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Sample records for cerium ion implantation

  1. Effect of cerium ion implantation on the oxidation behavior of zircaloy-4 at 500 degree sign C

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, X W; Yu, H R; Zhou, Q G; Chen, B S

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the oxidation behavior changes of zircaloy-4 induced by cerium ion implantation using a MEVVA source at an energy of 40 keV with a dose range from 1x10 sup 1 sup 6 to 1x10 sup 1 sup 7 ions/cm sup 2 at the maximum temperature of 130 degree sign C, weight gain curves of the different specimens including as-received zircaloy-4 and cerium-implanted zircaloy-4 were measured after oxidation in air at 500 degree sign C for 100 min. It was obviously found that a significant improvement was achieved in the oxidation behavior of cerium ion implanted zircaloy-4 compared with that of the as-received zircaloy-4. The depth profile of the element composition in the surface region of the samples was obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy, and the valence of the oxides in the scale was analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction employed to examine the phase transformation in the oxide films showed that the addition of cerium transformed the phase from monoclinic zir...

  2. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the purpose of the present paper to give a review of surface alloy processing by ion implantation. However, rather than covering this vast subject as a whole, the survey is confined to a presentation of the microstructures that can be found in metal surfaces after ion implantation. The presentation is limited to alloys processed by ion implantation proper, that is to processes in which the alloy compositions are altered significantly by direct injection of the implanted ions. The review is introduced by a presentation of the processes taking place during development of the fundamental event in ion implantation - the collision cascade, followed by a summary of the various microstructures which can be formed after ion implantation into metals. This is compared with the variability of microstructures that can be achieved by rapid solidification processing. The microstructures are subsequently discussed in the light of the processes which, as the implantations proceed, take place during and immediately after formation of the individual collision cascades. These collision cascades define the volumes inside which individual ions are slowed down in the implanted targets. They are not only centres for vigorous agitation but also the sources for formation of excess concentrations of point defects, which will influence development of particular microstructures. A final section presents a selection of specific structures which have been observed in different alloy systems. (orig./GSCH)

  3. Ion implantation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Downey, DF; Jones, KS; Ryding, G

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation technology has made a major contribution to the dramatic advances in integrated circuit technology since the early 1970's. The ever-present need for accurate models in ion implanted species will become absolutely vital in the future due to shrinking feature sizes. Successful wide application of ion implantation, as well as exploitation of newly identified opportunities, will require the development of comprehensive implant models. The 141 papers (including 24 invited papers) in this volume address the most recent developments in this field. New structures and possible approach

  4. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents a state-of-the-art review in the field of ion implantation of polymers. Numerous published studies of polymers modified by ion beams are analysed. General aspects of ion stopping, latent track formation and changes of structure and composition of organic materials...... are discussed. Related to that, the effects of radiothermolysis, degassing and carbonisation are considered. Specificity of depth distributions of implanted into polymers impurities is analysed and the case of high-fluence implantation is emphasised. Within rather broad topic of ion bombardment, the focus...... is put on the low-energy implantation of metal ions causing the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in the shallow polymer layers. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of metal/polymer composites are under the discussion and the approaches towards practical applications are overviewed....

  5. Cerium luminescence in borate glass and effect of aluminium on blue green emission of cerium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CeO2 doped lead borate (CE) and lead alumino borate (CEA) glasses are prepared by melt quench method at high temperature. The main luminescence band of 5d–4f transition of Ce3+ ions with maxima at around 489 nm of Ce3+ ions in these glasses has been observed, along with red shift and larger stokes shift, which shows that the covalency of the rare earth to oxygen bond increases with the increase in CeO2 content at the expense of Al2O3. Shifting of UV absorption edge towards longer wavelength and a decrease in band gap with increase in CeO2 concentration in both the glass systems has been observed. Moreover densification and stabilization of glass network has been observed which is due to conversion of BO3 units to more compact and stable BO4 units. This covalency effect and the formation of BO4 groups with addition of CeO2 and incorporation of Al2O3 content are responsible for clear effect on luminescence of the present glass system. Moreover the optical basicity values were theoretically determined along with density and molar volume. -- Highlights: • Aluminium incorporation assists in dispersing the clusters of cerium ions and thus enhancing luminescence response. • Decrease of optical band gap energy with an increase of cerium concentration shows the semiconducting behavior. • Larger stokes shift shows that the covalency of rare earth to oxygen bond increases with increase in CeO2

  6. Production yield of rare-earth ions implanted into an optical crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare-earth (RE) ions doped into desired locations of optical crystals might enable a range of novel integrated photonic devices for quantum applications. With this aim, we have investigated the production yield of cerium and praseodymium by means of ion implantation. As a measure, the collected fluorescence intensity from both implanted samples and single centers was used. With a tailored annealing procedure for cerium, a yield up to 53% was estimated. Praseodymium yield amounts up to 91%. Such high implantation yield indicates a feasibility of creation of nanopatterned rare-earth doping and suggests strong potential of RE species for on-chip photonic devices

  7. Production yield of rare-earth ions implanted into an optical crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornher, Thomas, E-mail: t.kornher@physik.uni-stuttgart.de; Xia, Kangwei; Kolesov, Roman; Reuter, Rolf; Villa, Bruno; Wrachtrup, Jörg [3. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Wieck, Andreas D. [Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Siyushev, Petr [Universität Ulm, Institut für Quantenoptik, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Stöhr, Rainer [3. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Schreck, Matthias [Experimentalphysik IV, Universität Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Becker, Hans-Werner [RUBION, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    Rare-earth (RE) ions doped into desired locations of optical crystals might enable a range of novel integrated photonic devices for quantum applications. With this aim, we have investigated the production yield of cerium and praseodymium by means of ion implantation. As a measure, the collected fluorescence intensity from both implanted samples and single centers was used. With a tailored annealing procedure for cerium, a yield up to 53% was estimated. Praseodymium yield amounts up to 91%. Such high implantation yield indicates a feasibility of creation of nanopatterned rare-earth doping and suggests strong potential of RE species for on-chip photonic devices.

  8. Adsorption of Fluoride Ion by Inorganic Cerium Based Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Zhongzhi(焦中志); Chen Zhonglin; Yang Min; Zhang Yu; Li Guibai

    2004-01-01

    Excess of fluoride in drinking water is harmful to human health, the concentration of F- ions must be maintained in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 mg/L. An inorganic cerium based adsorbent (CTA) is developed on the basis of research of adsorption of fluoride on cerium oxide hydrate. Some adsorption of fluoride by CTA adsorbent experiments were carried out, and results showed that CTA adsorbent has a quick adsorption speed and a large adsorption capacity. Adsorption follows Freundlich isotherm, and low pH value helps fluoride removal. Some physical-chemical characteristics of CTA adsorbent were experimented, fluoride removal mechanism was explored, and results showed that hydroxyl group of CTA adsorbent played an important role in the fluoride removal.

  9. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  10. Ion implantation at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kinetic model has been developed to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering on the spatial redistribution of implanted solutes during implantation at elevated temperatures. Sample calculations were performed for Al+ and Si+ ions implanted into Ni. With the present model, the influence of various implantation parameters on the evolution of implant concentration profiles could be examined in detail

  11. Cerium-based coating for enhancing the corrosion resistance of bio-degradable Mg implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there has been interest in employing degradable metallic implants for internal fixation in bone fracture healing. The major purpose of using degradable implants is to avoid a second surgery for implant removal when bone healing has completed. However, the corrosion rate of Mg in vivo is too high. Thus increasing the corrosion resistance of Mg is the key problem to address in the development of degradable Mg implants. One possible route is by way of surface treatment, which would lower the corrosion rate at the initial phase of bone healing, the period during which the implant provides mechanical support for the broken bone. In the present study cerium oxide coating was prepared on pure Mg by cathodic deposition in cerium nitrate solution followed by hydrothermal treatment. The coated samples were characterized by SEM, EDS and XRD. The corrosion resistance in Hanks' solution (a simulated body fluid) was studied using polarization method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion resistance of cerium oxide coated Mg in Hanks' solution at 37 deg. C and pH 7.4 was higher than that of bare Mg by about two orders of magnitude.

  12. Ion implantation: Science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a tutorial presentation of the science, techniques, and machines of ion implantation. The first section of this book concerns the science of ion implantation. It covers the historical development of the field, and the basic theory of energetic ion penetration of solids. The major concentration of this section is to explain the nature of the creation of damage in crystaline silicon during ion implantation, and the methods which can be used to recover the original crystalinity. Especially helpful are the TEM photographs scattered throughout this section which show the many phases of the morphology of ion implantation damage. Methods are described which allow the quantitative evaluation of the success of the implantation and the recovery of the semiconductor. The last half of this book describes the ion accelerators (implanters) used in ion implantation, with a detailed presentation of the major components which require maintenance. A large part of this section concerns the methods of quantitatively evaluating the performance of ion implanters. A chapter is devoted to the extensive safety hazards of implanters and methods to maintain safe operation

  13. Ion exchange reactions in amorphous and crystalline aluminium silicates from solution of cerium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactions of ion-exchange of Na+ by Ce3+ and NH4+ on the zeolite containing catalyst, amorphous silica alumina and zeolite Y have been studied. The cerium cations are shown to be exchanged by the Na+ cations with more selectivity than the anmonia cations. In the case of the zeolite containing catalyst and amorphous silica alumina the region of the staggered ion-exchange from the mixture of the solutions of cerium and ammonium sulphates was been detected. This is explained by the formation fo cerium complexes with the sulphate ions

  14. High dose metal ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To affect non-electronic surface properties (wear, corrosion and so on) the implanted material must reach measureable atom percentages, on the order of 10%, requiring ion implantation does in the range of 1017/cm2. For this reason, the MEVVA metallic ion source, developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, has been modified to provide metal ions for high dose metal ion implantation. The modifications inlcude increasing the arc efficiency, increasing beam spot size, and increasing beam divergence. The extracted beams have been characterized as to beam cross section and the depth profiles of implants. Time-average beam currents in excess of 20 mA have been extracted. Beams of titanium, tantalum, and other refractory metal ions, plus other refractory materials, such as titanium carbide, have been extracted and used to produce modifications in the surface properties of materials. (orig.)

  15. Mutation breeding by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu

    1991-07-01

    Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.

  16. Electroreduction of cerium ions on silver electrode in halide melts at 973 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of electroreduction of cerium ions in equimolar KCl-NaCl melt is explored at 973 K. The effect of the anionic composition of the melt on the electroreduction of cerium ions is studied. It is shown that the electrodeposition of cerium metal from halide melts on a silver electrode is the primary electrochemical process that occurs at potentials more positive than those corresponding to the supporting-electrolyte decomposition. The electroreduction of chloride complexes of cerium on a silver electrode in the melt in both steady- and non-steady-state polarization modes at rates below V≤0.5 V/s is controlled by the diffusion delivery; at higher polarization rates, the charge-transfer stage predominates

  17. Optical effects of ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book, the thirteenth in the series ''Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics,'' represents the first attempt to provide a detailed description of the factors and processes that govern the optical properties of ion implanted materials. It begins with a survey of the basic physics and practical methods involved, then goes on to discuss the topics of optical absorption and luminescence. The authors present the basic theory of optical waveguides and their analysis and examine how ion implantation can be used in the production of optical waveguides. The concluding chapter deals with the progress being made in the development of device-oriented waveguide structures and how ion implantation is being used to achieve these ends

  18. Preparation of targets by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various factors are described which are involved in target preparation by direct ion implantation and the limitations and pitfalls of the method are emphasized. Examples are given of experiments for which ion implanted targets are well suited. (author)

  19. In-house SAD phasing with surface-bound cerium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerium was used to enhance the anomalous signal in hen egg-white lysozyme crystals and led to successful in-house SAD phasing. The anomalous signal of cerium(III) ions present in a derivative of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals obtained by the addition of 0.025 M cerium chloride to the crystallization medium was used for phasing. X-ray intensity data were collected to 2 Å resolution using an in-house Cu Kα radiation data-collection facility. Phasing of a single-wavelength data set purely based on its f′′ led to a clearly interpretable electron-density map. Automated substructure solution by AutoSol in PHENIX resulted in four highest peaks corresponding to cerium(III) ions with data limited to 3 Å resolution, and about 90% of the residues were built automatically by AutoBuild in PHENIX. Cerium(III) ions bound on the surface of the enzyme are found to interact mainly with the main-chain and side-chain carbonyl groups of Asn, Glu, Tyr and Asp and with water molecules. Ce3+ ions were used as potential anomalous scatterers for the in-house single-wavelength anomalous scattering technique, and this is proposed as a tool for macromolecular phasing and for the study of the interactions of trivalent metal ions with proteins and other macromolecules

  20. Luminescence properties and decay kinetics of nano ZnO powder doped with cerium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Nihar Ranjan, E-mail: nihar@iitbbs.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Acharya, B.S., E-mail: bsacharya1950@gmail.com [Department of Physics, C.V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar 752054, Orissa (India); Singh, Th. Basanta [Luminescence Dating Laboratory, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India); Gartia, R.K. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Imphal 795003 (India)

    2013-04-15

    ZnO nanopowders doped with cerium ions (1.2 and 1.5 at. wt.%) were synthesized through soft solution route using ultrasound. Sonication has been found to be an effective way for doping rare earth ions like cerium into ZnO. This was confirmed from energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) measurement. Further, optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) measurements corroborate this finding. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show the increase of crystallite size and unit cell volume with doping of cerium ions. Formation of fibrous structure of ZnO:Ce was observed from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. Although the structural measurements indicate Ce{sup 4+} ion occupying substitutional site in ZnO, PL and absorption studies confirmed the presence of Ce{sup 3+} ion in the powder. The coexistence of Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+} ions has been explained on the basis of conversion of Ce{sup 3+} to Ce{sup 4+} in the oxidizing environment. Thermoluminescence (TL) and photo-stimulated decay of luminescence (PSDL) decay studies give an idea of various trapping levels present in the band gap of ZnO. These traps release electrons during optical stimulation to give bimolecular kinetics in nano ZnO:Ce powders. -- Highlights: ► Sonication: an effective way of incorporation of cerium ions into ZnO. ► Site dependent characteristic emission of cerium. ► Energy transfer from host lattice to cerium ions. ► Mono and bimolecular kinetics of ZnO:Ce.

  1. Current trends in ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As semiconductor device dimensions continue to shrink, the drive beyond 250 nm is creating significant problems for the device processor. In particular, trends toward shallower-junctions, lower thermal budgets and simplified processing steps present severe challenges to ion implantation. In parallel with greater control of the implant process goes the need for a better understanding of the physical processes involved during implantation and subsequent activation annealing. For instance, the need for an understanding of dopant-defect interaction is paramount as defects mediate a number of technologically important phenomena such as transient enhanced diffusion and impurity gettering. This paper will outline the current trends in the ion implantation and some of the challenges it faces in the next decade, as described in the semiconductor roadmap. It will highlight some recent positron annihilation work that has made a contribution to addressing one of these challenges, namely the need for tighter control of implant uniformity and dose. Additionally, some vacancy-mediated processes are described with the implication that these may provide areas in which positron annihilation spectroscopy could make a significant contribution. (orig.)

  2. Ion implantation and bio-compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface modification of polymers by ion implantation has been carried out to control surface properties such as conductivity, wettability, blood and tissue compatibility. Ion implantation into silicone rubber, polystyrene and segmented polyurethane was performed at 150 keV with doses ranging from 1 x 1015 to 3 x 1017 ions/cm2 to improve bio-compatibility. The platelet accumulation on ion implanted silicone rubber decreased and non-thrombogenicity of ion implanted specimens were improved. The ion implanted polystyrene and segmented polyurethane have been found to exhibit remarkably higher adhesion and spreading of endothelial cells compared to the non-implanted case. It is concluded that ion implantation into polymers is effective in controlling their bio-compatibility. (author)

  3. Annealing of ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newer uses of ion implantation require a higher dose rate. This has led to the introduction of high beam current implanters; the wafers move in front of a stationary beam to give a scanning effect. This can lead to non-uniform heating of the wafer. Variations in the sheet resistance of the layers can be very non-uniform following thermal annealing. Non-uniformity in the effective doping both over a single wafer and from one wafer to another, can affect the usefulness of ion implantation in high dose rate applications. Experiments to determine the extent of non-uniformity in sheet resistance, and to see if it is correlated to the annealing scheme have been carried out. Details of the implantation parameters are given. It was found that best results were obtained when layers were annealed at the maximum possible temperature. For arsenic, phosphorus and antimony layers, improvements were observed up to 12000C and boron up to 9500C. Usually, it is best to heat the layer directly to the maximum temperature to produce the most uniform layer; with phosphorus layers however it is better to pre-heat to 10500C. (U.K.)

  4. Computation of ion implantation uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial ion implanters employ a variety of different systems to scan the ion beam over the target. In many of the target scanning systems employed the achievable uniformity of dose has been limited by the chosen geometry. This paper describes a computer program which has been used to calculate the dose uniformity of a number of these systems. The results are presented as iso-dose lines relative to the dose at the centre of the target. The non-uniformities are then directly apparent and the parameters controlling their magnitude can be readily considered by equipment designers, purchasers or users. (author)

  5. Mutagenic Mechanisms of Ion Implantation in Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam implantation, as a new mutation technique, has been widely used in mutation breeding, and great achievements have been made for both the agriculture and fermentation industry. The mechanism underlying ion beam-induced mutagenesis has been a topic of research in recent years. In this paper, we focus on the initial physical process of ion implantation into organisms, noting that energy deposit, mass deposit and charge transfer of the implanted ions into target organisms are the main contributors to the biological effects. Recent studies of remote damage following ion beam implantation in plant samples are also included. It was observed that targeted ion implantation of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) of Arabidopsis embryos induces damage to the root apical meristem (RAM), indicating long distance systemic effects in intact organisms. Further studies showed that the generation of reactive oxygen species upon ion implantation could play important roles in the observed systemic effects. (author)

  6. Microstructure of metal Ion implanted ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructure of alumina and silicon nitride after metal ion implantation has been studied. A metal vapour vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source was employed to implant Ti ions into alumina with 7.6x1016 and 3.1x1017 ions/cm2 at 40 keV. Ti ions were also implanted into silicon nitride at a dose of 4x1017 ions/cm2 at 70 keV. The characterisation of ion implanted ceramics by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) showed low dose Ti implantation into alumina resulted in a highly defective surface layer. At higher dose, TiO2 precipitates in an amorphous matrix were detected. In contrast, Ti implantation into silicon nitride produced a layered structure. The upper most layer consisted of extremely fine TiN particles in an amorphous matrix. Underneath this layer, an amorphous layer was formed. (authors)

  7. Catalytic spectrophotometric determination of cerium by ion exchange separation coupled to a flow injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flow injection method is described intended for the determination of cerium based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of gallocyanine by peroxydisulfate in acidic media. The proposed flow injection manifold incorporates a ion exchange separation system in the carrier stream. The decolorisation of gallocyanine due to its oxidation was used to monitor the reaction by spectrophotometry at 524 nm. The variables which affected the reaction rate were fully investigated. By this method cerium(4) can be determined in the range of 0.30-10.0 μg with a limit of detection of 0.25 μg. The relative standard deviation for ten replicate determinations of 1.0 μg of cerium(4) was 1.8 %

  8. Mutagenic effects of ion implanted rice seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seeds of rice were implanted with 15∼30 keV N+, H+, Ar+ ion beam of various doses. The biological effects in M1 and mutation in M2 were studied. The results showed that ion beam could induce the variation on the chromosome structure and inhibit mitosis in root tip cell. The chromosomal aberration rate of cells tended to be increased with increase of implanted ion dose. Compared with 60Co γ-rays, ion implantation induced lower rate of cells with chromosome aberration. However, there was a similar inhibitory effect on mitosis between ion beam and γ-rays. The electrophoretic banding patterns of peroxidase enzymes were altered by both mutagens and varied. Frequency of the chlorophyll mutation implanted by ion beam was higher than that induced by γ-rays. Mutation frequencies of heading date and plant height were similar between ion beam implanting and γ-rays irradiation. (11 tabs., 2 figs.)

  9. Mutagenic mechanism on ion implantation of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam implantation, as a new mutation technique, has been widely used in mutation breeding, and great achievements have been attained in agriculture and fermentation industry. The mechanism underlying ion beam induced mutagenic effects has been the topic of research in recent years. In this paper, we focus on the initial physical process of ion implantation into organisms, discussing that energy deposit, mass deposit and charge transfer of the implanted ions into target organisms are the main contributions to the bio-effects. Recent advances in the study of transferring of damaging signals in plant sample are also included. It has been observed that targeted ion implantation of shoot apical meristem (SAM) of Arabidopsis embryos induces damage of root apical meristem (RAM), indicating a long distant bystander effect in intact organism. Further studies showed that generation of reactive oxygen species upon ion implantation and auxin-dependent transcription processes could play important roles in the observed bystander effect. (author)

  10. Mutagenic effects of ion implantation on stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seeds of Stevia were implanted by 75 keV nitrogen and carbon ions with various doses. The biological effects in M1 and mutation in M2 were studied. The results showed that ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with ion beam dose. The rate of cells with chromosomal aberration was lower than that induced with γ-rays. Frequency of the mutation induced by implantation of N+ and C+ ions were higher than those induced by γ-rays. The rate of cell with chromosome aberration and in M2 useful mutation induced by implantation of C+ ion was higher than those induced by implantation of N+ ion. Mutagenic effects Feng1 x Riyuan and Riyuan x Feng2 by implantation of N+ and C+ were higher than that of Jining and Feng2

  11. [Ion chromatography of L-ascorbic acid, sulfite and thiosulfate using their postcolumn reactions with cerium (IV) and fluorescence detection of cerium (III)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q; Hu, K; Miura, Y

    1999-09-01

    An ion chromatographic method was used to separate the species of L-ascorbic acid, sulfite and thiosulfate in their mixtures. This method is based on the separation of each anion in their mixtures by using a separation column, and then on the fluorimetric measurement of cerium (III) formed by a postcolumn reaction of cerium (IV) with the species of L-ascorbic acid, sulfite and thiosulfate in the effluent. The optimal conditions for separating and determining the above three species have been established. By using a 3 mmol/L carbonate eluent, the species of L-ascorbic acid, sulfite and thiosulfate could be eluted at the proper retention times of 1.7, 2.6 and 5.0 min, respectively, and these three anions could be separated completely. The effects of the concentrations of cerium (IV) and sulfuric acid in the postcolumn reaction solution on the chromatographic peak-height were tested in order to obtain the optimal peak-height. It was found that the peak-height at first increases rapidly with an increase in the concentration of cerium (IV) and sulfuric acid respectively up to a certain concertation, then increases slowly. These critical concentrations of cerium (IV) and sulfuric acid also depend on the amount of the analyte injected. Meanwhile the baseline signals of the sepectra increase with an increase in the concentration of cerium (IV). Some concentrations above the critical concentration of sulfuric acid could be selected as the optimal concentration of sulfuric acid, but the concentration of cerium (IV) should be optimized by establishing a compromise between the higher peak-height and the lower baseline signal. The detection limit of this method was found to be 1 mumol/L for thiosulfate when an amount of 100 microL analyte was injected. PMID:12552889

  12. Stoichiometric disturbances in ion implanted silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morvan, E.; Monserrat, J.; Rebollo, J.; Flores, D.; Jorda, X. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, Barcelona (Spain); Locatelli, M.L.; Ottaviani, L. [CEGELY ECPA, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France)

    1998-08-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of stoichiometric disturbances induced by ion implantation into 6H-SiC single crystal are presented. By following the recoils trajectories during the implantation simulation it is possible to construct C and Si related point defects distributions, which in turns give the post implantation stoichiometry of the SiC crystal. The results show net concentrations of ``stable`` point defects and stoichiometric disturbances of the order of the chemical concentration of the implanted impurity. This phenomenon could play an important role during subsequent annealing steps. Some practical examples of ion implantation are simulated and discussed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  13. Ion implantation for combating wear and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation provides a means of introducing chosen atomic species into the surface layers of a material or component without the need for heating. Atoms which form strong interatomic bonds, such as nitrogen or carbon, will harden a metal surface and improve wear resistance. Species which impart protection against corrosion, such as nickel, chromium or rare earths can be implanted. Various mechanisms result in a protective layer which far exceeds in thickness the range of implanted ions. Ion implantation is not a coating technique: there is no interface which could form a plane of weakness, nor are there dimensional changes. It is applied to finished components using equipment which will be described. (author)

  14. Ion implantation in semiconductors and other materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of ion implantation techniques in the field of semiconductors and its extension to various fields such as metallurgy, mechanics, superconductivity and opto-electronics are considered. As for semiconductors ion implantation is evoked as: a means of predeposition of impurities at low doping level (1011 to 1014cm-2); a means for obtaining profiles of controlled concentration; a means of reaching high doping levels with using 'strong current' implantation machines of the second generation. Some results obtained are presented

  15. Cell growing on ion implanted polytetrafluorethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondyurina, I., E-mail: i.kondyurina@gmail.com [School of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Shardakov, I. [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Russian Academy of Science, Perm (Russian Federation); Nechitailo, G. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Terpugov, V. [Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation); Kondyurin, A. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • PTFE surface becomes rough, carbonized and oxidized after ion implantation. • Ion implanted PTFE contains chemically active free radicals. • Cells adherence on ion implanted PTFE is improved. - Abstract: Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE and ePTFE) substrates were treated by ion implantation with nitrogen ions of 20 keV energies and 10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} ion fluences. The modification of the polymer surface was analyzed by FTIR and XPS spectroscopy, water wetting angle measurements and AFM images. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical activity were changed due to surface modification. The growing of endothelial cells of modified surfaces was improved in comparison with untreated PTFE and ePTFE substrates. The improved cell adherence on the modified surface is based on the improved adhesion of cell proteins.

  16. Development of industrial ion implantation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a cooperation between KAERI, Kurchatov Institute (Russia), and Mirae Co., development of a metal ion implanter and ion implantation technology is performed on a basic idea of popularization and refinement of ion implantation technology applied to the industrial components. The developed implanter is a two beam type: the mass separation line produces several mA of metal ion beams and the non-separation line produces several tens of mA gas ion beams, thus making the synergistic effect possible by the irradiation of beams from both lines. The target is made of a rotating plate of 60cm in radius and can treat various types of industrial components or parts. About 60 kinds of specimens were treated for the development of implantation technology. Two or five times lengthening of longevities were achieved on the PCB drills, razor blades, cutters, and precision dies. (Author)

  17. Single atom devices by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To expand the capabilities of semiconductor devices for new functions exploiting the quantum states of single donors or other impurity atoms requires a deterministic fabrication method. Ion implantation is a standard tool of the semiconductor industry and we have developed pathways to deterministic ion implantation to address this challenge. Although ion straggling limits the precision with which atoms can be positioned, for single atom devices it is possible to use post-implantation techniques to locate favourably placed atoms in devices for control and readout. However, large-scale devices will require improved precision. We examine here how the method of ion beam induced charge, already demonstrated for the deterministic ion implantation of 14 keV P donor atoms in silicon, can be used to implant a non-Poisson distribution of ions in silicon. Further, we demonstrate the method can be developed to higher precision by the incorporation of new deterministic ion implantation strategies that employ on-chip detectors with internal charge gain. In a silicon device we show a pulse height spectrum for 14 keV P ion impact that shows an internal gain of 3 that has the potential of allowing deterministic implantation of sub-14 keV P ions with reduced straggling. (paper)

  18. High energy ion implantation for IC processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the results of fundamental research on high energy ion implantation in silicon are presented and discussed. The implantations have been carried out with the 500 kV HVEE ion implantation machine, that was acquired in 1981 by the IC technology and Electronics group at Twente University of Technology. The damage and anneal behaviour of 1 MeV boron implantations to a dose of 1013/cm2 have been investigated as a function of anneal temperature by sheet resistance, Hall and noise measurements. (Auth.)

  19. Ion implantation into concave polymer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique for ion implantation into concave surface of insulating materials is proposed and experimentally studied. The principle is roughly described by referring to modifying inner surface of a PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottle. An electrode that is supplied with positive high-voltage pulses is inserted into the bottle. Both plasma formation and ion implantation are simultaneously realized by the same high-voltage pulses. Ion sheath with a certain thickness that depends on plasma parameters is formed just on the inner surface of the bottle. Since the plasma potential is very close to that of the electrode, ions from the plasma are accelerated in the sheath and implanted perpendicularly into the bottle's inner surface. Laser Raman spectroscopy shows that the inner surface of an ion-implanted PET bottle is modified into DLC (diamond-like carbon). Gas permeation measurement shows that gas-barrier property enhances due to the modification

  20. Ion implantation into concave polymer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, N.; Shinohara, T.; Amaya, S.; Endo, H.; Okuji, S.; Ikenaga, N.

    2006-01-01

    A new technique for ion implantation into concave surface of insulating materials is proposed and experimentally studied. The principle is roughly described by referring to modifying inner surface of a PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottle. An electrode that is supplied with positive high-voltage pulses is inserted into the bottle. Both plasma formation and ion implantation are simultaneously realized by the same high-voltage pulses. Ion sheath with a certain thickness that depends on plasma parameters is formed just on the inner surface of the bottle. Since the plasma potential is very close to that of the electrode, ions from the plasma are accelerated in the sheath and implanted perpendicularly into the bottle's inner surface. Laser Raman spectroscopy shows that the inner surface of an ion-implanted PET bottle is modified into DLC (diamond-like carbon). Gas permeation measurement shows that gas-barrier property enhances due to the modification.

  1. Dislocation climb in copper after ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, ion implantation is used widely for the modification of subsurface layers of metallic materials to improve the service characteristics of machine components and tools. The aim of this work was the experimental examination of the 'long-range effect' in coarse-grain copper in high-dose ion implantation. In this method, special attention is given to the preparation of specimens both for the case and for the examination by the method of electron microscopy and also to the ion implantation conditions

  2. Aligned ion implantation using scanning probes

    OpenAIRE

    Persaud, Arun

    2007-01-01

    A new technique for precision ion implantation has been developed. A scanning probe has been equipped with a small aperture and incorporated into an ion beamline, so that ions can be implanted through the aperture into a sample. By using a scanning probe the target can be imaged in a non-destructive way prior to implantation and the probe together with the aperture can be placed at the desired location with nanometer precision. In this work first results of a scanning probe integrated into an...

  3. Silicon technologies ion implantation and thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrant, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.

  4. Radioactive ion implantation of thermoplastic elastomers

    OpenAIRE

    Borcea, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    The radioactive ion implantation wear measuring method (RII) has been used for many years as a tool to make highly sensitive real-time in-situ measurements of wear and corrosion in metallic or ceramic materials. The method consists of the controlled implantation of radioactive ions of limited decay time in a thin layer at the surface of the material. The progressive abrasion of the material results in a decline in radioactivity which is followed to monitor material losses. The application ...

  5. Air, aqueous and thermal stabilities of Ce3+ ions in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers with substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Naganuma, Tamaki

    2014-01-01

    Abundant oxygen vacancies coexisting with Ce3+ ions in fluorite cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have the potential to enhance catalytic ability, but the ratio of unstable Ce3+ ions in CNPs is typically low. Our recent work, however, demonstrated that the abundant Ce3+ ions created in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers (CNPLs) by Ar ion irradiation were stable in air at room temperature. Ce valence states in CNPs correlate with the catalytic ability that involves redox reactions between Ce3+ and Ce4+ ions in given application environments (e.g. high temperature in carbon monoxide gas conversion and immersion conditions in biomedical applications). To better understand the mechanism by which Ce3+ ions achieve stability in CNPLs, we examined (i) extra-long air-stability, (ii) thermal stability up to 500 °C, and (iii) aqueous stability of Ce 3+ ions in water, buffer solution and cell culture medium. It is noteworthy that air-stability of Ce3+ ions in CNPLs persisted for more than 1 year. Thermal stability results showed that oxidation of Ce 3+ to Ce4+ occurred at 350 °C in air. Highly concentrated Ce3+ ions in ultra-thin CNPLs slowly oxidized in water within 1 day, but stability was improved in the cell culture medium. Ce 3+ stability of CNPLs immersed in the medium was associated with phosphorus adsorption on the Ce3+ sites. This study also illuminates the potential interaction mechanisms of stable Ce3+ ions in CNPLs. These findings could be utilized to understand catalytic mechanisms of CNPs with abundant oxygen vacancies in their application environments. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  6. Ion implantations of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojak, S.; Simeg Veternikova, J.; Slugen, V.; Petriska, M.; Stacho, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on a study of radiation damage and thermal stability of high chromium oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA 956 (20% Cr), which belongs to the most perspective structural materials for the newest generation of nuclear reactors - Generation IV. The radiation damage was simulated by the implantation of hydrogen ions up to the depth of about 5 μm, which was performed at a linear accelerator owned by Slovak University of Technology. The ODS steel MA 956 was available for study in as-received state after different thermal treatments as well as in ions implanted state. Energy of the hydrogen ions chosen for the implantation was 800 keV and the implantation fluence of 6.24 × 1017 ions/cm2. The investigated specimens were measured by non-destructive technique Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy in order to study the defect behavior after different thermal treatments in the as-received state and after the hydrogen ions implantation. Although, different resistance to defect production was observed in individual specimens of MA 956 during the irradiation, all implanted specimens contain larger defects than the ones in as-received state.

  7. Synthesis of titanium sapphire by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since laser action was first demonstrated in titanium sapphire (Ti:Al2O3) in 1982, it has become the most widely used tunable solid state laser source. The development of a titanium sapphire laser in a waveguide geometry would yield an elegant, compact, versatile and highly tunable light source useful for applications in many areas including optical telecommunications. We are investigating whether ion implantation techniques can be utilised to produce suitable crystal quality and waveguide geometry for fabrication of a Ti:Al2O3 waveguide laser. The implantation of Ti and O ions into c-axis oriented α-Al2O3 followed by subsequent thermal annealing under various conditions has been investigated as a means of forming the waveguide and optimising the fraction of Ti ions that have the correct oxidation state required for laser operation. A Raman Microprobe is being used to investigate the photo-luminescence associated with Ti3+ ion. Initial photoluminescence measurements of ion implanted samples are encouraging and reveal a broad luminescence profile over a range of ∼ .6 to .9 μm, similar to that expected from Ti3+. Rutherford Backscattering and Ion Channelling analysis have been used to study the crystal structure of the samples following implantation and annealing. This enables optimisation of the implantation parameters and annealing conditions to minimise defect levels which would otherwise limit the ability of light to propagate in the Ti:Al2O3 waveguide. (authors)

  8. Aligned ion implantation using scanning probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique for precision ion implantation has been developed. A scanning probe has been equipped with a small aperture and incorporated into an ion beamline, so that ions can be implanted through the aperture into a sample. By using a scanning probe the target can be imaged in a non-destructive way prior to implantation and the probe together with the aperture can be placed at the desired location with nanometer precision. In this work first results of a scanning probe integrated into an ion beamline are presented. A placement resolution of about 120 nm is reported. The final placement accuracy is determined by the size of the aperture hole and by the straggle of the implanted ion inside the target material. The limits of this technology are expected to be set by the latter, which is of the order of 10 nm for low energy ions. This research has been carried out in the context of a larger program concerned with the development of quantum computer test structures. For that the placement accuracy needs to be increased and a detector for single ion detection has to be integrated into the setup. Both issues are discussed in this thesis. To achieve single ion detection highly charged ions are used for the implantation, as in addition to their kinetic energy they also deposit their potential energy in the target material, therefore making detection easier. A special ion source for producing these highly charged ions was used and their creation and interactions with solids of are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  9. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  10. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Cd ion implantation in AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cd ion implanted in AlN thin films. ► XRD shows damage produced during implantation. ► Annealing recovers damage in low fluence sample. ► RBS/C measurements show that Cd occupies substitutional sites. ► Cd can be a good candidate for p-type doping. - Abstract: AlN thin films were implanted with cadmium, to fluences of 1 × 1013 and 8 × 1014 at/cm2. The implanted samples were annealed at 950 °C under flowing nitrogen. Although implantation damage in AlN is known to be extremely stable the crystal could be fully recovered at low fluences. At high fluences the implantation damage was only partially removed. Implantation defects cause an expansion of the c-lattice parameter. For the high fluence sample the lattice site location of the ions was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channelling Spectrometry. Cd ions are found to be incorporated in substitutional Al sites in the crystal and no significant diffusion is seen upon thermal annealing. The observed high solubility limit and site stability are prerequisite for using Cd as p-type dopant in AlN.

  12. Visible Light Induced Photocatalysis of Cerium Ion Modified Titania Sol and Nanocrystallites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yibing XIE; Chunwei YUAN

    2004-01-01

    The cerium ion(Ce4+) doped titania sol and nanocrystallites were prepared by chemical coprecipitation-peptization and hydrothermal synthesis methods, respectively. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that Ce4+-TiO2 xerogel powder has semicrystalline structure and thermal sintering sample has crystalline structure. Ce4+-TiO2 nanocrystallites are composed of the major anatase phase titania (88.82 wt pct) and a small amount of crystalline cerium titanate.AFM micrograph shows that primary particle size of well-dispersed ultrafine sol particles is below 15 nm in diameter.The particle sizes are 30 nm for xerogel sample and 70 nm for nanocrystallites sample, which is different from the estimated values (2.41 nm and 4.53 nm) by XRD Scherrer's formula. The difference is mainly due to aggregation of nanocrystallites. The experimental results exhibit that photocatalysts of Ce4+-TiO2 sol and nanocrystallites have the ability to photodegrade reactive brilliant red dye (X-3B) under visible light irradiation with the ion-TiO2/VIS/dye system. Moreover, Ce4+ doped titania sol has shown higher efficiency than the nanocrystallites sample in respect of potocatalytic activity. Meanwhile, dye photodegradation mechanisms are proposed to different photocatalytic reaction systems, which are dye photosensitization, ion-dye photosensitization and interband photocatalysis & dye photosensitization with respect to TiO2 nanocrystallites, Ce4+-TiO2 sol and Ce4+-TiO2 nanocrystallites system.

  13. Cell adhesion and growth on ion-implanted polymer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adhesion and growth of endothelial cells on ion-implanted polystyrene and segmented polyurethane surface were investigated. Ions of Na+, N2+, O2+, Ar+ and Kr+ were implanted to the polymer surface with ion fluences between 1 x 1015 and 3 x 1017 ions/cm2 at energy of 150 KeV at room temperature. Ion-implanted polymers were characterized by FT-IR-ATR an Raman spectroscopies. The adhesion and proliferation of bovine aorta endothelial cells on ion-implanted polymer surface were observed by an optical microscope. The rate of growth of BAECs on ion-implanted PSt was faster than that on non-implanted PSt. Complete cell adhesion and growth were observed on ion-implanted SPU, whereas the adhesion and growth of BAECs on the non-implanted SPU was not observed. It was attempted to control the cell culture on the ion-implanted domain fabricated using a mask. (author)

  14. Application of ion implantation in stevia breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seed of stevia were implanted with 60-100 keV nitrogen ion and 75 keV carbon ion of various doses, and the effects of the composition and yield of stevioside were studied. The results showed that ion beam could induce variation in total stevioside yield and the composition of the plant. The best treatment was 75 keV nitrogen ion with 5 x 1014 N+/cm2, the stevioside yield and Rebaudioside A (R-A) content were increased by 4.74% and 14.08% respectively. The effects induced by implantation of carbon ion were higher than those induced by implantation of nitrogen ion. Effects of Feng1 x Ri Yuan and Ri Yuan x Feng2 are higher than those of Ji Ning and Feng2. Seven mutation lines were selected from the mutation progenies. The stevioside composition of these lines were previously improved. The results suggest a potential application of ion implantation in stevia breeding

  15. Ion implantation of silicon nitride ball bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Miner, J.R. [United Technologies, Pratt and Whitney, West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Hypothesis for ion implantation effect was that stress concentrations reflected into the bulk due to topography such as polishing imperfections, texture in the race, or transferred material, might be reduced due to surface amorphization. 42 control samples were tested to an intended runout period of 60 h. Six ion implanted balls were tested to an extended period of 150 h. Accelerated testing was done in a V groove so that wear was on two narrow wear tracks. Rutherford backscattering, XRPS, profilometry, optical microscopy, nanoindentation hardness, and white light interferometry were used. The balls were implanted with 150-keV C ions at fluence 1.1x10{sup 17}/cm{sup 2}. The samples had preexisting surface defects (C-cracks), so the failure rate of the control group was unacceptable. None of the ion-implanted samples failed in 150 h of testing. Probability of randomly selecting 6 samples from the control group that would perform this well is about 5%, so there is good probability that ion implantation improved performance. Possible reasons are discussed. Wear tracks, microstructure, and impurity content were studied in possible relation to C-cracks.

  16. Valence Control of Ce Ions in Cerium-substituted Yttrium Iron Garnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Fengbing; LI Qiang; ZHONG Zhifeng

    2005-01-01

    Cerium-substituted yttrium iron garnet(CexY3-xFe5O12, Ce∶YIG) was prepared via coprecipitation. The structure, morphology, valence state and constituent of Ce ions were investigated respectively. X-ray powder diffraction(XRD) analysis shows that Ce∶YIG was of single cubic YIG phase. The result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) indicates the Ce ions in Ce∶YIG were in the state of trivalence. Scanning electron microscope(SEM) demonstrates the conglobation of Ce∶YIG particles about 0.2μm scale.The magnetic properties were studied by a vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM) and the result exhibits that substitution of Ce3+ changes the magnetic parameters of YIG. The effects of doping content of Ce ions and synthesis temperature on valence control were discussed in detail.

  17. Ion implanted Bragg endash Fresnel lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the feasibility of widening the bandpath of the Bragg endash Fresnel optical element through the use of ion implantation. The focusing properties of Bragg endash Fresnel lenses (BFLs) were studied as a function of the implantation dose and energy. An enhancement of the focus intensity of up to 15% was found, which is less than expected. Due to the complicated scattering of the low energy ions inside the micrometer- and submicrometer-sized crystal features that make up the BFL relief, the implantation technology destroys the peripheral zones of the BFL more than it increases the intensity in the focus. Nevertheless we believe that high energy implantation can be successfully used to modify the BFL reflectivity, especially in the case of nearly backscattering reflection. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Ion implantation of boron in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.S.

    1985-05-01

    Ion implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/ into room temperature Ge samples leads to a p-type layer prior to any post implant annealing steps. Variable temperature Hall measurements and deep level transient spectroscopy experiments indicate that room temperature implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/ into Ge results in 100% of the boron ions being electrically active as shallow acceptor, over the entire dose range (5 x 10/sup 11//cm/sup 2/ to 1 x 10/sup 14//cm/sup 2/) and energy range (25 keV to 100 keV) investigated, without any post implant annealing. The concentration of damage related acceptor centers is only 10% of the boron related, shallow acceptor center concentration for low energy implants (25 keV), but becomes dominant at high energies (100 keV) and low doses (<1 x 10/sup 12//cm/sup 2/). Three damage related hole traps are produced by ion implantation of /sup 11/B/sup +/. Two of these hole traps have also been observed in ..gamma..-irradiated Ge and may be oxygen-vacancy related defects, while the third trap may be divacancy related. All three traps anneal out at low temperatures (<300/sup 0/C). Boron, from room temperature implantation of BF/sub 2//sup +/ into Ge, is not substitutionally active prior to a post implant annealing step of 250/sup 0/C for 30 minutes. After annealing additional shallow acceptors are observed in BF/sub 2//sup +/ implanted samples which may be due to fluorine or flourine related complexes which are electrically active.

  19. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Gushenets, V. I.; Seleznev, D. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Dugin, S.; Oks, E. M.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Alexeyenko, O.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  20. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4+ ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described

  1. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described. PMID:26932065

  2. Plasma immersion ion implantation for silicon processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankov, Rossen A.; Mändl, Stephan

    2001-04-01

    Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is a technology which is currently widely investigated as an alternative to conventional beam line implantation for ultrashallow doping beyond the 0.15 m technology. However, there are several other application areas in modern semiconductor processing. In this paper a detailed discussion of the PIII process for semiconductors and of actual as well as future applications is given. Besides the well known advantages of PIII - fast process, implantation of the whole surface, low cost of ownership - several peculiarities - like spread of the implantation energy due to finite rise time or collisions, no mass separation, high secondary electron emission - must be mentioned. However, they can be overcome by adjusting the system and the process parameters. Considering the applications, ultrashallow junction formation by PIII is an established industrial process, whereas SIMOX and Smart-Cut by oxygen and hydrogen implantation are current topics between research and introduction into industry. Further applications of PIII, of which some already are research topics and some are only investigated by conventional ion implantation, include seeding for metal deposition, gettering of metal impurities, etch stop layers and helium implantation for localized lifetime control.

  3. An application of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in studies of internal contamination micro localization of cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) permits the detection of stable and radioactive elements in micro volume. Based on the ablation of specimens by ion bombardment, this mass spectrometry method allows a rapid assessment of trace elements in biological samples. Its resolving mass power provides an efficient analytical method and, in particular, it makes possible accurate isotopic ratio determination. In this work, a particular example is presented on the basis of results obtained as a result of analyses of duodenal tissue sections from rats contaminated with cerium. Tests were performed with SIMS to localize cerium in tissue sections obtained from rats 12, 24 and 48 hours after contamination with this element. In all specimens groups, cerium was found in apical region of micro villus, with the exception of those obtained 48 h after contamination. In this report, strengths and limitations of SIMS are pointed out as well as the potential of SIMS in biological research. (author)

  4. Ion-implantation damage in silicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, G. W.

    Ion implantation is a rapid technique for simulating damage induced by alpha recoil nuclei in nuclear waste forms. The simulation has been found to be quite good in TEM comparisons with natural alpha decay damage in minerals, but leach rate differences have been observed in glass studies and were attributed to dose rate differences. The similarities between ion implantation and recoil nuclei as a means of producing damage suggest that insights into the long term behavior of glass waste forms can be obtained by examination of what is known about ion implantation damage in silicate glasses. This paper briefly reviews these effects and shows that leaching results in certain nuclear waste glasses can be understood as resulting from plastic flow and track overlap. Phase separation is also seen to be a possible consequence of damage induced compositional changes.

  5. Graphitic structure formation in ion implanted polyetheretherketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavenner, E., E-mail: tazman1492@gmail.com [Creative Polymers Pty. Ltd., 41 Wilkinson Street, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Chemical Committee, Surface Chemical Analysis, Standards (Australia); Wood, B. [Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Chemical Committee, Surface Chemical Analysis, Standards (Australia); Curry, M.; Jankovic, A.; Patel, R. [Center for Applied Science and Engineering, Missouri State University, 524 North Boonville Avenue, Springfield, MO 65806 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Ion implantation is a technique that is used to change the electrical, optical, hardness and biocompatibility of a wide range of inorganic materials. This technique also imparts similar changes to organic or polymer based materials. With polymers, ion implantation can produce a carbon enriched volume. Knowledge as to the nature of this enrichment and its relative concentration is necessary to produce accurate models of the physical properties of the modified material. One technique that can achieve this is X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In this study the formation of graphite like structures in the near surface of polyetheretherketone by ion implantation has been elucidated from detailed analysis of the C 1s and valence band peak structures generated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Further evidence is given by both Rutherford backscatter spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection.

  6. High dose uranium ion implantation into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implantation of uranium ions into silicon to a maximum dose of 6 x 1016 atoms/cm2, with a maximum concentration of 6 x 1021 atoms/cm3, has been carried out. This concentration corresponds to 12 at. % of uranium in the silicon host material. The implanted uranium content was measured by Rutherford backscattering and confirmed by a measurement of the alpha-particle activity of the buried uranium layer. The range and straggling of the uranium, and sputtering of the silicon target by uranium, were measured and are compared with theoretical estimates. The implantation was performed at an ion mean energy of 157 keV using a new kind of high current metal ion source

  7. Simulation of ion implantation for ULSI technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hoessinger, A

    2000-01-01

    approximately constant an almost linear performance gain could be achieved by the parallelization method, even if a fairly slow network connects the workstations. Finally, the developed Monte-Carlo ion implantation simulator is applied to a set of examples making use of some of the special features of the simulator. Additionally a small operating manual for the simulator is included in the appendix. been developed and implemented. These methods enable to treat the implantation of molecular ions and atom clusters and thus the implantation of BF, which is a widely used for the doping with boron atoms. By providing two methods for the simulation of molecular ions the functionality of the simulator can be adapted to the problem requirements. While the simplified molecular method needs less computation time, the full molecular method provides more precise results. Another part of this work was the design and the implementation of a point response interface method. It allows to interface Monte-Carlo simulation resu...

  8. Ion-ion interaction and energy transfer of 4+ transuranium ions in cerium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper dynamics of excited 5f electron states of the transuranium ions Cm4+ and Bk4+ in CeF4 are compared. Excitation energy-transfer processes were probed on the basis of time- and frequency-resolved laser-induced fluorescence. Depending on concentration and electronic energy-level structure of the 4+ transuranium ion under study, the dominant energy-transfer mechanisms were identified as cross relaxation, up conversion, and trapping. Energy-transfer rates derived from the fitting of the observed fluorescence decays to theoretical models, based on electric multipolar ion-ion interactions, are contrasted with data from prior studies of 4f states of 3+ lanthanide and 3d states of transition metal ions

  9. Molecular Ion Beam Transportation for Low Energy Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for 100's of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past five years. Current density limitation associated with extracting and transporting low energy ion beams result in lower beam currents that in turn adversely affects the process throughput. The transport channel with electrostatic lenses for decaborane (B10H14) and carborane (C2B10H12) ion beams transportation was developed and investigated. The significant increase of ion beam intensity at the beam transport channel output is demonstrated. The transport channel simulation, construction and experimental results of ion beam transportation are presented.

  10. Hybrid quantum circuit with implanted erbium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics experiments with focused ion beam implanted Er3+ ions in Y2SiO5 coupled to an array of superconducting lumped element microwave resonators. The Y2SiO5 crystal is divided into several areas with distinct erbium doping concentrations, each coupled to a separate resonator. The coupling strength is varied from 5 MHz to 18.7 MHz, while the linewidth ranges between 50 MHz and 130 MHz. We confirm the paramagnetic properties of the implanted spin ensemble by evaluating the temperature dependence of the coupling. The efficiency of the implantation process is analyzed and the results are compared to a bulk doped Er:Y2SiO5 sample. We demonstrate the integration of these engineered erbium spin ensembles with superconducting circuits.

  11. /sup 252/Cf plasma desorption in ion implanted mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurette, M. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse); Banifatemi, A.; Della-Negra, S.; Le Beyec, Y. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire)

    1983-05-12

    The potential of heavy-ion stimulated desorption of ions (HISD) for investigating ion implantation effects in insulators is outlined, and a very strong enhancement in HISD of ionized species from ion implanted mica is reported. This enhancement, which generates heavy-ion clusters up to mass approximately equal to 500 AMU, grows around a critical fluence of implanted ions, and originates from two distinct types of radiation damage defects.

  12. Surface modification by ion implantation and ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After its successful applications in the semiconductor industry, ion implantation is being employed for other technical applications. The main process in ion implantation is the introduction of additive elements to change the composition and properties of the surface region of a material. We present results demonstrating the important improvement of the wear resistance and friction in a NiTi alloy implanted with nitrogen. The formation of hard TiN precipitates embedded in an amorphous layer is responsible for such modifications. The generation of many atomic displacements in collision cascades during implantation can be also employed as a modification process itself. For instance, the chemical disordering in an implanted Fe60Al40 alloy induces a para- to ferromagnetic transition. The formation of an amorphous surface alloy by ion irradiation at a temperature of 15 K has been shown in Ni50Al50 by in situ RBS, channelling and TEM. The new method of dynamic ion mixing (DIM) combines ion bombardment with simultaneous material deposition and allows thicker adherent coatings to be built up, this is shown for both metallic Cu50Ni50 and ceramic TiB2 coatings. Recent results demonstrating a significant increase in fatigue lifetime of a coated 316 L stainless steel are also reported and discussed. (orig.)

  13. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  14. Lattice damage during ion implantation of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, T.E.

    1993-08-01

    The temperature dependence of the lattice damage created during ion implantation of Si, Ge, Si-Ge alloys, and various III-V compounds is reviewed and interpreted in terms of a transition between two different damage formation mechanisms. Implications of this transition for control of damage, annealing, and electrical activation are discussed, particularly in GaAs.

  15. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation technology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukesh Kumar; Rajkumar; Dinesh Kumar; P J George

    2002-11-01

    Many semiconductor integrated circuit manufacturing processes require high dose of implantation at very low energies. Conventional beam line ion implantation system suffers from low beam current at low energies, therefore, cannot be used economically for high dose applications. Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is emerging as a potential technique for such implantations. This method offers high dose rate irrespective of implantation energy. In the present study nitrogen ions were implanted using PIII in order to modify the properties of silicon and some refractory metal films. Oxidation behaviour of silicon was observed for different implantation doses. Diffusion barrier properties of refractory barrier metals were studied for copper metallization.

  16. Doping of silicon carbide by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It appeared that in some fields, as the hostile environments (high temperature or irradiation), the silicon compounds showed limitations resulting from the electrical and mechanical properties. Doping of 4H and 6H silicon carbide by ion implantation is studied from a physicochemical and electrical point of view. It is necessary to obtain n-type and p-type material to realize high power and/or high frequency devices, such as MESFETs and Schottky diodes. First, physical and electrical properties of silicon carbide are presented and the interest of developing a process technology on this material is emphasised. Then, physical characteristics of ion implantation and particularly classical dopant implantation, such as nitrogen, for n-type doping, and aluminium and boron, for p-type doping are described. Results with these dopants are presented and analysed. Optimal conditions are extracted from these experiences so as to obtain a good crystal quality and a surface state allowing device fabrication. Electrical conduction is then described in the 4H and 6H-SiC polytypes. Freezing of free carriers and scattering processes are described. Electrical measurements are carried out using Hall effect on Van der Panw test patterns, and 4 point probe method are used to draw the type of the material, free carrier concentrations, resistivity and mobility of the implanted doped layers. These results are commented and compared to the theoretical analysis. The influence of the technological process on electrical conduction is studied in view of fabricating implanted silicon carbide devices. (author)

  17. Superadditivity in the implantation of molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the implantation of molecular ions in silicon. The molecular effect, i.e., the increase of the displacement yield compared with the sum of the atomic yields, is weak for light molecules (e.g., H2) and for heavy diatomic molecules (e.g., Sb2 and Bi2), but, for instance, it is strong for C6H6 at energy per atomic mass of the order of 1 keV/amu. Binary collision calculations are used to give a pictorial view of the phenomena occurring along the ion path, and to predict superadditivity and damage columnarity. The increase of pressure and temperature to extreme conditions by implantation of molecular ions is discussed

  18. Modification of mechanical properties through ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatigue, internal friction, and cavitation-erosion properties of plain steel, containing 0.18 wt.% carbon (AISI 1018), have been modified by implantation with nitrogen molecules of 150 KeV energy. It is suggested that these phenomena are related to the interactions of the implant with dislocations. Specifically, room temperature, high-cycle fatigue-lifetime can be significantly extended when the implanted specimens are aged for times sufficiently long to enable interstitial migration to and association with near-surface dislocations. Acoustically-induced cavitation-erosion behavior in distilled water at ambient temperature is also found to be improved by implantation. The role played by interstitial-dislocation association in improving these properties is examined with ultra-high sensitive internal friction and with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Such experiments are aiding in an elucidation of the fate of the implanted nitrogen in body-centered cubic steels. These preliminary results indicate the potential applications of ion implantation for the improvement of surface-related mechanical properties. (author)

  19. Ballistic self-annealing during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation conditions are considered during which the energy, dissipated in the collision cascades, is low enough to ensure that the defects, which are generated during these collisions, consist primarily of vacancies and interstitial atoms. It is proposed that ballistic self-annealing is possible when the point defect density becomes high enough, provided that none, or very few, of the interstitial atoms escape from the layer being implanted. Under these conditions, the fraction of ballistic atoms, generated within the collision cascades from substitutional sites, decreases with increasing ion dose. Furthermore, the fraction of ballistic atoms, which finally end up within vacancies, increases with increasing vacancy density. Provided the crystal structure does not collapse, a damage threshold should be approached where just as many atoms are knocked out of substitutional sites as the number of ballistic atoms that fall back into vacancies. Under these conditions, the average point defect density should approach saturation. This model is applied to recently published Raman data that have been measured on a 3 MeV He+-ion implanted diamond (Orwa et al 2000 Phys. Rev. B 62 5461). The conclusion is reached that this ballistic self-annealing model describes the latter data better than a model in which it is assumed that the saturation in radiation damage is caused by amorphization of the implanted layer. (author)

  20. The emission spectra of TL produced by ion implanted CaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth doping of CAF2 produces material which gives strong thermoluminescence signals. In an attempt to separate the influence of impurity and intrinsic defects CaF2 has been implanted with ions of Ce, Dy, Mn, Ca and F. Comparisons are made with chemically doped samples and the effect of thermal treatments have been made in all cases. The cerium and dysprosium ions influence both the shallow charge trapping levels, which determine the temperature of the glow peaks, and the recombination sites which control the photon spectra. After implantation the strong TL signals show emission at wavelengths near 360 nm for Ce, 480 nm for Dy and for Mn. Re-excitation of the trapping levels reveals selective emission for some defects, restructuring of less stable defects and major changes in defect concentrations with thermal treatment. The effects of the impurity and intrinsic defects on the spectra are discussed. One major observation is that addition of cerium to 'pure' samples does not enhance the TL sensitivity, whereas Dy and Mn both show new glow peaks. In the case of Dy it is thought that the charge trap and the luminescent site are directly linked within one complex defect. (author)

  1. Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P2+ [8.6 pmA (particle milliampere)], P3+ (1.9 pmA), and P4+ (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb3+Sb4+, Sb5+, and Sb6+ respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources

  2. Silver ion catalyzed cerium(IV) mediated electrochemical oxidation of phenol in nitric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) is one of the sustainable processes for organic pollutant destruction and has been employed for organic mineralization reactions by many researchers. In the MEO a metal ion capable of exhibiting redox behavior is oxidized from lower oxidation state to higher oxidation state by an electrochemical cell and subsequently used as an oxidant for mineralizing the toxic organics into CO2 and water. The net result is the consumption of electrical energy for organic mineralization. Therefore, the current efficiency is an important factor and maximizing the current efficiency is one of the ways of reducing the running cost of the MEO process. It has been reported in the literature that the current efficiency could be increased using a metal ion catalyst having a good redox potential. In this study Ce(IV) mediated electrochemical oxidation of phenol was carried out with silver ion catalyst. The current efficiency for the electro-oxidation of cerium(III) in nitric acid was found to be increased by the addition of silver ions. This mixed mediator system was tested for the oxidation of phenol in order to optimize the parameters for organic pollutant destruction. The mineralization efficiency calculated based on the CO2 evolution was found to be higher for silver catalyzed Ce(IV) mediated oxidation compared to the non-silver catalyzed system

  3. Improved ion implant fluence uniformity in hydrogen enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation into silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J.; Li, L. H.; Liu, H. T.; Yu, K. M.; Xu, Y.; Zuo, X. J.; Zhu, P. Z.; Ma, Y. F.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-06-01

    Enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation does not require an external plasma source but ion focusing affects the lateral ion fluence uniformity, thereby hampering its use in high-fluence hydrogen ion implantation for thin film transfer and fabrication of silicon-on-insulator. Insertion of a metal ring between the sample stage and glass chamber improves the ion uniformity and reduces the ion fluence non-uniformity as the cathode voltage is raised. Two-dimensional multiple-grid particle-in-cell simulation confirms that the variation of electric field inside the chamber leads to mitigation of the ion focusing phenomenon and the results are corroborated experimentally by hydrogen forward scattering.

  4. Development of ion sources for implantation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation for modification of surface properties of large areas requires ion sources of a particular type. The sources must be capable of producing rather high currents within somewhat poor vacuum conditions. Two types of source are typically used, the glow discharge and the vacuum arc. This paper describes both types. The glow discharge source has a low discharge voltage to minimize beam contamination from metal ions sputtered from the source chamber. To maintain the discharge, electrons are injected from outside the source chamber. The glow discharge source will generate up to 20 mA beam currents. The vacuum arc sources have the advantage of producing high currents of metal ions using a penning discharge. Metal ion currents up to 70 mA are mentioned

  5. Experimental investigation of ion-implanted magnetic recording material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure changes in ion implanted Permalloy have been observed by reflection high energy electron diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. Amorphous phase and metal compound are formed in the surface layer. The magnetic property, mechanical property and surface roughness of the ion implanted samples and frequency response of the ion implanted magnetic head have been measured. The experimental results show that the hardening layer could be formed on the surface of an implanted sample without any degradation of the magnetic property

  6. Ion beam sputter implantation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of ion beam atomizing or sputtering an integrally composed coating, the composition of which continuously changes from 100% of the substrate to 100% of the coating, can be surfaced on a substrate (e.g. molten quartz on plastic lenses). In order to do this in the facility there is directed a primary beam of accelerated noble gas ions on a target from the group of the following materials: SiO2, Al2O3, Corning Glass 7070, Corning Glass 7740 or borosilicate glass. The particles leaving the target are directed on the substrate by means of an acceleration potential of up to 10 KV. There may, however, be coated also metal layers (Ni, Co) on a mylar film resulting in a semireflecting metal film. (RW)

  7. Accelerating degradation rate of pure iron by zinc ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Pure iron has been considered as a promising candidate for biodegradable implant applications. However, a faster degradation rate of pure iron is needed to meet the clinical requirement. In this work, metal vapor vacuum arc technology was adopted to implant zinc ions into the surface of pure iron. Results showed that the implantation depth of zinc ions was about 60 nm. The degradation rate of pure iron was found to be accelerated after zinc ion implantation. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the implanted zinc ions brought a slight increase on cytotoxicity of the tested cells. In terms of hemocompatibility, the hemolysis of zinc ion implanted pure iron was lower than 2%. However, zinc ions might induce more adhered and activated platelets on the surface of pure iron. Overall, zinc ion implantation can be a feasible way to accelerate the degradation rate of pure iron for biodegradable applications. PMID:27482462

  8. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J. [Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain); Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Universidad de Oviedo, Departamento Quimica Fisica y Analitica (Spain); Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain)

    2012-11-06

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  9. Ion implantation applied to fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation and microanalysis have been used to investigate plasma-surface interactions relevant to fusion applications. Previous results for pure metals are reviewed and current results are presented for TiB2 and B4C coatings for tokamak surfaces. Enhanced trapping of implanted, low-energy hydrogen has been shown to occur at room temperature in W, Au, Pd, Mo, Nb, TiB2, and B4C for He or other ion predamage. Hydrogen depth profiles obtained using 1H(19F, αγ)16O resonant nuclear reaction show that the H decorates the He damage profiles at traps whose concentration is proportional to the amount of He-induced damage

  10. Structural and antibacterial activity of hydroxyapatite and fluorohydroxyapatite co-substituted with zirconium-cerium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Vijayalakshmi; Raja, C. Ramachandra

    2016-02-01

    The effect of zirconium (Zr) and cerium (Ce) ions co-substituted in hydroxyapatite (HA) and fluorohydroxyapatite (FHA), by sol-gel method, is reported in this technical article. Addition of Zr4+ and Ce3+ ions into HA and FHA reportedly transforms t-ZrO2 (tetragonal) to m-ZrO2 (monoclinic) phases resulting in HA/CSZ (Ce-stabilized zirconia) composites which improves the toughness of the materials widely used in biomedical applications. Samples with compositions 5Zr/5Ce-HA, 5Zr/5Ce-FHA, 40Zr/XCe-FHA (where X = 5, 10 and 20 mol% of Ce ions) were prepared and calcined at 800 °C. Incorporation of Ce ion stabilizes the zirconia, and fluorine ion improves thermal stability. Crystallite size, crystallinity and presence of m-ZrO2 and t-ZrO2 phases were analysed by XRD. The FTIR spectrum confirmed the presence of Zr-O stretching band. SEM reveals agglomerated spherical particles of 50-300 nm size, and ionic doping on HA was analysed through EDAX. The TG/DSC curves confirmed the formation of m-ZrO2 and t-ZrO2 phases and thermal stability of the samples. Higher concentrations of Zr and Ce ions in FHA resulted in reduction in crystallite size. The antibacterial activities of the samples were evaluated against the micro-organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli exhibiting a inhibition zone diameter as 42 and 37 mm, respectively, for 40Zr/20Ce-FHA.

  11. Damage accumulation in ceramics during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damage structures of α-Al2O3 and α-SiC were examined as functions of ion implantation parameters using Rutherford backscattering-channeling, analytical electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Low temperatures or high fluences of cations favor formation of the amorphous state. At 3000K, mass of the bombarding species has only a small effect on residual damage, but certain ion species appear to stabilize the damage microstructure and increase the rate of approach to the amorphous state. The type of chemical bonding present in the host lattice is an important factor in determining the residual damage state

  12. Nanoindentation of ion-implanted crystalline germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most indentation studies to date on crystalline germanium (c-Ge) and related covalent semiconductors have been carried out on pristine defect-free material. This paper addresses the paucity of studies on imperfect crystalline materials by exploring the impact of defects generated by ion implantation, prior to contact damage, upon the mechanical properties of c-Ge. Implantation with Ge ions is carried out to generate a layer of highly defective but still-crystalline Ge. Under nanoindentation with a sharp diamond tip, enhanced plasticity is observed relative to pristine material. Characterization by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and load curve analysis shows softening, quasiductile extrusion, and cracking suppression taking place. These changes can be explained by the high density of defects, and dangling bonds in particular, created by ion implantation and revealed by positron-annihilation spectroscopy, and are proportional to the fraction of 'missing bonds' or vacancies in the material. A thermal annealing step at 200 deg. C is sufficient to restore the mechanical response of pristine material, despite incomplete recovery of the original pristine crystal structure.

  13. Ion implantation effects in crystalline quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantilever beam measurements of the stress induced in crystalline quartz by implantation of 150 keV Ar and/or 250 keV He have shown that the data scale with energy into collisional processes. The damage state induced by the Ar implants does not lend itself to efficient utilization of the electronic component of subsequent He implantation in producing further disorder. The damage depth has been measured (optically) for a number of ions (1x1016 250 keV/cm2) and has been found to vary (relative to TRIM values) from about 0.63Rp for He to about 1.84Rp for Xe. RBS measurements of range for Ar to Au give values in fair agreement with the optical values. The ratio of the measured (optical) ranges to the predicted (TRIM) ranges, when plotted as a function of collisional energy deposition, indicates that extended damage (beyond ion range) occurs for deposition energies > ∝ 1x1022 keV/cm3. The damage persists even after 900degC anneals. The effects of ion-induced stress may be an important factor in the establishment of the extended damage state. (orig.)

  14. Lithium ion implantation effects in MgO (100)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huis, MA; Fedorov, AV; van Veen, A; Labohm, F; Schut, H; Mijnarends, PE; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM; Triftshauser, W; Kogel, G; Sperr, P

    2001-01-01

    Single crystals of MgO (100) were implanted with 10(16) (6)Li ions cm(-2) at an energy of 30 keV. After ion implantation the samples were annealed isochronally in air at temperatures up to 1200K. After implantation and after each annealing step, the defect evolution was monitored with optical absorp

  15. Surface analysis of antithrombogenic ion-implanted silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical and physical structure of ion-implanted silicone rubbers has been studied with regard to blood compatibility such as the reduction of platelet accumulation owing to ion implantation. In particular, the accumulation ratio of platelets in the superior vena cava revealed that O2+ (1x1017 ions/cm2) implantation was most effective in reducing platelet accumulation. H2+, He+, C+, O+, O2+, N+, N2+, Ne+, Na+, Ar+, K+, and Kr+ ion implantations were performed at an energy of 150 keV with fluences between 1x1017 and 2x1017 ions/cm2 at room temperature. Results of FT-IR-ATR showed that ion implantation broke the original chemical bond to form new radicals such as OH, ....C=O, SiH, and CH2. The formation of these radicals depended on the ion species employed: ....C=O formation by O+ or O2+ implantation and formation of amines by N+ or N2+ implantation. The results of Raman spectroscopy showed that ion implantation always produced a peak at near 1500 cm-1, although the intensity of this peak was dependent on the ion species. The light ions like H2+ and He+ were more effective than heavy ions in producing this peak, and O2+ implantation was the most effective at producing amorphous carbon. These results indicated that ....C=O and amorphous carbon, generated by O2+ implantation, may improve the antithrombogenicity. (orig.)

  16. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, A., E-mail: hershcovitch@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Seleznev, D. N.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Dugin, S.; Alexeyenko, O. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation State Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C{sub 4}H{sub 12}B{sub 10}O{sub 4}) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH{sub 3} = P{sub 4} + 6H{sub 2}; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  17. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N., E-mail: Nbk-Takahashi@shi.co.jp; Murata, H.; Kitami, H.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Soga, T.; Aoki, Y.; Katoh, T. [Technology Research Center, Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P{sup +} beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P{sup +} beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH{sub 3} gas.

  18. Hydrothermal treatment and strontium ion sorption properties of fibrous cerium(IV) hydrogenphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibrous cerium hydrogenphosphate, CeP, has been treated hydrothermally in 1 mol dm-3 phosphoric acid solution. CEP and its hydrothermally treated product, CeP(HT), have been characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, solid-state 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, chemical and thermal analyses. A poorly crystalline fibrous CeP with a d-spacing of 1.1 nm converted into a highly crystalline CeP(HT) with platelet morphology by hydrothermal treatment. Solid-state 31P MAS NMR and FTIR measurements confirmed that one kind of phosphate (H2PO4) is present in CeP and two kinds of phosphate (HPO4, PO4) are present in CeP(HT), in which the integrated intensity ratio of HPO4 to PO4 is 2:1. From chemical and thermal analyses, structural formulae for CeP and CeP(HT) are assumed to be CeO(H2PO4)2 ·2H2O and Ce(HPO4)(PO4)0.5, respectively. The Na+ exchange capacity of CeP amounted to 4.5 mmol g-1 at pH 11 while that of CeP(HT) was less than 1.0 mmol g-1 in the pH range 2-12. The pH dependence of the metal ion distribution coefficients exhibited ideal ion-exchange behaviour on CeP while metal ion distribution coefficients on CeP(HT) scarcely depended on pH. The metal ion selectivities of CeP and CeP(HT) increased in the order: Na+2+2++, and Na++2+2+, respectively. The distribution coefficient for the Sr2+ ion of CeP(HT) was higher than that of CeP under hydrothermal conditions. (Author)

  19. The effect of surface implantation of yttrium and cerium upon the oxidation behaviour of stainless steels and aluminized coatings at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessments have been carried out on the extent to which the oxidation resistance of metals at high temperatures can be improved by surface implantation with yttrium or cerium. The elements were implanted to a concentration of 0.2 to 0.8%, to a depth of 0.2 μm. Yttrium implantation reduced the magnitude of oxidation and oxide spallation for a 20% Cr/25% Ni/Nb steel in carbon dioxide, at 800 to 8500C. The benefits approached those from a comparable yttrium alloy addition. The oxidation behaviour of a 15% Cr/4% Al steel, in air and carbon dioxide, at 1100 to 12000C, was improved markedly by a 0.86% yttrium alloy addition but yttrium implantation into the steel was without significant influence. The oxidation behaviour of aluminized coatings on three nickel based alloys in air, at 11000C, was also unaffected by implantations of either yttrium or cerium. The mechanisms associated with the results are discussed in detail. (author)

  20. Conditioning of inorganic ion exchangers based on cerium (IV) antimonate in cement matrix. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of inorganic adsorbents for treatment of aqueous radioactive waste has many advantages; namely; better resistance to chemical action, thermal stability, compatibility with immobilization matrices and resistance to radiation. Inorganic ion exchangers process many properties which make them more suitable for rad waste treatment than organic exchange resins. Inorganic ion exchange materials can be immobilized using cement matrix to obtain good solidified waste form. In this work, the removal of radioactive nuclides from radioactive waste is carried out by chemical in-situ precipitation. The addition of cerium (IV) antimonate (cesb) to cement mixture enhances the compressive strength more than plain cement. Waste package containing cesb increased the compressive strength relative to original ordinary portland cement (OPC) matrix for waste products immersed in tap water for one month. The compressive strength increases in the order; st Ce Sb> mix Ce Sb> Na Ce Sb> Co Ce Sb> Cs Ce Sb> OPC> Eu Ce Sb> Ce Sb; (mix refers to all the radionuclides used here). The cumulative leached fractions of 60 Co and 134 Cs decreased for solidified waste products containing Ce Sb in comparison to plain cement. 2 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Paramagnetism in ion-implanted oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Mølholt, Torben Esmann; Gíslason, Hafliði Pétur; Ólafsson, Sveinn

    This thesis describes the investigation on para-magnetism in dilute ion-implanted single-crystal oxide samples studied by on- and off-line $^{57}$Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy. The ion-implantation of the radioactive isotopes ( $^{57}$Mn and $^{57}$Co) was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The off-line measurements were performed at Aarhus University, Denmark. Mössbauer spectroscopy is a unique method, giving simultaneously local information on valence/spin state of the $^{57}$Fe probe atoms, site symmetry and magnetic properties on an atomic scale. The utilisation of emission Mössbauer spectroscopy opens up many new possibilities compared with traditional transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy. Among them is the possibility of working with a low concentration below 10$^{-4}$ –10$^{-3}$ at.%, where the implanted Mössbauer $^{57}$Fe probes are truly dilute impurities exclusively interacting with their nearest neighbours and therefore the possibility of crea...

  2. Biodegradable radioactive implants for glaucoma filtering surgery produced by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: walter.assmann@lmu.de; Schubert, M. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Held, A. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Pichler, A. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Chill, A. [Zentralinstitut fuer Medizintechnik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kiermaier, S. [Zentralinstitut fuer Medizintechnik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schloesser, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Busch, H. [NTTF GmbH, 53619 Rheinbreitbach (Germany); Schenk, K. [NTTF GmbH, 53619 Rheinbreitbach (Germany); Streufert, D. [Acri.Tec GmbH, 16761 Hennigsdorf (Germany); Lanzl, I. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    A biodegradable, {beta}-emitting implant has been developed and successfully tested which prevents fresh intraocular pressure increase after glaucoma filtering surgery. Ion implantation has been used to load the polymeric implants with the {beta}-emitter {sup 32}P. The influence of ion implantation and gamma sterilisation on degradation and {sup 32}P-fixation behavior has been studied by ion beam and chemical analysis. Irradiation effects due to the applied ion fluence (10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}) and gamma dose (25 kGy) are found to be tolerable.

  3. Biodegradable radioactive implants for glaucoma filtering surgery produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biodegradable, β-emitting implant has been developed and successfully tested which prevents fresh intraocular pressure increase after glaucoma filtering surgery. Ion implantation has been used to load the polymeric implants with the β-emitter 32P. The influence of ion implantation and gamma sterilisation on degradation and 32P-fixation behavior has been studied by ion beam and chemical analysis. Irradiation effects due to the applied ion fluence (1015 ions/cm2) and gamma dose (25 kGy) are found to be tolerable

  4. Biodegradable radioactive implants for glaucoma filtering surgery produced by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, W.; Schubert, M.; Held, A.; Pichler, A.; Chill, A.; Kiermaier, S.; Schlösser, K.; Busch, H.; Schenk, K.; Streufert, D.; Lanzl, I.

    2007-04-01

    A biodegradable, β-emitting implant has been developed and successfully tested which prevents fresh intraocular pressure increase after glaucoma filtering surgery. Ion implantation has been used to load the polymeric implants with the β-emitter 32P. The influence of ion implantation and gamma sterilisation on degradation and 32P-fixation behavior has been studied by ion beam and chemical analysis. Irradiation effects due to the applied ion fluence (1015 ions/cm2) and gamma dose (25 kGy) are found to be tolerable.

  5. Wear properties of metal ion implanted 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AISI type 4140 (high tensile) steel has been implanted with tungsten and titanium using a metal vapour vacuum arc ion source. Doses in the range (1-5)x1016ionscm-2 were implanted to a depth of approximately 30nm. The relative wear resistance between non-implanted and implanted specimens has been estimated using pin-on-disc and abrasive wear tests. Implantation of titanium decreased the area of wear tracks by a factor of 5 over unimplanted steel. In some cases the steel was also hardened by a liquid carburization treatment before implantation. Abrasion tests revealed a further improvement in wear resistance on this material following ion irradiation. ((orig.))

  6. Surface modification of yttria stabilized zirconia by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of investigations of surface modification by ion implantation in zirconia are described. As dopant material, iron was investigated thoroughly. The depth distribution of implanted ions depends on implantation parameters and the dopant-matrix system. The investigations of thermal stability of some implanted iron profiles by RBS and AES are described. Special interest lies in the thermal stability under working conditions of the zirconia material (400-10000C). Radiation damage introduced in the implanted layer was investigated using transmission electron microscopy on polycrystalline material and channeling experiments on a single crystal implanted with iron. 179 refs.; 87 figs.; 20 tabs

  7. Studying of ion implantation effect on the biology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since low energy ion effect on the biology was observed, the ion implantation as a new mutagenic source has been widely used in improving crops and modifying microbes in China. The basic phenomenon of ion implantation effect on the biology and analytical results are reported, and the examples of its application and its further development are shown

  8. Computational stochastic model of ions implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmievskaya, Galina I., E-mail: zmi@gmail.ru; Bondareva, Anna L., E-mail: bal310775@yandex.ru [M.V. Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics RAS, 4,Miusskaya sq., 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation); Levchenko, Tatiana V., E-mail: tatlevchenko@mail.ru [VNII Geosystem Russian Federal Center, Varshavskoye roadway, 8, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maino, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.maino@enea.it [Scuola di Lettere e BeniCulturali, University di Bologna, sede di Ravenna, via Mariani 5, 48100 Ravenna (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    Implantation flux ions into crystal leads to phase transition /PT/ 1-st kind. Damaging lattice is associated with processes clustering vacancies and gaseous bubbles as well their brownian motion. System of stochastic differential equations /SDEs/ Ito for evolution stochastic dynamical variables corresponds to the superposition Wiener processes. The kinetic equations in partial derivatives /KE/, Kolmogorov-Feller and Einstein-Smolukhovskii, were formulated for nucleation into lattice of weakly soluble gases. According theory, coefficients of stochastic and kinetic equations uniquely related. Radiation stimulated phase transition are characterized by kinetic distribution functions /DFs/ of implanted clusters versus their sizes and depth of gas penetration into lattice. Macroscopic parameters of kinetics such as the porosity and stress calculated in thin layers metal/dielectric due to Xe{sup ++} irradiation are attracted as example. Predictions of porosity, important for validation accumulation stresses in surfaces, can be applied at restoring of objects the cultural heritage.

  9. Computational stochastic model of ions implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implantation flux ions into crystal leads to phase transition /PT/ 1-st kind. Damaging lattice is associated with processes clustering vacancies and gaseous bubbles as well their brownian motion. System of stochastic differential equations /SDEs/ Ito for evolution stochastic dynamical variables corresponds to the superposition Wiener processes. The kinetic equations in partial derivatives /KE/, Kolmogorov-Feller and Einstein-Smolukhovskii, were formulated for nucleation into lattice of weakly soluble gases. According theory, coefficients of stochastic and kinetic equations uniquely related. Radiation stimulated phase transition are characterized by kinetic distribution functions /DFs/ of implanted clusters versus their sizes and depth of gas penetration into lattice. Macroscopic parameters of kinetics such as the porosity and stress calculated in thin layers metal/dielectric due to Xe++ irradiation are attracted as example. Predictions of porosity, important for validation accumulation stresses in surfaces, can be applied at restoring of objects the cultural heritage

  10. Mutagenesis of Arabidopsis Thaliana by N+ Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genfa; Shi, Xiaoming; Nie, Yanli; Jiang, Shan; Zhou, Hongyu; Lu, Ting; Zhang, Jun

    2006-05-01

    Ion implantation, as a new biophysically mutagenic technique, has shown a great potential for crop breeding. By analyzing polymorphisms of genomic DNA through RAPD-based DNA analysis, we compared the frequency and efficiency of somatic and germ-line mutations of Arabidopsis thaliana treated with N+ ion implantation and γ-rays radiation. Our data support the following conclusions: (1) N+ ion implantation can induce a much wider spectrum of mutations than γ-rays radiation does; (2) Unlike the linear correlation between the doses and their effect in γ-rays radiation, the dose-effect correlation in N+ ion implantation is nonlinear; (3) Like γ-rays radiation, both somatic and germ-line mutations could be induced by N+ ion implantation; and (4) RAPD deletion patterns are usually seen in N+ ion implantation induced mutation.

  11. Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diener, M.D.; Alford, J. M.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2007-05-31

    The empty interior cavity of fullerenes has long been touted for containment of radionuclides during in vivo transport, during radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and radioimaging for example. As the chemistry required to open a hole in fullerene is complex and exceedingly unlikely to occur in vivo, and conformational stability of the fullerene cage is absolute, atoms trapped within fullerenes can only be released during extremely energetic events. Encapsulating radionuclides in fullerenes could therefore potentially eliminate undesired toxicity resulting from leakage and catabolism of radionuclides administered with other techniques. At the start of this project however, methods for production of transition metal and p-electron metal endohedral fullerenes were completely unknown, and only one method for production of endohedral radiofullerenes was known. They therefore investigated three different methods for the production of therapeutically useful endohedral metallofullerenes: (1) implantation of ions using the high intensity ion beam at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Surface Modification and Characterization Research Center (SMAC) and fullerenes as the target; (2) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following alpha decay; and (3) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following neutron capture, using ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as a thermal neutron source. While they were unable to obtain evidence of successful implantation using the ion beam at SMAC, recoil following alpha decay and neutron capture were both found to be economically viable methods for the production of therapeutically useful radiofullerenes. In this report, the procedures for preparing fullerenes containing the isotopes {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi, {sup 213}Bi, and {sup 177}Lu are described. None of these endohedral fullerenes had ever previously been prepared, and all of these radioisotopes are actively under investigation for RIT. Additionally, the chemistry for

  12. Improved tribology of tool steel by zirconium ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbas, N.; Oztarhan, A.; Monteiro, O.R.; Brown, I.G.

    2001-02-01

    AISI D3 tool steel was ion implanted with zirconium and the improvement in surface tribological properties investigated. The Zr ion implantation was done using a metal vapor vacuum arc broad-beam ion source, with a mean ion energy of 130 keV and at doses of 3.6 x 10(sup 16), 5 x 10(sup 16) and 1 x 10(sup 17) ions/cm2. Wear, friction and hardness of the implanted samples were measured and compared to the performance of unimplanted steel. The wear resistance was increased by about a factor of two, the friction remained about the same or was possibly increased by a small amount, and the hardness was improved by a factor of five or more by the ion implantation. We also investigated the effect on the Zr implantation profile of the multi-component energy distribution of the ion beam used here.

  13. PLEPS study of ions implanted RAFM steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojak, S.; Slugeň, V.; Egger, W.; Ravelli, L.; Petriska, M.; Veterníková, J.; Stacho, M.; Sabelová, V.

    2014-04-01

    Current nuclear power plants (NPP) require radiation, heat and mechanical resistance of their structural materials with the ability to stay operational during NPP planned lifetime. Radiation damage much higher, than in the current NPP, is expected in new generations of nuclear power plants, such as Generation IV and fusion reactors. Investigation of perspective structural materials for new generations of nuclear power plants is among others focused on study of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels. These steels have good characteristics as reduced activation, good resistance to volume swelling, good radiation, and heat resistance. Our experiments were focused on the study of microstructural changes of binary Fe-Cr alloys with different chromium content after irradiation, experimentally simulated by ion implantations. Fe-Cr alloys were examined, by Pulsed Low Energy Positron System (PLEPS) at FRM II reactor in Garching (Munich), after helium ion implantations at the dose of 0.1 C/cm2. The investigation was focused on the chromium effect and the radiation defects resistivity. In particular, the vacancy type defects (monovacancies, vacancy clusters) have been studied. Based on our previous results achieved by conventional lifetime technique, the decrease of the defects size with increasing content of chromium is expected also for PLEPS measurements.

  14. Biological Effects on Fruit Fly by N+ ion Beam Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mutation induced by low energy ion beam implantation has beenapplied widely both in plants and microbes. However, due to the vacuum limitation, such ion implantation into animals was never studied except for silkworm. In this study, Pupae of fruit fly were irradiated with different dosage N+ ions at energy 20 KeV to study the biological effect of ion beam on animal. The results showed a saddle-like curve exists between incubate rate and dosage. Damage of pupae by ion beam implantation was observed using scanning electron microscope. Some individuals with incomplete wing were obtained after implantation but no similar character was observed in their offspring. Furthermore, about 5.47% mutants with wide variation appeared in M1 generation. Therefore, ion beam implantation could be widely used for mutation breeding.

  15. The surface modification of diamond by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface modification of diamonds by ion implantation was studied by using Ar+, N2+, Zn+ and Cr+ ions. The surface layer of diamonds becomes conductive by ion implantation. The effect of ions implanted and the variation of crystal structure near surface were investigated. The ion implantation changes the color of the surface of diamonds to dark black and makes the surface layer amorphous. The distribution of implantet atoms in the surface layer was in good agreement with that estimated by the LSS theory, and the thickness of the amorphous layer was about 1.8 times of the depth of the maximum concentration. From this fact, the thickness of amorphous layer can be estimated from the LSS theory. The electric resistivity of the surface layer of diamonds decreased by the implantation of ions, and becomes a saturated value for the amount of implantation of 1 x 1016 ions/cm2. The saturated sheet resistivity was in inverse proportion to the thickness of amorphous layer. It was found that the resistivity of the produced amorphous layer was similar to that of the ordinary glassy carbon. The implanted metallic ions contributed to the electric conductivity of the matrix. The electro-chemical properties of ion-implanted diamonds were also studied. (Kato, T.)

  16. N-ion implantation assisted by preparative and closing implantation for surface modification of tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims at investigating the effect of auxiliary preparative and closing implantations in hardened tool steels on surface tribology modification. Samples of a martensitic tool steel, SKD11, are triply implanted with ions of N or Ar at higher energies, N at the normal energy, and N, BF and CO2 at lower energies. The ion implantations result in dramatic increases of hardness and wear resistance to the samples in comparison with single N-ion implantation and double ion implantation. Analysis of ion depth profiles and surface compositions and microstructures is performed to reveal the mechanisms. It can be concluded that the improvement of the mechanical properties can be attributed to the deepening in the ion penetration and the forming of compound covers at the near surface region

  17. N-ion implantation assisted by preparative and closing implantation for surface modification of tool steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilaithong, T.; Yu, L.D. E-mail: yuld@istrd.cmu.ac.th; Vichaisirimongkol, P.; Rujijanagul, G.; Sonkaew, T

    1999-01-02

    The study aims at investigating the effect of auxiliary preparative and closing implantations in hardened tool steels on surface tribology modification. Samples of a martensitic tool steel, SKD11, are triply implanted with ions of N or Ar at higher energies, N at the normal energy, and N, BF and CO{sub 2} at lower energies. The ion implantations result in dramatic increases of hardness and wear resistance to the samples in comparison with single N-ion implantation and double ion implantation. Analysis of ion depth profiles and surface compositions and microstructures is performed to reveal the mechanisms. It can be concluded that the improvement of the mechanical properties can be attributed to the deepening in the ion penetration and the forming of compound covers at the near surface region.

  18. Threshold voltage shift of mos transistors by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simple theory of the use of ion implantation of mos transistors to shift threshold voltage is outlined. Discrepancies between theory and practice are discussed. A modified model is proposed in which all implanted ions contribute to the threshold voltage shift irrespective of energy levels. (U.K.)

  19. Influence of Ro radiation upon ion-implanted MOS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of Ro radiation with defects in ion-implanted MOS structures is studied using the method of thermally stimulated charge release and C/V method. It is shown that preliminary treatment with Ro radiation decreases the temperature of thermal annealing of the radiation defects introduced by ion-implantation up to 4500C. (author)

  20. Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Bing-Xi [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Jiao, Yang [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Guan, Jing [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Wang, Lei [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2015-07-01

    The rutile single crystals were implanted by 200 keV He{sup +} ions with a series fluence and annealed at different temperatures to investigate the blistering behavior. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, optical microscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to characterize the implantation induced lattice damage and blistering. It was found that the blistering on rutile surface region can be realized by He{sup +} ion implantation with appropriate fluence and the following thermal annealing.

  1. Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bing-Xi; Jiao, Yang; Guan, Jing; Wang, Lei

    2015-07-01

    The rutile single crystals were implanted by 200 keV He+ ions with a series fluence and annealed at different temperatures to investigate the blistering behavior. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, optical microscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to characterize the implantation induced lattice damage and blistering. It was found that the blistering on rutile surface region can be realized by He+ ion implantation with appropriate fluence and the following thermal annealing.

  2. Effect of Rare Earth Element Cerium on Mechanical Properties and Morphology of TiN Coating Prepared by Arc Ion Plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄拿灿; 胡社军; 谢光荣; 曾鹏; 汝强

    2003-01-01

    TiN coatings were deposited on polished substrates of W18Cr4V high speed steel by means of vacuum arc ion plating. The effect of cerium on adhesion between TiN coating and substrate was studied. The microstructures and composition of TiN coatings were also investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. It was found that cerium is an effective modifying agent and the addition of suitable amount of cerium to TiN coatings can produce relatively excellent properties such as micro-hardness, wear resistance, oxidation resistance and porosity. The experimental results show that the added cerium in TiN coatings makes a contribution to form the preferred direction along with a (111) or (222) close packed face, which may be one of the reasons that improves some properties mentioned above.

  3. Plasma protein adsorption onto cell attachment controlled ion implanted collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation into collagen (Type I) coated inner surfaces of test tubes with a length of 50 mm and inner diameter of 2 and 3 mm were performed to develop hybrid type small-diameter artificial vascular grafts. He+ ion implanted collagen coated grafts with a fluence of 1x1014 ions/cm2 replacing femoral arteries exhibited excellent graft patency. To obtain information about the relationship between plasma protein adsorption and antithrombogenicity of ion implanted collagen surfaces, protein adsorption measurements, platelet adhesion test, and animal study were performed. The amount of fibrinogen, fibronectin and albumin showed minimum value at a fluence of 1x1014 ions/cm2. The adsorption of fibrinogen and fibronectin to surfaces is known to promote the adhesion of platelets. The results indicated that antithrombogenicity of He+ ion-implanted collagen with a fluence of 1x1014 ions/cm2 was caused by the reduction of the amount of adsorbed proteins

  4. Surface modification by ion implantation of 304 stainless steel, orthopedic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the wear and corrosion resistance as well as the hardness of 304 stainless steel (S S) from mechanical use, surface treatment derived from those applied in mechanical engineering industries were investigated. Surface characterization according to the different ion implantation showed that corrosion and wear resistances were strongly improved. In same way,microhardness was significantly increased after ion implantation

  5. In-situ deposition of sacrificial layers during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retained dose of implanted ions is limited by sputtering. It is known that a sacrificial layer deposited prior to ion implantation can lead to an enhanced retained dose. However, a higher ion energy is required to obtain a similar implantation depth due to the stopping of ions in the sacrificial layer. It is desirable to have a sacrificial layer of only a few monolayers thickness which can be renewed after it has been sputtered away. We explain the concept and describe two examples: (i) metal ion implantation using simultaneously a vacuum arc ion source and filtered vacuum arc plasma sources, and (ii) Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition (MePIIID). In MePIIID, the target is immersed in a metal or carbon plasma and a negative, repetitively pulsed bias voltage is applied. Ions are implanted when the bias is applied while the sacrificial layer suffers sputtering. Low-energy thin film deposition - repair of the sacrificial layer -- occurs between bias pulses. No foreign atoms are incorporated into the target since the sacrificial film is made of the same ion species as used in the implantation phase

  6. n-type chalcogenides by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark A; Fedorenko, Yanina; Gholipour, Behrad; Yao, Jin; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Gwilliam, Russell M; Homewood, Kevin P; Hinder, Steven; Hewak, Daniel W; Elliott, Stephen R; Curry, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Carrier-type reversal to enable the formation of semiconductor p-n junctions is a prerequisite for many electronic applications. Chalcogenide glasses are p-type semiconductors and their applications have been limited by the extraordinary difficulty in obtaining n-type conductivity. The ability to form chalcogenide glass p-n junctions could improve the performance of phase-change memory and thermoelectric devices and allow the direct electronic control of nonlinear optical devices. Previously, carrier-type reversal has been restricted to the GeCh (Ch=S, Se, Te) family of glasses, with very high Bi or Pb 'doping' concentrations (~5-11 at.%), incorporated during high-temperature glass melting. Here we report the first n-type doping of chalcogenide glasses by ion implantation of Bi into GeTe and GaLaSO amorphous films, demonstrating rectification and photocurrent in a Bi-implanted GaLaSO device. The electrical doping effect of Bi is observed at a 100 times lower concentration than for Bi melt-doped GeCh glasses. PMID:25376988

  7. Ion implantation inhibits cell attachment to glassy polymeric carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implantation of MeV gold, oxygen, carbon ions into GPC alters the surface topography of GPC and enhances the already strong tendency for cells to attach to GPC. We have shown that implantation of silver ions near the surface strongly inhibits cell growth on GPC. Both enhanced adhesion of and inhibition of cell growth are desirable improvements on cardiac implants that have long been successfully fabricated from biocompatible glassy polymeric carbon (GPC). In vitro biocompatibility tests have been carried out with model cell lines to demonstrate that ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of silver, as well as silver ion bombardment, can favorably influence the surface of GPC for biomedical applications

  8. Thin hydroxyapatite surface layers on titanium produced by ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, H; Bilger, G; Jones, D; Symietz, I

    2002-01-01

    In medicine metallic implants are widely used as hip replacement protheses or artificial teeth. The biocompatibility is in all cases the most important requirement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is frequently used as coating on metallic implants because of its high acceptance by the human body. In this paper a process is described by which a HAp surface layer is produced by ion implantation with a continuous transition to the bulk material. Calcium and phosphorus ions are successively implanted into titanium under different vacuum conditions by backfilling oxygen into the implantation chamber. Afterwards the implanted samples are thermally treated. The elemental composition inside the implanted region was determined by nuclear analysis methods as (alpha,alpha) backscattering and the resonant nuclear reaction sup 1 H( sup 1 sup 5 N,alpha gamma) sup 1 sup 2 C. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of HAp. In addition a first biocompatibility test was performed to compare the growing of m...

  9. Co-axial ECR plasma system for radioactive ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, M A [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Marion, F [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Stansfield, B [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Paynter, R W [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Sarkar, D [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Sarkissian, A [Plasmionique Inc., 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Terreault, B [INRS-EMT (Universite du Quebec), 1650 boul. Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2005-08-01

    A pulsed, co-axial electron cyclotron resonance (ECR, 2.45 GHz) plasma reactor was designed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of plasma-based radioactive ion implantation ({sup 32}P radioisotope). The geometry of the reactor was designed to produce an efficient implantation of cylindrical implants. Therefore, the reactor is cylindrical in shape, and is equipped with a cylindrical grid in a co-axial geometry. The plasma is created between the wall and the grid; the plasma surrounds the implant, allowing for a radial implantation. A 1 ms microwave pulse creates a plasma in argon, which sputters material from a radioactive cathode. A fraction of the radioisotopes is then ionized, and the ions are implanted into negatively biased metal samples. The plasma was characterized by means of electrostatic probes, giving spatial evaluations of the electron temperature, plasma potential and electron density. Titanium samples were implanted with {sup 32}P during a study that aimed at optimizing the position of the radioactive sputter cathode in the plasma. From an analysis of the distribution of the radioactive fragments, we deduce that the plasma potential has a marked effect on the ion trajectories. In particular, it provides a more uniform implantation distribution than one would otherwise expect. For plasma densities {approx}8 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}, implantation efficiencies as high as 1% are measured; this is about 100 times higher than conventional beam-line ion implantation.

  10. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1–10 mm2. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research

  11. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm2. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  12. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Seouk [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Won, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mswon@kbsi.re.kr [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Wook, E-mail: Seunglee@pusan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1–10 mm{sup 2}. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  13. Analysis of DNA modified by cerium (III, lanthanum (III and gadolinium (III ions by using of raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kohoutkova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanides are at the present group of heavy metals, which are at the centre of interest, especially because of their ability to interact with DNA and similarity with calcium(III ions, which play crucial role in many cell processes. On basis of DNA interactions, anti–cancerogenic potential is established. In our work, we were focused on interactions of chosen lanthanides – lanthanum, cerium and gadolinium – with DNA. Results of our experiments demonstrate ability of lanthanides to form DNA adducts.

  14. Multi-energy ion implantation from high-intensity laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutroneo Mariapompea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The laser-matter interaction using nominal laser intensity above 1015 W/cm2 generates in vacuum non-equilibrium plasmas accelerating ions at energies from tens keV up to hundreds MeV. From thin targets, using the TNSA regime, plasma is generated in the forward direction accelerating ions above 1 MeV per charge state and inducing high-ionization states. Generally, the ion energies follow a Boltzmann-like distribution characterized by a cutoff at high energy and by a Coulomb-shift towards high energy increasing the ion charge state. The accelerated ions are emitted with the high directivity, depending on the ion charge state and ion mass, along the normal to the target surface. The ion fluencies depend on the ablated mass by laser, indeed it is low for thin targets. Ions accelerated from plasma can be implanted on different substrates such as Si crystals, glassy-carbon and polymers at different fluences. The ion dose increment of implanted substrates is obtainable with repetitive laser shots and with repetitive plasma emissions. Ion beam analytical methods (IBA, such as Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS, elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE can be employed to analyse the implanted species in the substrates. Such analyses represent ‘off-line’ methods to extrapolate and to character the plasma ion stream emission as well as to investigate the chemical and physical modifications of the implanted surface. The multi-energy and species ion implantation from plasma, at high fluency, changes the physical and chemical properties of the implanted substrates, in fact, many parameters, such as morphology, hardness, optical and mechanical properties, wetting ability and nanostructure generation may be modified through the thermal-assisted implantation by multi-energy ions from laser-generated plasma.

  15. Study on organosilicon plasma polymers implanted by carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radeva, E; Yourukova, L; Kolentsov, K; Balabanov, S; Zhechev, D; Steflekova, V [Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Amov, B [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: eradeva@issp.bas.bg

    2008-05-01

    In the present work plasma polymer films obtained from hexamethyldisiloxane have been implanted by carbon ions at three different doses. The photoluminescent properties of the implanted polymers were investigated. The optical transmission of these polymer layers was investigated in the visible spectral region. Their electrical parameters were also measured. It was found that the resulting changes do not worsen the protective properties of the implanted polymer layer. The variations in the properties studied might be ascribed to the nanostructured carbon clusters formed on the polymer surface. The results obtained could form the basis for further optimization of the polymer structure by carbon ion implantation in view of applications in electroluminescent display structures.

  16. Theoretical investigations of the optical and EPR spectra for trivalent cerium and ytterbium ions in orthorhombic YF3 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Chen

    2016-09-01

    The optical spectra and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters (g factors and hyperfine structure constants A) for trivalent cerium and ytterbium ions in YF3 crystal with orthorhombic structure are investigated together by the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method (CDM). The obtained results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental ones. More importantly, two magnetically nonequivalent centers in YF3 crystal observed in EPR experiments are confirmed and ascribed to their specific positions in a unit cell by our calculations based on superposition model (SPM) analysis. Such identification of local sites with different magnetic properties would help us to understand not only the EPR spectra and magnetic susceptibility of other lanthanide ions doped in crystals with the same structure as YF3 but also the energy transfer scheme between two lanthanide ions occupying such two sites. All results are discussed carefully.

  17. Paramagnetic defects in multistage ion-implanted polyamide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing interest in the recent years in the ion implantation of polymer materials is due to the possibility of its using as a new materials for functional electronic and optic elements fabrication. The last investigations show that the ion implantation to polymer films allows to form a buried conductive layers and opens up the possibility for transistor-like devices creation. Therefore the necessity to estimate the correlation between the polymer structure transformation and optimal implantation regimes exist. Thin (40-50 μm) two-layer polymer films consisted of polyethylene and polyamide-6 are investigated. Implantation with boron ions to doses of 3*1016 cm-2 carried out into polyamide layer in multistage regimes with energies of 60, 80 and 100 keV. For first group of samples energies are increased from 60 to 100 keV for each subsequent stage. For second one - energies are decreased from stage to stage. The thick of radiation-damaged layer are estimated from TRIM-code calculation and experimental results on the boron ions ranges and amount of 500 nm for energy of 100 keV, 430 nm for 80 keV and 350 nm for 60 keV. It was found that the multistage implantation performed under conditions where the implantation energy increases from step to step results in the decrease of the paramagnetic centres concentration in the implanted layer and narrowing of the ESR linewidth. It can be inferred that under these implantation conditions the lattice-order of the polymer layer which ions pass repeatedly occurs. This restructurization being accompanied with the compensation of the terminated carbon bonds and strong exchange interaction between π-electrons in the implanted polymer. By contrast, the decrease in the ion energy during the implantation leads to the progressive accumulation of the paramagnetic centres in the implanted layers, i.e. the radicals produced in the earlier implantation steps do not exhibit serious degradation during the subsequent implantation. The

  18. Current capabilities and future needs for semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years the largest commercial application for particle accelerators has been semiconductor ion implantation. These tools differ from other accelerators in many respects. In particular they are automated to a very high degree and, in addition to technical performance requirements their success depends on other key metrics including productivity, availability and cost of ownership. These tools also operate with a large variety of species, four orders of magnitude of energy range and five orders of magnitude of dose range. The ion source is a key component of implanters with its own performance metrics that include beam current, lifetime, and materials cost. In this paper, we describe the primary applications for ion implantation and some of the beam line architectures that are used. We describe the ion source that has evolved for this application. Some key future challenges for implanter ion source development are also discussed.

  19. Plasma source ion implantation research at southwestern institute of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PSII-EX device and PSII-IM device for research and development of plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technology are described briefly. The functions, main technical specifications and properties of the devices are also discussed. After ion implantation by PSII, the improvements of the surface-mechanical properties (such as microhardness, wear-resistance, friction factor, biological compatibility, etc) for some materials, microanalysis and numerical simulation of modified layers of materials, the technical developments for the practical workpiece treatments and the preliminary experiments for plasma source ion implantation-enhanced deposition are introduced too. As last, the future work about PSII have been proposed

  20. Formation of intermetallic surface layers with high intensity ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ion implantation is an effective method to produce the intermetallic phases and for improving of surface properties of the construction materials. From the variety of the well-known methods, the high intensity ion implantation is the most attractive one, since it allows us to obtain in the target materials the ion ion-alloyed layers with the thickness several orders greater than the ion projected range. The increase of the thickness of ion-alloyed surface layers at high intensity implantation can be achieved by the means of controlled heating of target by the ion beam, as well as by the saturation of the surface layer by high concentrated ion beam, followed by radiation-stimulated diffusion. Now the task of obtaining of high intensity ion beams is successfully solved not only for the gas ions, but also for the metals ions. The new vacuum-arc beam and plasma flow source 'Raduga-5' has the opportunity to carry out the implantation of the conductive material ions in the high intensity mode. The high intensity ion implantation allows us to form in the surface layer the fine dispersed intermetallic phases in order to improve the wear resistance and the heat resistance of the metallic work pieces. In the present work, titanium was used as a target for ion implantation. Ion implantation of aluminum ions into titanium was carried out using the 'Raduga-5' ion source at the accelerating voltage 20 kV. The surface sputtering was compensated by plasma deposition of ions. The variation of the time of the ion implantation allowed us to change the dose of the implanted aluminium ions. The chemical and phase composition, as well as morphologic structure of the ion-alloyed surface layers were analyzed by the Auger spectroscopy and by the transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, the tests of the tribological and mechanical properties of the implanted materials have been carried out. It was found out that increasing of the dose of aluminum ions from 2.2·1017 up to

  1. Corrosion resistance behavior of nitrogen ion-implanted in tantalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Amir Hoshang; Hantehezadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Darabi, Elham

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on surface structure as well as resistance against tantalum corrosion. In this experiment, nitrogen ions which had energy of 30 keV and were in doses of 1 × 1017 to 9 × 1017 ions/cm2 were used. The X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for both the metallic analysis and the study of new structures having been created through the nitrogen ion implantation. Atomic force microscopy was also used to check the roughness variations prior to and also after the implantation phase. Moreover, the corrosion analysis apparatus was applied in order to compare resistance against tantalum corrosion in advance to and after the ion implantation. The results indicate that nitrogen ion implantation has a significant impact on increasing resistance against tantalum corrosion. After the corrosion test, the surface morphology of samples was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Also, the elemental composition is characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The purpose of this article is to obtain the perfect condition of the formation of tantalum corrosion resistance. The corrosion potential curves and roughness values obviously indicate that corrosion potential variations caused by the different doses of nitrogen ion bombardment are proportional to surface roughness in an inverse manner. The EDX analysis demonstrates the existence of the elemental composition of nitrogen ion implantation in the samples.

  2. Modification of medical metals by ion implantation of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Y. Z.; Xiong, G. Y.; Liang, H.; Raman, S.; He, F.; Huang, Y.

    2007-10-01

    The effect of copper ion implantation on the antibacterial activity, wear performance and corrosion resistance of medical metals including 317 L of stainless steels, pure titanium, and Ti-Al-Nb alloy was studied in this work. The specimens were implanted with copper ions using a MEVVA source ion implanter with ion doses ranging from 0.5 × 10 17 to 4 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 at an energy of 80 keV. The antibacterial effect, wear rate, and inflexion potential were measured as a function of ion dose. The results obtained indicate that copper ion implantation improves the antibacterial effect and wear behaviour for all the three medical materials studied. However, corrosion resistance decreases after ion implantation of copper. Experimental results indicate that the antibacterial property and corrosion resistance should be balanced for medical titanium materials. The marked deteriorated corrosion resistance of 317 L suggests that copper implantation may not be an effective method of improving its antibacterial activity.

  3. Iron ion implantation into C60 layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The soccer ball shaped carbon molecule consisting of 60 carbon atoms (C60, fullerene) was discovered in 1985. Since that time the fullerene has become intensively studied. This special molecule has much potential in medical care, biotechnology and nanotechnology. We are motivated to produce special type fullerenes, so called endohedral fullerenes (some alien atoms are encapsulated inside the fullerene cage). The spring of our motivation is that the Fe at C60 could be applied as a contrast material for MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) or microwave heat therapy. One way to make X at C60 is the surface production using an ECRIS (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source). An evaporated or preprepared fullerene layer is irradiated by ions to form a new material during the implantation. By this method several kinds of atomic species, such as Li, Na, K, Rb, Xe were encapsulated into the fullerenes. However evidence for the Fe at C60 has not been found yet. During the analysis of the irradiated samples three questions must be answered. 1. Are there iron atoms in the layer and where? 2. Does the iron bond to the fullerene? 3. How does the iron bond to the fullerene, inside or outside? Using different investigation tools, SNMS (Secondary Neural Mass Spectrometer), MALDI-TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight), XPS (Xray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) or HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography), all these questions could be clarified step by step. In this paper we made the first steps to answer the first question: fullerene layers irradiated by iron ion beam delivered by the ATOMKI-ECRIS have been analyzed by the ATOMKI-SNMS. The evaporated 90 - 120 nm thick fullerene layers on Si holder were irradiated by Fe5+ and Fe+ ion beams produced from Ferrocene vapor. Samples were irradiated with two different doses (5 1018 ion/cm3 and 1022 ion/cm3) at four ion energies (65 keV, 6.5 keV, 0.2 keV and two of these samples

  4. Cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation into Stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seeds of Stevia were implanted by 35∼150 keV nitrogen ion with various doses. The cytological effect on M1 was studied. The results showed that nitrogen ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with the increased with the increase of ion beam energy and dose. However, there was no significant linear regression relationship between ion dose and aberration rate. The cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation was lower than that of γ-rays

  5. Photochemical precipitation of thorium and cerium and their separation from other ions in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, M; Heyn, A H; Hoffman, M Z; Agarwal, R P

    1970-10-01

    Thorium was precipitated from homogeneous solution by exposing solutions of thorium and periodate in dilute perchloric acid to 253.7 nm radiation from a low-pressure mercury lamp. Periodate is reduced photochemically to iodate which causes the formation of a dense precipitate of the basic iodate of thorium(IV). The precipitate was redissolved, the iodate reduced, the thorium precipitated first as the hydroxide, then as the oxalate and ignited to the dioxide for weighing. Thorium(IV) solutions containing 8-200 mg of ThO(2) gave quantitative results with a standard deviation (s) of 0.2 mg. Separations from 25 mg each of iron, calcium, magnesium, 50 mg of yttrium and up to 500 mg of uranium(VI) were quantitative (s = 0.25 mg). Separations from rare earths, except cerium, were accomplished by using hexamethylenetetramine rather than ammonia for the precipitation of the hydroxide. Cerium(III) was similarly precipitated and converted into CeO(2) for weighing. Quantitative results were obtained for 13-150 mg of CeO(2) with a standard deviation of 0.2 mg. Separations from 200 mg of uranium were quantitative. Other rare earths and yttrium interfered seriously. The precipitates of the basic cerium(IV) and thorium iodates obtained are more compact than those obtained by direct precipitation and can be handled easily. Attempts to duplicate Suzuki's method for separating cerium from neodymium and yttrium were not successful. PMID:18960820

  6. Investigation of corrosion and ion release from titanium dental implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thin passive titanium dioxide, in its stoichiometric form, has a very high corrosion resistance, but the same conclusion can not be made on corrosion resistance of a surface which is not stoichiometrically titanium dioxide, or even a surface which is a composition of various elements and oxides. In practice, the implants available on the market have an oxide surface contaminated with other elements. The aim of this paper is to correlate clinical observations that show the deterioration of Ti made implants after certain period of insertion in the patients, and in vitro corrosion resistance of Ti implants with surface passive oxide layer. For this purpose, surface analysis of the retrieved failed implants were performed and in vivo animal experiments with relation to ion release from implants were done. Finally, on the basis of the clinical observation, in vivo animal test, and in vitro electrochemical corrosion test, a model is proposed to explain the corrosion and ion release from the Ti implant. (author)

  7. Bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainless steel disks were implanted with N+, O+ and SiF3+, respectively at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The surface properties of the implanted surfaces were analyzed, including surface chemical composition, surface topography, surface roughness and surface free energy. Bacterial adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, which frequently cause medical device-associated infections was evaluated under static condition and laminar flow condition. The effect of contact time, growth media and surface properties of the ion-implanted steels on bacterial adhesion was investigated. The experimental results showed that SiF3+-implanted stainless steel performed much better than N+-implanted steel, O+-implanted steel and untreated stainless steel control on reducing bacterial attachment under identical experimental conditions

  8. Bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Liu, Y.; Wang, C.; Wang, S.; Peng, N.; Jeynes, C.

    2007-08-01

    Stainless steel disks were implanted with N +, O + and SiF 3+, respectively at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The surface properties of the implanted surfaces were analyzed, including surface chemical composition, surface topography, surface roughness and surface free energy. Bacterial adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, which frequently cause medical device-associated infections was evaluated under static condition and laminar flow condition. The effect of contact time, growth media and surface properties of the ion-implanted steels on bacterial adhesion was investigated. The experimental results showed that SiF 3+-implanted stainless steel performed much better than N +-implanted steel, O +-implanted steel and untreated stainless steel control on reducing bacterial attachment under identical experimental conditions.

  9. Effects ofMeV ion implantation on metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au films on optically flat Pyrex glasses or MgO single crystals were implanted with Si, Ni and Au ions with ion energies from 0.75 to 3MeV and doses from of 5x1013 to 5x1016ionscm-2. The changes of their surfaces were investigated from measurements of the surface profiles and light reflection and/or scattering, and from observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After ion implantation the surface showed a depression. The depression increased with increasing dose and mass of implanted ions. The ion-implanted surface became smoother than that of the as-deposited one. The intensity of light scattering was decreased and a metallic brilliance was observed after the implantation. The depression and the morphology changes were caused by sputtering and grain growth. In the SEM observations, the implanted regions were contrasted with as-deposited regions as blacker in secondary electron images and as whiter in composition images of reflected electrons. The impurity level of the films appeared to diminish after the ion implantation. ((orig.))

  10. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braceras, Iñigo; Vera, Carolina; Ayerdi-Izquierdo, Ana; Muñoz, Roberto; Lorenzo, Jaione; Alvarez, Noelia; de Maeztu, Miguel Ángel

    2014-08-01

    Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40-80 keV), fluence (1-2 e17 ion/cm2) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted surfaces, without surface chemistry modification, are in the same range and that such modifications, in certain conditions, do have a statistically significant effect on bone tissue forming cell adhesion.

  11. Development of vertical compact ion implanter for gemstones applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation technique was applied as an effective non-toxic treatment of the local Thai natural corundum including sapphires and rubies for the enhancement of essential qualities of the gemstones. Energetic oxygen and nitrogen ions in keV range of various fluences were implanted into the precious stones. It has been thoroughly proved that ion implantation can definitely modify the gems to desirable colors together with changing their color distribution, transparency and luster properties. These modifications lead to the improvement in quality of the natural corundum and thus its market value. Possible mechanisms of these modifications have been proposed. The main causes could be the changes in oxidation states of impurities of transition metals, induction of charge transfer from one metal cation to another and the production of color centers. For these purposes, an ion implanter of the kind that is traditionally used in semiconductor wafer fabrication had already been successfully applied for the ion beam bombardment of natural corundum. However, it is not practical for implanting the irregular shape and size of gem samples, and too costly to be economically accepted by the gem and jewelry industry. Accordingly, a specialized ion implanter has been requested by the gem traders. We have succeeded in developing a prototype high-current vertical compact ion implanter only 1.36 m long, from ion source to irradiation chamber, for these purposes. It has been proved to be very effective for corundum, for example, color improvement of blue sapphire, induction of violet sapphire from low value pink sapphire, and amelioration of lead-glass-filled rubies. Details of the implanter and recent implantation results are presented

  12. Development of vertical compact ion implanter for gemstones applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Wijaikhum, A. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Bootkul, D., E-mail: mo_duangkhae@hotmail.com [Department of General Science (Gems and Jewelry), Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L.D.; Singkarat, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-08-15

    Ion implantation technique was applied as an effective non-toxic treatment of the local Thai natural corundum including sapphires and rubies for the enhancement of essential qualities of the gemstones. Energetic oxygen and nitrogen ions in keV range of various fluences were implanted into the precious stones. It has been thoroughly proved that ion implantation can definitely modify the gems to desirable colors together with changing their color distribution, transparency and luster properties. These modifications lead to the improvement in quality of the natural corundum and thus its market value. Possible mechanisms of these modifications have been proposed. The main causes could be the changes in oxidation states of impurities of transition metals, induction of charge transfer from one metal cation to another and the production of color centers. For these purposes, an ion implanter of the kind that is traditionally used in semiconductor wafer fabrication had already been successfully applied for the ion beam bombardment of natural corundum. However, it is not practical for implanting the irregular shape and size of gem samples, and too costly to be economically accepted by the gem and jewelry industry. Accordingly, a specialized ion implanter has been requested by the gem traders. We have succeeded in developing a prototype high-current vertical compact ion implanter only 1.36 m long, from ion source to irradiation chamber, for these purposes. It has been proved to be very effective for corundum, for example, color improvement of blue sapphire, induction of violet sapphire from low value pink sapphire, and amelioration of lead-glass-filled rubies. Details of the implanter and recent implantation results are presented.

  13. Development of vertical compact ion implanter for gemstones applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarasiri, S.; Wijaikhum, A.; Bootkul, D.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.; Singkarat, S.

    2014-08-01

    Ion implantation technique was applied as an effective non-toxic treatment of the local Thai natural corundum including sapphires and rubies for the enhancement of essential qualities of the gemstones. Energetic oxygen and nitrogen ions in keV range of various fluences were implanted into the precious stones. It has been thoroughly proved that ion implantation can definitely modify the gems to desirable colors together with changing their color distribution, transparency and luster properties. These modifications lead to the improvement in quality of the natural corundum and thus its market value. Possible mechanisms of these modifications have been proposed. The main causes could be the changes in oxidation states of impurities of transition metals, induction of charge transfer from one metal cation to another and the production of color centers. For these purposes, an ion implanter of the kind that is traditionally used in semiconductor wafer fabrication had already been successfully applied for the ion beam bombardment of natural corundum. However, it is not practical for implanting the irregular shape and size of gem samples, and too costly to be economically accepted by the gem and jewelry industry. Accordingly, a specialized ion implanter has been requested by the gem traders. We have succeeded in developing a prototype high-current vertical compact ion implanter only 1.36 m long, from ion source to irradiation chamber, for these purposes. It has been proved to be very effective for corundum, for example, color improvement of blue sapphire, induction of violet sapphire from low value pink sapphire, and amelioration of lead-glass-filled rubies. Details of the implanter and recent implantation results are presented.

  14. Reflectivity modification of polymethylmethacrylate by silicon ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of silicon ion implantation on the optical reflection of bulk polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was examined in the visible and near UV. A low-energy (30 and 50 keV) Si+ beam at fluences in the range from 1013 to 1017 cm-2 was used for ion implantation of PMMA. The results show that a significant enhancement of the reflectivity from Si+-implanted PMMA occurs at appropriate implantation energy and fluence. The structural modifications of PMMA by the silicon ion implantation were characterized by means of photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Formation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC) layer beneath the surface of the samples was established and the corresponding HAC domain size was estimated

  15. Investigations on the characterization of ion implanted hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradi, E.; Naidoo, S. R.; Erasmus, R. M.; Julies, B.; Derry, T. E.

    2013-07-01

    The effect of ion implantation on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is studied herein. We use boron as an ion of choice to introduce radiation damage into h-BN, at fluences ranging from 1 × 1014-1 × 1016 ions/cm2 and implantation energy ranges from 40 to 160 keV. The thermal dependence is also investigated by varying the annealing temperature from room temperature to 400 °C after implantation. Raman spectroscopy showed Raman active defects one of which is possibly related to the formation of cubic boron nitride nanocrystals (nc-BN) within the implanted range. The relationship of these defect induced Raman active peaks was investigated by varying the implantation parameters. The preliminary Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results also are reported briefly.

  16. Self-diffusion of ion-implanted tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracer self-diffusion studies with ion-implanted stable isotopes require a high fluence of implanted ions (>1015 ions/cm2) due to the natural tracer background concentration present in a sample. Such a high fluence leads to considerable implantation damage, where a large part of the tracer is immobilized and does not take place in the diffusion process. As a consequence, diffusion profiles are observed which cannot be described with Fick's second law. In this study, a set of differential equations is presented, describing the diffusion of implanted isotopes as a trap-limited process with a sink and a source term, where the tracer atoms form immobile complexes with implantation damage-induced defects. These equations are solved numerically for the example of nitrogen diffusion in amorphous Si-B-C-N ceramics in order to illustrate diffusivity determination. The results are compared to the analytical solution of Fick's second law

  17. Rolling contact fatigue life of ion-implanted GCr15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents an experimental research into the rooling contact fatigue life of GCr15 steel with Tix N, TiX N + Ag and Tix N + DLC layers ion-implanted using the plasma ion-implantation technology on a ball-rod style high-speed con tact fatigue tester, and concludes with test results that the fatigue life increases to varying degrees with Tix N, Tix N + Ag, and Tix N + DLC layers implanted, and increases 1.8 times with Tix N + Ag layer implanted, hairline cracks grow continuously into fatigue pits under the action of shear stress in the superficial layer of material, and ion-implantation acts to prevent initiation of cracks and slow down propagation of cracks.

  18. Software for goniometer control in the Triple Ion Implantation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, W.R.

    1994-02-01

    A computer program is described tat controls the goniometer employed in the ion scattering chamber of the Triple Ion Implantation Facility (TIF) in the Metals and Ceramics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Details of goniometer operation and its incorporation into the ion scattering setup specific to the TIF are also discussed.

  19. Improvement of tribological properties of titanium alloys by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of implantation regimes on mechanical and tribotechnical properties of surface layer of VT6 titanium alloy were studied. Interrupted beams Cu+ ions with 15 Hz frequency and 60 keV energy were used for implantation. After implantation of VT6 alloy samples the wearability rate of the polymer sample decreases almost by 3 times and the friction coefficient by 1.5 times

  20. Channel waveguides formed by ion implantation of PECVD grown silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low loss channel waveguides have been formed in silica-on-silicon by implantation with 5 MeV Si and Ge ions. In these experiments, the substrate was comprised of an undoped layer of silica (30 μm thick) which was grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The optical loss characteristics of the waveguides, as measured at both λ 1300 and 1550 nm, were independent of the implanted ion species. A minimum in the attenuation loss (α) of ∼0.10-0.20 dB/cm was obtained following both a pre-implant (1050oC) and a post-implant (400-500oC) anneal of the waveguides. The ability to produce a minimum in α by pre-implant annealing has been attributed to the thermally induced relaxation of the densified structure in the as-grown layer. Only a comparatively small degree of compaction was measured for Si-implanted samples which did not receive a pre-implant anneal. In contrast, the much larger degree of compaction in the pre-implant annealed samples was similar in magnitiude to that observed in fused silica. These are the first reported examples of ion-implanted waveguides using a substrate of silica grown by PECVD. (author)

  1. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braceras, Iñigo, E-mail: inigo.braceras@tecnalia.com [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Vera, Carolina; Ayerdi-Izquierdo, Ana [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Muñoz, Roberto [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Lorenzo, Jaione; Alvarez, Noelia [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Maeztu, Miguel Ángel de [Private Practice, P° San Francisco, 43 A-1°, 20400 Tolosa (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Titanium surfaces modified by inert ion implantation affect cell adhesion through modification of the nanotopography in the same dimensional range of that of human bone inorganic phases. - Highlights: • Inert ion implantation on Ti modifies surface nanotopography and bone cell adhesion. • Ion implantation can produce nanostructured surfaces on titanium in the very same range as of those of the mineral phase of the human bone. • Appropriate tool for studying the relevance of nanostructured surfaces on bone mineralization and implant osseointegration. • Ion implantation induced nanotopography have a statistically significant influence on bone cell adhesion. - Abstract: Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40–80 keV), fluence (1–2 e17 ion/cm{sup 2}) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted

  2. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Titanium surfaces modified by inert ion implantation affect cell adhesion through modification of the nanotopography in the same dimensional range of that of human bone inorganic phases. - Highlights: • Inert ion implantation on Ti modifies surface nanotopography and bone cell adhesion. • Ion implantation can produce nanostructured surfaces on titanium in the very same range as of those of the mineral phase of the human bone. • Appropriate tool for studying the relevance of nanostructured surfaces on bone mineralization and implant osseointegration. • Ion implantation induced nanotopography have a statistically significant influence on bone cell adhesion. - Abstract: Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40–80 keV), fluence (1–2 e17 ion/cm2) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted

  3. Caborane beam from ITEP Bernas ion source for semiconductor implanters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seleznev, D.; Hershcovitch, A.; Kropachev, G.; Kozlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Koshelev, V.; Kulevoy, T.; Jonson, B.; Poole, J.; Alexeyenko, O.; Gurkova, E.; Oks, E.; Gushenets, V.; Polozov, S.; Masunov, E.

    2010-02-01

    A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for hundreds of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past 5 years. The difficulties of extraction and transportation of low energy boron beams can be solved by implanting clusters of boron atoms. In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the Bernas ion source successfully generated the beam of decaborane ions. The carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ion beam is more attractive material due to its better thermal stability. The results of carborane ion beam generation are presented. The result of the beam implantation into the silicon wafer is presented as well.

  4. Industrial applications of ion implantation into metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern materials processing technique, ion implantation, has intriguing and attractive features that stimulate the imaginations of scientists and technologists. Success of the technique for introducing dopants into semiconductors has resulted in a stable and growing infrastructure of capital equipment and skills for use of the technique in the economy. Attention has turned to possible use of ion implantation for modification of nearly all surface related properties of materials - optical, chemical and corrosive, tribological, and several others. This presentation provides an introduction to fundamental aspects of equipment, technique, and materials science of ion implantation. Practical and economic factors pertaining to the technology are discussed. Applications and potential applications are surveyed. There are already available a number of ion-implanted products, including ball-and-roller bearings and races, punches-and-dies, injection screws for plastics molding, etc., of potential interest to the machine tool industry

  5. Industrial applications of ion implantation into metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    The modern materials processing technique, ion implantation, has intriguing and attractive features that stimulate the imaginations of scientists and technologists. Success of the technique for introducing dopants into semiconductors has resulted in a stable and growing infrastructure of capital equipment and skills for use of the technique in the economy. Attention has turned to possible use of ion implantation for modification of nearly all surface related properties of materials - optical, chemical and corrosive, tribological, and several others. This presentation provides an introduction to fundamental aspects of equipment, technique, and materials science of ion implantation. Practical and economic factors pertaining to the technology are discussed. Applications and potential applications are surveyed. There are already available a number of ion-implanted products, including ball-and-roller bearings and races, punches-and-dies, injection screws for plastics molding, etc., of potential interest to the machine tool industry.

  6. Structural, electrical and catalytic properties of ion-implanted oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Hassel, van, E Edwin; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The potential application of ion implantation to modify the surfaces of ceramic materials is discussed. Changes in the chemical composition and microstructure result in important variations of the electrical and catalytic properties of oxides.

  7. Electrical and structural characterization of ion implanted GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation induced defects and their consequent electrical impact have been investigated. Unintentionally doped n-type gallium nitride was implanted with 100 keV Si+ and 300 keV Ar+ ions in a fluence range of 1014-1015 ions/cm2. The samples were characterized with Rutherford backscattering/Channeling method for damage buildup. Time of flight elastic recoil detection analysis was implied on the Si implanted samples to see the ion depth distribution. Ar implanted GaN samples were studied electrically with scanning spreading resistance microscopy. Our results show that an Ar fluence of 5 x 1014 cm-2 increases the resistance by five orders of magnitude to a maximum value. For the highest fluence, 6 x 1015 cm-2, the resistivity decreases by two orders of magnitude.

  8. Ion-implanted GaAs slow wave monolithic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of MeV ion-implantation for realization of a GaAs monolithically compatible device is demonstrated. Ion implants up to 6 MeV in energy are used employing Si and S atoms. The fabricated device is an electromagnetic slow wave microstrip-like structure designed for performance into the millimeter wave regime. Phase shift theta and insertion loss L measurements are performed for frequencies 2-18 GHz at room temperature. Comparison of the experimental ion-implanted device results to epitaxial device results indicates comparable electrical performance, with no more than a 30% reduction in theta but with an improvement in loss behavior, namely a L reduction up to 40%. These theta and L differences between the ion-implanted and epitaxial devices are attributed to differences in doping profiles. Theoretical modelling of theta characteristics produces agreement with experimental data to within a few percent. (author)

  9. Low energy negative ion implanter facility at IUAC, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low energy negative ion implanter facility had been developed at IUAC. The typical ion energies of this facility are in the range of 30 KeV to 200 KeV. It is capable of delivering ion species having masses 1H to 197Au. The facility is equipped with a sputter base negative ion source namely MC- SNICS (multi cathode -source of negative ion by cesium sputtering) placed on a high voltage platform (200 kV) for generating negative ion beams. The beam line essentially consists of a negative ion source, an accelerating column, focusing devices such as electrostatic quadruple triplets, an analyzer magnet for selecting the particular ion beam as well as transporting in a particular direction and finally, an ion implantation chamber. The analyzer magnet has a maximum rigidity, R =mE/Z2 of 34 (where m- mass in a.m.u., E- energy in MeV, Z- charge state) thereby, it restricts the energies of the higher mass ions at 150 keV. The ion beam optics for this facility was calculated using GIOS and GICOSY software codes. The control system used for its operation is indigenously developed. The optimized or minimum ion beam spot size obtained is 5 mm x 5 mm (but, variable with ion energy and mass). An electrostatic scanner placed in front of the implantation chamber allows a uniform ion implantation on the samples of sizes up to 15 mm x 15 mm. The facility is in regular operation for ion implantation purposes especially for material science experiments. (author)

  10. Ion implantation of titanium alloys for improved fretting resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fretting is a major problem with titanium alloy aerospace components. A fretting apparatus was designed to generate low amplitude motions for testing of various flat and cylindrical geometries. Using it, ion-implanted coupons of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-Al alloys were compared for fretting performance against untreated specimens. Surface profilometry was used as the primary method of analytical evaluation. The ion implantation treatment provided improvements in fretting reduction. (orig.)

  11. Electrochemical investigation of ion implanted p-Si

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Adrian; Schmuki, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of selective electrochemical metal deposition on ion implanted p-Si. The idea is that defects introduced into the substrate by ion implantation make it more susceptible to electrochemical reactions compared to intact Si; this increased sensitivity is to be used for selective reactions at the defect sites. It is believed that the increased reactivity is due to a lowering of the Schottky barrier breakdown potential, Ubd, of the semiconductor-electro...

  12. Electrochemical investigation of ion implanted p-Si

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of selective electrochemical metal deposition on ion implanted p-Si. The idea is that defects introduced into the substrate by ion implantation make it more susceptible to electrochemical reactions compared to intact Si; this increased sensitivity is to be used for selective reactions at the defect sites. It is believed that the increased reactivity is due to a lowering of the Schottky barrier breakdown potential, Ubd, of the semiconductor-electro...

  13. Surface modification of silicone rubber by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made on the wettability, structure, and chemical states of ion implanted silicone rubbers. C+, N2+, O2+, and Ar+ ion implantations were performed at energies of 50 and 100 keV at room temperature. The fluences ranged from 1012 to 1017 ions/cm2. Ion implantation caused the surface roughness to increase 2-3 times. Wettability was estimated by means of the sessile drop method using water, of which the results showed that the contact angle of water decreased from 98.90 to 480 as the fluence increased. The results of XPS measurements showed that implanted elements formed a Gaussian-like distribution, host elements were redistributed and no change in binding energies of O1s, C1s and Si2p occurred. Results of FT-IR-ATR showed that ion implantation broke up original chemical bonds to form new radicals, the amounts of which are related to the fluences. It is concluded that the change in wettability may be caused by formation of new radicals rather than roughening of the surface under ion implantation. (orig.)

  14. Surface modification of silicone rubber by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made on the wettability, structure, and chemical states of ion implanted silicone rubber. C+-, N2+-, O2+, and Ar+ ion implantations were performed at energies of 50, 100, and 150 keV at room temperature. The doses ranged from 1 x 1012 to 1 x 1017 ions/cm2. Ion implantation caused the surface roughness to increase by 1∼5 times. Wettability was estimated by means of a sessile drop method using water. The contact angle of water immediately after ion-implantation decreased from 98.8deg to 48deg, as the dose increased. As the time elapsed, the contact angle gradually increased to approach the initial angle value. The results of XPS measurements showed that implanted elements formed a Gaussian-like distribution. The results of FT-IR-ATR showed that ion implantation broke original chemical bonds to form new radicals. The amounts of these radicals are related to the doses. Changes in wettability are mainly caused by formation of new radicals and their aging effects. (author)

  15. Experiments and Theory of Ablation Plasma Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgenbach, R. M.; Qi, B.; Lau, Y. Y.; Johnston, M. D.; Doll, G. L.; Lazarides, A.

    2000-10-01

    Research is underway to accelerate laser ablation plume ions for implantation into substrates. Ablation plasma ion implantation (APII) biases the deposition substrate to a large negative voltage. APII has the advantages of direct acceleration and implantation of ions from metals or any other solid targets. This process is environmentally friendly because it avoids the use of toxic gaseous precursors. Initial experiments are directed towards the implantation of iron ions into silicon substrates at negative voltages from 2-10 kV. A KrF laser ablates iron targets at pulse energies up to 600 mJ and typical repetition rates of 10 Hz. Parameters which can be varied include laser fluence, relative timing of laser and high voltage pulse, and target-to-substrate distance. Spectroscopic diagnostics yield Fe plasma plume electron temperatures up to about 10 eV. Analysis of films will compare surface morphology, hardness and adhesion between deposited Vs accelerated-implanted plumes. A simple one dimensional theory is developed [1] to calculate the implanted ion current, extracted from the ion matrix sheath, as a function of time for various substrate-plume separations. This model accurately recovers Lieberman's classic results when the plume front is initially in contact with the substrate. [1] B. Qi, Y. Y. Lau, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published). * This research is supported by the National Science Foundation.

  16. Effective implantation of light emitting centers by plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam methods into nanosized diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Characteristics of nitrogen implantation of nanodiamond using two low ion energy ion implantation methods were compared. • Formation of complex nitrogen-related defect centers was promoted by subsequent helium implantation and heat treatments. • Depth profiles of the implanted ions and the generated vacancies were determined using SRIM calculations. • The presence of nitrogen impurity was demonstrated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic measurements. • A new nitrogen related band was detected in the photoluminescence spectrum of the implanted samples that was attributed to the N3 color center in nanodiamond. - Abstract: Two different implantation techniques, plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam, were used to introduce nitrogen ions into detonation nanodiamond crystals with the aim to create nitrogen-vacancy related optically active centers of light emission in near UV region. Previously samples were subjected to a defect creation process by helium irradiation in both cases. Heat treatments at different temperatures (750 °C, 450 °C) were applied in order to initiate the formation of nitrogen-vacancy related complex centers and to decrease the sp2 carbon content formed under different treatments. As a result, a relatively narrow and intensive emission band with fine structure at 2.98, 2.83 and 2.71 eV photon energies was observed in the light emission spectrum. It was assigned to the N3 complex defect center. The formation of this defect center can be expected by taking into account the relatively high dose of implanted nitrogen ions and the overlapped depth distribution of vacancies and nitrogen. The calculated depth profiles distribution for both implanted nitrogen and helium by SRIM simulation support this expectation

  17. Effective implantation of light emitting centers by plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam methods into nanosized diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himics, L., E-mail: himics.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Center for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Tóth, S.; Veres, M. [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Center for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Tóth, A. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 17, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Koós, M. [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Center for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Characteristics of nitrogen implantation of nanodiamond using two low ion energy ion implantation methods were compared. • Formation of complex nitrogen-related defect centers was promoted by subsequent helium implantation and heat treatments. • Depth profiles of the implanted ions and the generated vacancies were determined using SRIM calculations. • The presence of nitrogen impurity was demonstrated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic measurements. • A new nitrogen related band was detected in the photoluminescence spectrum of the implanted samples that was attributed to the N3 color center in nanodiamond. - Abstract: Two different implantation techniques, plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam, were used to introduce nitrogen ions into detonation nanodiamond crystals with the aim to create nitrogen-vacancy related optically active centers of light emission in near UV region. Previously samples were subjected to a defect creation process by helium irradiation in both cases. Heat treatments at different temperatures (750 °C, 450 °C) were applied in order to initiate the formation of nitrogen-vacancy related complex centers and to decrease the sp{sup 2} carbon content formed under different treatments. As a result, a relatively narrow and intensive emission band with fine structure at 2.98, 2.83 and 2.71 eV photon energies was observed in the light emission spectrum. It was assigned to the N3 complex defect center. The formation of this defect center can be expected by taking into account the relatively high dose of implanted nitrogen ions and the overlapped depth distribution of vacancies and nitrogen. The calculated depth profiles distribution for both implanted nitrogen and helium by SRIM simulation support this expectation.

  18. Physical and Tribological Characteristics of Ion-Implanted Diamond Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Heidger, S.; Korenyi-Both, A. L.; Jayne, D. T.; Herrera-Fierro, P.; Shogrin, B.; Wilbur, P. J.; Wu, R. L. C.; Garscadden, A.; Barnes, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with a natural, polished diamond pin in contact with both as-deposited and carbon-ion-implanted diamond films in ultrahigh vacuum. Diamond films were deposited on silicon, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The as-deposited diamond films were impacted with carbon ions at an accelerating energy of 60 keV and a current density of 50 micron A/cm(exp 2) for approximately 6 min, resulting in a dose of 1.2 x 10(exp 17) carbon ions/cm(exp 2). The results indicate that the carbon ion implantation produced a thin surface layer of amorphous, nondiamond carbon. The nondiamond carbon greatly decreased both friction and wear of the diamond films. The coefficients of friction for the carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films were less than 0.1, factors of 20 to 30 lower than those for the as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films. The coefficients of friction for the carbon-ion-implanted, coarse-grain diamond films were approximately 0.35, a factor of five lower than those for the as-deposited, coarse-grain diamond films. The wear rates for the carbon-ion-implanted, diamond films were on the order of 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/Nm, factors of 30 to 80 lower than that for the as-deposited diamond films, regardless of grain size. The friction of the carbon-ion-implanted diamond films was greatly reduced because the amorphous, nondiamond carbon, which had a low shear strength, was restricted to the surface layers (less than 0.1 micron thick) and because the underlying diamond materials retained their high hardness. In conclusion, the carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films can be used effectively as wear resistant, self-lubricating coatings for ceramics, such as silicon nitride and silicon carbide, in ultrahigh vacuum.

  19. Nitrogen ion implantation effect on friction coefficient of tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of nitrogen molecular ion implantation into KhVSG steel on the friction coefficient in the air and vacuum is investigated. Irradiation is carried out by the N2+ beam with energy 120 keV and flux density 5 μ/cm2 at room temperature in vacuum 5x10-4Pa. The integral dose of irradiation is 1017 particle/cm2. Nitrogen ion implantation is shown to provide the formation of the modified layer changing friction properties of steel. The friction coefficient can either increase or decrease depending on implantation and test conditions. 4 refs.; 2 figs

  20. Nanocavities induced by neon Plasma Based Ion Implantation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocavities formed by neon Plasma Based Ion Implantation (PBII) in Si have been studied in comparison with conventional ion implantation (CI). Interstitial-type defects are also investigated. To avoid amorphisation, neon implantations were performed at 250 deg. C with a fluence of ∼5 x 1016 cm-2. Using PBII a rather uniform layer of cavities is observed from the surface while a three layer structure is present using the CI. However, the mean diameter of cavities is smaller due to the interaction with the interstitial-type defects. After annealing at 800 deg. C, bubbles grow and extended defects identified as {1 1 3} defects are formed

  1. Metastable phases produced by ion implantation in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental evidence for the formation of metastable phases in metals using ion implantation is reviewed. Ion channeling and transmission electron microscopy are the main experimental techniques which have been used to investigate these materials. For heavy metallic implanted species at low implanted concentrations (less than or equal to 1 at. percent), the materials are generally substitutional solid solutions, often exceeding equilibrium solid solubilities. At higher concentrations both metastable solid solutions and amorphous structures can be produced. Examples from the Ag : Cu, Ta : Cu, Dy : Ni, and Au : Pt systems are shown to illustrate specific points. A thermal spike-type mechanism has been proposed to explain these behaviors

  2. Metastable phases produced by ion implantation in metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borders, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental evidence for the formation of metastable phases in metals using ion implantation is reviewed. Ion channeling and transmission electron microscopy are the main experimental techniques which have been used to investigate these materials. For heavy metallic implanted species at low implanted concentrations (less than or equal to 1 at. percent), the materials are generally substitutional solid solutions, often exceeding equilibrium solid solubilities. At higher concentrations both metastable solid solutions and amorphous structures can be produced. Examples from the Ag : Cu, Ta : Cu, Dy : Ni, and Au : Pt systems are shown to illustrate specific points. A thermal spike-type mechanism has been proposed to explain these behaviors.

  3. The Mechanical and Tribological Properties or Ion Implanted Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Stephen John

    1988-01-01

    The mechanical properties of ion implanted ceramics are primarily a function of the radiation damage produced by the implantation process. For crystalline ceramics this damage is chiefly nuclear displacements, though for glasses electronic effects have also been observed. In this study a number of single crystal and polycrystalline ceramics and a soda-lime-silica glass have been implanted with a range of ions in the energy range 90keV to 400keV and the changes in mechanical properties prod...

  4. Characterization of ion implanted silicon by the electrolytic reverse current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current voltage behaviour of ion implanted silicon electrodes in HF electrolyte is investigated. The electrolytic reverse current, i.e. the reaction rate of the minority carrier limited reactions is found to increase. The current increase depends on the implanted dose and layer stripping. Reason for the increased reverse current can be referred to radiation damage acting as generation centres for minority carriers. Measurement of the electrolytic reverse current can be used for determining damage profiles. Layer stripping is carried out by anodic dissolution in the same electrolyte. The sensitivity of this new method for characterizing ion implanted silicon layers lies at 1011 to 1012 atoms/cm2. (author)

  5. High-Tc SQUIDs fabricated by inhibiting ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated YBaCuO superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) using an inhibiting ion implantation method. The devices were patterned by implanting silicon or boron ions through photoresist masks to locally inhibit the conductivity. The implantation was performed at energies of 40-120 keV and doses of 1015-1016 cm-2. The DC SQUIDs consist of step-edge junctions on SrTiO3 substrates. Operational SQUIDs fabricated with this new patterning method were demonstrated at 77 K. Line widths of 2 μm have been achieved and sharp superconducting-normal boundaries were observed. The surface of the patterned device remained planar. (author)

  6. Characterization of surface enhancement of carbon ion-implanted TiN coatings by metal vapor vacuum arc ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, C L

    2002-01-01

    The modification of the surfaces of energetic carbon-implanted TiN films using metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion implantation was investigated, by varying ion energy and dose. The microhardness, microstructure and chemical states of carbon, implanted on the surface layer of TiN films, were examined, as functions of ion energy and dose, by nanoindenter, transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results revealed that the microhardness increased from 16.8 up to 25.3 GPa and the friction coefficient decreased to approximately 0.2, depending on the implanted ion energy and dose. The result is attributed to the new microcrystalline phases of TiCN and TiC formed, and carbon concentration saturation of the implanted matrix can enhance the partial mechanical property of TiN films after MEVVA treatment. The concentration distribution, implantation depth and chemical states of carbon-implanted TiN coatings depended strongly on the ion dose and...

  7. X-ray photoelectron study of Si+ ion implanted polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize different polymer materials implanted with low energy Si+ ions (E=30 keV, D= 1.1017 cm-2). Two kinds of polymers were studied - ultra-high-molecular-weight poly-ethylene (UHMWPE), and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA). The non-implanted polymer materials show the expected variety of chemical bonds: carbon-carbon, carbon being three- and fourfold coordinated, and carbon-oxygen in the case of PMMA samples. The X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectra show that Si+ ion implantation leads to the introduction of additional disorder in the polymer material. The X-ray photoelectron spectra of the implanted polymers show that, in addition to already mentioned bonds, silicon creates new bonds with the host elements - Si-C and Si-O, together with additional Si dangling bonds as revealed by the valence band study of the implanted polymer materials.

  8. Synthesis of Ti:sapphire by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the possibility of forming Ti:sapphire by co-implanting c-axis oriented α-Al2O3 wafers with Ti and O ions and have found suitable implantation and annealing conditions which lead to a substantial increase in the fraction of Ti ions stabilised in the optically active 3+ oxidation state required for laser-action. Following thermal annealing, Al2O3 samples co-implanted with Ti and O exhibit strong luminescence in the wavelength range 600-900 nm due to the presence of Ti3+. We believe this may provide a pathway for fabricating a Ti:Al2O3 laser in a waveguide geometry. In this paper, details of the implantation and annealing schedule and results of photoluminescence measurements on the implanted wafers are presented

  9. X-ray irradiation of ion-implanted MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He+ ion-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with two different oxide thickness have been irradiated by X-rays and the depth distribution of the implant damage in the Si-SiO2 structures have been examined. The efficiency of X-ray annealing of electronic traps caused by implantation and changes in charge populations are reported. The experiment shows that (in the case when defects introduced by implantation are located at the Si-SiO2 interface) only defects corresponding to the deep levels in the Si can be affected by X-ray irradiation. When defects introduced by ion implantation are located deeper within the Si substrate complete annealing of these defects is observed

  10. Waveguide formation by ion implantation in Er doped optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy medium-light ion implantation was applied on both z-cut Er:LiNbO3 and Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped phosphate glasses, in order to fabricate optical waveguides on optically amplifying media. Preliminary results obtained with Er:LiNbO3, implanted with 3.9 MeV Carbon ions, have demonstrated the possibility to fabricate good quality waveguides, the optical characteristics of which depend on implantation fluence and post-annealing process. Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped phosphate glass substrates were implanted with both 2.8 MeV Carbon ions, at fluences ranging from 3 x 1014 ions/cm2 to 1 x 1015 ions/cm2, and with 3.4 MeV Oxygen ions at a fluence of 1 x 1015 ions/cm2. Also in this case, planar optical waveguides were formed, but, under the as-reported implantation conditions, the possibility to tailor the refractive index profiles was very reduced. In this work, the optical properties of the integrated optical waveguides obtained on different doped substrates are examined

  11. Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Mangas, J M; Enriquez, L E; Bailon, L; Barbolla, J; Jaraiz, M

    2003-01-01

    A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided.

  12. Effect of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of siloxane-poly(methyl methacrylate) based film applied on tin coated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates the influence of the addition of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings applied to passivated tin coated steel. In order to evaluate the specific effect of cerium (IV) addition on nanostructural features of the organic and inorganic phases of the hybrid coating, the hydrolytic polycondensation of silicon alkoxide and the radical polymerization of the methyl methacrylate (MMA) function were induced separately. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by means of linear polarization, Tafel type curves and electrochemical impedance measurements. The impedance results obtained for the hybrid coatings were discussed based on an electrical equivalent circuit used to fit the experimental data. The electrochemical results clearly showed the improvement of the protective properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid coating mainly when the cerium (IV) was added to the organic phase solution precursor, which seemed to be due to the formation of a more uniform and densely reticulated siloxane-PMMA film.

  13. Laws of phase formation in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Main laws of ordered structures formation at molybdenum implantation by elements forming phases of introduction (B, C, N, 0, Si, P, S) are discovered in this work. According to them the character of structural and phase transformations in molybdenum at ion implantation is determined not by kinetic parameters of bombarding particles and their chemical activity but by size factor ηx/Me (ratio of nuclear radii of introduced elements and atoms of a matrix). At change of its meaning in the certain limits the following can be observed: superstructures formation (ηx/Mox/Mox/Mo>0.69). In the latter case at the further implantation doze increasing recrystallization of molybdenum monocrystalline layers amorphized during previous bombarding with chemical connection formation takes place, characterized by us as ion-inducted synthesis. The phenomenon discovered on the samples implanted by phosphorus ions. As the result, the high-temperature phase of molybdenum monophosphide MoP having densely situated lattice was synthesized. The complete confirmation of the main laws of structural and phased transformations at ion implantation established by results on molybdenum monocrystals with OCC lattice was achieved at realization of similar researches on the other transitive metal - zirconium which differs from molybdenum according to a number of attributes: a type of an initial lattice structural condition (large scaled polycrystal), presence of interparticle borders and high solubility of atmospheric impurities (nitrogen, carbon, oxygen). The discovered laws have proved to be true also according to ion implanted samples of monocrystal tungsten and polycrystal tantalum

  14. TEM study of amorphous alloys produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation is a technique for introducing foreign elements into surface layers of solids. Ions, as a suitably accelerated beam, penetrate the surface, slow down by collisions with target atoms to produce a doped layer. This non-equilibrium technique can provide a wide range of alloys without the restrictions imposed by equilibrium phase diagrams. This paper reports on the production of some amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloys by implantation. Thinned foils of Ni, Fe and stainless steel were implanted at room temperature with Dy+ and P+ ions at doses between 1013 - 1017 ions/cm2 at energies of 20 and 40 keV respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area diffraction analysis were used to investigate the implanted specimens. Radial diffracted intensity measurements confirmed the presence of an amorphous implanted layer. The peak positions of the maxima are in good agreement with data for similar alloys produced by conventional techniques. Only certain ion/target combinations produce these amorphous layers. Implantations at doses lower than those needed for amorphization often result in formation of new crystalline phases such as an h.c.p. phase in nickel and a b.c.c. phase in stainless steel. (Auth.)

  15. Ion implantation facility for precision doping of semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We have developed an ion implantation system for application to: the nano-fabrication of p-type and n-type silicon devices; the fabrication of silicon nano-resistors; single phosphorus doping of silicon-based quantum computer devices; the doping of diamond-based devices; the study of ion beam physics of low energy ion interactions with solids. The system reliably delivers a wide range of ion spices, including B+, Te+, P+, C+, N+ and H+ with an energy up to 15 keV. The ion implanter operates in the mode of beam-on-demand control triggered by signals from the substrate and the beam current is adjustable in a wide range from ∼mA to a few ions per-second. The beam purity of each ion species is routinely monitored and analysed using micro-ERDA/PIXE/RBS. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  16. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  17. Surface modification of austenitic stainless steel by titanium ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wear properties of AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel implanted with Ti were investigated for ion doses in the range (2.3-5.4)x1016ionscm-2 and average ion energies of 60 and 90keV. The implanted layer was examined by Rutherford backscattering, from which the retained doses were determined, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. Following implantation, the surface microhardness was observed to increase with the greatest change occurring at higher ion energy. Pin-on-disc wear tests and associated friction measurements were also performed under both dry and lubricated conditions using applied loads of 2N and 10N. In the absence of lubrication, breakthrough of the implanted layer occurred after a short sliding time; only for a dose of 5.1x1016ionscm-2 implanted at an average energy of 90keV was the onset of breakthrough appreciably delayed. In contrast, the results of tests with lubrication showed a more gradual variation, with the extent of wear decreasing with implant dose at both 2N and 10N loads. Finally, the influence of Ti implantation on possible wear mechanisms is discussed in the light of information provided by several surface characterization techniques. ((orig.))

  18. Effect of ion implantation on apple wine yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wild type apple wine yeast Y02 was treated by ion implantation with the dose of 8 x 1015 ion/cm2. As results, a special mutant strain, IONII-11 dry, was obtained. The morphology characters, partial biochemistry characters, mycelium protein of the mutant strain were distinctively changed compared with original strain Y02. After the fermentation test ,the apple wine producing rate of the mutant strain increased 22.4% compared with original strain. These results showed that ion implantation was an effective method for mutagenesis

  19. Compression of self-ion implanted iron micropillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Self-ion implantation used to cause cascade damage in pure iron. ► Increase in hardness measured in implanted region using nanoindentation. ► Micropillars manufactured and tested in both implanted and unimplanted material. ► Marked difference in deformation mechanisms in each set of pillars seen using scanning electron microscopy. ► No difference in yield stress seen, suggesting it is difficult to use micro-compression to understand bulk properties. - Abstract: Ion implantation causes displacement damage in materials, leading to the formation of small dislocation loops and can cause changes to the material’s mechanical properties. Samples of pure Fe were subjected to Fe+ implantation at 275 °C, producing damage of ∼6 dpa to ∼1 μm depth. Nanoindentation into implanted material shows an increase in hardness compared to unimplanted material. Micropillars were manufactured in cross-section specimens of implanted and unimplanted material and compressed using a nanoindenter. The implanted pillars have a deformation mode which differs markedly from the unimplanted pillars but show no change in yield-stress. This suggests that the controlling mechanism for deformation is different between nanoindentation and micropillar compression and that care is needed if using micropillar compression to extract bulk properties of irradiated materials.

  20. Thin hydroxyapatite surface layers on titanium produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In medicine metallic implants are widely used as hip replacement protheses or artificial teeth. The biocompatibility is in all cases the most important requirement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is frequently used as coating on metallic implants because of its high acceptance by the human body. In this paper a process is described by which a HAp surface layer is produced by ion implantation with a continuous transition to the bulk material. Calcium and phosphorus ions are successively implanted into titanium under different vacuum conditions by backfilling oxygen into the implantation chamber. Afterwards the implanted samples are thermally treated. The elemental composition inside the implanted region was determined by nuclear analysis methods as (α,α) backscattering and the resonant nuclear reaction 1H(15N,αγ)12C. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of HAp. In addition a first biocompatibility test was performed to compare the growing of marrow bone cells on the implanted sample surface with that of titanium

  1. [Improve wear resistance of UHMWPE by O+ ion implanted].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dangsheng

    2003-12-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was implanted with 450 keV and 100 keV O+ ions at dosage of 1 x 10(15)/cm2, 5 x 10(15)/cm2, 3 x 10(14)/cm2, respectively. Its wear behaviors were studied under dry friction condition and lubrication by means of distilled water using a pin-on-disk tribometer with a Si3N4 ceramic ball as a counterface. The wear surfaces were examined with SEM. The experimental results showed that the wear rate of implanted UHMWPE is lower than that of un-implanted UHMWPE under both dry and distilled friction conditions, especially for 450 keV energy and 5 x 10(15)/cm2 dose implantation. The friction coefficient of O+ ions implanted UHMWPE is higher than that of un-implanted UHMWPE under both dry and distilled friction conditions. The adhesive, plow and plastic deformation are the wearing mechanism for un-implanted UHMWPE; the fatigue and abrasive wear are that for implanted UHMWPE. PMID:14716850

  2. Luminescence of a titanate compound under europium ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plantevin, O., E-mail: plantevin@csnsm.in2p3.fr [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière CSNSM, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Oliviero, E. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière CSNSM, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Dantelle, G.; Mayer, L. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée LPMC, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-05-01

    The ability to incorporate europium ions in a near-surface layer of a nonlinear optical material KTiOPO{sub 4} by ion implantation is reported here. Europium diffusion as well as surface modification were characterized after annealing using RBS. The photoluminescence of the as-implanted samples indicates that the creation of defects gives rise to green visible emission centered about 550 nm. Annealing up to 1000 °C does not allow the oxidation to the 3+ valence state of the europium ion. However it is shown that annealing up to such high temperature gives rise to an intense near infra-red photoluminescence in the range 800–1100 nm in implanted samples at an optimal fluence of 2 × 10{sup 13} europium ions/cm{sup 2}.

  3. Luminescence of a titanate compound under europium ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to incorporate europium ions in a near-surface layer of a nonlinear optical material KTiOPO4 by ion implantation is reported here. Europium diffusion as well as surface modification were characterized after annealing using RBS. The photoluminescence of the as-implanted samples indicates that the creation of defects gives rise to green visible emission centered about 550 nm. Annealing up to 1000 °C does not allow the oxidation to the 3+ valence state of the europium ion. However it is shown that annealing up to such high temperature gives rise to an intense near infra-red photoluminescence in the range 800–1100 nm in implanted samples at an optimal fluence of 2 × 1013 europium ions/cm2

  4. Terahertz generation from Cu ion implantation into lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuhua, E-mail: wyh61@163.com [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan university of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wang, Ruwu; Yuan, Jie [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan university of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wang, Yumei [Department of Nephrology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2014-03-15

    In this letter, the authors present first observation of terahertz generation from Cu implantation of lithium niobate crystal substrate. Lithium niobate single crystal is grown by Czochralski method. Metal nanoparticles synthesized by Cu ion implantation were implanted into lithium niobate single crystal using metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. 1 kHz, 35 fs laser pulse centred at 800 nm was focused onto the samples. The supercontinuum spectra of the sample are obtained. Terahertz was generated via this kind of sample and investigated using the electro-optical sampling technique. The findings suggest that under the investigated implantation parameter, a strong spectral component in excess of 0.46 THz emission was found from Cu ion implantation of lithium niobate. -- Highlights: • We first observation of terahertz generation from Cu implantation of lithium niobate crystal substrate. • Lithium niobate single crystal is grown by Czochralski method. Cu nanoparticles in lithium niobate have been formed by using MEVVA ion source. • The THz bandwidth and center from this kind of sample were determined.

  5. Development of Metal Ion Implanter and it's Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project) has been developed some test facilities using domestic accelerators for the basic experiments and pilot studies of proton and ion beam application technology developments. Metal ion implanter has been designed and manufactured for studies of surface modification by metal ion beam. The purpose of design is domestic development of the basic technology for the application field using by metal ion beam. The main point of design and manufacture is production, acceleration and transportation of metal ion beam current up to 1mA and ion energy up to 100keV and beam size on target up to 10cm x 10cm. Metal ion implanter consists of modified Burnas ion source, mass separation magnet, slit, acceleration tube, magnetic quadrupole, electrostatic scanner and target. It includes fiber optic links for the monitoring and control of the ion source parameters in the high voltage zone, and a computer system for the characterization of the ion beam and the whole control of an implantation process. Also, this equipment used for diverse application areas, like gem coloring, photo-catalyst, solar cell, lighting LED, medical material, and so on, by modifying the surface characteristics of materials such as polymers, metals, and ceramics

  6. Compensation of mobile-ion movement in SiO2 by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been undertaken to determine the effect of ion-implanted fluorine on the properties of SiO2 for use as a gate dielectric in MOS devices. C-V measurements and bias-temperature stressing showed that mobile-ion drift can be compensated for by the implanted ions. Further tests showed that it is the implant damage and not the ion itself which was responsible for the compensation. uv excitation of the samples was used in an attempt to identify the nature of the compensation effect, but the results are not definitive

  7. Divacancy formation by polyatomic ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of the neutral divacancy absorption band (1.8 μm at 3000K) by the polyatomic series C+ (70 keV), CO+ (163 keV), CO2+ (256 keV), and by O1+ (85 keV), O2+ (170 keV), O3+ (255 keV) has been investigated. The oxygen series is emphasized because equal total energy and impurity deposition can be achieved simultaneously. For fluences significantly less than those required for amorphous layer formation, divacancy formation by 255 keV O3+ implantation at 3000K is approximately 1.5 times that for an equal atomic dose introduced by 85 keV O1+ implantation. Divacancy formation at 800K followed by heating to 3000K, is approximately 1.3 times that for an equivalent implantation at 3000K. An enhanced probability for divacancy formation with increasing initial defect density is suggested to explain the polyatomic and temperature effects. For polyatomic implantation the initial defect density is increased by simultaneous collisions within a cascade, while suppressed annealing allows accumulation of initial defects for low temperature implantation. Defect annealing for energy deposition near the crystalline-to-amorphous transition is especially important in determining the nature of the disorder. The results are compared with previous channeling-backscattering measurements of disorder produced by polyatomic implantation

  8. Surface modification of Natural Rubber by ion implantation: Evidence for implant doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation is one of the most powerful and well-known technique for surface modification in polymers. Thin films of Natural Rubber were modified by the implantation of 60 keV N+ ions to the fluences of 1011-1015 cm-2. The electrical conductivity measurements of irradiated sample show 10 orders of magnitude compared to pristine state. Along with conductivity change there was a noticeable change in color to a dense shiny black for the most highly conducting films. The analysis of temperature dependence of dc electrical conductivity data reveals a three-dimensional variable range hopping mechanism. The microstructural evolution of the virgin and ion-beam modified samples was investigated by spectroscopic analysis such as UV/Vis and FTIR. These spectral studies gave evidence for the production of conjugate double bonds, which is a clear cut indication of implant doping. This is an important result since ion implantation usually does not produce doping in polymeric materials and only a few reports about the possibility of implant doping in polymers are available. The significant aspect of this study is that this confirms, the Natural Rubber's potential to be used as a microelectronic device material. Also an attempt has been made to compare the conductivity enhancement in Natural Rubber by chemical and implant doping

  9. Osteoconductivity of hydrophilic microstructured titanium implants with phosphate ion chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Jang, Je-Hee; Lee, Chong Soo; Hanawa, Takao

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the surface characteristics and bone response of titanium implants produced by hydrothermal treatment using H(3)PO(4), and compared them with those of implants produced by commercial surface treatment methods - machining, acid etching, grit blasting, grit blasting/acid etching or spark anodization. The surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, thin-film X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and stylus profilometry. The osteoconductivity of experimental implants was evaluated by removal torque testing and histomorphometric analysis after 6 weeks of implantation in rabbit tibiae. Hydrothermal treatment with H(3)PO(4) and subsequent heat treatment produced a crystalline phosphate ion-incorporated oxide (titanium oxide phosphate hydrate, Ti(2)O(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2); TiP) surface approximately 5microm in thickness, which had needle-like surface microstructures and superior wettability compared with the control surfaces. Significant increases in removal torque forces and bone-to-implant contact values were observed for TiP implants compared with those of the control implants (pcleaning of the implants removed during the removal torque testing, a considerable quantity of attached bone was observed on the surfaces of the TiP implants. PMID:19332400

  10. Optimal pulse modulator design criteria for plasma source ion implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes what are believed to be the required characteristics of a high-voltage modulator for efficient and optimal ion deposition from the ''Plasma Source Ion Implantation'' (PSII) process. The PSII process is a method to chemically or physically alter and enhance surface properties of objects by placing them in a weakly ionized plasma and pulsing the object with a high negative voltage. The attracted ions implant themselves and form chemical bonds or are interstitially mixed with the base material. Present industrial uses of implanted objects tends to be for limited-production, high-value-added items. Traditional implanting hardware uses the typical low-current (ma) semiconductor ''raster scan'' implanters. The targets must also be manipulated to maintain a surface normal to the ion beam. The PSII method can provide ''bulk'' equipment processing on a large industrial scale. For the first generation equipment, currents are scaled from milliamps to hundreds of amps, voltages to -175kV, at kilohertz rep-rates, and high plasma ion densities

  11. Al-O interactions in ion-implanted crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvagno, G.; La Ferla, A.; Spinella, C.; Priolo, F.; Raineri, V.; Torrisi, Lucio; Rimini, E.; Carnera, A.; Gasparotto, A.

    1994-08-01

    The formation and dissolution of Si-O-Al precipitates have been investigated in Czochralski silicon wafers implanted with 6 MeV Al ions and thermally processed. The data have been compared to the O precipitation in samples implanted with 6 MeV Si or P ions. The amount of precipitated O atoms is about one order of magnitude higher for Al than for Si or P implanted samples. Moreover, a strong gettering of the Al atoms by the silicon dioxide precipitates has been observed. The precipitate evolution has been studied for different annealing times and temperatures. The oxygen precipitation has been simulated by the classical theory of nucleation and growth, with the introduction of new factors that take into account the implant damage distribution, the agglomeration of point defects during the initial stages of the annealing and the oxygen outdiffusion from the sample surface.

  12. Phosphorus ion implantation gettering effects in Mos structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of some variables of phosphorus ion implantation gettering efficiency in Mos capacitors was investigated by the C-t measurement technique. The Si wafers were gettered by a 120 keV backside P ion implantation, into bare silicon and into silicon covered by a screen oxide 600-1200 Angstroms thick, with subsequent annealing at 900 Centigrade degrees for 30-150 min in N2. The generation lifetime was found to show maximum value after 120 min anneal. A marked tendency in the behavior of generation lifetime, when P was implanted into bare silicon and when it was implanted into silicon covered by an oxide, was not found. In both cases, the generation lifetime increases with the increase of oxide thickness. (Author)

  13. Simulation methods of ion sheath dynamics in plasma source ion implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiuli; ZHANG Guling; WANG Younian; LIU Yuanfu; LIU Chizi; YANG Size

    2004-01-01

    Progress of the theoretical studies on the ion sheath dynamics in plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is reviewed in this paper. Several models for simulating the ion sheath dynamics in PSII are provided. The main problem of nonuniform ion implantation on the target in PSII is discussed by analyzing some calculated results. In addition, based on the relative researches in our laboratory, some calculated results of the ion sheath dynamics in PSII for inner surface modification of a cylindrical bore are presented. Finally, new ideas and tendency for future researches on ion sheath dynamics in PSII are proposed.

  14. Wear resistance of ion-implanted metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is devoted to the study of the effect of ion implantation on the wear resistance of materials. Steel 3 and copper cylinder specimens were irradiated with 40 keV carbon, zirconium, titanium, niobium, lead, molybdenum and chromium continuous ion beams and a 200 keV pulsed carbon ion beam with fluences of 1017 ions cm-2 and 1013 ions cm-2 respectively. The loss of mass during friction of the butt surface against the rotating disk was taken as the measure of wear. For materials irradiated with continuous ion beams the depth of the layer with increased wear resistance was about 80-100μm, which is two orders of magnitude greater than the depth of penetration of the implanted ions. In the case of ion implantation with a pulsed ion beam for a short period of time, a great amount of heat was generated. The speed of its dissipation into the bulk of a specimen depends on the thermal conductivity of the material, and hardening of the wear-surface layer starts with cooling at some speed. (orig.)

  15. Evolution of defects in silicon carbide implanted with helium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chonghong; Song, Yin; Yang, Yitao; Zhou, Chunlan; Wei, Long; Ma, Hongji

    2014-05-01

    Effects of accumulation of radiation damage in silicon carbide are important concerns for the use of silicon carbide in advanced nuclear energy systems. In the present work lattice damage in silicon carbide crystal (4H type) implanted with 100 keV 4He+ ions was investigated with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling geometry (RBS/c) and positron beam Doppler broadening spectrometry (PBDB). Helium implantation was performed at the specimen temperature of 510 K to avoid amorphization of the SiC crystal. Fluences of helium ions were selected to be in the range from 1 × 1016 to 3 × 1016 ions cm-2, around the dose threshold for the formation of observable helium bubbles under transmission electron microscopes (TEM). The RBS/c measurements show distinctly different annealing behavior of displaced Si atoms at doses below or above the threshold for helium bubble formation. The RBS/c yield in the peak damage region of the specimen implanted to 3 × 1016 He-ions cm-2 shows an increase on the subsequently thermal annealing above 873 K, which is readily ascribed to the extra displacement of Si atoms due to helium bubble growth. The RBS/c yield in the specimen implanted to a lower ion fluence of 1.5 × 1016 He-ions cm-2 decreases monotonously on annealing from ambient temperatures up to 1273 K. The PBDB measurements supply evidence of clustering of vacancies at temperatures from 510 to 1173 K, and dissociation of vacancy clusters above 1273 K. The similarity of annealing behavior in PBDB profiles for helium implantation to 1 × 1016 and 3 × 1016 ions cm-2 is ascribed to the saturation of trapping of positrons in vacancy type defects in the damaged layers in the specimens helium-implanted to the two dose levels.

  16. Complete Oxidation of Methane over Palladium Supported on Alumina Modified with Calcium, Lanthanum, and Cerium Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beata Stasinska; Wojciech Gac; Theophilos Ioannides; Andrzej Machocki

    2007-01-01

    The activity and thermal stability of Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/(Al2O3+MOx) (M=Ca, La, Ce) palladium catalysts in the reaction of complete oxidation of methane are presented in this study. The catalyst supports were prepared by sol-gel method and they were dried either conventionally or with supercritical carbon dioxide. Then they were impregnated with palladium nitrate solution. The catalysts with unmodified alumina had a high surface area. The activity and thermal stability of the alumina-supported catalyst was also very high. The introduction of calcium, lanthanum, or cerium oxide into alumina support caused a decrease of the surface area in the way dependent on the support precursor drying method. These modifiers decreased the activity of palladium catalysts, and they required higher temperatures for the complete oxidation of methane than unmodified Pd/Al2O3. The improvement of the palladium activity by lanthanum and cerium support modifier was observed only at low temperatures of the reaction.

  17. Engineering single photon emitters by ion implantation in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Naydenov, B.; Kolesov, R.; Batalov, A.; Meijer, J; Pezzagna, S.; Rogalla, D.; Jelezko, F.; Wrachtrup, J.

    2009-01-01

    Diamond provides unique technological platform for quantum technologies including quantum computing and communication. Controlled fabrication of optically active defects is a key element for such quantum toolkit. Here we report the production of single color centers emitting in the blue spectral region by high energy implantation of carbon ions. We demonstrate that single implanted defects show sub-poissonian statistics of the emitted photons and can be explored as single photon source in qua...

  18. Quantum information process with nanometre precession ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spin state of a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond is one of the most attractive candidate for quantum information processing because of its long spin coherence time. Further more coupling (magnetic dipole) between the spins are required for scalable quantum computing (2-qbit operation). This process requires a high implantation positioning accuracy and nitrogen free clean diamond (<0.1 ppm nitrogen concentration). Here we report recent progress towards single ion implantation within nanometre scale accuracies. (orig.)

  19. Single versus double ion implantation: a deep level study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfieri, G. [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto (Japan); Kimoto, T. [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto (Japan); Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    We performed a comparison study of electrically active defects generated in single and double ion implantated 4H-SiC epilayers. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements revealed that dou- ble implantation, is responsible for a different compensation mechanism of the net-acceptor concentration, and for the different nature and annealing behavior of the detected deep levels. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Optical contrast in ion-implanted amorphous silicon carbide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topographic and optical contrasts formed by Ga+ ion irradiation of thin films of amorphous silicon carbide have been investigated with scanning near-field optical microscopy. The influence of ion-irradiation dose has been studied in a pattern of sub-micrometre stripes. While the film thickness decreases monotonically with ion dose, the optical contrast rapidly increases to a maximum value and then decreases gradually. The results are discussed in terms of the competition between the effects of ion implantation and surface milling by the ion beam. The observed effects are important for uses of amorphous silicon carbide thin films as permanent archives in optical data storage applications

  1. Improving the properties of titanium alloys by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Ionguard' ion-implantation process for the enhancement of Ti alloys' wear, corrosion-resistance, and other surface properties has found use in orthopedic implant, ball valve, turbine blade, specialty fastener, and threaded component applications. The application of the Ironguard process to finished components does not jeopardize their dimensional integrity or surface finish. Ironguard is, moreover, a low-temperature process which leaves the bulk properties of products unaffected. Nitrogen is often used as an implant by the process; attention is given to results obtained for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. 6 refs

  2. Adjustment of threshold voltage of MOS devices by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report the effect of oxide thickness, implant energy and dose on threshold voltage shift Δ Vsub(T). The implant parameters e.g. stopping power, projected range, straggle and the energy loss per micron for an ion in the substrate lattice are calculated using the WHB potential. The junction depth beneath the oxide semiconductor surface is calculated using a two layer model. The parameters are then used in a theoretical calculation of threshold shift of MOS devices. Experimental threshold voltages for unimplanted and implanted samples were obtained from C-V plots, showing fairly good agreement with theory. (author)

  3. Ion implantation induced by Cu ablation at high laser fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy laser plasma-produced Cu ions have been implanted in silicon substrates placed at different distances and angles with respect to the normal to the surface of the ablated target. The implanted samples have been produced using the iodine high power Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) using 438 nm wavelength irradiating in vacuum a Cu target. The high laser pulse energy (up to 230 J) and the short pulse duration (400 ps) produced a non-equilibrium plasma expanding mainly along the normal to the Cu target surface. Time-of-flight (TOF) technique was employed, through an electrostatic ion energy analyzer (IEA) placed along the target normal, in order to measure the ion energy, the ion charge state, the energy distribution and the charge state distribution. Ions had a Boltzmann energy distributions with an energy increasing with the charge state. At a laser fluence of the order of 6 x 106 J/cm2, the maximum ion energy was about 600 keV and the maximum charge state was about 27+. In order to investigate the implantation processes, Cu depth profiles have been performed with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) of 1.5 MeV helium ions, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) with 3 keV electron beam and 1 keV Ar sputtering ions in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface analysis results indicate that Cu ions are implanted within the first surface layers and that the ion penetration ranges are in agreement with the ion energy measured with IEA analysis

  4. Quantum-dot composite silicate glasses obtained by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation is a useful technique to obtain composite materials such as nanocluster-containing silicate glasses. Depending on the choice of the pair 'implanted atom-dielectric host', ion implantation of metals in glass gives rise to the formation of new compounds and/or metallic nanoparticles. In spite of the great interest, processes governing the chemical and physical interaction between the implanted atoms and the atoms in the host matrix are not completely understood. In this paper, metal, alloy and binary compound nanocluster formation is studied after ion implantation in silica and soda-lime glass. Particular emphasis is given to the comparison among different existing approaches to the understanding of the chemical interactions in these systems. As the physical properties of these composites depend on the cluster structure, composition and size, it is important to set procedures for modifying these characteristics. Recent results indicate that thermal treatments in controlled atmosphere of gold + copper double-implanted silica favor the formation of either alloy nanoclusters or copper compounds, depending on the annealing atmosphere

  5. Method For Silicon Surface Texturing Using Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadakia, Nirag; Naczas, Sebastian; Bakhru, Hassaram; Huang, Mengbing

    2011-06-01

    As the semiconductor industry continues to show more interest in the photovoltaic market, cheaper and readily integrable methods of silicon solar cell production are desired. One of these methods—ion implantation—is well-developed and optimized in all commercial semiconductor fabrication facilities. Here we have developed a silicon surface texturing technique predicated upon the phenomenon of surface blistering of H-implanted silicon, using only ion implantation and thermal annealing. We find that following the H implant with a second, heavier implant markedly enhances the surface blistering, causing large trenches that act as a surface texturing of c-Si. We have found that this method reduces total broadband Si reflectance from 35% to below 5percent;. In addition, we have used Rutherford backscattering/channeling measurements investigate the effect of ion implantation on the crystallinity of the sample. The data suggests that implantation-induced lattice damage is recovered upon annealing, reproducing the original monocrystalline structure in the previously amorphized region, while at the same time retaining the textured surface.

  6. Influence of ion implantation on titanium surfaces for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischok, Stefan; Blank, Claudia; Engel, Michael; Gutt, Richard; Ecke, Gernot; Schawohl, Jens; Spieß, Lothar; Schrempel, Frank; Hildebrand, Gerhard; Liefeith, Klaus

    2007-09-01

    The implantation of ions into the near surface layer is a new approach to improve the osseointegration of metallic biomaterials like titanium. Meanwhile it is well known that surface topography and surface physico-chemistry as well as visco-elastic properties influence the cell response after implantation of implants into the human body. To optimize the cell response of titanium, ion implantation techniques have been used to integrate calcium and phosphorus, both elements present in the inorganic bone phase. In this context, the concentration profile of the detected elements and their chemical state have been investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling. Ion implantation leads to strong changes of the chemical composition of the near surface region, which are expected to modify the biofunctionality as observed in previous experiments on the cell response. The co-implantation of calcium and phosphorus samples, which showed best results in the performed tests (biological and physical), leads to a strong modification of the chemical surface composition.

  7. Ion implantation for manufacturing bent and periodically bent crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation is proposed to produce self-standing bent monocrystals. A Si sample 0.2 mm thick was bent to a radius of curvature of 10.5 m. The sample curvature was characterized by interferometric measurements; the crystalline quality of the bulk was tested by X-ray diffraction in transmission geometry through synchrotron light at ESRF (Grenoble, France). Dislocations induced by ion implantation affect only a very superficial layer of the sample, namely, the damaged region is confined in a layer 1 μm thick. Finally, an elective application of a deformed crystal through ion implantation is here proposed, i.e., the realization of a crystalline undulator to produce X-ray beams

  8. Chromium plating pollution source reduction by plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing concern over the environmental toxicity and workers' health issues due to the chemical baths and rinse water used in the hard chromium plating process. In this regard the significant hardening response of chromium to nitrogen ion implantation can be environmentally beneficial from the standpoint of decreasing the thickness and the frequency of application of chromium plating. In this paper the results of a study of nitrogen ion implantation of chrome plated test flats using the non-line-of-sight Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) process, are discussed. Surface characterization was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). The surface properties were evaluated using a microhardness tester, a pin-on-disk wear tester, and a corrosion measurement system. Industrial field testing of nitrogen PSII treated chromium plated parts showed an improvement by a factor of two compared to the unimplanted case

  9. Etching effects in ion implanted SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and physical transformations involved in ion implantation processes in glasses determine changes in mechanical and tribological properties, in network dilatation, in induced optical absorption and luminescence and in the composition and chemical behaviour as a function of different experimental conditions (ion, energy, dose, target temperature). Variations of chemical etch rate in HF are related to radiation damage and formation of compounds. A systematic study of etch rate changes in silica due to Ar, N, Si plus N implants has been performed. Structure modifications at depths greater than the corresponding implanted ion ranges are evidenced for nuclear deposited energy values greater than 1022 keV cm-3. Formation of silicon oxynitrides reduces the etch rate values. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Synthesis of copper nanoparticles in polycarbonate by ion implantation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annu Sharma; Suman Bahniwal; Sanjeev Aggarwal; S Chopra; D Kanjilal

    2011-07-01

    Copper nanoparticles have been synthesized in polycarbonate by 75 KeV Cu– ion implantation with various doses ranging from 6.4 × 1015 to 1.6 × 1017 ions/cm2 with a beam current density of 800 nA/cm2. The composites formed were structurally characterized using Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Visible) absorption spectroscopy. The appearance of particle plasmon resonance peak, characteristic of copper nanoparticles at 603 nm in absorption spectra of polycarbonate implanted to a dose of 1.6 × 1017 ions/cm2, indicates towards the formation of copper nanoparticles in polycarbonate. Transmission electron microscopy further confirms the formation of copper nanoparticles having size ∼ 3.15 nm. The formation of copper nanoparticles in the layers carbonized by Cu– implantation has been discussed. The synthesized copper-polycarbonate nanocomposite has been found to be more conducting than polycarbonate as ascertained using current–voltage characteristics.

  11. Ion implantation for manufacturing bent and periodically bent crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, Valerio; Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo, E-mail: guidi@fe.infn.it; Mazzolari, Andrea; Paternò, Gianfranco [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1/c, 44122 Ferrara, Italy and INFN, Section of Ferrara (Italy); Mattei, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.mattei@unipd.it; Scian, Carlo [Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Lanzoni, Luca [Dipertimento di Economia e Tecnologia, Università degli Studi della Repubblica di San Marino, Salita alla Rocca, 44, 47890 San Marino Città (San Marino)

    2015-08-10

    Ion implantation is proposed to produce self-standing bent monocrystals. A Si sample 0.2 mm thick was bent to a radius of curvature of 10.5 m. The sample curvature was characterized by interferometric measurements; the crystalline quality of the bulk was tested by X-ray diffraction in transmission geometry through synchrotron light at ESRF (Grenoble, France). Dislocations induced by ion implantation affect only a very superficial layer of the sample, namely, the damaged region is confined in a layer 1 μm thick. Finally, an elective application of a deformed crystal through ion implantation is here proposed, i.e., the realization of a crystalline undulator to produce X-ray beams.

  12. Ion Implanted Passivated Contacts for Interdigitated Back Contacted Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, David L.; Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Reedy, Robert; Bateman, Nicholas; Stradins, Pauls

    2015-06-14

    We describe work towards an interdigitated back contacted (IBC) solar cell utilizing ion implanted, passivated contacts. Formation of electron and hole passivated contacts to n-type CZ wafers using tunneling SiO2 and ion implanted amorphous silicon (a-Si) are described. P and B were ion implanted into intrinsic amorphous Si films at several doses and energies. A series of post-implant anneals showed that the passivation quality improved with increasing annealing temperatures up to 900 degrees C. The recombination parameter, Jo, as measured by a Sinton lifetime tester, was Jo ~ 14 fA/cm2 for Si:P, and Jo ~ 56 fA/cm2 for Si:B contacts. The contact resistivity for the passivated contacts, as measured by TLM patterns, was 14 milliohm-cm2 for the n-type contact and 0.6 milliohm-cm2 for the p-type contact. These Jo and pcontact values are encouraging for forming IBC cells using ion implantation to spatially define dopants.

  13. Cathodoluminescence characterization of ion implanted GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, M. L.

    1980-03-01

    The unique properties of GaAs make it possible to construct integrated circuit devices that are impossible in Si. The Air Force Avionics Laboratory/AADR has been developing this technology for a number of years. The difficulty of introducing dopants by diffusion has lead ion implantation to play an increasing role in the fabrication process. The present production technique for high performance devices is to fabricate large quantities and select those few that meet the desired specifications. Having a nondestructive technique that can be used to characterize the implantation process during fabrication of the device so as to reject faulty device structures can save valuable time as well as money. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence is a process that can be used for this purpose. This research develops and verifies a model of cathodoluminescence in ion implanted GaAs. This model can now be used as a tool for further study of ion implanted GaAs. This is the first step in developing cathodoluminescence as a tool for deducing the shape of the ion implanted depth profile in semiconductor materials.

  14. Molecular mechanism of mutagenesis and interaction of incident ions with organism implanted by heavy ions beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a new mutagenesis technique, low energy heavy ion implantation started in China for the study of interaction effect between incident ions and organism, and great achievements have been obtained in crop breeding. The article reviewed the main biological effects induced by heavy ion implantation, including physiology, biochemistry and genetics effects, on levels of cell and chromosome, gene expression, DNA methylation, DNA damage and reparation etc. It compared the differences in mutagenesis for organism by high energy and low energy ion implantation, as well as γ ray radiation. Future investigation topics were proposed, the emphasis of researches in future was pointed out, i.e., the molecular mechanism and effects of gene differential expression of organism treated by ion implantation. (authors)

  15. Chromium redistribution in ion-implanted GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an attempt is made to find systematic differences between the annealing conditions for ion implanted GaAs where Cr is observed to redistribute and the conditions where it does not. For samples where Cr redistribution was observed, electrical and chemical and/or strain interactions were separated. The results indicate that electrical interactions are at least a limiting factor and in most cases a dominant factor in Cr redistribution. For this reason it appears that Cr redistribution in ion implanted samples can be minimized or eliminated by annealing at temperatures such that the background free carrier concentration screens out any internal electric fields. (author)

  16. Development of a CMOS process using high energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main interest of this thesis is the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) in electronic technology. Problems in developing a CMOS process are mostly related to the isolation well of p-n junctions. It is shown that by using high energy ion implantation, it is possible to reduce lateral dimensions to obtain a rather high packing density. High energy ion implantation is also presented as a means of simplifying CMOS processing, since extended processing steps at elevated temperatures are superfluous. Process development is also simplified. (Auth.)

  17. Nitrogen implantation in steel with a pulsed ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modification of wear properties of high speed steel cutting tools for lathe by nitrogen implantation, were studied in a normal boring process of SAE 1045 steel parts. The implantation was done with a pulsed ion beam accelerator, which produced a nitrogen ion beam of continuous energy spectrum (10-300 KeV) with 400 ns pulsed duration on target. A tool fluence of 1.65 x 1017 cm-2 - obtained by 30 singles shot accumulation was used in the experiments. (author)

  18. Hardening of WC-Co alloys by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hardening effect on the surface layers of WC-Co alloys after Ar+- and N+-ion implantation with the fluence in the range 1 divided by 8.7 x 1017 cm-2 has been investigated at room temperature and under heating with an ion beam. The depth of the Auger distribution profiles and the microhardness of implanted samples were measured. The radiation-stimulated diffusion of nitrogen atoms and the microhardness enhancement were observed. The contribution of the polymorphic Co-phase transformation and the production of Co-N compounds is discussed. (author)

  19. SIMS system for the analysis of sputtered ions during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system is described which allows secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements during implantation at primary energies up to 170 keV. The secondary ions are produced by the implantation beam itself. The system has been assembled to study the stoichiometric disturbances near the surface of compound semiconductors caused by the bombardment with ions. Furthermore it is possible to examine the influence of sputter effects during implantation on the doping profile. The arrangement also provides means for standard SIMS and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). (Auth.)

  20. Plasma immersion ion implantation of a pea seed and its RBS spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) is a new technique with certain advantages over biological samples developed in CTU. argon as well as nitrogen ion implantation of a pea seed has been carried out with the PI3 implanter. Their RBS spectra were studied. The results show that the mass deposition effect of ion implantation into biological samples can be achieved with our PI3 implanter. In addition, there is an optimal implantation time for a given treatment condition. The PI3 technique opens up new possibilities for the ion implantation into biological samples

  1. Distribution of Cerium Ion in Cordierite Ceramics and Its Effect on Structure of Cordierite Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Zhiming

    2004-01-01

    Cerium addition plays an important role in sintering, transformation and phasicochemical properties of cordierite ceramics. The present work aims at studying the distribution of Ce4+ in cordierite ceramics and its effect on the structure of cordierite crystal by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) so as to clarify the behavior of Ce4+. Results show that Ce4+ can exist in two forms of CeO2 particles and solid solution in Ce4+ -modified cordierite ceramics by the sol-gel method. The CeO2 particles separately distribute in the cordierite matrix. Ce4+ dissolves little into cordierite crystal, resulting in a decrease of lattice constants ofthe crystal. This kind of distribution behavior of Ce4+ makes us to easily tailor the properties of the cordieritc ceramics.

  2. A high-energy, high-current ion implantation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High current (Pre-Depsup(TM)) ion implanters, operating at 80 keV, have met a need in the semiconductor industry. For certain processes, higher energies are required, either to penetrate a surface layer or to place the dopant ion at a greater depth. The Eaton/Nova Model NV10-160 Pre-Dpsup(TM) Ion Implanter has been developed to meet those special needs. Beam currents as high as 10.0 mA are available at energies up to 160 keV for routine production applications. The system has also been qualified for low current, low dose operation (1011 ions cm-2) and this unique versatility provides the Process and Equipment Engineers with a powerful new tool. The Model NV10-160 also utilizes the Nova-designed, double disk interchange processing system to minimize inactive beam time so that wafer throughputs, up to 300 wafers/h, are achievable on a routine basis. Datalocksup(TM), a computer driven implant monitoring system and AT-4, the Nova cassette-to-cassette wafer loader, are available as standard options. As a production machine, the Model NV10-160 with its high throughput capability, will reduce the implant cost per wafer significantly for doses above 10 x 1015 ions/cm2. Performance patterns are now emerging as some twenty-five systems have now been shipped. This paper summarizes the more important characteristics and reviews the major design features of the NV10-160. (orig.)

  3. A high-energy, high-current ion implantation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Peter H.; Faretra, Ronald; Ryding, Geoffery

    1985-01-01

    High current (Pre-DepTM) ion implanters, operating at 80 keV, have met a need in the semiconductor industry. For certain processes, higher energies are required, either to penetrate a surface layer or to place the dopant ion at a greater depth. The Eaton/Nova Model NV10-160 Pre-DepTM Ion Implanter has been developed to meet those special needs. Beam currents as high as 10.0 mA are available at energies up to 160 keV for routine production applications. The system has also been qualified for low current, low dose operation (1011 ions cm-2) and this unique versatility provides the Process and Equipment Engineers with a powerful new tool. The Model NV10-160 also utilizes the Nova-designed, double disk interchange processing system to minimize inactive beam time so that wafer throughputs, up to 300 wafers/h, are achievable on a routine basis. DatalockTM, a computer driven implant monitoring system and AT-4, the Nova cassette-to-cassette wafer loader, are available as standard options. As a production machine, the Model NV10-160 with its high throughput capability, will reduce the implant cost per wafer significantly for doses above 10 × 1015 ions/cm2. Performance patterns are now emerging as some twenty-five systems have now been shipped. This paper summarizes the more important characteristics and reviews the major design features of the NV10-160.

  4. Structural modification of tantalum crystal induced by nitrogen ion implantation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A H RAMEZANI; M R HANTEHZADEH; M GHORANNEVISS; E DARABI

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on tantalum surface structure. In this experiment, nitrogen ions which had an energy of 30 keV and doses of $1 \\times 10^{17}$ to $10 \\times 10^{17}$ ions cm$^{−2}$ were used. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was applied for both the metallic Ta substrate and the study of new structures that have been created through the nitrogen ion implantation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was also used tocheck the roughness variations prior to and also after the implantation phase. The experimental results show the formation of hexagonal tantalum nitride (TaN$_{0.43}$) in addition to the fact that by increasing the ion dose, the nitrogen atoms occupy more interstitial spaces in the target crystal. The nitride phase also seen for $3\\times 10^{17}$ and $5\\times 10^{17}$ ions cm$^{−2}$, while it disappeared for higher dose of $7\\times 10^{17}$ and $1\\times 10^{18}$ ions cm$^{−2}$. The FWHM of the dominant peak of tantalum nitride suggest the growth of the crystallite’s size, which is in agreement with the AFM results ofthe grains.

  5. Comparison of oxidation resistance of copper treated by beam-line ion implantation and plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper which has many favorable properties such as low cost, high thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as easy fabrication and joining is one of the main materials in lead frames, interconnects, and foils in flexible circuits. Furthermore, copper is one of the best antibacterial materials. However, unlike aluminum oxide or chromium oxide, the surface copper oxide layer does not render sufficient protection against oxidation. In this work, in order to improve the surface oxidation resistance of Cu, Al and N were introduced into copper by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and beam-line ion implantation (BII). The implantation fluences of Al and N were 2 x 1017 ions cm-2 and 5 x 1016 ions cm-2, respectively. The implanted and untreated copper samples were oxidized in air at 260 deg. C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that both implantation methods can enhance the oxidation resistance of copper but to different extent. PIII is superior to BII in enhancing the oxidation resistance of copper. The effects and possible mechanisms are discussed.

  6. EPR of ion-implanted, laser-annealed silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron paramagnetic resonance and ion backscattering measurements were made on ion-implanted, pulsed laser-annealed silicon. For phosphorus-implanted silicon (3 x 1013 200 keV P+/cm2) the electrical activity of the implanted donors is restored after laser annealing with greater than or equal to 1.8 J/cm2. Silicon made amorphous with 2 x 1015 200 keV Si+/cm2 and implanted with 3 x 1013 200 keV P+/cm2 can be restored to crystallinity after laser annealing, but electrical activity of the P was not restored due to residual defects for laser energies less than or equal to 3 J/cm2. Electrical activity can be restored, at least in part, for amorphous silicon implanted at lower energies (approx. = 50 keV). We also observed that N2 reacts with amorphous silicon surfaces to form silicon-nitride. Under laser annealing the N is redistributed and exists as an N interstitial within the implanted layer

  7. Transformation of YSZ under high fluence argon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, I.O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rubanov, S. [Bio21 Institute, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Won, J. [Division of Electron Microscopic Research, Korea Basic Science Institute, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Suvorova, A.A., E-mail: alexandra.suvorova@uwa.edu.au [Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, The University of Western Australia, Crawley (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we present the effect of extremely high fluence ion implantation on microstructure of single crystalline YSZ samples with three major low index orientations: (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1). The samples were implanted at room temperature with 150 keV Ar{sup +} ions to a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 17} Ar/cm{sup −2} corresponding to the peak damage level of ∼120 dpa and peak Ar atom concentration of ∼12 at.%. Rutherford backscattering/channeling spectrometry (RBS/C), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and associated analytical tools were used to determine the orientation dependent damage, surface morphology, and microstructure modifications of the implanted layers. Ar{sup +} ion implantation resulted in formation of severely damaged layers, which however remained crystalline. The damage peak maximum, determined by RBS/C, indicated that the fourth damage accumulation stage, previously predicted for Ar-implanted YSZ, was achieved. The (1 1 0) oriented YSZ demonstrated slightly better radiation tolerance, as observed by RBS/C, compared to the other low index orientations. Microstructural studies revealed large cavities aligned parallel to the specimen surface, which emerged in a form of circular blisters on the surface. The origin of the cavities was related to the segregation of Ar atoms into pressurized gas filled bubbles. The crystallographic anisotropy of microstructural parameters (thickness of the damages layer, surface blister density and diameter, cavity dimensions) remains uncertain.

  8. Characterization of duplex hard coatings with additional ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Škorić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin fi lms which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD. In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N+2 ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of eff ects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densifi cation of the fi lms. The evolution of the microstructure from porous and columnar grains to densel packed grains is accompanied by changes in mechanical and physical properties. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM, X-ray diff raction (XRD and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX.

  9. An RFQ accelerator system for MeV ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakimoto, Akira; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Konishi, Ikuo; Nagamachi, Shinji; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Asari, Masatoshi

    1989-02-01

    A 4-vane-type Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator system for MeV ion implantation has been constructed and ion beams of boron and nitrogen have been accelerated successfully up to an energy of 1.01 and 1.22 MeV, respectively. The acceleration of phosphorus is now ongoing. The design was performed with two computer codes called SUPERFISH and PARMTEQ. The energy of the accelerated ions was measured by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The obtained values agreed well with the designed ones. Thus we have confirmed the validity of our design and have found the possibility that the present RFQ will break through the production-use difficulty of MeV ion implantation.

  10. Nanocomposite formed by titanium ion implantation into alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composites of titanium nanoparticles in alumina were formed by ion implantation of titanium into alumina, and the surface electrical conductivity measured in situ as the implantation proceeded, thus generating curves of sheet conductivity as a function of dose. The implanted titanium self-conglomerates into nanoparticles, and the spatial dimensions of the buried nanocomposite layer can thus be estimated from the implantation depth profile. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry was performed to measure the implantation depth profile, and was in good agreement with the calculated profile. Transmission electron microscopy of the titanium-implanted alumina was used for direct visualization of the nanoparticles formed. The measured conductivity of the buried layer is explained by percolation theory. We determine that the saturation dose, φ0, the maximum implantation dose for which the nanocomposite material still remains a composite, is φ0 = 2.2 × 1016 cm−2, and the corresponding saturation conductivity is σ0 = 480 S/m. The percolation dose φc, below which the nanocomposite still has basically the conductivity of the alumina matrix, was found to be φc = 0.84 × 1016 cm−2. The experimental results are discussed and compared with a percolation theory model

  11. Ion implantation and annealing studies in III-V nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation doping and isolation is expected to play an enabling role for the realization of advanced III-Nitride based devices. In fact, implantation has already been used to demonstrate n- and p-type doping of GaN with Si and Mg or Ca, respectively, as well as to fabricate the first GaN junction field effect transistor. Although these initial implantation studies demonstrated the feasibility of this technique for the III-Nitride materials, further work is needed to realize its full potential. After reviewing some of the initial studies in this field, the authors present new results for improved annealing sequences and defect studies in GaN. First, sputtered AlN is shown by electrical characterization of Schottky and Ohmic contacts to be an effect encapsulant of GaN during the 1,100 C implant activation anneal. The AlN suppresses N-loss from the GaN surface and the formation of a degenerate n+-surface region that would prohibit Schottky barrier formation after the implant activation anneal. Second, they examine the nature of the defect generation and annealing sequence following implantation using both Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Hall characterization. They show that for a Si-dose of 1 x 1016 cm-2 50% electrical donor activation is achieved despite a significant amount of residual implantation-induced damage in the material

  12. Spectroscopic analysis of trivalent cerium and holmium ions in LiCl–KCl eutectic melt at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical behavior of trivalent cerium (Ce3+) and holmium (Ho3+) dissolved in a LiCl–KCl eutectic melt was investigated through a spectroscopic analysis. The molten LiCl–KCl bath was constructed using an externally controlled high-temperature furnace apparatus. Ultraviolet–visible absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded at 400 °C. We observed heavily broadened and intense fluorescence spectra of Ce3+ attributed to the electric-dipole-allowed 5d–4f transition. The fluorescence signal of Ho3+ separately dissolved in the LiCl–KCl eutectic was difficult to detect in the visible range. The fluorescence emission of Ho3+ containing various intra-f transitions in the visible range was strongly enhanced when Ho3+ and Ce3+ ions were co-dissolved in a LiCl–KCl eutectic melt. - Highlights: ► Fluorescence of Ho3+ and Ce3+ mixtures in a KCl–LiCl melt was examined with pulsed laser excitation. ► Broad fluorescence emission band of Ce3+ appeared in the absence of Ho3+ with 355-nm excitation. ► There appeared no prominent emission peaks from Ho3+ in the absence of Ce3+. ► Fluorescence of Ho3+ ions was strongly enhanced in the presence of Ce3+ by energy transfer.

  13. Large area buried nanopatterning by broad ion implantation without any mask or direct writing

    OpenAIRE

    Karmakar, Prasanta; Satpati, Biswarup

    2013-01-01

    We have introduced here a simple, single step and cost effective broad ion beam technique for preparation of nanoscale electronic, magnetic, optical and mechanical devices without the need of resist, mask, or focused electron and ion beams. In this approach, broad beam ion implantation of desired atom on a prefabricated ion beam patterned surface promotes site selective deposition by adjusting the local angle of ion implantation. We show that implantation of Fe ions on an O+ induced pre fabri...

  14. Ion implantation induced by Cu ablation at high laser fluence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Mezzasalma, A. M.; Gammino, S.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Láska, Leoš; Franco, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 252, - (2006), s. 8533-8538. ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : plasma laser * laser ablation * ion implantation * RBS analysis * AES analysis Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.436, year: 2006

  15. Surface ion implantation induced by laser-generated plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Wolowski, J.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 165, 6-10 (2010), s. 534-542. ISSN 1042-0150. [International Workshop on Pulsed Plasma Laser Ablation (PPLA)/4./. Monte Pieta, Messina, 18.06.2009-20.06.2009] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser ablation * laser plasma * ion implantation * RBS analysis Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.660, year: 2010

  16. Extreme Precipitation Strengthening in Ion-Implanted Nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precipitation strengthening of nickel was investigated using ion-implantation alloying and nanoindentation testing for particle separations in the nanometer range and volume fractions extending above 10O/O. Ion implantation of either oxygen alone or oxygen plus aluminum at room temperature was shown to produce substantial strengthening in the ion-treated layer, with yield strengths near 5 GPa in both cases. After annealing to 550''C the oxygen-alone layer loses much of the benefit, with its yield strength reduced to 1.2 GP but the dual ion-implanted layer retains a substantially enhanced yield strength of over 4 GPa. Examination by transmission electron f microscopy showed very fine dispersions of 1-5 nm diameter NiO and y-A1203 precipitates in the implanted layers before annealing. The heat treatment at 550''C induced ripening of the NiO particles to sizes ranging from 7 to 20 nm, whereas the more stable -A1203 precipitates were little changed. The extreme strengthening we observe is in semiquantitative agreement with predictions based on the application of dispersion-hardening theory to these microstructure

  17. Dependence of implantation sequence on surface blistering characteristics due to H and He ions co-implanted in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J. H.; Hsieh, H. Y.; Wu, C. W.; Lin, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated surface blistering characteristics due to H and He ions co-implanted in silicon at room temperature. The H and He ion energies were 40 and 50 keV, respectively, so that their depth profiles were similar. The total implantation fluence for the H and He ions was 5 × 1016 cm-2 under various fluence fractions in the H ions. The implantation sequences under investigation were He + H and H + He. Dynamic optical microscopy (DOM) was employed in order to dynamically analyze surface blistering characteristics. This study used DOM data to construct so-called time-temperature-transformation (T-T-T) curves to easily predict blistering and crater transformation at specific annealing times and temperatures. The results revealed that the curves of blister initialization, crater initialization, and crater completion in the He + H implant occurred at a lower annealing temperature but with a longer annealing time compared to those in the H + He implant. Furthermore, the threshold annealing temperatures for blister and crater formation in the He + H implant were lower than they were in the H + He implant. The size distributions of the blisters and craters in the He + H implant extended wider than those in the H + He implant. In addition, the He + H implant exhibited larger blisters and craters compared to the ones in the H + He implant. Since the former has a higher percentage of exfoliation area than the latter, it is regarded as the more optimal implantation sequence.

  18. Biological effect of nitrogen ion implantation on stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seed of stevia were implanted by 35∼150 keV nitrogen ions with various doses. The biological effect in M1 was studied. The results showed that nitrogen ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with ion beam energy and dose added, but there was on significant linear regression relationship between ion dose and aberration rate. The results indicated the seedling height reduced with the increasing of dose for ion beam. The biological effect of nitrogen ion beam on M1 stevia was lower than that of γ-rays. (6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  19. Ion implant rapid thermal anneal international round robin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarling, C. B.; Andrew Keenan, W.

    1989-02-01

    The Greater Silicon Valley Implant Users' Group (GSVIUG) has conducted two round robin evaluations to determine the uniformity and repeatability available on commercial rapid thermal processing (RTP) equipment when processing implanted wafers. Twelve RTF vendors have participated, including AET Addax, A.G. Associates, Dainippon Screen, Eaton, Koyo Lindberg, Nanosil, Nichiden Machinery, Peak Systems, Process Products, Tamarack Scientific, Thermco/TEL, and Varian Associates. Sheet resistance contour maps were used to compare sheet resistance, uniformity and repeatability of each vendor. The first round robin was conducted using 100 mm wafers, implanted with high doses (1 × 10 15 and 1 × 10 6 ions/cm 2) of 100 keV boron and arsenic. The time and temperature ( t- T) of the anneal was left to the individual vendors to provide the best repeatability and uniformity for their equipment. The results indicate that excellent repeatability and uniformity are possible using RTP, but no single vendor was superior for all implant conditions. The second round robin was done using 150 mm wafers implanted with 5 × 10 15 ions/cm 2 arsenic at 80 keV. Each vendor was given four wafers to anneal at 1100 °C for 5, 10, 15 and 20 s. Results indicate that each vendor has a characteristic pattern, that much work needs to be done to standardize the t- T measurement, and that the uniformity on 150 mm wafers requires work by some vendors.

  20. Factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors affecting the ion beam implantation in silicon have been studied using boron, phosphorus, oxygen, and argon ions having energy range 0.5 ke V-200 ke V. It was found that the range of the ions in silicon increases with the increase of their energy and decreases with the increase of their masses. The ionization process is found to be the main process for causing damage in the silicon matrix whether it is produced by the accelerated ions or by the recoiled silicon atoms. The magnitude of ionization in silicon is found to be inversely proportional to the mass of ions. Ionization produced by ions or recoils shows different contributions to the damage depending on the mass of ions where the ions energy loss to ionization decreases from 70% to 23% as the mass is increased from 11 for boron (B) to 40 for argon (Ar). Its magnitude, as produced by ions, is found to decrease with the increase of their masses. Its value is observed to increase in a complementary way with the mass increase. Ions energy loss to vacancies and phonons is found to be independent of the mass of ions. Their values decrease sharply to a minimum within the energy range 0.5-5ke V and levels off at further energy increase up to 200 Ke V. Recoils energy loss to vacancy and phonon production is found to increase with the increase of mass and energy of the accelerated ions

  1. Mass spectrometry improvement on an high current ion implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of accurate mass spectrometry, enabling the identification of all the ions extracted from the ion source in a high current implanter is described. The spectrometry system uses two signals (x–y graphic), one proportional to the magnetic field (x-axes), taken from the high-voltage potential with an optic fiber system, and the other proportional to the beam current intensity (y-axes), taken from a beam-stop. The ion beam mass register in a mass spectrum of all the elements magnetically analyzed with the same radius and defined by a pair of analyzing slits as a function of their beam intensity is presented. The developed system uses a PC to control the displaying of the extracted beam mass spectrum, and also recording of all data acquired for posterior analysis. The operator uses a LabVIEW code that enables the interfacing between an I/O board and the ion implanter. The experimental results from an ion implantation experiment are shown.

  2. Methods for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of implanted ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three simple practical methods of irradiations with high energy particles providing the conditions for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of the implanted ions in the massive samples are described in the present paper. Realization of the condition of two-sided irradiation of a plane sample during its rotation in the flux of the projectiles is the basis of the first method. The use of free air as a filter with varying absorbent ability due to movement of the irradiated sample along ion beam brought to the atmosphere is at the basis of the second method of uniform ion alloying. The third method for obtaining a uniform volume concentration of the implanted ions in a massive sample consists of irradiation of a sample through the absorbent filter in the shape of a foil curved according to the parabolic law moving along its surface. The first method is the most effective for obtaining a great number of the samples, for example, for mechanical tests, the second one - for irradiation in different gaseous media, and the third one - for obtaining high concentrations of the implanted ions under controlled (regulated) thermal and deformation conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs

  3. Resonance ionization of holmium for ion implantation in microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F.; Chrysalidis, K.; Dorrer, H.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Haas, R.; Kieck, T.; Mokry, C.; Naubereit, P.; Schmidt, S.; Wendt, K.

    2016-06-01

    The determination of the electron neutrino mass by calorimetric measurement of the 163 Ho electron capture spectrum requires ultra-pure samples. Several collaborations, like ECHo or HOLMES, intend to employ microcalorimeters into which 163 Ho is implanted as an ion beam. This makes a selective and additionally very efficient ion source for holmium mandatory. For this purpose, laser resonance ionization of stable holmium 165 Ho was studied, using a three step excitation scheme driven by pulsed Ti:sapphire lasers. Five measurements with sample sizes of 1014 and 1015 atoms were performed for the efficiency investigation. In average, an excellent ionization efficiency of 32(5) % could be shown, demonstrating the suitability for ion beam implantation.

  4. Characterization of carbon ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austenitic stainless steel 316L is ion implanted by carbon with implantation fluences of 1.2 × 1017 ions-cm− 2, 2.4 × 1017 ions-cm− 2, and 4.8 × 1017 ions-cm− 2. The ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel is investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion resistance is evaluated by potentiodynamic test. It is found that the initial phase is austenite with a small amount of ferrite. After low fluence carbon ion implantation, an amorphous layer and ferrite phase enriched region underneath are formed. Nanophase particles precipitate from the amorphous layer due to energy minimization and irradiation at larger ion implantation fluence. The morphology of the precipitated nanophase particles changes from circular to dumbbell-like with increasing implantation fluence. The corrosion resistance of stainless steel is enhanced by the formation of amorphous layer and graphitic solid state carbon after carbon ion implantation. - Highlights: • Carbon implantation leads to phase transformation from austenite to ferrite. • The passive film on SS316L becomes thinner after carbon ion implantation. • An amorphous layer is formed by carbon ion implantation. • Nanophase precipitate from amorphous layer at higher ion implantation fluence. • Corrosion resistance of SS316L is improved by carbon implantation

  5. High-energy ion implantation in polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of experimental and theoretical studies on gas selective properties of polyvinyltrimethylsilane (PVTMS) under bombardment with 50-150 keV C+ and Ar+ ions with doses of 5 x 1014-1016 cm-2 are presented. It was found that permeability and selectivity for various gases change essentially under high-energy irradiation. This effect depends on ion type and energy, implantation dose, and is conditioned by peculiarities of the interaction of the ion-polymer system and processes of defect formation and excitation of the electronic subsystem. (Author)

  6. Cooperative emission in ion implanted Yb:YAG waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, G V; Desirena, H; De la Rosa, E [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Flores-Romero, E; Rickards, J; Trejo-Luna, R [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20364, 01000 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Marquez, H, E-mail: gvvazquez@cio.mx [Departamento de Optica, CICESE, Km 107 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the analysis of spectroscopic properties of waveguides fabricated by ion implantation in YAG doped with Yb{sup 3+} ions. Three emission bands were detected in the blue, green and red regions under 970-nm excitation. The strong blue-green emission can be explained by a cooperative process between ytterbium ion pairs, leading to emission centered at 514 nm. The additional blue bands as well as green and red emission bands are attributed to the presence of Tm{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} traces. The results include absorption and emission curves as well as decay time rates.

  7. Evidence of light guiding in ion-implanted diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Lagomarsino, S; Bosia, F; Vannoni, M; Calusi, S; Giuntini, L; Massi, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating light-waveguiding microstructures in bulk single-crystal diamond by means of direct ion implantation with a scanning microbeam, resulting in the modulation of the refractive index of the ion-beam damaged crystal. Direct evidence of waveguiding through such buried microchannels is obtained with a phase-shift micro-interferometric method allowing the study of the multi-modal structure of the propagating electromagnetic field. The possibility of defining optical and photonic structures by direct ion writing opens a range of new possibilities in the design of quantum-optical devices in bulk single crystal diamond.

  8. Cooperative emission in ion implanted Yb:YAG waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report the analysis of spectroscopic properties of waveguides fabricated by ion implantation in YAG doped with Yb3+ ions. Three emission bands were detected in the blue, green and red regions under 970-nm excitation. The strong blue-green emission can be explained by a cooperative process between ytterbium ion pairs, leading to emission centered at 514 nm. The additional blue bands as well as green and red emission bands are attributed to the presence of Tm3+ and Er3+ traces. The results include absorption and emission curves as well as decay time rates.

  9. The compaction of fused silica resulting from ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.M.; Ridgway, M.C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Leech, P.L. [Telstra Research Laboratories, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Ion implantation of fused silica results in compaction and consequently an increase in refractive index. This method of modifying the near-surface region has been shown as a potential means for fabricating single mode channel waveguides. This study has measured the compaction of the implanted regions for Si implantations as a function of dose (2x10{sup 12} - 6x10{sup l6} ions/cm{sup 2}), energy (1-9 MeV) and post-implantation annealing temperature (200-900 degree C). For a given energy, a dose-dependence of the step height (depth of compacted region) is observed for doses less than {approx}10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. At higher doses the step height saturates. For a given dose, a linear trend is evident for the step height as a function of energy suggesting that the major mechanism for this compaction is electronic stopping. As the annealing temperature increases, the step height gradually decreases from {approx}0.1-0.2 {mu} to -10-20% of the original value. From the annealing data, it is possible to extract an activation energy of 0.08 eV associated with the thermal removal of the compacted region. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  10. The compaction of fused silica resulting from ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation of fused silica results in compaction and consequently an increase in refractive index. This method of modifying the near-surface region has been shown as a potential means for fabricating single mode channel waveguides. This study has measured the compaction of the implanted regions for Si implantations as a function of dose (2x1012 - 6x10l6 ions/cm2), energy (1-9 MeV) and post-implantation annealing temperature (200-900 degree C). For a given energy, a dose-dependence of the step height (depth of compacted region) is observed for doses less than ∼1015 ions/cm2. At higher doses the step height saturates. For a given dose, a linear trend is evident for the step height as a function of energy suggesting that the major mechanism for this compaction is electronic stopping. As the annealing temperature increases, the step height gradually decreases from ∼0.1-0.2 μ to -10-20% of the original value. From the annealing data, it is possible to extract an activation energy of 0.08 eV associated with the thermal removal of the compacted region. 4 refs., 4 figs

  11. Niobium oxide thin films formed by plasma immersion oxygen ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In analogy to conventional beam-line ion implantation, plasma immersion ion implantation can be combined with a deposition technique to an ion assisted coating process. The structure and composition of a coating and its interface to the substrate can be modified by ion implantation. By means of electron beam evaporation and oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation niobium oxide films were prepared at low substrate temperatures (< 200 C). The film composition and thickness were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The results show that oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation leads to incorporation of oxygen into niobium in several steps, corresponding to niobium oxide phases with different stoichiometries. By contrast to conventional beam-line ion implantation at low pressures, two channels for oxidation can be distinguished, ion implantation of high-energy species and radiation enhanced in-diffusion of low-energy species from the plasma. The latter is driven by thermodynamic forces. (orig.)

  12. Doping of silicon carbide by ion implantation; Dopage du carbure de silicium par implantation ionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimbert, J

    1999-03-04

    It appeared that in some fields, as the hostile environments (high temperature or irradiation), the silicon compounds showed limitations resulting from the electrical and mechanical properties. Doping of 4H and 6H silicon carbide by ion implantation is studied from a physicochemical and electrical point of view. It is necessary to obtain n-type and p-type material to realize high power and/or high frequency devices, such as MESFETs and Schottky diodes. First, physical and electrical properties of silicon carbide are presented and the interest of developing a process technology on this material is emphasised. Then, physical characteristics of ion implantation and particularly classical dopant implantation, such as nitrogen, for n-type doping, and aluminium and boron, for p-type doping are described. Results with these dopants are presented and analysed. Optimal conditions are extracted from these experiences so as to obtain a good crystal quality and a surface state allowing device fabrication. Electrical conduction is then described in the 4H and 6H-SiC polytypes. Freezing of free carriers and scattering processes are described. Electrical measurements are carried out using Hall effect on Van der Panw test patterns, and 4 point probe method are used to draw the type of the material, free carrier concentrations, resistivity and mobility of the implanted doped layers. These results are commented and compared to the theoretical analysis. The influence of the technological process on electrical conduction is studied in view of fabricating implanted silicon carbide devices. (author)

  13. Engineering single photon emitters by ion implantation in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, B; Kolesov, R; Batalov, A; Meijer, J; Pezzagna, S; Rogalla, D; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J

    2009-11-01

    Diamond provides unique technological platform for quantum technologies including quantum computing and communication. Controlled fabrication of optically active defects is a key element for such quantum toolkit. Here we report the production of single color centers emitting in the blue spectral region by high energy implantation of carbon ions. We demonstrate that single implanted defects show sub-poissonian statistics of the emitted photons and can be explored as single photon source in quantum cryptography. Strong zero phonon line at 470.5 nm allows unambiguous identification of this defect as interstitial-related TR12 color center. PMID:19956415

  14. Improvement of graphene quality synthesized by cluster ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphene was prepared by negative C4 cluster ion implantation at 5 keV/atom followed by vacuum thermal annealing and cooling. The surface morphology and structure of samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Improvement of the graphene quality was realized by optimization of the post thermal processes. 1–2 layer graphene was obtained with I2D/IG ratio of 1.43 and ID/IG ratio of 0.07 at the implantation dose of 12 × 1015 atoms/cm2 and annealed at 900 °C followed by cooling at 20 °C/min

  15. Copper nanoparticles synthesized in polymers by ion implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir; Nuzhdin, Vladimir; Valeev, Valerij; Stepanov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyimide (PI) samples are implanted by 40 keV Cu+ ions with high fluences in order to synthesize copper nanoparticles in shallow polymer layers. The produced metal/polymer nanocomposites are studied using atomic force and scanning electron microscopies as well as...... optical transmission spectroscopy. It is found that copper nanoparticles nucleation and growth are strongly fluence dependent as well as they are affected by the polymer properties, in particular, by radiation stability yielding different nanostructures for the implanted PI and PMMA. Shallow synthesized...

  16. The effect of ion implantation on the lifetime of punches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronics industry demands stamped parts with high performance. Therefore, punching tools like cutting punches with very high precision have to be used. In the case reported, the punches are mounted in a modular system and have to be resharpened or replaced after a certain number of strokes. To increase the lifetime of the punches made of Vasco Wear steel, implantations with carbon, nitrogen, boron and titanium, and co-implantation with titanium and carbon were performed at energies from 50 keV to 200 keV and 600 keV and 700 keV with different doses in the region of several times 1018 cm-2, measured perpendicular to the ion beam. A maximum increase in lifetime of a factor of 3.6 was reached. The surface roughness had a large influence on the increase lifetime and the improvement caused by specific ion species. The maximum improvement was obtained for the lowest surface roughness (Ra=0.04 μm). Therefore, when performing the implants, punches with low surface roughness should be used. The most successful ion species were boron and nitrogen for the lowest surface roughness used (Ra=0.04 μm), and after changing the polishing procedure (Ra=0.14 μm) titanium and nitrogen at medium energies (100-200 keV). High energy implantation (700 keV) resulted in an increase of a factor of 2.1 at lower doses (5.6x1017 cm-2), but is uneconomical owing to the low current density. In laboratory wear tests (ball on disk) no improvement by ion implantation could be found. These results prove that it is difficult to compare field tests and laboratory tests because of different testing conditions. (orig.)

  17. Rapid thermal process-induced recombination centers in ion implanted silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhammer, W.; Hage-Ali, M.; Stuck, R.; Siffert, P.

    1990-04-01

    This work presents direct evidence for a correlation between rapid thermal process-induced recombination centers and co-implanted metallic impurities in ion implanted silicon. Experimental evidence includes the dose dependence of the minority carrier diffusion length measured by the SPV technique, SIMS and RBS analysis of high-dose implantations which show the presence of heavy metals, the dependence of the final diffusion lengths on the mass of the implanted ions, as well as the successful modification of an implantation equipment.

  18. Electrical resistance of diamond implanted at liquid nitrogen temperature with carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon ion implantation of diamond to high fluence, below the temperature at which diamond growth can occur, usually leads to black layers of high conductivity. This study shows that for a low enough temperature of the diamond during implantation, a black layer with high electrical resistance can develop. In particular, carbon ion implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature, leads to an implanted layer with electrical resistance about one million times higher than the resistance obtained for implantation at temperatures above room temperature. (author)

  19. Sources for Low Energy Extreme of Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress for the past four and a half years. The ultimate goal is to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has resulted in record steady state output currents of higher charge state Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P2+(8.6 pmA), P3+(1.9 pmA), and P4+(0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb3+ Sb4+, Sb5+, and Sb6+ respectively. During the past year the effort was channeled towards low energy implantation, for which the effort involved molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 3 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 14 keV and a smaller current of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, a Boron fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source.

  20. Reciprocal space mapping of silicon implanted with nitrogen by plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen was implanted in (0 0 1) silicon wafers using 12 kV pulses in a glow-discharge plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) system and at 35 keV in an electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) PIII facility. An implantation depth of 80 nm and a retained dose of approximately 3x1017 cm-2 were found, for both samples, from the nitrogen Auger profiles. Reciprocal space maps (RSMs) around the (0 0 4) and (1 1 3) Si lattice points were measured for the implanted and unimplanted Si wafers, using the high-resolution X-ray diffractometer in the triple axis configuration. An asymmetry in the reciprocal space coordinate Qz (perpendicular to the sample surface) indicates that the implanted atoms force an increase in the Si lattice parameter in this direction. A broadening in the Qx direction (parallel to the sample surface) was also observed, but with a less pronounced effect. For the sample implanted with higher energy, the shape of the map indicates a higher disorder in the crystal structure

  1. Cluster Ion Implantation in Graphite and Diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Cluster ion beam technique is a versatile tool which can be used for controllable formation of nanosize objects as well as modification and processing of surfaces and shallow layers on an atomic scale. The current paper present an overview and analysis of data obtained on a few sets of graphite and...

  2. Optical spectroscopy of yttrium double phosphates doped by cerium and praseodymium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the spectroscopic properties of cerium- and praseodymium-doped alkali metal yttrium double phosphates, M3Y(PO4)2:Pr3+, Ce3+; M = Na, Rb. These phosphates were obtained by a solid state reaction between lanthanide phosphate hydrates and M3PO4. The absorption, reflection, emission and excitation spectra were measured at room temperature, 77 and 4 K in the IR-vis-ultraviolet (UV) range. For both the Ce3+- and Pr3+-doped double phosphates, the 4fN↔4fN-15d transitions were detected. For the Pr3+-doped double phosphates, the 4f-4f transitions from the 3H4 ground manifold were analyzed. The low temperature 3H4→3P0 absorption spectra were used to characterize the structural modifications between the sodium and rubidium salts. For the Ce3+-doped double phosphate, the strong blue 5d1→4f1 emission band splits into two components due to the 2F5/2-2F7/2 splitting of the 4f1 configuration. Intense emission occurs mainly from the 3P0 level at high dopant concentrations, since the 1D2 emission is strongly quenched but was detected at the 2 mol% doping level. In spite of the forbidden 4f-4f character, the 3P0 transitions have very short decay times, of the order of one μs. Dynamics of the excited states will be discussed based on the decay times and selective excited emission

  3. Hollow cathode ion source for application to an implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hollow cathode ion source has been studied in order to improve the life-time of an ion source for an ion implanter. Both volatile and refractory elements are shown to be ionized using two types of discharge state of the hollow cathode namely hot and cold cathode discharge. The life-time of LaB6 as the hot cathode is more than 150 h and the ion beam currents reach more than 10 mA cm-2 at the extraction voltage of 10 kV. For the cold cathode operation, stable currents of approx. 40 to 70 μA are extracted of refractory metal ions such as W and Mo. (author)

  4. High-energy, high-current ion implantation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.H.; Faretra, R.; Ryding, G. (Eaton Corp., Beverly, MA (USA). Ion Beam Systems Div.)

    1985-01-01

    High current (Pre-Depsup(TM)) ion implanters, operating at 80 keV, have met a need in the semiconductor industry. For certain processes, higher energies are required, either to penetrate a surface layer or to place the dopant ion at a greater depth. The Eaton/Nova Model NV10-160 Pre-Dpsup(TM) Ion Implanter has been developed to meet those special needs. Beam currents as high as 10.0 mA are available at energies up to 160 keV for routine production applications. The system has also been qualified for low current, low dose operation (10/sup 11/ ions cm/sup -2/) and this unique versatility provides the Process and Equipment Engineers with a powerful new tool. The Model NV10-160 also utilizes the Nova-designed, double disk interchange processing system to minimize inactive beam time so that wafer throughputs, up to 300 wafers/h, are achievable on a routine basis. Datalocksup(TM), a computer driven implant monitoring system and AT-4, the Nova cassette-to-cassette wafer loader, are available as standard options. As a production machine, the Model NV10-160 with its high throughput capability, will reduce the implant cost per wafer significantly for doses above 10 x 10/sup 15/ ions/cm/sup 2/. Performance patterns are now emerging as some twenty-five systems have now been shipped. This paper summarizes the more important characteristics and reviews the major design features of the NV10-160.

  5. Effects of ion beam implantation on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of cedrus deodara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of ion beam implantation on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Cedrus deodara were investigated by the laser confocal microscopy technique (LSCM). The results showed that the low dose ion implantation (1x1015 ions/cm2) did not affect the germination of the pollen. The doses of 3x1015 ions/cm2 and 5x1015 ions/cm2 implantation could significantly promote the germination. But the high dose ion implantation (equal to or over 7x1015 ions/cm2) obviously suppressed the pollen to germinate. The effects on elongation and morphological characters of the pollen tube caused by the ion beam implantation were observed. The damage degree of the pollen tube increased with the increase of ion implantation dose. (authors)

  6. ADFA/ANU 150 keV radioactive ion implanter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J.X.; Chaplin, D.H.; Hutchinson, W.D.; Stewart, G.A. [University College, UNSW, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Physics; Byrne, A.P. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Nuclear Physics, RSPhysSE and Department of Physics, the Faculties

    1998-12-31

    Full text: As foreshadowed at the 10th Australian Conference on Nuclear Techniques of Analysis (Byrne et al), the collaborative project to build a radioactive ion implanter, within the custom designed Radiation Laboratories at Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA), has recently led to the initial commissioning tests of the instrument described in that report. Primary aims are to serve the hyperfine interactions community interested in Materials Science with particular emphasis on magnetic and semiconductor materials. 2.8 day {sup 111}In will be the first radioactive probe implanted following optimization of beam transport with stable indium. The implanted {sup 111}In samples will be prepared for both time-differential, gamma-gamma, PAC studies at ANU and bruteforce NMRON spectroscopies using the top loading dilution refrigerator at ADFA. In this paper we provide further information on the capabilities of the instrument and the results of the initial commissioning tests

  7. Lattice damage in ion-implanted silicon-germanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damage produced in Si1-xGex alloys (0≤x≤1) by implantation of 70--100 keV 30Si+ has been measured as a function of temperature and fluence by ion channeling. For all compositions, the damage efficiency decreased sharply as the implant temperature was increased between room temperature and 150 degrees C. Furthermore, the damage efficiency in alloys of intermediate compositions (0.34≤x≤0.5) exceeds that in Ge, especially at elevated temperatures, despite the larger cascade energy density in Ge. It is shown that this behavior can be described based on a model in which the point-defect mobility is the dominant factor controlling damage retention, rather than the cascade energy density. This approach provides a framework for understanding other temperature-dependent phenomena related to damage growth in Si-Ge alloys including dose-rate effects and damage saturation in MeV implantation

  8. Nitrogen ion implantation of silicon in dense plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low energy (1.45 kJ) Mather type plasma focus device is used for nitrogen ion implantation in mono-crystalline silicon. The silicon specimens are exposed to different number of focus shots by placing the targets in front of the anode at a fixed distance. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction are employed to characterize the implanted specimens. The results indicate that mono-crystalline silicon transforms into amorphous structure through micro-crystalline phase on increasing the implantation dose. Further irradiation of the specimens results in the formation of amorphous Si3N4 layers. High temperature annealing in argon ambient transforms the amorphous Si3N4 into β-Si3N4

  9. Spectroscopic analysis of trivalent cerium and holmium ions in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seong Y. [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedukdaero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Yun, E-mail: kjy@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedukdaero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Eun; Cho, Young Hwan; Yeon, Jei-Won; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedukdaero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The chemical behavior of trivalent cerium (Ce{sup 3+}) and holmium (Ho{sup 3+}) dissolved in a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt was investigated through a spectroscopic analysis. The molten LiCl-KCl bath was constructed using an externally controlled high-temperature furnace apparatus. Ultraviolet-visible absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded at 400 Degree-Sign C. We observed heavily broadened and intense fluorescence spectra of Ce{sup 3+} attributed to the electric-dipole-allowed 5d-4f transition. The fluorescence signal of Ho{sup 3+} separately dissolved in the LiCl-KCl eutectic was difficult to detect in the visible range. The fluorescence emission of Ho{sup 3+} containing various intra-f transitions in the visible range was strongly enhanced when Ho{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+} ions were co-dissolved in a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence of Ho{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+} mixtures in a KCl-LiCl melt was examined with pulsed laser excitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Broad fluorescence emission band of Ce{sup 3+} appeared in the absence of Ho{sup 3+} with 355-nm excitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There appeared no prominent emission peaks from Ho{sup 3+} in the absence of Ce{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence of Ho{sup 3+} ions was strongly enhanced in the presence of Ce{sup 3+} by energy transfer.

  10. Influence of ion species ratio on grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiu-Li; Zhang Gu-Ling; Liu Yuan-Fu; Wang You-Nian; Liu Chi-Zi; Yang Si-Ze

    2004-01-01

    @@ Grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation (GEPSII) is a newly proposed technique to modify the inner-surface properties of a cylindrical bore. In this paper, a two-ion fluid model describing nitrogen molecular ions N2+ and atomic ions N+ is used to investigate the ion sheath dynamics between the grid electrode and the inner surface of a cylindrical bore during the GEPSII process, which is an extension of our previous calculations in which only N2+ was considered.Calculations are concentrated on the results of ion dose and impact energy on the target for different ion species ratios in the core plasma. The calculated results show that more atomic ions N+ in the core plasma can raise the ion impact energy and reduce the ion dose on the target.

  11. Mechanical properties of ion-implanted tungsten-5 wt% tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation has been used to simulate neutron damage in W-5wt%Ta alloy manufactured by arc melting. Implantations were carried out at damage levels of 0.07, 1.2, 13 and 33 displacements per atom (dpa). The mechanical properties of the ion-implanted layer were investigated by nanoindentation. The hardness increases rapidly from 7.3 GPa in the unimplanted condition to 8.8 GPa at 0.07 dpa. Above this damage level, the increase in hardness is lower, and the hardness change saturates by 13 dpa. In the initial portion of the load-displacement curves, the indentations in unimplanted material show a large 'initial pop-in' corresponding to the onset of plasticity. This is not seen in the implanted samples at any doses. The change in plasticity has also been studied using the nanoindenter in scanning mode to produce a topographical scan around indentations. In the unimplanted condition there is an extensive pile-up around the indentation. At damage levels of 0.07 and 1.2 dpa the extent and height of pile-up are much less. The reasons for this are under further investigation.

  12. Mechanical properties of ion-implanted tungsten-5 wt% tantalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, D. E. J.; Wilkinson, A. J.; Roberts, S. G.

    2011-12-01

    Ion implantation has been used to simulate neutron damage in W-5wt%Ta alloy manufactured by arc melting. Implantations were carried out at damage levels of 0.07, 1.2, 13 and 33 displacements per atom (dpa). The mechanical properties of the ion-implanted layer were investigated by nanoindentation. The hardness increases rapidly from 7.3 GPa in the unimplanted condition to 8.8 GPa at 0.07 dpa. Above this damage level, the increase in hardness is lower, and the hardness change saturates by 13 dpa. In the initial portion of the load-displacement curves, the indentations in unimplanted material show a large 'initial pop-in' corresponding to the onset of plasticity. This is not seen in the implanted samples at any doses. The change in plasticity has also been studied using the nanoindenter in scanning mode to produce a topographical scan around indentations. In the unimplanted condition there is an extensive pile-up around the indentation. At damage levels of 0.07 and 1.2 dpa the extent and height of pile-up are much less. The reasons for this are under further investigation.

  13. Surface microanalytical studies of nitrogen ion-implanted steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five types of industrial steels, 1018, 52100, M-2, 440C, and 304 were ion implanted with nitrogen and subjected to surface microanalysis by three independent surface techniques: AES, RBS, and SIMS. The results provided understanding for earlier observations of the properties of various types of steel after nitrogen implantation. The steels that retained the most nitrogen and that have been reported to benefit the most in improved tribological properties from ion implantation were ferritic carbon and austenitic stainless steels, such as soft 1018 and 304, respectively. Heat-treated martensitic carbon steels such as 52100 and M-2 tool steel were found to retain the least nitrogen, and they have been reported to benefit less from nitrogen implantation; however, the interaction of transition metal carbides in M-2 with nitrogen has not been clarified. The data showed that 440C steel retained as much nitrogen as 1018 and 304, but treatment benefits may be limited to improvements in properties related to toughness and impact resistance. (orig.)

  14. 4-rod RFQ linac for ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka [Nisshin Electric Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A 34 MHz 4-rod RFQ linac system has been upgraded in both its rf power efficiency and beam intensity. The linac is able to accelerate in cw operation 0.83 mA of a B{sup +} ion beam from 0.03 to 0.91 MeV with transmission of 61 %. The rf power fed to the RFQ is 29 kW. The unloaded Q-value of the RFQ has been improved approximately 61 % to 5400 by copper-plating stainless steel cooling pipes in the RFQ cavity. (author)

  15. Temperature behavior of damage in sapphire implanted with light ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, E. [Ion Beam Laboratory, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: ealves@itn.pt; Marques, C. [Ion Beam Laboratory, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Safran, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); McHargue, Carl J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0750 (United States)

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we compare and discuss the defect behavior of sapphire single crystals implanted with different fluences (1 x 10{sup 16}-1 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}) of carbon and nitrogen with 150 keV. The implantation temperatures were RT, 500 deg. C and 1000 deg. C to study the influence of temperature on the defect structures. For all the ions the Rutherford backscattering-channeling (RBS-C) results indicate a surface region with low residual disorder in the Al-sublattice. Near the end of range the channeled spectrum almost reaches the random indicating a high damage level for fluences of 1 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photographs show a layered contrast feature for the C implanted sample where a buried amorphous region is present. For the N implanted sample the Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) elemental mapping give evidence for the presence of a buried damage layer decorated with bubbles. Samples implanted at high temperatures (500 deg. C and 1000 deg. C) show a strong contrast fluctuation indicating a defective crystalline structure of sapphire.

  16. Surface modification of ion implanted ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jingsheng; Zhu Fuying; Pan Haochang; Cao Jianqing; Zhu Dezhang E-mail: dezhang_zhu@hotmail.com; Xu Hongjie; Cai Qing; Shen Jingen; Chen Lihua; He Zhengrui

    2000-06-02

    The surface modification has been studied for the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) implanted by 80 keV N{sub 2}{sup +}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}{sup +} (40 keV N{sup +}, 22 keV C{sup +}) with fluences ranging from 1x10{sup 14} to 5x10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been employed to characterize the modified surface of the samples. ERD results show that the high energy edge of ERD spectra shifts in the lower energy direction with the increase of implantation fluency, indicating that a hydrogen deficient surface layer is formed after implantation. XPS result shows that injected nitrogen atoms assist in crosslinking by forming chemical bonds with the polymer chains. KyowA's DF-PM reciprocating tester has been used to measure the wear property before and after implantation. The results show that the wear-resistance of samples after N{sub 2}{sup +}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}{sup +} implantation has been improved by 68 and 47.5 times, respectively. Some interpretations are given to explain the observed phenomena.

  17. Rapid Thermal annealing of silicon layers amorphized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recrystallization behavior and the supression mechanisms of the residual defects of silicon layers amorphized by ion implantation, were investigated. The samples were annealed with the aid of a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system at temperature range from 850 to 12000C, and annealing time up to 120 s. Random and aligned Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were used to analyse the samples. Similarities in the recrystallization behavior for layers implanted with ions of the same chemical groups such as As or Sb; Ge, Sn or Pb, In or Ga, are observed. The results show that the effective supression of resisual defects of the recrystallired layers is vinculated to the redistribution of impurities via thermal diffusion. (author)

  18. Ion beam analysis of Cs-implanted zirconia and spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission products (Cs) were introduced into yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and magnesium aluminate spinel (MAS) single crystals by room temperature ion implantation. The effect of high-temperature annealing on the depth distribution of implanted species and the surface homogeneity of crystals were investigated by the combination of AFM and RBS using a macro- and a micro-ion beam. The diffusion and release of Cs involve mechanisms which depend on the material and Cs concentration. In YSZ Cs desorbs out of the crystal at lower temperature (∼550 deg. C) than in MAS (∼850 deg. C). In YSZ the surface of the sample remains unaltered when Cs desorption occurs, whereas in MAS Cs desorption is accompanied by the exfoliation of the sample surface

  19. Nanoclustering in Silicon Induced by Oxygen Ions Implanted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Manno

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We report about the nanoclustering induced by oxygen‐implantation in silicon. A tandem‐type accelerator, with a maximum acceleration voltage of 3 MV, equipped with a sputtering ion source suitable for the production of high current ion beams by sputtering of solid cathodes has been used. The surface modifications and the structure of nanoclusters are investigated. The topographic images, obtained by scanning tunnelling microscope showed that the surface is covered with a dense array of tetragonal nanostructures oriented with respect to the substrate. Raman spectroscopy data allowed us to estimate an average cluster size of about 50 nm. Resistivity and Hall effect measurements evidenced that the electron transport in the implanted silicon samples is affected by the nanoclusters array and it could be explained by thermally activated hopping between localized states.

  20. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation

  1. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.

  2. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delle Side, D., E-mail: domenico.delleside@le.infn.it [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L. [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S.M. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.

  3. The Characterisation of Silicate Glasses Implanted with Ag+ Ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malinský, Petr; Macková, Anna; Nekvindová, P.; Švecová, B.; Kormunda, M.; Kolitsch, A.

    Melville: American Institute of Physics, 2011, s. 327-334. ISBN 978-0-7354-0986-6. ISSN 0094-243X. [11th International Conference on Applications of Nuclear Techniques. Crete (GR), 12.06.2011-18.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0125 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : ion implantation * silicate glasses * metal nanoparticles * Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy * optical absorption Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  4. Fe doped Magnetic Nanodiamonds made by Ion Implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, ChienHsu; Jian, Hui-Shan; Niu, H

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a simple physical method to produce magnetic nanodiamonds (NDs) using high dose Fe ion-implantation. The Fe atoms are distributed inside the NDs without affecting their crystal structure. So the NDs can be still functionalized through surface modification for targeted chemotherapy and the added magnetic property will make the NDs suitable for localized thermal treatment for cancer cells without the toxicity from the Fe atoms being directly in contact with the living tissue.

  5. Erbium ion implantation into different crystallographic cuts of lithium niobate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Švecová, B.; Cajzl, J.; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Kolitsch, A.; Špirková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 652-659. ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA ČR GA106/09/0125; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/10/1477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Lithium niobate * Erbium * Ion implantation * Luminescence Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.918, year: 2012

  6. Er+ medium energy ion implantation into lithium niobate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, B.; Nekvindová, P.; Macková, Anna; Oswald, Jiří; Vacík, Jiří; Grotzschel, R.; Spirkova, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 267, 8-9 (2009), s. 1332-1335. ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA AV ČR IAA200480702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : lithium niobate * erbium * ion implantation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders Impact factor: 1.156, year: 2009

  7. Urinary catheter with polyurethane coating modified by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low friction urinary catheter that could be used without a lubricant is proposed in this work. A polyurethane coating was synthesised on the surface of a metal guide wire catheter. Ion implantation was applied to surface modify the polyurethane coating. FTIR ATR, wetting angle, AFM and friction tests were used for analysis. Low friction was found to be provided by the formation of a hard carbonised layer on the polyurethane surface

  8. Plasma source ion implantation of ammonia into electroplated chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammonia gas (NH3) has been used as a nitrogen source for plasma source ion implantation processing of electroplated chromium. No evidence was found of increased hydrogen concentrations in the bulk material, implying that ammonia can be used without risking hydrogen embrittlement. The retained nitrogen dose of 2.1 x 1017 N-at/cm2 is sufficient to increase the surface hardness of electroplated Cr by 24% and decrease the wear rate by a factor of 4

  9. Some features of ion mixing during simultaneous ion implantation and deposition of metallic coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Pogrebnyak, A D; Mikhalev, A D; Shablya, V T; Yanovskij, V P

    2001-01-01

    The results on the Ta, Cu ions implantation into the aluminium substrate by simultaneous deposition of these ions in the form of coatings are presented. The complex structure of these coatings from the given elements in the substrate, as well as the increase in the microhardness, adhesion and corrosion resistance growth are determined. It is shown on the basis of the results of the secondary ions energy distribution, that intermetallic phases are formed in the substrate surface layer

  10. Formation of Nanoscale Intermetallic Phases in Ni Surface Layer at High Intensity Implantation of Al Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.A.Bozhko; S.V.Fortuna; I.A.Kurzina; I.B.Stepanov; E.V.Kozlov; Yu.P. Sharkeev

    2004-01-01

    The results of experimental study of nanoscale intermetallic formation in surface layer of a metal target at ion implantation are presented. To increase the thickness of the ion implanted surface layer the high intensive ion implantation is used. Compared with the ordinary ion implantation, the high intensive ion implantation allows a much thicker modified surface layer. Pure polycrystalline nickel was chosen as a target. Nickel samples were irradiated with Al ions on the vacuum-arc ion beam and plasma flow source "Raduga-5". It was shown that at the high intensity ion implantation the fine dispersed particles of Ni3Al, NiAl intermetallic compounds and solid solution Al in Ni are formed in the nickel surface layer of 200 nm and thicker. The formation of phases takes place in complete correspondence with the Ni-Al phase diagram.

  11. Influence of heavy ion implantation on the microhardness of lif

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Alazm, S M

    2003-01-01

    The paper presented microhardness measurements for pure lithium fluoride (LiF) implanted with Ar, Kr and Xe at doses ranged from 10 sup 9 up to 10 sup 1 2 ion/cm sup 2. Measurements were also performed for the microhardness after irradiation by electron and gamma rays. The data exhibited a large increase of microhardness of LiF using heavy ions in comparison with the unimplanted and irradiated samples with electrons and gamma rays. The influence of annealing the samples on the microhardness is also studied. The obtained results were interpreted according to the formation of F-centers in LiF.

  12. Stabilization of organic thin film transistors by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraboni, B., E-mail: beatrice.fraboni@unibo.it [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Cosseddu, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica ed Elettronica, Universita di Cagliari, piazza d' Armi, 09123 Cagliari, Italy and CNR-INFM S3 via Campi 213/a 41100 Modena (Italy); Wang, Y.Q.; Schulze, R.K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory MS-K771 Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States); Cavallini, A. [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory MS-K771 Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States); Bonfiglio, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica ed Elettronica, Universita di Cagliari, piazza d' Armi, 09123 Cagliari, Italy and CNR-INFM S3 via Campi 213/a 41100 Modena (Italy)

    2012-08-01

    We report on the effects of low energy ion implantation (N and Ne) in the reduction and control of the degradation of pentacene organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) due to the exposure to atmosphere (i.e. oxygen and water). We have observed that a controlled damage depth distribution preserves the functionality of the devices, even if ion implantation induces significant molecular structure modifications, in particular a combination of dehydrogenation and carbonification effects. No relevant changes in the pentacene thin film thickness have been observed. The two major transport parameters that characterize OTFT performance are the carrier mobility and the threshold voltage. We have monitored the effectiveness of this process in stabilizing the device by monitoring the carrier mobility and the threshold voltage over a long time (over 2000 h). Finally, we have assessed by depth resolved X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy analyses that, by selectively implanting with ions that can react with the hydrocarbon matrix (e.g. N{sup +}), it is possible to locally modify the charge distribution within the organic layer.

  13. Architecture and control of a high current ion implanter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of an ion implant system for use in production requires that special attention be given to areas of design which normally are not emphasized on research or development type ion implanters. Manually operated, local controls are replaced by remote controls, automatic sequencing, and digital displays. For ease of maintenance and replication the individual components are designed as simply as possible and are contained in modules of separate identities, joined only by the beam line and electrical interconnections. A production environment also imposes requirements for the control of contamination and maintainability of clean room integrity. For that reason the major portion of the hardware is separated from the clean operator area and is housed in a maintenance core area. The controls of a production system should also be such that relatively unskilled technicians are able to operate the system with optimum repeatability and minimum operator intervention. An extensive interlock system is required. Most important, for use in production the ion implant system has to have a relatively high rate of throughput. Since the rate of throughput at a given dose is a function of beam current, pumpdown time and wafer handling capacity, design of components affecting these parameters has been optimized. Details of the system are given. (U.K.)

  14. The effects of swift heavy-ion irradiation on helium-ion-implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We investigate the effects of swift heavy-ion irradiation on He bubbles. •Growth in size and decrease of number density upon Ar-ion irradiation were found. •The mean size of extended defects increases upon Ar-ion irradiation. •Strong electronic excitation during Ar-ion irradiation produces athermal annealing at room temperature. -- Abstract: Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) was used to study the effects of irradiation with swift heavy ions on helium-implanted silicon. 〈1 0 0〉-oriented silicon wafers were implanted with 30 keV helium to a dose of 3 × 1016 He+/cm2 at 600 K. Subsequently, the helium-implanted Si wafers were irradiated with 792 MeV argon ions. The He bubbles and extended defects in the wafers were examined via XTEM analysis. The results reveal that the mean diameter of the He bubbles increases upon Ar-ion irradiation, while the number density of the He bubbles decreases. The microstructure of the He bubbles observed after Ar-ion irradiation is comparable to that observed after annealing at 1073 K for 30 min. Similarly, the mean size of the extended defects, i.e., Frank loops, increases after Ar-ion irradiation. Possible mechanisms are discussed

  15. Simulation of neutron irradiation damage in Al-A5 alloy by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation was used to simulate neutron irradiation damage in Al-A5 alloys. The damage was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. H+ and He+ ions were implanted up to a dose of 2x104 microcuri. It was found, that H+ ions caused the appearacnce of blisters and holes on the surface. The density of the blisters and holes is a function of implanted dose. The He+ ions caused sputtering of surface via flanking. (author)

  16. MODIFICATION OF WETTING PROPERTIES OF PMMA BY IMMERSION PLASMA ION IMPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    N. MIREAULT; Ross, G. G.

    2008-01-01

    Advancing and receding contact angles below 5° have been obtained on PMMA surfaces with the implantation of argon and oxygen ions. The ion implantations were performed by means of the Immersion Plasma Ion Implantation (IPII) technique, a hybrid between ion beams and immersion plasmas. Characterization of treated PMMA surfaces by means of XPS and its combination with chemical derivatization (CD-XPS) have revealed the depletion of oxygen and the creation of dangling bonds, together with the for...

  17. Effects of heavy ion implantation on crop mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    12C ions with different energy (in MeV level) and flux were implanted into dry seeds of corn and winter wheat. 16O ions with different energy were implanted into dry seeds of winter wheat. The radiation damage of M1 generation seedling and mutagenic effects in M2 generation were studied. Results showed that within a certain energy level, radiation damage on M1 seedling increased with the energy increasing when the integral flux was given. And radiation damage for 12C ion beam with an energy of 12-16 MeV/u in corn, and 16O ion beam with an energy of 8 MeV/u in wheat were obviously greater than that of ion beam with penetration energy (45 MeV/u). The corn mutations induced by 12C ion beam could generate various types, such as dwarf, male sterility, albino, multi-ear, and most albinotic seedlings could turn to normal plants and set seeds. Earliness and dwarf were the most frequent mutations found in winter wheat induced by the two type of ions, and in winter wheat Yuandong 6, the earliness mutation frequency was up to 10.7% induced by 12C ion beam with an energy at 8 MeV/u and integral flux of 80 x 107/cm2, and dwarf mutation frequency reached 7.59% induced by an energy at 8 MeV/u and integral flux of 120 x 107/cm2. Variations of mutation frequencies were found among varieties of corn and wheat. (authors)

  18. Ion beam analysis of aluminium ion implanted titanium diboride thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, S.; Sood, D. K.; Evans, P. J.; Dytlewski, N.; Short, K. T.

    2002-05-01

    Titanium diboride is often selected for protective coatings due to its high hardness and wear resistance. However, its possible high temperature applications are limited because it exhibits poor oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. Through ion beam modification, it was anticipated that a stable oxidation barrier could form via the formation of "metastable phases" not otherwise observed in stoichiometric TiB 2. Titanium diboride films were deposited onto single-crystal Si(1 0 0) substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. MEVVA ion implantation was then performed using an extraction voltage of 40 kV. Selected samples were subjected to post-implantation vacuum annealing prior to oxidation, thus comparing the behaviour of crystalline and amorphous films. Results show that aluminium ion implantation reduces the oxidation rate of DC magnetron sputtered titanium diboride thin films within the experimental temperature range.

  19. Ion implanted pyrolitic carbon for the hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Hip joint arthroplasty is a successful surgical procedure, but loosening induced by polyethylene wear debris continues to be a problem. Fine grained isotropic graphite (POCO ZXF-5Q) coated with Pyrolite (trademark of Carbomedics Inc.) combines biocompatibility, strength and tribological properties which could be utilised in a hip prosthesis. Some preliminary work has been conducted on this material, and the effect nitrogen ion implantation has on its wear resistance. Finite element analysis was conducted on a femoral head of a canine hip prosthesis with diameter 19mm made from POCO ZXF-5Q . An optimum design was obtained after design variables such as taper angle and width, internal recess radius, crown thickness were varied so that internal stresses were minimised. This was then translated into an human sized femoral head with diameter 28mm, which was subjected to mechanical testing. Loading was at 20 deg C to the taper, with loading rate 10kN/s used in static loading, whilst fatigue testing was carried out between 300 - 3000N at 30Hz for 107 cycles. Pin-on-disc wear testing was carried out using a CSEM Tribometer. A 1N load was applied to 6mm diameter pins. Wear track radii were 11 and 13mm, with linear velocity 5cm/s and sliding distance 2.5km. Test temperature was 37±1degC with Ringer solution and bovine serum being used as lubricant. Nitrogen implanted samples were irradiated to a dose of 5x1016 ions.cm-2 at 50keV. Static testing was carried out to loads of 8000N and all five POCO ZXF-5Q femoral heads tested survived. Then three of these pre-tested femoral heads were subjected to fatigue testing and no failures occured before 107 cycles. Wear was reduced by nitrogen ion implantation only when an irradiated pin was tested against as polished Pyrolite. Nitrogen ion implanted Pyrolite on a POCO ZXF-5Q substrate may have clinical potential. The substrate has appropriate mechanical properties, and nitrogen ion implantation can improve the already

  20. A comparative study of the structure and cytotoxicity of polytetrafluoroethylene after ion etching and ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtansky, D. V.; Glushankova, N. A.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, F. V.; Sheveiko, A. N.; Sigarev, A. A.

    2011-03-01

    The ion-plasma treatment has been widely used for modifying the surface structure of polymers in order to improve their properties, but it can lead to destruction of the surface and, as a consequence, to an increase in their toxicity. A comparative study of the structure and cytotoxicity of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) after the ion etching (IE) and ion implantation (II) for 10 min with energy densities of 363 and 226 J/cm2, respectively, has been performed. It has been shown that, unlike the ion implantation, the ion etching results in the destruction of the polymer and in the appearance of the cytotoxicity. The factors responsible for this effect, which are associated with the bulk and surface treatment, as well as with the influence of the temperature, have been discussed.

  1. Simulation of charging phenomena in ion implantation into the micro structure pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charging of devices in high current ion implantation has become a serious problem. We have suggested that the negative ion has an effect on this problem. We have calculated the charging-up potential of insulated region considering the micro device structure, and compared the positive and negative ion implantation. We have reached the following results: the larger the grounded area and the bigger the secondary electron emission factor of grounded region, the surface potential of insulated region is lower in both positive and negative ion implantation. Especially in negative ion implantation the saturated surface potential is getting near zero volt. In negative ion implantation to the micro structure pattern, the surface voltage saturates at a low voltage, which is suitable to the ion implantation into semiconductor devices. (author)

  2. Ion-implanted diamond films and their tribological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the physical characterization and tribological evaluation of ion-implanted diamond films. Diamond films were produced by microwave plasma, chemical vapor deposition technique. Diamond films with various grain sizes (0.3 and 3 μm) and roughness (9.1 and 92.1 nm r.m.s. respectively) were implanted with C+ (m/e=12) at an ion energy of 160 eV and a fluence of 6.72 x 1017 ions cm-2. Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted in ultrahigh vacuum (6.6 x 10-7 Pa), dry nitrogen and humid air (40% RH) environments. The effects of C+ ion bombardment on fine and coarse-grained diamond films are as follows: the surface morphology of the diamond films did not change; the surface roughness increased (16.3 and 135.3 nm r.m.s.); the diamond structures were damaged and formed a thin layer of amorphous non-diamond carbon; the friction coefficients dramatically decreased in the ultrahigh vacuum (0.1 and 0.4); the friction coefficients decreased slightly in the dry nitrogen and humid air environments. (orig.)

  3. Chemomechanical effect in ion-implanted magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter reports the results of an investigation into the way in which ion implantation has been observed to alter the chemomechanical sensitivity of MgO surfaces. Samples of single crystal brace 100 brace habit MgO were implanted to doses of approx. 1014 and 3.33 x 1015 Ti+ cm-2 at 300 keV. Rather than measure the hardness directly a dislocation etch-pitting technique was used to monitor both the hardness of the surface and the anomalous indentation creep effects. Testing was carried out under the environments of moist air (ambient conditions) and the n-hexadecane, the latter being chosen as one known to produce a large chemomechanical effect in MgO. Indentations were made at a load of 10 gf on a (001) MgO surface. Figures show typical micrographs of etch-pitted indentations on the unimplanted and implanted MgO specimens indented both in air and under n-hexadecane for dwell times of 5 and 300 sec. For the unimplanted specimens the 300-sec dwell-time indentations in both air and n-hexadecane show more extensive dislocation motion than those made in air, for the approx. 1014Ti+ cm-2 implanted specimen under both environments for both dwell times, the indentation rosettes are much smaller than those in unimplanted MgO. The results are discussed. (author)

  4. Investigation of magnetism in Fe and Cu ion implanted indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diluted magnetic semiconductor based on indium oxide has been prepared by transition metal ion implantation. Fe and Cu ions have been implanted into pulsed laser deposition prepared pure In2O3 films by metal vapor vacuum arc source with doses from 5 × 1015 cm−2 to 1 × 1017 cm−2, respectively. The implanted samples are annealed in the air subsequently. The structure of In2O3 films is characterized by X-ray diffraction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are applied to confirm the electronic state of the implanted ions. Superconducting quantum interference device measurements at room temperature disclose that the diamagnetic In2O3 films turned to be ferromagnetic after Fe and Cu ion implantation. The correlation between ferromagnetism and implantation conditions is tested. The ferromagnetism is attributed to the bound magnetic polarons formed by Fe, Cu ion implantation

  5. Modification of surface and barrier properties of polyethylene terephthalate and polycarbonate plastics by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Surface properties of two commercial plastics, SKYPET-BB polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film and Lexan (Polycarbonate) sheet, have been modified by implanting aluminium, silicon, nitrogen and hydrogen ions into samples of the plastics. Aluminium and silicon ions were implanted into the PET and Lexan samples at three different dose levels using a Metal Vapour Vacuum Arc Ion Source implantation system. Hydrogen and nitrogen ions were implanted at two different dose levels in a Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation Facility. Diffusion rates of Helium through the PET samples were determined at 19 deg C for pressures of He from 0.5 to 2.5atm. The diffusion rates of helium through the aluminium and silicon implanted samples were much lower than the diffusion rate through the unimplanted PET; nitrogen implantation had little effect. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  6. Titanium Nitride and Nitrogen Ion Implanted Coated Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Berzins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials have been investigated since the mid-1980s and considered in various applications in dentistry such as implants, abutments, orthodontic wires, endodontic files, periodontal/oral hygiene instruments, and casting alloys for fixed restorations. Multiple methodologies have been employed to create the coatings, but detailed structural analysis of the coatings is generally lacking in the dental literature. Depending on application, the purpose of the coating is to provide increased surface hardness, abrasion/wear resistance, esthetics, and corrosion resistance, lower friction, as well as greater beneficial interaction with adjacent biological and material substrates. While many studies have reported on the achievement of these properties, a consensus is not always clear. Additionally, few studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of the coatings in a clinical setting. Overall, titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials potentially offer advantages over uncoated counterparts, but more investigation is needed to document the structure of the coatings and their clinical effectiveness.

  7. Plasma ion implantation technology at Hughes Research Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma ion implantation (PII) project at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL) has as its main objective the evaluation and application of PII technology to improve the tribological properties of metal and nonmetal materials used in aerospace, defense, and commercial applications. The HRL PII facility consists of a 4-ft-diamx8-ft-long vacuum chamber capable of implanting objects weighing up to 7000 lbs, and a high-power (100-kW), high-voltage (100-kV) pulse modulator to provide voltage pulses for implantation. Advanced plasma sources have been developed to produce atomic, as well as molecular, nitrogen and oxygen ions, and PII processes have been developed to treat metal and nonmetal materials. The HRL PII facility has been operational since 1989 and has been used for prototype demonstrations of PII technology to achieve (1) a 2--3x improved wear life of Co/WC drill bits used for printed-wiring-board fabrication, (2) an 8x reduced wear rate for TiN-coated cutting tools, and (3) a 2x increased surface hardness for a 7000-lb polymer object, 3 ft by 5 ft by 1 ft

  8. Role of ion mass on damage accumulation during ion implantation in Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of sub-amorphizing ion implantation on damage accumulation and point defect migration in Ge are investigated. We implanted ions with different masses in a Ge sample with embedded B doped deltas grown by molecular beam epitaxy, as markers for self-interstitial generation and migration. Implant fluences and energies were selected to generate similar depth profiles of the energy density released in nuclear collisions. We show that the accumulated damage decreases by decreasing the ion mass. This is associated with an increase of effective displacement energy in dilute cascade due to point defect migration and annihilation. The change of the effective displacement energy as a function of mass has been described and satisfactorily fitted together with data from the literature. We observed that B radiation enhanced diffusion increases by decreasing the ion mass, further supporting the above view, and indicates that the migration of self-interstitials has a role in the defect annihilation process during ion implantation in Ge. H deviates from the above scenario suggesting that damage stabilization occurs through the interaction of H with vacancies. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Synergism between rare earth cerium(IV) ion and vanillin on the corrosion of cold rolled steel in 1.0 M HCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synergism between rare earth cerium(IV) ion and vanillin on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 1.0 M HCl solution was first investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The results revealed that vanillin had a moderate inhibitive effect, and the adsorption of vanillin obeyed the Temkin adsorption isotherm. For rare earth Ce4+, it had a negligible effect. However, incorporation of Ce4+ with vanillin significantly improved the inhibition performance, and produced strong synergistic inhibition effect. Depending on the results, the synergism mechanism was proposed

  10. Synergism between rare earth cerium(IV) ion and vanillin on the corrosion of cold rolled steel in 1.0 M HCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xianghong [Department of Fundamental Courses, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China)], E-mail: xianghong-li@163.com; Deng Shuduan [Department of Wood Science and Technology, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China); Fu Hui [Department of Fundamental Courses, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224 (China); Mu Guannan [Department of Chemistry, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The synergism between rare earth cerium(IV) ion and vanillin on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in 1.0 M HCl solution was first investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The results revealed that vanillin had a moderate inhibitive effect, and the adsorption of vanillin obeyed the Temkin adsorption isotherm. For rare earth Ce{sup 4+}, it had a negligible effect. However, incorporation of Ce{sup 4+} with vanillin significantly improved the inhibition performance, and produced strong synergistic inhibition effect. Depending on the results, the synergism mechanism was proposed.

  11. The enhancement in wear resistance of W18Cr4V steel by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new methods of ion implantation were adopted in comparison with nitrogen implantation: carbon monoxide was implanted directly into W18Cr4V steel, and nitrogen was implanted into a deposited titanium film about 1000 A thick. It is shown that higher surface hardness and wear resistance have been achieved. The composition and phase structure of the implanted layer was determined in detail. The wear mechanisms were discussed

  12. Effect of plasma immersion ion implantation in TiNi implants on its interaction with animal subcutaneous tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotkov, Aleksandr I.; Kashin, Oleg A.; Kudryavtseva, Yuliya A.; Shishkova, Darya K.; Krukovskii, Konstantin V.; Kudryashov, Andrey N.

    2016-08-01

    Here we investigated in vivo interaction of Si-modified titanium nickelide (TiNi) samples with adjacent tissues in a rat subcutaneous implant model to assess the impact of the modification on the biocompatibility of the implant. Modification was performed by plasma immersion ion processing, which allows doping of different elements into surface layers of complex-shaped articles. The aim of modification was to reduce the level of toxic Ni ions on the implant surface for increasing biocompatibility. We identified a thin connective tissue capsule, endothelial cells, and capillary-like structures around the Si-modified implants both 30 and 90 days postimplantation. No signs of inflammation were found. In conclusion, modification of TiNi samples with Si ions increases biocompatibility of the implant.

  13. Ion-implanted PLZT ceramics: a new high-sensitivity image storage medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results were presented of our studies of photoferroelectric (PFE) image storage in H- and He-ion implanted PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) ceramics which demonstrate that the photosensitivity of PLZT can be significantly increased by ion implantation in the ceramic surface to be exposed to image light. More recently, implantations of Ar and Ar + Ne into the PLZT surface have produced much greater photosensitivity enhancement. For example, the photosensitivity after implantation with 1.5 x 1014 350 keV Ar/cm2 + 1 x 1015 500 keV Ne/cm2 is increased by about four orders of magnitude over that of unimplanted PLZT. Measurements indicate that the photosensitivity enhancement in ion-implanted PLZT is controlled by implantation-produced disorder which results in marked decreases in dielectric constant and dark conductivity and changes in photoconductivity of the implanted layer. The effects of Ar- and Ar + Ne-implantation are presented along with a phenomenological model which describes the enhancement in photosensitivity obtained by ion implantation. This model takes into account both light- and implantation-induced changes in conductivity and gives quantitative agreement with the measured changes in the coercive voltage V/sub c/ as a function of near-uv light intensity for both unimplanted and implanted PLZT. The model, used in conjunction with calculations of the profiles of implantation-produced disorder, has provided the information needed for co-implanting ions of different masses, e.g., Ar and Ne, to improve photosensitivity

  14. Corrosion prevention of honeycomb core panel construction using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for preventing corrosion caused by atmospheric moisture in honeycomb core panel construction, said construction having two outer skin layers bonded to opposite sides of a honeycomb-shaped core, said process comprising the steps of: providing a core metal for a honeycomb-shaped core which is fabricated from aluminum or one of its alloys; immersing the core metal in an ion stream so that the core metal is bombarded with ions of a predetermined material, said ions penetrating through at least one surface of the core metal and being implanted a predetermined depth therein so that an alloy is formed between said core metal and said material which is impervious to corrosion; and deforming said core metal into a honeycomb-shaped structure so as to form the honeycomb-shaped core having front and back surfaces

  15. Metal ion implantation for large scale surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, I.G.

    1992-10-01

    Intense energetic beams of metal ions can be produced by using a metal vapor vacuum arc as the plasma discharge from which the ion beam is formed. We have developed a number of ion sources of this kind and have built a metal ion implantation facility which can produce repetitively pulsed ion beams with mean ion energy up to several hundred key, pulsed beam current of more than an ampere, and time averaged current of several tens of milliamperes delivered onto a downstream target. We've also done some preliminary work on scaling up this technology to very large size. For example, a 50-cm diameter (2000 cm[sup 2]) set of beam formation electrodes was used to produce a pulsed titanium beam with ion current over 7 amperes at a mean ion energy of 100 key. Separately, a dc embodiment has been used to produce a dc titanium ion beam with current over 600 mA, power supply limited in this work, and up to 6 amperes of dc plasma ion current was maintained for over an hour. In a related program we've developed a plasma immersion method for applying thin metallic and compound films in which the added species is atomically mixed to the substrate. By adding a gas flow to the process, well-bonded compound films can also be formed; metallic films and multilayers as well as oxides and nitrides with mixed transition zones some hundreds of angstroms thick have been synthesized. Here we outline these parallel metal-plasma-based research programs and describe the hardware that we've developed and some of the surface modification research that we've done with it.

  16. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, A.G., E-mail: nik@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Yushkov, G.Yu.; Oks, E.M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oztarhan, A. [Izmir University, Izmir 35140 (Turkey); Akpek, A.; Hames-Kocabas, E.; Urkac, E.S. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94708 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Ion implantation. • Anti-bacterial properties. • Textile polymer. • Vacuum arc ion source. - Abstract: Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal–gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the “inverse” concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material.

  17. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ion implantation. • Anti-bacterial properties. • Textile polymer. • Vacuum arc ion source. - Abstract: Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal–gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the “inverse” concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material

  18. Surface modification of polymeric materials by plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer surfaces typically have low surface tension and high chemical inertness and so they usually have poor wetting and adhesion properties. The surface properties can be altered by modifying the molecular structure using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). In this work, Nylon-6 was treated using oxygen/nitrogen PIII. The observed improvement in the wettability is due to the oxygenated and nitrogen (amine) functional groups created on the polymer surface by the plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that nitrogen and oxygen plasma implantation result in C-C bond breaking to form the imine and amine groups as well as alcohol and/or carbonyl groups on the surface. The water contact angle results reveal that the surface wetting properties depend on the functional groups, which can be adjusted by the ratio of oxygen-nitrogen mixtures

  19. Planar transistors and impatt diodes with ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low frequency planar npn and pnp transistors have been developed in which the base and emitter have been fabricated using ion implantation of boron and phosphorus by a drive-in diffusion. Electrical parameters of the transistors are comparable with conventionally produced transistors; the noise figure was improved and production tolerances were significantly reduced. Silicon-impatt diodes for the microwave range were also fabricated with implanted pn junctions and tested for their high frequency characteristics. These diodes, made in an improved upside down technology, delivered output power up to 40 mW (burn out power) at 30 GHz. Reverse leakage current and current carrying capability of these diodes were comparable to diffused structures. (orig.) 891 ORU 892 MB

  20. Study of optical properties of cerium ion doped barium aluminate phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohe, P. P.; Omanwar, S. K.; Bajaj, N. S.; Belsare, P. D.

    2016-05-01

    In the recent years due to their various optical and technological applications aluminate materials have attracted attention of several researchers. When these materials are doped with rare earth ions they show properties favorable for many optical applications such as high quantum efficiencies. These materials are used in various applications such as lamp phosphors, optically and thermoluminescence dosimeter etc Barium aluminate BaAl2O4 doped with Ce is well known long lasting phosphor. This paper reports synthesis of BaAl2O4: Ce phosphor prepared by a simple combustion synthesis. The samples were characterized for the phase purity, chemical bonds and luminescent properties.

  1. Experimental investigation of plasma-immersion ion implantation treatment for biocompatible polyurethane implants production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iziumov, R. I.; Beliaev, A. Y.; Kondyurina, I. V.; Shardakov, I. N.; Kondyurin, A. V.; Bilek, M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Modification of the surface layer of polyurethane with plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII) and studying its physical and chemical changes have been discussed in this paper. The goal of the research was to obtain carbonized layer allowing creating biocompatible polyurethane implants. The experiments of PIII treatment in various modes were performed. The investigation of the modified surface characteristics was carried out by observing the kinetics of free surface energy for two weeks after treatment. The regularities between treatment time and the level of free surface energy were detected. The explanation of high energy level was given through the appearance of free radicals in the surface layer of material. The confirmation of the chemical activation of the polyurethane surface after PIII treatment was obtained.

  2. On the use of thin ion implanted Si detectors in heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present test results on the use of thin ion implanted epitaxial Si detectors for registration of low- and medium energy heavy fragments in nuclear reactions. A linear energy response for very low energy nuclei has been observed. A test of 10 μm + 300 μm telescopes under realistic experimental conditions for heavy ion experiments exhibits the possibilities to use these detectors for the measurements of multifragmentation products. (authors)

  3. Electrical properties of amorphous chalcogenide/silicon heterojunctions modified by ion implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorenko, Yanina G.; Hughes, Mark A.; Colaux, Julien L.; Jeynes, C.; Gwilliam, Russell M.; Homewood, Kevin P.; Yao, Jin; Hewak, Dan W.; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Elliott, Stephen R; Gholipour, B.; Curry, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Doping of amorphous chalcogenide films of rather dissimilar bonding type and resistivity, namely, Ga-La-S, GeTe, and Ge-Sb-Te by means of ion implantation of bismuth is considered. To characterize defects induced by ion-beam implantation space-charge-limited conduction and capacitance-voltage characteristics of amorphous chalcogenide/silicon heterojunctions are investigated. It is shown that ion implantation introduces substantial defect densities in the films and their interfaces with silico...

  4. Synthesis of compounds by high-fluence nitrogen ion implantation in titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline titanium is implanted with nitrogen ions at energies from 30 to 60 keV and with doses from 1 x 1016 to 1.5 x 1018 ions/cm2 at room temperature. The phase formation, concentration distribution of implanted ions and the influence of carbon are investigated by high voltage electron microscopy, transmission electron diffraction, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The surface topography of implanted titanium after wear treatment is studied by scanning electron microscopy. Results are discussed briefly. (author)

  5. Nonlinear optical properties of Sn+ ion-implanted silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absolute value of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, vertical stroke χ(3) vertical stroke , of Sn+ ion-implanted silica glass was found to be similar 10-6 esu. This value is as large as those reported for semiconductor-doped glasses. Silica glass substrates were implanted with Sn+ ions at an acceleration energy of 400 keV to a dose of 2x1017 ions/cm2 at room temperature. Metallic Sn microcrystallites of 4-20 nm in diameter were found to be embedded in the silica glass matrix. The average volume fraction of the Sn microcrystallites was evaluated to be 28%. vertical stroke χ(3) vertical stroke and the imaginary part of the dielectric function, Im ε, had peaks at the same wavelength of 500 nm owing to surface plasmon resonance. The peak width of vertical stroke χ(3) vertical stroke was nearly half of that of Im ε, which can be explained by an effective medium theory. ((orig.))

  6. Antibacterial PVD coatings doped with silver by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osés, J.; Palacio, J. F.; Kulkarni, S.; Medrano, A.; García, J. A.; Rodríguez, R.

    2014-08-01

    The antibacterial effect of certain metal ions, like silver, has been exploited since antiquity. Obviously, the ways to employ the biocide activity of this element have evolved throughout time and it is currently used in a wide range of clinical applications. The work presented here reports the results of an investigation focused on combining the protective properties of PVD coatings with the biocide property of silver, applied by ion implantation. For this purpose, chromium nitride layers were doped with silver implanted at two different doses (5 × 1016 and 1 × 1017 ion/cm2) at 100 keV of energy and perpendicular incidence. Full characterization of the coatings was performed to determine its topographical and mechanical properties. The concentration profile of Ag was analyzed by GD-OES. The thickness of the layers, nano-hardness, roughness, wear resistance and coefficient of friction were measured. Finally, the anti-bacterial efficacy of the coatings was determined following the JIS Z-2801:2010 Standard. The results provide clear insights into the efficacy of silver for antibacterial purposes, as well as on its influence in the mechanical and tribological behaviour of the coatings matrix.

  7. Si-nanoparticle synthesis using ion implantation and MeV ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dielectric matrix with embedded Si-nanoparticles may show strong luminescence depending on nanoparticles size, surface properties, Si-excess concentration and matrix type. Ion implantation of Si ions with energies of a few tens to hundreds of keV in a SiO2 matrix followed by thermal annealing was identified as a powerful method to form such nanoparticles. The aim of the present work is to optimize the synthesis of Si-nanoparticles produced by ion implantation in SiO2 by employing MeV ion irradiation as an additional annealing process. The luminescence properties are measured by spectrally resolved photoluminescence including PL lifetime measurement, while X-ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy and ion beam analysis are used to characterize the nanoparticle formation process. The results show that the samples implanted at 20%-Si excess atomic concentration display the highest luminescence and that irradiation of 36 MeV 127I ions affects the luminosity in terms of wavelength and intensity. It is also demonstrated that the nanoparticle luminescence lifetime decreases as a function of irradiation fluence. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Si-nanoparticle synthesis using ion implantation and MeV ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chulapakorn, T.; Wolff, M.; Primetzhofer, D.; Possnert, G. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Sychugov, I.; Suvanam, S.S.; Linnros, J. [Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Hallen, A. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2015-12-15

    A dielectric matrix with embedded Si-nanoparticles may show strong luminescence depending on nanoparticles size, surface properties, Si-excess concentration and matrix type. Ion implantation of Si ions with energies of a few tens to hundreds of keV in a SiO{sub 2} matrix followed by thermal annealing was identified as a powerful method to form such nanoparticles. The aim of the present work is to optimize the synthesis of Si-nanoparticles produced by ion implantation in SiO{sub 2} by employing MeV ion irradiation as an additional annealing process. The luminescence properties are measured by spectrally resolved photoluminescence including PL lifetime measurement, while X-ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy and ion beam analysis are used to characterize the nanoparticle formation process. The results show that the samples implanted at 20%-Si excess atomic concentration display the highest luminescence and that irradiation of 36 MeV {sup 127}I ions affects the luminosity in terms of wavelength and intensity. It is also demonstrated that the nanoparticle luminescence lifetime decreases as a function of irradiation fluence. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Ion beam induced charge and numerical modeling study of novel detector devices for single ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future devices which are fabricated from shallow arrays of few and single atoms will exploit quantum mechanical rules to perform useful functions including quantum computation. Fabrication of these devices presents formidable technological challenges. We have developed a single ion implantation system that is capable of verifiable fabrication of single donor devices using 14 keV 31P ions implanted into ultra-pure, high resistivity silicon substrates based on the technique of Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC). A detection system with integrated detector electrodes registers the charge transient from a single ion impact which is used to signal the implantation of an ion into the substrate. We describe here the use of IBIC with MeV ions to study the charge collection efficiency of the detector electrodes. By using three dimensional numerical technology computer-aided design (TCAD) models for the decrease in the IBIC signal as a function of distance from the detector electrode, we can obtain an accurate measurement of the resistivity of the silicon substrate, allowing confirmation of the values specified by the supplier, and providing us with confidence in the numerical models used by TCAD for simulation. This technique has advantages over resistivity measurements by four-point probes because it is spatially resolved, probes through the intact oxide, and can be done without making contact to the device in the area of the probe

  10. Structure analysis of bimetallic Co-Au nanoparticles formed by sequential ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-jian; Wang, Yu-hua; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Song, Shu-peng; chen, Hong; Zhang, Ke; Xiong, Zu-zhao; Ji, Ling-ling; Dai, Hou-mei; Wang, Deng-jing; Lu, Jian-duo; Wang, Ru-wu; Zheng, Li-rong

    2016-08-01

    Co-Au alloy Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are formed by sequential ion implantation of Co and Au into silica glass at room temperature. The ion ranges of Au ions implantation process have been displayed to show the ion distribution. We have used the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been used to study the local structural information of bimetallic nanoparticles. With the increase of Au ion implantation, the local environments of Co ions are changed enormously. Hence, three oscillations, respectively, Co-O, Co-Co and Co-Au coordination are determined.

  11. Nanometer structure and conductor mechanism of polymer modified by metal ion implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑜光; 张通和; 张燕文; 张荟星; 张孝吉; 周固

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has been modified by Ag, Ti, Cu and Si ion implanta-tion with a dose ranging from 1 × l016 to 2 x 1017 ions/cm2 using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA)source. The electrical properties of PET have been improved by metal ion implantation. The resistivityof implanted PET decreased obviously with an increase in ion dose. The results show that the conduc-tive behavior of a metal ion implanted sample is different from Si-implantation samples. In order to un-derstant the mechanism of electrical conduction, the structures of implanted layer were observed in de-tail by XRD and TEM. The nano carbon particles were dispersed in implanted PET. The nano metallicparticles were built up in metallic ion implanted layers with dose range from 1 × 1016 to 1 x 1017 ions/cm2. The nanometer metal net structure was formed in implanted layer when a dose of 2 x 1017ions/cm2 is reached. Anomalous fractal growths were observed. These surface structure changes revealedconducting mechanism evolution, lt is believed that the change would result in an improvement of theconductive properties. The conducting mechanism will be changed with increasing metal ion dose.

  12. Directional distribution of Burgers vectors of dislocation loops in ion-implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible directional distributions of Burgers vectors of perfect dislocation loops and dipoles formed in the silicon single crystals after ion implantation and annealing have been studied. (author)

  13. A study on V+ ion-implanted TiO2 photocatalytic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve photocatalytic property of TiO2 films, the films were implanted with 40 keV V+ ions to doses of 0.6 x l016, l x l016, 3 x l016 or 6 x l016 ions/cm2. Optical band gap of the V+ ion-implanted TiO2 films were measured by a spectrophotometer. The results show that the optical band gap of TiO2 films decreased with the increasing implantion dose. Methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution was catalyzed by the ion-implanted TiO2 films under visible light. (authors)

  14. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF TITANIUM FILMS WITH SODIUM ION IMPLANTATION: SURFACE PROPERTIES AND PROTEIN ADSORPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Y. Cai

    2007-01-01

    Sodium implanted titanium films with different ion doses were characterized to correlate their ion implantation parameters. Native titanium films and ion implanted titanium films were characterized with combined techniques of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and light microscopy (LM). The surface presented increased sodium concentration on treated titanium films with ion dose increasing, except for the group with the highest ion dose of 4× 1017 ions/cm2. XPS depth profiling displayed that sodium entered titanium film around 25-50 nm depth depending on its implantation ion dose. AFM characterization showed that sodium ion implantation treatment changed the surface morphology from a relatively smooth titanium film to rough surfaces corresponding to different implantation doses.After sodium implantation, implanted titanium films presented big particles with island structure morphology. The surface morphology and particle growth displayed the corresponding trend.Fibrinogen adsorption on these titanium films was performed to correlate with the surface properties of treated titanium films. The results show that protein adsorption on ion-implanted samples with dose of 2 × 1017 and 4 × 1017 are statistically higher (p < 0. 01) than samples treated with dose of 5×1016 and 1 ×1017, as well as the control samples.

  15. Structure and phase transformations in tungsten at ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is known, that on structural - phase transformations in ionic-implanted layer essential value has interaction of metals with elements of gas environment of an implanter (C, N, O). In the given work results on ionic - beam alloying of tungsten by ions of nitrogen. As an initial material the monocrystalline foil from tungsten by cleanliness of 99.96 % thickness 0.5 mm, cut out as rectangular in the sizes 8·1.5 mm2 is used. With the purpose of removal of the deformed layers samples after machining were exposed to electrolytic polishing. Implantation of ions of nitrogen with energy 70 keV dozes l.87·l017cm-2, 3.74·l017cm-2 and 5.6·1017cm-2 was spent in vacuum (l,3·10-3 Pa) at density of a current ≅1 mA ·cm-2. Thermal annealing carried out in vacuum (6.6·10-3 Pa) through 100 deg.C in a range of temperatures 773-1373 K within one hour each sample. Identification of structure of the modified superficial layers was carried under the roentgenograms received with use of a narrow bunch monochromatized of CuK-α- radiation, directed under a sliding 6 deg. corner to a surface of a sample. At formation of textured phases for specification of results additional shootings were carried out at corners of falling 6 and 15 deg. It is established, that after implantation of ions of nitrogen on roentgenograms there is a set of lines from a polycrystalline phase which represents nitride of tungsten W2N with densely packed FCC-structure. Together with lines of this phase the weak set lines of oxide of tungsten WO3 with monoclinic - structure which arises due to implantation by a method of feedback of oxide from an atmosphere of residual gases of the accelerator is registered also. The analysis of the received results in the following. The relation of nuclear radius of nitrogen to nuclear radius of tantalum makes 0.50. In this case, it agrees the assumptions put forward earlier, based on Hegg's rule, at implantation should be formed mainly simple densely packed

  16. Simulation and visualization of ion-implantation in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have explored aspects of ion implantation in diamonds with molecular dynamics and tightbinding atomistic simulations. Relevant experiments and their potential applications as well as our computer models and computational approaches are described. Our simulations have been designed to answer questions proposed by experimental researchers concerning optimal laboratory schedules for the preparation of samples with potential applications to diamond membranes and NV centers for quantum computers. Simulation and visualization of results enable us to peek inside samples where experimental techniques cannot tread. In order to provide the requisite Brazilian component a new connection between these models and bootstrap percolation is made

  17. Characterization of Silicate Glasses Implanted with Ag+ Ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malinský, Petr; Macková, Anna; Nekvindová, P.; Švecová, B.; Kormunda, M.; Kolitsch, A.

    Crete: 11th International Conference on Applications of Nuclear Techniques, 2011, s. 25-25. [11th International Conference on Applications of Nuclear Techniques. Crete (GR), 12.06.2011-18.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0125 Grant ostatní: UJEP Usti nad Labem(CZ) iga ujep 5322215000901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : ion implantation * silicate glasses * metal nanoparticles * Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy * optical absorption Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  18. Laboratory based space experiments using an ion implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Centre at the University of Manitoba has been active in recent years in the study of materials relevant to the space industry and in the characterization of such materials. Plans are in place to extend this work on the ion implantation of materials to new areas of research in which more esoteric physical processes are examined on Earth prior to the development of structures for space vehicles or planetary study. This paper consists of two parts, the first a summary of recent research to be published in refereed scientific literature, the second an outline of future plans using existing facilities. (author)

  19. Raman scattering in silicon disordered by gold ion implantation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Vacík, Jiří; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Voseček, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 247, č. 8 (2010), s. 2022-2026. ISSN 0370-1972. [8th International Conference on Optics of Surfaces and Interfaces (OSI-VIII). Ischia, 07.09.2009-11.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200480702; GA AV ČR IAA400100701; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701; GA ČR GA106/09/1264 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ion implantation * Raman spectra * Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2010

  20. Titanium and aluminium ions implanted by plasma on polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion implantation by plasma of titanium and aluminum on polyethylene thin films (PE) is presented. The results indicate that the polymers reacted firstly with the oxygen and/or nitrogen carrying gases, and later its received the metallic particles that formed thin films. The stainless steel and the titanium formed a single phase. The metallic layers grew in the interval of 1 to 2 nm/min, its are thin, but enough to change the hardness of the polymer that it is increased in more of 20 times. (Author)

  1. Ion implantation. It's role in silicon device technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past four years, as a result of the severe demands placed on the production of metal oxide, large-scale integrated circuits (MOS/LSI), ion implantation has moved from the research laboratory on to the factory floor. The success of this activity can be judged by the large number of different types of MOS/LSI circuits on the market. In this article, the author assesses the factors which have made this industrial application possible, the present extent of development and the likely technical trends in the future. (orig.)

  2. Modification of plasma polymer films by ion implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Deborah Cristina Ribeiro dos; Rangel Rita de Cássia Cipriano; Mota Rogério Pinto; Cruz Nilson Cristino da; Schreiner Wido Herwig; Rangel Elidiane Cipriano

    2004-01-01

    In this work, thin polymer films were prepared from acetylene and argon radiofrequency (13.56 MHz, 80 W) glow discharges. Post-deposition treatment was performed by plasma immersion ion implantation in nitrogen or helium glow discharges (13.56 MHz, 70 W). In these cases, samples were biased with 25 kV negative pulses. Exposure time to the bombardment plasma, t, ranged from 900 to 7200 s. Chemical composition of the film surfaces was investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and the res...

  3. Enhancing antibacterial properties of UHMWPE via ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassisi, Vincenzo; Delle Side, Domenico; Velardi, Luciano; Alifano, Pietro; Talà, Adelfia; Maurizio Tredici, Salvatore

    2012-10-01

    In the last decades, the demand for biomaterials of antimicrobial quality sensibly increased. The essential properties of these materials must be the biocompatibility, wettability, durability and their antibacterial characteristics. One of the most important biomaterial for medical applications is the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) that it is used to make components of prosthetic knee, hip and shoulder. It is well known that the presence in UHMWPE of Ag atoms increase its antibacterial properties while Cu and its alloys are known as natural antimicrobial materials. In this work it is proposed a dedicated laser ion source (LIS) accelerator to perform ion implantation together with a systematic study of the surface properties of UHMWPE samples treated with different metals in order to modify their antibacterial characteristics. The proposed technique consists in the application of a dose of specific ions inside the first layer of the sample to be treated. This goal can be effectively achieved if the ions are preventively accelerated. This technique seems to be interesting, since it can open the way to an easier realization of antibacterial materials using various metal ions.

  4. Metal ion implantation in inert polymers for strain gauge applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal ion implantation in inert polymers may produce ultra-thin conducting films below the polymer surface. These subsurface films are promising structures for strain gauge applications. To this purpose, polycarbonate substrates were irradiated at room temperature with low-energy metal ions (Cu+ and Ni+) and with fluences in the range between 1 x 1016 and 1 x 1017 ions/cm2, in order to promote the precipitation of dispersed metal nanoparticles or the formation of a continuous thin film. The nanoparticle morphology and the microstructural properties of polymer nanocomposites were investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. At lower fluences (16 ions/cm2) a spontaneous precipitation of spherical-shaped metal nanoparticles occurred below the polymer top-surface (∼50 nm), whereas at higher fluences the aggregation of metal nanoparticles produced the formation of a continuous polycrystalline nanofilm. Furthermore, a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak was observed for nanocomposites produced at lower ion fluences, due to the presence of Cu nanoparticles. A reduced electrical resistance of the near-surface metal-polymer nanocomposite was measured. The variation of electrical conductivity as a function of the applied surface load was measured: we found a linear relationship and a very small hysteresis.

  5. A new cerium (III) ion selective electrode based on 2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-diphenoxy-4,7-dithia decane, a novel synthetic ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rounaghi, Gholamhossein, E-mail: ghrounagh@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zadeh Kakhki, Roya Mohammad; Sadeghian, Hamid [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > An ISE based on a new ionophore is used successfully to determine cerium (III) cation over the concentration range 1.0 x 10{sup -1}-2.1 x 10{sup -9} mol l{sup -1}. > It has a fast response time of 10 s. > It has comparatively good selectivities with respect to metal cations. > It can be used in a pH range of 5.0-8.0. > It also was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric determination of F{sup -} ion in some real sample preparations. - Abstract: In the present study, a novel electrode based on 2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-diphenoxy-4,7-dithiadecane (DHDPDTD) that is selective to cerium (III) cations was evaluated electrochemically, and a Nerenstian slope (19.3 {+-} 1 mV decade{sup -1}) over a concentration range of 1.0 x 10{sup -8}-1.0 x 10{sup -1} M and a detection limit of 2.1 x 10{sup -9} M were observed. The proposed electrochemical sensor displayed a rapid response time of 10 s, improved selectivity towards Ce (III) cations in the presence of alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal cations, and could be used in a pH range of 5.0-8.0. Additionally, the proposed sensor was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of fluoride and the determination of F{sup -} ions in real samples.

  6. A new cerium (III) ion selective electrode based on 2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-diphenoxy-4,7-dithia decane, a novel synthetic ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → An ISE based on a new ionophore is used successfully to determine cerium (III) cation over the concentration range 1.0 x 10-1-2.1 x 10-9 mol l-1. → It has a fast response time of 10 s. → It has comparatively good selectivities with respect to metal cations. → It can be used in a pH range of 5.0-8.0. → It also was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric determination of F- ion in some real sample preparations. - Abstract: In the present study, a novel electrode based on 2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-diphenoxy-4,7-dithiadecane (DHDPDTD) that is selective to cerium (III) cations was evaluated electrochemically, and a Nerenstian slope (19.3 ± 1 mV decade-1) over a concentration range of 1.0 x 10-8-1.0 x 10-1 M and a detection limit of 2.1 x 10-9 M were observed. The proposed electrochemical sensor displayed a rapid response time of 10 s, improved selectivity towards Ce (III) cations in the presence of alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal cations, and could be used in a pH range of 5.0-8.0. Additionally, the proposed sensor was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of fluoride and the determination of F- ions in real samples.

  7. Modification of magnetic properties of polyethyleneterephthalate by iron ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe+ ions (40 keV) were implanted into polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) films with fluences of (0.25-1.5) x 1017 cm-2. Magnetic properties of the synthesised Fe:PET composites were studied using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) technique in temperature range of 2-300 K. For range of fluences (0.5-0.75) x 1017 cm-2 the samples reveal superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. At fluences above 0.75 x 1017 cm-2 the strong increase of magnetisation and transition to ferromagnetic properties are registered. Analysis of the magnetic hysteresis loops suggests an easy plane magnetic anisotropy similar to that found for thin magnetic films. Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) temperature measurements of magnetisation are found to be in agreement with earlier observed formation of Fe nanoparticles (NPs) in the implanted layers. The growth and agglomeration of the NPs forming the quasi-continuous labyrinth-like structure in the polymer film at the highest implantation fluence of 1.5 x 1017 cm-2 is an origin for the transition to the ferromagnetic properties

  8. Dose changes of the surface layers of steel in implantation of argon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ion implantation, especially at high doses, interesting processes includes the condensation and implantation into the surface layers of the matrix of C in the gaseous state in the form of C-O and C-H in the vacuum chamber of ion-beam equipment and, in particular, in oil pumping. The implanted C influences the formation of the ion-implanted layer as a result of its high service of chemical activity. However, in addition to the C compounds, the chamber of the equipment for residual gas also contains oxygen, taking into account the fact that ion implantation is carried out using mean vacuum of the level of approximately 10-4 Pa. In implantation of the ions of active elements (phosphorus or boron) into 20Kh13 steel there was no significant effect of oxygen of the chemical composition of the surface less of the target at all examined doses. At the initial doses of 1x1017 ion/cm2, in implantation of the ions of active elements the surface layers are amorphised, and with increase of the implantation dose of the P+ ions the structure undergoes recrystallisation, and at a dose of 5x1017 ion/cm2 the surface layers contained a texturised polycrystal; in the case of implantation of the B+ ions, recrystallisation does not take place. In this case, in the implantation of the ions of chemical active elements the initial stages characterised by the formation of groups (complexes) of the atoms of the metal-metalloid with the covalent type of chemical bonding with further formation of precipitates with the structure of texturised polycrystals identical with the texturisation of thin films of the substrate. The different situation is observed in implantation of the ions of the inert gas -argon

  9. Ion beam technology applications study. [ion impact, implantation, and surface finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.; Zafran, S.; Komatsu, G. K.

    1978-01-01

    Specific perceptions and possible ion beam technology applications were obtained as a result of a literature search and contact interviews with various institutions and individuals which took place over a 5-month period. The use of broad beam electron bombardment ion sources is assessed for materials deposition, removal, and alteration. Special techniques examined include: (1) cleaning, cutting, and texturing for surface treatment; (2) crosslinking of polymers, stress relief in deposited layers, and the creation of defect states in crystalline material by ion impact; and (3) ion implantation during epitaxial growth and the deposition of neutral materials sputtered by the ion beam. The aspects, advantages, and disadvantages of ion beam technology and the competitive role of alternative technologies are discussed.

  10. Tailored surface modification by ion implantation and laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important trend in materials science is the use of increasingly sophisticated methods to control composition and microstructure during processing. Near-surface modification by ion implantation and laser treatment is one of these new methods for tailoring material properties. Novel materials have been formed which are far from thermodynamic equilibrium and which exhibit unexpected and useful properties. The most extensively studied property changes include modified electrical properties of semiconductors and improved wear, hardness, and corrosion resistance of metals. The high degree of control available with energetic beams allows relations between microstructure and properties to be systematically investigated at the atomic level. This article illustrates how ion and laser beam modification is being applied to advance both the technology and the exploratory science of materials

  11. Optical waveguides fabricated by nitrogen ion implantation in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Fu, Li-Li; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Guo, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Zhi-Guang; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao; Wei, Wei

    2016-02-01

    We report on the fabrication of waveguides in fused silica using 4.5-MeV nitrogen ion implantation with a fluence of 5.0×1014 ions/cm2. The prism-coupling method was employed to measure the effective refractive indices of guiding modes at the wavelengths of 632.8 and 1539 nm. The effective refractive indices of the first few modes were higher than that of the substrate. The refractive index profiles at 632.8 and 1539 nm were reconstructed by the reflectivity calculation method. Positive index changes were induced in the waveguide layers. The end-face coupling method was used to measure the near-field light intensity distributions at the wavelength of 632.8 nm and the finite-difference beam propagation method was applied to simulate the guided mode profile at the wavelength of 1539 nm. The waveguide structures emerge as candidates for integrated photonic devices.

  12. Investigation of the influence of argon ions implantation on the wear of sintered carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper relates the results of investigations how influences argon ions implantation into sintered carbides used in machining of metals. Research of sintered carbides surface microstructure showed that implantation effected the little increasing of its isotropy and improved the most universal roughness high parameters and forecasted bearing surface. t the same time the roughness altitudes were slightly 'scarified'. Measuring of cutting forces during turning showed that implanted edges are entailing lower value of cutting forces than not implanted edges. The reason is that the friction of implanted carbides is decreasing about 17%. Implantation of argon with the dose 1016 effects that abrasive wear of edges during cutting is two times lower that at implanted edges, but only so long like implanted layer exists. Then the wear intensity is the same like not implanted edges. In the paper conclusions concerning of further investigations of the helium group elements implantation are given. (author). 8 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  13. An ion beam transport design optimization in a medium range ion implanter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improvement of the transport beam focusing model in an ion implanter system has been achieved, with the definition of the main optical elements used and their parameters effect on charged particles. The equations of motion of charged particles and matrices in each optical element have been derived, with consideration of the motion in different planes. In the first assumption, the four-dimensional beam ellipsoid, the beam transport is accomplished in zero order (drift space and dipole) and first order (quadrupole and magnet). In the second assumption, the particle distribution is normal in the area of its space coordinates. Calculations of the emittance and brightness factors of the ion beam are found to be more affected by the energy of charged particles. The emittance and brightness have constant normalized values. A comparison and evaluation was made of the location and the effect of the designed parameters for each optical element within the available ion implantation design system. (author)

  14. Effect of ion current density on damage in Al ion implanted SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damage created by implantation of Al ions into single crystalline 4H-SiC has been analyzed using a combination of ion beam techniques and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The samples were implanted at room temperature with 150 keV Al+ ions in the fluence range of 4 x 1014 cm-2 to 2 x 1015 cm-2 with current densities of 0.4 and 2.5 μA cm-2. In order to study simultaneously the depth distribution of the disorder produced in both the carbon and silicon sublattice, we used 3.5 MeV He beam in channeling geometry. In this condition the cross-section for carbon is enhanced by a factor of ∼6. The structural recovery of the samples after a further high temperature annealing has been studied. These results have been compared with the optical properties of the samples measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry

  15. Ion enhanced deposition by dual titanium and acetylene plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) offers a non-line-of-sight fabrication method for various types of thin films on steels to improve the surface properties. In this work, titanium films were first deposited on 9Cr18 (AISI440) stainless bearing steel by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIII-D) using a titanium vacuum arc plasma source. Afterwards, carbon implantation and carbon film deposition were performed by acetylene (C2H2) plasma immersion ion implantation. Multiple-layered structures with superior properties were produced by conducting Ti MePIII-D + C2H2 PIII successively. The composition and structure of the films were investigated employing Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the mixing for Ti and C atoms is much better when the target bias is higher during Ti MePIII-D. A top diamond-like carbon layer and a titanium oxycarbide layer are formed on the 9Cr18 steel surface. The wear test results indicate that this dual PIII-D method can significantly enhance the wear properties and decrease the surface friction coefficient of 9Cr18 steel

  16. Ion enhanced deposition by dual titanium and acetylene plasma immersion ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z. M.; Tian, X. B.; Chu, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) offers a non-line-of-sight fabrication method for various types of thin films on steels to improve the surface properties. In this work, titanium films were first deposited on 9Cr18 (AISI440) stainless bearing steel by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIII-D) using a titanium vacuum arc plasma source. Afterwards, carbon implantation and carbon film deposition were performed by acetylene (C2H2) plasma immersion ion implantation. Multiple-layered structures with superior properties were produced by conducting Ti MePIII-D + C2H2 PIII successively. The composition and structure of the films were investigated employing Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the mixing for Ti and C atoms is much better when the target bias is higher during Ti MePIII-D. A top diamond-like carbon layer and a titanium oxycarbide layer are formed on the 9Cr18 steel surface. The wear test results indicate that this dual PIII-D method can significantly enhance the wear properties and decrease the surface friction coefficient of 9Cr18 steel.

  17. Ion-implantation and analysis for doped silicon slot waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallum J. C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have utilised ion implantation to fabricate silicon nanocrystal sensitised erbium-doped slot waveguide structures in a Si/SiO2/Si layered configuration and photoluminescence (PL and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS to analyse these structures. Slot waveguide structures in which light is confined to a nanometre-scale low-index region between two high-index regions potentially offer significant advantages for realisation of electrically-pumped Si devices with optical gain and possibly quantum optical devices. We are currently investigating an alternative pathway in which high quality thermal oxides are grown on silicon and ion implantation is used to introduce the Er and Si-ncs into the SiO2 layer. This approach provides considerable control over the Er and Si-nc concentrations and depth profiles which is important for exploring the available parameter space and developing optimised structures. RBS is well-suited to compositional analysis of these layered structures. To improve the depth sensitivity we have used a 1 MeV α beam and results indicate that a layered silicon-Er:SiO2/silicon structure has been fabricated as desired. In this paper structural results will be compared to Er photoluminescence profiles for samples processed under a range of conditions.

  18. Ion implantation and MOS structures in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study of stoichiometric disturbance (SMD) due to ion implantation in SiC is reported. In addition, experimental work on the material characterization of 3C SiC layers using Schottky diodes and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures are presented. In studying theoretical aspects of ion implantation in SiC, a method is developed to calculate the depth distribution of the stoichiometric disturbance (SMD) resulting from this process. Projectile range distributions at intermediate energies are deduced from look-up tables of known range statistics. This results in a simpler method with little loss of accuracy as compared to existing procedures which use the Boltzmann transport equation. A calculation of the SMD for implantation of Al in SiC suggests that the SMD may be responsible for otherwise unexplained distortions in the annealed Al profile. In the efforts of the characterization of the 3C SiC material, the effects of oxidation of the SiC substrate have been studied at room temperature by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements on MOS structures formed by a double-contact mercury probe. Standard methods have been implemented to extract various device parameters from the C-V characteristics. These include the calculation of substrate doping profile, effective fixed oxide trap density, N1, and interface trap density, D/sub it/. The effective N/sub f/ value was found to be 4 to 7 x 1011 cm-2. The value of d/sub it/ is obtained from a comparison of the measured characteristics to a theoretical high-frequency curve and it reveals a concentration of approximately 1011 cm-2eV-1 across the energy gap, with a peak on the order of 1012 cm-2eV-1, centered at 0.6 eV below the conduction band edge

  19. Double-ion imprinted polymer @magnetic nanoparticles modified screen printed carbon electrode for simultaneous analysis of cerium and gadolinium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali, E-mail: prof.bbpd@yahoo.com; Jauhari, Darshika

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • Synthesis of a double-ion imprinted polymer for analysis of Ce(IV) and Gd(III). • Imprinted nano-beads were grown on MNPs-modified SPCE surface. • Voltammetric determination of both templates was carried out simultaneously. • Ultra-trace analysis with LOD (ng mL{sup −1}) 0.07 for Ce(IV) and 0.19 for Gd(III) is achieved. - Abstract: A typical, reproducible, and rugged screen printed carbon electrode, modified with dual-ion imprinted beads, was fabricated employing the “surface grafting from” approach. For this, the acyl chloride functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were first immobilized and chemically attached with a typical functional monomer (but-2-enedioic acid bis-[(2-amino-ethyl)-amide]) on the electrode surface. This was subsequently subjected to the thermal polymerization in the presence of template ions (Ce(IV) and Gd(III)), cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), initiator (AIBN), and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified sensor was used for the simultaneous analysis of both template ions in aqueous, blood serum, and waste-water samples, using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry which revealed two oxidation peaks for respective templates with resolution as much as 950 mV, without any cross reactivity, interferences and false-positives. The detection limits realized by the proposed sensor, under optimized conditions, were found to be as low as 0.07 ng mL{sup −1} for Ce(IV) and 0.19 ng mL{sup −1} for Gd(III) (S/N = 3) that could eventually be helpful for lanthanide estimation at stringent levels.

  20. Double-ion imprinted polymer @magnetic nanoparticles modified screen printed carbon electrode for simultaneous analysis of cerium and gadolinium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Synthesis of a double-ion imprinted polymer for analysis of Ce(IV) and Gd(III). • Imprinted nano-beads were grown on MNPs-modified SPCE surface. • Voltammetric determination of both templates was carried out simultaneously. • Ultra-trace analysis with LOD (ng mL−1) 0.07 for Ce(IV) and 0.19 for Gd(III) is achieved. - Abstract: A typical, reproducible, and rugged screen printed carbon electrode, modified with dual-ion imprinted beads, was fabricated employing the “surface grafting from” approach. For this, the acyl chloride functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were first immobilized and chemically attached with a typical functional monomer (but-2-enedioic acid bis-[(2-amino-ethyl)-amide]) on the electrode surface. This was subsequently subjected to the thermal polymerization in the presence of template ions (Ce(IV) and Gd(III)), cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), initiator (AIBN), and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified sensor was used for the simultaneous analysis of both template ions in aqueous, blood serum, and waste-water samples, using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry which revealed two oxidation peaks for respective templates with resolution as much as 950 mV, without any cross reactivity, interferences and false-positives. The detection limits realized by the proposed sensor, under optimized conditions, were found to be as low as 0.07 ng mL−1 for Ce(IV) and 0.19 ng mL−1 for Gd(III) (S/N = 3) that could eventually be helpful for lanthanide estimation at stringent levels

  1. Double-ion imprinted polymer @magnetic nanoparticles modified screen printed carbon electrode for simultaneous analysis of cerium and gadolinium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali; Jauhari, Darshika

    2015-05-22

    A typical, reproducible, and rugged screen printed carbon electrode, modified with dual-ion imprinted beads, was fabricated employing the "surface grafting from" approach. For this, the acyl chloride functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were first immobilized and chemically attached with a typical functional monomer (but-2-enedioic acid bis-[(2-amino-ethyl)-amide]) on the electrode surface. This was subsequently subjected to the thermal polymerization in the presence of template ions (Ce(IV) and Gd(III)), cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), initiator (AIBN), and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified sensor was used for the simultaneous analysis of both template ions in aqueous, blood serum, and waste-water samples, using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry which revealed two oxidation peaks for respective templates with resolution as much as 950 mV, without any cross reactivity, interferences and false-positives. The detection limits realized by the proposed sensor, under optimized conditions, were found to be as low as 0.07 ng mL(-1) for Ce(IV) and 0.19 ng mL(-1) for Gd(III) (S/N=3) that could eventually be helpful for lanthanide estimation at stringent levels. PMID:25937109

  2. Ionic flotation of cerium, praseodymium and neodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of practically complete flotation extraction of cerium, praseodymium and neodymium ions collected with the help of potassium abietate is shown. It is established that the most complete flotation extraction of cerium, praseodymium and neodymium ions takes place from solutions having 6-8 pH value in the presence of 1.5-2.5 multiple collector surplus. Solution temperature increase from 20 to 80 deg influences positively the flotation process

  3. Effects of N+ ion implantation into cubic BN film for tribological usages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) film was deposited onto a silicon substrate by means of the magnetically enhanced ion-plating method developed by the authors, and ion implantation was performed as a post-treatment using N+ under various conditions. In this study, the crystal structure and tribological properties against diamond of the c-BN film treated by ion implantation were investigated. The results showed that implantation depth increased with an increase in implanting energy even on this c-BN, and it was found that ion damage to the c-BN phase was less when the dosage fell below 8 x 1015 ions cm-2. It was also found that ion implantation was effective in decreasing the friction coefficient when the treated film was contacted with diamond. (orig.)

  4. Heavy ion time-of-flight ERDA of high dose metal implanted germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N.; Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Bunder, J. [New South Wales Univ., Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Wollongong Univ. Coll

    1996-12-31

    With the thick Ge substrates used in ion implantation, RBS can have difficulty in resolving the mass-depth ambiguities when analysing materials composed of mixtures of elements with nearly equal masses. Additional, and complimentary techniques are thus required. This paper reports the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF- ERDA), and conventional RBS in the analysis of Ge(100) implanted with high dose Ti and Cu ions from a MEWA ion source . Heavy ion ToF ERDA has been used to resolve, and profile the implanted transition metal species, and also to study any oxygen incorporation into the sample resulting from the implantation, or subsequential reactions with air or moisture. This work is part of a study on high dose metal ion implantation of medium atomic weight semiconductor materials. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Characterization of silicon and carbon dual ion-implanted metals with a nano-indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dual ion implantation of silicon and carbon into copper (99.9%), iron (99.9%), SKD11 steel and SUS304 austenitic stainless steels was carried out with a MeV energy ion accelerator. The cross-section of the implanted layer were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The surface layers of the implanted substrates were investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The hardness of the samples was tested with a nano-indentation. It was found with XPS Si (2p) spectra and TEM that a part of the Si ions and C ions formed an amorphous layer of SiC, carbide and metals by dual ion-implantation. The hardness of the dual ion-implanted steels were improved. The mechanism of hardness was suggested by cross-sectional TEM images. (author)

  6. Correlation between deuterium retention and microstructure change for tungsten under triple ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triple ion (C+, D2+ and He+) implantation onto a tungsten substrate was performed to investigate the hydrogen isotope and microstructure behavior under fusion conditions. The results are compared to the ones from dual ion (C+ and D2+) implanted tungsten. It was found that the TDS spectrum for the triple ion implanted sample is quite different from that for the dual ion implanted sample and the deuterium retention decreased when He+ was added to the incident beam indicating that the helium prevented deuterium trapping. TEM images show that dislocations and dislocation loops were introduced in tungsten in both the dual and triple ion irradiation experiments and helium bubbles were formed on the triple ion implanted tungsten. After heating up to 1173 K, not only the dislocations and dislocation loops but also helium bubbles remained on the triple ion implanted sample, but the dislocations and dislocation loops were moved and/or annihilated on the dual ion implanted sample. The formation of a WC layer was inhibited in the triple ion implanted sample.

  7. Effect of disorder and defects in ion-implanted semiconductors electrical and physiochemical characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, Robert K; Christofides, Constantinos; Ghibaudo, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Defects in ion-implanted semiconductors are important and will likely gain increased importance in the future as annealing temperatures are reduced with successive IC generations. Novel implant approaches, such as MdV implantation, create new types of defects whose origin and annealing characteristics will need to be addressed. Publications in this field mainly focus on the effects of ion implantation on the material and the modification in the implanted layer afterhigh temperature annealing.Electrical and Physicochemical Characterization focuses on the physics of the annealing kine

  8. Characterization and control of wafer charging effects during high-current ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EEPROM-based sense and memory devices provide direct measures of the charge flow and potentials occurring on the surface of wafers during ion beam processing. Sensor design and applications for high current ion implantation are discussed

  9. Peripheral nerve regeneration through a silicone chamber implanted with negative carbon ions: Possibility to clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated whether a tube with its inner surface implanted with negative-charged carbon ions (C- ions) would enable axons to extend over a distance greater than 10 mm. The tube was found to support nerves regenerating across a 15-mm-long inter-stump gap. We also investigated whether a C- ion-implanted tube pretreated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes peripheral nerve regeneration. The C- ion implanted tube accelerated nerve regeneration, and this effect was enhanced by bFGF. Silicone treated with C- ions showed increased hydrophilic properties and cellular affinity, and axon regeneration was promoted with this increased biocompatibility.

  10. Studies of iron exposed to heavy ion implantation using positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodek, P.; Dryzek, J.; Skuratov, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    Variable energy positron beam and positron lifetime spectroscopy were used to study pure iron exposed to irradiation with 167 MeV Xe26+ heavy ions with different doses of 1012, 1013, 5×1013, 1014 ions/cm2. The positron lifetime spectroscopy revealed the presence of large cluster of about 15-27 vacancies and dislocations. The dislocations are distributed at the depth of about 18 μm i.e. almost twice deeper than the ion implantation range from the surface exposed to the heavy ions implantation. Possible explanation is the long-range effect attributed to the ion implantation into materials.

  11. Annealing of PEEK, PET and PI implanted with Co ions at high fluencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of implanted polymers strongly depend on the implantation ion fluence and on the properties of the implanted atoms. The stability of synthesized nano-structures during further technological steps like annealing is of importance for their possible applications. Polyimide (PI), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), and polyethyleneterephtalate (PET) were implanted with 40 keV Co+ ions at room temperature at fluences ranging from 0.2 × 1016 cm−2 to 1.0 × 1017 cm–2 and annealed at a temperature of 200 °C. The implanted depth profiles of as-implanted and annealed samples, determined by the RBS method, were compared with the results of SRIM 2012 simulations. The structural and compositional changes of the implanted and subsequently annealed polymers were characterized by RBS and UV–vis spectroscopy. The surface morphology of as-implanted and annealed samples was examined by the AFM method and their electrical properties by sheet resistance measurement

  12. Near-surface recrystallization of the amorphous implanted layer of ion implanted 6H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recrystallization and subsequent crystal growth during annealing of amorphous surface layers on 6H-SiC produced by ion implantation is investigated. Amorphous surface layers were produced by ion implantation of 360 keV ions of iodine, silver, xenon, cesium and strontium into single crystalline 6H-silicon carbide samples. The ion fluence for all the implantations were in the order of 1016 cm−2. Vacuum annealing of the damaged silicon carbide samples was then performed. The microstructure of SiC surfaces before and after annealing was investigated using a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis was complimented by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). SEM images acquired by an in-lens detector using an accelerating voltage of 2 kV show nano-crystallites developed for all implanted samples after annealing. Larger and more faceted crystallites along with elongated thin crystallites were observed for iodine and xenon implanted 6H-SiC. Crystallites formed on surfaces implanted with strontium and cesium were smaller and less faceted. Strontium, silver and cesium implanted samples also exhibited more cavities on the surface. AFM was used to evaluate the effect of annealing on the surface roughness. For all the amorphous surfaces which were essentially featureless, the root mean square (rms) roughness was approximately 1 nm. The roughness increased to approximately 17 nm for the iodine implanted sample after annealing with the surface roughness below this value for all the other samples. AFM also showed that the largest crystals grew to heights of about 17, 20, 45, 50 and 65 nm for Sr, Cs, Ag, Xe and I implanted samples after annealing at 1200 °C for 5 h respectively. SEM images and AFM analysis suggest that iodine is more effective in promoting crystal growth during the annealing of bombardment-induced amorphous SiC layers than the rest of the ions we implanted. In samples of silicon carbide co-implanted with iodine and silver, few

  13. Near-surface recrystallization of the amorphous implanted layer of ion implanted 6H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhudzai, R. J.; van der Berg, N. G.; Malherbe, J. B.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; Theron, C. C.; Buys, A. V.; Botha, A. J.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.

    2014-08-01

    The recrystallization and subsequent crystal growth during annealing of amorphous surface layers on 6H-SiC produced by ion implantation is investigated. Amorphous surface layers were produced by ion implantation of 360 keV ions of iodine, silver, xenon, cesium and strontium into single crystalline 6H-silicon carbide samples. The ion fluence for all the implantations were in the order of 1016 cm-2. Vacuum annealing of the damaged silicon carbide samples was then performed. The microstructure of SiC surfaces before and after annealing was investigated using a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis was complimented by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). SEM images acquired by an in-lens detector using an accelerating voltage of 2 kV show nano-crystallites developed for all implanted samples after annealing. Larger and more faceted crystallites along with elongated thin crystallites were observed for iodine and xenon implanted 6H-SiC. Crystallites formed on surfaces implanted with strontium and cesium were smaller and less faceted. Strontium, silver and cesium implanted samples also exhibited more cavities on the surface. AFM was used to evaluate the effect of annealing on the surface roughness. For all the amorphous surfaces which were essentially featureless, the root mean square (rms) roughness was approximately 1 nm. The roughness increased to approximately 17 nm for the iodine implanted sample after annealing with the surface roughness below this value for all the other samples. AFM also showed that the largest crystals grew to heights of about 17, 20, 45, 50 and 65 nm for Sr, Cs, Ag, Xe and I implanted samples after annealing at 1200 °C for 5 h respectively. SEM images and AFM analysis suggest that iodine is more effective in promoting crystal growth during the annealing of bombardment-induced amorphous SiC layers than the rest of the ions we implanted. In samples of silicon carbide co-implanted with iodine and silver, few

  14. The biomedical properties of polyethylene terephthalate surface modified by silver ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film is modified by Ag ion implantation with a fluence 1 x 1016 ions/cm2. The results of X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that silver has been successfully implanted into the surface of PET. The PET samples modified by silver ion implantation have significantly bactericidal property. The capacity of the staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) adhered on the Ag+ implanted PET surface is 5.3 x 106 CFU/ml, but the capacity of the SE adhered on the untreated PET film is 2.23 x 107 CFU/ml. The thromboembolic property is evaluated by in vitro platelet adhesion test, and there is not statistically difference between the untreated PET and the Ag+ implanted PET for the number of adhered and activated platelets. The PET implanted by silver ion has not acute toxicity to endothelial cell (EC) which was evaluated by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test

  15. Influence of temperature on nitrogen ion implantation of Ti6Al4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve increased layer thickness, and wearing resistance, enhanced ion implantation with nitrogen has been carried out at temperature of 100, 200, 400 and 600 degree C with a dose of 4 x 1018 ions·cm-2. Using the Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) device, specimens of Ti6Al4V alloy were implanted at elevated temperatures, using the ion flux as the heating source. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), micro-hardness measurements and pin-on-disk wearing tester were utilized to evaluate the surface property improvements. The thickness of the implanted layer increased by about an order of magnitude when the temperature was elevated from 100 to 600 degree C. Higher surface hardness and wearing resistance was also obtained in implantation under higher temperature. XRD image showed the presence of titanium nitrides on the implanted surface

  16. Influence of Temperature on Nitrogen Ion Implantation of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Zheng, Yong-zhen; Mo, Zhi-tao; Tang, De-li; Tong, Hong-hui; Geng, Man

    2001-04-01

    In order to achieve increased layer thickness, and wearing resistance, enhanced ion implantation with nitrogen has been carried out at temperatures of 100, 200, 400, and 600°C with a dose of 4×1018 ions cm-2. Using the Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) device, specimens of Ti6Al4V alloy were implanted at elevated temperatures, using the ion flux as the heating source. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), x-ray Diffraction (XRD), micro-hardness measurements and pin-on-disk wearing tester were utilized to evaluate the surface property improvements. The thickness of the implanted layer increased by about an order of magnitude when the temperature was elevated from 100 to 600°C. Higher surface hardness and wearing resistance was also obtained in implantation under higher temperature. XRD image showed the presence of titanium nitrides on the implanted surface.

  17. High energy electron irradiation of ion implanted MOS structures with different oxide thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 11 MeV electron irradiation of boron ion implanted Si-SiO2 structures with different oxide thickness have been investigated by thermally stimulated charge (TSC) method. It has been shown that electron irradiation of implanted with 20 keV boron ions structures results in the formation of a trap spectrum which locates in the same temperature range as the spectrum of the as-implanted samples. The density of radiation-induced interface traps after electron irradiation has been found to depend on the disposition of the maximum of the previously implanted boron ions with respect to the Si-SiO2 interface

  18. Loss of implanted heavy elements during annealing of ultra-shallow ion-implanted silicon: The complete picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We propose the mechanism for the dopant dose loss effect in heavy ion implantation. • First, the implanted atoms agglomerate into liquid melts during annealing. • These melts become mobile and cause the polycrystalline phase formation. • The melts then move along grain boundaries and are forced out of the sample. • We also identify the triggering conditions for these events. - Abstract: From the observations of the annealing process of ultra-shallow Sn and Pb implanted Si, we propose the mechanism and the triggering conditions for the dopant dose loss effect commonly observed in heavy ion-implanted silicon. The results of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations are presented. With these results, we construct a complete chain of events that leads to the loss of most of the implanted ions. First, the implanted atoms agglomerate into liquid melts during high temperature electron beam annealing, causing polycrystalline phase formation. Next, liquid phase movement takes place along grain boundaries, and the implanted atoms are forced out of the surface layer as the grain boundaries disappear during grain growth, leaving behind low concentrations of residual atoms. The specific conditions that trigger such a sequence of processes are identified

  19. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3 × 1016 ions/cm2 was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity. - Highlights: ► Mg ion was coated onto surface of SLA treated titanium via vacuum arc source ion implantation method. ► The morphological characteristics did not change after Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implanted SLA Ti is highly cytocompatible. ► Initial cell adhesion of MSCs is improved by Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implantation improved

  20. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Min [DIO Corporation, 66, Centum seo-ro, Haeundae-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bo-Young [Department of Oral and maxillofacial Surgery, Wonkwang University Daejeon Dental Hospital, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun, E-mail: omslee@wku.ac.kr [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity. - Highlights: ► Mg ion was coated onto surface of SLA treated titanium via vacuum arc source ion implantation method. ► The morphological characteristics did not change after Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implanted SLA Ti is highly cytocompatible. ► Initial cell adhesion of MSCs is improved by Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implantation

  1. Characterization of green electroluminescent diodes obtained by boron ion implantation into ZnTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproducible electroluminescent ZnTe diodes were made by boron ion implantation. ZnTe crystals were obtained by the Bridgman method in solution at 920 deg C, or by the travelling solvent method at lower temperatures. Their physical properties are shortly described as well as the ion implantation technics used

  2. Electrical doping of Hg Cd Te by ion implantation and heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general properties of junctions made by ion implantation in Hg Cd Te semiconductor are recalled structure of junctions made by implantation damage, defects, anneals, junctions made by active impurities. The effect of acceptor evolution in this semiconductor after heat treatments and a study of the kinetics are presented. Very high quality devices with very small size and large two-dimensional arrays are shown to be possibly achieved using ion implantation technique of junction formation in the semiconductor epilayers grown by LPE

  3. Influence of the ion implantation on the nanoscale intermetallic phases formation in Ni-Ti system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The ion implantation at a high intensity mode is an effective method for modification of the surface properties of metals and alloys. Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties of irradiated materials using the high intensity implantation is connected with an element composition and microstructure modification of the surface and subsurface layers. One shows a great interest in intermetallic phase's synthesis by ion implantation, because of unique physical-mechanical properties of the intermetallic compounds. The influence of the irradiation conditions on the structural state and surface properties of implanted materials is not clear enough. The study of the factors influencing on the formation of the surface ion - alloyed layers of metal targets having the high tribological and mechanical properties by high intensity ion implantation is actual. The aim of the present work is a study of the microstructure, phase composition, physical and mechanical properties of the ion-alloyed Ni surfaces formed at high intensity implantation of Ti ions. The implantation Ti ions into Ni samples at high intensity mode was realized using ion source 'Raduga - 5'. The implantation Ti ions into Ni was carried out at accelerating voltage 20 kV for 2 h. The regimes were differed in the samples temperature (580 - 700 K), the distance from the ion implanted samples to the ion source (0.43-0.93 m) and the dose of irradiated ions (0.3·1018-2.9·1018 ion/cm-2). The element composition of the implanted samples was analyzed by the electron spectroscopy. The structural-phase state of the Ni ion-modified layers was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Additionally, the investigation of mechanical and tribological properties of the implanted Ni samples was carried out. It was established that the maximum thickness of the ion-alloyed nickel layers at high intensity mode allows forming the nanoscale intermetallic phases (NiTi, Ni3

  4. Data compilation for depth distribution of ion-induced damage and ion-implanted atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent progress of utilizing ion bombardment technique to ion implantation and neutron irradiation simulation, the experimental data have accumulated concerning the depth distribution of deposited atoms and induced damage along ion incident direction. In the ion-induced damage experiments, the density of point defects or void swelling has been investigated as a function of depth. In this study, the data available until the present time are compiled and compared with theoretical prediction represented by E-DEP-1 computer code. It is recognized in general that the experimentally observed damage peak is deeper than that E-DEP-1 calculated using the LSS electronic stopping parameter, k sub(LSS). Agreement between the observation and calculation can be obtained using a modified electronic stopping parameter k = 0.8 - 0.9 k sub(LSS). With regard to the deposited atoms by ion bombardment, the peak of the observed distribution is deeper in some cases and shallower in other cases than that calculated by E-DEP-1, indicating that the modified electronic stopping parameter k is oscillating relative to k sub(LSS). This oscillatory behavior is not recognized in the damage distribution. It is suggested that future work should be made to determine the distribution of ion-induced damage in relation to that of the deposited atoms, since the defect evolution may directly be related to the implanted atoms. (author)

  5. Single-Ion Implantation for the Development of Si-Based MOSFET Devices with Quantum Functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. McCallum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in single-ion implantation is driven in part by research into development of solid-state devices that exhibit quantum behaviour in their electronic or optical characteristics. Here, we provide an overview of international research work on single ion implantation and single ion detection for development of electronic devices for quantum computing. The scope of international research into single ion implantation is presented in the context of our own research in the Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology in Australia. Various single ion detection schemes are presented, and limitations on dopant placement accuracy due to ion straggling are discussed together with pathways for scale-up to multiple quantum devices on the one chip. Possible future directions for ion implantation in quantum computing and communications are also discussed.

  6. La, Ce, Pr and Nd determination in cerium dioxide-based polishing powders using the method of reverse ion interaction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure has been elaborated for the determination of the major components of polishing powders based on cerium dioxide (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium and neodymium) by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The samples are decomposed by heating with hydrobromic acid, and the bromide ions are then eliminated by addition of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The separation is carried out on a column packed with a sorbent with bonded octadecyl groups, Separon SGX RPS, using a mobile phase containing 2 mmol/l of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, 2 mmol/l of oxalic acid and 2 mmol/l of NaClO4, at pH 4.5. Detection is based on postcolumn derivatization with Arsenazo III. A detection limit at the level of several ng was achieved for the injected sample volume of 20 μl. The results of the analyses are in a good agreement with the results obtained by X-ray fluorescence analysis. (author) 2 tabs., 2 figs., 23 refs

  7. Influence of ion-implantation on physical properties of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Last years the ion-implantation is widely used for creation heteroepitaxial films, diffusion barriers and ohmic contacts. In this connection, scientific and practical interest represents studying physical properties ion-implanted materials. In this work the specific resistance and Schottky barrier height of Si surface, implanted by Ba+, Na+ and Co+ ions is investigated. Ions energy are E0=1-5 keV. In all cases high doses ion-implantation (D≥1016 cm-2) in combination with annealing result in formation of compounds such as BaSi2, NaSi2, and CoSi2. Measuring has shown, that resistance silicides films prove lower in comparison with the surface resistance of a substrate (silicon). It is shown, that values of a specific resistance and Schottky barrier height for all studied silicides films are given. These data apply to monocrystal films, obtained at optimum conditions. As evident, that among silicides films the greatest specific resistance has Mn2Si3. Besides it is necessary to note, that value ρ not always strongly depends on correlation of concentration of atoms Me/Si. Apparently, it depends also on type of bond between atoms Me-Si, crystalline and electronic structure of silicide. On dependence, ρ(T) for film Mn2Si3/Si which in area T=300-1100 K, little increases ρ, two obvious maximums are detect at T1=600 and T2=750 K, it is probably the bound with depletion of impurity levels. It is necessary to note, that such maximums for thick sample silicides are not detect. It is possible, that in Mn2Si3 forbidden zone is present two impurity levels located near to a bottom of conduction band (Eg=0.056 and 0.064 eV). In interval T=1100-1300 K are occurred small decrease ρ. The last is bound to some decomposition Mn2Si3 and enrichment of surface by metal atoms. With increase T, starting with T=1300 K intensive decomposition Mn2Si3 and evaporation of silicide components from surface is observed, that result in sharp increases ρ. By formula Eg=T·K·ln(NcNv/Nd2

  8. Thermal Behaviour of W+C Ion Implanted Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to examine thermal behavior of the surface modified Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly Ethylene (UHMWPE ) in order to understand the effect of ion implantation on the properties of this polymer which is widely used especially for biomedical applications. UHMWPE samples were Tungsten and Carbon (W+C) hybrid ion implanted by using Metal Vapour Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion implantation technique with a fluence of 10 17 ions/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Untreated and surface-treated samples were investigated by Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) Analysis, Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectrometry, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). This study has shown that ion implantation represents a powerful tool on modifying thermal properties of UHMWPE surfaces. This combination of properties can make implanted UHMWPE a preferred material for biomedical applications.

  9. Ion implantation reinforcement of the protective efficiency of nickel in artificial sea-water

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, L; Grosseau-Poussard, J L; Dinhut, J F

    2002-01-01

    Ni bulk specimens have been implanted with Cr, Cu and Ar ions (4x10 sup 1 sup 6 ions/cm sup 2 , 60 keV) in order to distinguish between chemical and radiation damage effects on protection corrosion. The corrosion behaviour in artificial sea-water of ion-implanted and pure Ni has been studied at room temperature by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS spectra of ion-implanted Ni exhibit one capacitance loop while in pure Ni two distinct loops are observed. Moreover an important increase in the polarisation resistance is noticed for all implanted ions. Theses changes in EIS behaviour with implantation is related to the increase of the superficial layer density resulting in a decrease of heterogeneity of the passive layer. Equivalent circuits are proposed to fit the impedance spectra and corresponding electrochemical parameters are deduced.

  10. Effects of metal-ion implantation on wear properties of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polypropylene was implanted with 100 keV titanium and silver ions to fluences of 1, 10 and 50 x 1019 ions m-2 using a vacuum arc metal-ion source. The implanted specimens were tested for sliding reciprocating wear properties using a nylon counterface, 1 N normal load, 3 mm stroke length and 10 000 sliding cycles. The results of the wear tests showed that there was a dramatic improvement in wear properties for the 50 x 1019 ions m-2 titanium-implanted specimen, to the point that no wear damage was visibly evident after 10 000 cycles. A similar wear improvement was not obtained for the lower fluences for titanium implantation or for the silver-implanted specimens. The improvement in wear properties was related to the mechanisms of linear energy transfer from the incident ions to the polypropylene substrate, and consequent effects on cross-linking, which is responsible for changes in properties. (author)

  11. Cell attachment of polypropylene surface-modified by COOH+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboxy ion (COOH+) implantation was performed at the energy of 50 keV with fluences ranging from 1x1014 to 1x1015 ions/cm2 at room temperature for polypropylene (PP). The effects of ion implantation on cells (immune macrophages, 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and human endothelial cells) were studied in vitro. Tests of cell attachment gave interesting results that the 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and human endothelial cells cultured on the surface of the implanted PP showed much better attachment and proliferation than that on pristine PP. At the same time, the COOH+ ion implantation also induced low macrophage attachment with normal cellular morphology. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that COOH+ ion implantation caused the rearrangement of chemical bonds and the formation of some new O-containing groups, which was responsible for the enhancement of the biocompatibility of PP

  12. Surface stiffening and enhanced photoluminescence of ion implanted cellulose - polyvinyl alcohol - silica composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthini, G M; Sakthivel, N; Menon, Ranjini; Nabhiraj, P Y; Gómez-Tejedor, J A; Meseguer-Dueñas, J M; Gómez Ribelles, J L; Krishna, J B M; Kalkura, S Narayana

    2016-11-20

    Novel Cellulose (Cel) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-Silica (Si) composite which has good stability and in vitro degradation was prepared by lyophilization technique and implanted using N(3+) ions of energy 24keV in the fluences of 1×10(15), 5×10(15) and 1×10(16)ions/cm(2). SEM analysis revealed the formation of microstructures, and improved the surface roughness on ion implantation. In addition to these structural changes, the implantation significantly modified the luminescent, thermal and mechanical properties of the samples. The elastic modulus of the implanted samples has increased by about 50 times compared to the pristine which confirms that the stiffness of the sample surface has increased remarkably on ion implantation. The photoluminescence of the native cellulose has improved greatly due to defect site, dangling bonds and hydrogen passivation. Electric conductivity of the ion implanted samples was improved by about 25%. Hence, low energy ion implantation tunes the mechanical property, surface roughness and further induces the formation of nano structures. MG63 cells seeded onto the scaffolds reveals that with the increase in implantation fluence, the cell attachment, viability and proliferation have improved greatly compared to pristine. The enhancement of cell growth of about 59% was observed in the implanted samples compared to pristine. These properties will enable the scaffolds to be ideal for bone tissue engineering and imaging applications. PMID:27561534

  13. Study on the Properties of TiN Coatings on Previously Ion-Implanted Pure Magnesium Surface by MEVVA Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai; CHEN Fei; WANG Jian-ping

    2007-01-01

    A metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) is used in ion implantation for substrate preparation before the deposition process which would ensure the improvement of mechanical properties of the coating.Ti ion is implanted into pure magnesium surface by MEVVA implanter operated with a modified cathode.Implanting energy is kept at 45 keV and dose is set at 3×1017 cm-2.TiN coatings are deposited by magnetically filtered vacuum-arc plasma source on unimplanted and previously implanted substrates.Microstructure and phase composition are analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The property of corrosion resistance of TiN coatings was studied by CS300P electrochemistry-corrosion workstation,and the main impact factor of the corrosion resistance was also analyzed.

  14. Study of corrosion inhibition of coupled Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al by cerium cinnamate using scanning vibrating electrode technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The corrosion inhibition of coupled Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al by cerium cinnamate was studied. • SVET and SIET were used to study the distribution of current densities and pH. • The corrosion inhibition mechanisms were analyzed. - Abstract: The galvanic corrosion of the coupled Al2Cu and Al as well as Al3Fe and Al in 0.005 M NaCl in and without the presence of cerium cinnamate was studied. Scanning vibrating electrode technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique were used to measure the distribution of current densities and pH. The results indicate that cerium cinnamate played inhibiting effect on the coupling corrosion of Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al. For Al2Cu–Al, the inhibition was mainly influenced by the production of cerium oxide/hydroxide on Al2Cu surface. However, for Al3Fe–Al, the inhibition was mainly influenced by the adsorbed cerium cinnamate on the Al3Fe surface

  15. Effect of fluoride-ion implantation on the biocompatibility of titanium for dental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study stressed on the effect of fluoride-ion implantation upon the biocompatibility of titanium. By using plasma immersion ion implantation technique, fluoride ions were implanted into the smooth surface of pure titanium. The chemical composition and physical structure of the modified surface layers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as scanning electron microscope (SEM). At the same time, in vitro co-culture assays were performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of MG-63 cells to the modified titanium. It was confirmed by SEM observations that cell growth on the fluoride-ion-implanted titanium acquired better morphological characters. In addition, the cells on the fluoride-ion-implanted titanium showed the more increasingly and rapidly substrates-attaching capabilities than those on the non-implanted titanium via aridine orange stain assay. Fluoride-ion-implanted titanium could increase the percentages of cells in S phase but without affecting the ratios of cells in G0/G1 and G2/M phases was confirmed by flow cytometry assay. The current results indicated that fluoride-ion implantation could improve the biocompatibility of titanium

  16. Modification of plasma polymer films by ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cristina Ribeiro dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, thin polymer films were prepared from acetylene and argon radiofrequency (13.56 MHz, 80 W glow discharges. Post-deposition treatment was performed by plasma immersion ion implantation in nitrogen or helium glow discharges (13.56 MHz, 70 W. In these cases, samples were biased with 25 kV negative pulses. Exposure time to the bombardment plasma, t, ranged from 900 to 7200 s. Chemical composition of the film surfaces was investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and the resistance to oxidation by the etching process, in reactive oxygen plasmas. Oxygen and nitrogen were detected in all the samples. While the concentration of the former continuously changed with t, that of N kept practically constant in small proportions. The film is predominantly formed by sp² states, but the proportion of sp³ hybridization slightly increased with t. The etching rate dropped under certain conditions of nitrogen bombardment whereas helium implantation has not significantly improved it. These results are ascribed to the crosslinking degree of the polymeric chains, ruled by the total amount of energy delivered to the film.

  17. Study of phase transformation processes in steel after phosphor ion implantation and following thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper process of phase transformation after phosphor ion implantation in steel-45 and annealing in vacuum at 1000 deg C and irradiation by various doses of phosphor ions with energy 100 keV an accelerator are researched by conversion electron method. The phosphor overall solubility in iron is equal 4.53 %. Implantation dose below 6·1017 ions/cm2 allows increase phosphor ions content in implantation region to 35 %. Therefore, iron phosphides (Fe3P, Fe2P and Fe P) forming are possible. (author)

  18. Analysis of ion-implanted surface and interface structures by computer-simulated backscattering spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer codes for synthesizing random and channeling backscattering spectra have been elaborated to characterize the surface and interface structures formed or modified by ion implantation. Both effects of isotopes and energy fluctuation are taken into account in the spectrum simulation. This backscattering measurement combined with the simulation method is applied to characterization of the Ni+-implanted Al films and to quantitative analysis of chemical reaction and interdiffusion induced by ion-beam mixing. An ion-beam-induced damage profile and its epitaxial recovery of crystallinity are analyzed by the simulation of channeling spectra from ion-implanted Al2O3 substrates

  19. Ion implantation of erbium into polycrystalline cadmium telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific features of the ion implantation of polycrystalline cadmium telluride with grains 20–1000 μm in dimensions are studied. The choice of erbium is motivated by the possibility of using rare-earth elements as luminescent “probes” in studies of the defect and impurity composition of materials and modification of the composition by various technological treatments. From the microphotoluminescence data, it is found that, with decreasing crystal-grain dimensions, the degree of radiation stability of the material is increased. Microphotoluminescence topography of the samples shows the efficiency of the rare-earth probe in detecting regions with higher impurity and defect concentrations, including regions of intergrain boundaries

  20. An antibacterial coating obtained through implantation of titanium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S. M.

    2014-04-01

    Everyday life is exposed to the risks of contracting severe diseases due to the diffusion of severe pathogens. For this reason, efficient antimicrobial surfaces becomes a need of primary importance. In this work we report the first evidences of a new technique to synthesize an antibacterial coating on Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)samples, based on a non-stoichiometric, visible light responsive, titanium oxide. The coating was obtained through laser ablation of a titanium target, then the resulting ions were accelerated and implanted on the samples. The samples where tested against a Staphylococcus aureus strain, in order to assay their antimicrobial efficacy. Results show that this treatment strongly discourages bacterial adhesion to the treated surfaces.

  1. Focussed MeV ion beam implanted waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Bibra, M.L.; Roberts, A.; Nugent, K.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Single mode buried optical waveguides have been fabricated in fused silica by MeV proton implantation using a focussed hydrogen ion beam. The technique has the potential to direct write waveguide devices and produce multi-layered structures, without the need for intermediate steps such as mask fabrication or layered depositions. A micron resolution Confocal Raman Spectrometer has been used to map the distribution of atomic vacancies that forms the waveguiding region. The results are compared with theoretical calculations. Losses of 3 dB cm{sup -1} have been measured in unannealed samples, which decreases to less than 0.5 dB cm{sup -1} after annealing at 500 degrees Celsius. We describe methods for determining the refractive index distribution of single mode buried waveguides from their output intensity distributions via an inversion of the scalar wave equation. (authors). 5 figs.

  2. Effectiveness of ion implantation of iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonov, A.N.; Fedichkin, G.M.; Yurchenko, S.E.; Suslin, L.A.; Smirnov, I.S.; Shlenov, Yu.V.

    1986-01-01

    The authors seek to determine experimentally what changes of the magnetic bubble properties and of the iron garnet film characteristics resulting from implantation of Ne/sup +/ ions can be used as criteria for assessing the effectiveness of this process in the production of bubble devices. For the experiments, the authors used (YBi)/sub 3/(FeGa)/sub 5/O/sub 12/; (TmBi)/sub 3/(FeGa)/sub 5/O/sub 12/; and (YSmLuCa)/sub 3/(FeGe)/sub 5/O/sub 12/. The orientation of the Gd/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/O/sub 12/ substrate is (111) in all cases. The current density of the H/sup +/ proton beam did not exceed 0.5 micro-A/cm/sup 2/.

  3. A theory of the ion-implanted metal semiconductor contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-dimensional diffusion theory has been used for calculating the current-voltage characteristic of an ion-implanted aluminium-p-silicon contact. The characteristic feature of this contact is the presence of a disordered intermediate layer of about 1,000 A between the pure metal and the semiconductor substrate. The contact resistance of this MaS structure is two orders of magnitude lower than that of an abrupt system. A variation method is given to evaluate the internal potential PHI and the width L of space charge in the case of thermodynamic equilibrium. From the non-linear system of basic equations of diffusion theory a compact expression for the stationary current density is derived in a self-consitent way. (author)

  4. An antibacterial coating obtained through implantation of titanium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everyday life is exposed to the risks of contracting severe diseases due to the diffusion of severe pathogens. For this reason, efficient antimicrobial surfaces becomes a need of primary importance. In this work we report the first evidences of a new technique to synthesize an antibacterial coating on Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)samples, based on a non-stoichiometric, visible light responsive, titanium oxide. The coating was obtained through laser ablation of a titanium target, then the resulting ions were accelerated and implanted on the samples. The samples where tested against a Staphylococcus aureus strain, in order to assay their antimicrobial efficacy. Results show that this treatment strongly discourages bacterial adhesion to the treated surfaces.

  5. Dry Machining Tool Design via Chlorine Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TatsuhikoAizawa; AtsushiMitsuo; ShigeoYamamoto; ShinjiMuraishi; TaroSumitomo

    2004-01-01

    Dry machining has become a key issue to significantly reduce the wastes of used lubricants and cleaning agents and to improve the environmental consciousness for medical and food applications of special tooling. Since the tools and metallic works are in direct contact in dry, severe adhesive wear and oxidation are thought to occur even at the presence of hard protective coatings. Self-lubrication mechanism with use of lubricous oxide films is found to be effective for dry machining. Through the chlorine ion implantation to tools, titanium base oxides are in-situ formed on the tool surface. This oxide deforms elasto-plastically so that both friction coefficient and wear volume are reduced even in the high-speed cutting.

  6. Dry Machining Tool Design via Chlorine Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatsuhiko Aizawa; Atsushi Mitsuo; Shigeo Yamamoto; Shinji Muraishi; Taro Sumitomo

    2004-01-01

    Dry machining has become a key issue to significantly reduce the wastes of used lubricants and cleaning agents and to improve the environmental consciousness for medical and food applications of special tooling. Since the tools and metallic works are in direct contact in dry, severe adhesive wear and oxidation are thought to occur even at the presence of hard protective coatings. Self-lubrication mechanism with use of lubricous oxide films is found to be effective for dry machining. Through the chlorine ion implantation to tools, titanium base oxides are in-situ formed on the tool surface.This oxide deforms elasto-plastically so that both friction coefficient and wear volume are reduced even in the high-speed cutting.

  7. A simple ion implanter for material modifications in agriculture and gemmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkarat, S.; Wijaikhum, A.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Intarasiri, S.; Bootkul, D.; Phanchaisri, B.; Techarung, J.; Rhodes, M. W.; Suwankosum, R.; Rattanarin, S.; Yu, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    In our efforts in developing ion beam technology for novel applications in biology and gemmology, an economic simple compact ion implanter especially for the purpose was constructed. The designing of the machine was aimed at providing our users with a simple, economic, user friendly, convenient and easily operateable ion implanter for ion implantation of biological living materials and gemstones for biotechnological applications and modification of gemstones, which would eventually contribute to the national agriculture, biomedicine and gem-industry developments. The machine was in a vertical setup so that the samples could be placed horizontally and even without fixing; in a non-mass-analyzing ion implanter style using mixed molecular and atomic nitrogen (N) ions so that material modifications could be more effective; equipped with a focusing/defocusing lens and an X-Y beam scanner so that a broad beam could be possible; and also equipped with a relatively small target chamber so that living biological samples could survive from the vacuum period during ion implantation. To save equipment materials and costs, most of the components of the machine were taken from decommissioned ion beam facilities. The maximum accelerating voltage of the accelerator was 100 kV, ideally necessary for crop mutation induction and gem modification by ion beams from our experience. N-ion implantation of local rice seeds and cut gemstones was carried out. Various phenotype changes of grown rice from the ion-implanted seeds and improvements in gemmological quality of the ion-bombarded gemstones were observed. The success in development of such a low-cost and simple-structured ion implanter provides developing countries with a model of utilizing our limited resources to develop novel accelerator-based technologies and applications.

  8. Optical characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate) implanted with low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The study provides the optical behavior of ion-implanted poly(methyl methacrylate). ► Optical energy gap reduces from 3.13 to 0.8 and 2.8 eV for N and Ar implanted PMMA. ► Refractive index increases from 1.54 to 2.71 and 2.02 for N and Ar implanted PMMA. ► The changes after N and Ar implantation are justified by Raman spectroscopy. ► The implanted PMMA may find extensive applications in opto-electronic devices. - Abstract: The samples of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were subjected to 100 keV N+ and Ar+ ion implantation up to a maximum fluence of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2. The effect of ion implantation on the optical energy gap and the refractive index has been studied through UV–visible spectroscopy. The results clearly indicate a decrease in the values of optical energy gap and an increase in the values of refractive index as an effect of ion implantation corresponding to both of the ions. It has also been observed that the changes induced by the implanted ions are more pronounced for N+ ions in comparison to Ar+ ions. This variation has been correlated with the calculated ranges of these ions in PMMA polymer using Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code. Finally, an attempt has been made to correlate all the observed changes with the induced structural changes as revealed through Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Optical characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate) implanted with low energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Renu, E-mail: goyalrenuka@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Kumar, Vijay; Goyal, Parveen Kumar; Kumar, Shyam [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study provides the optical behavior of ion-implanted poly(methyl methacrylate). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical energy gap reduces from 3.13 to 0.8 and 2.8 eV for N and Ar implanted PMMA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refractive index increases from 1.54 to 2.71 and 2.02 for N and Ar implanted PMMA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changes after N and Ar implantation are justified by Raman spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The implanted PMMA may find extensive applications in opto-electronic devices. - Abstract: The samples of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were subjected to 100 keV N{sup +} and Ar{sup +} ion implantation up to a maximum fluence of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. The effect of ion implantation on the optical energy gap and the refractive index has been studied through UV-visible spectroscopy. The results clearly indicate a decrease in the values of optical energy gap and an increase in the values of refractive index as an effect of ion implantation corresponding to both of the ions. It has also been observed that the changes induced by the implanted ions are more pronounced for N{sup +} ions in comparison to Ar{sup +} ions. This variation has been correlated with the calculated ranges of these ions in PMMA polymer using Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code. Finally, an attempt has been made to correlate all the observed changes with the induced structural changes as revealed through Raman spectroscopy.

  10. Effects of ion implantation on the abrasive wear of WC-Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explanation of the improved abrasive wear resistance of ion-implanted WC-Co components has been sought. X-ray analysis is reported of scratches produced on polished implanted and non-implanted WC-Co surfaces by a single pass scratch test. It can be inferred from the results that extrusion of cobalt from a WC-Co surface under the stress of an abrading diamond is easier in the non-implanted than in the implanted case; this is the first stage of the abrasion wear process. Transmission electron diffraction of a WC-Co foil, before and after implantation by nitrogen ions, indicated the formation of Co2N microprecipitates during implantation. Precipitation hardening, hindering cobalt extrusion, is offered therefore as the explanation of the improved service life of the components. (U.K.)

  11. Enhanced wear resistance of production tools and steel samples by implantation of nitrogen and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years ion implantation has become a feasible technique for obtaining improved wear resistance of production tools. However, basic knowledge of how and in which cases ion implantation is working at its best is still needed. The present paper discusses structural and tribological investigations of carbon and nitrogen implanted steels. The nitrogen data were obtained mainly from field tests and the investigation of carbon implantations took place mainly in the laboratory. A study was made of how the tribological behaviour of implanted steels changes with different implantation parameters. The tribological laboratory investigations were carried out using pin-on-disc equipment under controlled test conditions, and deal with high dose carbon implantation (approximately (1-2)x1018 ions cm-2). The wear resistance of steels was enhanced dramatically, by up to several orders of magnitude. The field test results cover a broad range of ion implanted production tools, which showed a marked improvement in wear resistance. Nitrogen implanted tools are also compared with carbon and titanium implanted tools. (orig.)

  12. Stoichiometric carbon nitride synthesized by ion beam sputtering and post nitrogen ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Carbon nitride films have been deposited on Si (100) by ion beam sputtering a vitreous graphite target with nitrogen and argon ions with and without concurrent N2 ion bombardment at room temperature. The sputtering beam energy was 1000 eV and the assisted beam energy was 300 eV with ion / atom arrival ratio ranging from 0.5 to 5. The carbon nitride films were deposited both as single layer directly on silicon substrate and as multilayer between two layers of stoichiometric amorphous silicon nitride and polycrystalline titanium nitride. The deposited films were implanted ex-situ with 30 keV nitrogen ions with various doses ranging from 1E17 to 4E17 ions.cm-2 and 2 GeV xenon ion with a dose of 1E12 ions.cm-2 . The nitrogen concentration of the films was measured with Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) and Parallel Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (PEELS). The nitrogen concentration for as deposited sample was 34 at% and stoichiometric carbon nitride C3N4 was achieved by post nitrogen implantation of the multi-layered films. Post bombardment of single layer carbon nitride films lead to reduction in the total nitrogen concentration. Carbon K edge structure obtained from PEELS analysis suggested that the amorphous C3N4 matrix was predominantly sp2 bonded. This was confirmed by Fourier Transforrn Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the single CN layer which showed the nitrogen was mostly bonded with carbon in nitrile (C≡N) and imine (C=N) groups. The microstructure of the film was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which indicated that the films were amorphous

  13. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  14. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-10-04

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  15. N and Cr ion implantation of natural ruby surfaces and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. Sudheendra; Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Dash, Tapan; Magudapathy, P.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Nayak, B. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2016-04-01

    Energetic ions of N and Cr were used to implant the surfaces of natural rubies (low aesthetic quality). Surface colours of the specimens were found to change after ion implantation. The samples without and with ion implantation were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra in ultra violet and visible region (DRS-UV-Vis), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nano-indentation. While the Cr-ion implantation produced deep red surface colour (pigeon eye red) in polished raw sample (without heat treatment), the N-ion implantation produced a mixed tone of dark blue, greenish blue and violet surface colour in the heat treated sample. In the case of heat treated sample at 3 × 1017 N-ions/cm2 fluence, formation of colour centres (F+, F2, F2+ and F22+) by ion implantation process is attributed to explain the development of the modified surface colours. Certain degree of surface amorphization was observed to be associated with the above N-ion implantation.

  16. Investigation on the Tribology of Co Implanted Stainless Steel Using Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junxia GUO; Xun CAI; Qiulong CHEN

    2004-01-01

    AISI 304 stainless steel was ion implanted with Co, and the tribological property on the surface of the stainless steel was investigated. The Co ion implantation was carried out using a metal vapor vacuum arc (Mevva) broad-beam ion source with an extraction voltage of 40 kV, implantation doses of 3×1017/cm2 and 5×1017/cm2, and ion current densities of 13, 22 and 32 μA/cm2. The results showed that the near-surface hardness of Co-implanted stainless steel sample was increased by 50% or more, and it increased with increasing ion current density at first and then declined. The friction coefficient decreased from 0.74 to 0.20 after Co implantation. The wear rate after Co implantation reduced by 25% or more as compared to the unimplanted sample. The wear rate initially decreased with increasing ion current density and then an increase was observed. Within the range of experimental parameters, there exists a critical ion current density for the Co-implanted stainless steel, at which the wear rate decreased with increasing retained dose, going through a minimum and then increased. The critical ion current density in this paper is about 22 μA/cm2.

  17. Modifying the conductivity of polypyrrole through low-energy lead ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest lies in the creation of novel nanocomposite materials obtained through mixing, impregnation or incorporation techniques. One such technique is ion implantation which possesses the potential for retaining properties from the base material and implanted material as well as any effects observed from combining the two. To this end low-energy (15 keV) implantation of lead ions of various fluences was performed in conducting polypyrrole films. The presence of lead-rich particles was evidenced through transmission electron microscopy. An interesting trend was observed between fluence and conductivity. Of the fluences tested, the optimum fluences of lead ion implantation in polypyrrole films for enhanced conductivity are 5 × 1014 at. cm−2 and 2 × 1015 at. cm−2. The conductivity and stability appear to result from a combination of effects: polymer degradation arising from ion beam damage, an increase in charge-carriers (dications) present after implantation and precipitation of Pb-rich nanoparticles. Monitoring conductivity over time showed increased retention of conductivity levels after lead implantation. Improvements in stability for polypyrrole open avenues for application and bring polypyrrole one step closer to practical use. A mechanism is suggested for this advantageous retained conductivity. -- Highlights: ► Implanted and characterized polypyrrole films with Pb ions at different fluences. ► Samples indicate high conductivity when implanted with particular fluences. ► Increase in charge carriers and precipitation of conductive Pb-rich phase. ► Conductivity stability is higher for some implanted fluences than for pristine polypyrrole.

  18. Transferring gfp gene with ion implantation and transient expression of gfp in liliaceous pollen cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shibin; CHEN Qizhong; WANG Yugang; ZHAO Weijiang; XU An; YANG Gen; WANG Wenxian; WU Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Liliaceous pollen cells were implanted by 4.0 MeV C2+ ion beam or by 25.0 keV N+ ion beam. Laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) of the implanted intact samples showed that parts of the implanted pollen cells could be stained by propidium iodide (PI). This indicated that energetic ion beam could directly act on cells beneath the pollen coats and made channels for entry of the molecules from outside of the cells. LCSM analysis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed that energetic ion beam could mediate transient expression of gfp in treated pollen cells. Compared with 25.0 keV N+ ion beam, implantation of 4.0 MeV C2+ ion beam greatly improved gene transfer efficiency in pollen cells.

  19. Spectral Ellipsometry and Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analyses of Silicon Surfaces Implanted with Silver Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarov, V. V.; Nuzhdin, V. I.; Valeev, V. F.; Vorobev, V. V.; Osin, Yu. N.; Stepanov, A. L.

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) produced on surfaces of single-crystal substrates (c-Si) by low-energy low-dose implantation of silver ions is studied by spectral ellipsometry and electron backscatter diffraction. Implantation was done with an ion energy of 30 keV at a constant ion beam current density of 2 μA/cm2 and doses of 6.24·1012-1.25·1016 ions/cm2 on room temperature substrate targets. Irradiation was carried out with a current density of 0.1-5 μA/cm2 for implantation doses of 6.24·1013 and 1.87·1014 ions/cm2. It was found that spectral ellipsometry is an accurate andreliable method for monitoring low-dose ion implantation processes.

  20. Development of a keV single-ion-implanter for nanofabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional methods of doping semiconductors have a difficulty meeting the demand for high precision doping due to large statistical fluctuations in the numbers of dopant atoms introduced in the ever shrinking volume in micro- and nano-electronics devices, especially when the fabrication process approaches the nanometre scale. The statistical fluctuations in doping semiconductors for the fabrication of devices with a very small feature size may lead to inconsistent and unreliable performance. This paper describes the adaptation of a commercial ion implanter into a single-ion-implantation system for the accurate delivery of dopants into a nanometre or micrometre area in a silicon substrate. All the implanted ions can be accurately counted with near 100% certainty through online detection using the silicon substrate itself as an ion detector. A variety of ion species including B+, N+, P+ at the energy range of 10-15 keV can be delivered in the single ion implantation system. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  1. Surface engineering of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass with low energy Ar- or Ca-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, low energy ion implantation was employed to engineer the surface of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG), aiming at improving the biocompatibility and imparting bioactivity to the surface. Ca- or Ar-ions were implanted at 10 or 50 keV at a fluence of 8 × 1015 ions/cm2 to (Zr0.55Al0.10Ni0.05Cu0.30)99Y1 (at.%) BMG. The effects of ion implantation on material properties and subsequent cellular responses were investigated. Both Ar- and Ca-ion implantations were suggested to induce atom displacements on the surfaces according to the Monte-Carlo simulation. The change of atomic environment of Zr in the surface regions as implied by the alteration in X-ray absorption measurements at Zr K-edge. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the ion implantation process has modified the surface chemical compositions and indicated the presence of Ca after Ca-ion implantation. The surface nanohardness has been enhanced by implantation of either ion species, with Ca-ion implantation showing more prominent effect. The BMG surfaces were altered to be more hydrophobic after ion implantation, which can be attributed to the reduced amount of hydroxyl groups on the implanted surfaces. Higher numbers of adherent cells were found on Ar- and Ca-ion implanted samples, while more pronounced cell adhesion was observed on Ca-ion implanted substrates. The low energy ion implantation resulted in concurrent modifications in atomic structure, nanohardness, surface chemistry, hydrophobicity, and cell behavior on the surface of the Zr-based BMG, which were proposed to be mutually correlated with each other. - Highlights: • Low energy ion implantation of a Zr-based BMG for bone implant applications • Concurrent modifications in surface structure and properties after irradiation • Promoted adhesion of bone-forming cells after Ar- or Ca-ion implantation

  2. Effects of vanadium ion implantation on microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of TiN coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► TiN coatings deposited by MFAIP are implanted with V ion by metal vapor vacuum arc. ► The V-implanted coatings have an improvement in hardness and plastic deformation resistance. ► The coatings with implantation have an improvement in wear behavior in terms of friction coefficient and wear rate. ► The wear mechanism for both un-implanted and V-implanted TiN coatings against GCr15 steel ball is adhesive wear. ► The improvement of the wear behavior is due to the existence of the VN new phase and vanadium oxide. - Abstract: TiN coatings were deposited on the substrates of cemented carbide (WC–TiC–Co) by Magnetic Filter Arc Ion Plating (MFAIP) and then implanted with vanadium through Metal Vacuum Vapor Arc (MEVVA) ion source with the doses of 1 × 1017 and 5 × 1017 ions/cm2 at 40 kV. The microstructures and chemical compositions of the V-implanted TiN coatings were investigated using Glancing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), together with the mechanical and tribological properties of coatings were characterized using nano-indentation and ball-on-disk tribometer. It was found that the diffraction peaks of the V-implanted TiN coatings at the doses of 5 × 1017 ions/cm2 shifted to higher angles and became broader. The hardness and elastic modulus of TiN coatings increased after V ion implantation. The wear mechanism for both un-implanted and V-implanted TiN coatings against GCr15 steel ball was adhesive wear, and the V-implanted TiN coatings had a lower friction coefficient as well as a better wear resistance

  3. Calculation of the backscattered ion energy and angular distributions during the grazing implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation of ion implantation into deep trenches demands the exact evaluation of ion fluxes backscattered from the sidewalls. In this paper an application of Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) to backscattered ion energy and angular distribution calculations is presented. Characteristic examples of grazing implantation of Sb, As and P in Si are considered and good agreement with Monte-Carlo (MC) calculations are found. It was also found that BTE gives a more smooth distribution without statistical fluctuations and essentially saves computational time. (author)

  4. The effect of ion implantation on the passivation behavior of pure copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of implanting different ions on the passivation behavior of copper in deaerated alkaline sulfate solutions was examined using potentiokinetic polarization techniques. Glancing-angle Rutherford backscattering and Auger electron spectroscopy were used to study the composition of the surface alloys produced by ion implantation. The microstructure of copper independently implanted with Cu, Cr, Ti and Ta ions was investigated using thin foil transmission electron microscopy. Electron diffraction measurements on these foils showed that the implant elements exist as single-phase, metastable solid solutions in the copper substrate. The potentiokinetic polarization data for Ar and Cu-implanted copper show that these inert ion implantations produce no significant effects on the passivation behavior of copper in this test environment. It may be concluded that the ion implantation process itself does not affect passivation. Implantation of chemically active species produces significant improvements in the passivation behavior of copper in the alkaline sulfate solutions. The beneficial effects of these species are attributed to their incorporation in the oxide film, thereby facilitating the active-passive transitions. The effect exerted by each of these elements is different from one to another. This behavior is explained by differences in their chemical and electrochemical properties. The results demonstrate that elements introduced by ion implantation exert their normal chemical and electrochemical effect when the surface alloys are exposed to a corrosive environment. The work demonstrates that ion implantation can be used for the production of novel, corrosion-resistant alloys and also provides a rational basis for the use of implantation as a surface alloying technique for corrosion control

  5. Multiple pass application of the Boltzmann transport equation to ion implantation calculation in multilayer targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved solution of the Boltzmann transport equation was developed for calculating the results of ion implantation into a multilayer target. A multiple pass scheme is used to integrate the coupled, linearized transport equations describing the momentum distributions of the implanted ion and the recoil particles. The multiple-pass approach correctly treats the case of ions scattered by more than 900, whereas in previous calculations these ions were assumed to be stopped at the scattering point. The accurate treatment of these ions is essential for calculations involving light ions and/or low ion energies, and also an essential prerequisite for two-dimensional calculations. The nuclear cross section used is improved over previous TE calculations by removing the small-angle approximation in the LSS formation of nuclear scattering. Implanted and recoil ion range and damage distributions can be calculated directly for multilayer targets, including stoichiometric disturbances in compounds and recoil yields between target layers

  6. Antibacterial Property of Martensitic Stainless Steel Generated by Cu Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUBo-fan; NIHong-wei; DANZhi-gang; XIONGJuan; XIONGPing-yuan

    2004-01-01

    Copper ions were implanted into a AISI420 martensitic stainless steel (SS) by metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) with a dose range 0.2×1017-5.0×1017cm-2 at the energy of 100keV. The Cu-implanted stainless steel was treated by a special antibacterial treatment subsequently. The phase compositions in the implanted layer were studied by glancing X-ray diffraction (GXRD) and changes of bacterial appearance on the surface of Cu un-implanted SS and Cu-implanted SS with antibacterial treatment SS were observed by bio-TEM (transmission electron microscopy) separately. The results showed that a suitable amount of Cu-rich phase was dispersed in the implanted layer of Cu-implanted SS that was treated by special antibacterial treatment. So the Cu-implanted martensitic stainless steel with antibacterial treatment reveals excellent antibacterial property against both E. coli and S. aureus.

  7. Evaluation of doping profiles in ion-implanted PbTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From measurements of the sheet conductivity and the Hall effect in combination with layer stripping by chemical etching, we have evaluated the doping profiles of ion-implanted PbTe. By using thin films grown epitaxially on insulating substrates, we avoided difficulties with the formation of an insulating p-n junction. The carrier profiles of samples implanted in a random direction are deeper and broader than those of the LSS theory. The charge-carrier profiles associated with the implantation damage show a constant value of the maximum concentration largely independent of the implantation dose and the ions used

  8. In-vitro evaluation of corrosion resistance of nitrogen ion implanted titanium simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium and its alloy Ti6Al4V enjoy widespread use in various biomedical applications because of favourable local tissue response, higher corrosion resistance and fatigue strength than the stainless steels and cobalt-chromium alloy previously used. The study reported in this paper aims to optimize the conditions of nitrogen ion implantation on commercially pure titanium and to correlate the implantation parameters to the corrosion resistance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyse surface concentration and the implantation processes. An improvement in the electrochemical behaviour of the passive film was shown to occur with nitrogen ion implantation on titanium, in simulated body fluids. (UK)

  9. InSbN alloys prepared by two-step ion implantation for infrared photodetection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    InSbN alloys are fabricated by two-step nitrogen ion implantation into InSb (111) wafers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that most of the implanted nitrogen ions substitute Sb to form In-N bonds. The percentage of the In-N bonds is found to decrease with the increase in the implanted nitrogen. Such alloys can effectively detect long wavelength infrared radiation and the absorption peak energies can be controlled by monitoring the implanted nitrogen dose. The measured peak wavelengths are consistent with the band gaps of the alloys calculated using a ten-band k·p model

  10. A heavy ion pre-injector for the ICT-ion implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cheap and versatile hollow cathode electron bombardment ion source system including its ion extraction-cum-focussing assembly for obtaining intense heavy ion beams of solids and gases is described. The extractor region is designed to include more than 15deg total beam angle of extracted beam for producing focused ion current densities upto 60mA/cm2 to serve as a pre-injector for the ICT(insulated core transformer) type ion implanter. The extraction-cum-focussing lens is a low aberration strong Einzel lens system of all araldite and metal construction with optical elements of proper quality and location to suit low voltage injection and subsequent ion analysis. The injection can be selected anywhere between 2 to 10 keV for singly charged ions with typical extraction currents of 500/μ, using a ring anode and a source aperture of 20 mil. Einzel lens focussing assembly allows continuous adjustment of the beam convergence to about 5deg and the beam size to approximately 5mm in diameter with about 10 KV central electrode potential. Test results of source characteristics for both the accelerating and decelerating model of beam formation have been made. (author)

  11. Ion-solid chemistry in implanted amorphous SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated that types and concentrations of predominant defects produced during implantation in amorphous SiO2 are determined by the nature and strength of the chemical interaction of implanted ions with substrate structure. Implants can be classified into three types, I, II, and III, from a view of ion-solid chemistry. Implants (M) belonging to type I extract oxygen atoms from the silica network to form M-O bonds, leaving Si-Si bonds at concentrations comparable to implant bonds, while implants (A) belonging to type II replace oxygen atoms in the network to form Si-A bonds, producing O2 molecules and peroxy radicals as dominant defects. Boron and fluorine are typical implants of types I and II, respectively. Implants with a weak chemical reactivity with the substrate structures belong to type III and a major fraction of this type of implants occur as homomolecules or colloids of implanted ions. Nitrogen and copper are examples of type III. ((orig.))

  12. Electrodeposition of Oriented Cerium Oxide Films

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Teresa D.; Adele Qi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Cerium oxide films of preferred orientation are electrodeposited under anodic conditions. A complexing ligand, acetate, was used to stabilize the cerium (III) ion in solution for deposition of the thin films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the ligand and metal tended to bind as a weakly bidentate complex. The crystallite size of the films was in the nanometer range as shown by Raman spectroscopy and was calculated from X-ray diffraction data. Crystallite sizes from 6 to 2...

  13. FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION OF COMMERCIALLY PURE TITANIUM AFTER NITROGEN ION IMPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin Ali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of fatigue life has become an interesting issue in biomaterial engineering and design for reliability and quality purposes, particularly for biometallic material with modified surfaces. Commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti implanted with nitrogen ions is a potential metallic biomaterial of the future. The effect of nitrogen ion implantation on fatigue behavior of Cp-Ti was investigated by means of axial loading conditions. The as-received and nitrogen-ion implanted specimens with the energy of 100 keV and dose of 2 × 1017 ions cm-2, were used to determine the fatigue properties and to predict the life cycle of the specimens. The effect of nitrogen ion implantation indicated revealed improved the tensile strength due to the formation of nitride phases, TiN and Ti2N. The fatigue strength of Cp-Ti and Nii-Ti was 250 and 260 MPa, respectively. The analytical results show good agreement with experimental results.

  14. Improvement of polydimethylsiloxane guide tube for nerve regeneration treatment by carbon negative-ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, H. E-mail: tsuji@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Izukawa, M.; Ikeguchi, R.; Kakinoki, R.; Sato, H.; Gotoh, Y.; Ishikawa, J

    2003-05-01

    Modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber by negative ion-implantation was investigated for improvement of nerve regeneration property. The PDMS rubber surface was found to have more hydrophilic property after carbon negative-ion implantation than before. At the conditions of 10 keV and 3.0 x 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, the contact angle decreased to 83 deg. from 100 deg. . The reason of the hydrophilic modification is due to hydrophilic functional groups such as hydroxyl formed at the surface by radiation effect of ion implantation. The in vivo regeneration test of rat sciatic nerve was performed by using 18-mm-long PDMS rubber tubes with inner diameter of 2 mm, the inner surface of which was implanted with carbon negative ions at the above conditions. At 24 weeks after the clinical surgery, the sciatic nerve was regenerated through the tube between the proximal and distal nerve stumps.

  15. Electrochemical study of the corrosion behaviour of copper surfaces modified by nitrogen ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and d.c. polarization resistance measurements (Rp) were used to study the corrosion resistance of surface layers produced by nitrogen ion implantation into copper substrates. Ion implantation was carried out using a Wickham ion beam generator, applying an acceleration voltage of 100 keV, a mean current of 0.40 mA and a nitrogen dosage of 4 x 1017 ions cm-2. Surface analyses were made by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Electrochemical measurements (EIS and Rp) performed in a 0.6 M sodium chloride solution show nitrogen-implanted specimens have greater a.c. and d.c. apparent polarization resistance than nonimplanted specimens. The results obtained with electrochemical measurements indicate that nitrogen ion implantation in copper forms a protective surface layer which improves the corrosion resistance of the pristine material, a feature of great interest for the design of new contact materials for the electricity and electronic industries. (author)

  16. Effects of nitrogen ion implantation on Ca2+ concentration and membrane potential of pollen cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on Ca2+ concentration and membrane potential of lily (lilium davidii Duch) pollen cell have been studied. The results showed that the Ca2+ concentration was increased when pollen grain was implanted by nitrogen ion with energy 100keV and dose 1013 ions/cra2. However, the increase of Ca2+ concentration was partly inhibited by the addition of Ca2+channel inhibitor depending on dose. And nitrogen ion implantation caused depolarization of pollen cell membrane potential. In other words, membrane potential was increased,but the effect decreased by adding Ca2+ channel inhibitor.However, it was still significantly higher than the membrane potential of control cells. It was indicated that the depolarization of cell membrane potential opened the calcium channel on the membrane that caused the increasing of intraceilular calcium concentration. This might be an earlier step of the effect of low energy nitrogen ion implantation on pollen germination.

  17. First-principles calculations on implanted TiO2 by 3d transition metal ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    3d transition metal (V, Cr and Fe) ions are implanted into TiO2 by the method of metal ion implantation. The electronic band structures of TiO2 films doped 3d transition metal ions have been analyzed by ab initio band calculations based on a self-consistent full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method within the first-principle formalism. Influence of implantation on TiO2 films is examined by the method of UV-visible spectrometry. The results of experiment and calculation show that the optical band gap of TiO2 films is narrowed by ion implantation. The calculation shows that the 3d state of V, Cr and Fe ions plays a significant role in red shift of UV-Vis absorbance spectrum.

  18. Effects of oxygen ion implantation in spray-pyrolyzed ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, K. P.; Ratheesh Kumar, P. M.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Wilson, K. C.; Singh, F.; Nair, K. G. M.; Kashiwaba, Y.

    2006-04-01

    ZnO thin films, prepared using the chemical spray pyrolysis technique, were implanted using 100 keV O+ ions. Both pristine and ion-implanted samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, electrical resistivity measurements, thermally stimulated current measurements and photoluminescence. Samples retained their crystallinity even after irradiation at a fluence of 1015 ions/cm2. However, at a still higher fluence of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2, the films became totally amorphous. The optical absorption edge remained unaffected by implantation and optical absorption spectra indicated two levels at 460 and 510 nm. These were attributed to defect levels corresponding to zinc vacancies (VZn) and oxygen antisites (OZn), respectively. Pristine samples had a broad photoluminescence emission centred at 517 nm, which was depleted on implantation. In the case of implanted samples, two additional emissions appeared at 425 and 590 nm. These levels were identified as due to zinc vacancies (VZn) and oxygen vacancies (VO), respectively. The electrical resistivity of implanted samples was much higher than that of pristine, while photosensitivity decreased to a very low value on implantation. This can be utilized in semiconductor device technology for interdevice isolation. Hall measurements showed a marked decrease in mobility due to ion implantation, while carrier concentration slightly increased.

  19. Shape memory effect and superelasticity of titanium nickelide alloys implanted with high ion doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of the art in ion implantation of superelastic NiTi shape memory alloys is analyzed. Various technological applications of the shape memory effect are outlined. The principles and techiques of ion implantation are described. Specific features of its application for modification of surface layers in surface engineering are considered. Key properties of shape memory alloys and problems in utilization of ion implantation to improve the surface properties of shape memory alloys, such as corrosion resistance, friction coefficient, wear resistance, etc. are discussed. The bibliography includes 162 references

  20. Shape memory effect and superelasticity of titanium nickelide alloys implanted with high ion doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebnjak, A. D.; Bratushka, S. N.; Beresnev, V. M.; Levintant-Zayonts, N.

    2013-12-01

    The state of the art in ion implantation of superelastic NiTi shape memory alloys is analyzed. Various technological applications of the shape memory effect are outlined. The principles and techiques of ion implantation are described. Specific features of its application for modification of surface layers in surface engineering are considered. Key properties of shape memory alloys and problems in utilization of ion implantation to improve the surface properties of shape memory alloys, such as corrosion resistance, friction coefficient, wear resistance, etc. are discussed. The bibliography includes 162 references.

  1. A study of biological effect on plants caused by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of maize, rice, wheat, rye etc were implanted by nitrogen or phosphorus ions with energy of 35 to 180 keV. The effects on germination percentage, growth speed and plant type were investigated. In the observation of chromosomes, the characters of chromosomes were found normal in mitoses, but abnormal in some meioses. The distributions of implanted ions in seeds were measured by RBS and calculated with TRIM program. The mechanism of biological effects induced by ion implantation and the prospect for application were discussed

  2. Decrease of Staphylococcal adhesion on surgical stainless steel after Si ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Si ion implantation of AISI 316LVM medical grade alloy might reduce bacterial adhesion and colonization. • Si ion implantation does not impair the attachment, viability and matrix maturation of human mesenchymal stem cells. • Nano-topography and surface chemistry changes account for the Si ion implantation induced effects. - Abstract: 316LVM austenitic stainless steel is often the material of choice on temporal musculoskeletal implants and surgical tools as it combines good mechanical properties and acceptable corrosion resistance to the physiologic media, being additionally relatively inexpensive. This study has aimed at improving the resistance to bacterial colonization of this surgical stainless steel, without compromising its biocompatibility and resistance. To achieve this aim, the effect of Si ion implantation on 316LVM has been studied. First, the effect of the ion implantation parameters (50 keV; fluence: 2.5–5 × 1016 ions/cm2; angle of incidence: 45–90°) has been assessed in terms of depth profiling of chemical composition by XPS and nano-topography evaluation by AFM. The in vitro biocompatibility of the alloy has been evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus on these surfaces has been assessed. Reduction of bacterial adhesion on Si implanted 316LVM is dependent on the implantation conditions as well as the features of the bacterial strains, offering a promising implantable biomaterial in terms of biocompatibility, mechanical properties and resistance to bacterial colonization. The effects of surface composition and nano-topography on bacterial adhesion, directly related to ion implantation conditions, are also discussed

  3. Decrease of Staphylococcal adhesion on surgical stainless steel after Si ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braceras, Iñigo, E-mail: inigo.braceras@tecnalia.com [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel A. [CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Universidad de Extremadura, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Av. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain); Calzado-Martín, Alicia [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Multigner, Marta [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, CENIM-CSIC, Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Vera, Carolina [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Broncano, Luis Labajos-; Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M. [Universidad de Extremadura, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Av. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); González-Carrasco, José Luis [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, CENIM-CSIC, Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Vilaboa, Nuria [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); and others

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Si ion implantation of AISI 316LVM medical grade alloy might reduce bacterial adhesion and colonization. • Si ion implantation does not impair the attachment, viability and matrix maturation of human mesenchymal stem cells. • Nano-topography and surface chemistry changes account for the Si ion implantation induced effects. - Abstract: 316LVM austenitic stainless steel is often the material of choice on temporal musculoskeletal implants and surgical tools as it combines good mechanical properties and acceptable corrosion resistance to the physiologic media, being additionally relatively inexpensive. This study has aimed at improving the resistance to bacterial colonization of this surgical stainless steel, without compromising its biocompatibility and resistance. To achieve this aim, the effect of Si ion implantation on 316LVM has been studied. First, the effect of the ion implantation parameters (50 keV; fluence: 2.5–5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}; angle of incidence: 45–90°) has been assessed in terms of depth profiling of chemical composition by XPS and nano-topography evaluation by AFM. The in vitro biocompatibility of the alloy has been evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus on these surfaces has been assessed. Reduction of bacterial adhesion on Si implanted 316LVM is dependent on the implantation conditions as well as the features of the bacterial strains, offering a promising implantable biomaterial in terms of biocompatibility, mechanical properties and resistance to bacterial colonization. The effects of surface composition and nano-topography on bacterial adhesion, directly related to ion implantation conditions, are also discussed.

  4. Helium ion implantation in zirconium: Bubble formation and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totemeier, Aaron Robert

    To evaluate the behavior of inert helium gas bubbles in zirconium three variants of the metal were implanted with 140 keV helium ions to a total fluence of 3x1017 cm--2 and characterized in cross-section TEM in their as-implanted state as well as during annealing at different temperatures. The three zirconium alloys included high-purity crystal bar material, Zircaloy-4, and a powder-metallurgically extruded material with high carbon and oxygen concentrations. At a sample depth consistent with a helium concentration of approximately 5 atomic percent, a change in the structure of the zirconium was observed a high density region of small (4nm diameter) bubbles formed at concentrations above 10 atom percent. Initial bubble formation and growth was observed to occurred at a temperature between 400-450 °C and these initial bubbles had a unique planar geometry prior to migration and coalescence into more three-dimensional bubbles. These planar bubbles appear to be aligned with major axes parallel to the TEM specimen surface and their formation and growth is possibly due to an increase in the thermal vacancy flux within the zirconium. The observations of bubble response to high temperature annealing suggest that in zirconium, as in other metals, maximum bubble size is weakly dependent on annealing time, whereas the bubble size distribution is strongly dependent on time. Specimens that underwent a prolonged room temperature aging developed a multimodal bubble size distribution within the high density region of small bubbles, concentrated near the highest helium concentration depth.

  5. Lattice location of platinum ions implanted into single crystal zirconia and their annealing behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, D.X. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Academia Sinica, Shanghai, SH (China). Shanghai Inst. of Nuclear Research; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Single crystal samples of (100) oriented cubic zirconia stabilised with 9.5 mol % yttria were implanted with platinum ions, using a metal vapour vacuum arc (MEVVA) high current ion implanter, to a nominal dose of 1x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The implanted samples were annealed isothermally in air ambient at 1200 deg C, from 1-24 hours. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Channeling (RBSC) of 2 MeV He ions are employed to determine depth distributions of ion damage, Pt ions and substitutionality of Pt ions before and after annealing. The damage behaviour, Pt migration and lattice location are discussed in terms of metastable phase formation and solid solubility considerations. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Effect of ion implantation on surface energy of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ion implantation including ion species (N2+ and C3H8+) and the fluences (1x1014-5x1015 ions/cm2) on the surface energy of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were investigated. The total surface energy increases significantly after implanting with the fluence of 1x1014 ions/cm2 regardless of ion species, then, the total surface energy slightly increases for N2+ implanted UHMWPE and decreases slightly for C3H8+ implanted UHMWPE with a further increase of fluence. The structural changes of UHMWPE with different fluence for different ion species are very similar. The linear chains of UHMWPE are damaged and cross linking is generated after implantation. As the fluence increases, the polymer surface becomes more disordered, and the surface becomes hydrogenated amorphous carbon when the fluence exceeds 1x1015 ions/cm2. The surface roughness increases with the increase of the fluence regardless of ion implantation species

  7. Ion implantation to reduce wear on polyethylene prosthetic devices. Rept. for Aug 89-Jan 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers studied the use of ion implantation to improve the wear performance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). UHMWPE samples were implanted with high energy ions, tested for wear performance, and compared to unimplanted control samples. Surface friction and hardness measurements, Raman scattering, Rutherford backscattering (RBS), water contact angle, and film transfer tests were performed to characterize the surface property changes of implanted UHMWPE samples. Results indicated a 90% reduction in wear on implanted UHMWPE disks. Implantation increased surface microhardness and surface energy. The Raman spectrum revealed a diamond-like signature, indicting carbon bonds of a different nature than those found in unimplanted polyehtylene. Photographic analysis of pins used in wear testing revealed differences between implanted and unimplanted samples in the polyethylene film transferred in the initial stages of wear from the disk to the pin

  8. Complex dielectric function of ion implantation amorphized SiC determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohner, T.; Zolnai, Z.; Petrik, P.; Battistig, G.; Koos, A.; Osvath, Z.; Fried, M. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Garcia Lopez, J.; Morilla, Y. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    Measuring with a spectroscopic ellipsometer we determined the complex dielectric function of completely amorphous silicon carbide prepared by ion implantation. 860 keV Ni{sup +} ions were implanted into single crystalline 4H-SiC to produce thick amorphized layer. Ion beam analysis was applied to assess total amorphization. For this purpose {sup 4}He{sup +} ion beam of 3.5 MeV was selected taking the advantage that the scattering cross section of carbon at this energy at 165 detection angle is about six times larger than the Rutherford type. Atomic force microscopy was performed to characterize the roughness of the ion-implanted surfaces. Multiple energy Ar{sup +} implantation was used to produce homogeneous amorphous layer. The Tauc-Lorentz model was applied for the evaluation of the ellipsometric results. The implantation-induced swelling was obtained through the measurement of the step height across the masked and implanted areas. Comparison was made among the complex dielectric functions of amorphized SiC studied by us and by different research groups. It is found that the complex dielectric functions of amorphized SiC differ considerably if different ion implantation conditions were applied. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Characterization of Surface Properties and Microstructure of PVD-TiN Films Using Mevva Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. H.; Cheng, M. F.; Luo, X. D.; Zhang, T. H.

    The PVD-TiN film was implanted with titanium ions and the improvement in surface wear resistance was investigated. Ti ion implantation was done using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source with an implantation dose of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2 and at an extraction voltage of 48 kV. The wear characteristics of the implanted zone was measured and compared to the performance of the unimplanted zone by a pin-on-disc apparatus and an optical interference microscope. The structure of the implanted zone and unimplanted one was observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A dynamic TRIM called TRIDYN was used to calculate the concentration depth profile of implanted Ti in TiN to investigate the profile of multi-charge state ions. The results showed that the improved wear resistance of the TiN film was mainly due to the presence of nano-order TiN crystal grains after Ti ion implantation.

  10. Influence of implantation of three metallic ions on the mechanical properties of two polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.V. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Perry, A.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Treglio, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Ion implantation of poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) with various high energy metallic ions at 70 kV to dose of 3 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm 2 have been made. Measurements of the mechanical properties of the polymers before and after implantation have been made with an ultra microindentation system using both pointed and a small (2 nm) radiused spherical tipped indenter. Significant differences have been observed between the Ti-B dual implanted surfaces and those of the Au and W implanted surfaces. For both the PET and PS the resistance to indenter penetration at very low loads was much greater for the Ti-B dual implanted surfaces. The estimated hardness and modulus versus depth of penetration for both indenters shows that the spherical indenter produces more consistent and less controversial values that are somewhat lower than the optimistic estimates from pointed indenters. 8 refs., 2 fig.

  11. The influence of high-energy ion implantation on Al alloys fine structure and microhardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microhardness and fine structure of Al alloys (D16 and Al Mn), implanted with 245 MeV krypton ions to doses of 1013 and 1014 cm-2 have been investigated. The implantation results in the un hardening of dispersion hardening D16 alloy and the hardening of thermally unharden able Al Mn alloy. The change in fine structure parameters of Al matrix of implanted alloys is in good agreement with the change in their microhardness

  12. A combined experimental and theoretical analysis of Fe-implanted TiO2 modified by metal plasma ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared using sol-gel process. To improve the photosensitivity of TiO2 at visible light, transition metal of Fe was implanted into TiO2 matrix at 20 keV using the metal plasma ion implantation process. The primary phase of the Fe-implanted TiO2 films is anatase, but X-ray diffraction revealed a slight shift of diffraction peaks toward higher angles due to the substitutional doping of iron. The additional band gap energy levels were created due to the formation of the impurity levels (Fe-O) verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which resulted in a shift of the absorption edge toward a longer wavelength in the absorption spectra. The optical band gap energy of TiO2 films was reduced from 3.22 to 2.87 eV with an increase of Fe ion dosages from 0 to 1 x 1016 ions/cm2. The band gap was determined by the Tauc plots. The photocatalysis efficiency of Fe-implanted TiO2 was assessed using the degradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. The calculated density of states for substitutional Fe-implanted TiO2 was investigated using the first-principle calculations based on the density functional theory. A combined experimental and theoretical Fe-implanted TiO2 film was formed, consistent with the experimentally observed photocatalysis efficiency of Fe-implanted TiO2 in the visible region.

  13. Plasma source ion implantation of metal ions: Synchronization of cathodic-arc plasma production and target bias pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An erbium cathodic-arc has been installed on a Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) experiment to allow the implantation of erbium metal and the growth of adherent erbia (erbium oxide) films on a variety of substrates. Operation of the PSII pulser and the cathodic-arc are synchronized to achieve pure implantation, rather than the hybrid implantation/deposition being investigated in other laboratories. The relative phase of the 20 μs PSII and cathodic-arc pulses can to adjusted to tailor the energy distribution of implanted ions and suppress the initial high-current drain on the pulse modulator. The authors present experimental data on this effect and make a comparison to results from particle-in-cell simulations

  14. Effect of ion current density on damage in Al ion implanted SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistig, G. E-mail: battisti@mfa.kfki.hu; Garcia Lopez, J.; Morilla, Y.; Khanh, N.Q.; Lohner, T.; Petrik, P.; Ramos, A.R

    2004-06-01

    The damage created by implantation of Al ions into single crystalline 4H-SiC has been analyzed using a combination of ion beam techniques and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The samples were implanted at room temperature with 150 keV Al{sup +} ions in the fluence range of 4 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} to 2 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} with current densities of 0.4 and 2.5 {mu}A cm{sup -2}. In order to study simultaneously the depth distribution of the disorder produced in both the carbon and silicon sublattice, we used 3.5 MeV He beam in channeling geometry. In this condition the cross-section for carbon is enhanced by a factor of {approx}6. The structural recovery of the samples after a further high temperature annealing has been studied. These results have been compared with the optical properties of the samples measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  15. Ion-fluence dependencies of surface modification and sterilization of PET film in the plasma ion-implantation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are developing new technologies of polymer surface modification as well as low temperature sterilization by plasma based ion implantation. Microwave plasma source equipped with plasma based ion implantation is used. Until now, both the surface modification of PET and the sterilization of Bacillus subtilis have been verified. However, it has been difficult to get quantitative dependencies of the surface modification and the sterilization on the ion fluence, since it has been difficult to measure the exact value of the ion fluence during the plasma ion implantation process. In this study we tried to measure the exact value by making a new Faraday cup. Consequently, it was proved that the sterilization would finish in the midst of modification process, sufficiently before the surface modification would be completed. (author)

  16. Ion implantation induced defects in 6H-SiC and their annealing behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourfold Al+ implantations into 6H-SiC have been carried out in order to create a laterally structured p-doped layer. This way, a 400 nm thick box-shaped Al profile with a concentration plateau of 5 x 1019 cm-3 buried 200 nm below the SiC surface could be realized. The defects caused by the ion implantation should be minimized by implantation at higher substrate temperatures and post implantation annealing. In addition to the traditional furnace annealing a flash lamp annealing has been used. The defect structure after implantation and annealing has been investigated by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). It could be shown that vacancies and vacancy agglomerates can be removed using furnace annealing at 1650 C. However, dislocation loops in the implantation region remain stable at this temperature. Using flash lamp annealing a further defect removal could be observed. (orig.)

  17. Mechanisms of Focused Ion Beam Implantation Damage and Recovery in Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, G. P. S.; Hull, R.

    2016-06-01

    The ion current density in focused ion beam (FIB) systems, 0.1-10 A cm-2, is at least three orders of magnitude greater than that in commercial broad ion beam implanters. This large difference in ion current density is expected to strongly affect the damage recovery dynamics. In this work, we study the ion implantation damage and recovery of Si(100) substrates implanted with 1 × 1012-5 × 1015 Si cm-2 fluences of 60-keV Si2+ at normal incidence in a mass-selecting FIB. Additionally, damage and recovery in different broad ion beam implants of 60-keV Si+ were studied for a comparison. For recovering implantation damage, specimens were annealed for different times at 730-900°C in an ultra-high purity nitrogen ambient, and for characterizing damage and recovery, Raman spectroscopy at wavelengths 405 nm and 514 nm was carried out. Raman measurements comprised of measurements of crystalline Si (c-Si) peak height of the peak at 520 cm-1, and the peak shift relative to that of un-implanted reference Si. Our measurements of structural damage—calculated from the attenuation in the c-Si peak heights for the implants relative to that of unimplanted Si(100)—indicates that the FIB implantations lead to a greater as-implanted damage but also typically lead to a better recovery than that for the commercial broad-area implants. The underlying mechanisms for these observations are discussed.

  18. Fractal Pattern Growth in Ti-Implanted Steel with High Ion Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张通和; 吴瑜光; 刘安东

    2002-01-01

    We report on the formation of metal nanometre phase and fractal patterns in steel using metal vapour vacuum arc source ion implantation with high ion flux. The dense nanometre phases are cylindrical and well dispersed in the Ti-implanted layer with an ion flux up to 50μA/cm2. The collision fractal pattern is formed in Ti-implanted steel with an ion flux of 25μA/cm2 and the disconnected fractal pattern is observed with an ion flux of 50μA/cm2.The average density ofnanometre phases decreases from 1.2 × 1011/cm2 to 6.5 × 1010/cm2 as the ion flux increases from 25 μA/cm2 to 50 μA/cm2. Fractal pattern growth is in remarkable agreement with Sander's diffusion-limited aggregation model. The alloy clusters have diffused and aggregated in chains forming branches to grow a beautiful tree during Ti implantation with an ion flux ranging from 75μA/cm2 to 85μA/cm2. We discuss the model of fractal pattern growth during ion implantation with high ion flux.

  19. Effect of ion implantation on thermal shock resistance of magnesia and glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monocrystals of magnesia together with glass samples have been subjected to ion implantation prior to thermal shock testing in an impulse plasma of continuously varied intensity. Measurements of the separation between fragments have been used to estimate the surface temperature. Fracture and deformation characteristics of the surface layer are measured in ion implanted and unimplanted samples using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Implantation-induced near-surface damage is analysed by ion channeling using 2 MeV He+ ions. Ion implantation is shown to modify the near-surface structure of magnesia samples by introducing damage, which makes crack initiation easier under thermal stresses. The fracture threshold and maximum crack density are shifted towards the lower temperature range. Ion implanted MgO crystals show a ten fold increase in surface crack density. An increased crack density results in a decreased degree of damage characterised by the depth of crack penetration. The thermal stress resistance parameter of glass samples is increased at relatively small doses and decreased at higher doses. The results suggest that crack density and the degree of fracture damage in brittle ceramics operating under thermal shock conditions can be effectively controlled by ion implantation which provides crack initiating defects in the near-surface region. 23 refs., 7 figs

  20. Improved oxidation resistance of group VB refractory metals by Al+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum ion implantation of vanadium, niobium, and tantalum improved the metals' oxidation resistances at 500 C and 735 C. Implanted vanadium oxidized only to one-third the extent of unimplanted vanadium when exposed at 500 C to air. The oxidative weight gains of implanted niobium and tantalum proved negligible when measured at 500 C and for times sufficient to fully convert the untreated metals to their pentoxides. At 735 C, implantation of vanadium only slightly retarded its oxidation, while oxidative weight gains of niobium and tantalum were reduced by factors of 3 or more. Implanted niobium exhibited weight gain in direct proportion to oxidation time squared at 735 C. Microstructural examination of the metals implanted with selected fluences of the 180 kV aluminum ions showed the following. The solubility limit of aluminum is extended by implantation, the body centered cubic (bcc) phases being retained to ∼60 at. pct Al in all three metals. The highest fluence investigated, 2.4 x 1022 ions/m2, produced an ∼400-nm layer of VAl3 beneath the surface of vanadium, and ∼300-nm layers of an amorphous phase containing ∼70 at. pct Al beneath the niobium and tantalum surfaces. All three metals, implanted to this fluence and annealed at 600 C, contained tri-aluminides, intermetallic compounds known for their oxidation resistances. Specimens implanted to this fluence were thus selected for the oxidation measurements

  1. Mechanical characterization of several ion-implanted alloys: nanoindentation testing, wear testing and finite element modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ion implantation on the mechanical properties of metal alloys has been examined using a variety of experimental and numerical techniques. Ultralow load indentation testing and finite element modeling has been used for the aluminum/oxygen to extract fundamental mechanical properties. Aluminum implanted with 20 at.% O exhibits extraordinary strength, as high as 3300 MPa. The degree of strengthening expected for this Al(O) alloy on the basis of the observed microstructure of fine (1.5-3.5 nm) oxide precipitates was estimated using several micromechanical models, and the results agree with our experimental findings. Pin-on-disk tribological characterization of aluminum implanted with 10 at.% oxygen revealed that the ion-beam treatment reduced the average friction coefficient from greater than 1.0 (for pure Al) to approximately 0.25 (for Al(O)). Large-amplitude stick-slip oscillations, which occur within the first two cycles for pure aluminum, were postponed to 30-50 cycles for the ion-implanted material. Two stainless steel which have been amorphized by implantation, 304 implanted with C and 440C implanted with Ti+C, show measurable hardening with implantation, of the order of 40 and 15%, respectively. In addition, nanoindentation within pin-on-disk wear tracks on 440C reveals that the mechanical state of the extensively deformed implanted layer is apparently unchanged from its initial state. (orig.)

  2. Mechanical characterization of several ion-implanted alloys: nanoindentation testing, wear testing and finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, R. J.; Follstaedt, D. M.; Dugger, M. T.; Myers, S. M.

    1991-07-01

    The influence of ion implantation on the mechanical properties of metal alloys has been examined using a variety of experimental and numerical techniques. Ultralow load indentation testing and finite element modeling has been used for the aluminum/oxygen to extract fundamental mechanical properties. Aluminum implanted with 20 at.% O exhibits extraordinary strength, as high as 3300 MPa. The degree of strengthening expected for this Al(O) alloy on the basis of the observed microstructure of fine (1.5-3.5 nm) oxide precipitates was estimated using several micromechanical models, and the results agree with our experimental findings. Pin-on-disk tribological characterization of aluminum implanted with 10 at.% oxygen revealed that the ion-beam treatment reduced the average friction coefficient from greater than 1.0 (for pure Al) to approximately 0.25 (for Al(O)). Large-amplitude stick-slip oscillations, which occur within the first two cycles for pure aluminum, were postponed to 30-50 cycles for the ion-implanted material. Two stainless steels which have been amorphized by implantation, 304 implanted with C and 440C implanted with Ti + C, show measurable hardening with implantation, of the order of 40 and 15%, respectively. In addition, nanoindentation within pin-on-disk wear tracks on 440C reveals that the mechanical state of the extensively deformed implanted layer is apparently unchanged from its initial state.

  3. Surface-conductivity enhancement of PMMA by keV-energy metal-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment has been proposed to measure the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) with high precision at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source. One of the requirements of this experiment is the development of PMMA (Lucite) material with a sufficiently conductive surface to permit its use as a high-voltage electrode while immersed in liquid He. At the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility, an R and D activity is under way to achieve suitable surface conductivity in poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) using metal ion implantation. The metal implantation is performed using an electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ion source and a recently developed beam line deceleration module that is capable of providing high flux beams for implantation at energies as low as a few tens of eV. The latter is essential for reaching implantation fluences exceeding 1 × 1016 cm−2, where typical percolation thresholds in polymers have been reported. In this contribution, we report results on initial implantation of Lucite by Ti and W beams with keV energies to average fluences in the range 0.5–6.2 × 1016 cm−2. Initial measurements of surface-resistivity changes are reported as function of implantation fluence, energy, and sample temperature. We also report X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface and depth profiling measurements of the ion implanted samples, to identify possible correlations between the near surface and depth resolved implanted W concentrations and the measured surface resistivities

  4. Wear properties of TiN coated cutting tools implanted with nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the preliminary results on improving the wear properties of TiN coated WC-Co cutting inserts by nitrogen implantation, both conventional and using PIII process. A moderate increase of the tool life has been observed in some cases. It is concluded that ion implantation of uncoated tools might be a better solution from an economical point of view. (author)

  5. Study of high energy ion implantation of boron and oxygen in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three aspects of high energy (0.5-3 MeV) light ions (11B+ and 16O+) implantation in silicon are examined: (1)Spatial repartition; (2) Target damage and (3) Synthesis by oxygen implantation of a buried silicon oxide layer

  6. Photoluminescence of porous silicon formed on ion-implanted plates of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of B+, N+ ions implantation, the B+ + N+ combined implantation on the photoluminescence properties of the silicon porous layers is studied. The effect of significant luminescence areas redistribution resulting from the subsequent thermal annealing is identified. The observed effects models are proposed

  7. Formation of Si/SiC multilayers by low-energy ion implantation and thermal annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrovolskiy, S.; Yakshin, A. E.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Verhoeven, J.; E. Louis,; F. Bijkerk,

    2010-01-01

    Si/SiC multilayer systems for XUV reflection optics with a periodicity of 10-20 nm were produced by sequential deposition of Si and implantation of 1 key CHx+ ions. Only about 3% of the implanted carbon was transferred into the SIC, with a thin, 0.5-1 nm, buried SIC layer being formed. We investigat

  8. Characterisation of polystyrene coatings after plasma immersion ion implantation and adsorption of protein

    CERN Document Server

    Dekker, S; Steel, B; Bilek, M M M; McKenzie, D R; James, M

    2012-01-01

    A polystyrene film spun onto polished silicon substrates was implanted with either nitrogen or argon ions using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and subsequently investigated by X-ray and neutron reflectometry, UV-VIS and FTIR ellipsometry, as well as by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The depth profile of the densified carbon structures resulting from the ion collision cascades in the polystyrene coating are clearly observed by both X-ray and neutron reflectometry. Argon ions produce a higher density modified layer at a shallower depth than nitrogen ions. The thickness measured for these graded layers agrees with the expected depths of ion implantation as calculated by SRIM. The sensitivity of X-ray and neutron reflectometry allows resolution of density and hydrogen content gradients within the graphitized layers. The treated layers were found to covalently immobilized protein directly from solution. The tropoelastin protein monolayers immobilized on the surface were characterized. Tropoelastin remained...

  9. Optical properties of nano-structured material in ion-implanted polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being of importance for applications of ion-implanted PMMA in integrated optics, optoelectronics and optical communication, we have studied the optical properties (controlled through the complex refractive index) of nano-structured material in silicon ion (Si+) implanted polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). PMMA was implanted with Si+ ions accelerated to a relatively low energy of 50 keV at a high fluence of 3.2×1015 Si+/cm2. The carbon nano-clustered material in the ion-modified surface layer of Si+-implanted PMMA of a thickness of about 100 nm was optically characterized by reflectance measurements, as well as by reflection ellipsometry at a wavelength of 632.8 nm (He-Ne laser)

  10. Evidence of phase transitions in monoclinic zirconium implanted by low energy Bi and O ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics were dealt with: PWR fuel element cladding materials, monoclinic-cubic phase transformation evidence following Bi and O ion implantation in zirconium, phase studies using XRD and Raman spectroscopy, damage profile

  11. Thermal characterization of Ag and Ag + N ion implanted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of total hip joints are composed of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE ). However, as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is too stable in a body, wear debris may accumulate and cause biological response such as bone absorption and loosening of prosthesis. In this study, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene samples were Ag and Ag + N hybrid ion implanted by using MEVVA ion implantation technique to improve its surface properties. Samples were implanted with a fluence of 1017 ion/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Implanted and unimplanted samples were investigated by thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM) and contact Angle measurement. Thermal characterization results showed that the ion bombardment induced an increase in the % crystallinity, onset and termination degradation temperatures of UHMWPE

  12. Surface properties of nitrogen-ion-implanted TiNi shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surface properties of the N+-ion-implanted TiNi alloy.There is a high nitrogen content region at the outermost surface of the N+-ion-implanted TiNi alloy.The detected nitrogen exists mainly in the form of TiN.Small amounts of Ti3O5 and TiO2 also exist on the surface of the N+-ion-implanted TiNi sample.The modified layer of the N+-ion-implanted sample can work as an obstacle layer of the nickel's dissolution, which obstructs Ni dissolving from the TiNi surface effectively.

  13. Lateral spread of implanted ion distributions in 6H-SiC: simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morvan, E.; Flores, D.; Vellvehi, M.; Rebollo, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Centro Nacional de Microelectronica; Mestres, N. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials (CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Pascual, J. [Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-07-30

    In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation, using improved models for electronic stopping and 3D damage accumulation has been carried out to calculate the lateral distribution of ions implanted into 6H-SiC crystal. Two dimensional concentration contour plots are used to show the lateral spread of implanted Al{sup +} ions at mask edges. It appears that channeling strongly influences the shape of lateral distributions due to the capture of random implanted ions by axial channels lying parallel to the (0001) surface of 6H-SiC which appears alternatively every 30 around the left angle 0001 right angle axis, according to the symmetry of the 6H-SiC crystal. This phenomenon, if confirmed by SIMS 2D profiling, could have important consequences on the behavior of ion implanted lateral junctions of SiC devices. (orig.)

  14. Effects of ion implantation on surface charges in dielectrics. MOS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface charges in SiO2 layers implanted with boron ions have been investigated by thermally stimulated methods, such as thermally stimulated depolarization and potential difference measurements, in the temperature range 300-900 K

  15. Study of the defects introduced by boron ion implantation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally stimulated current measurements have been performed on P-N junctions formed by implantation of boron ions in silicon, for the characterization of the created defects and particularly for the introduced traps

  16. Dopants Ion Current Effect On The Semiconductor Electrical Properties Of Implanted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of the electrical properties of Silicon semiconductor Boron atom implanted has been done. The Boron ion was implanted in a Silicon wafer at the constant voltage of 60 kV. By using an ion implant or of 90 keV at the room temperature. The ion current varied between 20 to 60 μA for constant duration of implantation and for duration of implantation varied from 5 to 45 minutes at constant ion current. Sample of the results of implantation were annealed at temperature of 650oC for 30 minutes in heater tube streamed with Nitrogen gas. Then the resistivity of the sample was measured using a Four Point Probe, the capacitance was measured using an LCR-meter and breakdown voltage was determined by the characteristic of I-V. from the measurement, the optimum electrical properties is obtained at current of dopants ion of 40 μA and for duration of implantation of 5 minutes or dopants 5,952 x 1015 cm-2 (ρs = 322Ω/sq, ρ = 0,816 Ω cm, C/A = 227,6559 pF.cm-2, VB = 26,6 volt)

  17. Immobilization of extracellular matrix on polymeric materials by carbon-negative-ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sommani, Piyanuch; Muto, Takashi; Utagawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Shun; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2005-08-01

    Effects of ion implantation into polystyrene (PS), silicone rubber (SR) and poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) have been investigated for immobilization of extracellular matrix. Carbon negative ions were implanted into PS and SR sheets at various energies between 5-30 keV and various doses between 1.0 × 1014-1.0 × 1016 ions/cm2. Contact angles of pure water on C-implanted surfaces of PS and SR were decreased as increase in ion energy and in dose due to formation of functional groups such as OH and C-O. Selective attachment of nerve cells was observed on C-implanted them at 10 keV and 3 × 1015 ions/cm2 after in vitro cell culture of nerve cells of PC-12 h. Neurite outgrowth also extended over the implanted area. After dipping in a serum medium and in a fibronectin solution for 2 h, the detection of N 1s electrons by X-ray induced photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) revealed a significant distinction of protein adhesion on the implanted area. Thus, immobilization of proteins on surface is used for considering the selective cell-attachment. For PLA, the selective attachment of cells and protein depended on the implantation conditions.

  18. Wear and fretting wear behaviour of ion-implanted Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircaloy-4 was implanted with nitrogen at 120 keV to various total ion doses between 1.1017 and 1.1018 ions cm-2 at various temperatures in the range 310-660 C. The implanted surfaces were analysed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Wear and fretting wear tests were performed at various loads under unlubricated conditions and water immersion respectively. Nitrogen implantation produced zirconium nitride and oxide which enhanced the surface hardness up to 1800 HK (0.1 N) for a total ion dose of 1.1018 ions cm-2 at 660 C (300 HK (0.1 N) for unimplanted specimen). The ball-on-disc wear resistance was improved for nitrogen-implanted specimens above 500 C. In addition, oxide layer and ZrN formation by nitrogen implantation in an oxygen atmosphere greatly enhanced the wear resistance of Zircaloy-4. The fretting wear resistance was enhanced by nitrogen implantation. Successful improvement of the fretting wear resistance was obtained for the specimen implanted at 550 C to a total dose of 8.1017 ions cm-2. (orig.)

  19. Deformation characteristics of the near-surface layers of zirconia ceramics implanted with aluminum ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyngazov, S. A.; Vasiliev, I. P.; Frangulyan, T. S.; Chernyavski, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of ion treatment on the phase composition and mechanical properties of the near-surface layers of zirconium ceramic composition 97 ZrO2-3Y2O3 (mol%) was studied. Irradiation of the samples was carried out by accelerated ions of aluminum with using vacuum-arc source Mevva 5-Ru. Ion beam had the following parameters: the energy of the accelerated ions E = 78 keV, the pulse current density Ji = 4mA / cm2, current pulse duration equal τ = 250 mcs, pulse repetition frequency f = 5 Hz. Exposure doses (fluence) were 1016 и 1017 ion/cm2. The depth distribution implanted ions was studied by SIMS method. It is shown that the maximum projected range of the implanted ions is equal to 250 nm. Near-surface layers were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at fixed glancing incidence angle. It is shown that implantation of aluminum ions into the ceramics does not lead to a change in the phase composition of the near-surface layer. The influence of implanted ions on mechanical properties of ceramic near-surface layers was studied by the method of dynamic nanoindentation using small loads on the indenter P=300 mN. It is shown that in ion- implanted ceramic layer the processes of material recovery in the deformed region in the unloading mode proceeds with higher efficiency as compared with the initial material state. The deformation characteristics of samples before and after ion treatment have been determined from interpretation of the resulting P-h curves within the loading and unloading sections by the technique proposed by Oliver and Pharr. It was found that implantation of aluminum ions in the near-surface layer of zirconia ceramics increases nanohardness and reduces the Young's modulus.

  20. Development of physical fundamentals and computer design of technology of ion implantation of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unique possibilities of controlled modification of the chemical composition, structure and properties of thin surface films of metals and alloys are offered by the method of high-dose ion implantation (Hll). Modification of the surface of materials by ion implantation has been used on an increasing scale as an industrial technology of ensuring a large increase of the service life of components and tools. It is urgent to investigate the physical fundamentals of this promising technology