicated that Ca2+, Mg2+, and CO3 2- (HCO3 -) could adsorb onto the hematite surface, thereby hindering the adsorption of sodium oleate, which was the main reason for the inhibiting effects of carbonate minerals on hematite flotation.

  8. Use of interfacial layers to prolong hole lifetimes in hematite probed by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradzah, Alexander T.; Diale, Mmantsae; Maabong, Kelebogile; Krüger, Tjaart P. J.

    2018-04-01

    Hematite is a widely investigated material for applications in solar water oxidation due primarily to its small bandgap. However, full realization of the material continues to be hampered by fast electron-hole recombination rates among other weaknesses such as low hole mobility, short hole diffusion length and low conductivity. To address the problem of fast electron-hole recombination, researchers have resorted to growth of nano-structured hematite, doping and use of under-layers. Under-layer materials enhance the photo-current by minimising electron-hole recombination through suppressing of back electron flow from the substrate, such as fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), to hematite. We have carried out ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy on hematite in which Nb2O5 and SnO2 materials were used as interfacial layers to enhance hole lifetimes. The transient absorption data was fit with four different lifetimes ranging from a few hundred femtoseconds to a few nanoseconds. We show that the electron-hole recombination is slower in samples where interfacial layers are used than in pristine hematite. We also develop a model through target analysis to illustrate the effect of under-layers on electron-hole recombination rates in hematite thin films.

  9. Hydrogen Reduction of Hematite Ore Fines to Magnetite Ore Fines at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguang Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surplus coke oven gases (COGs and low grade hematite ores are abundant in Shanxi, China. Our group proposes a new process that could simultaneously enrich CH4 from COG and produce separated magnetite from low grade hematite. In this work, low-temperature hydrogen reduction of hematite ore fines was performed in a fixed-bed reactor with a stirring apparatus, and a laboratory Davis magnetic tube was used for the magnetic separation of the resulting magnetite ore fines. The properties of the raw hematite ore, reduced products, and magnetic concentrate were analyzed and characterized by a chemical analysis method, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results indicated that, at temperatures lower than 400°C, the rate of reduction of the hematite ore fines was controlled by the interfacial reaction on the core surface. However, at temperatures higher than 450°C, the reaction was controlled by product layer diffusion. With increasing reduction temperature, the average utilization of hydrogen initially increased and tended to a constant value thereafter. The conversion of Fe2O3 in the hematite ore played an important role in the total iron recovery and grade of the concentrate. The grade of the concentrate decreased, whereas the total iron recovery increased with the increasing Fe2O3 conversion.

  10. Sorption of 241Am onto montmorillonite, illite and hematite colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, C.; Ulrich, H.J.; Silby, H.

    1994-01-01

    Actinide sorption on colloids may be described as a competition between the formation of complexes in solution and the build up of surface complexes. The role of particle and of carbonate concentrations on the sorption/desorption of 241 Am on montmorillonite, illite and hematite colloids is investigated. Since the partition coefficient (K p ) values are virtually independent of the colloid concentrations, within the range 1 to 300 ppm, no significant aggregation takes place in the sorption/desorption experiment. At pH 8, a slight decrease of K p is observed if the concentration of total carbonate exceeds 10 -2 M. The formation of the carbonato- (and hydroxo-carbonato-) complexes in the solution competes with the formation of surface complexes on the colloids. A relationship between the sorption coefficient and the complexation of 241 Am in the solution has been found. This leads to the conclusion that, besides free americium cation, the hydroxo-, and carbonato- as well as the mixed hydroxo-carbonato-complexes are sorbed. Only when the tricarbonatocomplex [Am(CO 3 ) 3 ] 3- prevails (total carbonate concentration > 10 -2 M), a significant decrease of the distribution coefficient is observed. At pH 10 this decrease disappears because under these conditions the strong hydroxo-complexes dominate. A pragmatic and relatively simple application of surface complexation model describes the observed features. (orig.)

  11. Probing size-dependent electrokinetics of hematite aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedra-Królik, Karolina; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zarzycki, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Aqueous particle suspensions of many kinds are stabilized by the electrostatic potential developed at their surfaces from reaction with water and ions. An important and less well understood aspect of this stabilization is the dependence of the electrostatic surface potential on particle size. Surface electrostatics are typically probed by measuring particle electrophoretic mobilities and quantified in the electrokinetic potential (f), using commercially available Zeta Potential Analyzers (ZPA). Even though ZPAs provide frequency-spectra (histograms) of electrophoretic mobility and hydrodynamic diameter, typically only the maximal-intensity values are reported, despite the information in the remainder of the spectra. Here we propose a mapping procedure that inter-correlates these histograms to extract additional insight, in this case to probe particle size-dependent electrokinetics. Our method is illustrated for a suspension of prototypical iron (III) oxide (hematite, a-Fe2O3). We found that the electrophoretic mobility and f-potential are a linear function of the aggregate size. By analyzing the distribution of surface site types as a function of aggregate size we show that site coordination increases with increasing aggregate diameter. This observation explains why the acidity of the iron oxide particles decreases with increasing particle size.

  12. Kinetics of Photoelectrochemical Oxidation of Methanol on Hematite Photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics of photoelectrochemical (PEC) oxidation of methanol, as a model organic substrate, on α-Fe2O3 photoanodes are studied using photoinduced absorption spectroscopy and transient photocurrent measurements. Methanol is oxidized on α-Fe2O3 to formaldehyde with near unity Faradaic efficiency. A rate law analysis under quasi-steady-state conditions of PEC methanol oxidation indicates that rate of reaction is second order in the density of surface holes on hematite and independent of the applied potential. Analogous data on anatase TiO2 photoanodes indicate similar second-order kinetics for methanol oxidation with a second-order rate constant 2 orders of magnitude higher than that on α-Fe2O3. Kinetic isotope effect studies determine that the rate constant for methanol oxidation on α-Fe2O3 is retarded ∼20-fold by H/D substitution. Employing these data, we propose a mechanism for methanol oxidation under 1 sun irradiation on these metal oxide surfaces and discuss the implications for the efficient PEC methanol oxidation to formaldehyde and concomitant hydrogen evolution. PMID:28735533

  13. Potential-specific structure at the hematite-electrolyte interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBriarty, Martin E.; Stubbs, Joanne; Eng, Peter; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2018-02-21

    The atomic-scale structure of interfaces between metal oxides and aqueous electrolytes controls their catalytic, geochemical, and corrosion behavior. Measurements that probe these interfaces in situ provide important details of ion and solvent arrangements, but atomically precise structural models do not exist for common oxide-electrolyte interfaces far from equilibrium. Using a novel cell, we measured the structure of the hematite (a-Fe2O3) (110$\\bar{2}$)-electrolyte interface under controlled electrochemical bias using synchrotron crystal truncation rod X ray scattering. At increasingly cathodic potentials, charge-compensating protonation of surface oxygen groups increases the coverage of specifically bound water while adjacent water layers displace outwardly and became disordered. Returning to open circuit potential leaves the surface in a persistent metastable protonation state. The flux of current and ions at applied potential is thus regulated by a unique interfacial electrolyte environment, suggesting that electrical double layer models should be adapted to the dynamically changing interfacial structure far from equilibrium.

  14. Effect of cerium substitution on structural and magnetic properties of magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padalia, Diwakar, E-mail: Padalia.diwakar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttrakhand (India); Johri, U.C. [Department of Physics, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttrakhand (India); Zaidi, M.G.H. [Supercritical Fluid Processing Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttrakhand (India)

    2016-02-01

    The current work presents the synthesis and properties of cerium doped magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles synthesized by standard chemical co-precipitation method using NH{sub 4}OH as co-precipitating agent. The effects of cerium ion substitution on structural and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were reported. These materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The cerium content has a significant influence on structural and magnetic properties. The X-ray diffraction study confirmed the formation of single-phase magnetite with space group Fd3m and crystallite size ranging from 39 to 58 nm. The addition of cerium resulted in a reduction of crystallite size and an increase of cell parameters. FTIR measurements confirmed the formation of different samples and suggested that the reduction of Fe{sup +3} to Fe{sup +2} preferred on a site adjacent to Ce{sup +4}. Magnetic measurements revealed that the saturation magnetization (Ms) and remanence (M{sub r}) decreased while the coercivity (H{sub C}) and squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub S}) increased with increasing cerium content. - Highlights: • There is an increase in cell parameters and strain with Ce-content. • Samples show the presence of secondary phase after 1.0% doping level. • Ce-ions prefer octahedral sites and charge neutrality is accompanied by Fe{sup +3} → Fe{sup +2}. • Magnetization decreases due to weakening of the super exchange interactions. • Squareness and coercivity start to increase with Ce content.

  15. Utilization of natural hematite as reactive barrier for immobilization of radionuclides from radioactive liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Afifi, E M; Attallah, M F; Borai, E H

    2016-01-01

    Potential utilization of hematite as a natural material for immobilization of long-lived radionuclides from radioactive liquid waste was investigated. Hematite ore has been characterized by different analytical tools such as Fourier transformer infrared (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal (DT) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET-surface area. In this study, europium was used as REEs(III) and as a homolog of Am(III)-isotopes (such as (241)Am of 432.6 y, (242m)Am of 141 y and (243)Am of 7370 y). Micro particles of the hematite ore were used for treatment of radioactive waste containing (152+154)Eu(III). The results indicated that 96% (4.1 × 10(4) Bq) of (152+154)Eu(III) was efficiently retained onto hematite ore. Kinetic experiments indicated that the processes could be simulated by a pseudo-second-order model and suggested that the process may be chemisorption in nature. The applicability of Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models was investigated. It was found that Langmuir isotherm exhibited the best fit with the experimental results. It can be concluded that hematite is an economic and efficient reactive barrier for immobilization of long-lived radio isotopes of actinides and REEs(III). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of thermal treatment on solid–solid interface of hematite thin film synthesized by spin-coating deposition solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido-Aguilar, Daniel Angel; Tofanello, Aryane; Souza, Flavio L.; Furini, Leonardo Negri; Constantino, Carlos José Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    This work describes hematite films prepared by a spin-coating deposition solution (SCDS) method that is a sol–gel method derived technique. Hematite films were prepared at two heat treatment temperatures (500 °C and 800 °C) and the influence of thermal treatment on the photoelectrochemical performance was studied. In addition, since the SCDS method allows an optimal control of stoichiometry and impurity incorporation, hematite films modified with Zn 2+ and Sn 4+ were also prepared. The 800 °C-treated hematite films had a higher wettability and roughness that enabled them to have a better photocatalytic response in comparison with that of 500 °C-treated hematite films. Moreover, modified hematite films demonstrated to have a performance slightly better than that of undoped hematite film as shown in linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry results. Although an improvement in the performance of hematite films was achieved by annealing at higher temperatures and incorporating Zn 2+ or Sn 4+ , the general photocatalytic response of the films was poor. Two plausible hypotheses were discussed related to the (i) dopant segregation at grain boundary, and (ii) poor contact between the hematite and fluorine doped tin oxide layer (from the glass substrate), which was experimentally confirmed by a cross-sectional analysis conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In fact, additional experiments need to be done in order to improve the hematite deposition and make the SCDS a promise method for industrial application. - Highlights: • High temperature of annealing decreases the hematite adherence and performance. • Zn 2+ and Sn 4+ dopants affected differently the photocurrent onset potentials. • Dopants affected the grain size due to their segregation at grain boundaries.

  17. Effect of thermal treatment on solid–solid interface of hematite thin film synthesized by spin-coating deposition solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido-Aguilar, Daniel Angel; Tofanello, Aryane [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (CCNH), Universidade Federal do ABC, Av. dos Estados N°5001, Bangu, Santo André, São Paulo CEP 09210-580 (Brazil); Souza, Flavio L., E-mail: flavio.souza@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (CCNH), Universidade Federal do ABC, Av. dos Estados N°5001, Bangu, Santo André, São Paulo CEP 09210-580 (Brazil); Furini, Leonardo Negri; Constantino, Carlos José Leopoldo [Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia (FCT), UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, 19060-900 (Brazil)

    2016-04-01

    This work describes hematite films prepared by a spin-coating deposition solution (SCDS) method that is a sol–gel method derived technique. Hematite films were prepared at two heat treatment temperatures (500 °C and 800 °C) and the influence of thermal treatment on the photoelectrochemical performance was studied. In addition, since the SCDS method allows an optimal control of stoichiometry and impurity incorporation, hematite films modified with Zn{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} were also prepared. The 800 °C-treated hematite films had a higher wettability and roughness that enabled them to have a better photocatalytic response in comparison with that of 500 °C-treated hematite films. Moreover, modified hematite films demonstrated to have a performance slightly better than that of undoped hematite film as shown in linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry results. Although an improvement in the performance of hematite films was achieved by annealing at higher temperatures and incorporating Zn{sup 2+} or Sn{sup 4+}, the general photocatalytic response of the films was poor. Two plausible hypotheses were discussed related to the (i) dopant segregation at grain boundary, and (ii) poor contact between the hematite and fluorine doped tin oxide layer (from the glass substrate), which was experimentally confirmed by a cross-sectional analysis conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In fact, additional experiments need to be done in order to improve the hematite deposition and make the SCDS a promise method for industrial application. - Highlights: • High temperature of annealing decreases the hematite adherence and performance. • Zn{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} dopants affected differently the photocurrent onset potentials. • Dopants affected the grain size due to their segregation at grain boundaries.

  18. Liposome-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with L-cysteine for photoelectrochemical immunoassay of aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Youxiu; Zhou, Qian; Zeng, Yongyi; Tang, Dianping

    2018-06-02

    The authors describe a photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay for determination of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) in foodstuff. The competitive immunoreaction is carried out on a microplate coated with a capture antibody against AFB 1 using AFB 1 -bovine serum albumin (BSA)-liposome-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) loaded with L-cysteine as a support. The photocurrent is produced by a photoactive material consisting of cerium-doped Bi 2 MoO 6 . Initially, L-cysteine acting as the electron donor is gated in the pores by interaction between mesoporous silica and liposome. Thereafter, AFB 1 -BSA conjugates are covalently bound to the liposomes. Upon introduction of the analyte (AFB 1 ), the labeled AFB 1 -BSA complex competes with the analyte for the antibody deposited on the microplate. Accompanying with the immunocomplex, the liposomes on the MSNs are lysed upon addition of Triton X-100. This results in the opening of the pores and in a release of L-cysteine. Free cysteine then induces the electron-hole scavenger of the photoactive nanosheets to increase the photocurrent. The photocurrent (relative to background signal) increases with increasing AFB 1 concentration. Under optimum conditions, the photoactive nanosheets display good photoelectrochemical responses, and allow the detection of AFB 1 at a concentration as low as 0.1 pg·mL -1 within a linear response in the 0.3 pg·mL -1 to 10 ng·mL -1 concentration range. Accuracy was evaluated by analyzing naturally contaminated and spiked peanut samples by using a commercial AFB 1 ELISA kit as the reference, and well-matching results were obtained. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of a photoelectrochemical immunoassay for AFB 1 . It is based on the use of Ce-doped Bi 2 MoO 6 nanosheets and of liposome-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with L-cysteine.

  19. Biogenic magnetite, detrital hematite, and relative paleointensity in Quaternary sediments from the Southwest Iberian Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channell, J. E. T.; Hodell, D. A.; Margari, V.; Skinner, L. C.; Tzedakis, P. C.; Kesler, M. S.

    2013-08-01

    Magnetic properties of late Quaternary sediments on the SW Iberian Margin are dominated by bacterial magnetite, observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with contributions from detrital titanomagnetite and hematite. Reactive hematite, together with low organic matter concentrations and the lack of sulfate reduction, lead to dissimilatory iron reduction and availability of Fe(II) for abundant magnetotactic bacteria. Magnetite grain-size proxies (κARM/κ and ARM/IRM) and S-ratios (sensitive to hematite) vary on stadial/interstadial timescales, contain orbital power, and mimic planktic δ18O. The detrital/biogenic magnetite ratio and hematite concentration are greater during stadials and glacial isotopic stages, reflecting increased detrital (magnetite) input during times of lowered sea level, coinciding with atmospheric conditions favoring hematitic dust supply. Magnetic susceptibility, on the other hand, has a very different response being sensitive to coarse detrital multidomain (MD) magnetite associated with ice-rafted debris (IRD). High susceptibility and/or magnetic grain-size coarsening, mark Heinrich stadials (HS), particularly HS2, HS3, HS4, HS5, HS6 and HS7, as well as older Heinrich-like detrital layers, indicating the sensitivity of this region to fluctuations in the position of the polar front. Relative paleointensity (RPI) records have well-constrained age models based on planktic δ18O correlation to ice-core chronologies, however, they differ from reference records (e.g. PISO) particularly in the vicinity of glacial maxima, mainly due to inefficient normalization of RPI records in intervals of enhanced hematite input.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of siderite-hematite-quartz flotation with sodium oleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Hao, Haiqing; Yuan, Zhitao; Liu, Jiongtian

    2017-10-01

    Models of sodium oleate adsorption on siderite, hematite and quartz were investigated by molecular dynamic simulation, respectively. Surface energy was calculated to confirm the cleavage plan of hematite and quartz. Both natural cleavage plane of siderite and calculated plane were used to investigate the flotation of the three minerals. Based on the molecular simulation in solution with water as medium, adsorption quantity and interaction capability of oleate ions on the three minerals indicated that siderite could be collected efficiently by sodium oleate at neutral pH. Results of flotation experiments were further demonstrated by analysis of relative concentration of carbon atoms and oxygen atoms.

  1. Transformation of goethite/ferrihydrite to hematite and maghemite under temperate humid conditions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørnberg, Per; Finster, Kai; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur Pall

    2012-01-01

    At a number of sandy soil sites in Mid Jutland, Denmark, with iron content of 1-2%, very red spots (Munsell colour: dusky red 10R 3/4) of a few square meters are found. These spots are most likely due to burning events. After the fire ashes raised pH. This dispersed silt and clay size soil...... particles which were then transported with seepage water down into lower soil horizons. These particles contain hematite and maghemite due to influence of the fire. However, a long-standing unresolved question is how hematite and maghemite can also be present along with goethite and ferrihydrite...

  2. Fabrication of non-aging superhydrophobic surfaces by packing flower-like hematite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Anmin; Cao, Liangliang; Gao, Di

    2008-03-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of non-aging superhydrophobic surfaces by packing flower-like micrometer-sized hematite particles. Although hematite is intrinsically hydrophilic, the nanometer-sized protrusions on the particles form textures with overhanging structures that prevent water from entering into the textures and induce a macroscopic superhydrophobic phenomenon. These superhydrophobic surfaces do not age even in extremely oxidative environments---they retain the superhydrophobicity after being stored in ambient laboratory air for 4 months, heated to 800 degree C in air for 10 hours, and exposed to ultraviolet ozone for 10 hours.

  3. Charge carrier trapping, recombination and transfer in hematite (-Fe2O3) water splitting photoanodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barroso Silva da Cruz, M.; Pendlebury, S.R.; Cowan, A.J.; Durrant, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Hematite is currently considered one of the most promising materials for the conversion and storage of solar energy via the photoelectrolysis of water. Whilst there has been extensive research and much progress in the development of hematite structures with enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC)

  4. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Modified Hematite by Methane (CH{sub 4}) for Chemical-Looping Combustion: A Global Kinetics Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monazam, Esmail R; Breault, Ronald W; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Miller, Duane D

    2013-10-01

    Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or in its natural form (hematite) is a potential material to capture CO{sub 2} through the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process. It is known that magnesium (Mg) is an effective methyl cleaving catalyst and as such it has been combined with hematite to assess any possible enhancement to the kinetic rate for the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. Therefore, in order to evaluate its effectiveness as a hematite additive, the behaviors of Mg-modified hematite samples (hematite –5% Mg(OH){sub 2}) have been analyzed with regard to assessing any enhancement to the kinetic rate process. The Mg-modified hematite was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The reactivity experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) using continuous stream of CH{sub 4} (5, 10, and 20%) at temperatures ranging from 700 to 825 {degrees}C over ten reduction cycles. The mass spectroscopy analysis of product gas indicated the presence of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2} and CO in the gaseous product. The kinetic data at reduction step obtained by isothermal experiments could be well fitted by two parallel rate equations. The modified hematite samples showed higher reactivity as compared to unmodified hematite samples during reduction at all investigated temperatures.

  5. Synthesis, morphology and microstructure of pomegranate-like hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) superstructure with high coercivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadic, Marin, E-mail: marint@vinca.rs [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Citakovic, Nada [Military Academy, Generala Pavla Jurisica Sturma 33, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Panjan, Matjaz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Stanojevic, Boban [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Markovic, Dragana [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, Dorde [Center for Solid State Physics and New Materials, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Spasojevic, Vojislav [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found superior magnetic properties of the hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic measurements display high coercivity H{sub C} = 4350 Oe at the room temperature. - Abstract: We found novel and superior magnetic properties of the hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that originate from an internal microstructure of particles and strong inter-particle interactions between nanocrystal sub-units. The hematite particles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron (III) nitrate without any template or surfactant. The purity, size, crystallinity, morphology, microstructure and magnetic features of the as-prepared particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and SQUID magnetometry. An XRD study reveals a pure phase of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} whereas TEM shows {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spheres with a diameter of about 150 nm. RS also shows high quality and purity of the sample. Moreover, TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure and evidence that the spherical particles are composed of individual well-crystallized nanoparticle sub-units (self-assembled nanoparticles) with a size of about 20 nm. Magnetic measurements display hysteretic behavior at the room temperature with remanent magnetization M{sub r} = 0.731 emu/g, saturation magnetization M{sub S} = 6.83 emu/g and coercivity H{sub C} = 4350 Oe, as well as the Morin transition at T{sub M} = 261 K. These results and comparison with those in the literature reveal that the sample has extremely high coercivity. The magnetic properties of the sample are discussed in relation to morphology, internal microstructure, surface

  6. Comparative study of the shield of concrete blocks with hematite in relation to common concrete blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Paulo R.; Buerger, Andre A.; Naccache, Veronica K.; Priszkulnik, Simao

    2012-01-01

    The present work shows results of an empirical evaluation of the transmission properties of two radioprotection materials: an ordinary concrete and an ordinary concrete mixed with hematite. It was used techniques of x-ray spectroscopy and measurements of the air-kerma transmitted through these two materials in order to compare the transmission properties for each one. (author)

  7. Synthesis and photo-electrochemical properties of spinel-ferrite-coated hematite for solar water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Seenivasan; Moon, Hee; Kim, Do-Heyoung

    2018-01-01

    Photo-electrochemical water splitting with hematite photo-anodes under solar irradiation has attracted considerable attention as regards the production of renewable hydrogen energy. However, many challenges remain unresolved, as the full contribution of the catalytic over-layers has not been fully realized. Herein, we incorporate uniform spinel nickel-ferrite over-layers in hematite photo-anodes to obtain an improved understanding of the associated intrinsic changes. We achieve a 1.5-mA/cm2 photo-current density at 1.23 VRHE (RHE: reversible hydrogen electrode) under one-sun illumination conditions, along with a negative shift of 200 mV in the onset potential, for NiFe2O4-coated Sn-doped hematite photo-anodes. Fundamental electrochemical analyses clearly show that the shift in the onset potential is predominantly due to the enhanced photo-voltage development inside the hematite, rather than being purely caused by the interfacial kinetics. These insights reveal a new direction for fundamental research on photo-anodes towards fabrication of more efficient photo-anode systems.

  8. The colloid hematite particle migration through the unsaturated porous bed at the presence of biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Agnieszka; Sznajder, Izabela; Sadowski, Zygmunt

    2017-07-01

    Colloidal particles have an ability to sorb heavy metals, metalloids, and organic compounds (e.g. biosurfactants) present in soil and groundwater. The pH and ionic strength changes may promote release of such particles causing potential contaminant transport. Therefore, it is very important to know how a colloid particle-mineral particle and colloid-mineral-biosurfactant system behaves in the natural environment. They can have negative impact on the environment and human health. This study highlighted the influence of biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the transport of colloidal hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) through porous bed (materials collected from the Szklary and Zloty Stok solid waste heaps from Lower Silesia, Poland). Experiments were conducted using column set in two variants: colloid solution with porous bed and porous bed with adsorbed biosurfactants, in the ionic strengths of 5 × 10 -4 and 5 × 10 -3  M KCl. The zeta potential of mineral materials and colloidal hematite, before and after adsorption of biosurfactant, was determined. Obtained results showed that reduction in ionic strength facilitates colloidal hematite transport through the porous bed. The mobility of colloidal hematite was higher when the rhamnolipid adsorbed on the surface of mineral grain.

  9. Thermal modification of hematite-ilmenite intergrowths in the Ecstall pluton, British Columbia, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, S.J.; Feinberg, J.M.; Harrison, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examine the effects of reheating on finely exsolved hematite-ilmenite intergrowths from the similar to 91 Ma Ecstall pluton using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a result of the emplacement of the you......In this study, we examine the effects of reheating on finely exsolved hematite-ilmenite intergrowths from the similar to 91 Ma Ecstall pluton using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As a result of the emplacement...... of the younger adjacent similar to 52 Ma Quottoon pluton, samples closer to a thermal boundary have experienced greater degrees of thermal alteration. Five main microstructural features characterize hematite-ilmenite intergrowths from the Ecstall: (I) exsolution lamellae of hematite and ilmenite; (II) oxidation....... Higher temperatures also enhanced oxidation in ilmenite. The formation of magnetite altered the bulk magnetic properties of these samples, increasing NRM intensity. This study underscores the need to consider a pluton's post-emplacement thermal history before making tectonic interpretations based...

  10. Characterization of U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes on hematite: EXAFS and electrophoretic mobility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, John R.; Reitmeyer, Rebecca; Lenhart, John J.; Davis, James A.

    2000-01-01

    We have measured U(VI) adsorption on hematite using EXAFS spectroscopy and electrophoresis under conditions relevant to surface waters and aquifers (0.01 to 10 μM dissolved uranium concentrations, in equilibrium with air, pH 4.5 to 8.5). Both techniques suggest the existence of anionic U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. Fits to EXAFS spectra indicate that U(VI) is simultaneously coordinated to surface FeO6 octahedra and carbonate (or bicarbonate) ligands in bidentate fashions, leading to the conclusion that the ternary complexes have an inner-sphere metal bridging (hematite-U(VI)-carbonato) structure. Greater than or equal to 50% of adsorbed U(VI) was comprised of monomeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes, even at pH 4.5. Multimeric U(VI) species were observed at pH ≥ 6.5 and aqueous U(VI) concentrations approximately an order of magnitude more dilute than the solubility of crystalline β-UO2(OH)2. Based on structural constraints, these complexes were interpreted as dimeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. These results suggest that Fe-oxide-U(VI)-carbonato complexes are likely to be important transport-limiting species in oxic aquifers throughout a wide range of pH values.

  11. Ion adsorption on oxides : surface charge formation and cadmium binding on rutile and hematite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkink, L.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The adsorption of charge-determining (H +and OH -) and cadmium ions on rutile (TiO 2 ) and hematite (α-Fe

  12. The Distribution of Crystalline Hematite on Mars from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: Evidence for Liquid Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.; Malin, M.; Morris, D.; Bandfield, J.; Lane, M.; Edgett, K.

    2000-01-01

    Crystalline hematite on Mars has been mapped using the MGS TES. Two major, and several minor areas of significant accumulation are identified. We favor precipitation models involving Fe-rich water, providing direct mineralogic evidence for large-scale water interactions.

  13. Resolving Iron(II) Sorption and Oxidative Growth on Hematite (001) Using Atom Probe Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Sandra D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Liu, Jia [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Arey, Bruce W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Schreiber, Daniel K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Perea, Daniel E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352, United States

    2018-02-13

    The distribution of iron resulting from the autocatalytic interaction of aqueous Fe(II) with the hematite (001) surface was directly mapped in three dimensions (3D) for the first time, using iron isotopic labelling and atom probe tomography (APT). Analyses of the mass spectrum showed that natural abundance ratios in 56Fe-dominant hematite are recovered at depth with good accuracy, whereas at the relict interface with 57Fe(II) solution evidence for hematite growth by oxidative adsorption of Fe(II) was found. 3D reconstructions of the isotope positions along the surface normal direction showed a zone enriched in 57Fe, which was consistent with an average net adsorption of 3.2 – 4.3 57Fe atoms nm–2. Statistical analyses utilizing grid-based frequency distribution analyses show a heterogeneous, non-random distribution of oxidized Fe on the (001) surface, consistent with Volmer-Weber-like island growth. The unique 3D nature of the APT data provides an unprecedented means to quantify the atomic-scale distribution of sorbed 57Fe atoms and the extent of segregation on the hematite surface. This new ability to spatially map growth on single crystal faces at the atomic scale will enable resolution to long-standing unanswered questions about the underlying mechanisms for electron and atom exchange involved in a wide variety of redox-catalyzed processes at this archetypal and broadly relevant interface.

  14. Transformation of goethite/ferrihydrite to hematite and maghemite under temperate humid conditions in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørnberg, P.; Finster, K.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Jensen, S. K.; Merrison, J. P.; Vendelboe, A. L.

    2012-04-01

    At a number of sandy soil sites in Mid Jutland, Denmark, with iron content of 1-2%, very red spots (Munsell colour: dusky red 10R 3/4) of a few square meters are found. These spots are most likely due to burning events. After the fire ashes raised pH. This dispersed silt and clay size soil particles which were then transported with seepage water down into lower soil horizons. These particles contain hematite and maghemite due to influence of the fire. However, a long-standing unresolved question is how hematite and maghemite can also be present along with goethite and ferrihydrite, in the same geographical region, and in extended areas with high iron content (8-40 %) in the topsoil. Hematite and particularly maghemite would normally not be expected to form under the temperate humid Danish climate, but be interpreted as the result of high temperature as found in tropical regions or as seen in soils exposed to fire. The high iron content most likely has its origin in pyrite dissolution in top of the groundwater zone in deeper Miocene deposits. From there Fe2+ is brought to the surface by the groundwater, and in wells oxidized by meeting the atmosphere and precipitated as two line ferrihydrite. This is later transformed into goethite. However, along with these two minerals hematite and maghemite are present in the topsoil around the well area. Forest fires would be a likely explanation to the hematite and maghemite. But a body of evidence argues against these sites having been exposed to fire. 1) The pH in the topsoil is 3.6 - 4.8 and thus not raised by ashes. 2) No charcoal is present. 3) There is no indication of fire outside the high iron content areas. 4) Goethite is present along with hematite and maghemite in microparticles, and the mineralogical zonation produced in a forest fire is not seen. The natural sites contain a uniform mixture of goethite/ferrihydrite, hematite and maghemite down to 20 cm depth. An experimental forest fire left charcoal and ashes at

  15. Photoelectrochemical water splitting with mesoporous hematite prepared by a solution-based colloidal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivula, Kevin; Zboril, Radek; Le Formal, Florian; Robert, Rosa; Weidenkaff, Anke; Tucek, Jiri; Frydrych, Jiri; Grätzel, Michael

    2010-06-02

    Sustainable hydrogen production through photoelectrochemical water splitting using hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) is a promising approach for the chemical storage of solar energy, but is complicated by the material's nonoptimal optoelectronic properties. Nanostructuring approaches have been shown to increase the performance of hematite, but the ideal nanostructure giving high efficiencies for all absorbed light wavelengths remains elusive. Here, we report for the first time mesoporous hematite photoelectodes prepared by a solution-based colloidal method which yield water-splitting photocurrents of 0.56 mA cm(-2) under standard conditions (AM 1.5G 100 mW cm(-2), 1.23 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE) and over 1.0 mA cm(-2) before the dark current onset (1.55 V vs RHE). The sintering temperature is found to increase the average particle size, and have a drastic effect on the photoactivity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and magnetic measurements using a SQUID magnetometer link this effect to the diffusion and incorporation of dopant atoms from the transparent conducting substrate. In addition, examining the optical properties of the films reveals a considerable change in the absorption coefficient and onset properties, critical aspects for hematite as a solar energy converter, as a function of the sintering temperature. A detailed investigation into hematite's crystal structure using powder X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement to account for these effects correlates an increase in a C(3v)-type crystal lattice distortion to the improved optical properties.

  16. Study of ferritin nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancok, A.; Kohout, J.; Volfova, L.; Miglierini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Moessbauer spectrometry confirms the presence of hematite, ferrihydrite and maghemite/magnetite in ferritin derived from human spleen tissues. The minerals are present in a form of small (about 4-5 nm in size) grains with highly disordered structure. Consequently, at room temperature all agglomerates of ferritin nanoparticles show non-magnetic behaviour. Magnetic states are revealed at low enough temperatures below the so-called blocking temperature. Employing Moessbauer effect measurements, the latter was determined to be of 16 K for the human spleen. Structural features of these tissues were studied by TEM technique. Employing 57 Fe nuclei as local probes both structural and magnetic features of the biological materials were investigated by Moessbauer spectrometry. It was possible to identify iron atoms and their neighbours. (authors)

  17. Fluoride ions sorption of the water using natural and modified hematite with aluminium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutli S, E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorine is a mineral known for its dental benefits, but fluoride ions can cause fluoro sis in excessive quantities. There are many epidemiological studies on possible adverse effects resulting from prolonged ingestion of fluoride through drinking water. These studies demonstrate that fluoride mainly affects the bone tissue (bones and teeth), may produce an adverse effect on tooth enamel and can cause mild dental fluoro sis at concentrations from 0.9 to 1.2 mg/L in drinking water. In several states of Mexico, water contaminated with fluoride ions can be found, such as Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Sonora, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi and Jalisco, where the fluoride ions levels are higher than 1.5 mg/L, established by the Mexican Official Standard (NOM-127-Ssa-2000) which sets the permissible limits of water for human use and consumption. Currently, several technologies have been proposed to remove fluoride ions from water such as precipitation methods which are based on the addition of chemicals to water and sorption methods to removed fluoride ions by sorption or ion exchange reactions by some suitable substrate capable of regenerate and reuse. In this work, the sorption of fluoride ions using unmodified and modified hematite with aluminum hydroxide to remove fluoride ions from water by bath experiments was studied. The hematite was modified by treating it with aluminum hydroxide, NaOH and Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 solutions. The characterization of hematite before and after modification with aluminum hydroxide was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDS and Bet. The effect of ph, contact time, concentration of fluoride ions, and the dose of sorbent on the sorption of fluoride ions by the modified hematite were studied. Equilibrium was reached within 48 hours of contact time and the maximum sorption of fluoride ions were in the range pH eq between 2.3 and 6.2. Sorption capacities of fluoride ions as a function of dose of

  18. Adsorption of water and carbon dioxide on hematite and consequences for possible hydrate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvamme, Bjørn; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Kivelae, Pilvi-Helina

    2012-04-07

    The interest in carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery is increasing proportional to the decline in naturally driven oil production and also due to the increasing demand for reduced emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Transport of carbon dioxide in offshore pipelines involves high pressure and low temperatures, conditions which may lead to formation of hydrates from residual water dissolved in carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide. The critical question is whether the water at certain temperatures and pressures will drop out as liquid droplets first, and then form hydrates, or alternatively, adsorb on the pipeline surfaces, and subsequently form hydrates heterogeneously. In this work, we used several different basis sets of density functional theory in ab initio calculations to estimate the charge distribution of hematite (the dominating component of rust) crystals. These rust particles were embedded in water and chemical potential for adsorbed water molecules was estimated through thermodynamic integration and compared to similar estimates for water clusters of the same size. While the generated charges were not unique, the use of high order approximations and different basis sets provides a range of likely charge distributions. Values obtained for the chemical potential of water in different surroundings indicated that it would be thermodynamically favorable for water to adsorb on hematite, and that evaluation of potential carbon dioxide hydrate formation conditions and kinetics should be based on this formation mechanism. Depending on the basis set and approximations, the estimated gain for water to adsorb on the hematite surface rather than condense as droplets varied between -1.7 kJ mole(-1) and -3.4 kJ mole(-1). The partial charge distribution on the hematite surface is incompatible with the hydrate structure, and thus hydrates will be unable to attach to the surface. The behavior of water outside the immediate vicinity of hematite (beyond 3

  19. Iron Isotopes in Spherical Hematite and Goethite Concretions from the Navajo Sandstone (Utah, USA): A Prospective Study for "Martian Blueberries"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busigny, V.; Dauphas, N.

    2006-03-01

    Iron isotopes of terrestrial hematite and goethite concretions provide clues on fluid transport, reservoir sizes, redox variations and biotic versus abiotic processes. This opens several avenues of research for future work on Martian blueberries.

  20. Strontium-Doped Hematite as a Possible Humidity Sensing Material for Soil Water Content Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Grignani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prepared powder and subsequent firing in the 800–1,000 °C range. These sensors were first tested in a laboratory apparatus under humid air and then in an homogenized soil and finally in field. The results evidenced that the screen printed film was able to give a response for a soil matric potential from about 570 kPa, that is to say well below the wilting point in the used soil.

  1. Strontium-doped hematite as a possible humidity sensing material for soil water content determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Baroni, Chiara; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo

    2013-09-10

    The aim of this work is to study the sensing behavior of Sr-doped hematite for soil water content measurement. The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C. X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used for microstructural characterization of the synthesized powder. Sensors were then prepared by uniaxially pressing and by screen-printing, on an alumina substrate, the prepared powder and subsequent firing in the 800-1,000 °C range. These sensors were first tested in a laboratory apparatus under humid air and then in an homogenized soil and finally in field. The results evidenced that the screen printed film was able to give a response for a soil matric potential from about 570 kPa, that is to say well below the wilting point in the used soil.

  2. Surface Interrogation Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy for a Photoelectrochemical Reaction: Water Oxidation on a Hematite Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Young; Ahn, Hyun S; Bard, Allen J

    2018-03-06

    To understand the pathway of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) reaction, quantitative knowledge of reaction intermediates is important. We describe here surface interrogation scanning electrochemical microscopy for this purpose (PEC SI-SECM), where a light pulse to a photoactive semiconductor film at a given potential generates intermediates that are then analyzed by a tip generated titrant at known times after the light pulse. The improvements were demonstrated for photoelectrochemical water oxidation (oxygen evolution) reaction on a hematite surface. The density of photoactive sites, proposed to be Fe 4+ species, on a hematite surface was successfully quantified, and the photoelectrochemical water oxidation reaction dynamics were elucidated by time-dependent redox titration experiments. The new configuration of PEC SI-SECM should find expanded usage to understand and investigate more complicated PEC reactions with other materials.

  3. Transformation of Goethite to Hematite Nanocrystallines by High Energy Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Lemine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Fe2O3 nanocrystallines were prepared by direct transformation via high energy ball milling treatment for α-FeOOH powder. X-ray diffraction, Rietveld analysis, TEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM are used to characterize the samples obtained after several milling times. Phase identification using Rietveld analysis showed that the goethite is transformed to hematite nanocrystalline after 40 hours of milling. HRTEM confirm that the obtained phase is mostly a single-crystal structure. This result suggested that the mechanochemical reaction is an efficient way to prepare some iron oxides nanocrystallines from raw materials which are abundant in the nature. The mechanism of the formation of hematite is discussed in text.

  4. Surfactant-assisted solvothermal preparation of submicrometer-sized hollow hematite particles and their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Suoyuan; Wang Enbo; Gao Lei; Wu Di; Song Yanli; Xu Lin

    2006-01-01

    Submicrometer-sized hollow hematite particles were prepared through a surfactant-assisted solvothermal process. The amount of FeCl 3 .H 2 O and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and the acidity of the solution were systematically altered to study their effects on the final results. Hollow hematite particles with shapes from sphere, ellipsoid to peanut were obtained. Their sizes range from 500 nm to 2 μm with shell thickness from 100 to 500 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction were applied to investigate the products' crystallinity, purity, morphology, size and structural features. Finally, the study on the photocatalysis of Fe 2 O 3 for the destruction of diethyl phthalate in water was carried out. The result proved that Fe 2 O 3 hollow particles were effective photocatalysts for the degradation of DEP, with 96.8% destruction ratio being obtained within 60 min

  5. High-power pulsed plasma deposition of hematite photoanode for PEC water splitting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kment, Š.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Krysa, J.; Olejníček, Jiří; Čada, Martin; Gregora, Ivan; Zlámal, M.; Brunclíková, Michaela; Remeš, Zdeněk; Liu, N.; Wang, L.; Kirchgeorg, R.; Lee, Ch.Y.; Schmuki, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 230, Jul (2014), 8-14 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/2104; GA MŠk LH12043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electrical properties * hematite * HiPIMS * hollow cathode plasma jet * photoelectrochemical water splitting * thin films Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  6. Stereo soft x-ray microscopy and elemental mapping of hematite and clay suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleber, S.-C.; Thieme, J.; Chao, W.; Fischer, P.

    2008-09-01

    The spatial arrangements of hematite particles within aqueous soil and clay samples are investigated with soft X-ray microscopy, taking advantage of the elemental contrast at the Fe-L edge around E = 707 eV. In combination with stereo microscopy, information about spatial arrangements are revealed and correlated to electrostatic interactions of the different mixtures. Manipulation of a sample mounted to the microscope is possible and particles added while imaging can be detected.

  7. Effect of Mica and Hematite (001) Surfaces on the Precipitation of Calcite

    OpenAIRE

    Huifang Xu; Mo Zhou; Yihang Fang; H. Henry Teng

    2018-01-01

    The substrate effect of mica and hematite on the nucleation and crystallization of calcite was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) methods. On mica, we found, in the absence of Mg2+, the substrates’ (001) surfaces with hexagonal and pseudo-hexagonal two-dimensional (2-D) structure can affect the orientation of calcite nucleation with calcite (001) ~// mica (001) and calcite (010) ~// mica (010) to be the m...

  8. Adhesion of Escherichia coli onto quartz, hematite and corundum: extended DLVO theory and flotation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Mohsen; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko; Doi, Katsumi

    2009-11-01

    The adhesion of Escherichia coli onto quartz, hematite and corundum was experimentally investigated. A strain of E. coli was used that had the genes for expressing protein for silica precipitation. The maximum cell adhesion was observed at pH mineral adhesion was assessed by the extended DLVO theory approach. The essential parameters for calculation of microbe-mineral interaction energy (Hamaker constants and acid-base components) were experimentally determined. The extended DLVO approach could be used to explain the results of the adhesion experiments. The effect of E. coli on the floatability of three oxide minerals was determined and the results showed that E. coli can act as a selective collector for quartz at acidic pH values, with 90% of the quartz floated at 1.5 x 10(9)cells/ml. However, only 9% hematite and 30% corundum could be floated under similar conditions. By using E. coli and no reagents, it was possible to separate quartz from a hematite-quartz mixture with Newton's efficiency of 0.70. Removal of quartz from the corundum mixture was achieved by E. coli with Newton's efficiency of 0.62.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of hematite pigment obtained from a steel waste industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prim, S.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the State of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Folgueras, M.V., E-mail: dem2mvf@joinville.udesc.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the State of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Lima, M.A. de [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the State of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hotza, D. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The study of using of a industrial waste for the synthesis of hematite pigments. {yields} The nanometer dimension this waste and your behavior as chromophore. {yields} The effect of process variables on the mechanisms of encapsulation sintered pigments. - Abstract: Pigments that meet environmental and technology requirements are the focus of the research in the ceramic sector. This study focuses on the synthesis of ceramic pigment by encapsulation of hematite in crystalline and amorphous silica matrix. Iron oxide from a metal sheet rolling process was used as chromophore. A different content of hematite and silica was homogenized by conventional and high energy milling. The powders obtained after calcinations between 1050 and 1200 {sup o}C for 2 h were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. The pigments were applied to ceramic enamel and porcelain body. The effect of pigment was measured by comparing L*a*b* values of the heated samples. Results showed that the color developed is influenced by variables such as oxide content employed, conditions of milling and processing temperature. The results showed that the use of pigment developed does not interfere in microstructural characteristics of pigmented material. The best hue was obtained from samples with 15 wt% of chromophore, heated at 1200 {sup o}C in amorphous silica matrix.

  10. ADSORPTION OF PARAQUAT DICHLORIDE TO KAOLIN PARTICLES AND TO MIXTURES OF KAOLIN AND HEMATITE PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Alexandra Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deliberate contamination with pesticides is a potential risk to water security, due to the availability of these contaminants and the fact that they do not need special expertise to handle or apply. Adsorption of the herbicide paraquat from an aqueous solution to suspended particles of kaolin and kaolin/hematite mixture was investigated by kinetic and equilibrium assays, taking into consideration several parameters such as initial pH, sorbent dosage and agitation speed. The results showed that the adsorption process is quite fast, reaching an 18% reduction in paraquat concentration in a very short period of time. The addition of hematite particles to kaolin suspension had no apparent effect on the maximum amount of paraquat adsorbed. Kinetic parameters were determined by fitting the pseudo-second order model to the experimental data (correlation coefficients close to 1. Isotherm studies indicate an inhibitory effect, promoted by hematite particles, that was not detected in the adsorption assays. Equilibrium data was best adjusted using the Langmuir model which yielded higher correlation coefficient values and smaller normalized standard deviations.

  11. Impact of water quality parameters on the sorption of U(VI) onto hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Donglin; Wang Xianbiao; Yang Shitong; Guo Zhiqiang; Sheng Guodong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the sorption of U(VI) from aqueous solution on hematite was studied as a function of various water quality parameters such as contact time, pH, ionic strength, soil humic acid (HA) or fulvic acid (FA), solid content and temperature by using a batch technique. The results demonstrated that the sorption of U(VI) was strongly dependent on ionic strength at pH 6.0 and the sorption was mainly dominated by inner-sphere surface complexation. The presence of HA/FA increases U(VI) sorption at low pH, whereas decreases U(VI) sorption at high pH. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 , and ΔG 0 ) were calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms, and the results suggested that U(VI) sorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results might be important for the application of hematite in U(VI) pollution management. Highlights: ► The sorption of U(VI) was strongly dependent on ionic strength at pH 6.0. ► A positive effect of HA/FA on U(VI) sorption was found at low pH, whereas a negative effect was observed at high pH. ► U(VI) sorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. ► The results are quite important for the application of hematite in U(VI) pollution management.

  12. Effect of Mica and Hematite (001 Surfaces on the Precipitation of Calcite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The substrate effect of mica and hematite on the nucleation and crystallization of calcite was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD methods. On mica, we found, in the absence of Mg2+, the substrates’ (001 surfaces with hexagonal and pseudo-hexagonal two-dimensional (2-D structure can affect the orientation of calcite nucleation with calcite (001 ~// mica (001 and calcite (010 ~// mica (010 to be the major interfacial relationship. On hematite, we did not observe frequent twinning relationship between adjacent calcite gains, but often saw preferentially nucleation of calcite at surface steps on hematite substrate. We suggest that calcite crystals initially nucleate from the Ca2+ layers adsorbed on the surfaces. The pseudo-hexagonal symmetry on mica (001 surface also leads to the observed calcite (001 twinning. A second and less common orientation between calcite {104} and mica (001 was detected but could be due to local structure damage of the mica surface. Results in the presence of Mg2+ show that the substrate surfaces can weaken Mg toxicity to calcite nucleation and lead to a higher level of Mg incorporation into calcite lattice.

  13. Experimental evidence for non-redox transformations between magnetite and hematite under H 2-rich hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Tsubasa; Wesolowski, David J.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    Transformations of magnetite (Fe IIFe 2IIIO 4) to hematite (Fe 2IIIO 3) (and vice versa) have been thought by many scientists and engineers to require molecular O 2 and/or H 2. Thus, the presence of magnetite and/or hematite in rocks has been linked to a specific oxidation environment. However, the availability of reductants or oxidants in many geologic and industrial environments appears to have been too low to account for the transformations of iron oxides through redox reactions. Here, we report the results of hydrothermal experiments in mildly acidic and H 2-rich aqueous solutions at 150 °C, which demonstrate that transformations of magnetite to hematite, and hematite to magnetite, occur rapidly without involving molecular O 2 or H 2: Fe3O 4(Mt) + 2H (aq)+ ↔ Fe 2O 3(Hm) + Fe (aq)2+ + H 2O. The transformation products are chemically and structurally homogeneous, and typically occur as euhedral single crystals much larger than the precursor minerals. This suggests that, in addition to the expected release of aqueous ferrous species to solution, the transformations involve release of aqueous ferric species from the precursor oxides to the solution, which reprecipitate without being reduced by H 2. These redox-independent transformations may have been responsible for the formation of some iron oxides in natural systems, such as high-grade hematite ores that developed from Banded Iron Formations (BIFs), hematite-rich deposits formed on Mars, corrosion products in power plants and other industrial systems.

  14. Effects of annealing temperature on the physicochemical, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of nanostructured hematite thin films prepared via electrodeposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuan, Yi Wen; Chong, Meng Nan; Zhu, Tao; Yong, Siek-Ting; Chan, Eng Seng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructured hematite thin films were synthesized via electrodeposition method. • Effects of annealing on size, grain boundary and PEC properties were examined. • Photocurrents generation was enhanced when the thin films were annealed at 600 °C. • The highest photocurrent density of 1.6 mA/cm 2 at 0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl was achieved. - Abstract: Hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) is a promising photoanode material for hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to its wide abundance, narrow band-gap energy, efficient light absorption and high chemical stability under aqueous environment. The key challenge to the wider utilisation of nanostructured hematite-based photoanode in PEC water splitting, however, is limited by its low photo-assisted water oxidation caused by large overpotential in the nominal range of 0.5–0.6 V. The main aim of this study was to enhance the performance of hematite for photo-assisted water oxidation by optimising the annealing temperature used during the synthesis of nanostructured hematite thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-based photoanodes prepared via the cathodic electrodeposition method. The resultant nanostructured hematite thin films were characterised using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for their elemental composition, average nanocrystallites size and morphology; phase and crystallinity; UV-absorptivity and band gap energy; and the functional groups, respectively. Results showed that the nanostructured hematite thin films possess good ordered nanocrystallites array and high crystallinity after annealing treatment at 400–600 °C. FE-SEM images illustrated an increase in the average hematite nanocrystallites size from 65 nm to 95 nm when the annealing temperature was varied from 400 °C to 600 °C. As the

  15. Effects of annealing temperature on the physicochemical, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of nanostructured hematite thin films prepared via electrodeposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phuan, Yi Wen [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Chong, Meng Nan, E-mail: Chong.Meng.Nan@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Sustainable Water Alliance, Advanced Engineering Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Zhu, Tao; Yong, Siek-Ting [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Chan, Eng Seng [School of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Discipline, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia); Sustainable Water Alliance, Advanced Engineering Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 46150 Selangor DE (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructured hematite thin films were synthesized via electrodeposition method. • Effects of annealing on size, grain boundary and PEC properties were examined. • Photocurrents generation was enhanced when the thin films were annealed at 600 °C. • The highest photocurrent density of 1.6 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V vs Ag/AgCl was achieved. - Abstract: Hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is a promising photoanode material for hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to its wide abundance, narrow band-gap energy, efficient light absorption and high chemical stability under aqueous environment. The key challenge to the wider utilisation of nanostructured hematite-based photoanode in PEC water splitting, however, is limited by its low photo-assisted water oxidation caused by large overpotential in the nominal range of 0.5–0.6 V. The main aim of this study was to enhance the performance of hematite for photo-assisted water oxidation by optimising the annealing temperature used during the synthesis of nanostructured hematite thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-based photoanodes prepared via the cathodic electrodeposition method. The resultant nanostructured hematite thin films were characterised using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for their elemental composition, average nanocrystallites size and morphology; phase and crystallinity; UV-absorptivity and band gap energy; and the functional groups, respectively. Results showed that the nanostructured hematite thin films possess good ordered nanocrystallites array and high crystallinity after annealing treatment at 400–600 °C. FE-SEM images illustrated an increase in the average hematite nanocrystallites size from 65 nm to 95 nm when the annealing temperature was varied from 400 °C to 600

  16. Pressure response of vacancy ordered maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and high pressure transformed hematite (α-Fe2O3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Giovanni; Pischedda, Vittoria

    2012-03-01

    Combined XRD and Mössbauer effect spectroscopy studies to high pressures of ˜30 GPa of vacancy ordered maghemite are presented. The vacancy ordered superstructure is robust and remains intact up to the pressure-induced onset transition to hematite at 13-16 GPa. The pressure transformed hematite is shown to be crystallographically textured, unlike the randomised low pressure maghemite phase. This arises out of a pressure or stress instigated topotactic transformation of the cubic-spinel to hexagonal-corundum structure. The textured sample permits us to obtain information on the spin reorientation behavior of the pressure transformed hematite in compression and decompression sequences. Spin reorientation is restricted to ˜15° over wide pressure ranges, attributable to the effect of entrapped vacancies in the high pressure structure. Thus there are structural and magnetic peculiarities specific to pressure transformed hematite not evident in pressurized hematite starting material. These are triggered by the maghemite→hematite transformation.

  17. Ocre, hematites y óxido de hierro: el problema terminológico = Ochre, Hematite and Iron Oxid: The Terminological Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cortell Nicolau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los óxidos de hierro son prácticamente omnipresentes al analizar contextos, no solo referentes al arte rupestre, sino también en relación con toda una serie de actividades que podríamos considerar cotidianas en ambientes prehistóricos. Sin embargo, su estudio sistemático no ha comenzado hasta tiempos muy recientes. Fruto de ello, podría decirse que una parte de la literatura arqueológica no especializada en el campo de la pigmentología muestra, en ocasiones, cierta inexactitud terminológica. Con este documento pretendemos, a través de un análisis tanto de su funcionamiento, como de las propiedades geoquímicas y mineralógicas del ocre, la hematites y los propios óxidos de hierro, exponer la necesidad de propiedad en su nomenclatura, así como los problemas que podrían derivarse de la falta de precisión. Por último, establecemos algunas propuestas que tal vez pudieran ayudar en esta normativización. Iron oxides are virtually omnipresent when analyzing contexts, not only referring to rock art, but also related to a whole series of activities, which we could consider as quotidian for prehistoric environments. Nevertheless, a systematic study of these has not started until recent times. As a result, it could be argued that a part of archaeological literature, not specialized on pigmentology, shows sometimes a certain lack of terminological accurateness. With this document we mean to, through an analysis both of the functioning and the geochemical and mineralogical properties of ochre, hematite and iron oxides themselves, expose the need for an appropriate terminology, as well as to show the problems derived from an inadequate naming. Finally, we bring some proposals, which could maybe help on an appropriate terminological standardization.

  18. Spectroscopic evidence for ternary surface complexes in the lead(II)-malonic acid-hematite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, J.J.; Bargar, J.R.; Davis, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements, we examined the sorption of Pb(II) to hematite in the presence of malonic acid. Pb LIII-edge EXAFS measurements performed in the presence of malonate indicate the presence of both Fe and C neighbors, suggesting that a major fraction of surface-bound malonate is bonded to adsorbed Pb(II). In the absence of Pb(II), ATR-FTIR measurements of sorbed malonate suggest the formation of more than one malonate surface complex. The dissimilarity of the IR spectrum of malonate sorbed on hematite to those for aqueous malonate suggest at least one of the sorbed malonate species is directly coordinated to surface Fe atoms in an inner-sphere mode. In the presence of Pb, little change is seen in the IR spectrum for sorbed malonate, indicating that geometry of malonate as it coordinates to sorbed Pb(II) adions is similar to the geometry of malonate as it coordinates to Fe in the hematite surface. Fits of the raw EXAFS spectra collected from pH 4 to pH 8 result in average Pb-C distances of 2.98 to 3.14 A??, suggesting the presence of both four- and six-membered Pb-malonate rings. The IR results are consistent with this interpretation. Thus, our results suggest that malonate binds to sorbed Pb(II) adions, forming ternary metal-bridging surface complexes. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  19. Isothermal Oxidation of Magnetite to Hematite in Air and Cyclic Reduction/Oxidation Under Carbon Looping Combustion Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Tegan; Hayes, Peter C.

    2017-12-01

    In the carbon looping combustion process the oxygen carrier is regenerated through oxidation in air; this process has been simulated by the oxidation of dense synthetic magnetite for selected temperatures and times. The oxidation of magnetite in air is shown to occur through the formation of dense hematite layers on the particle surface. This dense hematite forms through lath type shear transformations or solid-state diffusion through the product layer. Cyclic reduction in CO-CO2/oxidation in air of hematite single crystals has been carried out under controlled laboratory conditions at 1173 K (900 °C). It has been shown that the initial reduction step is critical to determining the product microstructure, which consists of gas pore dendrites in the magnetite matrix with blocky hematite formed on the pore surfaces. The progressive growth of the magnetite layer with the application of subsequent cycles appears to continue until no original hematite remains, after which physical disintegration of the particles takes place.

  20. Synthesis of Ru doped hematite nanorods for application as photo-anode material in a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndlangamandla, C. L. [University of Zululand, Department of Physics and Engineering (South Africa); Bharuth-Ram, K., E-mail: kbr@tlabs.ac.za [Durban University of Technology, Physics Department (South Africa); Ngom, B. D.; Maaza, M. [iThemba LABS, Materials Research Department (South Africa)

    2017-11-15

    Nanostructured thin films of hematite doped with different concentrations of ruthenium were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrates using the aqueous chemical growth method. On further heat treatment at 500 {sup ∘}C the structures morphed into hematite nanorods (NRs). The Ru concentration in the NRs was controlled by varying the Ru concentration in the RuCl {sub 3}⋅H{sub 2}O precursors. Scanning Electron Microscopy confirmed the formation of the hematite nanorods, while. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) data provided clear evidence of the crystallinity of the nanorods and incorporation of ruthenium in the hematite nanorod structure. The band gap of the Ru-doped hematite NRs, estimated from UV-Vis optical absorption intensity vs photon energy curves, were found to be directly related to the Ru concentration. For concentrations in the range 6–30 mg the band gaps are in the range well suited to drive the water splitting process in a photoelectrochemical cell without application of an external bias.

  1. Effect of defects on the small polaron formation and transport properties of hematite from first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Tyler J; Ping, Yuan

    2017-10-04

    Hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) is a promising candidate as a photoanode material for solar-to-fuel conversion due to its favorable band gap for visible light absorption, its stability in an aqueous environment and its relatively low cost in comparison to other prospective materials. However, the small polaron transport nature in α-Fe 2 O 3 results in low carrier mobility and conductivity, significantly lowering its efficiency from the theoretical limit. Experimentally, it has been found that the incorporation of oxygen vacancies and other dopants, such as Sn, into the material appreciably enhances its photo-to-current efficiency. Yet no quantitative explanation has been provided to understand the role of oxygen vacancy or Sn-doping in hematite. We employed density functional theory to probe the small polaron formation in oxygen deficient hematite, N-doped as well as Sn-doped hematite. We computed the charged defect formation energies, the small polaron formation energy and hopping activation energies to understand the effect of defects on carrier concentration and mobility. This work provides us with a fundamental understanding regarding the role of defects on small polaron formation and transport properties in hematite, offering key insights into the design of new dopants to further improve the efficiency of transition metal oxides for solar-to-fuel conversion.

  2. Metalliferous sediment and a silica-hematite deposit within the Blanco fracture zone, Northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Clague, D.A.; Koski, R.A.; Embley, R.W.; Dunham, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    A Tiburon ROV dive within the East Blanco Depression (EBD) increased the mapped extent of a known hydrothermal field by an order of magnitude. In addition, a unique opal-CT (cristobalite-tridymite)-hematite mound was discovered, and mineralized sediments and rock were collected and analyzed. Silica-hematite mounds have not previously been found on the deep ocean floor. The light-weight rock of the porous mound consists predominantly of opal-CT and hematite filaments, rods, and strands, and averages 77.8% SiO2 and 11.8% Fe2O3. The hematite and opal-CT precipitated from a low-temperature (???115?? C), strongly oxidized, silica- and iron-rich, sulfur-poor hydrothermal fluid; a bacterial mat provided the framework for precipitation. Samples collected from a volcaniclastic rock outcrop consist primarily of quartz with lesser plagioclase, smectite, pyroxene, and sulfides; SiO2 content averages 72.5%. Formation of these quartz-rich samples is best explained by cooling in an up-flow zone of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids within a low permeability system. Opal-A, opal-CT, and quartz mineralization found in different places within the EBD hydrothermal field likely reflects decreasing silica saturation and increasing temperature of the mineralizing fluid with increasing silica crystallinity. Six push cores recovered gravel, coarse sand, and mud mineralized variously by Fe or Mn oxides, silica, and sulfides. Total rare-earth element concentrations are low for both the rock and push core samples. Ce and Eu anomalies reflect high and low temperature hydrothermal components and detrital phases. A remarkable variety of types of mineralization occur within the EBD field, yet a consistent suite of elements is enriched (relative to basalt and unmineralized cores) in all samples analyzed: Ag, Au, S, Mo, Hg, As, Sb, Sr, and U; most samples are also enriched in Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn. On the basis of these element enrichments, the EBD hydrothermal field might best be described as a base

  3. Pressure response of vacancy ordered maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and high pressure transformed hematite (α-Fe2O3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearne, Giovanni; Pischedda, Vittoria

    2012-01-01

    Combined XRD and Mössbauer effect spectroscopy studies to high pressures of ∼30 GPa of vacancy ordered maghemite are presented. The vacancy ordered superstructure is robust and remains intact up to the pressure-induced onset transition to hematite at 13–16 GPa. The pressure transformed hematite is shown to be crystallographically textured, unlike the randomised low pressure maghemite phase. This arises out of a pressure or stress instigated topotactic transformation of the cubic-spinel to hexagonal-corundum structure. The textured sample permits us to obtain information on the spin reorientation behavior of the pressure transformed hematite in compression and decompression sequences. Spin reorientation is restricted to ∼15° over wide pressure ranges, attributable to the effect of entrapped vacancies in the high pressure structure. Thus there are structural and magnetic peculiarities specific to pressure transformed hematite not evident in pressurized hematite starting material. These are triggered by the maghemite→hematite transformation. - Graphical abstract: Pressure instigated topotactic transformation of vacancy ordered γ-Fe 2 O 3 →α-Fe 2 O 3 . There is restricted spin (B hf ) reorientation in the new pressure transformed hematite due to entrapped vacancies. The change in direction of V zz signifies a distortion of the FeO 6 octahedral local environment. Highlights: ► Robust vacancy ordered superstructure in maghemite to high pressures. ► Pressure instigated topotactic transformation to hematite and subsequent texture. ► Defect trapping in the pressure transformed hematite. ► Entrapped defects restricts spin reorientation in pressure transformed hematite. ► Contrasting behavior with pressurized hematite starting material.

  4. Characterization of composite metal-ceramic of nickel-oxide cerium doped gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.L.A. da; Varela, M.C.R.S.

    2016-01-01

    Composite nickel doped cerium oxide are used in SOFC anode materials. In this study we evaluated the effect of the presence of gadolinium on the properties of composite nickel and ceria and. The supports were synthesized by sol-gel method. The impregnation with nickel nitrate was taken sequentially, followed by calcination. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, measurement of specific surface area, temperature programmed reduction, Raman spectroscopy. The presence of gadolinium retained the fluorite structure of ceria by forming a solid solution, also not influencing significantly on the specific surface area of the support. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the area catalysts, which can be attributed to sintering of nickel. Furthermore, addition of gadolinium favored the formation of intrinsic and extrinsic vacancies in cerium oxide, which leads to an increase in the ionic conductivity of the solid, desirable property for an SOFC anode catalyst. (author)

  5. Dielectric studies on cerium doped BaLa2Ti3O10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parshuram B. Abhange

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The BaLa2-xCexTi3O10 samples (with x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 were prepared by hydroxide co-precipitation method and finally sintered at 1150 °C. The structure of the prepared samples was characterized by XRD and SEM. The single phase material was confirmed only for the BaLa1.8Ce0.2Ti3O10 ceramics. However, at higher cerium concentration secondary phase was observed. The characteristic plate-like structure, having grains with submicrometer thickness and high aspect ratio, was clearly observed by SEM. The results of dielectric measurement suggest that the appropriate adjustment of doping (with x between 0.2 and 0.8 will give sufficient high dielectric constant at very low loss. The resistivity of samples decreases with increase in temperature indicating the normal semiconducting electrical behaviour.

  6. Effects of nuclear radiation on the optical properties of cerium-doped glass (accelerator applications)

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, B; Van de Voorde, M H

    1976-01-01

    Some twenty types of glass containing 0.5-4% CeO/sub 2/ have been irradiated in a /sup 60/Co gamma cell and in the mixed neutron-gamma field of a nuclear reactor, at total integrated doses of up to 5*10 /sup 9/ rad (CH). The resulting colouration has been assessed quantitatively by measuring the light transmission with reference to air, in the range 360-510 nm. From the results, certain types of glass suitable for applications in nuclear engineering can be selected. Specifically, it was found that 1-2% CeO/sub 2/ content is usually sufficient to obtain radiation-resistant optical glass: the reduction in light transmission above 450 nm is nil at 10/sup 8/ rad (CH), below 10% at 10/sup 9/ rad (CH), and below 20% at 5*10/sup 9/ rad (CH); the post-irradiation fading is negligible.

  7. Cerium doped heavy metal fluoride glasses, a possible alternative for electromagnetic calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffray, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bouttet, D. [LPCM Lyon, CNRS and Universite Claude Bernard, Villeurbanne (France); Dafinei, I. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Fay, J. [IPN Lyon, IN2P3-CNRS and Universite Claude Bernard, Villeurbanne (France); Lecoq, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Mares, J.A. [Institute of Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); Martini, M. [University of Milan, Department of Physics, Milan (Italy); Maze, G. [Le Verre Fluore, F - 35770 Vern/Seiche, Bretagne (France); Meinardi, F. [University of Milan, Department of Physics, Milan (Italy); Moine, B. [LPCM Lyon, CNRS and Universite Claude Bernard, Villeurbanne (France); Nikl, M. [Institute of Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); Pedrini, C. [LPCM Lyon, CNRS and Universite Claude Bernard, Villeurbanne (France); Poulain, M. [Le Verre Fluore, F - 35770 Vern/Seiche, Bretagne (France); Schneegans, M. [LAPP, IN2P3-CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Tavernier, S. [VUB, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Vedda, A. [University of Milan, Department of Physics, Milan (Italy)

    1996-10-11

    The article is an overview of the research activity made in the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration aimed at obtaining scintillating glasses able to fit the constraints imposed for the active medium of the central Electromagnetic Calorimeter at CMS. The manufacturing of heavy metal fluoride glasses doped with Ce{sup 3+} is discussed. The luminescence and scintillation characteristics as well as the radiation hardness properties are extensively studied in the case of Ce doped fluorohafnate, found to be the most convenient glass scintillator for high energy physics applications. (orig.).

  8. Cerium doped heavy metal fluoride glasses, a possible alternative for electromagnetic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffray, E.; Bouttet, D.; Dafinei, I.; Fay, J.; Lecoq, P.; Mares, J.A.; Martini, M.; Maze, G.; Meinardi, F.; Moine, B.; Nikl, M.; Pedrini, C.; Poulain, M.; Schneegans, M.; Tavernier, S.; Vedda, A.

    1996-01-01

    The article is an overview of the research activity made in the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration aimed at obtaining scintillating glasses able to fit the constraints imposed for the active medium of the central Electromagnetic Calorimeter at CMS. The manufacturing of heavy metal fluoride glasses doped with Ce 3+ is discussed. The luminescence and scintillation characteristics as well as the radiation hardness properties are extensively studied in the case of Ce doped fluorohafnate, found to be the most convenient glass scintillator for high energy physics applications. (orig.)

  9. Novel cerium doped glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite with antibacterial and osteoconductive properties for bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, D S; Fernandes, S; Santos, J D; Lopes, M A; Gomes, P S; Fernandes, M H; Sampaio, P; Ferraz, M P; Sooraj Hussain, N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a bioactive bone substitute with an effective antibacterial ability based on a cerium (Ce) doped glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite (GR-HA) composite. Developed composites were physicochemically characterized, using x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, SEM, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and flexural bending strength (FBS) tests. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was performed to analyze the oxidation state of Ce in the prepared doped glass. The antimicrobial activity of the composites was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; whether the cytocompatibility profile was assayed with human osteoblastic-like cells (Mg-63 cell line). The results revealed that the Ce inclusion in the GR-HA matrix induced the antimicrobial ability of the composite. In addition, Ce-doped materials reported an adequate biological behavior following seeding of osteoblastic populations, by inducing cell adhesion and proliferation. Developed materials were also found to enhance the expression of osteoblastic-related genes. Overall, the developed GR-HA-Ce composite is a prospective candidate to be used within the clinical scenario with a successful performance due to the effective antibacterial properties and capability of enhancing the osteoblastic cell response. (paper)

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Cerium-doped hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid composite coatings on metal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Qiuhua, E-mail: yuanqiuh@szu.edu.cn; Qin, Caoping; Wu, Jianbo; Xu, Anping; Zhang, Ziqiang; Liao, Junquan; Lin, Songxin; Ren, Xiangzhong; Zhang, Peixin

    2016-10-01

    Ce-doped hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid (HA/PLA) composites serving as implant coatings have rarely been studied by other researchers in recent years. This paper was focused to study the existence of Ce ions in structure, chemical composition and surface morphology of HA and its composite coatings. Ce-doped HA powders were synthesized by chemical precipitation method with different Ce molar fractions (0(pure HA), 0.5 mol%, 1 mol% and 2 mol%). And Ce-doped HA/PLA composite coatings were fabricated for the first time on stainless steel substrates by spin coating technique. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX), thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that Ce ions were doped into the crystal lattice of apatite successfully. The (Ce + Ca)/P atomic ratios in the doped HA/PLA samples ranged from 1.614 to 1.673, which were very close to the theoretical value of 1.67 for the stoichiometric HA. The addition of PLA could keep metal substrates from catalyzing the decomposition of HA. TG-DTA analysis indicated that Ce-doped HA powder had high thermal stability, and the SEM micrographs revealed that the surface topography of Ce-doped HA/PLA composite coatings was uniform and dense when the Ce molar fraction was 2 mol%. XPS results indicated that the Ce ions doped in HA showed mixed valences of Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+}. - Highlights: • Ce-doped HA composite coatings were synthesized by spin-coating technique for the first time. • Ce ions were demonstrated to dope into HA crystal lattice successfully. • The addition of PLA could keep metal substrates from catalyzing the decomposition of HA. • XPS results showed that Ce ions doped in HA have mixed valences of Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+}.

  11. Preparation and investigation of structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of cerium doped barium hexaferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kameli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the structure, magnetic and microwave absorption properties of cerium (Ce doped barium hexaferrite with general formulae BaCexFe12-xO19 (x=0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 have been investigated. These samples have been prepared by sol- gel method. Influence of replacing Fe+3 ion by rare- earth Ce+3 ion on the structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties have been investigated by X- ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM and vector network analyzer (VNA. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the samples are of single phase with space group p63/mmc. The magnetic properties of samples indicated that with the Ce doping the saturation magnetization show no regular behavior. Moreover, coercivity (Hc first decreased and reached to the minimum value for x=0.1 sample and then increased with Ce content increasing. Also, measurement of electromagnetic wave absorption in X and Ku frequency bands indicated that the maximum of reflection loss obtained for x=0.15 sample. Moreover, result indicated that absorption peak shifted toward a lower frequency when thickness was increased.

  12. Cerium doped GSO scintillators and its application to position sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, H.; Shimizu, K.; Susa, K.; Kubota, S.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of the light output and the decay times of Ce doped Gd/sub 2/SiO/sub 5/ on Ce concentration is measured. By using the difference in decay times on Ce concentration for GSO(Ce), the combination of different concentration of GSO(Ce) scintillators is shown to be useful as position sensitive detectors. A Ce doped Gd/sub 2/SiO/sub 5/ (GSO(Ce)) single crystal is an excellent scintillator featuring, a large light output, a short decay time and a high absorption coefficient. Further investigation aimed at its implementation to scintillators has been carried out previously. An application of the GSO(Ce) scintillators to the gamma-ray detectors of positron emission computed tomography has also been shown. The authors have investigated the dependence of its scintillation properties on the Ce concentration and its application to position sensitive detectors

  13. Fabrication of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet thin films by a mist CVD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, Shunsuke, E-mail: murai@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sato, Takafumi; Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2016-02-15

    We synthesized thin films, consisting of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Ce{sup 3+} (YAG:Ce), using the mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, which allows the fabrication of high-quality thin films under atmospheric conditions without the use of vacuum equipment. Under a deposition rate of approximately 1 μm/h, the obtained thin films had a typical thickness of 2 μm. The XRD analysis indicated that the thin films consisted of single-phase YAG:Ce. The Rutherford backscattering confirmed the stoichiometry; the composition of the film was determined to be (Y, Ce){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, with a Ce content of Ce/(Y+Ce)=2.5%. The YAG:Ce thin films exhibited fluorescence due to the 5d–4f electronic transitions characteristic of the Ce ions occupying the eight-coordinated dodecahedral sites in the YAG lattice. - Highlights: • We have synthesized thin films of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Ce{sup 3+} (YAG:Ce) by using a mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the first time. • The thickness of the single-phase and stoichiometric thin film obtained by 2 h deposition and following heat treatments is 2 μm. • The thin film is porous but optically transparent, and shows yellow fluorescence upon irradiation with a blue light. • Mist-CVD is a green and sustainable technique that allows fabrication of high-quality thin films at atmospheric conditions without vacuum equipment.

  14. Cerium-doped single crystal and transparent ceramic lutetium aluminum garnet scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Speaks, Derrick T.; Payne, Stephen A.; Chai, B.H.T.; Porter-Chapman, Yetta; Derenzo, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    For rapid, unambiguous isotope identification, scintillator detectors providing high-resolution gamma ray spectra are required. We have fabricated Lutetium Aluminum Garnet (LuAG) using transparent ceramic processing, and report a 2-mm thick ceramic exhibiting 75% transmission and light yield comparable to single-crystal LuAG:Ce. The LuAG:Ce luminescence peaks at 550 nm, providing an excellent match for Silicon Photodiode readout. LuAG is dense (6.67 g/cm 3 ) and impervious to water, exhibits good proportionality and a fast decay (∼40 ns), and we measure light yields in excess of 20,000 photons/MeV

  15. Induced Mesocrystal-Formation, Hydrothermal Growth and Magnetic Properties of α-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles in Salt-Rich Aqueous Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Erik; Larsen, Jacob; Varón, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    and in close proximity. With hydrothermal treatment, the magnetic properties of the particles transform from those characteristic of small (aggregated) hematite nanoparticles to those of particles with more bulk-like properties such as Morin transition and suppression of superparamagnetic relaxation...

  16. Crystallization process and magnetic properties of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phu, N D; Luong, N H; Chau, N; Hai, N H; Ngo, D T; Hoang, L H

    2011-01-01

    This paper studied the crystallization process, phase transition and magnetic properties of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by the microwave heating technique. Thermal analysis and magnetodynamics studies revealed many interesting aspects of the amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles. The as-prepared sample was amorphous. Crystallization of the maghemite γ-Fe 2 O 3 (with an activation energy of 0.71 eV) and the hematite α-Fe 2 O 3 (with an activation energy of 0.97 eV) phase occurred at around 300 deg. C and 350 deg. C, respectively. A transition from the maghemite to the hematite occurred at 500 deg. C with an activation energy of 1.32 eV. A study of the temperature dependence of magnetization supported the crystallization and the phase transformation. Raman shift at 660 cm -1 and absorption band in the infrared spectra at 690 cm -1 showed the presence of disorder in the hematite phase on the nanoscale which is supposed to be the origin of the ferromagnetic behaviour of that antiferromagnetic phase.

  17. Low-cost superior solid-state symmetric supercapacitors based on hematite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shaomin; Yu, Lin; Lan, Bang; Sun, Ming; Cheng, Gao; Liao, Shuhuan; Cao, Han; Deng, Yulin

    2016-12-01

    We present a facile method for the fabrication of hematite nanocrystal-carbon cloth (Fe2O3-CC) composite. Hierarchical manganite is chosen as the sacrificial precursor, that does not contribute to the component of final iron oxide but can be in situ dissolved by the acid produced from the Fe3+ hydrolysis. This method effectively enhances the specific surface area and conductivity of hematite (Fe2O3) by attaching Fe2O3 nanocrystals (around 5 nm) firmly on the surface of carbon fibers. The obtained Fe2O3-CC can be directly used as a binder-free electrode for a supercapacitor. Interestingly, the composite electrode exhibits synergistic electrochemical capacitance (electrochemical double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance). It manifests a very high areal capacitance of 1.66 F cm-2 (1660 F g-1) at 2 mA cm-2 and excellent cycling performance at large current densities (88.6% retention at 30 mA cm-2 after 5000 cycles) in a three-electrode testing system, which is among the best performances reported in the literature. Importantly, when fabricated as a solid-state flexible symmetric supercapacitor it still shows a maximum energy density of 8.74 mW h cm-3 and power density of 253.9 mW cm-3. Additionally, its good flexibility makes it suitable for portable devices.

  18. Reversibility of sorption of plutonium-239 onto hematite and goethite colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, N.; Cotter, C.R.; Kitten, H.D.; Bentley, J.; Triay, I.R.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate: (1) sorption of plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) on different iron oxide colloids (hematite and geothite), (2) sorption kinetics of colloidal Pu(IV) and soluble Pu(V) onto these two colloids, and (3) desorption of colloidal Pu(IV) and soluble Pu(V) from 239 Pu-loaded colloids as a function of time. Natural groundwater and carbonate-rich synthetic groundwater were used in this study. To examine the possible influence of bicarbonate on 239 Pu sorption, an additional set of experiments was conducted in sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) solutions under carbon dioxide free environments. Our results show that colloidal Pu(IV) as well as soluble Pu(V) was rapidly adsorbed by hematite and goethite colloids in both natural and synthetic groundwater. The amount of 239 Pu adsorbed by both iron oxide colloids in synthetic groundwater was higher than in natural groundwater. The presence of carbonate did not influence the sorption of 239 Pu. While sorption of soluble Pu(V) is a slow process, sorption of colloidal Pu(IV) occurs rapidly. Desorption of Pu from iron oxide colloids is much slower than the sorption processes. Our findings suggest that different sorption and desorption behaviors of 239 Pu by iron oxide colloids in groundwater may facilitate the transport of 239 Pu along potential flowpaths from the areas contaminated by radionuclide and release to the accessible environment. (orig.)

  19. Synthesis and characterization of hematite pigment obtained from a steel waste industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prim, S R; Folgueras, M V; de Lima, M A; Hotza, D

    2011-09-15

    Pigments that meet environmental and technology requirements are the focus of the research in the ceramic sector. This study focuses on the synthesis of ceramic pigment by encapsulation of hematite in crystalline and amorphous silica matrix. Iron oxide from a metal sheet rolling process was used as chromophore. A different content of hematite and silica was homogenized by conventional and high energy milling. The powders obtained after calcinations between 1050 and 1200 °C for 2h were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. The pigments were applied to ceramic enamel and porcelain body. The effect of pigment was measured by comparing L*a*b* values of the heated samples. Results showed that the color developed is influenced by variables such as oxide content employed, conditions of milling and processing temperature. The results showed that the use of pigment developed does not interfere in microstructural characteristics of pigmented material. The best hue was obtained from samples with 15 wt% of chromophore, heated at 1200 °C in amorphous silica matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The application of Lorentz transmission electron microscopy to the study of lamellar magnetism in hematite-ilmenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Asaka, T

    2009-01-01

    . However, the magnitude of the experimental contrast is higher than that in the simulations, suggesting that an alternative origin for the observed asymmetry cannot be ruled out. Electron tomography was used to show that the lamellae have lens-like shapes and that (001) planes make up a significant...... in hematite. The likelihood that lamellar magnetism may be responsible for this contrast is assessed using simulations that incorporate interfacial magnetic moments on the (001) basal planes of hematite and ilmenite. The simulations suggest qualitatively that the asymmetric contrast is magnetic in origin...

  1. Mechanism of Methane Chemical Looping Combustion with Hematite Promoted with CeO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Duane D.; Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2013-08-15

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a promising technology for fossil fuel combustion that produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream, reducing the energy penalty of CO{sub 2} separation from flue gases. An effective oxygen carrier for CLC will readily react with the fuel gas and will be reoxidized upon contact with oxygen. This study investigated the development of a CeO{sub 2}-promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-hematite oxygen carrier suitable for the methane CLC process. Composition of CeO{sub 2} is between 5 and 25 wt % and is lower than what is generally used for supports in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} carrier preparations. The incorporation of CeO{sub 2} to the natural ore hematite strongly modifies the reduction behavior in comparison to that of CeO{sub 2} and hematite alone. Temperature-programmed reaction studies revealed that the addition of even 5 wt % CeO{sub 2} enhances the reaction capacity of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier by promoting the decomposition and partial oxidation of methane. Fixed-bed reactor data showed that the 5 wt % cerium oxides with 95 wt % iron oxide produce 2 times as much carbon dioxide in comparison to the sum of carbon dioxide produced when the oxides were tested separately. This effect is likely due to the reaction of CeO{sub 2} with methane forming intermediates, which are reactive for extracting oxygen from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} at a considerably faster rate than the rate of the direct reaction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. These studies reveal that 5 wt % CeO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} gives stable conversions over 15 reduction/oxidation cycles. Lab-scale reactor studies (pulsed mode) suggest the methane reacts initially with CeO{sub 2} lattice oxygen to form partial oxidation products (CO + H{sub 2}), which continue to react with oxygen from neighboring Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, leading to its complete oxidation to form CO{sub 2}. The reduced cerium oxide promotes the methane decomposition reaction to form C + H{sub 2}, which continue to

  2. Hematite Spherules in Basaltic Tephra Altered Under Aqueous, Acid-Sulfate Conditions on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Possible Clues for the Occurrence of Hematite-Rich Spherules in the Burns Formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Graff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Mertzman, S. A.; Gruener, J. E.; Golden, D. C.; Robinson, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    Iron-rich spherules (>90% Fe2O3 from electron microprobe analyses) approx.10-100 microns in diameter are found within sulfate-rich rocks formed by aqueous, acid-sulfate alteration of basaltic tephra on Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. Although some spherules are nearly pure Fe, most have two concentric compositional zones, with the core having a higher Fe/Al ratio than the rim. Oxide totals less than 100% (93-99%) suggest structural H2O and/or /OH. The transmission Moessbauer spectrum of a spherule-rich separate is dominated by a hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) sextet whose peaks are skewed toward zero velocity. Skewing is consistent with Al(3+) for Fe(3+) substitution and structural H2O and/or /OH. The grey color of the spherules implies specular hematite. Whole-rock powder X-ray diffraction spectra are dominated by peaks from smectite and the hydroxy sulfate mineral natroalunite as alteration products and plagioclase feldspar that was present in the precursor basaltic tephra. Whether spherule formation proceeded directly from basaltic material in one event (dissolution of basaltic material and precipitation of hematite spherules) or whether spherule formation required more than one event (formation of Fe-bearing sulfate rock and subsequent hydrolysis to hematite) is not currently constrained. By analogy, a formation pathway for the hematite spherules in sulfate-rich outcrops at Meridiani Planum on Mars (the Burns formation) is aqueous alteration of basaltic precursor material under acid-sulfate conditions. Although hydrothermal conditions are present on Mauna Kea, such conditions may not be required for spherule formation on Mars if the time interval for hydrolysis at lower temperatures is sufficiently long.

  3. Liquid Adsorption of Organic Compounds on Hematite α-Fe2O3 Using ReaxFF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Chung-Lim; Avendaño, Carlos; Siperstein, Flor R; Filip, Sorin

    2017-10-24

    ReaxFF-based molecular dynamics simulations are used in this work to study the effect of the polarity of adsorbed molecules in the liquid phase on the structure and polarization of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). We compared the adsorption of organic molecules with different polarities on a rigid hematite surface and on a flexible and polarizable surface. We show that the displacements of surface atoms and surface polarization in a flexible hematite model are proportional to the adsorbed molecule's polarity. The increase in electrostatic interactions resulting from charge transfer in the outermost solid atoms in a flexible hematite model results in better-defined adsorbed layers that are less ordered than those obtained assuming a rigid solid. These results suggest that care must be taken when parametrizing empirical transferable force fields because the calculated charges on a solid slab in vacuum may not be representative of a real system, especially when the solid is in contact with a polar liquid.

  4. Natural Hematite and Siderite as Heterogeneous Catalysts for an Effective Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol via Photo-Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haithem Bel Hadjltaief

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simple and low-cost process for the degradation of 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP from aqueous solution, using natural Tunisian Hematite (M1 and Siderite (M2. Two natural samples were collected in the outcroppings of the Djerissa mining site (Kef district, northwestern Tunisia. Both Hematite and Siderite ferrous samples were characterized using several techniques, including X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Nitrogen Physisorption (BET, Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, H2-Temperature Programmed Reduction (H2-TPR, Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM linked with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDS and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM. Textural, structural and chemical characterization confirmed the presence of Hematite and Siderite phases with a high amount of iron on the both surface materials. Their activity was evaluated in the oxidation of 4-CP in aqueous medium under heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. Siderite exhibited higher photocatalytic oxidation activity than Hematite at pH 3. The experimental results also showed that 100% conversion of 4-CP and 54% TOC removal can be achieved using Siderite as catalyst. Negligible metal leaching and catalyst reutilization without any loss of activity point towards an excellent catalytic stability for both natural catalysts.

  5. Role of Ion Bombardment, Film Thickness and Temperature of Annealing on PEC Activity of Very-thin Film Hematite .

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kment, Š.; Čada, M.; Hubička, Z.; Krýsa, J.; Kmentová, Hana; Olejníček, J.; Zlámalová Cílová, Z.; Zbořil, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 27 (2016), s. 11547-11557 ISSN 0360-3199. [International Conference on Hydrogen Energy /1./. Aveiro, 20.07.2015-22.07.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ion flux density * hematite photoanode * thin films Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  6. Characteristics of NixFe1−xOy Electrocatalyst on Hematite as Photoanode for Solar Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Yen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of hematite as the photoanode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production by solar energy has been actively studied due to its abundance, stability, and adequate optical properties. Deposition of an electrocatalyst overlayer on the hematite may increase kinetics and lower the onset potential for water splitting. NixFe1−xOy is one of the most effective electrocatalysts reported for this purpose. However, the condition and results of the previous reports vary significantly, and a comprehensive model for NixFe1−xOy/hematite is lacking. Here, we report a simple and novel chemical bath deposition method for depositing low-onset-potential NixFe1−xOy electrocatalyst on hematite. With a Ni percentage of 80% and an immersion time of 2 min, the as-prepared NixFe1−xOy overlayer raised the photovoltage from 0.2 V to 0.7 V, leading to a cathodic shift of the onset potential by 400 mV, while maintaining the same level of current density. The dependence of the electrochemical and photoelectrochemical characteristics of the photoanode on the condition of the electrocatalyst was studied systematically and explained based on energy level diagrams and kinetics.

  7. Photoanodes with fully controllable texture: the enhanced water splitting efficiency of thin hematite films exhibiting solely (110) crystal orientation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kment, Š.; Schmuki, P.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Machala, L.; Kirchgeorg, R.; Liu, N.; Wang, L.; Lee, K.; Olejníček, Jiří; Čada, Martin; Gregora, Ivan; Zbořil, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (2015), s. 7113-7123 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hematite * iron oxide * texture * PEC water splitting * pulsed magnetron sputtering * conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 13.334, year: 2015

  8. Compact hematite buffer layer as a promoter of nanorod photoanode performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, R.; Cattarin, S.; Comisso, N.; Baratto, C.; Kaunisto, K.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Concina, I.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of a thin α-Fe2O3 compact buffer layer (BL) on the photoelectrochemical performances of a bare α-Fe2O3 nanorods photoanode is investigated. The BL is prepared through a simple spray deposition onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate before the growth of a α-Fe2O3 nanorods via a hydrothermal process. Insertion of the hematite BL between the FTO and the nanorods markedly enhances the generated photocurrent, by limiting undesired losses of photogenerated charges at the FTO||electrolyte interface. The proposed approach warrants a marked improvement of material performances, with no additional thermal treatment and no use/dispersion of rare or toxic species, in agreement with the principles of green chemistry.

  9. Nanocrack Formation in Hematite through the Dehydration of Goethite and the Carbon Infiltration from Biotar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Kashiwaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cracks in nano-order are generated and propagated when the combined water is released during the dehydration. If the nanopore can be utilized for a reaction site, the overall reaction can be extremely accelerated. On the other hand, it is well known that woody biomass is an attractive alternative fuel for the reduction of CO2 emission. However, the process of biomass pyrolysis is disturbed by the tar which causes a clogging in gas tubing system. Hata et al. found that the tar was consumed almost 100% in the iron ore layer having nanocrack or nanopore. The nanocracks formed in hematite crystals after dehydration of goethite were about 4 nm in width, which is in excellent agreement with the result of BET measurement. When the carbon deposited from tar into the nanocracks, reduction reactions were occurred simultaneously. The deposited carbons completely infilled into the nanocracks and the void in the sample.

  10. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Dilute Ca²⁺ Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samar Layek; Rout, K; Mohapatra, M; Anand, S; Verma, H C

    2016-01-01

    Undoped and calcium substituted hematite (α-Fe₂O₃) nanoparticles are synthesized by surfactant-directed co-precipitation and post annealing method. The annealed nanoparticles were found to be in single phase in nature and crystallize in the rhombohedral structure with space group R3c as confirmed by Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. Average crystallite sizes are calculated to be 20 to 30 nm and 50 to 60 nm for the nanoparticles annealed at 400 and 600 °C respectively. Mössbauer spectra for all the nanoparticles could be fitted with a sextet corresponding to the single magnetic state of the iron atoms in its Fe³⁺ state in the hematite matrix. The FTIR and Raman spectra of all the samples correspond to specific modes of α-Fe₂O₃. UV-Vis spectra of annealed samples showed broad peaks in the range of 525-630 nm resulting from spin-forbidden ligand field transition together with the spin-flip transition among the 2t₂g states. The estimated band gap energies were in the range of 1.6 to 1.9 eV which are much lower than the reported values for nano hematite. From the room temperature magnetic hysteresis loop measurements, weak ferromagnetic behavior is observed in all undoped and Ca²⁺ doped hematite samples. Morin temperature (T(M)) is calculated to be 257 and 237 K for 1.45% doped samples with particle size 54 and 27 nm respectively. The sample with Ca content of 1.45 wt% when annealed at 400 °C showed that the particles were of different shapes which included both quasi spherical and rod shaped. On annealing the same sample at 600 °C, the nanorods collapsed to form bigger spherical and ellipsoidal particles.

  11. Passivating surface states on water splitting hematite photoanodes with alumina overlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Le Formal, Florian; Té treault, Nicolas; Cornuz, Maurin; Moehl, Thomas; Grä tzel, Michael; Sivula, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Hematite is a promising material for inexpensive solar energy conversion via water splitting but has been limited by the large overpotential (0.5-0.6 V) that must be applied to afford high water oxidation photocurrent. This has conventionally been addressed by coating it with a catalyst to increase the kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction. However, surface recombination at trapping states is also thought to be an important factor for the overpotential, and herein we investigate a strategy to passivate trapping states using conformal overlayers applied by atomic layer deposition. While TiO2 overlayers show no beneficial effect, we find that an ultra-thin coating of Al2O3 reduces the overpotential required with state-of-the-art nano-structured photo-anodes by as much as 100 mV and increases the photocurrent by a factor of 3.5 (from 0.24 mA cm-2 to 0.85 mA cm-2) at +1.0 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) under standard illumination conditions. The subsequent addition of Co2+ ions as a catalyst further decreases the overpotential and leads to a record photocurrent density at 0.9 V vs. RHE (0.42 mA cm-2). A detailed investigation into the effect of the Al2O3 overlayer by electrochemical impedance and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals a significant change in the surface capacitance and radiative recombination, respectively, which distinguishes the observed overpotential reduction from a catalytic effect and confirms the passivation of surface states. Importantly, this work clearly demonstrates that two distinct loss processes are occurring on the surface of high-performance hematite and suggests a viable route to individually address them. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  12. Chemical Looping Combustion of Hematite Ore with Methane and Steam in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bayham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical looping combustion is considered an indirect method of oxidizing a carbonaceous fuel, utilizing a metal oxide oxygen carrier to provide oxygen to the fuel. The advantage is the significantly reduced energy penalty for separating out the CO2 for reuse or sequestration in a carbon-constrained world. One of the major issues with chemical looping combustion is the cost of the oxygen carrier. Hematite ore is a proposed oxygen carrier due to its high strength and resistance to mechanical attrition, but its reactivity is rather poor compared to tailored oxygen carriers. This problem is further exacerbated by methane cracking, the subsequent deposition of carbon and the inability to transfer oxygen at a sufficient rate from the core of the particle to the surface for fuel conversion to CO2. Oxygen needs to be readily available at the surface to prevent methane cracking. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the use of steam to overcome this issue and improve the conversion of the natural gas to CO2, as well as to provide data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD validation. The steam will gasify the deposited carbon to promote the methane conversion. This work studies the performance of hematite ore with methane and steam mixtures in a 5 cm fluidized bed up to approximately 140 kPa. Results show an increased conversion of methane in the presence of steam (from 20–45% without steam to 60–95% up to a certain point, where performance decreases. Adding steam allows the methane conversion to carbon dioxide to be similar to the overall methane conversion; it also helped to prevent carbon accumulation from occurring on the particle. In general, the addition of steam to the feed gas increased the methane conversion. Furthermore, the addition of steam caused the steam methane reforming reaction to form more hydrogen and carbon monoxide at higher steam and methane concentrations, which was not completely converted at higher concentrations and

  13. Passivating surface states on water splitting hematite photoanodes with alumina overlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Le Formal, Florian

    2011-01-24

    Hematite is a promising material for inexpensive solar energy conversion via water splitting but has been limited by the large overpotential (0.5-0.6 V) that must be applied to afford high water oxidation photocurrent. This has conventionally been addressed by coating it with a catalyst to increase the kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction. However, surface recombination at trapping states is also thought to be an important factor for the overpotential, and herein we investigate a strategy to passivate trapping states using conformal overlayers applied by atomic layer deposition. While TiO2 overlayers show no beneficial effect, we find that an ultra-thin coating of Al2O3 reduces the overpotential required with state-of-the-art nano-structured photo-anodes by as much as 100 mV and increases the photocurrent by a factor of 3.5 (from 0.24 mA cm-2 to 0.85 mA cm-2) at +1.0 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) under standard illumination conditions. The subsequent addition of Co2+ ions as a catalyst further decreases the overpotential and leads to a record photocurrent density at 0.9 V vs. RHE (0.42 mA cm-2). A detailed investigation into the effect of the Al2O3 overlayer by electrochemical impedance and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals a significant change in the surface capacitance and radiative recombination, respectively, which distinguishes the observed overpotential reduction from a catalytic effect and confirms the passivation of surface states. Importantly, this work clearly demonstrates that two distinct loss processes are occurring on the surface of high-performance hematite and suggests a viable route to individually address them. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  14. Synthesis and properties of iridium-doped hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krehula, Stjepko, E-mail: krehul@irb.hr [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Stefanic, Goran [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Zadro, Kreso [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kratofil Krehula, Ljerka [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Marulicev trg 19, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Marcius, Marijan; Music, Svetozar [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-12-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ir-doped hematites were prepared by heating Ir-doped goethites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ir-doping in hematite led to an increase in unit cell and a decrease in crystallite size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ir-doping significantly affected magnetic, infrared and UV-Vis properties of hematite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Morin transition temperature increased with an increase in Ir-doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ir ions brought about changes in the size and shape of the formed hematite particles. - Abstract: The effect of the incorporation of Ir{sup 3+} ions on the properties of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed by dehydroxylation of {alpha}-FeOOH was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer, UV-Vis-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopies, SQUID magnetometer, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Pure and Ir-doped hematite samples were obtained by heating of pure and Ir-doped goethites ({alpha}-FeOOH) formed by precipitation from mixed Fe(III)-Ir(III) chloride solutions in a highly alkaline medium. The incorporation of Ir{sup 3+} ions into the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} structure led to changes in unit-cell dimensions, crystallinity, particle size and shape, as well as changes in the magnetic, infrared and UV-Vis properties. An increase in the temperature of the Morin transition with an increase in Ir-doping was observed by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements.

  15. Mössbauer and magnetic studies of surfactant mediated Ca-Mg doped ferrihydrite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Samar; Mohapatra, M; Anand, S; Verma, H C

    2013-03-01

    Ultrafine (2-5 nm) particles of amorphous Ca-Mg co-doped ferrihydrite have been synthesized by surfactant mediated co-precipitation method. The evolution of the amorphous ferrihydrite by Ca-Mg co-doping is quite different from our earlier investigations on individual doping of Ca and Mg. Amorphous phase of ferrihydrite for the present study has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and low temperatures (40 K and 20 K). Hematite nanoparticles with crystallite size about 8, 38 and 70 nm were obtained after annealing the as-prepared samples at 400, 600 and 800 degrees C respectively in air atmosphere. Superparamagnetism has been found in 8 nm sized hematite nanoparticles which has been confirmed from the magnetic hysteresis loop with zero remanent magnetization and coercive field and also from the superparamagnetic doublet of its room temperature Mössbauer spectrum. The magnetic properties of the 38 and 70 nm sized particles have been studied by room temperature magnetic hysteresis loop measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The coercive field in these hematite nanoparticles increases with increasing particle size. Small amount of spinel MgFe2O4 phase has been detected in the 800 degrees C annealed sample.

  16. (BDMCA) Nanoparticles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.org. Research Article ... Methods: Nanoparticle formulations were fabricated by a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique using .... Characterization of BDMCA nanoparticles. The nanoparticle ...

  17. Hematite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry constrains intraplate strike-slip faulting on the Kuh-e-Faghan Fault, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Gabriele; Rossetti, Federico; Ault, Alexis K.; Lucci, Federico; Olivetti, Valerio; Nozaem, Reza

    2018-03-01

    The Kuh-e-Faghan strike-slip fault system (KFF), located to the northern edge of the Lut Block in central Iran, developed through a Neogene-Quaternary pulsed history of eastward fault propagation and fault-related exhumation. This system is a consequence of the residual stresses transmitted from the Arabia-Eurasia convergent plate boundary. Here we integrate structural and textural analysis with new and previously published apatite fission-track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th)/He (apatite He) results, chlorite thermomentry, and hematite (U-Th)/He data from hematite-coated brittle fault surfaces to constrain the timing of tectonic activity and refine patterns of late Miocene-Pliocene burial and exhumation associated with the propagation of the KFF. Twenty-nine hematite (U-Th)/He (hematite He) dates from three striated hematite coated slip surfaces from the KFF fault core and damage zone yield individual dates from 12-2 Ma. Petrographic analysis and chlorite thermometry of a polyphase, fossil fluid system in the KFF fault core document that fluid circulation and mineralization transitioned from a closed system characterized by pressure solution and calcite growth to an open system characterized by hot hydrothermal (T = 239 ± 10 °C) fluids and hematite formation. Hematite microtextures and grain size analysis reveal primary and secondary syntectonic hematite fabrics, no evidence of hematite comminution and similar hematite He closure temperatures ( 60-85 °C) in each sample. Integration of these results with thermal history modeling of AFT and apatite He data shows that KFF activity in the late Miocene is characterized by an early stage of fault nucleation, fluid circulation, hematite mineralization, and eastward propagation not associated with vertical movement that lasted from 12 to 7 Ma. Hematite He, AFT, and apatite He data track a second phase of fault system activity involving fault-related exhumation initiating at 7 Ma and continuing until present time. Our new data

  18. Reconstructing Holocene hematite and goethite variations in the Indus Canyon to trace changes in the Asian monsoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Cornelia; Clift, Peter; Pressling, Nicola; Limmer, David; Giosan, Liviu; Tabrez, Ali

    2010-05-01

    In order to study Holocene Asian monsoon variations, we reconstructed changes in chemical weathering by examining sediments from the Indus Canyon. During the late Holocene, the Asian monsoon system had periods of high and low intensities that influenced the civilisations living in its realm. For example, the demise of the Harappan civilisation has been linked to a weakened monsoon system around 4 ka. The sediments in the Indus Canyon, which originate from the River Indus and its Himalayan tributaries, provide an ideal, natural environmental archive of the South Asian monsoon system. In order to investigate the alternation between arid and humid monsoonal climatic conditions, variations are traced using the magnetic minerals hematite and goethite, which form under distinct environmental conditions: goethite is stable under humid conditions, whereas hematite forms from the dehydration of goethite under arid conditions. The two minerals are characterised and quantified using environmental magnetic measurements, as well as diffuse reflectance spectrometry. Combining both approaches will enable us to reconstruct variations in chemical weathering over time. Furthermore, because this is governed by temperature and the availability of moisture, our weathering record will allow us to understand monsoon variability during the Holocene and test whether summer rain intensity has been decreasing in SW Asia since 8 ka. In addition, the multi-component analysis of colour reflectance spectra identifies different mineral components including hematite/goethite, clay mineral mixtures, calcite and organics. We will present our results from the multi-sensor core logger equipped with a Minolta spectrometer, measuring both magnetic susceptibility and the optical properties of the split sediment cores. Initial results indicate the presence of hematite and goethite in the sediment. There is an increasing hematite content up the cores, indicating an aridification trend during the Holocene

  19. Structural investigations on differently sized monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by remineralization of apoferritin molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, Aladin; Horn, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the structure of iron oxide nanoparticles produced by remineralization and thermal treatment of horse spleen apoferritin molecules. The described procedure allows to synthesize particles with diameters ranging from 4 to 7 nm in size. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations were performed for shape and size determination, whereas energy-dispersive X-ray (TEM-EDX), high-resolution TEM, and electron diffraction measurements revealed the chemical composition and crystal structure of the particles. We found predominantly single crystalline nanoparticles with a hematite-like (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) structure

  20. RECOVERY OF IRON FROM LOW-GRADE HEMATITE ORE USING COAL-BASED DIRECT REDUCTION FOLLOWED BY MAGNETIC SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alavifard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, iron recovery from a low-grade hematite ore (containing less than 40% iron, which is not applicable in common methods of ironmaking, was studied. Non-coking coal was used as reducing agent. Reduction experiments were performed under various coal to hematite ratios and temperatures. Reduction degree was calculated using the gravimetric method. Reduced samples were subjected to magnetic separation followed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Total iron content, degree of metallization and recovery efficiency in magnetic part were determined by quantitative chemical analysis, which were obtained about 82%, 95% and 64% respectively under optimal conditions. CaO as an additive improved ore reducibility and separation efficiency. The microstructure of reduced samples and final products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Final product with a high degree of metallization can be used in steel making furnaces and charging of blast furnaces which can improve production efficiency and decrease coke usage.

  1. (U-Th)/He thermochronometry reveals Pleistocene punctuated deformation and synkinematic hematite mineralization in the Mecca Hills, southernmost San Andreas Fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Amy C.; Evans, James P.; Ault, Alexis K.; Janecke, Susanne U.; Bradbury, Kelly K.

    2017-10-01

    The timing, tempo, and processes of punctuated deformation in strike-slip fault systems are challenging to resolve in the rock record. Faults in the Mecca Hills, adjacent to the southernmost San Andreas Fault, California, accommodate active deformation and exhumation in the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks and underlying crystalline basement. We document the spatiotemporal patterns of San Andreas Fault-related deformation as recorded in crystalline basement rocks of the Mecca Hills using fault microstructural observations, geochemical data, and hematite (n = 24) and apatite (n = 44) (U-Th)/He (hematite He, apatite He) thermochronometry data. Reproducible mean hematite He dates from minor hematite-coated fault surfaces in the Painted Canyon Fault damage zone range from ∼0.7-0.4 Ma and are younger than ∼1.2 Ma apatite He dates from adjacent crystalline basement host rock. These data reveal concomitant Pleistocene pulses of fault slip, fluid flow, and synkinematic hematite mineralization. Hematite textures, crystal morphology, and hematite He data patterns imply some damage zone deformation occurred via cyclic crack-seal and creep processes. Apatite He data from crystalline basement define distinct date-eU patterns and indicate cooling across discrete fault blocks in the Mecca Hills. Uniform ∼1.2 Ma apatite He dates regardless of eU are located exclusively between the Painted Canyon and Platform faults. Outside of this fault block, samples yield individual apatite He dates from ∼30-1 Ma that define a positive apatite He date-eU correlation. These patterns reveal focused exhumation away from the main trace of the San Andreas Fault at ∼1.2 Ma. Low-temperature thermochronometry of fault-related rocks provides an unprecedented window into the 105-106-yr record of San Andreas Fault-related deformation in the Mecca Hills and documents hematite deformation mechanisms that may be operative in other strike-slip faults world-wide.

  2. Cosmogenic 3He in hematite and goethite from Brazilian "canga" duricrust demonstrates the extreme stability of these surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, David L.; Farley, Kenneth A.; Vasconcelos, Paulo M.; Balco, Greg; Monteiro, Hevelyn S.; Waltenberg, Kathryn; Stone, John O.

    2012-05-01

    Helium isotopes were measured in hematite and goethite samples from several lateritiric duricrusts (canga) developed on banded iron formations. These samples uniformly have high 3He concentrations which must arise from long periods of cosmic ray exposure. From coexisting phases from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero in east central Brazil, we determined the ratio of cosmogenic 3He in hematite to that of 21Ne in quartz to be 3.96 ± 0.19. Combined with best current estimates of the 21Ne production rate in quartz, this ratio implies a sea-level high latitude (SLHL) 3He production rate in hematite of 68.1 ± 8.1 atoms/g/yr; from the chemical composition we estimate the 3He production rate in goethite to be ~ 5% higher. We use these production rate estimates to interpret 3He concentrations measured in goethite and hematite from a ~ 10 m depth profile collected from a surface canga in Carajás, in the Amazon basin of Brazil. We find that the Carajás canga has experienced a very low rate of surface erosion (~ 0.16-0.54 m/Myr) over at least the last few millions of years. This iron-rich canga surface is remarkably resistant to erosion despite its location in a wet tropical environment. Details of the depth profile suggest that despite its stability, the canga has also been internally dynamic (translocation of material; solution and reprecipitation) over million-year timescales.

  3. Observation of multiphase magnetic state of hematite crystal during Morin transition by the method of section topography of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchetinkin, S.A.; Kvardakov, V.V.; Viler, Eh.; Barushel', Zh.; Shlenker, M.

    2005-01-01

    The boundaries between weak ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases in hematite crystals during Morin transition are detected by the section topography method by synchrotron radiation. It is shown that these boundaries are parallel to (111) surface hence magnetic phases during Morin transition separate the crystal by layers. Change of layer depth in dependence on temperature and magnetic field, and interaction interphase boundaries with crystal defects are observed [ru

  4. Deposition of hematite particles on alumina seal faceplates of nuclear reactor coolant pumps: Laboratory experiments and industrial feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre, Grégory; Živković, Ljiljana S.; Jaubertie, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors (PWR), the dynamic sealing system in reactor coolant pumps is ensured by mechanical seals whose ceramic parts are in contact with the cooling solution. During the stretch-out phase in reactor operation, characterized by low boric acid concentration, the leak-off flow has been observed to abnormally evolve in industrial plants. The deposition of hematite particles, originating from corrosion, on alumina seals of coolant pumps is suspec...

  5. A Density Functional Theory Study of the Adsorption of Benzene on Hematite (α-Fe2O3 Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Y. Dzade

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of mineral surfaces in the fundamental processes of adsorption, dissolution or growth, and electron transfer is directly tied to their atomic structure. However, unraveling the relationship between the atomic surface structure and other physical and chemical properties of complex metal oxides is challenging due to the mixed ionic and covalent bonding that can occur in these minerals. Nonetheless, with the rapid increase in computer processing speed and memory, computer simulations using different theoretical techniques can now probe the nature of matter at both the atomic and sub-atomic levels and are rapidly becoming an effective and quantitatively accurate method for successfully predicting structures, properties and processes occurring at mineral surfaces. In this study, we have used Density Functional Theory calculations to study the adsorption of benzene on hematite (α-Fe2O3 surfaces. The strong electron correlation effects of the Fe 3d-electrons in α-Fe2O3 were described by a Hubbard-type on-site Coulomb repulsion (the DFT+U approach, which was found to provide an accurate description of the electronic and magnetic properties of hematite. For the adsorption of benzene on the hematite surfaces, we show that the adsorption geometries parallel to the surface are energetically more stable than the vertical ones. The benzene molecule interacts with the hematite surfaces through π-bonding in the parallel adsorption geometries and through weak hydrogen bonds in the vertical geometries. Van der Waals interactions are found to play a significant role in stabilizing the absorbed benzene molecule. Analyses of the electronic structures reveal that upon benzene adsorption, the conduction band edge of the surface atoms is shifted towards the valence bands, thereby considerably reducing the band gap and the magnetic moments of the surface Fe atoms.

  6. NaF-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Ti-doped hematite nanocubes with enhanced photoelectrochemical activity for water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Chong; Zhu, Zezhou; Wang, Sibo; Hou, Yidong, E-mail: ydhou@fzu.edu.cn

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: An enhanced photoelectrochemical activity for water splitting was achieved over porous Ti-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocubes. - Highlights: . • Ti-doped hematite nanocubes were successfully prepared by NaF-assisted hydrothermal deposition and subsequent annealing. • Ti-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocubes showed an enhanced PEC activity with an IPCE of 25.2% at 340 nm at 1.23 V vs. RHE. • The enhanced activity of Ti-doped hematite nanocubes can be ascribed to high surface area and fast charge transportation. - Abstract: Ti-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocubes on FTO substrate was prepared by hydrothermal deposition β-FeOOH onto FTO glass with a solution of FeCl{sub 3}, TiOCl{sub 2} and NaF, followed by an appropriate annealing. In comparison to Ti-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods Ti-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocubes showed an enhanced photoelectrochemical activity for water splitting, with a remarkable IPCE of 25.2% at 340 nm at the potential of 1.23 V vs. RHE. The hematite films were studied in detail by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. On the basis of the obtained results, the improved performance of Ti-doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocubes can be ascribed to the porous structure, good electrical conductivity and fast charge transportation of hematite.

  7. Compositional Models of Hematite-Rich Spherules (Blueberries) at Meridiani Planum, Mars and Constraints on Their Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Mittlefehldt, D.

    2006-10-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity discovered hematite-rich spherules (``blueberries'') believed to be diagenetic concretions formed in the bedrock in stagnant or slow-moving groundwater. These spherules likely precipitated from solution, but their origins are poorly understood. Three formation mechanisms are possible: inclusive, replacive and displacive. The first would result in a distinct spherule composition compared to the other two. We propose that chemical clues may help to constrain the nature of blueberry formation. We used Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer data for undisturbed soils that were blueberry-free and with visible blueberries at the surface in Microscopic Imager images. We made plots of the elements versus iron for the spherule-rich soils and compared them to a mixing line representative of a pure hematite end member spherule (called ``the zero model''). This modeled the replacive formation mechanism, in which pure hematite would replace all of the original material. If the spherules grew inclusively, chemical data should reflect a compositional component of the rock grains included during formation. Four models were developed to test for possible compositions of a rock component. These models could not easily explain the APXS data and thus demonstrate that the most plausible rock compositions are not components of blueberries.

  8. Confinement and surface effects on the physical properties of rhombohedral-shape hematite (α-Fe_2O_3) nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, Carlos; Cuan-Guerra, Aída D.; Barriga-Castro, Enrique D.; Núñez, Nuria O.; Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniform rhombohedral hematite nanocrystals (RHNCs) have been obtained. • A detailed formation mechanism of these HNCS has been proposed. • Phonon confinement effects were revealed in the RHNCS vibrational bands. • Quantum confinement effects on the optical and electronic properties were found. - Abstract: Morphological, microstructural and vibrational properties of hematite (α-Fe_2O_3) nanocrystals with a rhombohedral shape and rounded edges, obtained by forced hydrolysis of iron(III) solutions under a fast nucleation, have been investigated in detail as a function of aging time. These studies allowed us to propose a detailed formation mechanism and revealed that these nanocrystals are composed of four {104} side facets, two {110} faces at the edges of the long diagonal of the nanocrystals and two {−441} facets as the top and bottom faces. Also, the presence of nanoscopic pores and fissures was evidenced. The vibrational bands of such nanocrystals were shifted to lower frequencies in comparison with bulk hematite ones as the nanocrystal size was reduced due to phonon confinement effects. Also, the indirect and direct transition band gaps displayed interesting dependences on the aging time arising from quantum confinement and surface effects

  9. Occlusion of chromophore oxides by Sol-Gel methods: Application to the synthesis of hematite-silica red pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent, J. B.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Heteromorphic pigments present the chromophore particle occluded in an encapsulating matrix which is thermally stable and insoluble in glazes. The occluded chromophore compound is also insoluble in the host matrix. In this work the mechanisms of formation of this type of pigments are analyzed and the occlusion of hematite into silica matrix is discussed. The formation of this hematite-silica red pigment follows a sintering-coarsening mechanism, and, consequently, the control of both hematite particles nucleation and their crystal growth results to be decisive to obtain a good coloring effectiveness.

    En los pigmentos heteromórficos la partícula de cromóforo es ocluida en una matriz encapsuladora estable tanto termicamente como frente a los vidriados. El compuesto cromóforo ocluido y la matriz no coloreada son insolubles. En este trabajo se analiza los diferentes mecanismos de formación de estos pigmentos heteromórficos y se estudia la oclusión de hematita en sílice mediante métodos sol-gel acuoso. El pigmento sigue un mecanismo de sinterización-crecimiento cristalino por lo que es muy importante controlar el momento de nucleación y la velocidad de crecimiento de las partículas de hematita en el seno de la matriz.

  10. Clusters and holes: Exchange networks in hematite-ilmenite solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, K.; McEnroe, S. A.; Robinson, P.

    2009-04-01

    Holes and clusters of exchange networks dominate the low-temperature, metastable phase diagram of the system (1 - x)Fe2O3 xF eTiO3 (Ilmx ). By our measurements we have probed and extended the phase diagram of Ishikawa et al. (1985) in the light of magnetic influences of the random exchange links, which originate either by replacing random pairs of Fe2+ and Ti4+ ions in the ordered ilmenite lattice by two Fe3+ions (ordered Ilmx phase), or by randomly replacing two Fe3+ ions in the hematite lattice by a pair of Fe2+ and Ti4+ ions (disordered Ilmx phase). Now a large dataset is available from these measurements, and we propose several new ideas to interpret the sometimes unexpected results. By refining a method of Ishikawa (1967), we analyze the PM' region of the phase diagram in terms of a mean field theory of interacting clusters. This allows to determine cluster sizes and interaction field distribution by inverting hysteresis measurements of Ilm92 and Ilm97. To understand the relation between ordered and disordered phases we design a mean field theory to determine Neel and Curie temperatures of both. An especially interesting finding is that the experimentally observed intersection of PM-PM' crossover with the AF phase boundary close to Ilm97 can be explained by analyzing average exchange interaction strengths.

  11. Adatom Fe(III on the hematite surface: Observation of a key reactive surface species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosso Kevin M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of a mineral surface is determined by the variety and population of different types of surface sites (e.g., step, kink, adatom, and defect sites. The concept of "adsorbed nutrient" has been built into crystal growth theories, and many other studies of mineral surface reactivity appeal to ill-defined "active sites." Despite their theoretical importance, there has been little direct experimental or analytical investigation of the structure and properties of such species. Here, we use ex-situ and in-situ scanning tunneling microcopy (STM combined with calculated images based on a resonant tunneling model to show that observed nonperiodic protrusions and depressions on the hematite (001 surface can be explained as Fe in an adsorbed or adatom state occupying sites different from those that result from simple termination of the bulk mineral. The number of such sites varies with sample preparation history, consistent with their removal from the surface in low pH solutions.

  12. Spectroscopic Confirmation of Uranium (VI)-Carbonato Adsorption Complexes on Hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargar, John R

    1999-01-01

    Evaluating societal risks posed by uranium contamination from waste management facilities, mining sites, and heavy industry requires knowledge about uranium transport in groundwater, often the most significant pathway of exposure to humans. It has been proposed that uranium mobility in aquifers may be controlled by adsorption of U(VI)-carbonato complexes on oxide minerals. The existence of such complexes has not been demonstrated, and little is known about their compositions and reaction stoichiometries. We have used Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies to probe the existence, structures, and compositions of FeO surface -U(VI)-carbonato complexes on hematite throughout the pH range of uranyl uptake under conditions relevant to aquifers. U(VI)-carbonato complexes were found to be the predominant adsorbed U(VI) species at all pH values examined, a much wider pH range than previously postulated based on analogy to aqueous U(VI)-carbonato complexes, which are trace constituents at pH < 6. This result indicates the inadequacy of the common modeling assumption that the compositions and predominance of adsorbed species can be inferred from aqueous species. By extension, adsorbed carbonato complexes may be of major importance to the groundwater transport of similar actinide contaminants such as neptunium and plutonium

  13. Spectroscopic confirmation of uranium(VI)-carbonato adsorption complexes on hematite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, John R.; Reitmeyer, Rebecca; Davis, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluating societal risks posed by uranium contamination from waste management facilities, mining sites, and heavy industry requires knowledge about uranium transport in groundwater, often the most significant pathway of exposure to humans. It has been proposed that uranium mobility in aquifers may be controlled by adsorption of U(VI)−carbonato complexes on oxide minerals. The existence of such complexes has not been demonstrated, and little is known about their compositions and reaction stoichiometries. We have used attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies to probe the existence, structures, and compositions of ≡FeOsurface−U(VI)−carbonato complexes on hematite throughout the pH range of uranyl uptake under conditions relevant to aquifers. U(VI)−carbonato complexes were found to be the predominant adsorbed U(VI) species at all pH values examined, a much wider pH range than previously postulated based on analogy to aqueous U(VI)−carbonato complexes, which are trace constituents at pH carbonato complexes may be of major importance to the groundwater transport of similar actinide contaminants such as neptunium and plutonium.

  14. Influence of hematite nanorods on the mechanical properties of epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Gordana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of nanocomposites obtained by incorporation of fairly uniform hematite nanorods (α-Fe2O3 NRs into epoxy resin were studied as a function of the content of the inorganic phase. A thorough microstructural characterization of the α-Fe2O3 NRs and the nanocomposites was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The TEM measurements revealed rod-like morphology of the nanofiller with a uniform size distribution (8.5 nm×170 nm, diameter×length. High-magnification TEM and AFM measurements indicated agglomeration of α-Fe2O3 NRs embedded in the epoxy resin. Stress at break, strain at break, elastic modulus and tensile toughness of the nanocomposites were compared with the data obtained for pure epoxy resin. Significant influence of nanofiller on the mechanical properties of epoxy resin, as well as on the glass transition temperature, could be noticed for samples with low contents of the inorganic phase (up to 1 wt. %. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 45020

  15. Production of low-silicon molten iron from high-silica hematite using biochar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-qing Tang∗; Xiu-feng Fu; Yan-qi Qin; Shi-yu Zhao; Qing-guo Xue

    2017-01-01

    A new method of utilizing high-silica hematite to produce low-silicon molten iron was proposed.In this method, FASTMELT, which comprised direct reduction and melt separation processes, was applied, with highly reactive biochar as the reductant in the direct reduction stage.The proposed method was ex-perimentally investigated and the results show that the method is feasible.In the direct reduction stage, ore-char briquette could achieve a metallization rate of 84%-88% and residual carbon of 0.27-0.89 mass% at temperature of 1 373 K, biochar mixing ratio of 0.8-0.9, and reduction time of 15 min.Some silica particles remained embedded in the iron phase after the reduction.In the melting separation stage, molten iron with a carbon content of 0.02-0.03 mass% and silicon content of 0.02-0.18 mass% could be obtained from the metallic briquettes under the above-mentioned conditions; the iron recovery rate was 83%-91% and impurities in the obtained metal were negligible.

  16. Quantitative Investigation of Roasting-magnetic Separation for Hematite Oolitic-ores: Mechanisms and Industrial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Tiefeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural high-quality iron can be directly applied to pyro-metallurgy process, however, the availability of these ores has become less and less due to exploitation. This research reports a systematic approach using reduction roasting and magnetic separation for oolitic iron ores from west Hubei Province. Firstly, a mineralogical study was performed and it was shown that the oolitic particles were mainly composed of hematite, with some silicon-quartz inside the oolitic particle. Then, the roasting temperature was examined and shown to have significant influence on both Fe recovery and the Fe content of the concentrate. Also the Fe content gradually increased as the temperature increased from 700 to 850 °C. The most important aspects are the quantitative investigation of change of mineral phases, and reduction area (with ratio during the reduction roasting process. The results showed that Fe2O3 decreased with temperature, and Fe3O4 (magnetite increased considerably from 600 to 800 °C. The reductive reaction was found to occur from the outside in, the original oolitic structure and embedding relationship among the minerals did not change after roasting. Finally, 5% surrounding rock was added to mimic real industrial iron beneficiation. This study could provides useful insight and practical support for the utilization of such iron ores.

  17. Optimization of flotation variables for the recovery of hematite particles from BHQ ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Swagat S.; Sahoo, Hrushikesh; Das, B.

    2013-07-01

    The technology for beneficiation of banded iron ores containing low iron value is a challenging task due to increasing demand of quality iron ore in India. A flotation process has been developed to treat one such ore, namely banded hematite quartzite (BHQ) containing 41.8wt% Fe and 41.5wt% SiO2, by using oleic acid, methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC), and sodium silicate as the collector, frother, and dispersant, respectively. The relative effects of these variables have been evaluated in half-normal plots and Pareto charts using central composite rotatable design. A quadratic response model has been developed for both Fe grade and recovery and optimized within the experimental range. The optimum reagent dosages are found to be as follows: collector concentration of 243.58 g/t, dispersant concentration of 195.67 g/t, pH 8.69, and conditioning time of 4.8 min to achieve the maximum Fe grade of 64.25% with 67.33% recovery. The predictions of the model with regard to iron grade and recovery are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Facet-controlled synthesis of polyhedral hematite/carbon composites with enhanced photoactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyi; Han, Sancan; Zhu, Yufang

    2018-06-01

    Much effort has been made to develop the semiconductor photocatalysis, but it is still challenging to fabricate low-cost and high-activity photocatalysts. In this study, Hematite (α-Fe2O3) with three kinds of morphologies including dodecahedron, tetrakaidecahedron and hexagonal nanoplates have been synthesized without any organic reagents. The photocatalytic performance reveals that the dodecahedron with exposed {1 0 1} facets is superior to the hexagonal nanoplates with predominant exposure of {0 0 1} facets in the case of similar BET surface area. For further enhancement of photocatalytic activity, carbon layer was coated on dodecahedral α-Fe2O3 through the self-polymerization of dopamine and following pyrolysis at 400 °C under Ar flow. Compared with the pristine dodecahedral α-Fe2O3, the α-Fe2O3/C composites exhibit stronger visible absorption, lower photoexcited electron-hole pairs recombination rate and better photodegradation activity. The photocatalytic performance showed the degradation rate of α-Fe2O3-D/4.5C is nearly 6 times higher than pristine α-Fe2O3, which have great potential for photocatalysis applications.

  19. Evaluation of the bleaching flux in clays containing hematite and different clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, E.M.; Lusa, T.; Silva, T.M.; Medeiros, B.B.; Santos, G.R. dos; Morelli, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the addition of a synthetic flux in a clay mineral constituted by illite phase in the presence of iron oxide with the hematite, promotes color change of the firing products, making the reddish color firing into whiteness. This flow is constituted of a vitreous phase of the silicates family obtained by fusion/solidification of oxides and carbonates. Thus, the objective of this work was that of studying the interaction of the iron element in the final color mechanism of the different types of mineral crystal phase of the clays. In order to study the phenomenon, we obtained different compositions between the select clays and the synthetic flow, and characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and visual analysis. The results showed that the action of the synthetic flow as a modifying agent for color depends on the mineral crystal phase of the clays. The color firing modification does not occur in the clays content high levels of kaolinite mineral phase. (author)

  20. Relation between electric properties and water saturation for hematitic sandstone with frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Gomaa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of water saturation on A. C. electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of fully and partially saturated hematitic sandstone sample (Aswan area, Egypt. The saturation of the sample was changed from partial to full saturation. Complex resistivity measurements at room temperature (~16°C, were performed in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 100 KHz. Experimental electrical spectra indicate, generally, that the electrical conductivity and dielectric constant vary strongly with water saturations and frequency. The low frequency electrical conductivity and dielectric constant are mainly controlled by surface conduction and polarization of the electrical double layer. The behaviour of the electrical conductivity and dielectric constant, with increasing water content, were argued to the orientational polarization of bound water for very low saturations, displacement of the excess surface charges for relatively low saturations, and free exchange of excess ions in double layer with the bulk electrolyte and generation of transient diffusion potentials which lag behind the applied field for high saturations.

  1. Hematite Thin Films with Various Nanoscopic Morphologies Through Control of Self-Assembly Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingling; Kim, Yong-Tae; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2015-05-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) thin films with various nanostructures were synthesized through self-assembly between iron oxide hydroxide particles, generated by hydrolysis and condensation of Fe(NO3)3 · 6H2O, and a Pluronic triblock copolymer (F127, (EO)106(PO)70(EO)106, EO = ethylene oxide, PO = propylene oxide), followed by calcination. The self-assembly structure can be tuned by introducing water in a controlled manner through the control of the humidity level in the surrounding of the as-cast films during aging stage. For the given Fe(NO3)3 · 6H2O:F127 ratio, there appear to be three different thermodynamically stable self-assembly structures depending on the water content in the film material, which correspond to mesoporous, spherical micellar, and rod-like micellar structures after removal of F127. Coupled with the thermodynamic driving forces, the kinetics of the irreversible reactions of coalescence of iron oxide hydroxide particles into larger ones induce diverse nanostructures of the resultant films. The length scale of so-obtained nanostructures ranges from 6 nm to a few hundred nanometers. In addition to water content, the effects of other experimental parameters such as aging temperature, spin rate during spin coating, type of substrate, and type of iron reagent were investigated.

  2. HECLA experiments on interaction between metallic melt and hematite-containing concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevon, Tuomo, E-mail: tuomo.sevon@vtt.f [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kinnunen, Tuomo; Virta, Jouko; Holmstroem, Stefan; Kekki, Tommi; Lindholm, Ilona [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-10-15

    In a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear power plant, molten materials may come into contact with concrete, causing concrete ablation. In five HECLA experiments the interaction between metallic melt and concrete was investigated by pouring molten stainless steel at almost 1800 {sup o}C into cylindrical concrete crucibles. The tests were transient, i.e. no decay heat simulation was used. The main objective was to test the behavior of the FeSi concrete, containing hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and siliceous aggregates. This special concrete type is used as a sacrificial layer in the Olkiluoto 3 EPR reactor pit, and very scarce experimental data is available about its behavior at high temperatures. It is concluded that no clear differences between the ablation of FeSi concrete and ordinary siliceous concrete were observed. The ablation depths were small, 25 mm at maximum. No dramatic effects, such as cracking of large pieces of concrete due to the thermal shock, took place. An important side result of the test series was gaining knowledge of the properties of the special concrete type. Chemical analyses were conducted and mechanical properties were measured.

  3. SEDIMENTARY LOW-MANGANESE HEMATITE DEPOSITS OF THE BUKOVICA AREA IN THE NORTHWESTERN MT. PETROVA GORA, CENTRAL CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivoj Čop

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Middle-Permian Gröden deposits crop out on the surface of 0.8 km in the Bukovica area and on the surface of 0.8 km2 in the Mt. Loskun-jska gora in the NW part of the Petrova gora Mountain. One half of the Bukovica Gröden deposits contains in its lowest parts 1 to 5 m (in average 2.5 m thick hematite bed cutted in blocks by NE-SW stretch¬ing vertical, normal and reverse faults. The hematite bed is unconfor-mably underlain by Lower Permian quartz-wackes (subgraywackes intercalated with shales intercalations. Ore deposit is explored by 308 boreholes (10509 m and by numerous adits, inclines and crosscuts on the underground surface of 0.4 km2 . From 1936 to 1941 and from 1953 to 1969 has been exploited 183000 t of ore with (in wt %: 34.0 Si02, 2.9 Al2O3; 59.0 Fe203; 0.15 MnO; 0.7 CaO; 0.4 MgO; 0.1 P, 0.37 S; 1.25 l.o. ign. Proven remaining ore reserves are 250.000 t. Paragenesis is investigated by microscopy of thin and polished sections, XRD, DTA, AAS analyses and by sedimentological analyses. Paragenesis major minerals are of hematite and quartz, with subordinate stable litho-clasts, muscovite (sericite and scarce kaolinite, calcite, dolomite, and barite. Accessories are zircon, rutile, tourmaline, amphibole, garnet, apatite. Epigenetic veinlets and small nests are built up of quartz or calcite as the main neominerals associated with siderite, barite, kaolinite, pyrite, gypsum. Iron from the Bukovica hematite ore origi¬nated by land weathering during hot climate and transported by rivers and underground waters deposited in river beds, in flood plains and in shallow sea. Precipitation of the Bukovica iron ores took place after the Saalic orogenetic phase. At Hrastno (SE Slovenia and at Rude nearby Samobor (Croatia, similar hematite deposits were found.

  4. Spectral characteristics of banded iron formations in Singhbhum craton, eastern India: Implications for hematite deposits on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banded iron formations (BIFs are major rock units having hematite layers intermittent with silica rich layers and formed by sedimentary processes during late Archean to mid Proterozoic time. In terrestrial environment, hematite deposits are mainly found associated with banded iron formations. The BIFs in Lake Superior (Canada and Carajas (Brazil have been studied by planetary scientists to trace the evolution of hematite deposits on Mars. Hematite deposits are extensively identified in Meridiani region on Mars. Many hypotheses have been proposed to decipher the mechanism for the formation of these deposits. On the basis of geomorphological and mineralogical studies, aqueous environment of deposition is found to be the most supportive mechanism for its secondary iron rich deposits. In the present study, we examined the spectral characteristics of banded iron formations of Joda and Daitari located in Singhbhum craton in eastern India to check its potentiality as an analog to the aqueous/marine environment on Mars. The prominent banding feature of banded iron formations is in the range of few millimeters to few centimeters in thickness. Fe rich bands are darker (gray in color compared to the light reddish jaspilitic chert bands. Thin quartz veins (<4 mm are occasionally observed in the hand-specimens of banded iron formations. Spectral investigations have been conducted in VIS/NIR region of electromagnetic spectrum in the laboratory conditions. Optimum absorption bands identified include 0.65, 0.86, 1.4 and 1.9 μm, in which 0.56 and 0.86 μm absorption bands are due to ferric iron and 1.4 and 1.9 μm bands are due to OH/H2O. To validate the mineralogical results obtained from VIS/NIR spectral radiometry, laser Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques were utilized and the results were found to be similar. Goethite-hematite association in banded iron formation in Singhbhum craton suggests dehydration activity, which has

  5. A novel hydrothermal approach for synthesizing α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 mesoporous magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthi, S. Amala; Nathan, D. Muthu Gnana Theresa; Jayashainy, J.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel method to synthesize the three phases of iron oxide nanoparticles (hematite, maghemite and magnetite) using the same non-toxic inorganic precursors via a water–organic interface under the low temperature hydrothermal conditions is reported. The synthesized particles are characterized by Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) results reveal the mesoporous nature of the particles. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles are studied by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) at various low temperatures and also at room temperature. The XRD peaks corresponding to each sample clearly depict the presence of the respective phase of the as-prepared magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of maghemite and magnetite have saturation magnetization of 58.56 and 40.30 emu/g respectively at room temperature, whereas the particles of hematite possess very low saturation magnetization value of 1.89 emu/g. Further, the magnetization is studied at four different temperatures and the zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetization are reported. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hematite, maghemite and magnetite are obtained under hydrothermal synthesis. • α-Fe 2 O 3 , γ-Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 prepared are mesoporous and nearly monodisperse. • Near superparamagnetism is observed at room temperature for maghemite and magnetite

  6. Final Report For Independent Confirmatory Survey Summary And Results For The Hematite Decommissioning Project, Festus, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Erika N.; Lee, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    ORAU conducted confirmatory surveys of the Hematite site during the period of June 12 through June 13, 2012. The survey activities included in-process inspections, document review, walkover surveys, sampling activities, and laboratory analysis of split samples. WEC was forthcoming with information relating to practices, procedures, and surface scan results. Scans performed by the WEC technician were extremely thorough and methodical. The WEC and ORAU technicians identified the same areas of elevated activity with comparable detector responses. WEC sampling of re-use soils, waste soils, sediments, and groundwater were conducted under ORAU observation. The sampling efforts observed by ORAU were performed in accordance with site-specific procedures and in a manner sufficient to provide quality supporting data. Three observations were made during groundwater sampling activities. First, the water level indicator was re-used without submitting rinse blank. Second, bubbles created during tubing extraction could indicate the presence of volatilized organic compounds. Third, samplers did not use a photo ionization detector prior to sample collection to indicate the presence of volatile organic vapors. Results of split samples indicated a high level of comparability between the WEC and ORAU/ORISE radiological laboratories. Analytical practices and procedures appear to be sufficient in providing quality radiochemical data. All concentrations from the Soil Re-Use Area and sediment samples are below Uniform radionuclide-specific derived concentration guideline level (DCGL W ) limits; thus, comparisons to the less conservative stratified geometry were not required. Results were compared to individual DCGLs and using the sum of fractions approach. Both composite soil samples collected from the Waste Handling Area (Bins 1 and 4) were well below the prescribed USEI waste acceptance criteria

  7. Surface termination dependence of the reactivity of single crystal hematite with CCl 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camillone, Nicholas, III; Adib, Kaveh; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Rim, Kwang T.; Flynn, George W.; Joyce, S. A.; Osgood, Richard M.

    2002-06-01

    We describe ultrahigh vacuum Auger electron spectrometric measurements of the uptake of chlorine following the room temperature exposure of single crystal hematite, α-Fe2O3, to CCl4. We compare the surface chemistry of two specific surface phases formed on the basal plane of α-Fe2O3: the Fe3O4(1 1 1)-(2×2) ;selvedge; and the α-Fe2O3/Fe1-xO ;biphase.; For Fe3O4(1 1 1)-(2×2) an estimated saturation level of Cl of ∼75% of a monolayer is readily attained. Carbon uptake is well below that expected for simple stoichiometric dissociative chemisorption, consistent with desorption of organic products during the surface reaction. Low energy electron diffraction measurements suggest that, dependent upon preparation procedures, at least two types of α-Fe2O3/Fe1-xO biphase structures can be formed. Surprisingly, upon exposure to CCl4, Cl uptake does not occur on either of these biphase surfaces, despite the fact that these surfaces are thought to have the same surface concentrations of iron and oxygen as Fe3O4(1 1 1). The dramatic difference between the reactivity of the Fe3O4 and biphase surfaces suggests that the active site for the dissociative adsorption of CCl4 on Fe3O4(1 1 1)-(2×2) comprises both an iron cation and an oxygen anion with a surface-normal-oriented dangling bond that is uncapped by iron cations. Electron stimulated and thermal desorption of Cl from the saturated Fe3O4(1 1 1)-(2×2) selvedge is also reported.

  8. The calculated solubilities of hematite, magnetite and lepidocrocite in steam generator feedtrains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, D.

    1997-05-01

    The solubility of three iron oxides [hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 (s)), magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 (s)) and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH(s))] under representative steam generator feedtrain conditions were calculated using a thermodynamic database for these oxides and the associated aqueous species. Using this database, we calculated the solubility of iron for both Fe 3 O 4 (s) in equilibrium with other iron oxides and for the individual oxides in the presence of various oxygen partial pressures. The results indicate that the solubility of iron is strongly dependent on redox conditions, represented either by dissolved H 2 or O 2 concentration, or by the presence of other iron oxides (stable or metastable). The solubility behaviour of these oxides can be explained by changes in the aqueous-phase speciation of iron with temperature and pH. Similar calculations for the individual oxides in the presence Of O 2 (g) are also presented and were used to construct temperature-dependent phase diagrams for these oxides in equilibrium (including metastable conditions) with 1 ppb (ppb - μg·kg -1 ) of soluble iron. Calculations were also performed for feedtrain solutions containing 5 ppb of dissolved oxygen and pH buffered using mixtures of amines. From these calculations it was concluded that, relative to the oxidation potential and temperature of the feedtrain solution, changing the pH-buffer has only a minor effect on iron solubility. The effect of the variation in iron solubility along the feedtrain with solution pH, temperature and redox potential on corrosion-product transport to the boiler is also discussed. (author)

  9. Pyrite oxidation in the presence of hematite and alumina: I. Batch leaching experiments and kinetic modeling calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Veerawattananun, Suchol; Ito, Mayumi; Hiroyoshi, Naoki; Igarashi, Toshifumi

    2017-02-15

    Pyrite is one of the most common and geochemically important sulfide minerals in nature because of its role in the redox recycling of iron (Fe). It is also the primary cause of acid mine drainage (AMD) that is considered as a serious and widespread problem facing the mining and mineral processing industries. In the environment, pyrite oxidation occurs in the presence of ubiquitous metal oxides, but the roles that they play in this process remain largely unknown. This study evaluates the effects of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) and alumina (α-Al 2 O 3 ) on pyrite oxidation by batch-reactor type experiments, surface-sensitive characterization of the oxidation layer and thermodynamic/kinetic modeling calculations. In the presence of hematite, dissolved sulfur (S) concentration dramatically decreased independent of the pH, and the formation of intermediate sulfoxy anionic species on the surface of pyrite was retarded. These results indicate that hematite minimized the overall extent of pyrite oxidation, but the kinetic model could not explain how this suppression occurred. In contrast, pyrite oxidation was enhanced in the alumina suspension as suggested by the higher dissolved S concentration and stronger infrared (IR) absorption bands of surface-bound oxidation products. Based on the kinetic model, alumina enhanced the oxidative dissolution of pyrite because of its strong acid buffering capacity, which increased the suspension pH. The higher pH values increased the oxidation of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ by dissolved O 2 (DO) that enhanced the overall oxidative dissolution kinetics of pyrite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Control of the shape and size of iron oxide (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles synthesized through the chemical precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajid Lassoued

    Full Text Available Hematite (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple chemical precipitation method. The impact of varying the concentration of precursor on the crystalline phase, size and morphology of α-Fe2O3 products was explored. The characteristic of the synthesized hematite nanoparticles were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA, Ultraviolet–Visible (UV–Vis analysis and Photoluminescence (PL. XRD data revealed a rhombohedral (hexagonal structure with the space group R-3c in all samples. Uniform spherical like morphology was confirmed by TEM and SEM. The result revealed that the particle sizes were varied between 21 and 82 nm and that the increase in precursor concentration (FeCl3, 6H2O is accompanied by an increase in the particle size of 21 nm for pure α-Fe2O3 synthesized with [Fe3+] = 0.05 M at 82 nm for pure α-Fe2O3 synthesized with [Fe3+] = 0.4 M. FT-IR confirms the phase purity of the nanoparticles synthesized. The Raman spectroscopy was used not only to prove that we have synthesized pure hematite but also to identify their phonon modes. The thermal behavior of compound was studied by using TGA/DTA results: The TGA showed three mass losses, whereas DTA resulted in three endothermic peaks. Besides, the optical investigation revealed that samples have an optical gap of about 2.1 eV and that this value varies as a function of the precursor concentration. Keywords: Nanoparticles, Hematite (α-Fe2O3, Precipitation, Precursor, Size, Band gap

  11. Pressure response of vacancy ordered maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high pressure transformed hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearne, Giovanni, E-mail: grhearne@uj.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 Johannesburg (South Africa); Pischedda, Vittoria, E-mail: Vittoria.Pischedda@univ-lyon1.fr [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee et Nanostructures, University Lyon 1 and CNRS, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    Combined XRD and Moessbauer effect spectroscopy studies to high pressures of {approx}30 GPa of vacancy ordered maghemite are presented. The vacancy ordered superstructure is robust and remains intact up to the pressure-induced onset transition to hematite at 13-16 GPa. The pressure transformed hematite is shown to be crystallographically textured, unlike the randomised low pressure maghemite phase. This arises out of a pressure or stress instigated topotactic transformation of the cubic-spinel to hexagonal-corundum structure. The textured sample permits us to obtain information on the spin reorientation behavior of the pressure transformed hematite in compression and decompression sequences. Spin reorientation is restricted to {approx}15 Degree-Sign over wide pressure ranges, attributable to the effect of entrapped vacancies in the high pressure structure. Thus there are structural and magnetic peculiarities specific to pressure transformed hematite not evident in pressurized hematite starting material. These are triggered by the maghemite{yields}hematite transformation. - Graphical abstract: Pressure instigated topotactic transformation of vacancy ordered {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}{yields}{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. There is restricted spin (B{sub hf}) reorientation in the new pressure transformed hematite due to entrapped vacancies. The change in direction of V{sub zz} signifies a distortion of the FeO{sub 6} octahedral local environment. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robust vacancy ordered superstructure in maghemite to high pressures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pressure instigated topotactic transformation to hematite and subsequent texture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Defect trapping in the pressure transformed hematite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Entrapped defects restricts spin reorientation in pressure transformed hematite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contrasting behavior with pressurized hematite starting material.

  12. Experimental Acid Weathering of Fe-Bearing Mars Analog Minerals and Rocks: Implications for Aqueous Origin of Hematite-Bearing Sediments in Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Koster, A. M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    A working hypothesis for Meridiani evaporite formation involves the evaporation of fluids derived from acid weathering of Martian basalts and subsequent diagenesis [1, 2]. However, there are no reported experimental studies for the formation of jarosite and gray hematite (spherules), which are characteristic of Meridiani rocks from Mars analog precursor minerals. A terrestrial analog for hematite spherule formation from basaltic rocks under acidic hydrothermal conditions has been reported [3], and we have previously shown that the hematite spherules and jarosite can be synthetically produced in the laboratory using Fe3+ -bearing sulfate brines under hydrothermal conditions [4]. Here we expand and extend these studies by reacting Mars analog minerals with sulfuric acid to form Meridiani-like rock-mineral compositions. The objective of this study is to provide environmental constraints on past aqueous weathering of basaltic materials on Mars.

  13. The different climatic response of pedogenic hematite and ferrimagnetic minerals: Evidence from particle-sized modern soils over the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinbo; Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Oldfield, Frank; Bloemendal, Jan; Deng, Chenglong; Song, Yang; Ge, Junyi; Wu, Haibin; Xu, Bing; Li, Fengjiang; Han, Long; Fu, Yu; Guo, Zhengtang

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, increasing interest in loess studies has focused on qualitative and quantitative paleoclimatic reconstruction using the imperfect antiferromagnetic mineral hematite. However, the linkage between the hematite formation and climatic variables remains controversial. Here we present the results of a comprehensive investigation of the magnetic properties and statistical analysis of a suite of clay and silt fractions of modern soil samples from 179 sites across the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) and adjacent regions. Our objective was to clarify the relationships between modern climatic variables and pedogenic hematite, as well as pedogenic ferrimagnetic minerals. First-order reversal curve measurements were also conducted on representative particle-sized subsamples from a N-S transect to understand the differences in magnetic mineralogy between the two fractions. Our results show that pipette extraction separates the fine-grained superparamagnetic (SP) and most of the single-domain (SD) magnetic grains into the clay fraction, and that the remaining silt fraction displays the magnetic properties of coarse pseudo-single domain (PSD) or a mixture of multidomain (MD)/PSD and a few SD particles. Only the pedogenic clay fraction shows a strong correlation with climatic variables. The application of redundancy analysis helps to distinguish the climate variables controlling the formation of ferrimagnetic minerals and hematite during pedogenesis. On the CLP, pedogenic ferrimagnetic minerals are sensitive to mean annual precipitation, while pedogenic hematite formation is preferentially dependent on mean annual temperature. The confirmation of the temperature-dependent nature of hematite on the CLP provides a new possibility for quantitatively reconstructing the paleotemperature history of Chinese loess/paleosol sequences.

  14. Deposition of hematite particles on alumina seal faceplates of nuclear reactor coolant pumps: Laboratory experiments and industrial feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefèvre Grégory

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors (PWR, the dynamic sealing system in reactor coolant pumps is ensured by mechanical seals whose ceramic parts are in contact with the cooling solution. During the stretch-out phase in reactor operation, characterized by low boric acid concentration, the leak-off flow has been observed to abnormally evolve in industrial plants. The deposition of hematite particles, originating from corrosion, on alumina seals of coolant pumps is suspected to be the cause. As better understanding of the adhesion mechanism is the key factor in the prevention of fouling and particle removal, an experimental study was carried out using a laboratory set-up. With model materials, hematite and sintered alumina, the adhesion rate and surface potentials of the interacting solids were measured under different chemical conditions (solution pH and composition in analogy with the PWR ones. The obtained results were in good agreement with the DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey- Overbeek theory and used as such to interpret this industrial phenomenon.

  15. Effect of EDTA on quartz and hematite flotation with starch/amine in an aqueous solution containing Mn2+ ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisiane Ferreira Lelis

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a detailed study of the influence of Mn2+ ions on quartz and hematite flotation (at pH 10.5 with starch/amine as depressor/collector in the absence and presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA is presented. By using zeta potential measurement and a careful analysis of manganese species present in water for dosages in which manganese hydroxide precipitated, we confirmed that the depression of both minerals by Mn2+ ions is due to the following: (i the adsorption of Mn hydroxy complexes (Mn2(OH3+ and Mn(OH+; (ii Mn2+ and mainly (iii the precipitation of Mn(OH2 on mineral surfaces. These effects hindered the adsorption of amine species on the surfaces of the minerals (quartz and hematite. EDTA was used to complex Mn2+ to restore the recoveries of both minerals. This was confirmed by the species distribution diagrams of Mn and EDTA-Mn in water. Conditioning with starch followed by amine at pH 10.5 enabled a selective separation of these minerals.

  16. In situ spectroscopic identification of neptunium(V) inner-sphere complexes on the hematite-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Katharina; Gröschel, Annett; Rossberg, André; Bok, Frank; Franzen, Carola; Brendler, Vinzenz; Foerstendorf, Harald

    2015-02-17

    Hematite plays a decisive role in regulating the mobility of contaminants in rocks and soils. The Np(V) reactions at the hematite-water interface were comprehensively investigated by a combined approach of in situ vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and surface complexation modeling. A variety of sorption parameters such as Np(V) concentration, pH, ionic strength, and the presence of bicarbonate was considered. Time-resolved IR spectroscopic sorption experiments at the iron oxide-water interface evidenced the formation of a single monomer Np(V) inner-sphere sorption complex. EXAFS provided complementary information on bidentate edge-sharing coordination. In the presence of atmospherically derived bicarbonate the formation of the bis-carbonato inner-sphere complex was confirmed supporting previous EXAFS findings.1 The obtained molecular structure allows more reliable surface complexation modeling of recent and future macroscopic data. Such confident modeling is mandatory for evaluating water contamination and for predicting the fate and migration of radioactive contaminants in the subsurface environment as it might occur in the vicinity of a radioactive waste repository or a reprocessing plant.

  17. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of Ti-doped hematite thin films prepared by the sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian Xiaojuan; Yang Xin; Liu Shangjun; Xu Ying; Jiang Chunping; Chen Jinwei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu 610065 (China); Wang Ruilin, E-mail: rlwang26@yahoo.com.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Ti-doped {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were successfully prepared on FTO substrates by the sol-gel route. Hematite film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The XRD data showed {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} had a preferred (1 1 0) orientation which belonged to the rhombohedral system. Interestingly, the grains turned into worm-like shape after annealed at high temperature. The IPCE could reach 32.6% at 400 nm without any additional potential vs. SCE. Titanium in the lattice can affect the photo electro chemical performance positively by increasing the conductivity of the thin film. So the excited electrons and holes could live longer, rather than recombining with each other rapidly as undoped hematite. And the efficient carrier density on the Ti-doped anode surface was higher than the undoped anode, which contribute to the well PEC performance.

  18. Method for Transformation of Weakly Magnetic Minerals (Hematite, Goethite into Strongly Magnetic Mineral (Magnetite to Improve the Efficiency of Technologies for Oxidized Iron Ores Benefication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarenko, O.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new method for relatively simple transformation of weakly magnetic minerals (goethite (α-FeOOH and hematite (α-Fe2O3 into strongly magnetic mineral (magnetite (Fe3O4 was developed. It was shown, that transformation of structure and magnetic characteristics of go ethite and hematite are realized in the presence of starch at relatively low temperatures (in the range of 300—600 °С. Obtained results open up new possibilities for development of effective technologies for oxidized iron ore beneficiation.

  19. Effectiveness of hand washing on the removal of iron oxide nanoparticles from human skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; Berthet, Aurélie; Maurizi, Lionel; Eisenbeis, Antoine; Hopf, Nancy B

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of washing with soap and water in removing nanoparticles from exposed skin was investigated. Dry, nanoscale hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) or maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) powder, with primary particle diameters between 20-30 nm, were applied to two samples each of fresh and frozen ex vivo human skin in two independent experiments. The permeation of nanoparticles through skin, and the removal of nanoparticles after washing with soap and water were investigated. Bare iron oxide nanoparticles remained primarily on the surface of the skin, without penetrating beyond the stratum corneum. Skin exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles for 1 and 20 hr resulted in removal of 85% and 90%, respectively, of the original dose after washing. In the event of dermal exposure to chemicals, removal is essential to avoid potential local irritation or permeation across skin. Although manufactured at an industrial scale and used extensively in laboratory experiments, limited data are available on the removal of engineered nanoparticles after skin contact. Our finding raises questions about the potential consequences of nanoparticles remaining on the skin and whether alternative washing methods should be proposed. Further studies on skin decontamination beyond use of soap and water are needed to improve the understanding of the potential health consequences of dermal exposure to nanoparticles.

  20. Acquisition of chemical remanent magnetization during experimental ferrihydrite-hematite conversion in Earth-like magnetic field-implications for paleomagnetic studies of red beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Tauxe, Lisa; Qin, Huafeng; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José

    2015-01-01

    Hematite-bearing red beds are renowned for their chemical remanent magnetization (CRM). If the CRM was acquired substantially later than the sediment was formed, this severely compromises paleomagnetic records. To improve our interpretation of the natural remanent magnetization, the intricacies of

  1. Magneto-optical effects of reflection on monocrystals of ferrite garnets, orthoferrites hexaferrites and hematite. [Yttrium oxides iron oxides; europium oxides; bismuth oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinchik, G S; Krylova, V A; Khrebtov, A P; Chepurova, E E

    1975-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the equatorial Kerr effect in visible and ultraviolet ranges of the spectrum are given for ferromagnetic dielectrics of different classes: ferrimagnetic ferrite garnets and hexaferrites, as well as weakly ferromagnetic orthoferrites and hematite. A method for the nondestructive magneto-optical data readout using reflected light is proposed and described.

  2. Anodic self-organized transparent nanotubular/porous hematite films from Fe thin-films sputtered on FTO and photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, L.; Lee, C.-Y.; Kirchgeorg, R.; Liu, N.; Lee, K.; Kment, Š.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Krýsa, J.; Olejníček, J.; Čada, M.; Zbořil, R.; Schmuki, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 12 (2015), s. 9333-9341 ISSN 0922-6168. [Pannonian Symposium on Catalysis /12./. Třešť, 16.09.2014-20.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hematite * nanotubular * anodization * magnetron * sputtering * water splitting Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2015

  3. Imaging properties of cerium doped Yttrium Aluminum Oxide (YAP:Ce) powder scintillating screens under X-ray excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivas, N. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, 15310 Ag. Paraskevi, P.O. Box 60092 (Greece); Valais, I. [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece)]|[Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Aigaleo, 12210 Athens (Greece); Salemis, G.; Karagiannis, C.; Konstantinidis, A.; Nikolopoulos, D. [Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Aigaleo, 12210 Athens (Greece); Loudos, G.; Sakelios, N.; Karakatsanis, N.; Nikita, K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou, 15780 Zografos (Greece); Gayshan, V.L.; Gektin, A.V. [Institute of Scintillation Materials, Lenin Avenue 60, 310072 Kharkov (Ukraine); Sianoudis, I. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Materials Technology, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Aigaleo, 12210 Athens (Greece); Giokaris, N. [Physics Department National Capodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis Ilisia, 15771 Athens (Greece)]|[Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications, P.O. Box 17214, 10024 Athens (Greece); Nomicos, C.D. [Department of Electronics, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Aigaleo, 12210 Athens (Greece); Dimitropoulos, N. [Department of Medical Imaging, ' Euromedica' Medical Center, Mesogeion 2-4, 11527 Athens (Greece); Cavouras, D. [Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Aigaleo, 12210 Athens (Greece); Panayiotakis, G. [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Kandarakis, I. [Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Aigaleo, 12210 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: kandarakis@teiath.gr

    2006-12-20

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the imaging performance of YAP:Ce powder scintillating screens under exposure conditions employed in diagnostic radiology (50-140 kV). Various screens were prepared in our laboratory from YAP: Ce powder (Phosphor Technology, Ltd.), with coating thickness ranging from 53 to 110 mg/cm{sup 2}. The imaging performance of the screens was assessed by experimental determination of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the noise transfer function (NTF). MTF was determined by the edge spread function (ESF) method while NTF was estimated by noise power spectrum (NPS) measurements after uniform screen irradiation. In addition, parameters related to overall image quality, such as the signal-to-noise ratio transfer (MTF/NTF), were estimated. MTF curves were affected by the beam hardening effects caused by the patient simulating 20 mm thick aluminum phantom. Under these conditions MTF values were found to increase with the mean X-ray photon energy. A similar effect was observed for NTF curves. Results were compared with data obtained on CsI:Tl scintillator. Taking into consideration the very fast response of YAP:Ce, these data may be of interest in designing X-ray imaging detectors.

  4. Effect of ultrasound treatment on the morpho-structural and luminescent characteristics of cerium doped yttrium silicate phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muresan, L.E., E-mail: laura_muresan2003@yahoo.com [“Raluca Ripan” Institute for Research in Chemistry, Babeş Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cadis, A.I.; Perhaita, I. [“Raluca Ripan” Institute for Research in Chemistry, Babeş Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Silipas, D.T. [National Institute for R& D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donath 67-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tudoran, L. Barbu [Electronic Microscopy Centre, Babeş Bolyai University, Clinicilor 37, 400006 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce is prepared by gel combustion in ultrasound conditions (US). • Morpho-structural characteristics are revealed based on FTIR, SEM, XRD, BET. • Incorporation of Ce{sup 3+} in X1/X2 type centers depends on preparative conditions. • US treatment increases the luminescent performances up to 151%. - Abstract: Cerium activated yttrium silicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce) phosphors were prepared by gel-combustion, using yttrium–cerium nitrate as oxidizer, aspartic acid as fuel and TEOS as source of silicon. Two modalities for samples preparation were approached namely: the classical gel-combustion and sonication gel-combustion. The ultrasound treatment during the gelling stage has a positive effect on the structural and luminescent characteristics of the final product. Therefore, a well crystallized single X2–Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phase phosphor was obtained at 1200 °C. Based on FT-IR and XRD investigations, conversion of X1 to X2–Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phases is observed as the firing temperature is varied (1100 °C, 1200 °C, 1300 °C 1400 °C). The ultrasound treatment leads to smaller particle size and enhances the luminescent performances up to 151% in comparison with samples prepared by classical way.

  5. (BDMCA) Nanoparticles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Nanoparticle formulations were fabricated by a double emulsion solvent evaporation technique using polycaprolactone as the polymer. The nanoparticles were characterised for drug content, particles size, in vitro drug release and the drug-polymer interaction. The in vivo properties of the formulations in male ...

  6. Magnetic properties of ilmenite-hematite single crystals from the Ecstall pluton near Prince Rupert, British Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, Sarah J.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of the 91 Ma Ecstall pluton and other Cretaceous plutons of British Columbia imply large northward tectonic movements (>2000 km) may have occurred during the tectonic evolution of western North America. However, more recent studies have shown that the eastern edge...... of the Ecstall pluton experienced considerable mineralogical changes as younger Eocene plutons, such as the ∼58 Ma Quottoon Pluton, were emplaced along its margins. We investigated changes in the rock magnetic properties associated with this reheating event by examining isolated grains of intergrown ilmenite...... and hematite, the primary paleomagnetic recorder in the Ecstall pluton. Measurements of hysteresis properties, low-temperature remanence, and room temperature isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition and observations from magnetic force microscopy and off-axis electron holography indicate that samples...

  7. Neptunium redox behavior and sorption onto goethite and hematite in the presence of humic acids with different hydroquinone content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanova, A.B.; Kalmykov, St.N.; Perminova, I.V.; Clark, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of humic acids (HA) on neptunium redox behavior and sorption onto hematite, α-Fe 2 O 3 , and goethite, α-FeOOH, colloids was established in batch sorption experiments that were carried out in broad pH interval. The sorption isotherms were provided for two samples of HA: commercial sample of leonardite humic acid and its hydroquinone-enriched derivative obtained using formaldehyde copolycondensation. The distribution of Np fitted the distribution of hydroquinone-enriched HA at low pH values in case of both solids while the influence of parent HA on Np sorption was negligible. This is due to Np(V) reduction upon interaction with hydroquinone-enriched derivative having higher reducing capacity compared to the parent HA. The order of components addition was found to be significant for Np retention

  8. Photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation of the urea onto TiO2-nanotubes modified by hematite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Omymen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of the urea in near neutral pH is investigated on platinum electrode. It is shown that oxidation reaction is practically inhibited up to the potentials of ∼0.9 V. The same reaction is investigated onto electrochemically obtained titanium dioxide nanotubes modified by hematite using facile, low-cost successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. It is shown that such system possesses electrocatalytic activity at very low potentials, and activity can be further improved by the illumination of the electrode in the photo-assisted reaction. The possible application of the photoactive anode is considered in the application of urea based water electrolysis and urea based fuel cell. Keywords: Photoelectrochemical cell, Water electrolysis, Fuel cell, SILAR

  9. AMS Fabric of a CRM in Hematite-Bearing Samples: Evidence of DRMs in Natural Red Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K. P.

    2002-12-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of isothermal remanence (AIR) in red sedimentary rocks both typically show a bedding parallel foliation with minimum axes clustered perpendicular to the bedding plane. Our studies have observed this type of magnetic fabric in red bed units that have a range of ages and come from widespread localities. These units include the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation from the Appalachians, the Triassic Passaic Formation from the Newark basin in Pennsylvania, the Cretaceous Kapusaliang Formation from the Tarim basin in China, and the early Mesozoic Kayenta and Chinle Formations from the Colorado Plateau in southwestern North America. Bedding parallel foliations are also observed in magnetite-bearing rocks that carry a depositional remanence (DRM), suggesting the possibility of a DRM in red beds, even though the conventional wisdom is that they carry a post-depositional chemical remanent magnetization (CRM). Before the typical magnetic fabric of red beds can be used to indicate their type of remanence, we must determine what the magnetic fabric of a CRM looks like. For this reason, I conducted a series of hematite-growth experiments following the procedures outlined by Stokking and Tauxe (1987). I grew hematite in the laboratory on stacks of glass-fiber filter papers and in slurries of quartz and kaolinite. The hematite was grown from a ferric nitrate solution heated to 95° C for 8 hours. The samples were then dehydrated in a vacuum at room temperature for approximately 38 hours. It was possible to thermally demagnetize the eight filter paper samples to 350° C, but the six kaolinite-quartz samples were grown in plastic sample cubes and could only be thermally demagnetized to 150° C, enough to remove the thermoviscous magnetization acquired by the samples during the heating at 95° C. The mean CRM acquired by the red-brown magnetic phase grown in the experiments was within its alpha-95 of the steeply inclined

  10. Direct Solar Charging of an Organic-Inorganic, Stable, and Aqueous Alkaline Redox Flow Battery with a Hematite Photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedege, Kristina; Azevedo, João; Khataee, Amirreza; Bentien, Anders; Mendes, Adélio

    2016-06-13

    The intermittent nature of the sunlight and its increasing contribution to electricity generation is fostering the energy storage research. Direct solar charging of an auspicious type of redox flow battery could make solar energy directly and efficiently dispatchable. The first solar aqueous alkaline redox flow battery using low cost and environmentally safe materials is demonstrated. The electrolytes consist of the redox couples ferrocyanide and anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate in sodium hydroxide solution, yielding a standard cell potential of 0.74 V. Photovoltage enhancement strategies are demonstrated for the ferrocyanide-hematite junction by employing an annealing treatment and growing a layer of a conductive polyaniline polymer on the electrode surface, which decreases electron-hole recombination. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules

    2015-07-14

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  12. On the impact of non-sphericity and small-scale surface roughness on the optical properties of hematite aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahnert, Michael; Nousiainen, Timo; Mauno, Paeivi

    2011-01-01

    We perform a comparative modelling study to investigate how different morphological features influence the optical properties of hematite aerosols. We consider high-order Chebyshev particles as a proxy for aerosol with a small-scale surface roughness, and spheroids as a model for nonspherical aerosols with a smooth boundary surface. The modelling results are compared to those obtained for homogeneous spherical particles. It is found that for hematite particles with an absorption efficiency of order unity the difference in optical properties between spheres and spheroids disappears. For optically softer particles, such as ice particles at far-infrared wavelengths, this effect can be observed for absorption efficiencies lower than unity. The convergence of the optical properties of spheres and spheroids is caused by absorption and quenching of internal resonances inside the particles, which depend both on the imaginary part of the refractive index and on the size parameter, and to some extent on the real part of the refractive index. By contrast, small-scale surface roughness becomes the dominant morphological feature for large particles. This effect is likely to depend on the amplitude of the surface roughness, the relative significance of internal resonances, and possibly on the real part of the refractive index. The extinction cross section is rather insensitive to surface roughness, while the single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and the Mueller matrix are strongly influenced. Small-scale surface roughness reduces the backscattering cross section by up to a factor of 2-3 as compared to size-equivalent particles with a smooth boundary surface. This can have important implications for the interpretation of lidar backscattering observations.

  13. Thermo-mechanical characterization of siliconized E-glass fiber/hematite particles reinforced epoxy resin hybrid composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arun Prakash, V.R., E-mail: vinprakash101@gmail.com; Rajadurai, A., E-mail: rajadurai@annauniv.edu.in

    2016-10-30

    when surface modified fiber was reinforced along with hard hematite particles. Thermal conductivity of epoxy increased with increase of hematite content in epoxy matrix.

  14. Spin Crossover and the Magnetic P- T Phase Diagram of Hematite at High Hydrostatic Pressures and Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriliuk, A. G.; Struzhkin, V. V.; Mironovich, A. A.; Lyubutin, I. S.; Troyan, I. A.; Chow, P.; Xiao, Y.

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic properties of the α-Fe2O3 hematite at a high hydrostatic pressure have been studied by synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy (nuclear forward scattering (NFS)) on iron nuclei. Time-domain NFS spectra of hematite have been measured in a diamond anvil cell in the pressure range of 0-72 GPa and the temperature range of 36-300 K in order to study the magnetic properties at a phase transition near a critical pressure of 50 GPa. In addition, Raman spectra at room temperature have been studied in the pressure range of 0-77 GPa. Neon has been used as a pressure-transmitting medium. The appearance of an intermediate electronic state has been revealed at a pressure of 48 GPa. This state is probably related to the spin crossover in Fe3+ ions at their transition from the high-spin state (HS, S = 5/2) to a low-spin one (LS, S = 1/2). It has been found that the transient pressure range of the HS-LS crossover is extended from 48 to 55 GPa and is almost independent of the temperature. This surprising result differs fundamentally from other cases of the spin crossover in Fe3+ ions observed in other crystals based on iron oxides. The transition region of spin crossover appears because of thermal fluctuations between HS and LS states in the critical pressure range and is significantly narrowed at cooling because of the suppression of thermal excitations. The magnetic P- T phase diagram of α-Fe2O3 at high pressures and low temperatures in the spin crossover region has been constructed according to the results of measurements.

  15. (shell) nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the quasistatic approximation shows good agreement with the Mie theory results. .... medium, respectively, and f = (rcore/rshell)1/3 is the fraction of the total particle ..... [27] Michael Quinten, Optical properties of nanoparticle systems: Mie and ...

  16. In situ spectroscopic evidence for neptunium(V)-carbonate inner-sphere and outer-sphere ternary surface complexes on hematite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yuji; Moran, P B; Honeyman, B D; Davis, J A

    2007-06-01

    Np(V) surface speciation on hematite surfaces at pH 7-9 under pC2 = 10(-3.45) atm was investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). In situ XAS analyses suggest that bis-carbonato inner-sphere and tris-carbonato outer-sphere ternary surface species coexist at the hematite-water interface at pH 7-8.8, and the fraction of outer-sphere species gradually increases from 27 to 54% with increasing pH from 7 to 8.8. The results suggest that the heretofore unknown Np(V)-carbonato ternary surface species may be important in predicting the fate and transport of Np(V) in the subsurface environment down gradient of high-level nuclear waste respositories.

  17. Spatial and spectral resolution of carbonaceous material from hematite (α-Fe2O3) using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) with Raman microspectroscopic mapping: implications for the search for life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph P; Smith, Frank C; Booksh, Karl S

    2017-08-21

    The search for evidence of extant or past life on Mars is a primary objective of both the upcoming Mars 2020 rover (NASA) and ExoMars 2020 rover (ESA/Roscosmos) missions. This search will involve the detection and identification of organic molecules and/or carbonaceous material within the Martian surface environment. For the first time on a mission to Mars, the scientific payload for each rover will include a Raman spectrometer, an instrument well-suited for this search. Hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) is a widespread mineral on the Martian surface. The 2LO Raman band of hematite and the Raman D-band of carbonaceous material show spectral overlap, leading to the potential misidentification of hematite as carbonaceous material. Here we report the ability to spatially and spectrally differentiate carbonaceous material from hematite using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) applied to Raman microspectroscopic mapping under both 532 nm and 785 nm excitation. For this study, a sample comprised of hematite, carbonaceous material, and substrate-adhesive epoxy in spatially distinct domains was constructed. Principal component analysis (PCA) reveals that both 532 nm and 785 nm excitation produce representative three-phase systems of hematite, carbonaceous material, and substrate-adhesive epoxy in the analyzed sample. MCR-ALS with Raman microspectroscopic mapping using both 532 nm and 785 nm excitation was able to resolve hematite, carbonaceous material, and substrate-adhesive epoxy by generating spatially-resolved chemical maps and corresponding Raman spectra of these spatially distinct chemical species. Moreover, MCR-ALS applied to the combinatorial data sets of 532 nm and 785 nm excitation, which contain hematite and carbonaceous material within the same locations, was able to resolve hematite, carbonaceous material, and substrate-adhesive epoxy. Using multivariate analysis with Raman microspectroscopic mapping, 785 nm excitation more effectively

  18. Trade-off between Zr Passivation and Sn Doping on Hematite Nanorod Photoanodes for Efficient Solar Water Oxidation: Effects of a ZrO2 Underlayer and FTO Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Arunprabaharan; Annamalai, Alagappan; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Choi, Sun Hee; Ryu, Jungho; Park, Jung Hee; Jang, Jum Suk

    2016-08-03

    Herein we report the influence of a ZrO2 underlayer on the PEC (photoelectrochemical) behavior of hematite nanorod photoanodes for efficient solar water splitting. Particular attention was given to the cathodic shift in onset potential and photocurrent enhancement. Akaganite (β-FeOOH) nanorods were grown on ZrO2-coated FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates. Sintering at 800 °C transformed akaganite to the hematite (α-Fe2O3) phase and induced Sn diffusion into the crystal structure of hematite nanorods from the FTO substrates and surface migration, shallow doping of Zr atoms from the ZrO2 underlayer. The ZrO2 underlayer-treated photoanode showed better water oxidation performance compared to the pristine (α-Fe2O3) photoanode. A cathodic shift in the onset potential and photocurrent enhancement was achieved by surface passivation and shallow doping of Zr from the ZrO2 underlayer, along with Sn doping from the FTO substrate to the crystal lattice of hematite nanorods. The Zr based hematite nanorod photoanode achieved 1 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 VRHE with a low turn-on voltage of 0.80 VRHE. Sn doping and Zr passivation, as well as shallow doping, were confirmed by XPS, Iph, and M-S plot analyses. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the presence of a ZrO2 underlayer decreased the deformation of FTO substrate, improved electron transfer at the hematite/FTO interface and increased charge-transfer resistance at the electrolyte/hematite interface. This is the first systematic investigation of the effects of Zr passivation, shallow doping, and Sn doping on hematite nanorod photoanodes through application of a ZrO2 underlayer on the FTO substrate.

  19. Preparation and structural, optical, magnetic, and electrical characterization of Mn{sup 2+}/Co{sup 2+}/Cu{sup 2+} doped hematite nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikrishna Ramya, S.I., E-mail: ramyaskr@gmail.com; Mahadevan, C.K.

    2014-03-15

    Pure and Mn{sup 2+} / Co{sup 2+} / Cu{sup 2+} doped (1 and 2 at.%) spherical hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3})nanocrystals have been synthesized by a simple solvothermal method using a domestic microwave oven. XRD measurements confirm that all the seven nanocrystals prepared consist of nanocrystalline hematite phase without any other phases. The energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses confirm the phase purity of the nanocrystals prepared. TEM analysis shows the average particle sizes within the range 33–51 nm. Optical absorption measurements indicate that all the three dopants enhance the optical transmittance and reflectance. A red shift is observed in the bandgap energy values estimated from optical absorption and reflectance spectra. Results of magnetic measurements made at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer indicate significant changes in the magnetic properties (coercivity, retentivity and saturationmagnetization) due to doping. Results of magnetic measurements indicate significant changes in the magnetic properties. Results of AC electrical measurements made at various temperatures in the range 40–130 °C and frequencies in the range 100 Hz –1 MHz indicate low dielectric constants and AC electrical conductivities and consequently show the occurrence of nanoconfined states. -- Graphical abstract: The indexed X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all the seven nanocrystals indicate the rhombohedral structure of hematite (JCPDS card No.13-0534). No impurity phase like oxides of Mn or Co or Cu was detected above equipment limit. The average crystallite (grain) sizes estimated using the Scherrer's formula. Highlights: • Pure and Mn/Co/Cu-doped hematite nanocrystals have been prepared. • The method adopted for the preparation is simple, economical and scalable. • Prepared nanocrystals are spherical in shape with good crystallinity and phase purity. • Mn/Co/Cu-doping enhances the optical

  20. Effect of cobalt doping on crystallinity, stability, magnetic and optical properties of magnetic iron oxide nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, Safia; Tufail, Rabia; Rashid, Khalid; Zia, Rehana; Riaz, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The stability of Co x Fe (2-x) O 3 nanoparticles enhances. • Energy losses increases. • Anisotropy of NP is high. - Abstract: This paper is dedicated to investigate the effect of Co 2+ ions in magnetite Fe 3 O 4 nano-particles with stoichiometric formula Co x Fe 3-x O 4 where (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) prepared by co-precipitation method. The structural, thermal, morphological, magnetic and optical properties of magnetite and Co 2+ doped magnetite nanoparticles have been carried out using X-ray Diffractometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Themogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and UV–Vis Spectrometer (UV–Vis) respectively. Structural analysis verified the formation of single phase inverse spinel cubic structure with decrease in lattice parameters due to increase in cobalt content. FTIR analysis confirms the single phase of Co x Fe 3-x O 4 nanoparticles with the major band at 887 cm −1 , which might be due to the stretching vibrations of metal-oxide bond. The DSC results corroborate the finding of an increase in the maghemite to hematite phase transition temperature with increase in Co 2+ content. The decrease in enthalpy with increase in Co 2+ concentration attributed to the fact that the degree of conversion from maghemite to hematite decrease which shows that the stability increases with increasing Co 2+ content in B-site of Fe 3 O 4 structure. SEM analysis demonstrated the formation of spherical shaped nanoparticles with least agglomeration. The magnetic measurements enlighten that the coercivity and anisotropy of Co x Fe 3-x O 4 nanoparticles are significantly increased. From UV–Vis analysis it is revealed that band gap energy increases with decreasing particle size. This result has a great interest for magnetic fluid hyperthermia application (MPH).

  1. Confinement and surface effects on the physical properties of rhombohedral-shape hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.lunacd@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); Cuan-Guerra, Aída D. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); Barriga-Castro, Enrique D. [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada (CIQA), Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo No. 140, Saltillo, 25294 Coahuila (Mexico); Núñez, Nuria O. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (ICMS), CSIC-US, Avda. Americo Vespucio n° 49, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Uniform rhombohedral hematite nanocrystals (RHNCs) have been obtained. • A detailed formation mechanism of these HNCS has been proposed. • Phonon confinement effects were revealed in the RHNCS vibrational bands. • Quantum confinement effects on the optical and electronic properties were found. - Abstract: Morphological, microstructural and vibrational properties of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocrystals with a rhombohedral shape and rounded edges, obtained by forced hydrolysis of iron(III) solutions under a fast nucleation, have been investigated in detail as a function of aging time. These studies allowed us to propose a detailed formation mechanism and revealed that these nanocrystals are composed of four {104} side facets, two {110} faces at the edges of the long diagonal of the nanocrystals and two {−441} facets as the top and bottom faces. Also, the presence of nanoscopic pores and fissures was evidenced. The vibrational bands of such nanocrystals were shifted to lower frequencies in comparison with bulk hematite ones as the nanocrystal size was reduced due to phonon confinement effects. Also, the indirect and direct transition band gaps displayed interesting dependences on the aging time arising from quantum confinement and surface effects.

  2. Facile conversion of bulk metal surface to metal oxide single-crystalline nanostructures by microwave irradiation: Formation of pure or Cr-doped hematite nanostructure arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seungho; Jeong, Haeyoon; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2010-01-01

    We report a method for converting the surfaces of bulk metal substrates (pure iron or stainless steel) to metal oxide (hematite or Cr-doped hematite) nanostructures using microwave irradiation. When microwave radiation (2.45 GHz, single-mode) was applied to a metal substrate under the flow of a gas mixture containing O 2 and Ar, metal oxide nanostructures formed and entirely covered the substrate. The nanostructures were single crystalline, and the atomic ratios of the substrate metals were preserved in the nanostructures. When a pure iron sheet was used as a substrate, hematite nanowires (1000 W microwave radiation) or nanosheets (1800 W microwave radiation) formed on the surface of the substrate. When a SUS410 sheet was used as a substrate, slightly curved rod-like nanostructures were synthesized. The oxidation states of Fe and Cr in these nanorods were Fe 3+ and Cr 3+ . Quantitative analyses revealed an average Fe/Cr atomic ratio of 9.2, nearly identical to the ratio of the metals in the SUS410 substrate.

  3. Hematite photoanode co-functionalized with self-assembling melanin and C-phycocyanin for solar water splitting at neutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrantz, Krisztina; Wyss, Pradeep P.; Ihssen, Julian; Toth, Rita; Bora, Debajeet K.; Vitol, Elina A.; Rozhkova, Elena A.; Pieles, Uwe; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Braun, Artur

    2017-04-01

    tNature provides functional units which can be integrated in inorganic solar cell materials, such as lightharvesting antenna proteins and photosynthetic molecular machineries, and thus help in advancing artifi-cial photosynthesis. Their integration needs to address mechanical adhesion, light capture, charge transferand corrosion resistance. We showed recently how enzymatic polymerization of melanin can immobi-lize the cyanobacterial light harvesting protein C-phycocyanin on the surface of hematite, a prospectivemetal oxide photoanode for solar hydrogen production by water splitting in photoelectrochemical cells.After the optimization of the functionalization procedure, in this work we show reproducible hydrogenproduction, measured parallel to the photocurrent on this bio-hybrid electrode in benign neutral pHphosphate. Over 90% increase compared to the photocurrent of the pristine hematite could be achieved.The hydrogen evolution was monitored during the photoelectrochemical measurement in an improvedphotoelectrochemical cell. The C-phycocyanin-melanin coating on the hematite was shown to exhibit acomb-like fractal pattern. Raman spectroscopy supported the presence of the protein on the hematiteanode surface. The stability of the protein coating is demonstrated during the 2 h GC measurement andthe 24 h operando current density measurement

  4. Intensification of the Reverse Cationic Flotation of Hematite Ores with Optimization of Process and Hydrodynamic Parameters of Flotation Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poperechnikova, O. Yu; Filippov, L. O.; Shumskaya, E. N.; Filippova, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    The demand of high grade iron ore concentrates is a major issue due to the depletion of rich iron-bearing ores and high competitiveness in the iron ore market. Iron ore production is forced out to upgrade flowsheets to decrease the silica content in the pelettes. Different types of ore have different mineral composition and texture-structural features which require different mineral processing methods and technologies. The paper presents a comparative study of the cationic and anionic flotation routes to process a fine-grain oxidized iron ore. The modified carboxymethyl cellulose was found as the most efficient depressant in reverse cationic flotation. The results of flotation optimization of hematite ores using matrix of second-order center rotatable uniform design allowed to define the collector concentration, impeller rotation speed and air flowrate as the main flotation parameters impacting on the iron ore concentrate quality and iron recovery in a laboratory flotation machine. These parameters have been selected as independent during the experiments.

  5. An ab initio model of electron transport in hematite (a-Fe2O3) basal planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Smith, Dayle MA; Dupuis, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Transport of conduction electrons through basal planes of the hematite lattice was modeled as a valence alternation of iron cations using ab initio molecular orbital calculations and electron transfer theory. A cluster approach was successfully implemented to compute electron transfer rate-controlling quantities such as the reorganization energy and electronic coupling matrix element. Localization of a conduction electron at an iron lattice site is accompanied by large iron/oxygen bond length increases that give rise to a large inner-sphere component of the reorganization energy. The interaction between the reactant and product electronic states in the crossing?point configuration is substantial and leads to an adiabatic electron transfer system. Electron transfer is predicted to possess a small positive activation energy that turns out to be in excellent agreement with values deduced from conductivity measurements. Measured electron mobility can be explained in terms of nearest neighbor electron hops without significant contribution from iron atoms further away. Comparison of the predicted maximum polaron binding energy with the predicted half bandwidth indicates compliance with the small polaron condition. Therefore the localized electron treatment is appropriate to describe electron transport in this system

  6. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) study on graphene oxide based hematite thin films heterojunction (R-GO/Fe2O3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam; Zachariah, Michael; Ehrman, Sheryl; Shrivastava, Rohit; Dass, Sahab; Satsangi, Vibha; Michael Zachariah, Sheryl Ehrman Collaboration; Rohit Shrivastava, Sahab Dass Collaboration; Vibha R Satsangi, Poonam Sharma Team

    2013-03-01

    Graphene has an excellent electronic conductivity, a high theoretical surface area of 2630 m2/g and excellent mechanical properties and, thus, is a promising component for high-performance electrode materials. Following this, GO has been used to modify the PEC response of photoactive material hematite thin films in PEC cell. A reduced graphene oxide/iron oxide (R-GO/Fe2O3) thin film structure has been successfully prepared on ITO by directly growing iron oxide particles on the thermally reduced graphene oxide sheets prepared from suspension of exfoliated graphene oxide. R-GO/Fe2O3 thin films were tested in PEC cell and offered ten times higher photocurrent density than pristine Fe2O3 thin film sample. XRD, SEM, EDS, UV-Vis, Mott-Schottky and Raman studies were carried out to study spectro-electrochemical properties. Enhanced PEC performance of these photoelectrodes was attributed to its porous morphology, improved conductivity upon favorable carrier transfer across the oxides interface.

  7. Fixing arsenic contained in a gas phase using solid hematite; Fijacion de arsenico en fase gas con hematita solida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladares, E.; Gonzalez, A.; Rarra, R.; Sanchez, M.

    2004-07-01

    Feasibility to obtain ferric arsenate starting from arsenic containing gas in contact with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 3} has been studied. Thermodynamic stability of the system Fe-As-O was analysed in order to verify conditions to form Fe{sub x}As{sub y}O{sub z} type compounds. Experiments were made using a hematite sample suspended in a thermogravimetric device. As{sub 4}O{sub 6} was generated starting from solid As{sub 2}O{sub 3} which was circulating through the iron oxide. Final samples were analysed chemically and by means of DRX, verifying the formation of FeAsO{sub 4}, FeAsO{sub 4}.2h{sub 2}O and FeAsO{sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} in small quantities. Tests in porous bed and pellets were carried out, studying the effect of: porosity, temperature and oxygen potential. The largest conversion obtained was 10% at 800 degree centigree, pO{sub 2}=50% and porosity=0.883. (Author) 9 refs.

  8. Spectral and magnetic properties of hematite Fe2O3 (001) surface: results from DFT+DMFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Alamgir; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Rahman, Talat S.

    2015-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that strong correlation effects may significantly modify the spectrum of a system, in particular leading to an increase of the bandgap and to a change in the orbital occupancies, which affects the magnetic properties of the system. With this in mind, we have examined the spectral and magnetic properties of the hematite Fe2O3 film system with (001) surface orientation by using the combined density functional theory (DFT) and dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) approach. We pay special attention to the surface geometry and electronic structure, magnetization and magnetic anisotropy (MA) of the system by performing calculations at different values of the parameters for the local Coulomb repulsion and exchange energy. To calculate the MA of the system, we propose and apply a combined Bruno model within DMFT, and demonstrate that under-coordinated surface Fe atoms contribute significantly to the MA of the film. We also compare our results with the DFT+U solution and show that the dynamical effects taken into account by the DMFT significantly affect system properties, notably leading to a decrease of the atomic magnetic moments. Work supported in part by DOE Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-07ER46354.

  9. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Characterization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, T., E-mail: Teodora.Radu@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, 400293, Cluj Napoca (Romania); Iacovita, C. [Department of Pharmaceutical Physics-Biophysics, Faculty of Pharmacy, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 400349, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Benea, D. [Faculty of Physics, Babes Bolyai University, 400271, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Turcu, R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, 400293, Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Characterization of three types of iron oxides magnetic nanoparticles. • A correlation between valence band XPS and the degree of iron oxidation is proposed. • Theoretical contributions of Fe in tetragonal and octahedral environment are shown. - Abstract: We report X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) synthesized using solvothermal reduction in the presence of polyethylene glycol. The magnetite obtained was employed as precursor for the synthesis of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (by oxygen dissociation) which in turn was transformed into α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We confirmed the magnetite, maghemite and hematite structure by Fourier Transformed Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis of the XPS core level and valence band (VB) photoemission spectra for all investigated samples is discussed in terms of the degree of iron oxidation. This is of fundamental importance to better understand the electronic structure of the obtained iron oxide nanoparticles in order to control and improve their quality for specific biomedical applications. Moreover, theoretical band structure calculations are performed for magnetite and the separate contributions of Fe in tetragonal and octahedral environment are shown.

  10. Biopolymeric nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, Sushmitha; Kundu, Joydip; Kundu, Subhas C

    2010-01-01

    This review on nanoparticles highlights the various biopolymers (proteins and polysaccharides) which have recently revolutionized the world of biocompatible and degradable natural biological materials. The methods of their fabrication, including emulsification, desolvation, coacervation and electrospray drying are described. The characterization of different parameters for a given nanoparticle, such as particle size, surface charge, morphology, stability, structure, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, drug loading and drug release, is outlined together with the relevant measurement techniques. Applications in the fields of medicine and biotechnology are discussed along with a promising future scope. (topical review)

  11. Robust Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-21

    avenues for creating flexible conducting and semiconducting materials in a variety of simple or complex geometries. B. Conducting nanoparticle...coated with poly(MPC-co-DHLA) proved stable against challenging conditions, and resisted cyanide ion digestion. Au NRs coated with poly(MPC-co-DHLA

  12. Surface reactivity of mercury on the oxygen-terminated hematite(0001) surface: a first-principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J. E.; Wilcox, J.

    2016-12-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is a common mineral found in Earth's near-surface environment. Due to its nontoxicity, corrosion-resistance, and high thermal stability, α-Fe2O3 has attracted attentions as materials for various applications such as photocatalysts, gas sensors, as well as for the removal of heavy metals. In this study, α-Fe2O3 is chosen for potential mercury (Hg) sorbent in order to remove Hg from coal-fired power plants. Specifically, theoretical approaches using density functional theory (DFT) is used to understand surface reactivity of Hg on oxygen (O) terminated α-Fe2O3(0001) surface. The most probable adsorption sites of Hg, chlorine (Cl), and mercury chloride (HgCl) on the α-Fe2O3 surface are found based on adsorption energy calculations, and the oxidation states of the adsorbates are determined by Bader charge analysis. Additionally, projected density of states (PDOS) analysis characterizes the surface-adsorbate bonding mechanism. The results of adsorption energy calculation proposes that Hg physisorbs to the α-Fe2O3(0001) surface with adsorption energy of -0.278 eV, and the subsequent Bader charge analysis confirms that Hg is slightly oxidized. In addition, Cl introduced to the Hg-adsorbed surface strengthens Hg stability on the α-Fe2O3(0001) surface as evidenced by a shortened Hg-surface equilibrium distance. The PDOS analysis also suggests that Cl enhances the chemical bonding between the surface and the adsorbate, thereby increasing adsorption strength. In summary, α-Fe2O3 has ability to adsorb and oxidize Hg, and this reactivity is enhanced in the presence of Cl.

  13. Characteristic of the Nanoparticles Formed on the Carbon Steel Surface Contacting with 3d-Metal Water Salt Solutions in the Open-Air System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrynenko, O. M.; Pavlenko, O. Yu; Shchukin, Yu S.

    2016-02-01

    The contact of a steel electrode with water dispersion medium in an open-air system leads to the development of various polymorphic iron oxides and oxyhydroxides on the steel surface. Whereas the usage of distilled water causes the obtaining of Fe(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxides (green rust) as a primary mineral phase, but in the presence of inorganic 3d-metal water salt solutions, mixed layered double hydroxides (LDHs) together with non-stoichiometric spinel ferrite nanoparticles are formed on the steel surface. Mixed LDHs keep stability against further oxidation and complicate the obtaining of spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Thermal treatment of mixed LDHs among other mineral phases formed via the rotation-corrosion dispergation process at certain temperatures permits to obtain homogenous nanoparticles of spinel ferrites as well as maghemite or hematite doped by 3d-metal cations.

  14. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite-hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-07-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants.

  15. Size Control of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Using Reverse Microemulsion Method: Morphology, Reduction, and Catalytic Activity in CO Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Housaindokht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by microemulsion method and evaluated in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The precipitation process was performed in a single-phase microemulsion operating region. Different HLB values of surfactant were prepared by mixing of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and Triton X-100. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, surface area, pore volume, average pore diameter, pore size distribution, and XRD patterns were used to analyze size distribution, shape, and structure of precipitated hematite nanoparticles. Furthermore, temperature programmed reduction (TPR and catalytic activity in CO hydrogenation were implemented to assess the performance of the samples. It was found that methane and CO2 selectivity and also the syngas conversion increased as the HLB value of surfactant decreased. In addition, the selectivity to heavy hydrocarbons and chain growth probability (α decreased by decreasing the catalyst crystal size.

  16. Regional sulfate-hematite-sulfide zoning in the auriferous Mariana anticline, Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Koglin, Nikola; Strauss, Harald; Brätz, Helene; Kwitko-Ribeiro, Rogerio

    2013-10-01

    The distribution of mineral deposits, characterised as barite deposits, hematite-rich auriferous deposits and auriferous tourmaline-sulfide deposits, displays a regional sulfate-hematite-sulfide zoning along the thrust-delineated limbs of the Mariana anticline, in the south-eastern part of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cross-cut relationships of barite veins and sulfide lodes indicate that sulfidation occurred in a late-tectonic context, which is here attributed to the collapse of the ˜0.6-Ga Brasiliano thrust front. Reconnaissance S-isotopic data from barite and pyrite (Antônio Pereira barite deposit and its adjacent gold deposit, respectively), and arsenopyrite (Passagem de Mariana gold deposit), suggest a new interpretation for the hydrothermal fluid overprint in the Mariana anticline. The Antônio Pereira barite has Δ33S values that are near zero, constraining the sulfate source to rocks younger than 2.45 Ga. The barite-δ34S values are between +19.6 and +20.8 ‰. The Passagem arsenopyrite and tourmaline have Co/Ni ratios that define a positive linear trend with the Antônio Pereira pyrite. The latter has homogenous δ34S values, between +8.8 and +8.9 ‰, which are compatible with thermochemical reduction of aqueous sulfate with the S-isotopic composition of the Antônio Pereira barite.

  17. Rapid synthesis and optical properties of hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanostructures using a simple thermal decomposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Gaashani, R., E-mail: Rashad_jashani@yahoo.com [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Thamar University, Dhamar, Republic of Yemen (Yemen); Radiman, S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Tabet, N. [Department of Physics and Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Daud, A.R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel method for the synthesis of hematite nanopowder is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} changed with altering the preparation temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coral like nano {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} prepared at 500 and 600 Degree-Sign C showed novel optical behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coral like nano {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} could be used to enhance efficiency of the solar cells. - Abstract: Hematite nanostructures were prepared by a simple technique using the thermal decomposition of iron (III) nitrate 9-hydrate at different temperatures under air atmosphere. Observations using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the morphology of the nanostructures changed as the temperature was varied while their size increased with increasing preparation time. Samples prepared at 300, 400, and 500 Degree-Sign C were made of particles with a quantum dots (QDs) size. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that the as-synthesized powders are pure {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The optical energy gap of the samples varied from 3.2 eV to 2.7 eV as the preparation temperature increased from 300 Degree-Sign C to 600 Degree-Sign C.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of black, red and yellow nanoparticles pigments from the iron sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mufti, Nandang; Atma, T.; Fuad, A.; Sutadji, E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to synthesize nanoparticles of black pigment of Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), red pigment of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ), and yellow pigment of ghoetite (α-FeOOH) from the iron sand. The black pigment of Fe 3 O 4 and the yellow pigment α-FeOOH nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with variation of pH. Whereas, the red pigment Fe 2 O 3 was synthesized by sintering Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles at temperature between 400 °C and 700 7°C for 1 hour. All the pigments has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM. The XRD results shown that the particle size of the black pigmen Fe 3 O 4 , red pigment Fe 3 O 4 and yellow pigment α-FeOOH are around 12, 32, and 30 nm respectively. The particle size of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles increase by increasing sintering temperature from 32 nm at 400 °C to 39 nm at 700 °C. For yellow pigment of α-FeOOH, the particle size increase by increasing pH from 30,54 nm at pH 4 to 48,60 nm at pH 7. The SEM results shown that the morphologies of black, yellow and red pigments are aglomarated

  19. Coating a polystyrene well-plate surface with synthetic hematite, goethite and aluminium hydroxide for cell mineral adhesion studies in a controlled environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouran, Hamid M.; Banwart, Steve A.; Romero-Gonzalez, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hematite, goethite and aluminium hydroxide were synthesized and characterize. • Polystyrene cell culture well plates were coated with the synthetic metal oxides. • The coated well plates proven to be completely identical to the synthetic minerals. • The coating method is compatible with what occurs in aquifers with metal oxides. • This method provides a key experimental part for cell mineral adhesion studies. - Abstract: Iron and aluminium oxides are available in many climatic regions and play a vital role in many environmental processes, including the interactions of microorganisms in contaminated soils and groundwater with their ambient environment. Indigenous microorganisms in contaminated environments often have the ability to degrade or transform those contaminants, a concept that supports an in situ remediation approach and uses natural microbial populations in order to bio-remediate polluted sites. These metal oxides have a relatively high pH-dependent surface charge, which makes them good candidates for studying mineral–bacterial adhesion. Given the importance of understanding the reactions that occur at metal oxide and bacterial cell interfaces and to investigate this phenomenon further under well-characterized conditions, some of the most common iron and aluminium oxides; hematite, goethite and aluminium hydroxide, were synthesized and characterized and a coating method was developed to coat polystyrene well-plates as a surface exposable to bacterial adhesion with these minerals (non-treated polystyrene-12 well-plates which are used for cell cultures). The coating process was designed in a way that resembles naturally coated surfaces in aquifers. Hematite, Fe 2 O 3 , was synthesized from acidic FeCl 3 solution, while goethite, FeOOH, and aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH) 3 , were prepared from an alkaline solution of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 and Al(NO 3 ) 3 . They were further characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared

  20. Interaction force measurement between E. coli cells and nanoparticles immobilized surfaces by using AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Stack, Andrew G; Chen, Yongsheng

    2011-02-01

    To better understand environmental behaviors of nanoparticles (NPs), we used the atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure interaction forces between E. coli cells and NPs immobilized on surfaces in an aqueous environment. The results showed that adhesion force strength was significantly influenced by particle size for both hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)) and corundum (α-Al(2)O(3)) NPs whereas the effect on the repulsive force was not observed. The adhesion force decreased from 6.3±0.7nN to 0.8±0.4nN as hematite NPs increased from 26nm to 98nm in diameter. Corundum NPs exhibited a similar dependence of adhesion force on particle size. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model was employed to estimate the contact area between E. coli cells and NPs, and based on the JKR model a new model that considers local effective contact area was developed. The prediction of the new model matched the size dependence of adhesion force in experimental results. Size effects on adhesion forces may originate from the difference in local effective contact areas as supported by our model. These findings provide fundamental information for interpreting the environmental behaviors and biological interactions of NPs, which barely have been addressed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanomineralogy in the real world: A perspective on nanoparticles in the environmental impacts of coal fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehn, Janaína L; de Leão, Felipe B; da Boit, Kátia; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Hidalgo, Gelsa E; Sampaio, Carlos H; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-03-01

    Detailed geochemistry similarities between the burning coal cleaning rejects (BCCRs) and non-anthropogenic geological environments are outlined here. While no visible flames were detected, this research revealed that auto-combustion existed in the studied area for many years. The occurrence of several amorphous phases, mullite, hematite and many other Al/Fe-minerals formed by high temperature was found. Bad disposal of coal-dump wastes represents significant environmental concerns due to their potential influence on atmosphere, river sediments, soils and as well as on the surface and groundwater in the surroundings of these areas. The present work using multi-analytical techniques were performed to provide an improved understanding of the complex processes related with sulphide-rich coal waste oxidation, spontaneous combustion and newmineral creation. It recording huge numbers of rare minerals with alunite, montmorillonite, szmolnockite, halotrichite, coquimbite and copiapite at the BCCRs. The information presented the presence of abundant amorphous Si-Al-Fe-Ti as (oxy-)hydroxides and Fe-hydro/oxides with goethite and hematite with various degrees of crystallinity, containing potential hazardous elements (PHEs), such as Cu, Cr, Hf, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Th, U, Zr, and others. Most of the nano-particles and ultra-fine particles found in the burned coal-dump wastes are the same as those commonly associated with coal cleaning rejects, in which oxidation of sulphides plays an important impact to environment and subsequently animal and human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative study of the shield of concrete blocks with hematite in relation to common concrete blocks; Avaliacao comparativa entre as propriedades de atenuacao de blocos de concreto com hematita e blocos de concreto convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo R.; Buerger, Andre A., E-mail: pcosta@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Dosimetria; Naccache, Veronica K.; Priszkulnik, Simao [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia

    2012-08-15

    The present work shows results of an empirical evaluation of the transmission properties of two radioprotection materials: an ordinary concrete and an ordinary concrete mixed with hematite. It was used techniques of x-ray spectroscopy and measurements of the air-kerma transmitted through these two materials in order to compare the transmission properties for each one. (author)

  3. O3 Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Juan; Li, Yangyang; Deng, Lin; Wei, Nini; Weng, Yakui; Dong, Shuai; Qi, Dianpeng; Qiu, Jun; Chen, Xiaodong; Wu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Ti2O3 nanoparticles with high performance of photothermal conversion are demonstrated for the first time. Benefiting from the nanosize and narrow-bandgap features, the Ti2O3 nanoparticles possess strong light absorption and nearly 100% internal

  4. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    hematite and goethite) was only possible with XRD, which revealed also subtle differences in mineralogical composition of the clay fraction (<2µm) and nanofraction (<100nm). The kaolinite's crystallite size (calculated from XRD data) was found to range 14-17nm in the nanofraction and 26-50nm in the clay fraction. For hematite, it was 13nm in the nanofraction and ranged from 21-30nm in the clay fraction. Such small particles can be expected to play an important role in soil sorption processes with implications on nutrient and contaminant cycling. Identification and understanding of the properties of naturally occurring nanoparticles in soils can therefore help soil scientists to better understand retention/mobilization of nutrients and pollutants in soils.

  5. Comparison of the mineralogical effects of an experimental forest fire on a goethite/ferrihydrite soil with a topsoil that contains hematite, maghemite and goethite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørnberg, Per; Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur Pall

    2009-01-01

    as the result of high temperature as found after forest fires. However, a body of evidence argues against these sites having been exposed to fire. In an attempt to get closer to an explanation of this Fe mineralogy, an experimental forest fire was produced. The results showed a clear mineralogical zonation down...... to 10 cm depth. This was not observed at the natural sites, which contained a mixture of goethite/ferrihydrite, hematite and maghemite down to 20 cm depth. The experimental forest fire left charcoal and ashes at the topsoil, produced high pH and decreased organic matter content, all of which...... is in contrast to the natural sites. The conclusion from this work is that the mineralogy of these sites is not consistent with exposure to forest fire, but may instead result from long-term transformation in a reducing environment, possibly involving microbiology....

  6. Kinetics of the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by methane (CH{sub 4}) during chemical looping combustion: A global mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monazam, Esmail R; Breault, Ronald W; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Richards, George; Carpenter, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has emerged as a promising technology for fossil fuel combustion which produces a sequestration ready concentrated CO{sub 2} stream in power production. A CLC system is composed with two reactors, an air and a fuel reactor. An oxygen carrier such as hematite (94%Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) circulates between the reactors, which transfers the oxygen necessary for the fuel combustion from the air to the fuel. An important issue for the CLC process is the selection of metal oxide as oxygen carrier, since it must retain its reactivity through many cycles. The primary objective of this work is to develop a global mechanism with respective kinetics rate parameters such that CFD simulations can be performed for large systems. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in a continuous stream of CH{sub 4} (15, 20, and 35%) was conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 825{degrees}C over ten reduction cycles. The mass spectroscopy analysis of product gas indicated the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O at the early stage of reaction and H{sub 2} and CO at the final stage of reactions. A kinetic model based on two parallel reactions, 1) first-order irreversible rate kinetics and 2) Avrami equation describing nucleation and growth processes, was applied to the reduction data. It was found, that the reaction rates for both reactions increase with, both, temperature and the methane concentration in inlet gas.

  7. CO adsorption on small Au{sub n} (n = 1–4) structures supported on hematite. I. Adsorption on iron terminated α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabisiak, Tomasz; Kiejna, Adam, E-mail: kiejna@ifd.uni.wroc.pl [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wrocław, Plac M. Borna 9, 50-204 Wrocław (Poland); Winiarski, Maciej J. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wrocław, Plac M. Borna 9, 50-204 Wrocław (Poland); Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-01-28

    This is the first of two papers dealing with the adsorption of Au and formation of Au{sub n} nanostructures (n = 1–4) on hematite (0001) surface and adsorption of CO thereon. The stoichiometric Fe-terminated (0001) surface of hematite was investigated using density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) form with Hubbard correction U, accounting for strong electron correlations (PBE+U). The structural, energetic, and electronic properties of the systems studied were examined for vertical and flattened configurations of Au{sub n} nanostructures adsorbed on the hematite surfaces. The flattened ones, which can be viewed as bilayer-like structures, were found energetically more favored than vertical ones. For both classes of structures the adsorption binding energy increases with the number of Au atoms in a structure. The adsorption of Au{sub n} induces charge rearrangement at the Au{sub n}/oxide contact which is reflected in work function changes. In most considered cases Au{sub n} adsorption increases the work function. A detailed analysis of the bonding electron charge is presented and the corresponding electron charge rearrangements at the contacts were quantified by a Bader charge analyses. The interaction of a CO molecule with the Au{sub n} nanostructures supported on α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) and the oxide support was studied. It is found that the CO adsorption binding to the hematite supported Au{sub n} structures is more than twice as strong as to the bare hematite surface. Analysis of the Bader charges on the atoms showed that in each case CO binds to the most positively charged (cationic) atom of the Au{sub n} structure. Changes in the electronic structure of the Au{sub n} species and of the oxide support, and their consequences for the interactions with CO, are discussed.

  8. O3 Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Juan

    2016-11-16

    Ti2O3 nanoparticles with high performance of photothermal conversion are demonstrated for the first time. Benefiting from the nanosize and narrow-bandgap features, the Ti2O3 nanoparticles possess strong light absorption and nearly 100% internal solar–thermal conversion efficiency. Furthermore, Ti2O3 nanoparticle-based thin film shows potential use in seawater desalination and purification.

  9. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce oxidative stress and DNA-adduct formation but not DNA-breakage in human lung cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schins Roel PF

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Titanium dioxide (TiO2, also known as titanium (IV oxide or anatase, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium. It is also one of the most commercially used form. To date, no parameter has been set for the average ambient air concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP by any regulatory agency. Previously conducted studies had established these nanoparticles to be mainly non-cyto- and -genotoxic, although they had been found to generate free radicals both acellularly (specially through photocatalytic activity and intracellularly. The present study determines the role of TiO2-NP (anatase, ∅ in vitro. For comparison, iron containing nanoparticles (hematite, Fe2O3, ∅ 2-NP did not induce DNA-breakage measured by the Comet-assay in both cell types. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS was measured acellularly (without any photocatalytic activity as well as intracellularly for both types of particles, however, the iron-containing NP needed special reducing conditions before pronounced radical generation. A high level of DNA adduct formation (8-OHdG was observed in IMR-90 cells exposed to TiO2-NP, but not in cells exposed to hematite NP. Our study demonstrates different modes of action for TiO2- and Fe2O3-NP. Whereas TiO2-NP were able to generate elevated amounts of free radicals, which induced indirect genotoxicity mainly by DNA-adduct formation, Fe2O3-NP were clastogenic (induction of DNA-breakage and required reducing conditions for radical formation.

  10. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Peter [Houston, TX; Koh, Shirlaine [Houston, TX; Mani, Prasanna [Houston, TX; Ratndeep, Srivastava [Houston, TX

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  11. Effect of cobalt doping on crystallinity, stability, magnetic and optical properties of magnetic iron oxide nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Safia, E-mail: safia_anjum@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Tufail, Rabia [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Rashid, Khalid [PCSIR Laboratories Lahore (Pakistan); Zia, Rehana [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Riaz, S. [Centre for Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The stability of Co{sub x}Fe{sub (2-x)}O{sub 3} nanoparticles enhances. • Energy losses increases. • Anisotropy of NP is high. - Abstract: This paper is dedicated to investigate the effect of Co{sup 2+} ions in magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles with stoichiometric formula Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} where (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) prepared by co-precipitation method. The structural, thermal, morphological, magnetic and optical properties of magnetite and Co{sup 2+} doped magnetite nanoparticles have been carried out using X-ray Diffractometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Themogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and UV–Vis Spectrometer (UV–Vis) respectively. Structural analysis verified the formation of single phase inverse spinel cubic structure with decrease in lattice parameters due to increase in cobalt content. FTIR analysis confirms the single phase of Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with the major band at 887 cm{sup −1}, which might be due to the stretching vibrations of metal-oxide bond. The DSC results corroborate the finding of an increase in the maghemite to hematite phase transition temperature with increase in Co{sup 2+} content. The decrease in enthalpy with increase in Co{sup 2+} concentration attributed to the fact that the degree of conversion from maghemite to hematite decrease which shows that the stability increases with increasing Co{sup 2+} content in B-site of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} structure. SEM analysis demonstrated the formation of spherical shaped nanoparticles with least agglomeration. The magnetic measurements enlighten that the coercivity and anisotropy of Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are significantly increased. From UV–Vis analysis it is revealed that band gap energy increases with decreasing particle size. This result has a great interest for magnetic fluid hyperthermia application (MPH).

  12. Fluoride ions sorption of the water using natural and modified hematite with aluminium hydroxide; Sorcion de iones fluoruro del agua utilizando hematita natural y hematita acondicionada con hidroxido de aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teutli S, E. A.

    2011-07-01

    Fluorine is a mineral known for its dental benefits, but fluoride ions can cause fluoro sis in excessive quantities. There are many epidemiological studies on possible adverse effects resulting from prolonged ingestion of fluoride through drinking water. These studies demonstrate that fluoride mainly affects the bone tissue (bones and teeth), may produce an adverse effect on tooth enamel and can cause mild dental fluoro sis at concentrations from 0.9 to 1.2 mg/L in drinking water. In several states of Mexico, water contaminated with fluoride ions can be found, such as Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Sonora, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi and Jalisco, where the fluoride ions levels are higher than 1.5 mg/L, established by the Mexican Official Standard (NOM-127-Ssa-2000) which sets the permissible limits of water for human use and consumption. Currently, several technologies have been proposed to remove fluoride ions from water such as precipitation methods which are based on the addition of chemicals to water and sorption methods to removed fluoride ions by sorption or ion exchange reactions by some suitable substrate capable of regenerate and reuse. In this work, the sorption of fluoride ions using unmodified and modified hematite with aluminum hydroxide to remove fluoride ions from water by bath experiments was studied. The hematite was modified by treating it with aluminum hydroxide, NaOH and Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} solutions. The characterization of hematite before and after modification with aluminum hydroxide was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDS and Bet. The effect of ph, contact time, concentration of fluoride ions, and the dose of sorbent on the sorption of fluoride ions by the modified hematite were studied. Equilibrium was reached within 48 hours of contact time and the maximum sorption of fluoride ions were in the range pH{sub eq} between 2.3 and 6.2. Sorption capacities of fluoride ions as a

  13. Nanoparticle mediated micromotor motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Liu, Limei; Gao, Wenlong; Su, Miaoda; Ge, Ya; Shi, Lili; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Li, Christopher Y.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report the utilization of nanoparticles to mediate the motion of a polymer single crystal catalytic micromotor. Micromotors have been fabricated by directly self-assembling functional nanoparticles (platinum and iron oxide nanoparticles) onto one or both sides of two-dimensional polymer single crystals. We show that the moving velocity of these micromotors in fluids can be readily tuned by controlling the nanoparticles' surface wettability and catalytic activity. A 3 times velocity increase has been achieved for a hydrophobic micromotor as opposed to the hydrophilic ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of platinum nanoparticles inside the micromotor can be enhanced by their synergetic interactions with iron oxide nanoparticles and an electric field. Both strategies lead to dramatically increased moving velocities, with the highest value reaching ~200 μm s-1. By decreasing the nanoparticles' surface wettability and increasing their catalytic activity, a maximum of a ~10-fold increase in the moving speed of the nanoparticle based micromotor can be achieved. Our results demonstrate the advantages of using nanoparticles in micromotor systems.In this paper, we report the utilization of nanoparticles to mediate the motion of a polymer single crystal catalytic micromotor. Micromotors have been fabricated by directly self-assembling functional nanoparticles (platinum and iron oxide nanoparticles) onto one or both sides of two-dimensional polymer single crystals. We show that the moving velocity of these micromotors in fluids can be readily tuned by controlling the nanoparticles' surface wettability and catalytic activity. A 3 times velocity increase has been achieved for a hydrophobic micromotor as opposed to the hydrophilic ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of platinum nanoparticles inside the micromotor can be enhanced by their synergetic interactions with iron oxide nanoparticles and an electric

  14. A nanoparticle in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, Yu. V.; Nagel', M. Yu.; Orlov, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Charge and energy fluxes onto a nanoparticle under conditions typical of laboratory plasmas are investigated theoretically. Here, by a nanoparticle is meant a grain the size of which is much smaller than both the electron Larmor radius and Debye length and the thermionic emission from which is not limited by the space charge. Under conditions at which thermionic emission plays an important role, the electric potential and temperature T p of a nanoparticle are determined by solving a self-consistent set of equations describing the balance of energy and charge fluxes onto the nanoparticle. It is shown that, when the degree of plasma ionization exceeds a critical level, the potential of the nanoparticle and the energy flux onto it increase with increasing nanoparticle temperature, so that, starting from a certain temperature, the nanoparticle potential becomes positive. The critical degree of ionization starting from which the potential of a nanoparticle is always positive is determined as a function of the plasma density and electron temperature. The nanoparticle temperature T p corresponding to the equilibrium state of a positively charged nanoparticle is found as a function of the electron density for different electron temperatures.

  15. Luminescence properties of cerium-doped di-strontium magnesium di-silicate phosphor by the solid-state reaction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Sahu, Ishwar

    2016-05-01

    A series of Sr2MgSi2O7:xCe3+ (x = 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 4.0% and 5.0%) phosphors were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The phosphor with optimum thermoluminescence, photoluminescence and mechanoluminescence (ML) intensity was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared techniques. The trapping parameters (i.e. activation energy, frequency factor and order of the kinetics) of each synthesized phosphor have been calculated using the peak shape method and the results have been discussed. Under ultraviolet excitation (325 nm), Sr2MgSi2O7:xCe3+ phosphors were composed of a broad band peaking at 385 nm, belonging to the broad emission band which emits violet-blue color. Commission International de I'Eclairage coordinates have been calculated for each sample and their overall emission is near violet-blue light. In order to investigate the suitability of the samples for industrial uses, color purity and color rendering index were calculated. An ML intensity of optimum [Sr2MgSi2O7:Ce3+ (3.0%)] phosphor increases linearly with increasing impact velocity of the moving piston which suggests that these phosphors can be used as fracto-ML-based devices. The time of the peak ML intensity and the decay rate did not change significantly with respect to increasing impact velocity of the moving piston.

  16. Characterization of composite metal-ceramic of nickel-oxide cerium doped gadolinium; Caracterizacao de compositos ceramica-metal de niquel e oxido de cerio dopado com gadolinio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.L.A. da, E-mail: maria.andrade@pro.unifacs.br [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia, Arquitetura e TI; Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil); Varela, M.C.R.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Composite nickel doped cerium oxide are used in SOFC anode materials. In this study we evaluated the effect of the presence of gadolinium on the properties of composite nickel and ceria and. The supports were synthesized by sol-gel method. The impregnation with nickel nitrate was taken sequentially, followed by calcination. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, measurement of specific surface area, temperature programmed reduction, Raman spectroscopy. The presence of gadolinium retained the fluorite structure of ceria by forming a solid solution, also not influencing significantly on the specific surface area of the support. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the area catalysts, which can be attributed to sintering of nickel. Furthermore, addition of gadolinium favored the formation of intrinsic and extrinsic vacancies in cerium oxide, which leads to an increase in the ionic conductivity of the solid, desirable property for an SOFC anode catalyst. (author)

  17. Effect of Mg$^{2+}$ ions co-doping on timing performance and radiation tolerance of Cerium doped Gd$_{3}$Al$_{2}$Ga$_{3}$O$_{12}$ crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lucchini, M.T.; Bohacek, P.; Gundacker, S.; Kamada, K.; Nikl, M.; Petrosyan, A.; Yoshikawa, A.; Auffray, E.

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic scintillators with high density and high light yield are of major interest for applications in medical imaging and high energy physics detectors. In this work, the optical and scintillation properties of Mg co-doped Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 crystals, grown using Czochralski technique, have been investigated and compared with Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 ones prepared with identical technology. Improvements in the timing performance of the Mg co-doped samples with respect to Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 ones have been measured, namely a substantial shortening of the rise time and scintillation decay components and lower afterglow were achieved. In particular, a significantly better coincidence time resolution of 233 ps FWHM, being a fundamental parameter for TOF-PET devices, has been observed in Mg co-doped crystals. The samples have also shown a good radiation tolerance under high doses of γ-rays, making them suitable candidates for applications in harsh radiation environments, such as detectors at future collider experiments.

  18. Effect of Mg"2"+ ions co-doping on timing performance and radiation tolerance of Cerium doped Gd_3Al_2Ga_3O_1_2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchini, M.T.; Babin, V.; Bohacek, P.; Gundacker, S.; Kamada, K.; Nikl, M.; Petrosyan, A.; Yoshikawa, A.; Auffray, E.

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic scintillators with high density and high light yield are of major interest for applications in medical imaging and high energy physics detectors. In this work, the optical and scintillation properties of Mg co-doped Ce:Gd_3Al_2Ga_3O_1_2 crystals, grown using Czochralski technique, have been investigated and compared with Ce:Gd_3Al_2Ga_3O_1_2 ones prepared with identical technology. Improvements in the timing performance of the Mg co-doped samples with respect to Ce:Gd_3Al_2Ga_3O_1_2 ones have been measured, namely a substantial shortening of the rise time and scintillation decay components and lower afterglow were achieved. In particular, a significantly better coincidence time resolution of 233 ps FWHM, being a fundamental parameter for TOF-PET devices, has been observed in Mg co-doped crystals. The samples have also shown a good radiation tolerance under high doses of γ-rays, making them suitable candidates for applications in harsh radiation environments, such as detectors at future collider experiments.

  19. Magnetic evolution of itinerant ferromagnetism and interlayer antiferromagnetism in cerium doped LaCo{sub 2}P{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yong; Kong, Yixiu; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Anmin [Department of Physics, Beijing Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Functional Materials & Micro-nano Devices, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China); He, Rui [Department of Physics, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614 (United States); Zhang, Qingming, E-mail: qmzhang@ruc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Functional Materials & Micro-nano Devices, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China)

    2017-05-01

    ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type phosphide ACo{sub 2}P{sub 2} (A=Eu, La, Pr, Nd, Ce) has the same structure as iron arsenides, but their magnetic behaviors are quite distinct. In this paper, we grew a series of La{sub 1−x}Ce{sub x}Co{sub 2}P{sub 2} single crystals (x=0.0 to1.0), made structural and magnetic characterizations. We found the introduction of cerium induces a rapid decrease of c-axis and a change from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic states. Compared to other trivalent doped compounds, the enhancement of ferromagnetism with doping is suppressed and the transition from ferromagnetism to antiferromagnetism appear earlier. By employing first-principles band-structure calculations, we identify the increase of Ce valence suppress the itinerant ferromagnetism and leading to formation of P-P bonding with the shortening of c-axis. The bonding effectively drives an increase of interlayer antiferromagnetic interaction, eventually leads to antiferromagnetic ordering of cobalt in high-doping region.

  20. Multifunctional nanoparticles: Analytical prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dios, Alejandro Simon de; Diaz-Garcia, Marta Elena

    2010-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are among the most exciting nanomaterials with promising applications in analytical chemistry. These applications include (bio)sensing, (bio)assays, catalysis and separations. Although most of these applications are based on the magnetic, optical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional nanoparticles, other aspects such as the synergistic effect of the functional groups and the amplification effect associated with the nanoscale dimension have also been observed. Considering not only the nature of the raw material but also the shape, there is a huge variety of nanoparticles. In this review only magnetic, quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon and inorganic nanotubes as well as silica, titania and gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are addressed. This review presents a narrative summary on the use of multifuncional nanoparticles for analytical applications, along with a discussion on some critical challenges existing in the field and possible solutions that have been or are being developed to overcome these challenges.

  1. Nanoparticles and direct immunosuppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngobili, Terrika A

    2016-01-01

    Targeting the immune system with nanomaterials is an intensely active area of research. Specifically, the capability to induce immunosuppression is a promising complement for drug delivery and regenerative medicine therapies. Many novel strategies for immunosuppression rely on nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for small-molecule immunosuppressive compounds. As a consequence, efforts in understanding the mechanisms in which nanoparticles directly interact with the immune system have been overshadowed. The immunological activity of nanoparticles is dependent on the physiochemical properties of the nanoparticles and its subsequent cellular internalization. As the underlying factors for these reactions are elucidated, more nanoparticles may be engineered and evaluated for inducing immunosuppression and complementing immunosuppressive drugs. This review will briefly summarize the state-of-the-art and developments in understanding how nanoparticles induce immunosuppressive responses, compare the inherent properties of nanomaterials which induce these immunological reactions, and comment on the potential for using nanomaterials to modulate and control the immune system. PMID:27229901

  2. [How safe are nanoparticles?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J; Meinke, M; Sterry, W; Patzelt, A

    2009-04-01

    Nanoparticles are experiencing an increasing application in dermatology and cosmetics. In both application areas, the requirements of nanoparticles are in most cases widely different. As a component of sunscreens, the nanoparticles are supposed to remain on the skin surface or in the upper most layers of the stratum corneum to protect the skin against UV-radiation of the sun. Whereas, on the other hand, when particulate substances are used as carrier systems for drugs, they have to cross the skin barrier to reach the target sites within the living tissue. We discuss the perspectives and risks of the topical application of nanoparticles.

  3. Study on Reduction Kinetics of Briquettes of Hematite Fines with Boiler Grade Coal and Coke Dust in Two Different Forms: Intermixing and Multilayered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Gopal Ghosh; Sarkar, Bitan Kumar; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh; Mitra, Manoj Kumar; Dey, Rajib

    2017-10-01

    An attempt has been made to utilise hematite ore fines in the form of briquettes with two different form of mixing i.e. intermixing and multilayered by means of carbothermal reduction along with boiler grade coal and coke dust. The influence of reduction temperature (1323, 1373 and 1423 K) and reduction time (10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 min) has been investigated in detail and the reduced briquettes are characterised by XRD, SEM analyses. The reducibility of intermixing briquettes is found to be higher for multilayered briquettes. In addition, isothermal kinetic study has also been carried out for both intermixing and multilayered briquettes. The activation energy for intermixing briquettes are evaluated to be 125.88 kJ/mol for the initial stage of reaction (CG3 controlled mechanism) and 113.11 kJ/mol for the later part of reaction (D3 controlled mechanism), respectively. In case of multilayered briquettes, the corresponding activation energy is found to be 235.59 kJ/mol for reaction (CG3 controlled mechanism). These results corroborate the observed better reducibility of the intermixing briquettes over multilayered briquettes.

  4. Evaluation of the bleaching flux in clays containing hematite and different clay minerals; Avaliacao do fundente descolorante em argilas contendo hematita e diferentes argilominerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, E.M.; Lusa, T.; Silva, T.M.; Medeiros, B.B.; Santos, G.R. dos [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DAMEC/UFTPR), Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Morelli, M.R., E-mail: geocrisr@utfpr.edu.com, E-mail: morelli@power.ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/PPGCEM/UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the addition of a synthetic flux in a clay mineral constituted by illite phase in the presence of iron oxide with the hematite, promotes color change of the firing products, making the reddish color firing into whiteness. This flow is constituted of a vitreous phase of the silicates family obtained by fusion/solidification of oxides and carbonates. Thus, the objective of this work was that of studying the interaction of the iron element in the final color mechanism of the different types of mineral crystal phase of the clays. In order to study the phenomenon, we obtained different compositions between the select clays and the synthetic flow, and characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and visual analysis. The results showed that the action of the synthetic flow as a modifying agent for color depends on the mineral crystal phase of the clays. The color firing modification does not occur in the clays content high levels of kaolinite mineral phase. (author)

  5. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics. Relationship of oxide film thickness, hematite/magnetite ratio, ECP and wall thinning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uehara, Yasushi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    Systematic approaches to evaluate flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) are desired before discussing application of countermeasures for FAC. First, future FAC occurrence should be evaluated to identify locations where a higher possibility of FAC occurrence exists, and then, wall thinning rate at the identified FAC occurrence zone is evaluated to obtain the preparation time for applying countermeasures. Wall thinning rates were calculated with two coupled models: 1.static electrochemical analysis and 2.dynamic oxide layer growth analysis. The anodic current density and the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) were calculated with the static electrochemistry model based on an Evans diagram. The ferrous ion release rate, determined by the anodic current density, was applied as input for the dynamic double oxide layer model. Some of the dissolved ferrous ion was removed to the bulk water and others precipitated on the surface as magnetite particles. The thickness of oxide layer was calculated with the dynamic oxide layer growth model and then its value was used as input in the electrochemistry model. It was confirmed that the calculated results (corrosion rate and ECP) based on the coupled models were in good agreement with the measured ones. Higher ECP was essential for preventing FAC rate. Moderated conditions due to lower mass transfer coefficients resulted in thicker oxide layer thickness and then higher ECP, while moderated corrosion conditions due to higher oxidant concentrations resulted in larger hematite/magnetite rate and then higher ECP.

  6. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics (3), relationship of oxide film thickness, hematite/magnetite ratio, ECP and wall thinning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uehara, Yasushi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Systematic approaches for evaluating flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) are desired before discussing application of countermeasures for FAC. Firstly, future FAC occurrence should be evaluated to identify locations where a higher possibility of FAC occurrence exists, and then, wall thinning rate at the identified FAC occurrence zone is evaluated to obtain the preparation time for applying countermeasures. Wall thinning rates were calculated with the coupled models of static electrochemical analysis and dynamic double oxide layer analysis. Anodic current density and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) were calculated with the static electrochemistry model based on an Evans diagram and ferrous ion release rate determined by the anodic current density was applied as input for the dynamic double oxide layer model. Some of the dissolved ferrous ion was removed to the bulk water and others precipitated on the surface as magnetite particles. The thickness of oxide layer was calculated with the dynamic double oxide layer model and then was applied as input for the electrochemistry model. It was confirmed that the calculated results based on the coupled models resulted good agreement with the measured ones. Higher ECP was essential for preventing FAC rate. Moderated conditions due to lower mass transfer coefficients resulted in thicker oxide layer thickness and then higher ECP, while moderated corrosion conditions due to higher oxidant concentrations resulted in larger hematite/magnetite rate and then higher ECP. (author)

  7. The effects of aging time on the size, morphology, oriented attachment and magnetic behavior of hematite nanocrystals synthesized by forced hydrolysis of FeIII solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, C.; Barriga-Castro, E.D.; Mendoza-Reséndez, R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Three-dimensional (3-D) nanoarchitectures composed of self-organized hematite nanocrystals were successfully prepared by thermally induced hydrolysis of iron (III) solutions in the presence of urea and without additional stabilizers. The size, morphology and microstructure of these nanocrystal aggregates were investigated as a function of aging time using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The evolution of the microstructural parameters, including crystallite size, root mean square strain and lattice parameters, was analyzed by the Rietveld method using the MAUD software program and adopting the size–strain–shape Popa model. In addition, vibrating-sample magnetometry measurements were carried out to examine the magnetic behavior of the nanoarchitectures. These studies suggested that the formation mechanism of the observed nanoarchitectures consisted of several self-organization processes linked in hierarchical levels. The nanocrystals within these nanoarchitectures grew in size by Ostwald ripening and subsequent grain growth when they were aged at 98 °C in tightly capped tubes for an aging time that varied from 2 h up to 45 days. The crystal morphology evolved favoring a rhombohedral shape until intergrowth between the densely packed nanocrystals occurred. Consequently, the morphology of the nanoarchitectures, their effective magnetic anisotropy, the occurrence of the Morin transition and the exchange bias effect were also strongly dependent on the aging time

  8. Local vibrational dynamics of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) studied by extended x-ray absorption fine structure and molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanson, A., E-mail: andrea.sanson@unipd.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S. [ESRF - European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2014-06-14

    The local vibrational dynamics of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been investigated by temperature-dependent extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. The local dynamics of both the short and long nearest-neighbor Fe–O distances has been singled out, i.e., their local thermal expansion and the parallel and perpendicular mean-square relative atomic displacements have been determined, obtaining a partial agreement with molecular dynamics. No evidence of the Morin transition has been observed. More importantly, the strong anisotropy of relative thermal vibrations found for the short Fe–O distance has been related to its negative thermal expansion. The differences between the local dynamics of short and long Fe–O distances are discussed in terms of projection and correlation of atomic motion. As a result, we can conclude that the short Fe–O bond is stiffer to stretching and softer to bending than the long Fe–O bond.

  9. Colour and toxic characteristics of metakaolinite–hematite pigment for integrally coloured concrete, prepared from iron oxide recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadasivam, Sivachidambaram; Thomas, Hywel Rhys

    2016-01-01

    A metakaolinite-hematite (KH) red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from a water treatment plant of an abandoned coal mine. The KH pigment was prepared by heating the kaolinite and the iron oxide sludge at kaolinite's dehydroxylation temperature. Both the raw sludge and the KH specimen were characterised for their colour properties and toxic characteristics. The KH specimen could serve as a pigment for integrally coloured concrete and offers a potential use for the large volumes of the iron oxide sludge collected from mine water treatment plants. - Graphical abstract: A kaolinite based red pigment was prepared using an ocherous iron oxide sludge recovered from an abandoned coal mine water treatment plant. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A red pigment was prepared by heating a kaolinite and an iron oxide sludge. • The iron oxide and the pigment were characterised for their colour properties. • The red pigment can be a potential element for integrally coloured concrete.

  10. Transport coefficients and orientational distributions of dilute colloidal dispersions composed of hematite particles (for an external magnetic field parallel to the angular velocity vector of simple shear flow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Akira; Hayasaka, Ryo; Majima, Tamotsu

    2008-01-01

    We have treated a dilute dispersion composed of ferromagnetic rodlike particles with a magnetic moment normal to the particle axis, such as hematites, to investigate the influences of the magnetic field strength, shear rate, and random forces on the orientational distribution of rodlike particles and also on transport coefficients, such as viscosity and diffusion coefficient. In the present analysis, these rodlike particles are assumed to conduct the rotational Brownian motion in a simple shear flow as well as an external magnetic field. The results obtained here are summarized as follows. In the case of a strong magnetic field and a smaller shear rate, the rodlike particle can freely rotate in the xy-plane with the magnetic moment continuing to point the magnetic field direction. On the other hand, for a strong shear flow, the particle has a tendency to incline in the flow direction with the magnetic moment pointing to the magnetic field direction. In the case of the magnetic field applied normal to the direction of the sedimentation, the diffusion coefficient gives rise to smaller values than expected, since the rodlike particle sediments with the particle axis inclining toward directions normal to the movement direction and, of course, toward the direction along that direction

  11. In silico approach to investigating the adsorption mechanisms of short chain perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid on hydrated hematite surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hongru; Lin, Yuan; Sun, Yuzhen; Cao, Huiming; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Ke; Zhang, Aiqian

    2017-05-01

    Short chain perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) that were introduced as alternatives for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) have been widely produced and used. However, few studies have investigated the environmental process of short chain PFSAs, and the related adsorption mechanisms still need to be uncovered. The water-oxide interface is one of the major environmental interfaces that plays an important role in affecting the adsorption behaviour and transport potential of the environmental pollutant. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemistry calculations to investigate the adsorption mechanisms of five PFSAs and their adsorption on hydrated hematite surface as well. Different to the vertical configuration reported for PFOS on titanium oxide, all PFSAs share the same adsorption configuration as the long carbon chains parallel to the surface. The formation of hydrogen bonds between F and inter-surface H helps to stabilize the unique configuration. As a result, the sorption capacity increases with increasing C-F chain length. Moreover, both calculated adsorption energy and partial density of states (PDOS) analysis demonstrate a PFSAs adsorption mechanism in between physical and chemical adsorption because the hydrogen bonds formed by the overlap of F (p) orbital and H (s) orbital are weak intermolecular interactions while the physical adsorption are mainly ascribed to the electrostatic interactions. This massive calculation provides a new insight into the pollutant adsorption behaviour, and in particular, may help to evaluate the environmental influence of pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Encapsulation of gold nanoparticles into self-assembling protein nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Yongkun; Burkhard Peter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are useful tools for biological applications due to their attractive physical and chemical properties. Their applications can be further expanded when they are functionalized with biological molecules. The biological molecules not only provide the interfaces for interactions between nanoparticles and biological environment, but also contribute their biological functions to the nanoparticles. Therefore, we used self-assembling protein nanoparticles (SAPNs...

  13. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SIMBU

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... accomplish a better control over the size and shape distributions of the nanoparticles, product harvesting, and recovery are ... stabilization of various nanoparticles by physical and che- .... colonies on Luria Bertani (LB) medium at 37°C up to 108- ..... Crude latex was obtained by cutting the green stems of J.

  14. Optical properties of nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At the NBI I am involved in projects relating to optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in particular with respect to plasmonic heating with direct applications to photothermal cancer therapy. For this purpose we have developed heating assays that can be used to measure the heating of any...... nanoscopic heat source like an irradiated nanoparticle...

  15. Co-precipitation synthesis and characterization of tin-doped α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Houda; Bargougui, Radhouane; Autret-Lambert, Cécile; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah

    2018-03-01

    In this study, Sn-doped hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles with various dopant concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 mol% were prepared successfully using a simple co-precipitation technique. The effects of Sn doping on the structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device. XRD analysis showed that all of the samples had a typical hematite-type hexagonal structure of Fe2O3 without any additional peaks due to spurious phases. The cell parameters a and c decreased monotonically as the Sn content increased, thereby indicating that Sn ions were substituted into the α-Fe2O3 lattice. These results and the TEM analyses showed that the size of the nanoparticles decreased to 10 nm as the Sn doping concentration increased. UV-visible absorption measurements showed that the decrease in particle size was accompanied by a decrease in the band gap value from 2.07 eV for α-Fe2O3 to 1.87 eV with 6 mol% Sn doping. Furthermore, the magnetic properties demonstrated that all of the samples exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were studied based on the degradation of methylene blue as a model compound, where the results showed that an appropriate amount of Sn dopant could greatly increase the amount of hydroxyl radicals generated by α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, which were responsible for the obvious increase in the photocatalytic activity.

  16. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  17. Energy breathing of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dynich, Raman A., E-mail: dynich@solo.by [Institute of Social Educational Technologies (Belarus)

    2015-06-15

    The paper considers the energy exchange process of the electromagnetic wave with a spherical metal nanoparticle. Based on the account of the temporal dependencies of electric and magnetic fields, the author presents an analytical dependence of the energy flow passing through the spherical surface. It is shown that the electromagnetic energy, localized in metal nanoparticles, is not a stationary value and periodically varies with time. A consequence of the energy nonstationarity is a nonradiating exit of the electromagnetic energy out of the nanoparticle. During the time equal to the period of wave oscillations, the electromagnetic energy is penetrating twice into the particle and quits it twice. The particle warms up because of the difference in the incoming and outgoing energies. Such “energy breathing” is presented for spherical Ag and Au nanoparticles with radii of 10 and 33 nm, respectively. Calculations were conducted for these nanoparticles embedded into the cell cytoplasm near the frequencies of their surface plasmon resonances.

  18. Functional Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, James

    Nanoparticle system research and characterization is the focal point of this research and dissertation. In the research presented here, magnetite, cobalt, and ferrite nanoparticle systems have been explored in regard to their magnetocaloric effect (MCE) properties, as well as for use in polymer composites. Both areas of study have potential applications across a wide variety of interdisciplinary fields. Magnetite nanoparticles have been successfully dispersed in a polymer. The surface chemistry of the magnetic nanoparticle proves critical to obtaining a homogenous and well separated high density dispersion in PMMA. Theoretical studies found in the literature have indicated that surface interface energy is a critical component in dispersion. Oleic acid is used to alter the surface of magnetite nanoparticles and successfully achieve good dispersion in a PMMA thin film. Polypyrrole is then coated onto the PMMA composite layer. The bilayer is characterized using cross-sectional TEM, cross-sectional SEM, magnetic characterization, and low frequency conductivity. The results show that the superparmagnetic properties of the as synthesized particles are maintained in the composite. With further study of the properties of these nanoparticles for real and functional uses, MCE is studied on a variety of magnetic nanoparticle systems. Magnetite, manganese zinc ferrite, and cobalt ferrite systems show significant broadening of the MCE and the ability to tune the peak temperature of MCE by varying the size of the nanoparticles. Four distinct systems are studied including cobalt, cobalt core silver shell nanoparticles, nickel ferrite, and ball milled zinc ferrite. The results demonstrate the importance of surface characteristics on MCE. Surface spin disorder appears to have a large influence on the low temperature magnetic and magnetocalorie characteristics of these nanoparticle systems.

  19. Soft X-ray synchrotron radiation spectroscopy study of molecule-based nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. S.; Kim, D. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kim, P. [The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. H. [Korea University, Jochiwon (Korea, Republic of); Baik, J. Y.; Shin, H. J. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The electronic structures of molecule-based nanoparticles, such as biomineralized Helicobacter pylori ferritin (Hpf), Heme, and RbCo[Fe(CN){sub 6}]H{sub 2}O (RbCoFe) Prussian blue analogue, have been investigated by employing photoemission spectroscopy and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Fe ions are found to be nearly trivalent in Hpf and Heme nanoparticles, which provides evidence that the amount of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) should be negligible in the Hpf core and that the biomineralization of Fe oxides in the high-Fe-bound-state Hpf core arises from a hematite-like formation. On the other hand, Fe ions are nearly divalent and Co ions are Co{sup 2+}-Co{sup 3+} mixed-valent in RbCoFe. Therefore this finding suggests that the mechanism of the photo-induced transition in RbCoFe Prussian blue analogue is not a simple spin-state transition of Fe{sup 2+}-Co{sup 3+} → Fe{sup 3+}-Co{sup 2+}. It is likely that Co{sup 2+} ions have the high-spin configuration while Fe{sup 2+} ions have the low-spin configuration.

  20. Enhanced Methods to Estimate the Efficiency of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Hirt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic particle imaging (MPI are powerful methods in the early diagnosis of diseases. Both imaging techniques utilize magnetic nanoparticles that have high magnetic susceptibility, strong saturation magnetization, and no coercivity. FeraSpinTM R and its fractionated products have been studied for their imaging performances; however, a detailed magnetic characterization in their immobilized state is still lacking. This is particularly important for applications in MPI that require fixation of magnetic nanoparticles with the target cells or tissues. We examine the magnetic properties of immobilized FeraSpinTM R, its size fractions, and Resovist®, and use the findings to demonstrate which magnetic properties best predict performance. All samples show some degree of oxidation to hematite, and magnetic interaction between the particles, which impact negatively on image performance of the materials. MRI and MPI performance show a linear dependency on the slope of the magnetization curve, i.e., initial susceptibility, and average blocking temperature. The best performance of particles in immobilized state for MPI is found for particle sizes close to the boundary between superparamagnetic (SP and magnetically ordered, in which only Néel relaxation is important. Initial susceptibility and bifurcation temperature are the best indicators to predict MRI and MPI performance.

  1. Microemulsion Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotić, M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles and nanomaterials have wide applications in electronics, physics, material design, being also utilized as sensors, catalysts, and more and more in biomedicine. Microemulsions are an exceptionally suitable medium for the synthesis of nanoparticles due to their thermodynamical stability, great solubility of both polar and nonpolar components, as well as their ability to control the size, dispersity and shape of the particles. This review presents microemulsion techniques for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. It takes place in water-in-oil microemulsions by mixing one microemulsion with a cationic precursor, and the other with a precipitating or reducing agent, or by direct addition of reducing agents or gas (O2, NH3 ili CO2 into microemul sion (Fig. 1. Metal nanoparticles are used as catalysts, sensors, ferrofluids etc. They are produced by reducing the metal cation with a suitable reducing agent. In a similar way, one can prepare nanoparticles of alloys from the metal salts, provided that the metals are mutually soluble. The microemulsion technique is also suitable for depositing nanoparticles onto various surfaces. Highly active catalysts made from nanoparticles of Pt, Pd, Rh and other noble metals may be obtained in this way. Metal oxides and hydroxides may be prepared by hydrolysis or precipitation in the water core of microemulsion. Precipitation can be initiated by adding the base or precipitating agent into the microemulsion with water solution of metal ions. Similarly, nanoparticles may be prepared of sulphides, halogenides, cyanides, carbonates, sulphates and other insoluble metal salts. To prevent oxidation of nanoparticles, especially Fe, the particles are coated with inert metals, oxides, various polymers etc. Coating may provide additional functionality; e.g. coating with gold allows subsequent functionalization with organic compounds containing sulphur, due to the strong Au–S bond. Polymer coatings decrease

  2. Encapsulation of gold nanoparticles into self-assembling protein nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yongkun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are useful tools for biological applications due to their attractive physical and chemical properties. Their applications can be further expanded when they are functionalized with biological molecules. The biological molecules not only provide the interfaces for interactions between nanoparticles and biological environment, but also contribute their biological functions to the nanoparticles. Therefore, we used self-assembling protein nanoparticles (SAPNs to encapsulate gold nanoparticles. The protein nanoparticles are formed upon self-assembly of a protein chain that is composed of a pentameric coiled-coil domain at the N-terminus and trimeric coiled-coil domain at the C-terminus. The self-assembling protein nanoparticles form a central cavity of about 10 nm in size, which is ideal for the encapsulation of gold nanoparticles with similar sizes. Results We have used SAPNs to encapsulate several commercially available gold nanoparticles. The hydrodynamic size and the surface coating of gold nanoparticles are two important factors influencing successful encapsulation by the SAPNs. Gold nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic size of less than 15 nm can successfully be encapsulated. Gold nanoparticles with citrate coating appear to have stronger interactions with the proteins, which can interfere with the formation of regular protein nanoparticles. Upon encapsulation gold nanoparticles with polymer coating interfere less strongly with the ability of the SAPNs to assemble into nanoparticles. Although the central cavity of the SAPNs carries an overall charge, the electrostatic interaction appears to be less critical for the efficient encapsulation of gold nanoparticles into the protein nanoparticles. Conclusions The SAPNs can be used to encapsulate gold nanoparticles. The SAPNs can be further functionalized by engineering functional peptides or proteins to either their N- or C-termini. Therefore encapsulation of gold

  3. Particle size, spin wave and surface effects on magnetic properties of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslibeiki, B., E-mail: b.aslibeiki@tabrizu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Varvaro, G.; Peddis, D. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, National Research Council, Monterotondo Scalo, Roma 00015 (Italy); Kameli, P. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Magnesium ferrite, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, nanoparticles with a mean diameter varying from ∼6 to ∼17 nm were successfully synthesized using a simple thermal decomposition method at different annealing temperatures ranging in between 400 and 600 °C. Pure spinel ferrite nanoparticles were obtained at temperatures lower than 500 °C, while the presence of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) impurities was observed at higher temperatures. Single-phase samples show a superparamagnetic behavior at 300 K, the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) becoming larger with the increase of particles size. The temperature dependence of M{sub s} was explained in terms of surface spin-canting as well as spin wave excitations in the core. Using a modified Bloch law, [M{sub s}(T)=M{sub s}(0)(1−βT{sup α})], we observed a size dependent behavior of the Bloch constant β and the exponent α, whose values increase and decrease, respectively, as the particle size reduces. - Highlights: • MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized using a thermal decomposition method. • Pure ferrite nanoparticles were obtained at temperatures lower than 500 °C. • Samples show a superparamagnetic behavior at room temperatures. • Spin wave excitations were studied using a modified Bloch law.

  4. Electronically cloaked nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenqing

    The concept of electronic cloaking is to design objects invisible to conduction electrons. The approach of electronic cloaking has been recently suggested to design invisible nanoparticle dopants with electronic scattering cross section smaller than 1% of the physical cross section (pi a2), and therefore to enhance the carrier mobility of bulk materials. The proposed nanoparticles have core-shell structures. The dopants are incorporated inside the core, while the shell layer serves both as a spacer to separate the charge carriers from their parent atoms and as a cloaking shell to minimize the scattering cross section of the electrons from the ionized nanoparticles. Thermoelectric materials are usually highly doped to have enough carrier density. Using invisible dopants could achieve larger thermoelectric power factors by enhancing the electronic mobility. Core-shell nanoparticles show an advantage over one-layer nanoparticles, which are proposed in three-dimensional modulation doping. However designing such nanoparticles is not easy as there are too many parameters to be considered. This thesis first shows an approach to design hollow nanoparticles by applying constrains on variables. In the second part, a simple mapping approach is introduced where one can identify possible core-shell particles by comparing the dimensionless parameters of chosen materials with provided maps. In both parts of this work, several designs with realistic materials were made and proven to achieve electronic cloaking. Improvement in the thermoelectric power factor compared to the traditional impurity doping method was demonstrated in several cases.

  5. Liposome encapsulation of fluorescent nanoparticles: Quantum dots and silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-S.; Yao Jie; Durst, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and silica nanoparticles (SNs) are relatively new classes of fluorescent probes that overcome the limitations encountered by organic fluorophores in bioassay and biological imaging applications. We encapsulated QDs and SNs in liposomes and separated nanoparticle-loaded liposomes from unencapsulated nanoparticles by size exclusion chromatography. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy was used to measure the average number of nanoparticles inside each liposome. Results indicated that nanoparticle-loaded liposomes were formed and separated from unencapsulated nanoparticles by using a Sepharose gel. As expected, fluorescence self-quenching of nanoparticles inside liposomes was not observed. Each liposome encapsulated an average of three QDs. These studies demonstrated that nanoparticles could be successfully encapsulated into liposomes and provided a methodology to quantify the number of nanoparticles inside each liposome by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

  6. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  7. Resonant halide perovskite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiguntseva, Ekaterina Y.; Ishteev, Arthur R.; Komissarenko, Filipp E.; Zuev, Dmitry A.; Ushakova, Elena V.; Milichko, Valentin A.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Makarov, Sergey V.; Zakhidov, Anvar A.

    2017-09-01

    The hybrid halide perovskites is a prospective material for fabrication of cost-effective optical devices. Unique perovskites properties are used for solar cells and different photonic applications. Recently, perovskite-based nanophotonics has emerged. Here, we consider perovskite like a high-refractive index dielectric material, which can be considered to be a basis for nanoparticles fabrication with Mie resonances. As a result, we fabricate and study resonant perovskite nanoparticles with different sizes. We reveal, that spherical nanoparticles show enhanced photoluminescence signal. The achieved results lay a cornerstone in the field of novel types of organic-inorganic nanophotonics devices with optical properties improved by Mie resonances.

  8. Assembling RNA Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shou-Jun

    2017-01-01

    RNA nanoparticles are designed and self-assembled according to noncanonical interactions of naturally conserved RNA motifs and/or canonical Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions, which have potential applications in gene therapy and nanomedicine. These artificially engineered nanoparticles are mainly synthesized from in vitro transcribed RNAs, purified by denaturing and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and characterized with native PAGE, AFM, and TEM technologies. The protocols of in vitro transcription, denaturing and native PAGE, and RNA nanoparticle self-assembly are described in detail.

  9. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.; El Tall, Omar; Raja, Inam U.

    2014-01-01

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  10. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.

    2014-10-21

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  11. Supercooled smectic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Koch, Michel H J; Fahr, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Cholesteryl nonanoate (CN), myristate (CM), palmitate (CP) and oleate (CO) alone or in combination were evaluated as matrix lipids for the preparation of supercooled smectic nanoparticles with a high stability against recrystallization during storage. The phase behavior of the cholesterol esters......, laser diffraction combined with polarizing intensity differential scattering, DSC and SAXS. The morphology of selected formulations was studied by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. All smectic nanoparticles with a mixed cholesterol ester matrix were stable against recrystallization when stored...... at room temperature. Nanoparticles with a pure CN and mixed CM/CN matrix with a high fraction of CN (60% of the whole lipid matrix) could even be stored at 4 degrees C for at least 18 months without any recrystallization. As smectic nanoparticles are studied especially with regard to parenteral...

  12. Repairing Nanoparticle Surface Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, Emanuele; Kodger, Thomas E.; Crisp, R.W.; Timmerman, Dolf; MacArthur, Katherine E.; Heggen, Marc; Schall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Solar devices based on semiconductor nanoparticles require the use of conductive ligands; however, replacing the native, insulating ligands with conductive metal chalcogenide complexes introduces structural defects within the crystalline nanostructure that act as traps for charge carriers. We

  13. Metallic Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernando

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we reviewed some relevant aspects of the magnetic properties of metallic nanoparticles with small size (below 4 nm, covering the size effects in nanoparticles of magnetic materials, as well as the appearance of magnetism at the nanoscale in materials that are nonferromagnetic in bulk. These results are distributed along the text that has been organized around three important items: fundamental magnetic properties, different fabrication procedures, and characterization techniques. A general introduction and some experimental results recently obtained in Pd and Au nanoparticles have also been included. Finally, the more promising applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine are indicated. Special care was taken to complete the literature available on the subject.

  14. Cryochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, Gleb B.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of metal atoms, clusters and nanoparticles with different organic and inorganic substances were studied at low temperature (10-40K). Combination of matrix isolation technique and preparative cryochemistry was applied for the investigation of activity and selectivity of metal particles of different size. Encapsulation of metal nanoparticles in polymers was studied. The metal-polymer films thus obtained exhibited satisfactory sensitivity to ammonia

  15. Cryochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeev, Gleb B. [Moscow State University, Laboratory of Low Temperature Chemistry, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gbs@kinet.chem.msu.ru

    2003-12-15

    The interaction of metal atoms, clusters and nanoparticles with different organic and inorganic substances were studied at low temperature (10-40K). Combination of matrix isolation technique and preparative cryochemistry was applied for the investigation of activity and selectivity of metal particles of different size. Encapsulation of metal nanoparticles in polymers was studied. The metal-polymer films thus obtained exhibited satisfactory sensitivity to ammonia.

  16. Cryochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Gleb B.

    2003-12-01

    The interaction of metal atoms, clusters and nanoparticles with different organic and inorganic substances were studied at low temperature (10-40K). Combination of matrix isolation technique and preparative cryochemistry was applied for the investigation of activity and selectivity of metal particles of different size. Encapsulation of metal nanoparticles in polymers was studied. The metal-polymer films thus obtained exhibited satisfactory sensitivity to ammonia.

  17. Biomimetic magnetic nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Klem, Michael T.; Young, Mark; Douglas, Trevor

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their potential use in high-density memory devices, spintronics, and applications in diagnostic medicine. The conditions for synthesis of these materials are often complicated by their high reaction temperatures, costly reagents, and post-processing requirements. Practical applications of magnetic nanoparticles will require the development of alternate synthetic strategies that can overcome these impediments. Biomimetic approaches...

  18. Nanolubricant: magnetic nanoparticle based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Kinjal; Parekh, Kinnari; Upadhyay, Ramesh V.

    2017-11-01

    In the present study magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 having average particle diameter, 11.7 nm were synthesized using chemical coprecipitation technique and dispersed in alpha olefin hydrocarbon synthetic lubricating oil. The solid weight fraction of magnetic nanoparticles in the lubricating oil was varied from 0 wt% to 10 wt%. The tribological properties were studied using four-ball tester. The results demonstrate that the coefficient of friction and wear scar diameter reduces by 45% and 30%, respectively at an optimal value, i.e. 4 wt% of magnetic nanoparticles concentration. The surface characterization of worn surface was carried out using a scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. These results implied that rolling mechanism is responsible to reduce coefficient of friction while magnetic nanoparticles act as the spacer between the asperities and reduces the wear scar diameter. The surface roughness of the worn surface studied using an atomic force microscope shows a reduction in surface roughness by a factor of four when magnetic nanoparticles are used as an additive. The positive response of magnetic nanoparticles in a lubricating oil, shows the potential replacement of conventional lubricating oil.

  19. Protein trapping of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Joo C.; Lin, Jack M.; Yaron, Peter N.; White, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: We have observed the formation of protein-nanoparticle complexes at the air-water interfaces from three different methods of presenting the nanoparticles to proteins. The structures formed resemble the 'protein-nanoparticle corona' proposed by Lynch et al. [1-3) in relation to a possible route for nanoparticle entry into living cells. To do this, the methods of x-ray and neutron reflectivity (with isotopic contrast variation between the protein and nanoparticles) have been used to study the structures formed at the air-water interface of l 3 - casein presented to silica nanoparticle dispersions. Whilst the silica dispersions showed no observable reflectivity, strong signals appear in the reflectivity when protein is present. Drop-wise spreading of a small amount of protein at the air-silica sol interface and presentation of the silica sol to an isolated monomolecular protein film (made by the 'flow-trough' method [4]) gave an immediate signal. Mixing the components in solution only produces a slow response but in all cases a similar structure is formed. The different responses are interpreted in structural and stoichiometric ways.

  20. Mineralogical effects of an experimental forest fire on a goethite/ferrihydrite soil - an attempt to solve the presence of hematite and maghemite in topsoils in a temperate region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørnberg, Per; Vendelboe, Anders L.; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur P.; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Finster, Kai; Jensen, Svend K.

    2010-05-01

    Isolated soil spots, a few square metres in size, as red as Munsell colour 10R ¾ are found in Denmark. These spots are well known as places that have been exposed to fire. However, a long-standing unresolved puzzle is the presence of extended areas with high iron content (8-40 %) where goethite and ferrihydrite are present in the topsoil along with hematite and maghemite. Hematite and particularly maghemite would normally not be expected to occur under the temperate humid Danish climate, but be interpreted as the result of high temperature as found in tropical areas or after forest fires. However, a body of evidence argues against these sites having been exposed to fire. In an attempt to get closer to an explanation of this iron mineralogy, an experimental forest fire was produced. The results showed a clear mineralogical zonation down to 10 cm depth. This was not observed at the natural sites, which contained a uniform mixture of goethite/ferrihydrite, hematite and maghemite down to 20 cm depth. The experimental forest fire furthermore left charcoal and ashes at the topsoil, produced high pH and decreased organic matter content, all of which is in contrast to the natural sites. Physical and chemical date as well as XRD, Mössbauer spectroscopic data and TEM micrographs from the sites will be presented. The conclusion from this work is that the mineralogy of these sites is not consistent with exposure to fire, but may rather result from long term transformation within a reducing environment, possibly involving microorganisms. References: Nørnberg, P., Vendelboe, A.L., Gunnlaugsson, H.P., Merrison, J.P., Finster, K., Jensen, S.K. 2009 Mineralogy after an experimental forest fire on Quaternary soil goethite, compared with a hematite, maghemite, goethite containing topsoil. Clay Minerals, 44, 239-247. Nørnberg, P., Gunnlaugsson, H.P., Merrison, J.P., Vendelboe, A.L. 2009: Salten Skov I: A Martian dust analogue. Planetary and Space Science, 57, 628-631. Nørnberg, P

  1. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  2. Lactobacillusassisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Anal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAn eco-friendlylactobacillussp. (microbe assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis is performed at room temperature. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ti nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles as well as a number of aggregates almost spherical in shape having a size of 40–60 nm are found.

  3. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  4. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Washington II, Aaron L.; Murph, Simona H.

    2016-01-01

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  5. Understanding nanoparticle-mediated nucleation pathways of anisotropic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramy, Christine R.; Fong, Lam-Kiu; Jones, Matthew R.; O'Brien, Matthew N.; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2017-09-01

    Several seed-mediated syntheses of low symmetry anisotropic nanoparticles yield broad product distributions with multiple defect structures. This observation challenges the role of the nanoparticle precursor as a seed for certain syntheses and suggests the possibility of alternate nucleation pathways. Herein, we report a method to probe the role of the nanoparticle precursor in anisotropic nanoparticle nucleation with compositional and structural 'labels' to track their fate. We use the synthesis of gold triangular nanoprisms (Au TPs) as a model system. We propose a mechanism in which, rather than acting as a template, the nanoparticle precursor catalyzes homogenous nucleation of Au TPs.

  6. Magnetic nanoparticle assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Trohidou, Kalliopi N

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles with diameters in the range of a few nanometers are today at the cutting edge of modern technology and innovation because of their use in numerous applications ranging from engineering to biomedicine. A great deal of scientific interest has been focused on the functionalization of magnetic nanoparticle assemblies. The understanding of interparticle interactions is necessary to clarify the physics of these assemblies and their use in the development of high-performance magnetic materials. This book reviews prominent research studies on the static and dynamic magnetic properties of nanoparticle assemblies, gathering together experimental and computational techniques in an effort to reveal their optimized magnetic properties for biomedical use and as ultra-high magnetic recording media.

  7. Nanostructures from nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Paula M; Chen Yu; Palmer, Richard E; Nikitin, Kirill; Fitzmaurice, Donald; Preece, Jon A

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews recent experimental approaches to the development of surface nanostructures from nanoparticles. The formation of nanowires by electron beam writing in films of gold nanoparticles passivated with a specially designed class of ligand molecules (dialkyl sulfides) is presented, together with illustrations of practical nanostructures. Potential applications of this methodology are discussed. Another alternative to the controlled fabrication of arrays of nanoparticles, based on nanocrystals which contain molecular recognition elements in the ligand shell, is also surveyed. These particles aggregate in the presence of specifically designed molecular dications which act as a molecular binder. Finally, recent work on the formation of nanoscale surface architectures using x-ray patterning of self-assembled monolayers is introduced. Current and potential future applications of these surface nanostructures are discussed

  8. Potencial risks of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Forbe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotoxicology is an emergent important subdiscipline of Nanosciences, which refers to the study of the interactions of nanostructures with biological systems giving emphasis to the elucidation of the relationship between the physical and chemical properties of nanostructures with induction of toxic biological responses. Although potential beneficial effects of nanotechnologies are generally well described, the potential (eco toxicological effects and impacts of nanoparticles have so far received little attention. This is the reason why some routes of expousure, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, as well as toxicological effects of nanoparticles are discussed in this review.

  9. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter [Kensington, CA

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  10. NANOPARTICLES IN NUCLEAR IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Vicky V Mody PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review article summarizes the current state radiolabeled nanoparticles for molecular imaging applications mainly targeting cancer. Due to their enormous flexibility, and versatility the radiolabeled nanoparticles have shown their potential in the diagnosis and therapy. As the matter of fact, these radiolabeled imaging agents enable the visualization of the cellular function and the follow-up of the molecular process in living organisms. Moreover, the rapidly advancing field of nanotechnology has provided various innovative radionuclides and delivery systems, such as liposomes, magnetic agents, polymers, dendrimers, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes to cope up with the hurdles which have been posed by various disease states.

  11. Dynamics of Catalyst Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Cavalca, Filippo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    and pharmaceuticals, and the cleanup of exhaust from automobiles and stationary power plants. Sintering, or thermal deactivation, is an important mechanism for the loss of catalyst activity. In order to initiate a systematic study of the dynamics and sintering of nanoparticles, various catalytic systems have been...... under gas exposure, dynamic phenomena such as sintering and growth can be observed with sub-Ångstrøm resolution. Metal nanoparticles contain the active sites in heterogeneous catalysts, which are important for many industrial applications including the production of clean fuels, chemicals...

  12. Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicalho, U.O.; Santos, D.C.; Silvestrini, D.R.; Trama, B.; Carmo, D.R. do

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NHNi) were prepared in three medium (aqueous, formamide and aqueous/formamide). The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electronica spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region and also by cyclic voltammetry (CV). By spectroscopic analysis of X-ray diffraction was possible to estimate the size of the particles obtained by the Scherrer equation. The graphite paste electrodes containing nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate means formamide was sensitive to different concentrations of Dipyrone. (author)

  13. Nanoparticles from Renewable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Roman Wurm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of polymers from natural resources can bring many benefits for novel polymeric nanoparticle systems. Such polymers have a variety of beneficial properties such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, they are readily available on large scale and at low cost. As the amount of fossil fuels decrease, their application becomes more interesting even if characterization is in many cases more challenging due to structural complexity, either by broad distribution of their molecular weights polysaccharides, polyesters, lignin or by complex structure (proteins, lignin. This review summarizes different sources and methods for the preparation of biopolymer-based nanoparticle systems for various applications.

  14. Actinide nanoparticle research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, Stepan N.; Denecke, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to cover actinide nano research. It is of interest both for fundamental research into the chemistry and physics of f-block elements as well as for applied researchers such as those studying the long-term safety of nuclear waste disposal and developing remediation strategies. The authors cover important issues of the formation of actinide nano-particles, their properties and structure, environmental behavior of colloids and nanoparticles related to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes, modeling and advanced methods of characterization at the nano-scale. (orig.)

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles by simple precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankadiya, Siyaram, E-mail: siyaramsankdiya@gmail.com; Oswal, Nidhi, E-mail: oswal03nidhi@gmail.com [Dept. of Applied Physics, Shri Govindram Sakseria Inst. of Tech. and Sci., 23 Park Road, Indore(MP) 452003 (India); Jain, Pranat, E-mail: pranatjain@gmail.com [Dept. of Material Sc. & Metallurgical Eng., Maulana Azad National Inst. of Tech., Bhopal (MP) 4620003 (India); Gupta, Nitish, E-mail: nitish.nidhi75@gmail.com [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Shri Govindram Sakseria Inst. of Tech. and Sci., 23 Park Road, Indore (MP) 452003 (India)

    2016-04-13

    A simple and efficient synthesis of Iron-oxide nanoparticles was carried out by precipitation method using ferric chloride as precursor and ammonium hydroxide as a stabilizing agent at different calcination temperatures. The synthesized powder was characterized by powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction indicated the formation hematite Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} structure. FTIR showed various functional groups of particles and absorption bands related to metal oxygen vibration modes. The heating temperatures were varied at 100 °C, 200°C, and 300°C. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures with the average particle size of about 36.22 nm were prepared at 300°C for 4h. TEM study is also confirming the nanosize of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle. This aqueous precipitation method gives a large scale production of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles easily.

  16. Thermally stable nanoparticles on supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed R.; Behafarid, Farzad

    2012-11-13

    An inverse micelle-based method for forming nanoparticles on supports includes dissolving a polymeric material in a solvent to provide a micelle solution. A nanoparticle source is dissolved in the micelle solution. A plurality of micelles having a nanoparticle in their core and an outer polymeric coating layer are formed in the micelle solution. The micelles are applied to a support. The polymeric coating layer is then removed from the micelles to expose the nanoparticles. A supported catalyst includes a nanocrystalline powder, thin film, or single crystal support. Metal nanoparticles having a median size from 0.5 nm to 25 nm, a size distribution having a standard deviation .ltoreq.0.1 of their median size are on or embedded in the support. The plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed and in a periodic arrangement. The metal nanoparticles maintain their periodic arrangement and size distribution following heat treatments of at least 1,000.degree. C.

  17. Manipulating Conduction in Metal Oxide Semiconductors: Mechanism Investigation and Conductance Tuning in Doped Fe2O3 Hematite and Metal/Ga2O3/Metal Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo

    This study aims at understanding the fundamental mechanisms of conduction in several metal oxide semiconductors, namely alpha-Fe2O 3 and beta-Ga2O3, and how it could be tuned to desired values/states to enable a wide range of application. In the first effort, by adding Ti dopant, we successfully turned Fe2O3 from insulating to conductive by fabricated compositionally and structurally well-defined epitaxial alpha-(TixFe1-x)2 O3(0001) films for x ≤ 0.09. All films were grown by oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Al2O3(0001) sapphire substrate with a buffer layer of Cr2O3 to relax the strain from lattice mismatch. Van der Pauw resistivity and Hall effect measurements reveal carrier concentrations between 1019 and 1020 cm-3 at room temperature and mobilities in the range of 0.1 to 0.6 cm2/V˙s. Such low mobility, unlike conventional band-conduction semiconductor, was attributed to hopping mechanism due to strong electron-phonon interaction in the lattice. More interestingly, conduction mechanism transitions from small-polaron hopping at higher temperatures to variable range hopping at lower temperatures with a transition temperature between 180 to 140 K. Consequently, by adding Ti dopant, conductive Fe 2O3 hematite thin films were achieved with a well-understood conducting mechanism that could guide further device application such as spin transistor and water splitting. In the case of Ga2O3, while having a band gap as high as 5 eV, they are usually conductive for commercially available samples due to unintentional Si doping. However, we discovered the conductance could be repeatedly switched between high resistance state and low resistance state when made into metal/Ga2O3 /metal heterostructure. However, to obtain well controlled switching process with consistent switching voltages and resistances, understanding switching mechanism is the key. In this study, we fabricated resistive switching devices utilizing a Ni/Ga2O3/Ir heterostructure. Bipolar

  18. Stresses in hollow nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 20 (2010), s. 2799-2805 ISSN 0020-7683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1781 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Spherical nanoparticles * Micromechanics * Interface Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2010

  19. Supercooled smectic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Westesen, K; Drechsler, M

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of preparing nanoparticles in the supercooled thermotropic liquid crystalline state from cholesterol esters with saturated acyl chains as well as the incorporation of model drugs into the dispersions was investigated using cholesteryl myristate (CM) as a model cholesterol ester....

  20. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  1. Nanoparticle-Assisted Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and harnessing the interactions between nanoparticles and biological molecules is at the forefront of applications of nanotechnology to modern biology. Metabolomics has emerged as a prominent player in systems biology as a complement to genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. Its focus is the systematic study of metabolite identities and concentration changes in living systems. Despite significant progress over the recent past, important challenges in metabolomics remain, such as the deconvolution of the spectra of complex mixtures with strong overlaps, the sensitive detection of metabolites at low abundance, unambiguous identification of known metabolites, structure determination of unknown metabolites and standardized sample preparation for quantitative comparisons. Recent research has demonstrated that some of these challenges can be substantially alleviated with the help of nanoscience. Nanoparticles in particular have found applications in various areas of bioanalytical chemistry and metabolomics. Their chemical surface properties and increased surface-to-volume ratio endows them with a broad range of binding affinities to biomacromolecules and metabolites. The specific interactions of nanoparticles with metabolites or biomacromolecules help, for example, simplify metabolomics spectra, improve the ionization efficiency for mass spectrometry or reveal relationships between spectral signals that belong to the same molecule. Lessons learned from nanoparticle-assisted metabolomics may also benefit other emerging areas, such as nanotoxicity and nanopharmaceutics.

  2. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  3. Effect of hydration repulsion on nanoparticle agglomeration evaluated via a constant number Monte–Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haoyang Haven; Lanphere, Jacob; Walker, Sharon; Cohen, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hydration repulsion on the agglomeration of nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions was investigated via the description of agglomeration by the Smoluchowski coagulation equation using constant number Monte–Carlo simulation making use of the classical DLVO theory extended to include the hydration repulsion energy. Evaluation of experimental DLS measurements for TiO 2 , CeO 2 , SiO 2 , and α-Fe 2 O 3 (hematite) at high IS (up to 900 mM) or low |ζ-potential| (≥1.35 mV) demonstrated that hydration repulsion energy can be above electrostatic repulsion energy such that the increased overall repulsion energy can significantly lower the agglomerate diameter relative to the classical DLVO prediction. While the classical DLVO theory, which is reasonably applicable for agglomeration of NPs of high |ζ-potential| (∼>35 mV) in suspensions of low IS (∼<1 mM), it can overpredict agglomerate sizes by up to a factor of 5 at high IS or low |ζ-potential|. Given the potential important role of hydration repulsion over a range of relevant conditions, there is merit in quantifying this repulsion energy over a wide range of conditions as part of overall characterization of NP suspensions. Such information would be of relevance to improved understanding of NP agglomeration in aqueous suspensions and its correlation with NP physicochemical and solution properties. (paper)

  4. The role of polymer films on the oxidation of magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letti, C. J.; Paterno, L. G.; Pereira-da-Silva, M. A.; Morais, P. C.; Soler, M. A. G.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed investigation about the role of polymer films on the oxidation process of magnetite nanoparticles (∼7 nm diameter), under laser irradiation is performed employing micro Raman spectroscopy. To support this investigation, Fe3O4-np are synthesized by the co-precipitation method and assembled layer-by-layer with sodium sulfonated polystyrene (PSS). Polymer films (Fe3O4-np/PSS)n with n=2,3,5,7,10 and 25 bilayers are employed as a model system to study the oxidation process under laser irradiation. Raman data are further processed by principal component analysis. Our findings suggest that PSS protects Fe3O4-np from oxidation when compared to powder samples, even for the sample with the greater number of bilayers. Further, the oxidation of magnetite to maghemite occurs preferably for thinner films up to 7 bilayers, while the onset for the formation of the hematite phase depends on the laser intensity for thicker films. Water takes part on the oxidation processes of magnetite, the oxidation/phase transformation of Fe3O4-np is intensified in films with more bilayers, since more water is included in those films. Encapsulation of Fe3O4-np by PSS in layer-by-layer films showed to be very efficient to avoid the oxidation process in nanosized magnetite.

  5. Progress toward clonable inorganic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Thomas W.; Staicu, Lucian C.; Nemeth, Richard S.; Schwartz, Cindi L.; Crawford, David; Seligman, Jeffrey D.; Hunter, William J.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.; Ackerson, Christopher J.

    2015-10-01

    Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae was recently isolated from the roots of the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator plant Stanleya pinnata. This bacterium tolerates normally lethal concentrations of SeO32- in liquid culture, where it also produces Se nanoparticles. Structure and cellular ultrastructure of the Se nanoparticles as determined by cellular electron tomography shows the nanoparticles as intracellular, of narrow dispersity, symmetrically irregular and without any observable membrane or structured protein shell. Protein mass spectrometry of a fractionated soluble cytosolic material with selenite reducing capability identified nitrite reductase and glutathione reductase homologues as NADPH dependent candidate enzymes for the reduction of selenite to zerovalent Se nanoparticles. In vitro experiments with commercially sourced glutathione reductase revealed that the enzyme can reduce SeO32- (selenite) to Se nanoparticles in an NADPH-dependent process. The disappearance of the enzyme as determined by protein assay during nanoparticle formation suggests that glutathione reductase is associated with or possibly entombed in the nanoparticles whose formation it catalyzes. Chemically dissolving the nanoparticles releases the enzyme. The size of the nanoparticles varies with SeO32- concentration, varying in size form 5 nm diameter when formed at 1.0 μM [SeO32-] to 50 nm maximum diameter when formed at 100 μM [SeO32-]. In aggregate, we suggest that glutathione reductase possesses the key attributes of a clonable nanoparticle system: ion reduction, nanoparticle retention and size control of the nanoparticle at the enzyme site.Pseudomonas moraviensis stanleyae was recently isolated from the roots of the selenium (Se) hyperaccumulator plant Stanleya pinnata. This bacterium tolerates normally lethal concentrations of SeO32- in liquid culture, where it also produces Se nanoparticles. Structure and cellular ultrastructure of the Se nanoparticles as determined by cellular

  6. Immunological properties of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, Lev A; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2017-03-01

    In the past decade, gold nanoparticles have attracted strong interest from the nanobiotechnological community owing to the significant progress made in robust and easy-to-make synthesis technologies, in surface functionalization, and in promising biomedical applications. These include bioimaging, gene diagnostics, analytical sensing, photothermal treatment of tumors, and targeted delivery of various biomolecular and chemical cargos. For the last-named application, gold nanoparticles should be properly fabricated to deliver the cargo into the targeted cells through effective endocytosis. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding the selective penetration of gold nanoparticles into immune cells. The interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cell receptors is discussed. As distinct from other published reviews, we present a summary of the immunological properties of gold nanoparticles. This review also summarizes what is known about the application of gold nanoparticles as an antigen carrier and adjuvant in immunization for the preparation of antibodies in vivo . For each of the above topics, the basic principles, recent advances, and current challenges are discussed. Thus, this review presents a detailed analysis of data on interaction of gold nanoparticles with immune cells. Emphasis is placed on the systematization of data over production of antibodies by using gold nanoparticles and adjuvant properties of gold nanoparticles. Specifically, we start our discussion with current data on interaction of various gold nanoparticles with immune cells. The next section describes existing technologies to improve production of antibodies in vivo by using gold nanoparticles conjugated with specific ligands. Finally, we describe what is known about adjuvant properties of bare gold or functionalized nanoparticles. In the Conclusion section, we present a short summary of reported data and some challenges and perspectives.

  7. Nanobiotechnology today: focus on nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloviev Mikhail

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years the nanobiotechnology field and the Journal of Nanobiotechnology readership have witnessed an increase in interest towards the nanoparticles and their biological effects and applications. These include bottom-up and molecular self-assembly, biological effects of naked nanoparticles and nano-safety, drug encapsulation and nanotherapeutics, and novel nanoparticles for use in microscopy, imaging and diagnostics. This review highlights recent Journal of Nanobiotechnology publications in some of these areas http://www.jnanobiotechnology.com.

  8. Vacancy clusters at nanoparticle surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Moxom, J.; Somieski, B.; White, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Mills, A.P. Jr. [Bell Labs., Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Suzuki, R.; Ishibashi, S. [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ueda, A.; Henderson, D. [Physics Dept., Fisk Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    We detect vacancy clusters at Au nanoparticle surfaces using a combination of positron lifetime spectroscopy, 1- detector, and 2-detector measurements of Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation. Gold nanoparticles are formed by MeV implantation of gold ions into MgO (100) followed by annealing. Clusters of two Mg and two O vacancies (v{sub 4}) are attached to the gold nanoparticle surfaces within the projected range (R{sub p}). (orig.)

  9. Vacancy clusters at nanoparticle surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Moxom, J.; Somieski, B.; White, C.W.; Mills, A.P. Jr.; Suzuki, R.; Ishibashi, S.; Ueda, A.; Henderson, D.

    2001-01-01

    We detect vacancy clusters at Au nanoparticle surfaces using a combination of positron lifetime spectroscopy, 1- detector, and 2-detector measurements of Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation. Gold nanoparticles are formed by MeV implantation of gold ions into MgO (100) followed by annealing. Clusters of two Mg and two O vacancies (v 4 ) are attached to the gold nanoparticle surfaces within the projected range (R p ). (orig.)

  10. Magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krustev, P.; Ruskov, T.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe different biomedical application using magnetic nanoparticles. Over the past decade, a number of biomedical applications have begun to emerge for magnetic nanoparticles of differing sizes, shapes, and compositions. Areas under investigation include targeted drug delivery, ultra-sensitive disease detection, gene therapy, high throughput genetic screening, biochemical sensing, and rapid toxicity cleansing. Magnetic nanoparticles exhibit ferromagnetic or superparamagnetic behavior, magnetizing strongly under an applied field. In the second case (superparamagnetic nanoparticles) there is no permanent magnetism once the field is removed. The superparamagnetic nanoparticles are highly attractive as in vivo probes or in vitro tools to extract information on biochemical systems. The optical properties of magnetic metal nanoparticles are spectacular and, therefore, have promoted a great deal of excitement during the last few decades. Many applications as MRI imaging and hyperthermia rely on the use of iron oxide particles. Moreover magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with antibodies are also applied to hyperthermia and have enabled tumor specific contrast enhancement in MRI. Other promising biomedical applications are connected with tumor cells treated with magnetic nanoparticles with X-ray ionizing radiation, which employs magnetic nanoparticles as a complementary radiate source inside the tumor. (authors)

  11. Surface chemistry of "unprotected" nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Imke; Warneke, Jonas; Neumann, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of colloidal nanoparticles in alkaline ethylene glycol is a powerful approach for the preparation of model catalysts and ligand-functionalized nanoparticles. For these systems the term "unprotected" nanoparticles has been established because no strongly binding stabilizers...... study. "Unprotected" Pt and Ru nanoparticles were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, which does not evidence the presence of any C-H containing species bound to the particle surface. Instead, the colloids were found to be covered by CO, as demonstrated by IR spectroscopy. However, analysis...

  12. Biomimetic nanoparticles for inflammation targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many recent exciting developments in biomimetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Inflammation, a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators directed against harmful stimuli, is closely associated with many human diseases. As a result, biomimetic nanoparticles mimicking immune cells can help achieve molecular imaging and precise drug delivery to these inflammatory sites. This review is focused on inflammation-targeting biomimetic nanoparticles and will provide an in-depth look at the design of these nanoparticles to maximize their benefits for disease diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Hydrogel nanoparticle based immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Espina, Virginia

    2015-04-21

    An immunoassay device incorporating porous polymeric capture nanoparticles within either the sample collection vessel or pre-impregnated into a porous substratum within fluid flow path of the analytical device is presented. This incorporation of capture particles within the immunoassay device improves sensitivity while removing the requirement for pre-processing of samples prior to loading the immunoassay device. A preferred embodiment is coreshell bait containing capture nanoparticles which perform three functions in one step, in solution: a) molecular size sieving, b) target analyte sequestration and concentration, and c) protection from degradation. The polymeric matrix of the capture particles may be made of co-polymeric materials having a structural monomer and an affinity monomer, the affinity monomer having properties that attract the analyte to the capture particle. This device is useful for point of care diagnostic assays for biomedical applications and as field deployable assays for environmental, pathogen and chemical or biological threat identification.

  14. Genotoxicity of metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Mason, Michael M; Wise, John Pierce

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently used in industry, medicine, and military applications, as well as in more than 300 commercial products. Yet, the same properties that make these particles exciting for technology also make them daunting public health concerns because their toxicity is unknown and relatively unexplored. Increased attention is being placed on the study of metal particle genotoxicity; however, a lot of unknowns remain about their effects and the mechanisms. In this article, we highlight some metal and metal oxide nanoparticles of interest and discuss the current in vivo and in vitro studies of genotoxic effects. Many metal nanoparticles were found to cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA strand breaks, oxidative DNA damage, and mutations. Inconsistencies are found in the literature, however, thus drawing conclusions is difficult due to a variety of factors. Therefore, the areas requiring further attention are highlighted and recommendations to improve our understanding of the genotoxic potential are addressed.

  15. Evaluation of nanoparticle immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A.; Germolec, Dori R.; Weaver, James L.

    2009-07-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is developing increasing numbers of drugs and diagnostics based on nanoparticles, and evaluating the immune response to these diverse formulations has become a challenge for scientists and regulatory agencies alike. An international panel of scientists and representatives from various agencies and companies reviewed the imitations of current tests at a workshop held at the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland. This article outlines practical strategies for identifying and controlling interferences in common evaluation methods and the implications for regulation.

  16. Chiromagnetic nanoparticles and gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jihyeon; Santos, Uallisson S.; Chekini, Mahshid; Cha, Minjeong; de Moura, André F.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2018-01-01

    Chiral inorganic nanostructures have high circular dichroism, but real-time control of their optical activity has so far been achieved only by irreversible chemical changes. Field modulation is a far more desirable path to chiroptical devices. We hypothesized that magnetic field modulation can be attained for chiral nanostructures with large contributions of the magnetic transition dipole moments to polarization rotation. We found that dispersions and gels of paramagnetic Co3O4 nanoparticles with chiral distortions of the crystal lattices exhibited chiroptical activity in the visible range that was 10 times as strong as that of nonparamagnetic nanoparticles of comparable size. Transparency of the nanoparticle gels to circularly polarized light beams in the ultraviolet range was reversibly modulated by magnetic fields. These phenomena were also observed for other nanoscale metal oxides with lattice distortions from imprinted amino acids and other chiral ligands. The large family of chiral ceramic nanostructures and gels can be pivotal for new technologies and knowledge at the nexus of chirality and magnetism.

  17. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  18. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...

  19. Engineered Nanoparticles and Their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsoukas, T.; Desai, T.; Lee, K.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles engineered for shape, size, and surface properties impart special functionalities including catalytic behavior, improved strength, enhanced thermal and electrical conductivity, and controlled release of host molecules. These advances have opened up applications in biomedicine, nano energetic materials, and functional nano composites. This special issue highlights successes in developing nanoparticles for a number of diverse applications.

  20. Synthesizing nanoparticles by mimicking nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    As particulate matter with at least one dimension that is less than 100 nm, nanoparticles are the minuscule building blocks of new commercial products and consumer materials in the emerging field of nanotechnology. Nanoparticles are being discovered and introduced in the marketpl...

  1. Surface Effects in Magnetic Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorani, Dino

    2005-01-01

    This volume is a collection of articles on different approaches to the investigation of surface effects on nanosized magnetic materials, with special emphasis on magnetic nanoparticles. The book aims to provide an overview of progress in the understanding of surface properties and surface driven effects in magnetic nanoparticles through recent results of different modeling, simulation, and experimental investigations.

  2. Uniform magnetic excitations in nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Britt Rosendahl

    2005-01-01

    We have used a spin-wave model to calculate the temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles. The uniform precession mode, corresponding to a spin wave with wave vector q=0, is predominant in nanoparticles and gives rise to an approximately linear temperature...... dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization well below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature for both ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic particles. This is in accordance with the results of a classical model for collective magnetic excitations in nanoparticles. In nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic...... materials, quantum effects give rise to a small deviation from the linear temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization at very low temperatures. The complex nature of the excited precession states of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials, with deviations from antiparallel orientation...

  3. Topotactic interconversion of nanoparticle superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Robert J; Jones, Matthew R; Lee, Byeongdu; Auyeung, Evelyn; Mirkin, Chad A

    2013-09-13

    The directed assembly of nanoparticle building blocks is a promising method for generating sophisticated three-dimensional materials by design. In this work, we have used DNA linkers to synthesize nanoparticle superlattices that have greater complexity than simple binary systems using the process of topotactic intercalation-the insertion of a third nanoparticle component at predetermined sites within a preformed binary lattice. Five distinct crystals were synthesized with this methodology, three of which have no equivalent in atomic or molecular crystals, demonstrating a general approach for assembling highly ordered ternary nanoparticle superlattices whose structures can be predicted before their synthesis. Additionally, the intercalation process was demonstrated to be completely reversible; the inserted nanoparticles could be expelled into solution by raising the temperature, and the ternary superlattice could be recovered by cooling.

  4. Nanotoxicology of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedea B. Seabra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in the synthesis, characterization and toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles obtained mainly through biogenic (green processes. The in vitro and in vivo toxicities of these oxides are discussed including a consideration of the factors important for safe use of these nanomaterials. The toxicities of different metal oxide nanoparticles are compared. The importance of biogenic synthesized metal oxide nanoparticles has been increasing in recent years; however, more studies aimed at better characterizing the potent toxicity of these nanoparticles are still necessary for nanosafely considerations and environmental perspectives. In this context, this review aims to inspire new research in the design of green approaches to obtain metal oxide nanoparticles for biomedical and technological applications and to highlight the critical need to fully investigate the nanotoxicity of these particles.

  5. Characterizations of diverse mole of pure and Ni-doped α-Fe2O3 synthesized nanoparticles through chemical precipitation route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Anusuya, D; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Sivasubramanian, J; Venkatesan, A; Soundhirarajan, P

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, an attempt has been made for characterization and synthesis of pure and Ni-doped α-Fe2O3 (hematite) nanoparticles by chemical precipitation method. The synthesized products have been studied by X-ray diffraction (X-RD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The estimated average diameter of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were calculated by using the Debye-Scherrer equation and established as 31 nm. SEM micrographs showed the surface morphology as well as structures and particles distributions of synthesized samples. The UV-Vis DRS showed the indirect and direct band gap energies of pure and Ni-doped α-Fe2O3, these were reduced from 1.9847 to 1.52 eV and 2.0503 to 1.76 eV respectively. This result suggested the dopant enhanced the semiconducting behavior of iron oxide nanoparticles to an extent proportional to its nickel doped in the α-Fe2O3. Further, the magnetic properties of the pure and doped samples were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and evaluated the information of pure and doped samples exhibited saturated hysteresis loop at room temperature, which is indicating that the weak ferromagnetism in nature of our synthesized samples. In addition, it has been found from the magnetization hysteresis curves of Ni-doping, resulting from increased the saturation of magnetization and reduced the coercivity of used samples. Therefore, the present study showed the reduction in band gap energies and coercive field for α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles due to nickel doped. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PREPARATIONS AND APPLICATION OF METAL NANOPARTICLES

    OpenAIRE

    Adlim, Adlim

    2010-01-01

    Terminology of metal nanoparticles, the uniqueness properties in terms of the surface atom, the quantum dot, and the magnetism are described. The further elaboration was on the synthesis of nanoparticles. Applications of metal nanoparticles in electronic, ceramic medical and catalysis were overviewed. The bibliography includes 81 references with 99% are journal articles.   Keywords: metal nanoparticles

  7. PREPARATIONS AND APPLICATION OF METAL NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlim Adlim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Terminology of metal nanoparticles, the uniqueness properties in terms of the surface atom, the quantum dot, and the magnetism are described. The further elaboration was on the synthesis of nanoparticles. Applications of metal nanoparticles in electronic, ceramic medical and catalysis were overviewed. The bibliography includes 81 references with 99% are journal articles.   Keywords: metal nanoparticles

  8. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-03-16

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.

  9. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi; Piwonski, Hubert Marek; Michinobu, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.

  10. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  11. ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles: chelator-controlled nanoparticle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Lauren F.; Rentz, Nikki S.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we characterize iron nanoparticles synthesized in water in the presence of a phosphonate chelator, amino tris(methylene phosphonic acid) (ATMP) for a range of molar ratios of ATMP to iron. An increase in the molar ratio from 0.05 to 0.8 decreases nanoparticle size from approximately 150 nm to less than 10 nm. Zeta potential measurements were used to evaluate colloidal stability. Zeta potential values varied as a function of pH, and zeta potential values decreased with increasing pH. At lower molar ratios of ATMP to iron, the zeta potential varied between 15 and -40 mV, passing through an isoelectric point at pH 7.5. At higher ratios, the zeta potential was negative across the measured pH range of 2-12 and varied from -2 to -55 mV. Diffraction analysis indicates that ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles may have a nano-crystalline structure, potentially with regions of amorphous iron. Characterization results of ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles are compared to results obtained for carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized iron nanoparticles. CMC stabilization caused similar peak broadening in diffraction spectra as for ATMP, suggesting similar nano-crystalline/amorphous structure; however, an increase in the molar ratio of CMC to iron did not cause the same reduction in nanoparticle size as was observed for ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles.

  12. Synthesis and Physical Characterization of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (α+γ)-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhavani, P.; Reddy, N. Ramamanohar [Yogivemana University, Vemanapuram (India); Reddy, I. Venkata Subba [Gitam University, Rudraram (India)

    2017-01-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized at different hydrothermal temperatures (HT; 100, 130, 160 and 190 ℃) by using a facile hydrothermal route combined with a subsequent calcination process. The calcined materials were analyzed for phase, microstructure, and magnetic and dielectric properties through different characterization techniques. The structural analyses revealed that the material prepared at a HT of 100 ℃ and sequentially calcined at 300 ℃ for 3 h showed a high degree of the maghemite structure. On the other hand calcined materials showed a small additional peak belonging to the hematite structure. FESEM micrographs of the materials calcined at HT, of 100 ℃ and 190 ℃ showed spherical-like nanoparticles with diameters in range 30 - 54 nm. Materials prepared at a HT of 160 ℃ followed by calcination at 300 ℃ for 3 h exhibited the highest saturation magnetization, M{sub s} = 67 emu/g, with a lower coercivity; all materials were in a single domain state. A high dielectric constant (105.54) was observed for the calcined material that had been prepared at a HT of 130 ℃. The dielectric properties of synthesized materials showed an almost frequency- independent behavior.

  13. Palladium Nanoparticle Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pavlovsky

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative hydrogen sensor based on palladium (Pd nanoparticle networks is described in the article. Made by Applied Nanotech Inc. sensor has a fast response time, in the range of seconds, which is increased at 80 °C due to higher hydrogen diffusion rates into the palladium lattice. The low detection limit of the sensor is 10 ppm of H2, and the high limit is 40,000 ppm. This is 100% of a lowest flammability level of hydrogen. This range of sensitivities complies with the requirements that one would expect for a reliable hydrogen sensor.

  14. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  15. Solventless synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Peña, Nidia G. [Departmento de Tecnociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 Coyoacán, México D.F. (Mexico); Redón, Rocío, E-mail: rredon@unam.mx [Departmento de Tecnociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 Coyoacán, México D.F. (Mexico); Herrera-Gomez, Alberto [Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro (Mexico); Fernández-Osorio, Ana Leticia [FES-Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Bravo-Sanchez, Mariela; Gomez-Sosa, Gustavo [Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Campus Juriquilla, Querétaro (Mexico)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successful synthesis of Ru nanoparticles by a cheap, fast and solventless approach was achieved. • The zero-valent state as well as the by-product/impurity free of the mechanochemical obtained Ru nanoparticles was proven by XPS, TEM and XRD. • Compared to two other synthesis strategies, the above-mentioned synthesis was more suitable to obtain smaller particles with fewer impurities in shorter time. - Abstract: This paper presents a novel solventless method for the synthesis of zero-valent ruthenium nanoparticles Ru(0). The proposed method, although not entirely new in the nanomaterials world, was used for the first time to synthesize zero-valent ruthenium nanoparticles. This new approach has proved to be an environmentally friendly, clean, cheap, fast, and reproducible technique which employs low amounts of solvent. It was optimized through varying amounts of reducing salt on a determined quantity of precursor and measuring the effect of this variation on the average particle size obtained. The resulting products were fully characterized by powder XRD, TEM, HR-TEM, and XPS studies, all of which corroborated the purity of the nanoparticles achieved. In order to verify the advantages of our method over other techniques, we compared our nanoparticles with two common colloidal-synthesized ruthenium nanoparticles.

  16. Interaction of neutrons with nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvizhevsky, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the interaction of neutrons with nanoparticles and having applications in the physics of ultracold neutrons (UCN) are considered. In 1997, it was found that, upon reflection from the sample surface or spectrometer walls, UCN change their energy by about 10 -7 eV with a probability of 10 -7 -10 -5 per collision. The nature of this phenomenon is not clear at present. Probably, it is due to the inelastic coherent scattering of UCN on nanoparticles or nanostructures weakly attached at the surface, in a state of Brownian thermal motion. An analysis of experimental data on the basis of this model allows one to estimate the mass of such nanoparticles and nanostructures at 10 7 a.u. The proposed hypothesis indicates a method for studying the dynamics of nanoparticles and nanostructures and, accordingly, their interactions with the surface or with one another, this method being selective in their sizes. In all experiments with UCN, the trap-wall temperature was much higher than a temperature of about 1 mK, which corresponds to the UCN energy. Therefore, UCN increased their energy. The surface density of weakly attached nanoparticles was low. If, however, the nanoparticle temperature is lower than the neutron temperature and if the nanoparticle density is high, the problem of interaction of neutrons with nanoparticles is inverted. In this case, the neutrons of initial velocity below 10 2 m/s can cool down, under certain conditions, owing to their scattering on ultracold heavy-water, deuterium, and oxygen nanoparticles to their temperature of about 1 mK, with the result that the UCN density increases by many orders of magnitude

  17. Amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varan, Gamze; Varan, Cem; Erdoğar, Nazlı; Hıncal, A Atilla; Bilensoy, Erem

    2017-10-15

    Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides obtained by enzymatic digestion of starch. The α-, β- and γ- cyclodextrins contain respectively 6, 7 and 8 glucopyranose units, with primary and secondary hydroxyl groups located on the narrow and wider rims of a truncated cone shape structure. Such structure is that of a hydrophobic inner cavity with a hydrophilic outer surface allowing to interact with a wide range of molecules like ions, protein and oligonucleotides to form inclusion complexes. Many cyclodextrin applications in the pharmaceutical area have been widely described in the literature due to their low toxicity and low immunogenicity. The most important is to increase the solubility of hydrophobic drugs in water. Chemically modified cyclodextrin derivatives have been synthesized to enhance their properties and more specifically their pharmacological activity. Among these, amphiphilic derivatives were designed to build organized molecular structures, through selfassembling systems or by incorporation in lipid membranes, expected to improve the vectorization in the organism of the drug-containing cyclodextrin cavities. These derivatives can form a variety of supramolecular structures such as micelles, vesicles and nanoparticles. The purpose of this review is to summarize applications of amphiphilic cyclodextrins in different areas of drug delivery, particularly in protein and peptide drug delivery and gene delivery. The article highlights important amphiphilic cyclodextrin applications in the design of novel delivery systems like nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic nanoparticles for theragnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubayev, Veronica I.; Pisanic, Thomas R.; Jin, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    Engineered magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a cutting-edge tool in medicine because they can be simultaneously functionalized and guided by a magnetic field. Use of MNPs has advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), guided drug and gene delivery, magnetic hyperthermia cancer therapy, tissue engineering, cell tracking and bioseparation. Integrative therapeutic and diagnostic (i.e., theragnostic) applications have emerged with MNP use, such as MRI-guided cell replacement therapy or MRI-based imaging of cancer-specific gene delivery. However, mounting evidence suggests that certain properties of nanoparticles (e.g., enhanced reactive area, ability to cross cell and tissue barriers, resistance to biodegradation) amplify their cytotoxic potential relative to molecular or bulk counterparts. Oxidative stress, a 3-tier paradigm of nanotoxicity, manifests in activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (tier I), followed by a pro-inflammatory response (tier II) and DNA damage leading to cellular apoptosis and mutagenesis (tier III). In vivo administered MNPs are quickly challenged by macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), resulting in not only neutralization of potential MNP toxicity but also reduced circulation time necessary for MNP efficacy. We discuss the role of MNP size, composition and surface chemistry in their intracellular uptake, biodistribution, macrophage recognition and cytotoxicity, and review current studies on MNP toxicity, caveats of nanotoxicity assessments and engineering strategies to optimize MNPs for biomedical use. PMID:19389434

  19. Taylor dispersion of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Sandor; Urban, Dominic A.; Milosevic, Ana M.; Crippa, Federica; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2017-08-01

    The ability to detect and accurately characterize particles is required by many fields of nanotechnology, including materials science, nanotoxicology, and nanomedicine. Among the most relevant physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, size and the related surface-to-volume ratio are fundamental ones. Taylor dispersion combines three independent phenomena to determine particle size: optical extinction, translational diffusion, and sheer-enhanced dispersion of nanoparticles subjected to a steady laminar flow. The interplay of these defines the apparent size. Considering that particles in fact are never truly uniform nor monodisperse, we rigorously address particle polydispersity and calculate the apparent particle size measured by Taylor dispersion analysis. We conducted case studies addressing aqueous suspensions of model particles and large-scale-produced "industrial" particles of both academic and commercial interest of various core materials and sizes, ranging from 15 to 100 nm. A comparison with particle sizes determined by transmission electron microscopy confirms that our approach is model-independent, non-parametric, and of general validity that provides an accurate account of size polydispersity—independently on the shape of the size distribution and without any assumption required a priori.

  20. Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliszewska, I; Szewczyk, K; Waszak, K

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles is reported. The nanosilver was formed in contact with the cell-free filtrate of Penicillium strain studied. The nanoparticles were characterized by means of the UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized nanosilver showed a absorbed maximum at 425 nm in the visible region. The SEM characterization of the fungus cells treated with silver nitrite indicated that the protein might be responsible for the reduction of silver ions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 10-100 nm.

  1. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2010-01-01

    We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization...... and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering....

  2. Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Mørup

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering.

  3. Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a complement to common "top-down" lithography techniques, "bottom-up" assembly techniques are emerging as promising tools to build nanoscale structures in a predictable way. Gold nanoparticles that are stable and relatively easy to synthesize are important building blocks in many such structures...... due to their useful optical and electronic properties. Programmed assembly of gold nanoparticles in one, two, and three dimensions is therefore of large interest. This review focuses on the progress from the last three years in the field of directed gold nanoparticle and nanorod assembly using...

  4. Spin Structures in Magnetic Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Brok, Erik; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Spin structures in nanoparticles of ferrimagnetic materials may deviate locally in a nontrivial way from ideal collinear spin structures. For instance, magnetic frustration due to the reduced numbers of magnetic neighbors at the particle surface or around defects in the interior can lead to spin...... canting and hence a reduced magnetization. Moreover, relaxation between almost degenerate canted spin states can lead to anomalous temperature dependences of the magnetization at low temperatures. In ensembles of nanoparticles, interparticle exchange interactions can also result in spin reorientation....... Here, we give a short review of anomalous spin structures in nanoparticles....

  5. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  6. Nanoparticles for cells proliferation enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, V.; Braniste, F.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Lisii, C.; Nacu, V.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of semiconductor nanoparticles as stimulator for avian mesenchyme stem cells proliferation enhancement is demonstrated. The effect is related to nanoparticles polarization due to external ultrasound field resulting in local electrical stimulation. Our preliminary results demonstrates that the number of cells have been increased by 23 % ±2%) in cell cultures under the action of external ultrasound stimulation. Morphological analysis and viability shows no differences between the control group and the group studied. These results suggest the possibility for tissue regeneration enhancement by remote stimulation of implanted semiconductor nanoparticles. (authors)

  7. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmora, Adilson C. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Studies (IDÆA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ramos, Claudete G.; Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Teixeira, Elba C. [Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kautzmann, Rubens M.; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500. Bairro Agronomia. CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during “stonemeal” soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle

  8. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmora, Adilson C.; Ramos, Claudete G.; Oliveira, Marcos L.S.; Teixeira, Elba C.; Kautzmann, Rubens M.; Taffarel, Silvio R.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during “stonemeal” soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and Fe 2 O 3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical

  9. Nanoparticles Doped, Photorefractive Liquid Crystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaczmarek, Malgosia

    2005-01-01

    ...: The main objectives of this exploratory, short project will concern the study of the quality of liquid crystal cells with diluted suspensions of ferroelectric nanoparticles and their photorefractive properties...

  10. Lipid nanoparticle interactions and assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Matthew Ryan

    Novel liposome-nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs) provide a biologically inspired route for designing multifunctional bionanotheranostics. LNAs combine the benefits of lipids and liposomes to encapsulate, transport, and protect hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutics with functional nanoparticles. Functional nanoparticles endow LNAs with additional capabilities, including the ability to target diseases, triggered drug release, controlled therapeutic output, and diagnostic capabilities to produce a drug delivery system that can effectively and efficiently deliver therapeutics while reducing side effects. Not only could LNAs make existing drugs better, they could also provide an avenue to allow once promising non-approved drugs (rejected due to harmful side effects, inadequate pharmacokinetics, and poor efficacy) to be safely used through targeted and controlled delivery directly to the diseased site. LNAs have the potential to be stimuli responsive, delivering drugs on command by external (ultrasound, RF heating, etc.) or internal (pH, blood sugar, heart rate, etc.) stimuli. Individually, lipids and nanoparticles have been clinically approved for therapy, such as Doxil (a liposomal doxorubicin for cancer treatment), and diagnosis, such as Feridex (an iron oxide nanoparticle an MRI contrast enhancement agent for liver tumors). In order to engineer these multifunctional LNAs for theranostic applications, the interactions between nanoparticles and lipids must be better understood. This research sought to explore the formation, design, structures, characteristics, and functions of LNAs. To achieve this goal, different types of LNAs were formed, specifically magnetoliposomes, bilayer decorated LNAs (DLNAs), and lipid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs). A fluorescent probe was embedded in the lipid bilayer of magnetoliposomes allowing the local temperature and membrane fluidity to be observed. When subjected to an electromagnetic field that heated the encapsulated iron

  11. Immunological properties of gold nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Dykman, Lev A.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, gold nanoparticles have attracted strong interest from the nanobiotechnological community owing to the significant progress made in robust and easy-to-make synthesis technologies, in surface functionalization, and in promising biomedical applications. These include bioimaging, gene diagnostics, analytical sensing, photothermal treatment of tumors, and targeted delivery of various biomolecular and chemical cargos. For the last-named application, gold nanoparticles should be...

  12. Polymeric nanoparticles for optical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfarotta, Francesco; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2013-12-01

    Nanotechnology is a powerful tool for use in diagnostic applications. For these purposes a variety of functional nanoparticles containing fluorescent labels, gold and quantum dots at their cores have been produced, with the aim of enhanced sensitivity and multiplexing capabilities. This work will review progress in the application of polymeric nanoparticles in optical diagnostics, both for in vitro and in vivo detection, together with a discussion of their biodistribution and biocompatibility. © 2013.

  13. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  14. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  15. Conducting metal oxide and metal nitride nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Subban, Chinmayee V.

    2017-12-26

    Conducting metal oxide and nitride nanoparticles that can be used in fuel cell applications. The metal oxide nanoparticles are comprised of for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten and combinations thereof. The metal nitride nanoparticles are comprised of, for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, zirconium, and combinations thereof. The nanoparticles can be sintered to provide conducting porous agglomerates of the nanoparticles which can be used as a catalyst support in fuel cell applications. Further, platinum nanoparticles, for example, can be deposited on the agglomerates to provide a material that can be used as both an anode and a cathode catalyst support in a fuel cell.

  16. Surface vertical deposition for gold nanoparticle film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, J J; Qiu, F S; Chen, G D; Reeves, M E

    2003-01-01

    In this rapid communication, we present the surface vertical deposition (SVD) method to synthesize the gold nanoparticle films. Under conditions where the surface of the gold nanoparticle suspension descends slowly by evaporation, the gold nanoparticles in the solid-liquid-gas junction of the suspension aggregate together on the substrate by the force of solid and liquid interface. When the surface properties of the substrate and colloidal nanoparticle suspension define for the SVD, the density of gold nanoparticles in the thin film made by SVD only depends on the descending velocity of the suspension surface and on the concentration of the gold nanoparticle suspension. (rapid communication)

  17. Repairing Nanoparticle Surface Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Emanuele; Kodger, Thomas E; Crisp, Ryan W; Timmerman, Dolf; MacArthur, Katherine E; Heggen, Marc; Schall, Peter

    2017-10-23

    Solar devices based on semiconductor nanoparticles require the use of conductive ligands; however, replacing the native, insulating ligands with conductive metal chalcogenide complexes introduces structural defects within the crystalline nanostructure that act as traps for charge carriers. We utilized atomically thin semiconductor nanoplatelets as a convenient platform for studying, both microscopically and spectroscopically, the development of defects during ligand exchange with the conductive ligands Na 4 SnS 4 and (NH 4 ) 4 Sn 2 S 6 . These defects can be repaired via mild chemical or thermal routes, through the addition of L-type ligands or wet annealing, respectively. This results in a higher-quality, conductive, colloidally stable nanomaterial that may be used as the active film in optoelectronic devices. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Magentite nanoparticle for arsenic remotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viltres, H; Reguera, E; Odio, O F; Borja, R; Aguilera, Y

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic As (V) and As (III) species are commonly found in groundwater in many countries around the world. It is known that arsenic is highly toxic and carcinogenic, at present exist reports of diverse countries with arsenic concentrations in drinking water higher than those proposed by the World Health Organization (10 μg/L). It has been reported that adsorption strategies using magnetic nanoparticles as magnetite (<20 nm) proved to be very efficient for the removal of arsenic in drinking water. Magnetic nanoparticles (magnetite) were prepared using a co-precipitation method with FeCl 3 and FeCl 2 as metal source and NaOH aqueous solution as precipitating agent. Magnetite nanoparticles synthesized were put in contact with As 2 O 3 and As 2 O 5 solutions at room temperature to pH 4 and 7. The nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR, DRX, UV-vis, and XRF. The results showed that synthesized magnetite had an average diameter of 11 nm and a narrow size distribution. The presence of arsenic on magnetite nanoparticles surface was confirmed, which is more remarkable when As (V) is employed. Besides, it is possible to observe that no significant changes in the band gap values after adsorption of arsenic in the nanoparticles. (paper)

  19. [Nanoparticles: properties and application prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekman, I S

    2009-01-01

    A new trend of scientific-technical and medical researches has been formed which unites nanoscience, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, nanopharmacology. Nanoparticles are the main product of nanotechnologies. Nanoparticles are organic and inorganic structures, their size being less than one hundred nanometers (nano from Greece nanos--a dwarf; particle is a separate unit which is separated from the whole). Prefix nano means 10(-9) m. Nanosizes are values from 1 to 100 nanometers, micro-sizes--from 100 to 1000 nanometers, and above 1000 nanometers--are macrosizes. By the data of Internet for 1.08.20.2008 there are 18512 papers in the world scientific literature (8663 of them were published during the last 2.5 years), where properties of nanoparticles which are obtained by different nanotechnological methods are described. Actually, quantity of works concerning nanoparticles is much more because not all publications are cited in Internet. The first publication concerning a characteristic of nanoparticles was published in 1978. The survey generalized the data of scientific literature and author's investigations which concern sizes of nanoparticles of biologic molecules and their properties.

  20. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Ying; Urban, Marek W

    2017-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that stimuli-responsive nanomaterials have become significantly critical components of modern materials design and technological developments. Recent advances in synthesis and fabrication of stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles with built-in stimuli-responsive components (Part A) and surface modifications of functional nanoparticles that facilitate responsiveness (Part B) are outlined here. The synthesis and construction of stimuli-responsive spherical, core-shell, concentric, hollow, Janus, gibbous/inverse gibbous, and cocklebur morphologies are discussed in Part A, with the focus on shape, color, or size changes resulting from external stimuli. Although inorganic/metallic nanoparticles exhibit many useful properties, including thermal or electrical conductivity, catalytic activity, or magnetic properties, their assemblies and formation of higher order constructs are often enhanced by surface modifications. Section B focuses on selected surface reactions that lead to responsiveness achieved by decorating nanoparticles with stimuli-responsive polymers. Although grafting-to and grafting-from dominate these synthetic efforts, there are opportunities for developing novel synthetic approaches facilitating controllable recognition, signaling, or sequential responses. Many nanotechnologies utilize a combination of organic and inorganic phases to produce ceramic or metallic nanoparticles. One can envision the development of new properties by combining inorganic (metals, metal oxides) and organic (polymer) phases into one nanoparticle designated as "ceramers" (inorganics) and "metamers" (metallic). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Variabilidade de goethita e hematita via dissolução redutiva em solos de região tropical e subtropical Goethite and hematite variability via reductive dissolution in soils from tropical and subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vasconcellos Inda Junior

    2005-12-01

    combinou baixa substituição por Al3+ e alta ASE. A caracterização de populações heterogêneas de goethita pode ampliar a utilização deste óxido como indicador de processos pedogênicos em solos poligenéticos, bem como contribuir para um melhor entendimento do comportamento químico e físico desses solos.Iron oxides from 22 soil samples (19 from argillic B horizons; one from a plinthic B horizon; one from a cambic horizon and one from a C horizon were subjected to selective dissolution with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate at 20 ºC in time intervals of 5 to 3,840 minutes. Mean coherence lengths (MCL, specific surface area (SSA and iron by aluminum substitution (Al3+-substitution of goethite and hematite in untreated sub-samples and in selected sub-samples treated during selective dissolution were estimated by X ray diffraction analysis (XRD. The control of remaining goethite and hematite phases after each time interval of selective dissolution was carried out by differential X ray diffraction (DXRD. The crystal dissolution kinetics was described by segmentation of the iron dissolution curve as a time function at the intervals where dissolution occurred linearly. Dissolution rates of each linear segment were obtained by the angular coefficient of the straight line of each linear segment. In the latossolic goethitic samples, this methodology discriminated different phases of goethite (heterogeons populations regarding Al3+-substitution, MCL and SSA, making possible to classify goethite stability degrees (low, medium, high, and very high stability. Goethite samples from young pedogenic environments and latossolic hematitic samples were characterized by higher crystal homogeneity, which were classified as being of low and medium stability. In goethitic samples, crystal proportion with high stability (high Al3+-substitution and crystallinity in each population showed positive association with gibbisite proportion compared to caulinite in the samples. Hematite

  2. Enhanced Column Filtration for Arsenic Removal from Water: Polymer-Templated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Immobilized on Sand via Layer-by-Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin Chia-Hung

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in water sources around the world and is highly toxic. While precipitation and membrane filtration techniques are successfully implemented in developed cities, they are unsuitable for rural and low-resource settings lacking centralized facilities. This thesis presents the use of ultra-small iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles functionalized on sand granules for use as a house-hold scale adsorption filter. Water-stable alpha-Fe2O3 (hematite) nanoparticles (arsenic adsorption, with 147 +/- 2 mg As(III) per g Fe2O3 and 91 +/- 10 mg As(V) per g Fe2O3. The platform was also used to synthesize iron-based composites, including magnetite (Fe 3O4) and Fe-Cu oxide nanoparticles. For use as a column filter, Fe2O3-PAA nanoparticles were functionalized on sand granules using a layer-by-layer deposition method, with the nanoparticles embedded in the negative layer. The removal of As(III) by the Fe2O 3-PAA functionalized column was described by reversible 1st order kinetics where the forward and reverse rate constants were 0.31 hr -1 and 0.097 hr-1, respectively. Implemented as a passive water filter with 30 x 30 x 50 cm3 dimensions, the filter has an expected lifetime in the order of many years. By controlling the flow rate of the column depending on contamination levels, the filter effectively removes arsenic down to the safety limit of 0.01 mg/L. In a parallel project, the layer-by-layer deposition of Poly(diallydimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(sodium 5-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) was exploited for a highly practical synthesis of discrete gradient surfaces. By independently controlling the concentration of NaCl in PDDA and PSS deposition solutions, a 2-dimensional matrix of surfaces was created in 96-well microtiter plates. Distinct non-monotonic dye adsorption patterns on the gradient surfaces was observed. Practical knowledge from this project was also used to enhance the nanoparticle surface functionalization described above. In all, a practical

  3. Ultrasound mediated nanoparticle drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Lee B.

    Ultrasound is not only a powerful diagnostic tool, but also a promising therapeutic technology that can be used to improve localized drug delivery. Microbubble contrast agents are micron sized encapsulated gas filled bubbles that are administered intravenously. Originally developed to enhance ultrasound images, microbubbles are highly echogenic due to the gas core that provides a detectable impedance difference from the surrounding medium. The core also allows for controlled response of the microbubbles to ultrasound pulses. Microbubbles can be pushed using acoustic radiation force and ruptured using high pressures. Destruction of microbubbles can increase permeability at the cellular and vascular level, which can be advantageous for drug delivery. Advances in drug delivery methods have been seen with the introduction of nanoparticles, nanometer sized objects often carrying a drug payload. In chemotherapy, nanoparticles can deliver drugs to tumors while limiting systemic exposure due to abnormalities in tumor vasculature such large gaps between endothelial cells that allow nanoparticles to enter into the interstitial space; this is referred to as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, this effect may be overestimated in many tumors. Additionally, only a small percentage of the injected dose accumulates in the tumor, which most the nanoparticles accumulating in the liver and spleen. It is hypothesized that combining the acoustic activity of an ultrasound contrast agent with the high payload and extravasation ability of a nanoparticle, localized delivery to the tumor with reduced systemic toxicity can be achieved. This method can be accomplished by either loading nanoparticles onto the shell of the microbubble or through a coadministration method of both nanoparticles and microbubbles. The work presented in this dissertation utilizes novel and commercial nanoparticle formulations, combined with microbubbles and a variety of ultrasound systems

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and biopolymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-29

    Mar 29, 2018 ... Keywords. Biogenic silver nanoparticles; biopolymer nanocomposites; nanoparticles stability; ... Production of nanomaterials by using living organisms of plant-based ... 2.1b Microorganisms and cell culture: The evaluation of.

  5. Amorphous nanoparticles — Experiments and computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Vo Van; Ganguli, Dibyendu

    2012-01-01

    The data obtained by both experiments and computer simulations concerning the amorphous nanoparticles for decades including methods of synthesis, characterization, structural properties, atomic mechanism of a glass formation in nanoparticles, crystallization of the amorphous nanoparticles, physico-chemical properties (i.e. catalytic, optical, thermodynamic, magnetic, bioactivity and other properties) and various applications in science and technology have been reviewed. Amorphous nanoparticles coated with different surfactants are also reviewed as an extension in this direction. Much attention is paid to the pressure-induced polyamorphism of the amorphous nanoparticles or amorphization of the nanocrystalline counterparts. We also introduce here nanocomposites and nanofluids containing amorphous nanoparticles. Overall, amorphous nanoparticles exhibit a disordered structure different from that of corresponding bulks or from that of the nanocrystalline counterparts. Therefore, amorphous nanoparticles can have unique physico-chemical properties differed from those of the crystalline counterparts leading to their potential applications in science and technology.

  6. Glycine functionalized alumina nanoparticles stabilize collagen in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Al2O3 nanoparticles thereby suggesting ... 1. Introduction. Collagen is a naturally occurring skin protein in animal tis- ... easily adsorb on the surface of the nanoparticles and amino .... [19,23], agglomeration is prevented by the electrostatic.

  7. Radiation Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Jamaliah Sharif; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Dahlan Mohd; Kamaruddin Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Radiation processing of nano materials is one of the many applications of ionising radiation. It has the advantages of cold process, fast, homogeneous and clean processing without using chemicals, heat and no release of any volatile organic compounds. Hence, radiation processing can be categorised as a green process. The applications of ionising radiation for materials processing are well established and commercialized by way of crosslinking, grafting, curing and degradation. However, the materials use, condition of processing and the end products varies and radiation processing is continue to be developed for various applications in industry, agriculture, health care and environment. The new and emerging development of nano materials has also being incorporated in radiation processing whereby we can see the convergence of radiation and nano technology, to take advantages of the inherent properties of nano size particles. Nowadays many works are being carried out on radiation processing of nano materials. The incorporation of such nanoparticles in polymeric materials will render specific properties that find several advantages compare to conventional composites such as increase heat resistant, improve abrasion and scratch resistant and enhance mechanical properties. In recent years, polymer/clay nano composites has attracted the interest of industry because of its major improvements in physical and mechanical properties, heat stability, reduce flammability and provide enhanced barrier properties at low clay contents. In many applications, crosslinking of polymer matrix is necessary that can further improved the mechanical and physical properties of the composites. Similar research has been extended to electron beam crosslinking of electromagnetic nano composites which comprise of high volume fraction of inorganic fillers in elastomeric matrix. The effect of radiation on inorganic fillers is believed to has influence on the overall radiation crosslinking of the

  8. High surface area fibrous silica nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed are high surface area nanoparticles that have a fibrous morphology. The nanoparticles have a plurality of fibers, wherein each fiber is in contact with one other fiber and each fiber has a length of between about 1 nm and about 5000 nm. Also disclosed are applications of the nanoparticles of the present invention, and methods of fabrication of the nanoparticles of the present invention.

  9. Nanotoxicity of gold and iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Souvik

    2011-02-01

    The extensive use of potentially hazardous nanoparticles in industrial applications suggest that their biological effects need to be evaluated following clinical testing practices as applicable for any new pharmaceutical. It was rationalized that a non hypothesis-driven approach is best suited for discovering the biological effects of nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles (approximately 18 nm), showed no drastic effect on gene expression in cells but iron nanoparticles showed perturbations in the expression of a set of functional genes.

  10. Photoacoustic signal amplification through plasmonic nanoparticle aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Carolyn L.; Nam, Seung Yun; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging, using targeted plasmonic metallic nanoparticles, is a promising noninvasive molecular imaging method. Analysis of the photoacoustic signal generated by plasmonic metallic nanoparticles is complex because of the dependence upon physical properties of both the nanoparticle and the surrounding environment. We studied the effect of the aggregation of gold nanoparticles on the photoacoustic signal amplitude. We found that the photoacoustic signal from aggregated silica-coate...

  11. Bi-metallic nanoparticles as cathode electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Xiangyi; Myers, Deborah J.

    2018-03-27

    A lithium-air battery cathode catalyst includes core-shell nanoparticles on a carbon support, wherein: a core of the core-shell nanoparticles is platinum metal; and a shell of the core-shell nanoparticles is copper metal; wherein: the core-shell nanoparticles have a weight ratio of the copper metal to the platinum metal from about 4% to about 6% copper to from about 2% to about 12% platinum, with a remaining percentage being the carbon support.

  12. High surface area fibrous silica nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2014-11-11

    Disclosed are high surface area nanoparticles that have a fibrous morphology. The nanoparticles have a plurality of fibers, wherein each fiber is in contact with one other fiber and each fiber has a length of between about 1 nm and about 5000 nm. Also disclosed are applications of the nanoparticles of the present invention, and methods of fabrication of the nanoparticles of the present invention.

  13. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Stevia extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguta, I.V.; Fesenko, T.V.; Stavinskaya, O.N.; Shpak, L.M.; Dzyuba, O.I.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Stevia rebaudiana extracts. It is shown that the rate of nanoparticles formation is affected by plant cultivation conditions. It is found that, in the presence of the extract from callus, the formation of nanoparticles occurs faster than in the presence of extracts from plants grown under conditions of ex situ and in vitro. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were studied by UV and IR spectroscopies

  14. Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Phototherapy for Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, C.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.; He, Y.; Xin, J.; Wang, S.; Xu, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles exhibit very unique physiochemical and optical properties, which now are extensively studied in range of medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In particular, gold nanoparticles show promise in the advancement of cancer treatments. This review will provide insights into the four different cancer treatments such as photothermal therapy, gold nanoparticle-aided photodynamic therapy, gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy, and their use as drug carrier. We also discuss the mechanism of every method and the adverse effects and its limitations

  15. Alloy nanoparticle synthesis using ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, Tina M [Sandia Park, NM; Powers, Dana A [Albuquerque, NM; Zhang, Zhenyuan [Durham, NC

    2011-08-16

    A method of forming stable nanoparticles comprising substantially uniform alloys of metals. A high dose of ionizing radiation is used to generate high concentrations of solvated electrons and optionally radical reducing species that rapidly reduce a mixture of metal ion source species to form alloy nanoparticles. The method can make uniform alloy nanoparticles from normally immiscible metals by overcoming the thermodynamic limitations that would preferentially produce core-shell nanoparticles.

  16. Glyco-gold nanoparticles: synthesis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Compostella

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glyco-gold nanoparticles combine in a single entity the peculiar properties of gold nanoparticles with the biological activity of carbohydrates. The result is an exciting nanosystem, able to mimic the natural multivalent presentation of saccharide moieties and to exploit the peculiar optical properties of the metallic core. In this review, we present recent advances on glyco-gold nanoparticle applications in different biological fields, highlighting the key parameters which inspire the glyco nanoparticle design.

  17. Matrix-assisted peptide synthesis on nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandadash, Raz; Machtey, Victoria; Weiss, Aryeh; Byk, Gerardo

    2014-09-01

    We report a new method for multistep peptide synthesis on polymeric nanoparticles of differing sizes. Polymeric nanoparticles were functionalized via their temporary embedment into a magnetic inorganic matrix that allows multistep peptide synthesis. The matrix is removed at the end of the process for obtaining nanoparticles functionalized with peptides. The matrix-assisted synthesis on nanoparticles was proved by generating various biologically relevant peptides. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Nanoparticle-mediated treatment for inflammatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides nanoparticles for treatment of inflammatory diseases. The nanoparticles preferably comprise chitosan and a siRNA targeting a mRNA encoding a pro-inflammatory cytokine, such as e.g. tnf-alfa. A preferred route of administration of the nanoparticles is by injection...

  19. Cytotoxicity and ion release of alloy nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Anne; Fuhlrott, Jutta; Loos, Anneke; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that nanoparticles could cause toxic effects in cells. Alloy nanoparticles with yet unknown health risk may be released from cardiovascular implants made of Nickel–Titanium or Cobalt–Chromium due to abrasion or production failure. We show the bio-response of human primary endothelial and smooth muscle cells exposed to different concentrations of metal and alloy nanoparticles. Nanoparticles having primary particle sizes in the range of 5–250 nm were generated using laser ablation in three different solutions avoiding artificial chemical additives, and giving access to formulations containing nanoparticles only stabilized by biological ligands. Endothelial cells are found to be more sensitive to nanoparticle exposure than smooth muscle cells. Cobalt and Nickel nanoparticles caused the highest cytotoxicity. In contrast, Titanium, Nickel–Iron, and Nickel–Titanium nanoparticles had almost no influence on cells below a nanoparticle concentration of 10 μM. Nanoparticles in cysteine dissolved almost completely, whereas less ions are released when nanoparticles were stabilized in water or citrate solution. Nanoparticles stabilized by cysteine caused less inhibitory effects on cells suggesting cysteine to form metal complexes with bioactive ions in media.

  20. Refracting surface plasmon polaritons with nanoparticle arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, I.P.; Evlyukhin, A.B.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Refraction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by various structures formed by a 100-nm-period square lattice of gold nanoparticles on top of a gold film is studied by leakage radiation microscopy. SPP refraction by a triangular-shaped nanoparticle array indicates that the SPP effective refractive...... to design nanoparticle arrays for specific applications requiring in-plane SPP manipulation....

  1. Gold nanoparticles for tumour detection and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartsuiker, Liesbeth; Petersen, W.; Petersen, Wilhelmina; Jose, J.; Jose, J.; van Es, P.; van Es, Peter; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Poot, Andreas A.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; van Leeuwen, Ton; Manohar, Srirang; Otto, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications is emerging rapidly. Recent developments have led to numerous studies of noble metal nanoparticles, down to the level of single molecule detection in living cells. The application of noble metal nanoparticles in diagnostics and treatment of early

  2. Solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissing, S.A.; Kayser, Oliver; Muller, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review describes the use of nanoparticles based on solid lipids for the parenteral application of drugs. Firstly, different types of nanoparticles based on solid lipids such as "solid lipid nanoparticles" (SLN), "nanostructured lipid carriers" (NLC) and "lipid drug conjugate" (LDC)

  3. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...

  4. Analysis of nanoparticle biomolecule complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Stefán B; Bernfur, Katja; Mikkelsen, Anders; Cedervall, Tommy

    2018-03-01

    Nanoparticles exposed to biological fluids adsorb biomolecules on their surface forming a biomolecular corona. This corona determines, on a molecular level, the interactions and impact the newly formed complex has on cells and organisms. The corona formation as well as the physiological and toxicological relevance are commonly investigated. However, an acknowledged but rarely addressed problem in many fields of nanobiotechnology is aggregation and broadened size distribution of nanoparticles following their interactions with the molecules of biological fluids. In blood serum, TiO 2 nanoparticles form complexes with a size distribution from 30 nm to more than 500 nm. In this study we have separated these complexes, with good resolution, using preparative centrifugation in a sucrose gradient. Two main apparent size populations were obtained, a fast sedimenting population of complexes that formed a pellet in the preparative centrifugation tube, and a slow sedimenting complex population still suspended in the gradient after centrifugation. Concentration and surface area dependent differences are found in the biomolecular corona between the slow and fast sedimenting fractions. There are more immunoglobulins, lipid binding proteins, and lipid-rich complexes at higher serum concentrations. Sedimentation rate and the biomolecular corona are important factors for evaluating any experiment including nanoparticle exposure. Our results show that traditional description of nanoparticles in biological fluids is an oversimplification and that more thorough characterisations are needed.

  5. APPLICATION OF NANOPARTICLES IN BIOMEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Telegeeva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The advances in nanotechnology, particularly, application in biomedicine are described in the review. The characteristic of the new drug delivery systems is given including lipid, protein and polymer nanoparticles which provide stable delivery of drugs to the target of distribution in the body and prevent their rapid degradation. The advantages of nanometer scale vectors were analyzed. Due to their small size, structure and large surface area, nanoscale materials acquire necessary physico-chemical properties. These properties allow the nanoparticles, containing specific agents, to overcome the limitations existing for the forms of large sizes. This significantly facilitates the intracellular transport to specific cellular targets. Controlled deli very to the place of action and reduction of exposure time on non-target tissues increases efficacy and reduces toxicity and other side effects, which improves the patient's overall health. Use of different ways to deliver nanoparticles allows to deliver low-molecular drugs, proteins, peptides or nucleic acids to specific tissues. Various ways of nanodrugs delivery to a cell and the possibility of modifying their surface by target ligands are discussed in the review. Types of drug delivery systems: microsponges, viruses, imunoconjugates, liposomes, metal nanoparticles and quantum dots, dendrimers, natural and synthetic polymeric nanoparticles, etc are discussed. A large variety of nanovectors, as well as their modification, and loading of various drugs (the methods of inclusion and adsorption are examined, control of their release into the cell, opens prospects for their wide application for visualization of biological processes, diagnosis and therapy of wide range of diseases.

  6. Hydrogel nanoparticles in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Mehrdad; Azadi, Amir; Rafiei, Pedram

    2008-12-14

    Hydrogel nanoparticles have gained considerable attention in recent years as one of the most promising nanoparticulate drug delivery systems owing to their unique potentials via combining the characteristics of a hydrogel system (e.g., hydrophilicity and extremely high water content) with a nanoparticle (e.g., very small size). Several polymeric hydrogel nanoparticulate systems have been prepared and characterized in recent years, based on both natural and synthetic polymers, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Among the natural polymers, chitosan and alginate have been studied extensively for preparation of hydrogel nanoparticles and from synthetic group, hydrogel nanoparticles based on poly (vinyl alcohol), poly (ethylene oxide), poly (ethyleneimine), poly (vinyl pyrrolidone), and poly-N-isopropylacrylamide have been reported with different characteristics and features with respect to drug delivery. Regardless of the type of polymer used, the release mechanism of the loaded agent from hydrogel nanoparticles is complex, while resulting from three main vectors, i.e., drug diffusion, hydrogel matrix swelling, and chemical reactivity of the drug/matrix. Several crosslinking methods have been used in the way to form the hydrogel matix structures, which can be classified in two major groups of chemically- and physically-induced crosslinking.

  7. Optimization of cerium doping of TiO.sub.2./sub. for photocatalytic reduction of CO.sub.2./sub. and photocatalytic decomposition of N.sub.2./sub.O

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočí, K.; Matějová, L.; Ambrožová, N.; Šihor, M.; Troppová, I.; Čapek, L.; Kotarba, A.; Kustrowski, P.; Hospodková, Alice; Obalová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2016), s. 550-558 ISSN 0928-0707 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : simulated solar irradiation * simulated solar irradiation * carbon-dioxide * crystal-structure * degradation * layers * microstructure * photoreduction * catalysts * titania * oxide Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.575, year: 2016

  8. Nanoparticles: nanotoxicity aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastou, Elena; Gazouli, Maria; Ploussi, Agapi; Platoni, Kalliopi; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P.

    2017-11-01

    The giant steps towards Nanosciences dictate the need to gain a broad knowledge about not only beneficial but also noxious properties of Nanomaterials. Apart from the remarkable advantages of Nanoparticles (NPs) in medicine and industry, there have been raised plenty of concerns about their potential adverse effects in living organisms and ecosystems as well. Without a doubt, it is of critical importance to ensure that NPs medical and industrial applications are accompanied by the essential safety so that the balance will be tilted in favor of the profits that society will earn. However, the evaluation of NPs toxic effects remains a great challenge for the scientific community due to the wealth of factors that Nanotoxicity depends on. Size, surface area, dosing, shape, surface coating and charge and bulk material are the basic parameters under investigation to assess the risk involved in NPs usage. Our purpose is to highlight NPs physical and chemical properties responsible for induced toxicity, describe the mechanisms that take place in their interaction with cells and organs and finally report the potential harmful consequences that may result from the innovative applications of Nanomaterials.

  9. Laser assisted embedding of nanoparticles into metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dong; Suslov, Sergey; Ye Chang; Liao Yiliang; Liu, C. Richard; Cheng, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a methodology of half-embedding nanoparticles into metallic materials. Transparent and opaque nanoparticles are chosen to demonstrate the process of laser assisted nanoparticle embedding. Dip coating method is used to coat transparent or opaque nanoparticle on the surface of metallic material. Nanoparticles are embedded into substrate by laser irradiation. In this study, the mechanism and process of nanoparticle embedding are investigated. It is found both transparent and opaque nanoparticles embedding are with high densities and good uniformities.

  10. Nanoparticle composites for printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Männl, U; Van den Berg, C; Magunje, B; Härting, M; Britton, D T; Jones, S; Van Staden, M J; Scriba, M R

    2014-01-01

    Printed Electronics is a rapidly developing sector in the electronics industry, in which nanostructured materials are playing an increasingly important role. In particular, inks containing dispersions of semiconducting nanoparticles, can form nanocomposite materials with unique electronic properties when cured. In this study we have extended on our previous studies of functional nanoparticle electronic inks, with the development of a solvent-based silicon ink for printed electronics which is compatible with existing silver inks, and with the investigation of other metal nanoparticle based inks. It is shown that both solvent-based and water-based inks can be used for both silver conductors and semiconducting silicon, and that qualitatively there is no difference in the electronic properties of the materials printed with a soluble polymer binder to when an acrylic binder is used. (paper)

  11. Gold nanoparticles: generation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.R.

    2013-07-01

    In this presentation we report the reduction of Au 3+ through chemical and free radical (e solv - ) reactions both in non-aqueous and aqueous media. In chemical reduction, the spectral nature in ascorbic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA) systems was different. The band intensity of gold nanoparticles was lower in AA system. While in free radical reaction, the yield of nanoparticles was pure i.e. free from excess reactants. Under the study 60-200 nm size nanoparticles were generated, which are inert to oxygen. Using pulse radiolysis technique, the initial rate for e solv - reaction with Au 3+ was determined to be 7.6 x 10 9 M -1 s -1 . (author)

  12. Magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sora, Sergiu; Ion, Rodica Mariana

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to establish and to optimize the conditions for chemical synthesis of nanosized magnetic core-shell iron oxide. The core is magnetite and for the shell we used gold in order to obtain different nanoparticles. Iron oxides was synthesized by sonochemical process using ferrous salts, favoring the synthesis at low-temperature, low costs, high material purity and nanostructure control. After synthesis, some investigation techniques as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and UVVis absorbance spectroscopy, have been used to see the characteristics of the nanoparticles. For in vitro applications, it is important to prevent any aggregation of the nanoparticles, and may also enable efficient excretion and protection of the cells from toxicity. For biomedical applications like magnetic biofunctional material vectors to target tissues, the particles obtained have to be spherical with 10 nm average diameter. Key words: magnetite, nanocomposite, core-shell, sonochemical method

  13. Catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Janssens, Ton V.W.; Clausen, Bjerne

    2007-01-01

    Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change with par......Au is usually viewed as an inert metal, but surprisingly it has been found that Au nanoparticles less than 3–5 nm in diameter are catalytically active for several chemical reactions. We discuss the origin of this effect, focusing on the way in which the chemical activity of Au may change...... with particle size. We find that the fraction of low-coordinated Au atoms scales approximately with the catalytic activity, suggesting that atoms on the corners and edges of Au nanoparticles are the active sites. This effect is explained using density functional calculations....

  14. Fabrication of Metallic Hollow Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sr., Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Metal and semiconductor nanoshells, particularly transition metal nanoshells, are fabricated using dendrimer molecules. Metallic colloids, metallic ions or semiconductors are attached to amine groups on the dendrimer surface in stabilized solution for the surface seeding method and the surface seedless method, respectively. Subsequently, the process is repeated with additional metallic ions or semiconductor, a stabilizer, and NaBH.sub.4 to increase the wall thickness of the metallic or semiconductor lining on the dendrimer surface. Metallic or semiconductor ions are automatically reduced on the metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles causing the formation of hollow metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles. The void size of the formed hollow nanoparticles depends on the dendrimer generation. The thickness of the metallic or semiconductor thin film around the dendrimer depends on the repetition times and the size of initial metallic or semiconductor seeds.

  15. Magnetic nanoparticles in medical nanorobotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.martel@polymtl.ca [Polytechnique Montréal, NanoRobotics Laboratory, Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Medical nanorobotics is a field of robotics that exploits the physics at the nanoscale to implement new functionalities in untethered robotic agents aimed for ultimate operations in constrained physiological environments of the human body. The implementation of such new functionalities is achieved by embedding specific nano-components in such robotic agents. Because magnetism has been and still widely used in medical nanorobotics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) in particular have shown to be well suited for this purpose. To date, although such magnetic nanoparticles play a critical role in medical nanorobotics, no literature has addressed specifically the use of MNP in medical nanorobotic agents. As such, this paper presents a short introductory tutorial and review of the use of magnetic nanoparticles in the field of medical nanorobotics with some of the related main functionalities that can be embedded in nanorobotic agents.

  16. Percolation Magnetism in Ferroelectric Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, Iryna S.; Lemishko, Serhii V.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2017-06-01

    Nanoparticles of potassium tantalate (KTaO3) and potassium niobate (KNbO3) were synthesized by oxidation of metallic tantalum in molten potassium nitrate with the addition of potassium hydroxide. Magnetization curves obtained on these ferroelectric nanoparticles exhibit a weak ferromagnetism, while these compounds are nonmagnetic in a bulk. The experimental data are used as a start point for theoretical calculations. We consider a microscopic mechanism that leads to the emerging of a ferromagnetic ordering in ferroelectric nanoparticles. Our approach is based on the percolation of magnetic polarons assuming the dominant role of the oxygen vacancies. It describes the formation of surface magnetic polarons, in which an exchange interaction between electrons trapped in oxygen vacancies is mediated by magnetic impurity Fe3+ ions. The dependences of percolation radius on concentration of the oxygen vacancies and magnetic defects are determined in the framework of percolation theory.

  17. Magnetic properties of iron nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvell, J.; Ayieta, E.; Gavrin, A.; Cheng, Ruihua; Shah, V. R.; Sokol, P.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles with different sizes synthesized by a physical deposition technique have been investigated experimentally. We have used a high pressure sputtering technique to deposit iron nanoparticles on a silicon substrate. The nanoparticles are then analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and superconducting quantum interference device techniques. TEM and AFM data show that the particle size could be tuned by adjusting the deposition conditions. The magnetic properties have been investigated from temperature dependent magnetization M(T) and field dependent magnetization M(H) measurements. The results show that two phases including both ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic particles are present in our system. From these data we extracted the superparamagnetic critical size to be 9 nm for our samples. Ferromagnetic particles are single magnetic domain particles and the magnetic properties can be explained by the Stoner and Wohlfarth model. For the superparamagnetic phase, the effective anisotropy constant, K eff , decreases as the particle size increases.

  18. Green chemistry for nanoparticle synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haohong; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2015-08-21

    The application of the twelve principles of green chemistry in nanoparticle synthesis is a relatively new emerging issue concerning the sustainability. This field has received great attention in recent years due to its capability to design alternative, safer, energy efficient, and less toxic routes towards synthesis. These routes have been associated with the rational utilization of various substances in the nanoparticle preparations and synthetic methods, which have been broadly discussed in this tutorial review. This article is not meant to provide an exhaustive overview of green synthesis of nanoparticles, but to present several pivotal aspects of synthesis with environmental concerns, involving the selection and evaluation of nontoxic capping and reducing agents, the choice of innocuous solvents and the development of energy-efficient synthetic methods.

  19. Percolation Magnetism in Ferroelectric Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, Iryna S; Lemishko, Serhii V; Morozovska, Anna N

    2017-12-01

    Nanoparticles of potassium tantalate (KTaO 3 ) and potassium niobate (KNbO 3 ) were synthesized by oxidation of metallic tantalum in molten potassium nitrate with the addition of potassium hydroxide. Magnetization curves obtained on these ferroelectric nanoparticles exhibit a weak ferromagnetism, while these compounds are nonmagnetic in a bulk. The experimental data are used as a start point for theoretical calculations. We consider a microscopic mechanism that leads to the emerging of a ferromagnetic ordering in ferroelectric nanoparticles. Our approach is based on the percolation of magnetic polarons assuming the dominant role of the oxygen vacancies. It describes the formation of surface magnetic polarons, in which an exchange interaction between electrons trapped in oxygen vacancies is mediated by magnetic impurity Fe 3+ ions. The dependences of percolation radius on concentration of the oxygen vacancies and magnetic defects are determined in the framework of percolation theory.

  20. Gold nanoparticles stabilized by chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Silva, Andressa A. da; Leal, Jessica; Batista, Jorge G.S.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2015-01-01

    In our laboratory has been growing the interest in studying gold nanoparticles and for this reason, the aim of this work is report the first results of the effect of chitosan as stabilizer in gold nanoparticle formulation. AuNPs were synthesized by reducing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl 4 ) using NaBH 4 or gamma irradiation (25kGy) as reduction agent. The chitosan (3 mol L -1 ) was added at 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mL. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their physical stability was determined using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer over one week during storage at room temperature. Absorption measurements indicated that the plasmon resonance wavelength appears at a wavelength around 530 nm. Has been observed that Chitosan in such quantities were not effective in stabilizing the AuNPs. (author)

  1. From silicon to organic nanoparticle memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukalas, D

    2009-10-28

    After introducing the operational principle of nanoparticle memory devices, their current status in silicon technology is briefly presented in this work. The discussion then focuses on hybrid technologies, where silicon and organic materials have been combined together in a nanoparticle memory device, and finally concludes with the recent development of organic nanoparticle memories. The review is focused on the nanoparticle memory concept as an extension of the current flash memory device. Organic nanoparticle memories are at a very early stage of research and have not yet found applications. When this happens, it is expected that they will not directly compete with mature silicon technology but will find their own areas of application.

  2. Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

    2012-09-18

    A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

  3. Synthesis of amorphous acid iron phosphate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Leret, P.; Fernández, J. F.; Aza, A. H. De; Rodríguez, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple method to precipitate nanoparticles of iron phosphate with acid character has been developed in which the control of pH allows to obtain amorphous nanoparticles. The acid aging of the precipitated amorphous nanoparticles favored the P–O bond strength that contributes to the surface reordering, the surface roughness and the increase of the phosphate acid character. The thermal behavior of the acid iron phosphate nanoparticles has been also studied and the phosphate polymerization at 400 °C produces strong compacts of amorphous nanoparticles with interconnected porosity.

  4. Few-layer black phosphorus nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Zdenek; Bouša, Daniel; Luxa, Jan; Mazanek, Vlastimil; Pumera, Martin

    2016-01-28

    Herein, black phosphorus quantum dots and nanoparticles of a few layer thickness were prepared and characterized using STEM, AFM, dynamic light scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. Impact electrochemistry of the induvidual black phosphorus nanoparticles allows their size determination. The centrifugation of colloidal black phosphorus nanoparticles allowed separation of quantum dots with sizes up to 15 nm. These black phosphorus nanoparticles exhibit a large band gap and are expected to find a wide range of applications from semiconductors to biomolecule tags. The use of black phosphorus nanoparticles for vapour sensing was successfully demonstrated.

  5. Simultaneous catalytic degradation of 2,4-D and MCPA herbicides using sulfate radical-based heterogeneous oxidation over persulfate activated by natural hematite (α-Fe2O3/PS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Majid; Mohammadi, Farzad; Kakavandi, Babak; Esrafili, Ali; Rostamifasih, Zeinab

    2018-06-01

    Herein, a sulfate radical (SO4rad -)-based oxidation process was utilized for simultaneous degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) herbicides using mesoporous hematite-based natural semi-conductor minerals (HM-NSMs) as efficient activators of persulfate (PS). The features of the catalyst were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM); Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) analysis; X-ray diffraction (XRD); and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The effect of some operational parameters, including solution pH, catalyst loading, PS dosage and temperature, on the performance system of PS/HM-NSMs was examined. A plausible oxidation mechanism for degradation of both pollutants was also proposed. Increasing the removal efficiency of herbicides follows the order of PS/HM-NSM > HM-NSM > PS. In all experiments, the 2,4-D removal rates were slightly lower than those for MCPA, indicating that 2,4-D has a more recalcitrant nature than MCPA. Under optimized conditions, degradation rates of 68.1% and 74.5% were achieved for 2,4-D and MCPA, respectively, during a 120-min reaction. HM-NSM displays a highly synergistic effect on the degradation of herbicides in the presence of PS. The trapping experiments demonstrated that both OHrad and SO4rad - radicals contribute significantly during the degradation of 2,4-D and MCPA and that sulfate radicals were the dominant species. A mineralization degree of 36% was obtained under optimum conditions. In conclusion, the coupling of PS and HM-NSM is a promising and effective technique to degrade organic matter for the treatment of herbicide-contaminated waters and wastewaters under real conditions.

  6. DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying <.about.10% of the unit cell, are formed. Designs and pathways amenable to the crystallization of particle assemblies are identified. In some embodiments, a plasmonic crystal is provided. In some aspects, a method for controlling the properties of particle assemblages is provided. In some embodiments a catalyst is formed from nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

  7. Antituberculous effect of silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreytsberg, G N; Gracheva, I E; Kibrik, B S; Golikov, I V

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro experiment, involving 1164 strains of the tuberculosis mycobacteria, exhibited a potentiating effect of silver nanoparticles on known antituberculous preparations in respect of overcoming drug-resistance of the causative agent. The in vitro experiment, based on the model of resistant tuberculosis, was performed on 65 white mice. An evident antituberculous effect of the nanocomposite on the basis of silver nanoparticles and isoniazid was proved. Toxicological assessment of the of nanopreparations was carried out. The performed research scientifically establishes efficacy and safety of the nanocomposite application in combination therapy of patients suffering from drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  8. Antituberculous effect of silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreytsberg, G N; Gracheva, I E [Limited Liability Company ' Scientific and Production Association (NPO)' Likom' , 150049, Yaroslavl, Magistralnaya str., 32 (Russian Federation); Kibrik, B S [Yaroslavl State Medical Academy Russia, 150000, Yaroslavl, Revolutsionnaya str., 5 (Russian Federation); Golikov, I V, E-mail: likomm@yaroslavl.ru [Yaroslavl State Technical University Russia, 150023, Yaroslavl, Moskovskiy avenue, 88 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    The in vitro experiment, involving 1164 strains of the tuberculosis mycobacteria, exhibited a potentiating effect of silver nanoparticles on known antituberculous preparations in respect of overcoming drug-resistance of the causative agent. The in vitro experiment, based on the model of resistant tuberculosis, was performed on 65 white mice. An evident antituberculous effect of the nanocomposite on the basis of silver nanoparticles and isoniazid was proved. Toxicological assessment of the of nanopreparations was carried out. The performed research scientifically establishes efficacy and safety of the nanocomposite application in combination therapy of patients suffering from drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  9. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  10. Spin structures in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Erik

    dependence of the magnetisation in certain nanoparticle systems, as welll bulk systems with spin canting due to defects. In accordance with this model magnetisation measurements on goethtie (a-FeOOH) nanoparticles are presented, showing a low temperature increase in the magnetisation. The spin orientation...... experimental data from unpolarised neutron diffraction. The spin orientation is found to be close to the particle plane, which is the (111) plane of the FCC structure of NiO for particles with thickness ranging from 2.2 nm to bulk (= 200 nm) particles. In the smallest particles, with a thickness of 2.0 nm, we...

  11. Multiscale study of metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeongchan

    Extremely small structures with reduced dimensionality have emerged as a scientific motif for their interesting properties. In particular, metal nanoparticles have been identified as a fundamental material in many catalytic activities; as a consequence, a better understanding of structure-function relationship of nanoparticles has become crucial. The functional analysis of nanoparticles, reactivity for example, requires an accurate method at the electronic structure level, whereas the structural analysis to find energetically stable local minima is beyond the scope of quantum mechanical methods as the computational cost becomes prohibitingly high. The challenge is that the inherent length scale and accuracy associated with any single method hardly covers the broad scale range spanned by both structural and functional analyses. In order to address this, and effectively explore the energetics and reactivity of metal nanoparticles, a hierarchical multiscale modeling is developed, where methodologies of different length scales, i.e. first principles density functional theory, atomistic calculations, and continuum modeling, are utilized in a sequential fashion. This work has focused on identifying the essential information that bridges two different methods so that a successive use of different methods is seamless. The bond characteristics of low coordination systems have been obtained with first principles calculations, and incorporated into the atomistic simulation. This also rectifies the deficiency of conventional interatomic potentials fitted to bulk properties, and improves the accuracy of atomistic calculations for nanoparticles. For the systematic shape selection of nanoparticles, we have improved the Wulff-type construction using a semi-continuum approach, in which atomistic surface energetics and crystallinity of materials are added on to the continuum framework. The developed multiscale modeling scheme is applied to the rational design of platinum

  12. Advances in developing TiNi nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A. Torres; Cuellar, E. Lopez; Mendez, U. Ortiz; Yacaman, M. Jose

    2006-01-01

    The elaboration of nanoparticles has become a field of great interest for many scientists. Nanoparticles possess different properties than those ones shown in bulk materials. Shape memory alloys have the exceptional ability to recuperate its original shape by simple heating after being 'plastically' deformed. When this process is originated, important changes in properties, as mechanical and electrical, are developed in bulk material. If there is possible to obtain nanoparticles with shape memory effects, these nanoparticles could be used in the elaboration of nanofluids with the ability to change their electrical and thermal conductivity with temperature changes, i.e., smart nanofluids. In this work, some recent results and discussion of TiNi nanoparticles obtained by ion beam milling directly from a TiNi wire with shape memory are presented. The nanoparticles obtained by this process are about 2 nm of diameter with a composition of Ti-41.0 at.% Ni. Synthesized nanoparticles elaborated by this method have an ordered structure

  13. Biosynthesis of Metal Nanoparticles: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, N.; Muddapur, U.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of nano structured materials, especially metallic nanoparticles, has accrued utmost interest over the past decade owing to their unique properties that make them applicable in different fields of science and technology. The limitation to the use of these nanoparticles is the paucity of an effective method of synthesis that will produce homogeneous size and shape nanoparticles as well as particles with limited or no toxicity to the human health and the environment. The biological method of nanoparticle synthesis is a relatively simple, cheap, and environmentally friendly method than the conventional chemical method of synthesis and thus gains an upper hand. The bio mineralization of nanoparticles in protein cages is one of such biological approaches used in the generation of nanoparticles. This method of synthesis apart from being a safer method in the production of nanoparticles is also able to control particle morphology.

  14. Size-controlled synthesis of nickel nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Y.; Kondoh, H.; Ohta, T.; Gao, S.

    2005-01-01

    A facile reduction approach with nickel acetylacetonate, Ni(acac) 2 , and sodium borohydride or superhydride leads to monodisperse nickel nanoparticles in the presence of hexadecylamine (HDA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). The combination of HDA and TOPO used in the conventional synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals also provides better control over particle growth in the metal nanoparticle synthesis. The size of Ni nanoparticles can be readily tuned from 3 to 11 nm, depending on the ratio of HDA to TOPO in the reaction system. As-synthesized Ni nanoparticles have a cubic structure as characterized by power X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that Ni nanoparticles have narrow size distribution. SQUID magnetometry was also used in the characterization of Ni nanoparticles. The synthetic procedure can be extended to the preparation of high quality metal or alloy nanoparticles

  15. Biosynthesis of Metal Nanoparticles: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanostructured materials, especially metallic nanoparticles, has accrued utmost interest over the past decade owing to their unique properties that make them applicable in different fields of science and technology. The limitation to the use of these nanoparticles is the paucity of an effective method of synthesis that will produce homogeneous size and shape nanoparticles as well as particles with limited or no toxicity to the human health and the environment. The biological method of nanoparticle synthesis is a relatively simple, cheap, and environmentally friendly method than the conventional chemical method of synthesis and thus gains an upper hand. The biomineralization of nanoparticles in protein cages is one of such biological approaches used in the generation of nanoparticles. This method of synthesis apart from being a safer method in the production of nanoparticles is also able to control particle morphology.

  16. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with nanosecond laser pulses: Nanoparticle heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedyalkov, N.N.; Imamova, S.E.; Atanasov, P.A.; Toshkova, R.A.; Gardeva, E.G.; Yossifova, L.S.; Alexandrov, M.T.; Obara, M.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the heating process of gold nanoparticles irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses are presented. The efficiency of particle heating is demonstrated by in-vitro photothermal therapy of human tumor cells. Gold nanoparticles with diameters of 40 and 100 nm are added as colloid in the cell culture and the samples are irradiated by nanosecond pulses at wavelength of 532 nm delivered by Nd:YAG laser system. The results indicate clear cytotoxic effect of application of nanoparticle as more efficient is the case of using particles with diameter of 100 nm. The theoretical analysis of the heating process of nanoparticle interacting with laser radiation is based on the Mie scattering theory, which is used for calculation of the particle absorption coefficient, and two-dimensional heat diffusion model, which describes the particle and the surrounding medium temperature evolution. Using this model the dependence of the achieved maximal temperature in the particles on the applied laser fluence and time evolution of the particle temperature is obtained.

  17. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with nanosecond laser pulses: Nanoparticle heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, N. N.; Imamova, S. E.; Atanasov, P. A.; Toshkova, R. A.; Gardeva, E. G.; Yossifova, L. S.; Alexandrov, M. T.; Obara, M.

    2011-04-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the heating process of gold nanoparticles irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses are presented. The efficiency of particle heating is demonstrated by in-vitro photothermal therapy of human tumor cells. Gold nanoparticles with diameters of 40 and 100 nm are added as colloid in the cell culture and the samples are irradiated by nanosecond pulses at wavelength of 532 nm delivered by Nd:YAG laser system. The results indicate clear cytotoxic effect of application of nanoparticle as more efficient is the case of using particles with diameter of 100 nm. The theoretical analysis of the heating process of nanoparticle interacting with laser radiation is based on the Mie scattering theory, which is used for calculation of the particle absorption coefficient, and two-dimensional heat diffusion model, which describes the particle and the surrounding medium temperature evolution. Using this model the dependence of the achieved maximal temperature in the particles on the applied laser fluence and time evolution of the particle temperature is obtained.

  18. Synthesis metal nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Scott D.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-08-16

    A method for providing an anhydrous route for the synthesis of amine capped coinage-metal (copper, silver, and gold) nanoparticles (NPs) using the coinage-metal mesityl (mesityl=C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3 -2,4,6) derivatives. In this method, a solution of (Cu(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5, (Ag(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.4, or (Au(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5 is dissolved in a coordinating solvent, such as a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine; primary, secondary, or tertiary phosphine, or alkyl thiol, to produce a mesityl precursor solution. This solution is subsequently injected into an organic solvent that is heated to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. After washing with an organic solvent, such as an alcohol (including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and higher molecular-weight alcohols), oxide free coinage NP are prepared that could be extracted with a solvent, such as an aromatic solvent (including, for example, toluene, benzene, and pyridine) or an alkane (including, for example, pentane, hexane, and heptane). Characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the NPs were approximately 9.2.+-.2.3 nm in size for Cu.degree., (no surface oxide present), approximately 8.5.+-.1.1 nm Ag.degree. spheres, and approximately 8-80 nm for Au.degree..

  19. Synthesis of nanoparticles of manganese MnFe2O4 by co-precipitation micellar ferrite: structural and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Paneque, A.; Diaz, S.; Diaz, C.; Santiago-Jacinto, E.; Reguera, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The microemulsion method was used in reverse, shaped micelles by dodecyl of sodium (NaDBS) in toluene/water system, for MnFe2O4 manganese ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. Were also variants of heat treatments to improve the crystallinity of the material obtained. These were, treatments to reflux to 100 ° C or treatments in an inert atmosphere at temperatures that were varied between 350 and 600 ° C. The retrieved material was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy of high and low resolution (HR-TEM and TEM, respectively), Mössbauer Spectroscopy and vibrational magnetometry. Powder XRD patterns revealed the formation of phase MnFe2O4, cubic type Spinel, of space group Fd3m, accompanied by the minority phase Hematite (a-Fe203) group spatial R-3 c. The size of the nanoparticles was estimated from the profile setting from the pattern of powder by the method of Le Bail, obtaining sizes mean that varied between 5 and 25 mn depending on the heat treatment to which they were subjected. This result was corroborated from TEM micrographs. The vibrational magnetometer showed that the smaller MnFe2O4 nanoparticles, prepared following this route of synthesis They presented a superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature (coercive field and) remanence approximately zeros), which was also confirmed by the study of Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Was also the magnetically inactive layer thickness, of around 0.9 nm, responsible for the decrease in the values of saturation magnetization (as) to decrease the size of nanoparticles. Was obtained a set of nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior based in the MnFe2O4 around 5.9 NM in diameter and a-Fe203 around 6.6 NM, as phase secondary. They managed to get this material and the desired magnetic properties optimum crystallinity, applying heat treatment variant proposed in this work, and that It consists of making a reflux at 100 ° C, before the treatment on solid phase under flow N2

  20. Preparation methods of alginate nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paques, J.P.; Linden, van der E.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews available methods for the formation of alginate nano-aggregates, nanocapsules and nanospheres. Primarily, alginate nanoparticles are being prepared by two methods. In the “complexation method”, complex formation on the interface of an oil droplet is used to form alginate