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Sample records for cerevisiae sobre alguns

  1. Influência de frações da parede celular de levedura (Saccharomyces cerevisiae sobre alguns parâmetros nutricionais de ratos em crescimento Influence of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall fractions on some nutritional parameters of growing rats

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    Saula Goulart Chaud

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das frações de parede celular de levedura (Saccharomyces cerevisiae sobre alguns parâmetros nutricionais de ratos Wistar em crescimento. MÉTODOS: A biomassa de levedura (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, coletada sem sofrer o processo de termólise, foi recebida da usina São José, Zillo Lorenzetti (Macatuba, SP, em suspensão de, aproximadamente, (20% p/v de células. O fracionamento da parede celular da levedura foi realizado por extração diferencial, centrifugação e secagem em spray dryer. A importância como fibra da dieta foi determinada em ratos da linhagem Wistar, recém desmamados, por meio das seguintes avaliações: ganho de peso corporal, consumo de dieta (28 dias, quociente de eficiência da dieta, digestibilidade aparente da proteína, quantidade total de fezes, lipídeos e colesterol excretados nas fezes. RESULTADOS: Os animais que receberam a dieta contendo a fração glicana mais manana ganharam menos peso em relação aos demais tratamentos. A dieta com a fração manana foi a que proporcionou maior ganho de peso, seguida pela dieta padrão (AIN-P e a dieta com 10% de glicana insolúvel. Quanto ao quociente de eficiência da dieta, observou-se, ao longo dos 28 dias, que a dieta com a fração glicana mais manana foi a que apresentou os menores valores. As maiores porcentagens de digestibilidade aparente da proteína foram observadas nas dietas: padrão modificada (AIN-M, padrão (AIN-P e (M com 10% da fração manana. As quantidades de lipídeos totais e colesterol excretados nas fezes variaram bastante entre as dietas, sendo que a dieta formulada com 10% de fração manana foi a que promoveu maior excreção do colesterol. CONCLUSÃO: Ao final de 28 dias, os animais que receberam a dieta contendo 10,0% da fração glicana mais manana apresentaram o menor consumo de dieta e ganharam menos peso em relação às demais dietas. A digestibilidade aparente de todas as

  2. REPRESENTAÇÕES DE UM GRUPO DE DOCENTES SOBRE DROGAS: ALGUNS ASPECTOS

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    Cláudia Virginia Galindo Cavalcante

    Full Text Available O abuso de drogas é atualmente um grave problema de saúde pública e a escola básica deve contribuir com a sua prevenção. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar as representações sociais dos professores de um grupo de professores de educação básica sobre drogas. Utilizamos como instrumento de coleta de dados um formulário que continha a seguinte sentença: Para você, drogas são... , aplicado a um grupo de 75 docentes. Utilizando procedimentos da análise de conteúdo buscamos identificar alguns aspectos das representações destes profissionais. Verificamos que estes entendem drogas como algo extremamente maléfico, que produz danos muitas vezes irreversíveis. Programas de formação inicial e continuada devem levar em consideração estas representações e colaborar na ampliação destas.

  3. Alguns comentários sobre a Ética de Aristóteles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedro Brocco

    2017-01-01

    O presente artigo tem o objetivo de apresentar alguns pontos relevantes acerca da concepção aristotélica de ética. Para tanto, será necessário situar sua teoria no interior do movimento da filosofia...

  4. Alguns comentários sobre a Ética de Aristóteles

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    Pedro Brocco

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem o objetivo de apresentar alguns pontos relevantes acerca da concepção aristotélica de ética. Para tanto, será necessário situar sua teoria no interior do movimento da filosofia helênica, tomando como ponto de partida a relação estabelecida entre as obras de Aristóteles e Platão. Em um segundo momento, serão realçados alguns caminhos interpretativos e analíticos da ética aristotélica, com destaque para alguns conceitos principais, como phronesis, a noção de justiça, a amizade e o autodomínio. O objetivo do trabalho é contribuir para a análise e interpretação da ética aristotélica ou ética das virtudes, buscando diferenças em relação às éticas normativas.

  5. Alguns apunts sobre l'obra musical de Joan Pau Pujol

    OpenAIRE

    Lambea, Mariano

    1989-01-01

    Se comentan diversos aspectos de la obra musical del maestro de capilla Joan Pau Pujol (1570-1626), uno de los compositores catalanes más importantes del período comprendido entre finales del Renacimiento y principios del Barroco. Se ofrecen datos sobre sus obras conservadas en diferentes archivos y bibliotecas.

  6. Efeito da escarificação sobre alguns parâmetros físicos de um planossolo

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    R.L.T. Machado

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Em face da importância do planossolo (Albaqualf nas atividades agrícolas desenvolvidas na região Sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, estudou-se o efeito de um escarificador sobre alguns parâmetros físicos desse solo, no Campo Experimental de Máquinas Agrícolas da EMBRAPA-CPACT, no Município do Capão-do-Leão, em novembro de 1994. Analisou-se esse efeito sobre a densidade, porosidade e agregação do solo, utilizando três velocidades de operação do escarificador (4,76; 3,63 e 2,58 km h-1 e dois teores de água (119,6 e 71,7 g kg-1 no solo. Não houve efeito significativo da interação teor de água x velocidade de operação sobre os parâmetros físicos do solo. As condições físicas do solo foram melhoradas, quando o solo foi preparado com maior teor de água no solo, com exceção da densidade e macroporosidade do solo, as quais não foram influenciadas pelo teor de água no solo. A velocidade de deslocamento do escarificador não apresentou influência sobre os parâmetros físicos do solo estudados, com exceção do diâmetro médio geométrico e estabilidade dos agregados do solo, que apresentaram melhores resultados na menor velocidade de deslocamento.

  7. Alguns aspectos dos estudos tradicionais sobre o ritmo e os fatos do sentido

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    Lourenço Chacon

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Neste trabalho, discutimos duas posições dos estudos tradicionais sobre o ritmo que, a nosso ver, dificultam o estabelecimento de relações entre o ritmo e os fatos da significação lingüística. Essas duas posições podem ser caracterizadas como: (a da incompatibilização entre ritmo e sentido; e (b da tentativa de compatibilização entre ritmo e sentido.

  8. Some thoughts on biolinguistics = Alguns pensamentos sobre a biolinguística

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    Boeckx, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retratos ingênuos da biologia da linguagem são incapazes de tratar a real complexidade observada por biólogos em todos os níveis de análise, e consequentemente não nos conduzam mais próximos de um relato preciso sobre a natureza da linguagem humana e da mente humana. O objetivo deste artigo é mostrar que se se propõe a realizar uma biolinguística efetiva, então deveríamos ser compelidos a ir além destes relatos

  9. Pensando com Winnicott sobre alguns aspectos relevantes ao processo de ensino e aprendizagem

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    Freller Cintia Copit

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos sociais e as práticas educativas produtoras das dificuldades escolares enfrentadas por crianças pobres no Brasil têm sido minuciosamente estudados nas últimas décadas. A partir de observações de cenas escolares e de entrevistas com professores notamos um crescente processo de "coisificação" do professor e do aluno. Quando estes estão destituídos do que lhes é mais pessoal e significativo como seu estilo, ritmo e valores, participam do ritual educativo de forma mecânica, repetitiva e submissa. Refletimos sobre o papel do psicólogo enquanto profissional que pode resgatar, reconhecer e valorizar o indivíduo humano, sua necessidade de se comunicar (ensinar e aprender e seu potencial para isso, participando da recriação da cultura escolar de forma inovadora e singular.

  10. Sobre a autonomia das novas identidades coletivas: alguns problemas teóricos

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    Santos Myrian Sepúlveda dos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a autonomia atribuída a identidades coletivas a partir de duas questões teóricas presentes no trabalho de Maurice Halbwachs: a antecedência de quadros sociais da memória e a presença de lugares da memória coletiva. Embora esteja sendo bastante utilizado por aqueles que procuram um amparo teórico para a investigação do processo de construção de identidades coletivas, Halbwachs priorizou em seu trabalho a análise de quadros sociais da memória. Em que pesem a ênfase no social e a perspectiva cientificista de seu projeto, este, se considerado dentro de um quadro teórico mais amplo, é crucial para nossa compreensão de que investigações sobre o processo de memórias e identidades coletivas precisam considerar os limites inerentes à sua constituição.

  11. Garum na Lusitania rural? Alguns comentarios sobre o povoamento romano do Algarve

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    Carlos FABIÃO

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Em 1987, J. C. Edmonson, na tese que consagren á exploragáo dos recursos mineiros e marinhos na Lusitánia, tentou tratar de um modo sistemático e racional o heterogéneo conjunto de informa^oes disponíveis sobre cetariae, fornos de ánforas e articulá-lo com as formas de povoamento da antiga provincia romana do extremo ocidental da Hispania. Esbogou, entáo, um modelo de explicagáo, retomado em texto posterior (Edmonson, 1990, que tentava cobrir as diversas realidades observadas. Em sua opiniáo, a exploragáo de recursos marinhos, produfáo de preparados de peixe e contentores para os exportar poderla enquadrar- se em tres regimes diferentes, embora, naturalmente, complementares: um sediado em centros urbanos do litoral, outro instalado em centros ivici de carácter suburbano e um terceiro, de ámbito rural, associado ao povoamento de tipo villa. Este último regime seria particularmente observável no Algarve, onde a exploragáo destes recursos assumiria um carácter subsidiario das actividades agrícolas (Edmonson, 1987; 129. Na sua opiniáo, os preparados de peixe produ- 2idos neste mundo rural destinavam-se fundamentalmente ao autoconsumo, com um eventual escoamento dos magros excedentes para os centros urbanos mais próximos, em contentores de morfología peculiar, as «local type amphoras» (Edmonson, 1987: 276-278 e 1990: 137.

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y SU IMPACTO SOBRE LA CAPACIDAD FERMENTATIVA MICROBIANA EN HERBÍVOROS

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    MOHAMED MOHAMED YASSEEN ELGHANDOUR, MONA

    2016-01-01

    La incorporación de microorganismos directamente a la alimentación, ofrece un gran potencial para la manipulación de la fermentación ruminal y Saccharomyces cerevisiae es un organismo especialmente atractivo. Se ha reportado que la incorporación de S. cerevisiae aumenta el valor nutricional de los forrajes de baja calidad. La presente tesis de investigación, en tres experimentos, tuvo como objetivo evaluar el impacto de Saccharomyces cerevisiae sobre el valor nutritivo de algunos forrajes de ...

  13. Homicídios de adolescentes: refletindo sobre alguns fatores associados Adolescents’ homicide: thinking about some associated factors

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    Sergio Kodato

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo é uma investigação de alguns fatores associados a homicídios praticados contra adolescentes, no município de Ribeirão Preto (SP, onde, no período de 1995 a 1998, foram assassinados 101 adolescentes. A coleta e a análise dos dados foram realizadas através da conjunção das seguintes técnicas: levantamento de dados sociográficos, através da análise dos processos judiciais instaurados no Ministério Público local; observação participante da instituição de internamento no município, destinada para adolescente autor de ato infracional; entrevistas com adolescentes internos pela prática de homicídio (n= 8. Como resultado, pode-se afirmar que as condições de vida que levaram à morte os adolescentes, são fruto de uma sincronização de fatores, onde, além da fragilidade institucional, observa-se como determinantes a disputa pela apropriação de bens materiais, o conflito de interesses financeiros, o tráfico de drogas, e, um modo de relacionamento interpessoal, cuja resolução de situações conflitivas se dá de forma não mediada e violenta.This research is an investigation of some factors associated to homicides committed against adolescents, at the city of Ribeirão Preto (SP, in which, during the period of 1995-1998, 101 children and adolescents were killed. The collect and analysis of data were made throughout the association of the following methods: sociographics data enrollment, analysis of taken lawsuits in the local prosecuting counsel; participant observation of the local internment institution, destined to adolescents authors of infraction acts; interview with intern adolescents for homicide acts (n=8. As a result one may state that the life conditions that ends on death of adolescents are product of a synchronization of factors, where, besides the fragility of institutions, one may observe determinants the dispute for appropriation of goods, conflict of financial interests, drug traffic and, a mode

  14. Atividade moluscicida de alguns produtos naturais sobre Biomphalaria glabrata Molluscicide activity of some natural products on Biomphalaria glabrata

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    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada, em laboratório, a ação moluscicida de extratos aquosos (macerado e fervido, hexânico e etanólico de Aristolochia brasiliensis, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Spathodea campanulata e Tibouchina scrobiculata. As soluções dos extratos obtidos foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório, nas concentrações de 1, 10, 20, 200 e 1000ppm. Dos extratos testado o mais ativo foi o etanólico das flores da D. regia (flamboyant que apresentou atividade moluscicida sobre caramujos adultos na concentração de 20ppm.The molluscicide activity of aqueous (macerated and boiled, hexamic and ethylic extracts of Aristolochia brasiliensis, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Spathodea campanulata and Tibouchina scrobiculata was evaluated in the laboratory. The solutions obtained from those extracts were tested on adults and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata reared in the laboratory at 1, 10, 20, 100 and 1000ppm concentrations. The most active of the extracts studied was D. regia flowers' (flamboyant ethylic extracts which presented molluscicidal activity on adult snails at 20ppm.

  15. LA PROTECCIÓN SOCIAL EN AMÉRICA LATINA: alguns puntos sobre los sistemas de pensiones

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    Pierre Salama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio sobre el sistema de protección social en América Latina, con destaque a los sistemas de pensiones. La protección social y las reformas de la Seguridad Social son contextualizadas en el ámbito de las transformaciones productivas, con destaque al proceso de globalización y a la financerización de la economía. Se destacan la intervención masiva y directa del Estado en la economía, en la protección social y su frágil participación en la gestión de la fuerza de trabajo, considerando las particularidades del Estado en América Latina, señalando, aún, la transformación de su papel. Para fundamentación, se utiliza el enfoque “derivacionista” a partir del centro y de la periferia, para destacar los límites de la intervención del Estado para a más de la función de acumulación y legitimación. Se atribuye relieve a la separación de la ciudadanía política de la ciudadanía social, con destaque al desarrollo de la democracia y el avanzo de la pobreza y de la precarización del trabajo.En ese contexto, son inscritas las reformas de la protección social en América Latina, marcadas por la reducción de la solidaridad vertical y horizontal, con fragmentación de las medidas de protección social e ineficiencia el Estado Social, concluyendo con una problematización sobre la relación salarial directa/salarial indirecta.

  16. Alguns apontamentos sobre a trajetória da Psicologia social comunitária no Brasil

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    Mariana Alves Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a trajetória da Psicologia social comunitária no Brasil tomando como material privilegiado de análise os anais dos encontros nacionais da Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Social (ABRAPSO. O objetivo foi o de historiar os argumentos produzidos por autores da PSC em busca de uma identidade para a área. A análise buscou evidenciar a especificidade da PSC, os objetivos de suas intervenções e a noção de comunidade. Tomamos os anais dos encontros nacionais da ABRAPSO como fonte principal pela importância da associação na produção de dispositivos conceituais e de novas formas de atuação profissional dos psicólogos no Brasil. Concluímos o trabalho indicando a ênfase na diferença e na oposicão entre uma psicologia latino e norte-americana como recurso estratégico de afirmação identitária da área. Apontamos a importância do trabalho em comunidade para a renovação das práticas do psicólogo no Brasil e para a relativa carência de reflexão conceitual sobre a noção de comunidade.

  17. Publicidade e ambiente: alguns contornos

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Jr.,Antonio Ribeiro de; Andrade,Thales Novaes de

    2007-01-01

    O presente artigo trata da importância da publicidade na construção social do debate ambiental. Os estudos sobre mídia e ambiente geralmente focam o conteúdo de jornais e programas televisivos, mas nas últimas décadas a publicidade passou a chamar a atenção dos estudiosos sobre o tema. O trabalho procurou discutir a importância do fenômeno do consumo no mundo moderno, e os efeitos sentidos na área ambiental. A seguir são discutidos alguns aspectos do aprimoramento do discurso publicitário no ...

  18. Ethics in research with human beings: some issues about Psychology Ética em pesquisa com seres humanos: alguns tópicos sobre a psicologia

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    Sílvia Helena Koller

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some ethical issues in research with human beings, especially addressing the area of Psychology, such as the use of ethical codes; minimum risk; informed consent; debriefing; confidentiality; and ethical committees. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and the proper use of the ethical codes, to guarantee their own protection, and to avoid abuses of power. Special attention is given to methodological issues related to ethics.Este artigo examina alguns aspectos éticos em pesquisa com seres humanos, especialmente endereçando a área da Psicologia, tais como o uso de resoluções éticas; risco mínimo; consentimento livre e esclarecido; decepção; confidencialidade e atuação de comitês de ética. Sugere caminhos aos pesquisadores para incrementar o entendimento e o uso apropriado de códigos de ética, para garantir sua própria proteção e evitar abuso de poder. Atenção especial é dada a assuntos metodológicos relacionados à ética.

  19. Quem fala por meio do testemunho? Alguns apontamentos teórico-metodológicos sobre a escrita testemunhal a partir da literatura de Primo Levi

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    Lucas Amaral Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Quando falamos de testemunho pensamos na possibilidade dele revelar a “verdade” objetiva dos eventos, na qual o que importa são os fatos que levariam, por exemplo, à condenação de um sujeito ou governo. Neste ensaio, tentarei explorar brevemente, a partir dos depoimentos memorialísticos do escritor italiano Primo Levi, outra dimensão do testemunho: trata-se dele como produtor de uma verdade proveniente da dimensão subjetiva da vida social, das experiências vividas pelos sujeitos, suas narrativas e simbolizações do sofrimento, individual e coletivo. O testemunho de indivíduos marginais e estigmatizados possui um valor bastante significativo para a sociologia, pois ilustra, mais que uma representação objetiva e acabada de fatos vivenciados, elementos subjetivos que, apesar de possuírem incompletudes e inconstâncias, narram experiências heterogêneas de um determinado trauma. Mas, mesmo considerando o testemunho como instrumento importante de documentação e verificação da realidade histórica, uma problematização deve ser feita: a subjetividade inerente à representação literária diminui ou restringe o valor dos testemunhos sobre experiências de extrema violência? Isto é, que tipos de problemas e lacunas o testemunho do trauma, tomado como documento empírico, poderia suscitar?

  20. Fisiologia de linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae isoladas de biomas brasileiros: novos olhares sobre a biodiversidade e aspectos relevantes para aplicações industriais.

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Baratho Beato

    2016-01-01

    Durante a produção industrial de etanol combustível, as linhagens comerciais de Saccharomyces cerevisiae introduzidas no processo são naturalmente substituídas por linhagens selvagens, cuja origem é desconhecida. Com os objetivos de entender melhor esta questão, de se saber mais sobre o habitat natural de S. cerevisiae, e também na busca de fenótipos de interesse para aplicações industriais, avaliamos neste estudo características fisiológicas e genéticas de 14 linhagens selvagens de S. cerev...

  1. Toxicidade residual de alguns agrotóxicos recomendado na agricultura sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Residual toxicity of some pesticides recommended for citrus orchards on the predaceous mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

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    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade residual de alguns agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor em condições de laboratório. O método de bioensaio adotado foi o de contato residual. Folhas de citros da variedade Pêra, acondicionadas em arenas, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. A toxicidade residual dos produtos foi avaliada duas horas e 1; 3; 5; 7; 10; 14 e 21 dias após a aplicação. Em cada arena, foram transferidas dez fêmeas adultas de N. californicus, juntamente com uma quantidade suficiente de Tetranychus urticae, como fonte de alimento. As avaliações de mortalidade foram realizadas 72 horas após a transferência dos ácaros para as arenas. Os agrotóxicos acrinathrin, deltamethrin, dinocap, enxofre, fenpropathrin, óxido de fenbutatin e propargite não causaram mortalidades significativas em adultos de N. californicus. Foram registradas mortalidades de 29,8; 24,0 e 34,1% para ácaros N. californicus expostos a resíduos de duas horas de idade de abamectim, azocyclotin e cyhexatin, respectivamente. Dicofol, pyridaben e chlorfenapyr causaram 100% de mortalidade aos ácaros predadores expostos aos resíduos tóxicos dos acaricidas, com duas horas de idade. Abamectin provocou mortalidade significativa por um período inferior a um dia. Resíduos dos acaricidas azocyclotin, cyhexatin, dicofol, pyridaben e chlorfenapyr provocaram mortalidades significativas por períodos de 1; 1; 10; 10 e 21dias, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos no presente experimento servem de subsídio para a escolha adequada dos agrotóxicos a serem utilizados em pomares de citros nos quais N. californicus esteja presente ou naqueles em que o predador venha a ser liberado. Esses resultados também servem para a escolha do momento mais favorável para a liberação dos ácaros predadores dessa espécie no campo, após a aplicação de agrotóxicos nos pomares. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda s

  2. Effect of some vitamins and micronutrient deficiencies on the production of higher alcohols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Efeito da deficiência de vitaminas e micronutrientes sobre a produção de álcoois superiores por Sacharomyces cerevisiae

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    L.E. Gutierrez

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in order to determine the effect of vitamins (biotin, thiamine, pantotheniic acid and pyridoxal and micronutrient (zinc, boron, manganese and iron deficiencies on higher alcohol production during alcoholic fermentation with the industrially used yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae M-300-A. Zinc deficiency induced a reduction on the levels of isobutyl and isoamyl alcohols. An increase on isobutyl alcohol (fivefold and a reduction of isoamyl alcohol (two fold and n-propyl alcohol (three fold contents resulted from pantotheiiic acid deficiency, whereas pyridoxal deficiency caused an increase on the levels of isobutyl and isoamyl alcohols. Biotin was not essential for the growth of this strain.Foi estudado o efeito da deficiência das vitaminas (biotina, ti amina, ácido pantotênico e piridoxal e de micronutrientes (boro, zinco, manganês e ferro sobre a produção de álcoois superiores durante a fermentação alcoólica com a levedura industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae M-300-A. Com a deficiência de zinco ocorreu redução na formação dos álcoois isobutílico e isoamílico enquanto que a deficiência de pantotenato provocou aumento no nível de álcool isobutflico (cerca de cinco vezes e redução dos álcoois isoamílico (duas vezes e n-propílico (três vezes. Na deficiência de piridoxina ocorreu aumento nos teores de isobutílico e de isoamflico. A biotina não foi essencial para o crescimento dessa linhagem de levedura.

  3. A relação exemplar entre autor e revisor (e outros trabalhadores textuais semelhantes e o mito de Babel: alguns comentários sobre História do Cerco de Lisboa, de José Saramago

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    Arrojo Rosemary

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho faz parte de uma série de textos que tenho dedicado ao exame do tratamento dispensado ao tradutor (e a outros "trabalhadores" textuais semelhantes como intérpretes, revisores, críticos e leitores profissionais em alguns textos de ficção. Especificamente neste ensaio, examino as relações que se estabelecem entre o narrador (como porta-voz do Autor e o revisor "subversivo" Raimundo Silva no romance de José Saramago, História do Cerco de Lisboa. Como na maioria das abordagens teóricas e como na opinião que o senso comum tipicamente reserva a esse tipo de trabalho textual, o livro de Saramago sugere que, a partir da perspectiva autoral, o que se deve proteger é a alegada "sacralidade" do original, como propriedade privada do Autor, e somente a este se reserva o direito à criatividade e a uma vida (pessoal e profissional plena.

  4. EFEITOS DA INCLUSÃO DA LEVEDURA SECA ( SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE) SOBRE A CARCAÇA E NA COMPOSIÇÃO DA CARNE DE COELHOS EFFECTS OF DRY YEAST (SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE) INCLUSION ON THE QUALITY OF RABBIT CARCASS AND ON RABBIT MEAT COMPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Ariosvaldo Nunes de Medeiros; Marcia Roseane Targino de Oliveira; Aderbal Cavalcante Neto; Walter Esfrain Pereira; Edimar Mesquita de Oliveira; Ludmila da Paz Gomes da Silva; Julicelly Gomes Barbosa; Jeane Karla de Mendonça Motas

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi realizado no Setor de Cunicultura, do Departamento de Zootecnia, da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia, com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos da inclusão da levedura seca (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) sobre a qualidade da carcaça e na composição da carne de coelhos. Alimentaram-se os animais com níveis de inclusão de 0%, 6%, 12% e 18% de levedura seca (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Utilizaramse coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia branca, sendo dezesseis machos e dezesseis ...

  5. Alguns aspectos sobre geradores e radiofármacos de tecnécio-99m e seus controles de qualidade Technetium-99m generators and radiopharmaceuticals and quality control tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luiz Navarro Marques

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiofármacos marcados com tecnécio-99m são os principais agentes para diagnósticos utilizados nas clínicas de medicina nuclear, em função de uma série de características físicas do radionuclídeo e pela praticidade dos radiofármacos serem preparados no local de uso, por meio de uma reação de complexação entre um agente complexante (fármaco e o tecnécio-99m. Entretanto, durante esta reação podem ser geradas algumas impurezas que proporcionam a formação de produtos com baixa qualidade ou com características diferentes das desejadas. No presente trabalho serão apresentados alguns dos fatores que podem interferir na qualidade dos radiofármacos e os controles que podem ser utilizados para garantir sua qualidade.Technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceuticals are currently the main diagnostic agents used in nuclear medicine. Radiopharmaceuticals are prepared locally through a reaction between a complexant agent (pharmaceutical and technetium-99m. These reactions may generate impurities resulting into the production of radiopharmaceuticals with substandard quality or with different characteristics from those considered ideal. In this article we discuss some of the factors that may interfere with the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and the quality control tests that can be used to ensure the quality of the agents.

  6. Nem só de debates epistemológicos vive o pesquisador em administração: alguns apontamentos sobre disputas entre paradigmas e campo científico

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    Milka Alves Correia Barbosa

    Full Text Available A discussão sobre abordagens paradigmáticas no campo da Administração pode ser profícua quando provoca os pesquisadores a refletir sobre premissas, práticas e valores compartilhados por uma comunidade científica. Entretanto, ao extremo, torna-se uma disputa que impede a busca de outras abordagens para lidar com a complexidade dos fenômenos sociais. Nesse sentido, importa compreender que, na produção do conhecimento científico, os pesquisadores não se deparam somente com escolhas acerca de epistemologia, de lógica ou de teoria linguística, mas, também, com problemas de política. Este ensaio objetiva contribuir com reflexões sobre o pesquisador e os desafios epistemológicos e políticos com os quais se depara no fazer pesquisa, argumentando que não se trata somente de uma escolha entre positivismos e interpretativismos, mas igualmente envolve disputas de poder dentro de um campo científico. Para tanto, foram selecionados intencionalmente textos com conceitos-chave, como paradigmas e campo científico. Em resposta ao objetivo geral deste ensaio, consideramos que o fazer ciência constitui uma atividade humana que possui vínculo indissociável com espaço e tempo e imbrica-se com jogos de poder. Entendemos, ainda, que o campo científico da Administração no Brasil é um espaço de competitividade e lutas políticas do qual fazemos parte, quer seja como opressores ou privilegiados, mas nunca como meros expectadores. Nessa arena, nem só de debates epistemológicos vive o pesquisador em Administração.

  7. Efeitos de alguns integrantes da fração fibra (lignina e pectina) e fonte de fibra (fibraxx), em dietas ricas ou isentas de colesterol sobre os niveis sericos lipidicos de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Patricia Luz de

    1992-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Centro de Ciencias Agrarias Foi avaliado o efeito da fração fibra (lignina e pectina) e fonte de fibra (Fibraxx) em dietas ricas ou isentas de colesterol sobre os níveis séricos de colesterol, HDL-colesterol e Triacilglicerois de ratos albinos. Foram utilizados 11 tipos de rações: comercial (tempo zero), 4 grupos controles (sem fibra ou com 5g% de celulose, com ou sem a adição de 1g% de colesterol) e 6 grupos testes (com 5g% ...

  8. Ensino da saúde coletiva na Faculdade de Medicina do ABC: alguns apontamentos sobre os desafios da Saúde Coletiva na formação médica

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    Nivaldo Carneiro Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A saúde coletiva, campo de saberes e práticas sobre o processo saúde‑doença‑cuidado, leva às graduações em saúde questões teórico‑metodológicas e tecnologias de intervenções ao exercício profissional. Historicamente, posiciona‑se à margem do projeto político‑pedagógico da formação em saúde, particularmente médica, de modelo biologizante e hospitalocêntrico. De acordo com a Constituição de 1988, Saúde é um Direito Social e o Sistema de Saúde, público e universal. Surgem formulações às políticas educacionais e saúde. É competência do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS ordenar a formação de recursos humanos. As Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para as graduações em saúde apontam perfis profissionais voltados às necessidades de saúde da população, exigindo novas metodologias de ensino‑aprendizagem e cenários de práticas pedagógicas. Nessa perspectiva, o ensino da saúde coletiva emerge com importância singular. Relato de Experiência: A saúde coletiva na Medicina da Faculdade de Medicina do ABC era grade de disciplinas básicas do 2º ano. Um novo currículo modifica essa inserção. Até 2013, disciplina anual, em 3 módulos: epidemiologia, bioestatística e políticas e organização de serviços de saúde. Temas de ciências sociais e humanas desenvolviam‑se no 1º ano, módulo interdisciplinar Bases do Exercício Profissional. A grande concentração, nesse período, das disciplinas de morfologia e fisiologia, aproximações incipientes nos serviços de saúde e baixa exposição aos problemas de adoecimento e cuidado da população desafiavam o ensino‑aprendizagem da saúde coletiva. Conclusão: Desenvolveram‑se estratégias pedagógicas que superassem esse contexto, propiciando experiências cognitivas e habilidades psicomotoras favoráveis à apreensão dos conteúdos da saúde coletiva. Resultados positivos do exame recente do Conselho

  9. Effect of soil interacting herbicides on soybean nodulation in Balcarce, Argentina Efeito de alguns herbicidas que interagem com o solo, sobre a nodulação da soja em Balcarce, Argentina

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    Norma Gonzalez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were performed in Balcarce, Argentina (37° 45' LS; 58° 18' LW during 1993-94, to assess the effect of eight herbicides applied individually or in tank mixtures, on nodule number, nodule dry weight, seed yield and N percent in seed in soybean Asgrow 3205, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum CB 1809. Individual herbicides and doses in kg ha-1 of a.i. were metribuzin (0.48, acetochlor (0.90, metolachlor (1, flumioxazin (0.075, trifluralin (0.96, imazaquin (0.20, imazethapyr (0.10 and chlorimuron ethyl (0.0125. The mixtures were metribuzin+acetochlor (0.48+0.9, flumioxazin+acetochlor (0.075+0.9, imazaquin+acetochlor (0.2+0.9, metribuzin+metolachlor (0.48+1.92, and flumioxazin+ metolachlor (0.075+1.92. A control treatment without herbicides was included. Both trials were laid out as randomized complete blocks with four replicates, on a loam illitic thermic petrocalcic Paleudoll, 5.7% organic matter (OM, 25% clay, 30.4 cmol kg-1 CEC. Nodules were sampled at V2 (second node, V6 (sixth node and R5 (beginning seed growth stages. Herbicides did not significantly affect the beginning of nodulation or nodule number and mass at R5, not either grain yield or N accumulation. This indicates lack of interference between soil interacting herbicides and N fixation in the high organic matter, loam soils of SE Buenos Aires province, even though a tendency in less number and dry weight of nodules was evident at the two latter growth stages.Durante 1993-94 realizaram-se dois experimentos em Balcarce, Argentina (37° 45' LS; 58° 18' LO para avaliar o efeito de oito herbicidas, aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas, sobre o número e peso de nódulos, rendimento e percentagem de N nos grãos de soja Asgrow 3205 que receberam inoculação da estirpe CB1809 de Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Os herbicidas aplicados isoladamente e suas doses em kg ha-1 de i.a. foram metribuzin (0,48, acetochlor (0,90, metolachlor (1, flumioxazin (0,075, trifluralin (0

  10. Alguns apontamentos teóricos sobre a cidade industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Morais

    2014-12-01

    estruturas e a multiplicação do solo urbano – e o desenvolvimento dos meios de transportes ferroviários e rodoviários. A combinação de todos estes fatores daria origem a diversas postulações urbanísticas e arquitetônicas, dentre as quais se destacam, em extremos opostos, as cidades-jardins e as torres isoladas em meio a áreas verdes e públicas. O presente artigo parte da convicção de que a atualização das interpretações possíveis de tais acontecimentos e o entendimento de suas bases conceituais à luz das teorias contemporâneas são pontos relevantes no debate de questões que envolvem o manejo e planejamento de um futuro desejável para as metrópoles latino-americanas.

  11. Efeitos do cádmio sobre o crescimento das leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 e Saccharomyces cerevisiae IZ-1904, e a capacidade da vinhaça em atenuar a toxicidade Effect of cadmium on the growth of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, and the vinasse capacity to atenuate the toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mariano-da-Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por finalidade estudar os efeitos do cádmio sobre a levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bem como avaliar a possibilidade de se utilizar a vinhaça como fornecedora de agentes ligantes, visando minimizar os efeitos deletérios do mesmo. Primeiramente montou-se um ensaio visando observar a ação tóxica de diferentes concentrações de cádmio (0; 0,05; 0,1 e 0,5mM, avaliada pelo crescimento de duas cepas da levedura S. cerevisiae (PE-2 e IZ-1904 em meio YED. O meio foi inoculado com 1mL de uma suspensão a 1% (m/v das respectivas cepas e incubado por 18 horas. Em tempos determinados durante o crescimento anaeróbio, alíquotas da suspensão de células foram retiradas e a concentração celular foi determinada. No final do ensaio, foram determinadas a viabilidade celular, a taxa de brotamento e a contaminação bacteriana. Os teores de trealose para cada tratamento, de ambas as cepas, foram dosados no início e no final do ensaio. Em uma segunda etapa, montou-se um ensaio visando avaliar a capacidade da vinhaça (0,15 e 30% do volume do meio em atenuar os efeitos tóxicos de duas doses de cádmio (0,1 e 0,5mM, empregando-se a levedura S. cerevisiae PE-2 em meio YED. O meio foi inoculado com 2mL de uma suspensão a 1% (m/v da levedura e incubado por 18 horas. Em tempos determinados durante o crescimento anaeróbio, alíquotas da suspensão de células foram retiradas e a concentração celular foi determinada. No final do ensaio, foram determinadas a viabilidade celular, a taxa de brotamento, a contaminação bacteriana e a produção de etanol. Os teores de trealose, para cada tratamento, foram dosados nas leveduras no início e no final do ensaio. O cádmio prejudicou o crescimento e a viabilidade celular das duas cepas da levedura S. cerevisiae. A vinhaça apresentou um discreto efeito tóxico, traduzido pela redução do crescimento. Porém, nos tratamentos contaminados com cádmio, apresentou um efeito protetor

  12. Efeito do manejo pré-abate sobre alguns parâmetros fisiológicos em fêmeas suínas pesadas Effect of pre-slaughter management on physiological parameters of heavy-weight female pigs

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    Osmar Antonio Dalla Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do período de descanso (3, 5, 7 e 9 horas dos suínos no frigorífico (PDF e da localização dos suínos na carroceria do caminhão (PBO, quando transportados, no inverno ou verão, sobre alguns parâmetros fisiológicos avaliados em 64 fêmeas, com peso médio de 130kg para abate, durante o manejo pré-abate. Para a análise estatística, foram considerados, no modelo de análise da variância, os efeitos de bloco, PDF, PBO e da interação (bloco x PDF, entre outros. O PDF influenciou, significativamente, as concentrações de lactato no sangue e cortisol na saliva. Suínos que descansaram 5 e 7 horas apresentaram maior concentração de lactato em relação aos animais que descansaram 3 e 9 horas. No transporte, a freqüência cardíaca foi muito maior em relação aos demais locais avaliados. Concluiu-se que o incremento do PDF não promove mudanças na freqüência cardíaca, nas concentrações de glicose e CPK no sangue e cortisol na saliva, mas interfere na concentração de lactato no sangue dos suínos.The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of pig lairage time (PDF=3, 5, 7 and 9 hours and evaluate the effect of pig position into the truck (PBO during transportation to slaughterhouse, in winter or summer conditions, on some physiologic parameters evaluated on 64 heavyweight females with mean liveweight of 130kg during pre-slaughter events. The following effects were considered in the statistical analysis of variance model: block (BL=summer farm or winter farm, PDF, PBO and interaction (Block x PDF, under other factors. The PDF influenced significativelly blood lactate and saliva cortisol levels. Pig submitted to 5 and 7 hours of lairage had higher levels of lactate when compared to pigs submitted to 3 and 9 hours of lairage. During transport the heart rate were higher than in other pre-slaughter events. It is concluded that increasing PDF above 3 hours had no effects on heart

  13. Publicidade e ambiente: alguns contornos Advertising and environment: some aspects

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    Antonio Ribeiro de Almeida Jr.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da importância da publicidade na construção social do debate ambiental. Os estudos sobre mídia e ambiente geralmente focam o conteúdo de jornais e programas televisivos, mas nas últimas décadas a publicidade passou a chamar a atenção dos estudiosos sobre o tema. O trabalho procurou discutir a importância do fenômeno do consumo no mundo moderno, e os efeitos sentidos na área ambiental. A seguir são discutidos alguns aspectos do aprimoramento do discurso publicitário no tratamento de temas ambientais.This article deals with the increasing role advertising has played on the social construction of the environmental debate. Though studies on media and environment are generally focused on newspaper and television content, in the past decades advertising has become a main issue for many researchers. The article outlines the importance of consumption as a key concept in modern world and its effects on the field of environmental studies. The discussion that follows analyses some aspects of the growing specialization of environmental issues advertising.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus K; Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Microbial biofilms can be defined as multi-cellular aggregates adhering to a surface and embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM). The nonpathogenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, follows the common traits of microbial biofilms with cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion. S. cerevisiae is shown...... pathways including the protein kinase A and a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Advanced genetic tools and resources have been developed for S. cerevisiae including a deletion mutant-strain collection in a biofilm-forming strain background and GFP-fusion protein collections. Furthermore, S....... cerevisiae biofilm is well applied for confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorophore tagging of proteins, DNA and RNA. These techniques can be used to uncover the molecular mechanisms for biofilm development, drug resistance and for the study of molecular interactions, cell response to environmental...

  15. EFECTO DE LA ADICIÓN DE Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y PARED CELULAR EN LA DIETA DE OVINOS EN FINALIZACIÓN SOBRE LA FERMENTACIÓN IN VITRO, COMPORTAMIENTO PRODUCTIVO, CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LA CANAL Y CALIDAD DE CARNE.

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido Rodriguez, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar la adición de Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) y pared celular de levadura (PcSc) en la dieta de ovinos en finalización, sobre la producción de gas in vitro y en términos de su respuesta productiva, características de la canal y calidad de la carne. Para dar cumplimiento al presente objetivo se realizaron dos experimentos. En el primero se evaluó la producción de gas in vitro se utilizó 1 ± 0.002 g de MS de la dieta balanceada. Un producto de ...

  16. “Ganhando o Brasil para Jesus”: alguns apontamentos sobre a influência do movimento fundamentalista norte-americano sobre as práticas políticas do pentecostalismo brasileiro("Winning Brazil for Jesus":some notes about the American fundamentalist movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rocha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma breve reflexão sobre a politização do fundamentalismo protestante norte-americano e sua possível influência no tipo de práxis sociopolítica que vem caracterizando o pentecostalismo brasileiro a partir de meados da década de 1980. Partindo de uma discussão sobre o que seria, de fato, o fundamentalismo e sobre os desenvolvimentos e reconfigurações desse movimento ao longo da história norte-americana, buscar-se-á analisar a influência e os possíveis paralelos entre o fundamentalismo e o recente engajamento político-eleitoral que vêm marcando o pentecostalismo brasileiro. Observando-se a história recente do pentecostalismo brasileiro, pode-se perceber, especialmente após 1986 (ano em que as igrejas pentecostais se organizaram para eleger seus representantes na Assembléia Nacional Constituinte, tal influência do modelo fundamentalista na utilização da mídia, no conservadorismo político, na formação de grupos de pressão, na defesa dos “valores da família”, nos projetos de eleição de políticos comprometidos com os posicionamentos das igrejas, na busca do estreitamento das relações com o Estado na busca de influir em suas decisões. Palavras-chave: Pentecostalismo; Fundamentalismo; Religião e Política; História Contemporânea.   Abstract This article presents a brief reflection about the politization of the American protestant fundamentalism and its possible influence on the socio-political praxis that has characterized the Brazilian Pentecostalism from the mid-1980s. Starting with a discussion of what would fundamentalism be and  about this movement’s developments and reconfigurations throughout American history, the text seeks to analyze the influence and the possible parallels between fundamentalism and the recent political engagement  that have characterized Brazilian Pentecostalism. Observing the Brazilian Pentecostalism in recent history, we notice

  17. Alguns Helmintos de peixes do litoral norte fluminense - II

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    J. Julio Vicente

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available De 62 autópsias realizadas empeixes, capturados no litoral de Macaé, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, os autores coletaram alguns exemplares de helmintos cujo estudo permitiu a descrição de 2 espécies novas: Cucullanus rougetae e Raphidascaris yamagutii; a redescrição de Pseudopecoelus elongatus (Yamaguti, 1938 em novo hospedeiro, as referências de Procamallanus macaensis Vicente e Santos, 1972, e Catarinatrema verrucosum Freitas & Santos, 1971 e a descrição de 2 larvas de nematódeos e 1 de cestódeo que não puderam ser determinadas até espécie. A excursão emque foram colecionados os helmintos acima relacionados foi realizada em janeiro de 1973 por um de nós (elias dos Santos permitindo a continuação de trabalho anterior sobre helmintos de peixes marinhos daquele município fluminense.Several helminths were recovered, buy one of the authors (Elias dos Santos from fishes obtained in Macaé Coast, Rio de Janeiro State, Brasil, during an excursion in January, 1973. Two new species are described; Cucullanus rougetae and Raphidascaris yamagutii, they redescribe and give new host records for Pseudopecoellus elongatus (Yamaguti, 1938 and Procamallanus macaensis vicente e Santos, 1972; the later is only refered, as well as Catarinatrema verrucosum Freitas e santos, 1971. The describe one cestode and two nematode larvae although they could not be determinated. This is the second publication on the matter.

  18. NARRATIVAS BRASILEIRAS CONTEMPORÂNEAS: ALGUNS TEMAS E IMPLICAÇÕES

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    Vera Lúcia de Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio aborda e analisa alguns temas e características da prosa brasileira contemporânea, prosa que incorpora esteticamente o contesto social das grandes cidades do país. Concentrar-me-ei sobretudo sobre o romance Subúrbio de Fernando Bonassi, publicado em 1994, considerado um marco não só pelo tema que aborda e por seu realismo brutal, mas incorporar, em sua estrutura híbrida, diversos tipos de linguagens.

  19. Effect of pH, dextrose and yeast extract on cadmium toxicity on Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 Ação tóxica do cádmio sobre a levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2: influência do ph e conteúdo de dextrose e extrato de levedura no meio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mariano-da-Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pH, dextrose and yeast extract on the cadmium toxicity on Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2. In the first assay, the YED mediums with different pH (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 containing 0.0 and 0.05 mmol Cd L-1 were inoculated with yeast suspension and incubated at 30 °C for 18 hours. During the anaerobic growth, the biomass concentration was determined. The yeast trehalose content, cell viability, and the growth rate were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the growth stages. In the second assay the YED mediums were diluted to the total, ½, and ¼ content of dextrose and yeast and 0.0 and 0.05 mmol Cd L-1 were added. The pH of the mediums was adjusted to 5. The culture mediums were inoculated and incubated at 30 °C for 18 hours. The yeast growth was not affected by cadmium at high pH, but at low pH the yeast becomes more sensitive to the toxic effect. The yeast susceptibility to cadmium was enhanced by the decrease of yeast extract strength and the increase of dextrose strength.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de alguns fatores químicos na sensibilidade da levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 ao cádmio. Em um primeiro ensaio, os meios YED com diferentes valores de pH (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, e 8 e acrescidos de 0,0 e 0,05 mmol Cd L-1 foram inoculados e incubados a 30 °C por 18 horas. Durante o crescimento anaeróbio foi determinada a concentração celular. No início e ao final do estágio de crescimento determinaram-se os teores de trealose, a viabilidade celular e a taxa de brotamento da levedura. Em um segundo ensaio, os meios foram diluídos a ½ e ¼ para dextrose e extrato de levedura e adicionados de 0,0 e 0,05 mmol Cd L-1. O pH dos meios foi ajustado para 5. Após a inoculação, os frascos foram incubados a 30 °C por 18 horas. O crescimento não foi afetado pelo cádmio, porém em níveis mais baixos os sintomas de toxidade apareceram. O decréscimo da concentra

  20. Beta-glucana from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: constitution, bioactivity and obtaining / Beta-glucana de Saccharomyces cerevisiae: constituição, bioatividade e obtenção

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    Raul Jorge Hernan Castro-Gómez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available b-glucans are polysaccharides that constitute the structure of the cell wall of yeast, fungi and some cereals, which differs each other by the linkages between glucose units. An important source of these polymers is the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall, which is a yeast widely used in industrial processes of fermentation. The b-glucan is considered to be a modifier of biological response due to its immunomodulator potential. When it is recognized by specific cellular receptors, have the ability to enhance the host’s immune response. Other beneficial effects such as anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, hypocholesterolemic and blood sugar reduction have also been related to the b-glucan. The aim of this literature review was expand scientific knowledge about the constitution and bioactivity of b-glucan, including its recognition by the immune system, as well as its obtaining from S. cerevisiae cell wall.b-glucanas são polissacarídeos constituintes estruturais da parede celular de leveduras, fungos e alguns cereais, que se diferenciam pelo tipo de ligação presente entre as unidades de glicose. Uma importante fonte destes polissacarídeos é a parede celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, uma levedura amplamente empregada em processos industriais de fermentação. A b-glucana é considerada um modificador da resposta biológica devido ao seu potencial imunomodulador, pois ao ser reconhecida por receptores celulares específicos tem habilidade de realçar a resposta imune do hospedeiro. Outros efeitos benéficos como anticarcinogênico, antimutagênico, hipocolesterolêmico e hipoglicêmico também têm sido relacionados à b-glucana Esta revisão de literatura teve por objetivo agregar conhecimentos científicos sobre a constituição e bioatividade da b glucana, incluindo seu reconhecimento pelo sistema imune, bem como, a obtenção a partir da parede celular de S. cerevisiae.

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, Vera; Wang, Ruifei; Westman, Johan O; Franzén, Carl Johan; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The most advanced strains of xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae still utilize xylose far less efficiently than glucose, despite the extensive metabolic and evolutionary engineering applied in their development. Systematic comparison of strains across literature is difficult due to widely varying conditions used for determining key physiological parameters. Here, we evaluate an industrial and a laboratory S. cerevisiae strain, which has the assimilation of xylose via xylitol in common, but differ fundamentally in the history of their adaptive laboratory evolution development, and in the cofactor specificity of the xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). In xylose and mixed glucose-xylose shaken bottle fermentations, with and without addition of inhibitor-rich wheat straw hydrolyzate, the specific xylose uptake rate of KE6-12.A (0.27-1.08 g g CDW -1  h -1 ) was 1.1 to twofold higher than that of IBB10B05 (0.10-0.82 g g CDW -1  h -1 ). KE6-12.A further showed a 1.1 to ninefold higher glycerol yield (0.08-0.15 g g -1 ) than IBB10B05 (0.01-0.09 g g -1 ). However, the ethanol yield (0.30-0.40 g g -1 ), xylitol yield (0.08-0.26 g g -1 ), and maximum specific growth rate (0.04-0.27 h -1 ) were in close range for both strains. The robustness of flocculating variants of KE6-12.A (KE-Flow) and IBB10B05 (B-Flow) was analyzed in high-gravity simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation. As in shaken bottles, KE-Flow showed faster xylose conversion and higher glycerol formation than B-Flow, but final ethanol titres (61 g L -1 ) and cell viability were again comparable for both strains. Individual specific traits, elicited by the engineering strategy, can affect global physiological parameters of S. cerevisiae in different and, sometimes, unpredictable ways. The industrial strain background and prolonged evolution history in KE6-12.A improved the specific xylose uptake rate more substantially than the superior XR, XDH, and xylulokinase

  2. Os docentes de Biblioteconomia, Documentação e Ciência da Informação no Brasil: alguns resultados de estudo exploratório sobre as representações da profissão bibliotecária

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    Maria Tereza Machado Teles Walter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2009v14n28p01 As representações da profissão bibliotecária são analisadas sob a perspectiva dos docentes, em estudo exploratório. Os dados parciais apresentados refletem a opinião dos entrevistados acerca de sua percepção dos alunos, do curso, da profissão e dos organismos representativos dos bibliotecários. De modo geral, os professores manifestaram que os alunos não entram nos cursos por vocação, são originários de classes socioeconômicas menos favorecidas, possuem formação básica frágil e não estão interessados na carreira, mas somente no diploma. Apontaram problemas decorrentes da forma como são conduzidos os cursos, do modo como alguns professores atuam e de como trabalham para que os alunos adquiram conhecimentos e mudem suas atitudes.

  3. Educação e infância em alguns escritos de Walter Benjamin

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    Anita Helena Schlesener

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho pretende refletir sobre alguns escritos de Walter Benjamin sobre educação e infância, expressos também na obra Infância em Berlim por volta de 1900. Benjamin coloca em questão a educação burguesa e suas práticas e reflete sobre o imaginário da criança. Relacionando percepção e conceito, Benjamin apresenta conceitos que inserem a educação no contexto da filosofia da historia. O artigo visa a acentuar a originalidade de um autor que, no contexto da sociedade europeia de 1920 até sua morte por suicídio em 1940, colocou relevantes questões sobre educação e sugeriu novos paradigmas de interpretação, conforme a afirmação de Benjamin, método de montagem, como um mosaico ou uma constelação.

  4. ALGUNS ASPECTOS DA BIOLOGIA DO SERRADOR, Oncideres dejeani THOMPSON, 1868 (COLEOPTERA : CERAMBYCIDAE

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    Adriane Brill Thum

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho objetivando determinar alguns parâmetros comparativos da biologia do serrador, Oncideres dejeani Thomson,1868 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae sobre aroeira preta, Lithraea brasiliensis L. March (Anacardiaceae e pau de leite, Sebastiania brasiliensis Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae, em São Sepé - RS, durante o período 1989-1990. Mediu-se o comprimento e a largura do orifício de emergência dos adultos do serrador e, o comprimento e volume da galeria larval-pupal. O orifício de emergência do adulto de O. dejeani apresenta formato ovalado em pau de leite e quase circular em aroeira preta. A larva se desenvolve em galhos de vários diâmetros, independente da espécie de planta hospedeira, consome igual volume de madeira e constroi galeria de comprimento similar nas duas espécies botânicas estudadas

  5. Ação do óleo essencial de Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M.Perry sobre as hifas de alguns fungos fitopatogênicos Action of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M.Perry essential oil on the hyphae of some phytopathogenic fungi

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    A.R.T Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente o uso de métodos alternativos para o controle de doenças e pragas na agricultura, visando minimizar os danos ao meio ambiente e à saúde pública é uma prática reconhecida e necessária. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a ação do óleo essencial de Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M.Perry sobre o crescimento micelial in vitro dos fungos fitopatogênicos Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum e Macrophomina phaseolina. A análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada com espectrometria de massa possibilitou a identificação de eugenol (83,6%, acetato de eugenila (11,6% e cariofileno (4,2%. A avaliação microscópica dos micélios dos fungos evidenciou diversas alterações morfológicas, como a presença de vacúolos, desorganização dos conteúdos celulares, diminuição na nitidez da parede celular, intensa fragmentação e menor turgência das hifas. O óleo essencial de cravo apresentou atividade fungicida na concentração de 0,15% sobre o crescimento de R. solani, F. oxysporum e F. solani, entretanto não demonstrou essa atividade sobre M. phaseolina. Esses resultados indicam perspectivas favoráveis para posterior uso do óleo de cravo no controle desses fitopatógenos na agricultura.Currently, the use of alternative methods to control diseases and pests in agriculture has been a recognized and necessary practice to minimize damages to the environment and public health. This study aimed to investigate the action of clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M.Perry] essential oil on the in vitro mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Macrophomina phaseolina. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the identification of eugenol (83.6%, eugenyl acetate (11.6% and caryophyllene (4.2%. Microscopic evaluation of mycelia showed several morphological changes such as presence of vacuoles, cell content disorganization, decreased

  6. Sobre alguns aspectos metodológicos de pesquisas em movimentação dentária induzida e das reabsorções dentárias: uma proposta de guia e cuidados para análise de trabalhos About some methodological aspects of research in induced dental movement and of dental resorptions: a proposal of guide and cares for works analysis

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    Alberto Consolaro

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais características da metodologia científica está na descrição detalhada de todas as condições experimentais e especialmente dos critérios adotados para se constituir uma amostra e obterem-se os dados. Esta característica deve ser aplicada em todos os trabalhos para permitir a outros estudiosos repetir o mesmo trabalho sob as mesmas condições descritas, e assim obter-se os mesmos resultados em qualquer parte do mundo. Esta possibilidade, além de permitir a checagem dos dados relatados, confere uma maior credibilidade perante a comunidade científica. Em ciência os dados devem ser públicos e reprodutíveis. Ao estudar-se as reabsorções dentárias, a padronização da amostra, dos critérios de diagnóstico e de classificação é muito importante. A reabsorção dentária representa um fenômeno multifatorial, ou seja, pode ser induzida por muitas causas e influenciadas por inúmeros fatores como morfologia dentária e óssea, proporção coroa-raiz, tipo de má oclusão, técnica empregada, extensão do movimento e outros. Para um trabalho sobre este tema apresentar maior credibilidade em seus resultados requer-se uma amostra muito homogênea, uma padronização do diagnóstico e da técnica ortodôntica com alto nível de calibração. Infelizmente muitos trabalhos sobre reabsorções dentárias, especialmente as que ocorrem durante o tratamento ortodôntico, são estudadas em amostras acumuladas no tempo, sem padronização diagnóstica e técnica, com pacientes tratados por inúmeros operadores, sem considerar a necessidade de padronização da amostra em algumas variáveis importantes nem tampouco relevá-las ou discuti-las quando das análises dos resultados. O objetivo deste trabalho constitui induzir reflexões sobre este assunto e sugerir alguns parâmetros para a análise de trabalhos de pesquisas pertinentes às reabsorções dentárias e à biologia da movimentação ortodôntica.One of the main

  7. Influência da densidade de Myzus persicae (Sulzer sobre alguns aspectos biológicos e capacidade predatória de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen = Influence of the density of Myzus persicae (Sulzer on the biological aspects and predatory capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen

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    Leonardo Rodrigues Barbosa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência de diferentes densidades de Myzus persicae criados em folhas de pimentão, Capsicum annum L. sobre os aspectos biológicos e a capacidade predatória de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen. Larvas recém-eclodidas do predador foram alimentadas com ninfas do pulgão, oferecidas nas densidades de 50% abaixo do consumo médio, o consumo médio diário e 50% acima desse consumo, sobre discos foliares de pimentão mantidos em placas de Petri à 25 ± 1ºC, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. A densidade do pulgão influenciou o consumo de C. externa durante os ínstares e fase larval, ocorrendo maior consumo de presa em função do aumento da densidade. A duração de cada ínstar e da fase de larva foi maior quando a densidade de presa estava 50% abaixo do consumo médio. O porcentual de larvas sobreviventes durante os ínstares e fase larval aumentou em função do incremento na densidade. A fecundidade dos adultos e a viabilidade de ovos não foram influenciadas pelas densidades da presa.The influence of different densities of Myzus persicae (Sulzer reared on sweet pepper leaves, Capsicum annuum L., was evaluated on biological aspects and on the predatory capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen. The newly emerged larvae of predator were fed with aphid nymphs, offered in the densities of 50% below the average daily consumption, 50% above that consumption, and on sweet pepper foliar discs maintained in Petri dishes at 25ºC. The aphid density affectedC. externa consumption during the instars and larvae stage, occurring high prey consumption with the density increase. The average duration of each instar and larvae stage was higher when the prey density was 50% below the average consumption. The percentage of surviving larvae during the instars and larvae stage became higher with the densityincrease. Prey densities did not affect adult fecundity and eggs viability.

  8. On Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974: South American correlated species (Nematoda, Cucullanidae and some other helminths of micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Pisces, Sciaenidae Sobre Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974: espécies sul americanas correlatas (Nematoda, Cucullanidae e alguns outros helmintos de Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823(Pisces, Sciaenidae

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    J. Júlio Vicente

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tomquist, 1931 Petter, 1974, from Venezuela, of which D.(C. amaurincai (Freitas, Vicente & Ibáñez, 1969 Petter, 1974 is proposed as a junior synonym, is redescribed and comments on the present status of the remaining species under the group, namely D.(C. dichelyneformes (Szidat, 1950 Petter, 1974, D.(C. rodriguesi (Pinto, Fábio & Noronha, 1970 Petter, 1974 and D.(C. travassosi (Guimarães & Cristofaro, 1974, occuring in South America are made. Dollfusentis chandleri Golvan, 1969 (Acanthocephala, Illiosentidae, Poecilancistrium caryophyllum (Diesing, 1850(Cestoidea, Otobothriidae and Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819(Cestoidea, Dasyrhynchidae as well as larval forms of Echinocephalus sp. (Nematoda, Gnathostomatidae and Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae are also reported.Dichelyne (Cucullanellus elongatus (Tornquist, 1931 Petter, 1974, da Venezuela, da qual D.(C. amaurincai (Freitas, Vicente & Ibáñez, 1969 Petter, 1974 é proposta como sinônimo junior, é descrita, e são feitos comentários sobre a atual situação das outras espécies do mesmo grupo, ocorrendo na América do Sul, a saber: D.(C. dichelyneformes (Szidat, 1950 Petter, 1974, D.(C. rodriguesi (Pinto, Fábio & Noronha, 1971 Petter, 1974 e D.(C. travassosi (Guimarães & Cristofaro, 1974. Dollfusentis chandleri Golvan, 1969 (Acantochephala, Illiosentidae, Poecilancistrium cariophyllum (Diesing, 1850 (Cestoidea, Otobothriidae e Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819 (Cestoidea, Dayrhynchidae bem como formas larvares de Exhinocephalus sp. (Nematoda, Gnathostomatidae e Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae são também assinaladas.

  9. Colostomy irrigation: review of a number of technical aspects Irrigación de la colostomía: revisión sobre algunos aspectos técnicos Irrigação da colostomia: revisão acerca de alguns aspectos técnicos

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    Isabel Umbelina Ribeiro Cesaretti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Performing a literature review about four technical aspects related to the colostomy irrigation: volume of water to be infused, postoperative moment to start the method's training sessions, maintenance of a 24-hour interval between the colostomy irrigations, and time spent for the execution of the procedure, aiming to contribute for the most adequate systematization of the method. METHODS: After searching in the designated sources, sixty-three articles were identified. RESULTS: It was observed that there is no consensus among the several authors: the volume of infused water varied from 500ml to 1500ml, although, in the clinical practice, the average infused volume is 1000ml; the postoperative moment to start the training sessions varied from five days to six months; the maintenance time of a 24-hour interval between the colostomy irrigations varied from two weeks to six months; time spent in the execution of the procedure varied from 20 to 90min. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of these results may be an encouragement to the nurses, especially stomatherapists, to reevaluate their practice, in order to standardize the technical aspects related to the procedure, having as basis the specialized assistance.OBJETIVO: Realizar una revisión bibliográfica sobre cuatro aspectos técnicos relacionados a la irrigación de la colostomía: volumen de agua a ser infundido, momento del post-operatorio en que se debe iniciar el entrenamiento para el uso del método, tiempo de manutención de 24 horas como intervalo entre las irrigaciones y tiempo gastado en la realización del procedimiento, visando contribuir en la sistematización más adecuada del método. MÉTODOS: Una vez realizadas las búsquedas en las fuentes planificadas, fueron identificados 63 artículos. RESULTADOS: Se observó la inexistencia de un consenso entre los diversos autores consultados: el volumen de agua infundido varió de 500ml a 1500ml, aunque, en la práctica, el volumen

  10. Valor nutritivo de alguns ingredientes para o robalo (Centropomus parallelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Vanacor Barroso; Josevane Carvalho Castro; Pierângeli Cristina Marim Aoki; José Luiz Helmer

    2002-01-01

    Os robalos Centropomus são peixes que possuem alto valor comercial e grande importância econômica e social. Possuem potencial para aqüicultura, pois se adaptam ao confinamento e arraçoamento. O conhecimento dos requerimentos nutricionais dos robalos é básico para a elaboração de rações específicas. Para determinar a digestibilidade de alguns ingredientes utilizados em rações para peixes, trabalhou-se Centropomus parallelus, utilizando-se o farelo de soja, farelo de aveia e farelo de arroz, te...

  11. Ética em pesquisa com seres humanos: alguns tópicos sobre a psicologia

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, Sílvia Helena

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines some ethical issues in research with human beings, especially addressing the area of Psychology, such as the use of ethical codes; minimum risk; informed consent; debriefing; confidentiality; and ethical committees. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and the proper use of the ethical codes, to guarantee their own protection, and to avoid abuses of power. Special attention is given to methodological issues related to ethics. Key words Ethics, Human b...

  12. OBSERVAÇÃO SOBRE O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PLACENTA EM ALGUNS ROEDORES

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    Mariana Sincai

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A placenta do cobaio, rato, camundongo e ratão do banhado (Myocastor coypus foram estudadas e revelaram aspectos interessantes. A placenta nestas espécies é do tipo discoidal no início da gestação e após a união entre a mucosa uterina com as vilosidades coriônicas passa a ser do tipo hemocorial. O exame microscópico da placenta da cobaia e do ratão do banhado era do tipo multilobular, enquanto que a placenta do rato e do camundongo parece a metade de um lóbulo da placenta de cobaia e do ratão do banhado. Esta observação poderia ser uma prova para a evolução filogenética dos roedores. O exame microscópico da placenta dos roedores revelou passagem de linfócitos através dos trofoblastos embrionários para o feto, o qual precisa de imunidade placentária.

  13. Sobre alguns Helmintos parasitos de Dryadophis Bifossatus (Raddi On some parasitic helminths of "Dryadophis Bifossatus" (Raddi

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    Sueli P. de Fabio

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam o estudo de parasitos encontrados em cinco necrópsias de Dryadophis bifossatus (Raddi. Para Oochoristica vanzolinii Rêgo e Rodrigues, 1965 e paradistomum parvissimum (Travassos, 1918 Travassos, 1919 dão um novo hospedador; referem infidum similus Travassos, 1916; para kalicephalus costatus costatus (Rudolphi, 1819 Schad, 1962 apresentam nova descrição e desenhos.The authors study some helminths recovered from 5 samples of Dryadophis bifossatus (Raddi. For Oochoristica vanzolinii Rêgo e Rodrigues, 1965 nad Paradistomum parvissimum (Travassos, 1918 Travassos, 1919, they give a new host record. They only refer Infidum similis Travassos, 1916 as well as redescribe and add new drawings when dealing with Kalicephalus costatus costatus (Rudolphi, 1819 Schad, 1962.

  14. OBSERVAÇÃO SOBRE O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PLACENTA EM ALGUNS ROEDORES

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Sincai; Adrian Marcu

    1994-01-01

    RESUMO A placenta do cobaio, rato, camundongo e ratão do banhado (Myocastor coypus) foram estudadas e revelaram aspectos interessantes. A placenta nestas espécies é do tipo discoidal no início da gestação e após a união entre a mucosa uterina com as vilosidades coriônicas passa a ser do tipo hemocorial. O exame microscópico da placenta da cobaia e do ratão do banhado era do tipo multilobular, enquanto que a placenta do rato e do camundongo parece a metade de um lóbulo da placenta de cobaia e ...

  15. Habronema e Draschia: alguns dados sobre infecções em eqüinos, asininos e muares de alguns estados brasileiros

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    Amália Verônica Mendes Silva

    1996-06-01

    the following species were found: Draschia megastoma (Rudolphi, 1819, Habronema muscae (Carter, 1861 and Habronema microstoma (Schneider, 1866. Prevalences, mean intensities and Male/Female ratios are considered. The variance analyses showed that no significant statistical differences ocurred among the mean intensities of H. muscae and H. Microstoma.

  16. Valor nutritivo de alguns ingredientes para o robalo (Centropomus parallelus

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    Barroso Marcia Vanacor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os robalos Centropomus são peixes que possuem alto valor comercial e grande importância econômica e social. Possuem potencial para aqüicultura, pois se adaptam ao confinamento e arraçoamento. O conhecimento dos requerimentos nutricionais dos robalos é básico para a elaboração de rações específicas. Para determinar a digestibilidade de alguns ingredientes utilizados em rações para peixes, trabalhou-se Centropomus parallelus, utilizando-se o farelo de soja, farelo de aveia e farelo de arroz, testados como ingredientes de rações que continham 0,5% de óxido crômico (Cr2O3 como marcador externo. A metodologia experimental foi composta de quatro tanques cilíndrico-cônicos, com volume de 60 L e 10 peixes cada, conectados a dois filtros biológicos interligados com volume útil de 100 L. O fundo dos tanques foi usado para coleta dos excrementos e as amostras foram armazenadas e, após, secas em estufa a 55,0ºC para análises. Os valores de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e energia bruta das rações foram, respectivamente: farelo de soja, 78,74%, 90,96%, 82,66%; farelo de aveia, 48,06%, 81,10%, 60,25%; farelo de arroz, 59,34%, 86,98%, 69,06% e da matéria seca digestível, proteína digestível e energia digestível dos alimentos: farelo de soja, 65,38%, 36,04%, 3497 kcal/kg; aveia, 21,36%, 9,15%, 4197 kcal/kg; farelo de arroz, 46,41%, 6,57%, 3434 kcal.

  17. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Goebel, Cristine; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other 3 were discharged from hospital. We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of S. cerevisiae infections is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system is...

  19. CPO e MID: alguns resultados obtidos em meninos brancos, de 8 a 12 anos DMF and RLM: some results in white children, eight to twelve years old

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    José Maria Pacheco de Souza

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados alguns dados sobre CPO e MID (Índice de ataque ao 1° molar permanente inferior direito. São estudadas as distribuições do MID e do CPO /MID = 0, ajustando-se a binomial e binomial negativa, respectivamente, tendo o teste de aderência acusado bom ajuste em 10 casos, dos 12 testados.Data on DMF and right lower first permanent molar (RLM are presented. Binomial and negative binomial distributions are fitted to the data, and the goodness of fit test indicates good fitting in 10 out of 12 cases.

  20. Alguns Aspectos Históricos Conceptuais, Sociais e Musicais da Canção de Embalar

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    Isabel Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O fato de se encontrar em alguns locais do mundo referências às canções de embalar leva-me a reflectir sobre o seu valor e ação junto da primeira infância. Os cuidados maternais, implicando um conjunto de atitudes e sentimentos vários, possui universalmente momentos muito próprios, quase únicos, de contato entre a mãe e o seu bebé. Desta maneira, cantar canções de embalar inscreve-se na singularidade desses momentos propiciadores do estabelecimento da ligação entre mãe e a criança. Neste artigo vou centrar-me no estudo da canção de embalar abordando quer a sua antiguidade e difusão por diferentes culturas, quer sobre algumas das características que fazem dela um género musical único com propósitos específicos.

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae aldolase mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Z

    1984-01-01

    Six mutants lacking the glycolytic enzyme fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been isolated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by inositol starvation. The mutants grown on gluconeogenic substrates, such as glycerol or alcohol, and show growth inhibition by glucose and related sugars. The mutations are recessive, segregate as one gene in crosses, and fall in a single complementation group. All of the mutants synthesize an antigen cross-reacting to the antibody raised against yeast aldol...

  2. Blog literário: alguns comentários

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    Alamir Aquino Corrêa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2015v11n1p420 Se o conceito de literatura é marcado por discussões e reformulações ao longo da história, parece-nos importante partir da ideia que “as escritas de si” presentes na pós-modernidade apontam para a revisão de algumas noções a respeito do ficcional e da literariedade presentes em textos que são veiculados na internet, especificamente o blog. A escrita de autoria feminina, tradicional espaço de expressão subjetiva recolhida muitas vezes apenas em diários íntimos, encontrou na internet um meio para fazer ecoar vozes antes silenciadas devido à condição da mulher na sociedade e, portanto, também terá destaque dentre os assuntos aqui discutidos, ao lado de reflexões sobre a canonicidade de textos e da configuração do blog como espaço de autorreferencialidade e de publicidade da escrita literária.

  3. Democracy from the perspective of some Marxist theorists A democracia na perspectiva de alguns teóricos marxistas

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    Maria José de Rezende

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available This article charts the main views of some marxist theorists about democracy and its relationship with socialism. Based on reflections developed during the first half of the 20th century, attempts to elucidate the peculiarities of a very strong debate that took place at that time have been made. This provided the elements to understand the fundamental issues that were raised during the second half of this century by part of the western socialist movement. This movement gave great emphasis to the necessary imbrications between political democracy and socialism. Este artigo mapeia as principais posições de alguns teóricos filiados ao marxismo sobre a democracia e sua relação com o socialismo. Buscou-se, a partir das reflexões desenvolvidas na primeira metade do século XX, elucidar as especificidades de um debate vigoroso que se desenvolveu naquele momento. Isto forneceu os elementos para a compreensão das questões fundamentais que foram levantadas, na segunda metade deste século, por uma parte do movimento socialista ocidental que se voltou com grande ênfase para a necessária imbricação entre a democracia política e o socialismo.

  4. Alguns fundamentos de organização do currículo para a escola democratizada: Pistas históricas e perspectivas necessárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião De Souza Lemes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tendo por pressuposto que a trajetória do processo de democratização da escolabrasileira encontra-se em evidência e em um momento sem retorno, a reflexão sobre seumodelo torna-se necessária e de inadiável pertinência. Apresenta alguns elementos pontuaisde trajetória histórica, voltados para circunstâncias e momentos, que estabeleceram marcosimportantes na construção do currículo escolar no Brasil e direcionaram a mentalidade dofazer pedagógico. O pensamento democratizante se faz presente de forma constante, porém,ainda hoje, encontra-se de forma inconclusa no meio acadêmico e fragilizado teoricamente nocotidiano da escola. Nessa trajetória de grande complexidade o essa questão começa revelar,por alguns traços, suas possibilidades para superação de um modelo institucional em estadode esgotamento.

  5. CONSIDERAÇÕES ACERCA DA HOSPITALIDADE RELIGIOSA NO ÂMBITO DA IGREJA CATÓLICA: alguns estudos de caso

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    Jean Guilherme Florentino Corrales

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo pretende explicitar como a hospitalidade é conceituada dentro da doutrina católica, bem como entender o exercício daquela pelos adeptos do catolicismo através da contemplação de alguns estudos de caso. Trata-se de pesquisa exploratória à qual se subsidia de fontes bibliográficas e acessos a páginas web, utilizando método indutivo para a discussão de dados angariados. A análise dos estudos de caso permitiu concluir que, em termos gerais, a hospitalidade é praticada pelos católicos, muito embora as fontes sobre o tema sejam ainda escassas e que o termo “hospitalidade” como tal seja de difícil verificação na literatura disponível.

  6. Genetic Characterization of Pathogenic Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    McCusker, J. H.; Clemons, K. V.; Stevens, D. A.; Davis, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates from human patients have been genetically analyzed. Some of the characteristics of these isolates are very different from laboratory and industrial strains of S. cerevisiae and, for this reason, stringent genetic tests have been used to confirm their identity as S. cerevisiae. Most of these clinical isolates are able to grow at 42°, a temperature that completely inhibits the growth of most other S. cerevisiae strains. This property can be considered a virulen...

  7. Análisis estructural y funcional de complejos con actividad histona acetiltransferasa en Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosaleny Peralvo, Lorena E.

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN Este trabajo estudió la acetilación postraduccional de una estructura dinámica implicada en un gran número de procesos celulares, la cromatina. Para ello se realizaron experimentos utilizando el organismo eucariota Sacharomyces cerevisiae (la levadura de la cerveza). En una primera parte se llevó a cabo el análisis bioquímico de complejos histona acetiltransferasa (HAT) en S. cerevisiae, detectándose una nueva actividad HAT con especificidad sobre la histona H3, y a partir de este ...

  8. Música i festa: Algunes reflexions sobre les pràctiques musicals i la seva dimensió festiva

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    Martí, Josep

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relationship between music and festive practices. After having delimited the idea of Fiesta from an anthropological point of view, the author traces the main types of different musical manifestations as they appear in festivals and celebrations. The last part of the article seeks to explain the importance of music in festive practices basically through the fact of the extreme complicity of music with the four constants, formulated by Vittorio Lanternari, regarding the idea of Fiesta: sociability, participation, rituality and the temporal and simbolic annulment of order.

    [ca] En aquest article es tracta la relació entre les practiques musicals i la festa. Després de delimitar la idea de festa des d'una perspectiva antropològica, es delineen els principals tipus de manifestacions musicals talment com apareixen a les celebracions festives i s'intenta explicar la rellevància del fet musical en l'àmbit festiu a partir principalment de la estreta complicitat de la música amb les quatre constants que Vittorio Lanternari va formular per entendre la festa: sociabilitat, participació, ritualitat i l'anul•lació temporal i simbòlica de l'ordre.

  9. Conhecendo alguns modelos mentais infantis sobre Filariose Linfática Exploring some mental models of children about Bancroftian filariasis

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    Micheline Barbosa da Motta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Filariose linfática é uma parasitose endêmica em Pernambuco desde 1918, com focos persistentes e em expansão na Região Metropolitana do Recife, tornando-se um desafio premente a ser encarado tanto pelas autoridades de saúde pública, como pela população e escolas de áreas de risco. Como subsídio para o planejamento de estratégias pedagógicas que estimulem os alunos a vivenciarem medidas preventivas para controle da doença, identificamos modelos mentais de cinqüenta alunos (nove-dez anos, residentes em áreas endêmicas da região metropolitana. Os resultados indicaram que as crianças: (a acreditam que a filariose é evitável, tratável, causada por fator externo, e que o cumprimento das recomendações médicas é fundamental para o sucesso do tratamento; (b têm dificuldades em identificar os sintomas e as etapas do processo de adoecimento; (c apóiam seus modelos no que podem observar, o que possibilita a estruturação de ações pedagógicas que simulem, na escola, situações reais vividas pelas crianças em sua comunidade.Bancroftian filariasis has been an endemic parasite in Pernambuco since 1918 expanding into the metropolitan region of Recife, and becoming a permanent challenge to be faced by the public health authorities as well as by the population and schools in the risk areas. As support in creating pedagogic strategies that stimulate pupils to put into practice preventative measures against the disease, we identified the mental models of 50 pupils aged from 9 to 10, living at endemic areas of the Recife Metropolitan Region. The results indicated that the children: (a believe that the filariasis can be avoided and treated, that it is caused by external factors and that the observance of medical recommendations is fundamental to the success of the treatment; (b have difficulties in identifying the symptoms and phases of the disease; (c they based their models on features they can see. This makes it possible to build pedagogical activities that simulate, in school, real situations lived by the children in its community.

  10. Noite e dia e alguns monocromos psíquicos Night and day - and some psychical monochromes

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    Edson Luiz André de Sousa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma leitura do conto de Jack London "A sombra e o brilho" mostrando o funcionamento do princípio da mímesis no processo de identificação. Propõe-se a expressão monocromos psíquicos para esses espaços mentais de indiferenciação entre o eu e o Outro. Adota-se a tese de Caillois, que afirma que o eu é permeável ao espaço. Nessa perspectiva, o tema do duplo, amplamente desenvolvido por Freud, é fundamental. Partindo-se de notas sobre o trabalho do fotógrafo cego Bavcar, procura-se mostrar alguns traços da estrutura do olhar. O artigo finaliza mostrando as conexões possíveis dessas reflexões para a prática psicanalítica.The paper presents a reading of Jack London's tale "The Shadow and the brightness", showing how the principle of mimesis works in the process of the identification. We propose to call psychical monochromes the spaces of mental indifference between the self and the other. We follow the thesis of Roger Caillois: "the self is permeable in the space". In this perspective, the subject of the double, developped by Freud is essential. We try to show the dialectic of the structure of the look based in some notes about the work of the blind photographer Bavcar. The article finish with showing the possibles connections of all these points with the clinical work.

  11. Passagens sobre o moderno na cidade de Georg Simmel

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    Felipe Ziotti Narita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho sugere alguns pontos para reflexão sobre o ensaio “As grandes cidades e a vida do espírito” (publicado em 1903, de Georg Simmel. Trata-se, fundamentalmente, de discutir as principais balizas teóricas e conceituais construídas pelo autor para refletir sobre a vida urbana, analisando, a partir das formas das interações sociais, as próprias especificidades da modernidade. Além do citado ensaio, este artigo discute as análises de Simmel à luz de alguns debates sociológicos de seu tempo, tomando como referência o conjunto mais amplo de seus trabalhos e interlocutores.

  12. A mediunidade vista por alguns pioneiros da área mental Mediumship seen by some pioneers of mental health

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    Alexander Moreira de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As vivências tidas como mediúnicas são descritas na maioria das civilizações e têm um grande impacto sobre a sociedade. Apesar de ser um tema pouco estudado atualmente, já foi objeto de intensas investigações por alguns dos fundadores da moderna psicologia e psiquiatria. Foi revisado o material produzido por Janet, James, Myers, Freud e Jung a respeito da mediunidade, com ênfase em dois aspectos: suas causas e relações com psicopatologia. Esses pesquisadores chegaram a três conclusões distintas. Janet e Freud associaram mediunidade com psicopatologia e a uma origem exclusiva no inconsciente pessoal. Jung e James aceitavam a possibilidade de um caráter não-patológico e uma origem no inconsciente pessoal, mas sem excluírem em definitivo a real atuação de um espírito desencarnado. Por fim, Myers associou a mediunidade a um desenvolvimento superior da personalidade e tendo como causa um misto entre o inconsciente, a telepatia e ação de espíritos desencarnados. Como conclusão, é apontada a necessidade de se conhecer os estudos já realizados para dar continuidade nessas investigações em busca de um paradigma realmente científico sobre a mediunidade.Experiences regarded as mediumistic have been found in most civilizations and have exerted an important influence over the societies. Despite few academic studies nowadays, mediumship was a subject of serious investigations by some Psychiatry and Psychology pioneers. Research developed by Janet, James, Myers, Freud and Jung concerning mediumship was revised, two points were stressed: its causes and its relations with psychopathology. These researchers had come to three distinct conclusions. Janet and Freud associated mediumship with psychopathology and an exclusive origin in the personal unconscious; Jung and James accepted the possibility of a non-pathological aspect of mediumship and an origin in the personal unconscious, but without definitively excluding the actuation of a

  13. levadura Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

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    B. Aguilar Uscanga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La pared celular de levaduras representa entre 20 a 30 % de la célula en peso seco. Está compuesta de polisacáridos complejos de β-glucanos, manoproteínas y quitina. Se estudió la composición de los polisacáridos contenidos en la pared celular de la Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113 y se observó el efecto de la variación de la fuente carbono (glucosa, sacarosa, galactosa, maltosa, manosa, etanol y pH (3, 4, 5, 6 en un medio mineral “cell factory”. Las células fueron recolectadas en fase exponencial y se extrajo la pared celular. Los extractos de pared se hidrolizaron con H2SO4 al 72% y las muestras fueron analizadas por cromatografía HPLC. Se realizó una prueba de resistencia al rompimiento celular con una β(1,3-glucanasa, y las células cultivadas a diferentes fuentes carbono y pH. Los resultados del análisis por HPLC, mostraron que la composición de los polisacáridos en la pared celular, varía considerablemente con las modificaciones del medio de cultivo. Se observó que las levaduras cultivadas en sacarosa tienen mayor porcentaje de pared celular (25% y mayor cantidad de glucanos (115µg/mg peso seco y mananos (131µg/mg peso seco, que aquellas levaduras cultivadas en etanol (13% en peso seco. Las levaduras cultivadas a pH 5 presentaron 19% de pared celular en peso seco, mientras que a pH 6 el porcentaje fue menor (14%. El análisis de resistencia al rompimiento celular, mostró que las células cultivadas en etanol y galactosa fueron resistentes al rompimiento enzimático. Se comparó este resultado con el contenido de polisacáridos en la pared celular y concluimos que la resistencia de la célula al rompimiento, no está ligada con la cantidad de β-glucanos contenidos en la pared celular, sino que va a depender del número de enlaces β(1,3 y β(1,6-glucanos, los cuales juegan un rol importante durante el ensamblaje de la pared

  14. Revisitando alguns conceitos da teoria do apego: comportamento versus representação?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramires,Vera Regina Röhnelt; Schneider,Michele Scheffel

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo propõe uma releitura de alguns conceitos da teoria do apego, especialmente os de apego, comportamento de apego e modelo representacional interno. Visa discutir tais conceitos à luz das concepções de Bowlby e de autores contemporâneos. A dicotomia entre comportamento e representação do apego é questionada, bem como a estabilidade e unicidade do modelo representacional interno, com base na análise das contribuições dos principais teóricos desse campo, especialmente na vertente psica...

  15. Sobre algumas interpretações das relações entre a filosofia ockhamiana e a física dos modernos

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto traz uma análise sobre algumas das várias interpretações que defendem a existência de uma relação entre a filosofia moderna e o experimentalismo e a física ockhamianas. Buscando esclarecer alguns dos pressupostos dessas interpretações, o presente artigo sugere apontar alguns de seus limites, visando a uma descrição mais acurada do problema por elas enfrentado

  16. Sobre caudillos

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    Margarita Garrido

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Cuadro ensayos: De la respuesta criolla a los caudillos republicanos. Hispanoamérica 1750- 1850: Ensayos sobre la sociedad y el Estado. John Lynch. Universidad Nacional, Bogotá, 1987.

  17. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the a......Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...... that the application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The developments in the past year demonstrate that we have only just started to exploit this potential....

  18. Xylose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetter, P.; Ciriacy, M. (Institut fuer Mikrobiologie, Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    We have performed a comparative study of xylose utilization in Saccaromyces cerevisiae transformants expressing two key enzymes in xylose metabolism, xylose reductase (XR) and xylithol dehydrogenase (XDH), and in a prototypic xylose-utilizing yeast, Pichia stipitis. In the absence of respiration (see text), baker's yeast cells convert half of the xylose to xylitol and ethanol, whereas P. stipitis cells display rather a homofermentative conversion of xylose to ethanol. Xylitol production by baker's yeast is interpreted as a result of the dual cofactor dependence of the XR and the generation of NADPH by the pentose phosphate pathway. Further limitations of xylose utilization in S. cerevisiae cells are very likely caused by an insufficient capacity of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, as indicated by accumulation of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate and the absence of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and pyruvate accumulation. By contrast, uptake at high substrate concentrations probably does not limit xylose conversion in S. cerevisiae XYL1/XYL2 transformants. (orig.).

  19. Convenção Internacional sobre os direitos das pessoas com deficiências: destaques para o debate sobre a educação

    OpenAIRE

    Kátia Regina Moreno Caiado

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo é refletir sobre alguns aspectos da educação inclusiva, a partir do texto da Convenção sobre os Direitos das Pessoas com Deficiência. Em junho de 2008, o Congresso Nacional do Brasil ratificou a Convenção Internacional sobre os Direitos das Pessoas com Deficiência, aprovada pela Assembléia Geral da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU, 2006). Ao ratificar um documento internacional, o Congresso confirmou o compromisso do Estado perante a comunidade internacional de respe...

  20. Capacidade antioxidante celular da rutina frente ao dano oxidativo induzido em linhagens mutantes de Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    George Laylson da Silva Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A rutina é um tipo de flavonoide encontrado nas plantas e de grande interesse farmacológico, já que muitas propriedades têm sido atribuídas a rutina, incluindo antialérgica, anti-inflamatória, antitumoral e principalmente antioxidante. O objetivo deste estudo foi proporcionar um maior conhecimento sobre a capacidade antioxidante celular da rutina utilizando linhagens de S. cerevisiae proficiente e deficiente em defesas antioxidantes. As linhagens de S. cerevisiae (Sodwt, Sod1∆, Sod2∆, Sod1∆Sod2∆, Cat1∆, Sod1∆Cat1∆ foram expostas as várias concentrações da rutina em três diferentes condições de tratamento (pré-tratamento, co-tratamento e pós-tratamento e assim verificar se a rutina inibe o efeito oxidativo do peróxido de hidrogênio, permitindo o aumento da sobrevivência das linhagens testadas. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a rutina diminui significativamente os danos oxidativos nas linhagens de S. cerevisiae nas condições de pré-tratamento, co-tratamento e pós-tratamento, demonstrando que a rutina apresenta uma elevada capacidade antioxidante celular, sendo importante na proteção ao estresse oxidativo induzido.Palavras-chave: Rutina. S. cerevisiae. capacidade antioxidante. ABSTRACTCellular antioxidant capacity of rutin against the oxidative damage induced in mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeRutin is a type of flavonoid found in plants and of great pharmacological interest since many properties have been attributed rutin, including antiallergic, antiinflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant primarily. The aim of this study was to provide greater insight into the cellular antioxidant capacity of rutin using strains of S. cerevisiae proficient and deficient in antioxidant defenses. The strains of S. cerevisiae (Sodwt, Sod1Δ, Sod2Δ, Sod1ΔSod2Δ, Cat1Δ, Sod1ΔCat1Δ were exposed to various concentrations of rutin in three different conditions of treatment (pre-treatment, co-treatment and post

  1. Do mito original ao mito ideológico: alguns percursos

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    Raul Fiker

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma Dissertação de Mestrado - "Mito e Paródia: sua estrutura e função no texto literário" - defendida em novembro de 1983 no Instituto de Estudos da Linguagem/Unicamp. A passagem aqui reproduzida pertence ao capítulo que trata da conceituação do mito. Ela procura apreender alguns de seus aspectos básicos dinamicamente, na transição de sua forma original, tal como ocorre nas sociedades primitivas e arcaicas, para seu sucedâneo ideológico, no contexto das sociedades históricas.

  2. Revisitando alguns conceitos da teoria do apego: comportamento versus representação?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Regina Röhnelt Ramires

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma releitura de alguns conceitos da teoria do apego, especialmente os de apego, comportamento de apego e modelo representacional interno. Visa discutir tais conceitos à luz das concepções de Bowlby e de autores contemporâneos. A dicotomia entre comportamento e representação do apego é questionada, bem como a estabilidade e unicidade do modelo representacional interno, com base na análise das contribuições dos principais teóricos desse campo, especialmente na vertente psicanalítica. Discute-se a importância da dimensão representacional e seu papel regulador das emoções e organizador do self, as implicações desses papéis para a Psicologia Clínica e do Desenvolvimento e para futuros estudos.

  3. Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

  4. Heterooligomeric phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains five phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase-homologous genes (PRS1-5), which specify PRPP synthase subunits 1-5. Expression of the five S. cerevisiae PRS genes individually in an Escherichia coli PRPP-less strain (Deltaprs) showed that a single PRS...

  5. Processamento visual da forma: análise de sistema linear e alguns paradigmas psicofísicos

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    Santos Natanael Antonio dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir alguns aspectos conceituais básicos da análise de Fourier enquanto ferramenta que fundamenta a perspectiva de filtros ou canais múltiplos de freqüências espaciais no estudo do processamento visual da forma. Serão também discutidos alguns dos principais paradigmas psicofísicos utilizados para caracterizar a resposta do sistema visual humano para filtros de freqüências espaciais de banda estreita. A análise de sistema linear e alguns paradigmas psicofísicos têm contribuído para o desenvolvimento teórico da percepção e do processamento visual da forma.

  6. Some epistemology ́s elements of Social Science by Karl PopperAlguns elementos da Epistemolgia da Ciências Sociais de Karl Popper

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    Julio Cesar Rodrigues Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the main elements of the epistemology of human sciences of Karl Popper. It was organized as follows. First, we positioned ourselves in the Popper-Adorno controversy. Then weestablished the parameters of discussion, particularly in regards to the idea of “scientific explanation”. Some elements of Popper’s Theory of Knowledge are then analyzed. The final part discusses thescientific parameters of Social Sciences.Este artigo discute os principais elementos da epistemologia das ciências humanas de Karl Popper. Foi organizado como segue. Em primeiro lugar, nos posionamos sobre a  polêmica Popper-Adorno. Então, nós estabelecemos os parâmetros de discussão, nomeadamente no que respeita a idéia de "explicação científica". A seguir são analisados alguns elementos da Teoria do Conhecimento de Popper. A parte final discute os parâmetros científicos de Ciências Sociais

  7. Xylose utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walfridsson, M.

    1996-04-01

    Through metabolic engineering, S. cerevisiae was provided with the necessary enzymes required for xylose utilisation during ethanolic fermentation of xylose-rich lignocellulose raw materials. For xylitol production, S. cerevisiae was provided with the Pichia stipitis XYL1 gene encoding xylose reductase (XR). The in-vivo reduction and the following excretion of xylitol, requires a co-substrate for maintenance and cofactor regeneration. Xylitol yields close to 100% were obtained with the XYL1 containing S. cerevisiae. Introducing P. stipitis XYL1 and XYL2 genes, encoding XR and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, enabled S. cerevisiae to convert xylose to xylulose, via xylitol. During the screening work of P. stipitis XDH gene, another gene encoding a polyol dehydrogenase was isolated and cloned in S. cerevisiae. The gene was identified as a D-arabinitol dehydrogenase gene. In P. stipitis it may function as a redox sink by reducing D-ribulose to D-arabinitol. The metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) was enhanced by over-expressing the native genes TKL1 and TAL1 encoding transketolase and transaldolase, respectively, resulting in improved xylose utilisation. The XR and XDH activities in recombinant S. cerevisiae were produced at different levels by constructing yeast vectors in which the PGK1 and ADHI promoters controlled XYL1 and XYL2. With higher XDH than XR activities, less by-products, in the form of xylitol and glycerol, were formed by the recombinant S. cerevisiae strains. The Thermus thermophilus xylA gene encoding a thermostable xylose isomerase was cloned and expressed in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant xylose isomerase was actively produced and a new functional metabolic pathway was established in S. cerevisiae resulting in ethanol production from xylose. 150 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  8. ERVA-MATE: ALGUNS PROBLEMAS E POSSIBILIDADES ALTERNATIVAS E SUSTENTÁVEIS PARA PEQUENOS AGRICULTORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Diante da importância socioeconomica e ambiental da cultura da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis para a região Sul do Brasil, realizou-se um estudo de alguns problemas de ordem econômica e ecológica que vem afetando pequenos agricultores da região Sudoeste do Paraná com o objetivo de identificar tais aspectos que ocasionam a decadência da cultura na região, especificamente no município de Salto do Lontra. Através de entrevistas e outras técnicas da pesquisa qualitativa observou-se dificuldades de comercialização do produto na região e no manejo da cultura pelos agricultores locais. Concluiu-se que a cultura é viável ecologicamente e que há necessidade de implementação de um plano de manejo agroecológico para a recuperação e valorização da atividade. Palavras-chave:erva-mate, agroecologia, agricultura familiar, conhecimento

  9. O indivíduo e o coletivo: alguns desafios da Epidemiologia e da Medicina Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Perini

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Alguns conceitos fundamentais da Epidemiologia são revisados, explorando contrapontos de suas principais contradições filosóficas. Nesse sentido, discute-se a interdependência conceitual entre o indivíduo e o coletivo, a complementaridade das abordagens quantitativas e qualitativas, o caráter natural e social da existência humana e, finalmente, as expressões coletiva e individual do risco. Da análise conclui-se que o conceito de risco traz em si potencial para uma revisão da prática epidemiológica. Sem fugir aos limites que a ciência coloca à produção do conhecimento, essa revisão é proposta a partir da prática da confluência dos métodos quantitativo e qualitativo de investigação, mais próxima das necessidades imediatas dos indivíduos. Suas chances de contribuir para tornar mais eficientes as ações da Medicina Social crescem à medida que o conhecimento da realidade coletiva ganha sentido para eles.

  10. Reversão de ansiedade à matemática: alguns dados da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João dos Santos Carmo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ansiedade em relação à matemática é um fenômeno que compreende reações emocionais negativas diante de situações que requisitam o uso de conhecimentos matemáticos. É particularmente identificada no contexto escolar e está diretamente relacionada a experiências inadequadas de ensino dessa disciplina. O objetivo do presente artigo é fornecer um panorama atualizado da literatura que trata especificamente de um fenômeno chamado de ansiedade em relação à matemática. Inicialmente serão expostos a definição e os conceitos principais relacionados ao fenômeno em foco e, em seguida, alguns estudos acerca da reversão da ansiedade em relação à matemática. Por fim, serão apontadas algumas implicações para a pesquisa e para o desenvolvimento de programas brasileiros que visam ajudar indivíduos que apresentem ansiedade em relação à matemática.

  11. Sporulation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neiman, Aaron M

    2011-01-01

    In response to nitrogen starvation in the presence of a poor carbon source, diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo meiosis and package the haploid nuclei produced in meiosis into spores...

  12. Erro e correção: as crenças de dois professores de escola pública e de alguns de seus alunos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelene Vaz da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo aborda a temática crenças, especificamente as crenças de professores e alunos de LE (inglês da rede pública de ensino a respeito da correção de erros. A investigação, de cunho qualitativo, foi conduzida em uma cidade próxima a Goiânia, capital do Estado de Goiás, e buscou estabelecer relações entre as crenças dos professores e as crenças de alguns de seus alunos dos Ensinos Fundamental e Médio, no segundo semestre de 2003. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionários, entrevistas, notas de campo, observações e filmagens de aulas e analisados sob duas perspectivas: estudos sobre crenças relacionadas ao processo de ensino e aprendizagem de Horwitz (1985, 1988, 1999, Pajares (1992, Johnson (1994, 1999, Barcelos (1995, 1999, 2004a, 2004b entre outros, e estudos sobre erro e correção de Schulz (1996, Figueiredo (1997, 2005, Lee (2003, entre outros. Os resultados apontam que as experiências que os professores tiveram, quando eram aprendizes de LE, influenciam sua prática cotidiana em sala de aula, bem como as formas como lidam com as questões relativas a erro e correção. Tais crenças são compartilhadas por alguns dos alunos, mas conflitantes com as de outros. Conclui-se, portanto, que é importante fornecer subsídios para que os professores possam conhecer, refletir, discutir e questionar suas crenças, de forma geral, e não apenas sobre erro e correção.This study has as its focus the beliefs which affect both FL teachers and students in regard to error correction. Its main objective was to infer and analyze beliefs related to error correction held by two public school teachers of English in a town next to Goiânia, the capital of the State of Goiás. The investigation also tried to establish relations between the teachers' beliefs and the beliefs of some of their pupils. Adopting a qualitative perspective in the data collection and analysis, this case study was conducted in the second semester of

  13. A Constituição da Identidade Masculina: Alguns Pontos para Discussão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juracy Toneli Siqueira

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Através da apresentação de alguns dados de um estudo de caso de uma família de classe subalterna urbana e suas famílias de origem, este artigo pretende discutir os elementos que contribuem para a constituição da identidade de gênero, em especial a masculina. Esta família foi escolhida por apresentar, ao menos temporariamente, uma inversão na divisão sexual do trabalho: o marido, desempregado, ocupava-se da lida doméstica e do cuidado dos filhos, enquanto a esposa, através de seu trabalho extra-doméstico, era responsável pela manutenção do grupo. A abordagem sócio-histórica nos ajuda a compreender a constituição do sujeito nas e pelas relações sociais. De uma maneira análoga, utilizamos esta aborda-gem para discutir a constituição da masculinidade e da feminilidade.Through the presentation of some facts taken from a study made about a lower class urban family and its origins, this article aims to identify the elements which contribute in the shaping of gender identity , more specifically the masculine identity. This family was chosen for having, at least temporarily, an inversion in the sexual division of labor : the husband, who was unemployed, was responsible for household chores and caring for the children, while the wife, who was working outside of the home, was responsible for supporting the family unit. The social / historical approach helps us understand the subject in question, through and in its social relations. In an analogical fashion, we use this approach to discuss the constitution of masculinity and femininity .

  14. Transformações recentes na gestão de desenvolvimento urbano: alguns exemplos internacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete de Castro SILVA

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva apresentar o "estado da arte" da literatura sobre as recentes transformações na gestão urbana ocorridas nos países onde a globalização e os processos de descentralização têm sido notáveis. Cada estudo de caso mostra uma faceta que permite compor uma interpretação sobre as transformações da gestão urbana. São analisados os casos da França, dos EUA, Japão e Alemanha, cujas transformações são referências para pensar futuros estudos de casos brasileiros

  15. Compositions and methods for modeling Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The invention provides an in silica model for determining a S. cerevisiae physiological function. The model includes a data structure relating a plurality of S. cerevisiae reactants to a plurality of S. cerevisiae reactions, a constraint set for the plurality of S. cerevisiae reactions......, and commands for determining a distribution of flux through the reactions that is predictive of a S. cerevisiae physiological function. A model of the invention can further include a gene database containing information characterizing the associated gene or genes. The invention further provides methods...... for making an in silica S. cerevisiae model and methods for determining a S. cerevisiae physiological function using a model of the invention. The invention provides an in silica model for determining a S. cerevisiae physiological function. The model includes a data structure relating a plurality of S...

  16. [A genetically isolated population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Malaysia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, G I; Serpova, E V; Naumova, E S

    2006-01-01

    A divergent population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been identified in Malaysia by molecular and genetic analysis. It has also demonstrated that the yeast S. bayanus may be found in South America. Problems of the origin of S. cerevisiae are discussed.

  17. SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AND ITS VALIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Ondrejovič

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize of independent variables as temperature, time and reaction ratio to output parameter of simultaneous enzyme saccharification and fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of pretreated wheat straw as model substrate via RSM (response surface methodology approach. As dependent variable, it was chosen ethanol yields characterizing effectivity of process. The optimal conditions were approximately temperature 100 °C, time 1 hour and reaction ratio 26 mL to 1 g of treated wheat straw with ethanol yields 141.9 mg.g-1. After calculating the optimal values, the validation analyze was carried out and it was found out that the predicted and experimentally verified dependent variable was in agreement with the optimal parameters (~ 95 %. Proposed model was tested for three lignocellulosic materials (winter wheat straw, alfalfa hay and maize straw as wheat straw used as model substrate and it was confirmed the possibility of its use for other agricultural residues with similar content of lignocellulose.

  18. Lead toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heggen, Maarten; Martins, Sara; Flores, Gisela; Soares, Eduardo V

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Pb on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell structure and function was examined. Membrane integrity was assessed by the release of UV-absorbing compounds and by the intracellular K(+) efflux. No leakage of UV(260)-absorbing compounds or loss of K(+) were observed in Pb (until 1,000 μmol/l) treated cells up to 30 min; these results suggest that plasma membrane seems not to be the immediate and primary target of Pb toxicity. The effect of Pb on yeast metabolism was examined using the fluorescent probe FUN-1 and compared with the ability to reproduce, evaluated by colony-forming units counting. The exposition of yeast cells, during 60 min to 1,000 μmol/l Pb, induces a decrease in the ability to process FUN-1 although the cells retain its proliferation capacity. A more prolonged contact time (120 min) of yeast cells with Pb induces a marked (> 50%) loss of yeast cells metabolic activity and replication competence through a mechanism which most likely requires protein synthesis.

  19. SCUD: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ubiquitination database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Chul; Lee, Minho; Jung, Jin Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Kim, Dongsup

    2008-09-24

    Ubiquitination is an important post-translational modification involved in diverse biological processes. Therefore, genomewide representation of the ubiquitination system for a species is important. SCUD is a web-based database for the ubiquitination system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast). We first searched for all the known enzymes involved in the ubiquitination process in yeast, including E1, E2, E3, and deubiquitination enzymes. Then, ubiquitinated substrates were collected by literature search. Especially, E3 and deubiquitination enzymes are classified into classes and subclasses by their shared domains and unique functions. As a result, 42 different E3 enzymes were grouped into corresponding classes and subclasses, and 940 ubiquitinated substrates including mutant substrates were identified. All the enzyme and substrate information are interconnected by hyperlinks, which makes it easy to view the enzyme-specific ubiquitination information. This database aims to represent a comprehensive yeast ubiquitination system, and is easily expandable with the further experimental data. We expect that this database will be useful for the research on the ubiquitination systems of other higher organisms. SCUD is accessible at http://scud.kaist.ac.kr.

  20. Efeito do fluor e de alguns metais na atividade de proteinases da matriz esmalte in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Fernanda Gerlach

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: O esmalte dental é um tecido epitelial altamente mineralizado, que recobre os dentes dos vertebrados. Em contraste com os tecidos mineralizados conjuntivos, os cristais no esmalte não são depositados sobre uma matriz rica em colágeno, mas crescem concomitantemente à remoção da maioria das proteínas da matriz do esmalte, as quais são gradualmente degradadas durante a mineralização. Existem múltiplas evidências para um papel importante das proteases presentes na matriz do esmalte nesta ...

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for xylose metabolism exhibits a respiratory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Su Jin; Jose M. Laplaza; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2004-01-01

    Native strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not assimilate xylose. S. cerevisiae engineered for D-xylose utilization through the heterologous expression of genes for aldose reductase ( XYL1), xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2), and D-xylulokinase ( XYL3 or XKS1) produce only limited amounts of ethanol in xylose medium. In recombinant S. cerevisiae expressing XYL1, XYL2,...

  2. A DIALÉTICA PROUDHONIANA: ALGUNS DIÁLOGOS CONTEMPORÂNEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Monteiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renata Monteiro, Gustavo Pereira DOI: 10.12957/periferia.2013.15328Este estudo se baseia em breve análise bibliográfica, tendo como referencial o conceito de dialética de Pierre Joseph Proudhon no contexto histórico do século XIX. De início, identifica-se que a existência da gestão política e social significa uma intervenção opressora sobre o povo, exercendo poder sobre a vida social, o que provoca respostas de iniciativas geridas por lógicas autossustentáveis de emancipação. Assim, articula sua contribuição em diálogo com a Sociologia das Ausências, de Boaventura de Sousa Santos, a fim de pensar a dilatação do momento presente como alternativa contra-hegemônica. A dialética proudhoniana, entendida como embates dos opostos estabelecidos em uma realidade plural, evidencia outras lógicas, como as iniciativas autogestionárias, que são, em si, parte de um processo revolucionário.

  3. Alguns Princípios Constitucionais e Administrativos na Administração Pública Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Salles Almeida Mafra Filho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudam-se os princípios em seus diferentes significados. Entre eles, os princípios que o bom administrador público deve observar: legalidade, moralidade, impessoalidade, razoabilidade, publicidade e a eficiência. Improbidade administrativa e penalidades por desobediência aos princípios jurídicos da Administração Pública brasileira. Além dos princípios constitucionais, são abordados os seguintes princípios administrativos: Razoabilidade; Proporcionalidade; Preponderância do interesse público sobre o interesse particular; Indisponibilidade do interesse público. Continuidade. Presunção de legalidade e veracidade; Autoexecutoriedade; Autotutela administrativa; Motivação. Palavras-chave: Princípios. Normas gerais. Aplicação. Administração Pública. Constituição.

  4. Paradigma do Acesso Aberto (Open Access: alguns apontamentos para os estudiosos do turismo no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marques Gomes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO presente artigo versa sobre o Paradigma do Acesso Aberto (ou Open Access – OA traçando um panorama geral sobre os movimentos e iniciativas, como e em quais contextos os mesmos surgiram, quais são os conceitos envolvidos nos debates em torno da temática, as linhas de atuação, os principais manifestos, argumentações teóricas, pesquisadores, dentre outros aspectos, com o objetivo de contribuir para debates ulteriores sobre as interfaces da Ciência da Informação e do Turismo. Apresenta os sub-itens “Acesso Aberto (Open Access: Conceitos, Movimentos e Iniciativas” e “Vias Verde e Dourada”, culminando com as Considerações Finais sobre o tema.Palavras-Chave: turismo; acesso aberto; Vias Verde e Dourada. AbstractThis article is about the Open Access Paradigm (or just AO, delineating a general panorama about movements and enterprises, how and in which contexts they arised, which are the involved concepts in discussion about the issue, the actuation lines, the main manifests, the theoretical argumentation, the researcheres, among other aspects, holping to contribute to ulterior discussion about Information Science and Tourism interfaces. Features the secondary items “Open Access: Concepts, Movements and Ordem e desordem nos labirintos da ficção: os bibliotecários e suas representações em alguns produtos culturais contemporâneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Crippa

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, primeiro resultado de uma pesquisa mais ampla, propõe uma indagação sobre alguns aspectos das representações sociais de bibliotecas e bibliotecários em produções literárias e cinematográficas. Surgida com finalidades catalográficas, aos poucos essa indagação revelou elementos que estabeleciam séries diversas, em que o gênero narrativo, tanto literário como cinematográfico, não resultava relevante em relação à representação da biblioteca e do bibliotecário. A presença desses elementos aparenta evidenciar algumas expectativas e utopias em relação ao conhecimento independentemente das narrativas serem ambientadas no passado, no presente ou no futuro, estimulando uma reflexão sobre algumas tradições medievais e barrocas relativas ao universo das bibliotecas e de seus protagonistas, os bibliotecários. Os materiais utilizados foram os filmes "A máquina do tempo", "Farnheit 451", "O dia depois de amanhã", "Star Wars - A Guerra dos clones", e os romances "Martin Éden", "O homem sem qualidades", "A máquina do tempo" e "A sombra do vento".

  5. Redes neurais morfologicas : alguns aspectos teoricos e resultados experimentais em problemas de classificação

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Monteiro da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: A teoria de redes neurais morfológicas e suas aplicações têm experimentado um crescimento contínuo e crescente nos últimos anos. Neste contexto, calcular o próximo estado de um neurônio, ou de uma camada, envolve uma das operações elementares da morfologia matemática. Nesta dissertação, forneceremos a caracterização de alguns modelos de redes neurais morfológicas, bem fundamentados pela teoria de morfologia matemática em reticulados completos, e também apresentaremos uma comparação do...

  6. Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrids selected for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HartR

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... compounds levels of red wines processed from Pinot Noir grapes. Anal. Chem. Res. 3:26-36. Snoek T, Nicolino MP, Van den Bremt S, Mertens S, Saels V,. Verplaetse A, Steensels J, Verstrepen KJ (2015). Large-scale robot- assisted genome shuffling yields industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts with ...

  7. Optimization of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) RNA isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of the starting RNA is indispensably important for obtaining highly reproducible quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and microarray results for all organisms as well as S. cerevisiae. Isolating RNA from yeast cells with a maximum quality was especially critical since these cells were rich in polysaccharides ...

  8. Bioethanol production by immobilized Sacharomyces cerevisiae var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the immobilization of Sacharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus yeast cells for bioethanol production from corn meal hydrolyzates. For this purpose the biocompatible polymers such as polyvinil alcohol (PVA) and Ca-alginate were assessed. The parameters of ethanol ...

  9. Biolistic transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with &beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A β-glucosidase genomic DNA from Cellulomonas biazotea NIAB 442 was isolated and coated onto tungsten microprojectiles for direct transformation of the gene into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transformation of β-glucosidase into S. cerevisae conferred the ability to hydrolyse esculin and cellobiose, indicated that the ...

  10. Hybridization of Palm Wine Yeasts ( Saccharomyces Cerevisiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haploid auxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were selected from palm wine and propagated by protoplast fusion with Brewers yeast. Fusion resulted in an increase in both ethanol production and tolerance against exogenous ethanol. Mean fusion frequencies obtained for a mating types ranged between 8 x ...

  11. Bioethanol production by immobilized Sacharomyces cerevisiae var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... Bioethanol production by immobilized Sacharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus cells. Marica Rakin1*, Ljiljana Mojovic1, Svetlana Nikolic1 Maja Vukasinovic1 and Viktor Nedovic2. 1Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy Karnegijeva 4,. 11000 ...

  12. Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrids selected for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, anecdotal evidence suggests that some commercially available TRWY intermittently exhibit undesirable characteristics for example, volatile acidity (VA) formation. Therefore, a trial was undertaken to select and evaluate S. cerevisiae hybrids for the production of Sauvignon blanc wine with enhanced fruity and ...

  13. Substrate Channelling and Energetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected during the high-cell-density cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 2155 on glucose in a simulated five-phase feeding strategy of fed-batch process, executed on the Universal BIoprocess CONtrol (UBICON) system using 150L bioreactor over a period of 24h have been analysed. The consistency of the ...

  14. Nitrogen Catabolite Repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H Jacob Peider

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the expression of all known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators known as Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1. This is known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). They bind to motifs in the promoter region to the consensus sequence S' GATAA 3'. Gln3...

  15. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  16. Flocculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae tup1 mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Lipke, P N; Hull-Pillsbury, C

    1984-01-01

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying a mutation in the TUP1 locus exhibited calcium-dependent flocculation. The flocculation had none of the characteristics of sexual agglutination. The flocculation differed from that exhibited by a FLO1 strain in the effect of pH on cation dependence and sensitivity to chemical inactivation.

  17. Engineer Sccharomyces cerevisiae for consolidated bioprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current commercial biofuel production is based on a two-stage process of enzymatic treatment to degrade starch to fermentable sugar, followed by yeast fermentation of the sugar to ethanol. An attractive alternative would be to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for cell-based saccharification an...

  18. Poder, território, som: alguns comentários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de La Barre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de algumas das preocupações refletidas nos trabalhos de Schafer sobre as paisagens sonoras, propomos nesta contribuição uma leitura do mundo contemporâneo em termos de territórios sonoros. A “afinação do mundo” poderá ser caraterizada pela banalização do uso sonoro na ocupação dos territórios urbanos, públicos ou privados. Se os sons homogeneizados das cidades modernas podem ser contemplados ainda em termos de paisagens, a instrumentalização dos sons na era pós-fordista/pós-moderna remete talvez mais adequadamente ainda para os processos de territorialização que vêm sendo facilitados pelas tecnologias de mediação. No momento em que a ocupação sonora do espaço se torna metáfora banal para uma ocupação integral, as paisagens sonoras vão se reterritorializando via uma ocupação particular: a ocupação sonora do território. 

  19. Efeitos dos Fitoestrogênios sobre Alguns Parâmetros Clínicos e Laboratoriais no Climatério

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Kyung Koo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos estrogênicos de fitoestrogênios da soja em pacientes na pós-menopausa. Métodos: foram avaliadas pacientes na pós-menopausa pré-selecionadas no Setor de Climatério do Departamento de Ginecologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo- Escola Paulista de Medicina. As pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos de 40 cada: GI (isoflavona - recebeu 100 mg de isoflavona por dia, em cápsulas (divididas em 3 tomadas; e GCrt - recebeu placebo (controle. Na inclusão do trabalho, foram avaliadas por meio do índice de Kupperman, exame físico e submetidas a dosagens bioquímicas de colesterol total e frações, triglicérides, estradiol, FSH e LH, além de avaliação ultra-sonográfica do eco endometrial. Para comparar os dois grupos antes e após o tratamento, utilizou-se o teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis para o índice de Kupperman, ao passo que os dados foram analisados pelo teste t para duas amostras independentes. Resultados: no que se refere aos sintomas avaliados pelo índice de Kupperman, 80 % das pacientes do GI (isoflavona melhoraram, ao passo que no GCtr (controle a melhora foi de apenas 12,5%. Com relação aos níveis de colesterol total plasmático, das 35 pacientes do GI que apresentaram níveis superiores a 200 mg/dL, ao passo que a queda registrada no GCtr foi em apenas 13 pacientes. Com relação ao índice de massa corpórea, houve redução no grupo GI (isoflavona, mantendo-se estável no GCtr (controle. Notamos também que a espessura endometrial e os níveis sérios de FSH não apresentaram variações significativas. Houve elevação dos valores de estrogênio após o tratamento com isoflavona. Conclusão: concluímos que a isoflavona, na dose de 100 mg/dia, pode ser utilizada como alternativa para atenuar os sintomas climatéricos. Comprovamos que houve redução dos níveis de colesterol total plasmático.

  1. LEI NATURAL, CAUSALIDADE E DESTINO: alguns apontamentos sobre a relação entre as moiras e os deuses em Ésquilo

    OpenAIRE

    Leão, Eryc de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    O que se lê nas próximas páginas é o início de um estudo dos conceitos de Natureza, Destino e Causalidade Natural, de importância central à física grega e a toda a história da ciência posterior, por meio de estudo filológico e lexicológico de figuras mitológicas olímpicas – responsáveis, cada uma, por uma parte da natureza – e das Moiras, responsáveis pela partilha inicial das responsabilidades, pela divisão dos domínios naturais entre os deuses e, de modo geral, pelo estabelecimento daquilo ...

  2. Sobre alguns usos emergentes da história oral nos Estados Unidos: o caso do furacão Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cavalcanti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute algumas implicações políticas de novos usos e apropriações da metodologia da história oral, possibilitados pela disseminação das mídias digitais. A partir da análise de projetos centrados em testemunhos das vítimas da devastação causada pelo furacão Katrina, desenvolvidos em grandes universidades norte-americanas, o artigo elabora dois aspectos da produção e disseminação destes testemunhos: primeiro, as apropriações contemporâneas da história oral para a construção política de memórias deliberadamente produzidas tendo em vista a consolidação de narrativas hegemônicas futuras; segundo, como a própria proliferação destas iniciativas vem gerando, simultaneamente, a multiplicação de vítimas, e a fragmentação e dispersão de seus testemunhos.

  3. Alguns dados sobre a reprodução do garibáldi, Agelaius r. ruficapillus (Icteridae, Aves em lavouras de arroz no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Bello Fallavena

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Agelaius r. ruficapillus is gregarious, being found in large flocks in Rio Grande do Sul during most of the year; they nest in natural marshes or rice fields. This bird is accused by farmers of causing damage to rice at all stages of its growth and Belton, 1985, believes it may now be the most abundant bird in the state. Its reproductive biology in rice fields in southern Rio Grande do Sul was observed from 1981 to 1983, with more emphasis from november 1982 to march 1983. Capture and banding of 16 birds with aluminum and plastic colored bands were made; nine nests were marked with steel stakes. It was found that the male is responsible for the construction of the nest, which the female lines inside. The clutch varies from three to four eggs, three being more frequent. The female broods the eggs and leaves the nest to feed. The male stays near the nest, defending the territory. The young hatch after 13 days of brooding, and are fed arthropods by the parents. After fledging they receive grains of dehulled rice. Reproduction is synchronized with rice growth. It begins with flowering and ends at harvest time. Adult birds feed on rice during the entire growth period, taking the "milk" of green rice and eating ripe grains after dehulling them.

  4. Dissolving efficacy of some organic solvents on gutta-percha Eficácia dissolvente de alguns solventes orgânicos sobre a guta-percha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Silva Magalhães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the solubility of gutta-percha in four organic solvents used in endodontics. The solubility of gutta-percha (Dentsply was assessed in xylol, orange oil, eucalyptol, chloroform and distilled water. A hundred and fifty samples of gutta-percha were prepared using a standardized stainless steel mould and divided into five groups for immersion in the different solvents tested and in distilled water (control group for 2, 5 and 10 minutes. The means of gutta-percha dissolution in the solvents were obtained by the difference between the pre-immersion original weight and the post-immersion weight in a digital analytical scale (Gehaka - AG2000. Data were statistically analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and multiple comparisons with Scheffe’s test (p O presente estudo avaliou a solubilidade da guta-percha em quatro solventes orgânicos empregados em endodontia. A solubilidade da guta-percha (Dentsply foi testada em xilol, óleo de laranja, eucaliptol, clorofórmio e água destilada. Foram preparadas cento e cinqüenta amostras de guta-percha por meio de uma matriz metálica que foram divididas em cinco grupos para imersão nos diferentes solventes a serem testados e na água destilada (grupo controle durante 2, 5 e 10 minutos. As médias da dissolução da guta-percha nos diferentes solventes foram obtidas pela diferença entre o peso inicial pré-imersão e o peso pós-imersão através de uma balança analítica digital (Gehaka - AG2000. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente através da análise de variância (ANOVA e comparações múltiplas com teste de Scheffe’s (p < 0,05. A melhor capacidade de solvência foi obtida com o xilol. Clorofórmio, óleo de laranja e eucaliptol apresentaram resultados semelhantes, e a água destilada não promoveu alterações na guta-percha.

  5. Avaliação da produção científica: considerações sobre alguns critérios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena de Almeida Freitas

    Full Text Available Analisa os procedimentos de avaliação da produção científica no Brasil, tanto quantitativos quanto qualitativos, principalmente no que se relaciona à avaliação por pares e às avaliações de pesquisas realizadas pelas agências governamentais de fomento. Considera que a avaliação da produção científica é realizada em todos os níveis de formação profissional dos pesquisadores, desde o ensino, mas sem haver o estabelecimento de critérios claros e gerais. Apresenta escalas de avaliação de pesquisas científicas, sendo estas consideradas como formas de estabelecer critérios racionais aos procedimentos avaliatórios, evitando a avaliação por critérios outros que não os científicos.

  6. Efeito fungistático de Bacillus thuringiensis e de outras bactérias sobre alguns fungos fitopatogênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista Junior Carlos Brasil

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Quatro isolados bacterianos da rizosfera de Drosera villosa var. villosa (B1, B2, B3, B4 e dois isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis (B5 e B6, sendo B6 produtor da toxina bioinseticida Cry1Ab, foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de inibir os fungos fitopatogênicos Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, Fusarium oxysporum e Colletotrichum sp. A cepa mais efetiva foi B1 que inibiu o crescimento dos quatro fungos até o 26º dia. B. thuringiensis inibiu o crescimento de três destes, o que indica que possui atividade antifúngica e abre um novo campo de estudo para a utilização do B. thuringiensis.

  7. Perpètua de Cartago i Camar de Tunis. Sobre algunes fonts del Curial accessibles a Itàlia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Soler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Els estudiosos del Curial han relacionat fàcilment l’enamorament de l’africana Camar amb els amors –també africans– d’Enees i Dido. Tanmateix, els ha passat desapercebuda la figura de la màrtir romana Perpètua de Cartago, jove estudiosa de l’Eneida, que fou lligada a un pal i exposada als lleons, entre altres aspectes biogràfics relacionables amb el personatge curialesc de Camar. La revisió de les Actes del martiri (versions A i B, divulgades ensems i de la novel·lada Passio Perpetuae (segle III permet detectar coincidències argumentals i connexions intertextuals amb la novel·la cavalleresca del segle XV. El fet que aquestes fonts foren fàcilment accessibles a Itàlia (Milà, Nàpols, però no a la Península Ibèrica, reforça la idea –generalment acceptada per la crítica– d’un Curial e Güelfa escrit en relació amb la cort napolitana d’Alfons el Magnànim. El tractament paròdic que l’anònim fa de les fonts devocionals, d’altra banda, resulta també especialment interessant per a caracteritzar-lo intel·lectualment i per a interpretar l’obra com cal. The scholars of the Curial have easily related the love of the African Camar with the love stories –also African– of Eneas and Dido. However, they have not paid attention to the figure of the Roman martyr Perpetua of Carthage, a young scholar of the Eneida who was tied to a post and exposed to the lions, among other biographical aspects that could be linked to the character of Camar in the Curial. The revision of the Minutes of the martyrdom (versions A and B, released together and the fictionalized Passio Perpetuae (3rd century allow us to notice coincidences in the plot and intertextual connections with the chivalric novel of the 15th century. The fact that these sources were easily accessible in Italy (Milano, Naples and unknown in the Iberian Peninsula reinforces the idea –generally accepted by the criticism– of a Curial e Güelfa written in relation with the court in Naples of Alfonso the Magnanimous. The parodic treatment that the anonymous writer makes of the devotional sources also seems to be especially interesting to describe him intellectually and to interpret the work properly.

  8. Notas sobre educação e espaço público em Kant

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Sônia

    2014-01-01

    O artigo aborda algumas passagens do projeto pedagógico de Kant, concebendo como horizonte temático o princípio kantiano da destinação humana, destacando alguns passos presentes nas lições Sobre a Pedagogia e seus nexos com sua Filosofia prática, notadamente, com a Filosofia do Direito enquanto instância legitimadora do espaço público.

  9. FTIR spectroscopic discrimination of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adt, Isabelle; Kohler, Achim; Gognies, Sabine; Budin, Julien; Sandt, Christophe; Belarbi, Abdelkader; Manfait, Michel; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we tested the potential of Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy to screen, on the one hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-S. cerevisiae strains and, on the other hand, to discriminate between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus strains. Principal components analysis (PCA), used to compare 20 S. cerevisiae and 21 non-Saccharomyces strains, showed only 2 misclassifications. The PCA model was then used to classify spectra from 14 Samos strains. All 14 Samos strains clustered together with the S. cerevisiae group. This result was confirmed by a routinely used electrophoretic pattern obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The method was then tested to compare S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus strains. Our results indicate that identification at the strain level is possible. This first result shows that yeast classification and S. bayanus identification can be feasible in a single measurement.

  10. Atitude do consumidor frente à propaganda: um estudo sobre os apelos racionais e emocionais da propaganda na indústria farmacêutica

    OpenAIRE

    Melby Karina Zúñiga Huertas

    2005-01-01

    Diante de discrepâncias na literatura sobre a recomendação de alguns modelos de propaganda de se emparelhar os apelos (racionais ou emocionais) à atitude do consumidor sobre o produto (predominantemente cognitiva ou predominantemente afetiva), o objetivo geral desta Tese foi avaliar tal recomendação. A revisão bibliográfica evidenciou algumas lacunas teóricas: 1) generalização indevida de resultados de estudos sobre formatos de propaganda para produtos de outras categorias; 2) não mensuração ...

  11. Sites of ubiquitin attachment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, Lea M; Lo, Russell S; Eng, Jimmy K; von Haller, Priska D; Fields, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Sites of ubiquitin modification have been identified by mass spectrometry based on the increase in molecular mass of a tryptic peptide carrying two additional glycine residues from the ubiquitin moiety. However, such peptides with GG shifts have been difficult to discover. We identify 870 unique sites of ubiquitin attachment on 438 different proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. O problema da universalização em alguns textos lógicos de Pedro Abelardo

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Cléber Eduardo dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Tendo recebido questões a respeito dos universais através das discussões anteriormente elaboradas por Porfírio de Tiro e Severino Boécio, Pedro Abelardo (1079-1142) propõe o rechaço do nominalismo de Roscelino de Compiègne e do realismo de Guilherme de Champeaux, Goscelino de Soissons e Gualtério de Mortagne. Após a exposição do problema dos universais na Isagoge de Porfírio e a recepção dos problemas por parte de Boécio, apresentam-se alguns aspectos da teoria do conceito na filosofia estóic...

  13. Convergència digital i software lliure en l'EEES. Algunes experiències amb Gretl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jesús López Menéndez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La utilització de programari lliure i obert (*FOSS aporta nombrosos avantatges en l'àmbit universitari, que resulten encara més patents en el marc de l'Espai Europeu d'Educació Superior (EEES. Les principals característiques del *FOSS (llibertat d'ús de programes, accés al codi font, estudi i adaptació, distribució de còpies i implementació de millores que beneficien a tota la comunitat apareixen relacionades amb competències com a creativitat, treball en equip o adaptació a noves situacions. Aquest treball examina el paper del programari lliure en l'àmbit universitari i el seu potencial per a reduir la bretxa digital, presentant també algunes experiències recents.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism in ecological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhten, Paula; Ponomarova, Olga; Gonzalez, Ramon; Patil, Kiran R.

    2016-01-01

    The architecture and regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic network are among the best studied owing to its widespread use in both basic research and industry. Yet, several recent studies have revealed notable limitations in explaining genotype–metabolic phenotype relations in this yeast, especially when concerning multiple genetic/environmental perturbations. Apparently unexpected genotype–phenotype relations may originate in the evolutionarily shaped cellular operating principles being hidden in common laboratory conditions. Predecessors of laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, the wild and the domesticated yeasts, have been evolutionarily shaped by highly variable environments, very distinct from laboratory conditions, and most interestingly by social life within microbial communities. Here we present a brief review of the genotypic and phenotypic peculiarities of S. cerevisiae in the context of its social lifestyle beyond laboratory environments. Accounting for this ecological context and the origin of the laboratory strains in experimental design and data analysis would be essential in improving the understanding of genotype–environment–phenotype relationships. PMID:27634775

  15. Análise do desempenho fermentativo da levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae em resposta a composição mineral do meio.

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, Rafael Barros de

    2012-01-01

    Apesar dos grandes avanços para melhorar as características das variedades de cana-de-açúcar, pouco se sabe sobre o impacto da qualidade do caldo da cana-de-açúcar no processo de fermentação industrial, mais especificamente sobre o metabolismo fermentativo da levedura. No presente trabalho analisamos a relação entre a variação da composição mineral do caldo de cana e a capacidade fermentativa das células de Saccharomyces cerevisiae, determinando a cinética de consumo de sacaros...

  16. A informação sobre a categoria gramatical nos dicionários bilingues

    OpenAIRE

    Iriarte Sanromán, Álvaro

    2003-01-01

    Será pertinente incluir no dicionário informação sobre a categoria gramatical do lema? Do ponto de vista lexicográfico existem outras maneiras de fornecer informação gramatical para o utilizador comum. Assim, pode-se informar sobre a transitividade ou a regência verbal por meio de exemplos. Para alguns linguistas, a informação sobre a categoria gramatical do lema será imprescindível para poder ser aplicado o chamado "princípio lexicográfico de substituição". Fundação para a Ciência e a Te...

  17. Comportamento celular e resposta antioxidante diferenciados de Saccharomyces cerevisiae e de Saccharomyces chevalieri ao metavanadato de amónio Different cellular behaviour and antioxidant response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces chevalieri growing in presence of ammonium metavanadate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A fermentação do vinho é um processo microbiológico complexo que requere a presença de leveduras adaptadas a condições de stresse. No ambiente celular de organismos aeróbios ocorrem naturalmente espécies reactivas de oxigénio (ROS como subprodutos da respiração mitocondrial. A elevada reactividade destas espécies químicas pode gerar danos moleculares que, em alguns casos, levam à morte celular. Em condições fisiológicas normais ou como resposta ao stresse oxidativo, a célula pode desencadear respostas adaptativas que envolvem mecanismos antioxidantes como os enzimas glutationo redutase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2 e catalases T (CAT T; EC 1.11.1.6 e A (CAT A; EC 1.11.1.6. O vanádio, um metal pesado presente em alguns fitofármacos, pode também com portar-se como um gerador de ROS, alterando o estado redox intracelular e exercendo efeitos nocivos em leveduras expostas a quantidade excessiva deste elemento. O principal objectivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito do metavanadato de amónio (NH4VO3, um sal pentavalente de vanádio, na viabilidade celular e nas actividades enzimáticas GR, CAT T e CAT A das leveduras vínicas Saccharomyces cerevisiae UE-ME3 e Saccharomyces chevalieri UE-ME1. Os resultados obtidos mostram que S. chevalieri UE-ME1 revelou menor tolerância ao NH4VO3 do que S. cerevisiae UE-ME3, uma vez que culturas de S. chevalieri não sobreviveram para valores de concentração do sal de vanádio superiores a 7,5 mM enquanto que células de S. cerevisiae mantiveram-se viáveis em presença de metavanadato de amónio 75 mM. As actividades enzimáticas estudadas apresentaram em S. chevalieri valores muito inferiores aos que foram determinados em S. cerevisiae embora em ambas as espécies de levedura o NH4VO3 pareça comportarse como um indutor de stresse oxidativo ao provocar um decréscimo significativo da actividade GR (PThe fermentation of wine is a complex microbiological process which requires yeast adaptation to stress

  18. Ragi tapai and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as potential coculture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison study on the ethanol production from 20% (w/v) of unhydrolyzed raw cassava starch using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis was performed and compared with the commercialized ragi tapai. The findings showed that S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis and ragi tapai produced 23, 20 mg/l and 26 g/l of ...

  19. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation on the colorants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of the heated aqueous red beetroot extracts (30, 50 and 60°C) by different concentrations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.50, 0.75 and 1.00%). The optimum experimental temperature value and S. cerevisiae concentration were found to be 50°C and ...

  20. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase as the Sole Anaplerotic Enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, R.M.; Trueheart, J.; Harrison, J.C.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase is the sole anaplerotic enzyme in glucose-grown cultures of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pyruvate carboxylase-negative (Pyc–) S. cerevisiae strains cannot grow on glucose unless media are supplemented with C4 compounds, such as aspartic acid. In several

  1. Stoichiometric network constraints on xylose metabolism by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Su Jin; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2004-01-01

    Metabolic pathway engineering is constrained by the thermodynamic and stoichiometric feasibility of enzymatic activities of introduced genes. Engineering of xylose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has focused on introducing genes for the initial xylose assimilation steps from Pichia stipitis, a xylose-fermenting yeast, into S. cerevisiae, a yeast raditionally...

  2. Selection of inoculum size and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... The aim of this work was to select an inoculum concentration and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane bagasse. Three concentrations of inoculum (0.4, 4.0 and 8.0 g/L) and two strains of S. cerevisiae. (UFPEDA ...

  3. DSN1 deletion is deleterious to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae while ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... cerevisiae while Dsn1p disrupts nuclear segregation process of Chinese Hamster ... vector containing the Dsn1p. Key words: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, kinetochore, Dsn1p, Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO). ... medium for 3 – 4 days incubation at 30°C before the appearance of transformants. Sporulation ...

  4. Selection of inoculum size and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection of inoculum size and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane ... (0.4, 4.0 and 8.0 g/L) and two strains of S. cerevisiae (UFPEDA 1238 and UFPEDA 1334) were used to ferment a culture medium containing glucose as the carbon ...

  5. Import of alcohol oxidase into peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, Ben; Veenhuis, Marten; Tabak, Henk F.

    1987-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to grow on methanol because it lacks the enzymes required for its metabolism. To study the possibility of whether or not the methanol oxidation pathway of Hansenula polymorpha can be transferred to S. cerevisiae, the gene coding for alcohol oxidase, a peroxisomal

  6. Functional expression of rat VPAC1 receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.K.; Tams, J.W.; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1999-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide......G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide...

  7. Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Jens Christian; Nielsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    biosynthesis of vanillin in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recently demonstrated by successfully introducing the metabolic pathway for vanillin production in yeast. Nevertheless, the amount of vanillin produced in this S. cerevisiae strain is insufficient for commercial production and improvements...

  8. Investigation of autonomous cell cycle oscillation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Skov

    2007-01-01

    Autonome Oscillationer i kontinuert kultivering af Saccharomyces cerevisiae Udgangspunktet for dette Ph.d. projekt var at søge at forstå, hvad der gør det muligt at opnå multiple statiske tilstande ved kontinuert kultivering af Saccharomyces cerevisiae med glukose som begrænsende substrat...

  9. Potential immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as heavy metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffar, Nur Izzati Abdul; Rahman, Nadhratul Nur Ain Abdul; Alrozi, Rasyidah; Senusi, Faraziehan; Chang, Siu Hua

    2015-05-01

    Biosorption of copper ion using treated and untreated immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae from aqueous solution was investigate in this study. S.cerevisiae has been choosing as biosorbent due to low cost, easy and continuously available from various industries. In this study, the ability of treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae in removing copper ion influence by the effect of pH solution, and initial concentration of copper ion with contact time. Besides, adsorption isotherm and kinetic model also studied. The result indicated that the copper ion uptake on treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae was increased with increasing of contact time and initial concentration of copper ion. The optimum pH for copper ion uptake on untreated and treated immobilized S.cerevisiae at 4 and 6. From the data obtained of copper ion uptake, the adsorption isotherm was fitted well by Freundlich model for treated immobilized S.cerevisiae and Langmuir model for untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae according to high correlation coefficient. Meanwhile, the pseudo second order was described as suitable model present according to high correlation coefficient. Since the application of biosorption process has been received more attention from numerous researchers as a potential process to be applied in the industry, future study will be conducted to investigate the potential of immobilized S.cerevisiae in continuous process.

  10. Roman Gladiators: some aspects of the shows in the arena in the early Pricipate Gladiadores romanos: alguns aspectos dos espetáculos na arena nos primórdios do Principado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Senna Garraffoni

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the gladiators’ fights and the participation of people from different social classes in these shows. Considering the work by Ellen Meiksins Wood about “the myth of idle mob” in Greece, it is discusses how some scholars have been studying this subject on the Roman world. It also tries to explore some other ways to understand the fights, as shows that fascinated the Romans and had great popularity on the Empire’s daily life.Este artigo consiste em uma reflexão inicial acerca do papel das lutas de gladiadores romanos e da participação das pessoas de diferentes camadas sociais em tais espetáculos. A partir de uma discussão do trabalho de Ellen Meiksins Wood sobre o “mito da plebe desocupada” na Grécia, procuramos discutir como alguns classicistas têm tratado a questão no mundo romano e a possibilidade de trilhar caminhos alternativos para o estudo das lutas, eventos de grande popularidade no cotidiano do Império.

  11. Smart contracts sobre Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Alemany, Josep Miquel

    2016-01-01

    El present treball final de màster realitza una introducció als smart contracts. El treball introdueix el concepte de contracte intel·ligent, els seus usos i alguns exemples existents. Seguidament proporciona les nocions necessàries de les transaccions del protocol Bitcoin per poder implementar un contracte intel·ligent, usant la blockchain que ofereix el protocol. Per últim, s'explica la implementació d'un contracte intel·ligent usant bitcoin: un canal de micropagaments. El presente traba...

  12. Apoptosis - Triggering Effects: UVB-irradiation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham

    2012-12-01

    The pathogenic disturbance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known as a rare but invasive nosocomial fungal infection. This survey is focused on the evaluation of apoptosis-triggering effects of UVB-irradiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The well-growth colonies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) were irradiated within an interval of 10 minutes by UVB-light (302 nm). Subsequently, the harvested DNA molecules of control and UV-exposed yeast colonies were run through the 1% agarose gel electrophoresis comprising the luminescent dye of ethidium bromide. No unusual patterns including DNA laddering bands or smears were detected. The applied procedure for UV exposure was not effective for inducing apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. So, it needs another UV-radiation protocol for inducing apoptosis phenomenon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  13. Kinetics of phosphomevalonate kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Garcia

    Full Text Available The mevalonate-based isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway is responsible for producing cholesterol in humans and is used commercially to produce drugs, chemicals, and fuels. Heterologous expression of this pathway in Escherichia coli has enabled high-level production of the antimalarial drug artemisinin and the proposed biofuel bisabolane. Understanding the kinetics of the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway is critical to optimize the pathway for high flux. We have characterized the kinetic parameters of phosphomevalonate kinase (PMK, EC 2.7.4.2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a previously unstudied enzyme. An E. coli codon-optimized version of the S. cerevisiae gene was cloned into pET-52b+, then the C-terminal 6X His-tagged protein was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 and purified on a Ni²⁺ column. The KM of the ATP binding site was determined to be 98.3 µM at 30°C, the optimal growth temperature for S. cerevisiae, and 74.3 µM at 37°C, the optimal growth temperature for E. coli. The K(M of the mevalonate-5-phosphate binding site was determined to be 885 µM at 30°C and 880 µM at 37°C. The V(max was determined to be 4.51 µmol/min/mg enzyme at 30°C and 5.33 µmol/min/mg enzyme at 37°C. PMK is Mg²⁺ dependent, with maximal activity achieved at concentrations of 10 mM or greater. Maximum activity was observed at pH = 7.2. PMK was not found to be substrate inhibited, nor feedback inhibited by FPP at concentrations up to 10 µM FPP.

  14. Myo-inositol transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikawa, J; Nagumo, T.; Yamashita, S

    1982-01-01

    myo-Inositol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was dependent on temperature, time, and substrate concentration. The transport obeyed saturation kinetics with an apparent Km for myo-inositol of 0.1 mM, myo-Inositol analogs, such as scyllo-inositol, 2-inosose, mannitol, and 1,2-cyclohexanediol, had no effect on myo-inositol uptake, myo-Inositol uptake required metabolic energy. Removal of D-glucose resulted in a loss of activity, and azide and cyanide ions were inhibitory. In the presence of D...

  15. Acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian Tate; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Moustafa, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification; however, little is known about the origin and regulation of most sites. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that acetylation...... accumulated in growth-arrested cells in a manner that depended on acetyl-CoA generation in distinct subcellular compartments. Mitochondrial acetylation levels correlated with acetyl-CoA concentration in vivo and acetyl-CoA acetylated lysine residues nonenzymatically in vitro. We developed a method to estimate...

  16. Molecular Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz

    In this study, I sought to identify genes regulating the global molecular program for development of sessile multicellular communities, also known as biofilm, of the eukaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). Yeast biofilm has a clinical interest, as biofilms can cause chronic...... other FLO11-dependent phenotypes: mat formation and invasive growth. Based on these findings, I suggest that there is a common genetic program for phenotypes governing cellular differentiation. Furthermore it is found that the epigenetic switching between Flo11+ and Flo11- phenotypes is required...

  17. Antropologia ao acaso dos encontros: experimentações com alguns colombianos em São Paulo e Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Estrada Mejía

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente artigo propõe como via de acesso à alteridade o conceito de encontro  (occursus, lapidado e polido  por Baruch Spinoza e resgatado recentemente por Gilles Deleuze. Procuro fugir do trilhado discurso da identidade e sua tediosa pretensão hermenêutica,  para tentar me aproximar de um pensamento que libera o acontecimento de seus grandes inimigos: o eu, o mundo e Deus. A partir de uma prática etnográfica, realizada entre 2007 e 2008 com colombianos em São Paulo e Barcelona, retrato alguns dos encontros que implicaram me adentrar em múltiplos devenires: estrangeiros, imigrantes, indocumentados, exilados, refugiados, místicos, agnósticos, militantes políticos, latinos, hispânicos, sul-americanos, sudacas, guerrilheiros, paramilitares, etc.

  18. Considerações sobre a fenomenologia hermenêutica de Paul Ricoeur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vicente Marafioti Garnica

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é tecer considerações sobre as bases teóricas da Fenomenologia Hermenêutica de Paul Ricoeur. Para isso, partimos do esboço de alguns aspectos da Fenomenologia em Heidegger e discutimos certas faces da distinção entre as concepções de Ricoeur e Heidegger quanto à fundamentação da Hermenêutica na Fenomenologia, trabalhando com a Fenomenologia Estrutural e a Fenomenologia Hermenêutica.

  19. Um novo olhar sobre os cursos de formação de professores

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Erika; Bertani, Januária Araújo

    2003-01-01

    Este artigo tem o objetivo de debater e refletir sobre os Cursos de Formação dos Professores de Ciências e Matemática. Tais cursos apresentam antigos problemas, dentre eles, a desarticulação entre as disciplinas, a teoria e a prática, que refletem na construção do perfil do futuro professor. Assim, faz-se necessária uma nova forma de pensar e estruturar os Cursos de Formação Docente. Nesta perspectiva, este artigo apresenta alguns conceitos de Bachelard e Lakatos que podem contribuir para uma...

  20. Julgamento moral sobre pena de morte e redução da maioridade penal

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Kelly de Sousa Galvão; Cleonice Pereira dos Santos Camino

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi investigar o julgamento moral de estudantes do ensino médio e de licenciaturas sobre pena de morte e redução da maioridade penal. Para tanto, utilizou-se como suporte teórico e empírico a tipologia do desenvolvimento moral de Lawrence Kohlberg. Participaram deste estudo 200 estudantes que responderam, além de uma lista que solicitava informações de alguns dos seus dados biodemográficos, a questões relacionadas à pena de morte e à redução da maioridade p...

  1. Sobre os conceitos de risco em Luhmann e Giddens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Luz David

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1806-5023.2011v8n1p30 O presente artigo discute as contribuições de Anthony Giddens e Niklas Luhmann para uma melhor definição do conceito de risco, tendo em vista o rigor teórico de ambos os autores. Inicialmente é feita uma breve exposição sobre como o conceito de risco passou a ser utilizado na Modernidade e recebeu a atenção de autores das Ciências Sociais, principalmente a partir da abordagem cultura proposta por Mary Douglas. Em seguida, as definições e correspondentes argumentos sobre o conceito de risco em Luhmann e Giddens são apresentados respectivamente. Finalmente, alguns pontos de distanciamento entre os autores são discutidos e de que maneira cada um contribuiu para o debate sobre os riscos na teoria social e para o diagnóstico da Modernidade.

  2. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  3. SOBRE A EVOLUÇÃO LITERÁRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zênia de Faria

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} O texto que se segue é a tradução de uma entrevista concedida por Stéphane Mallarmé a J. Huret sobre a evolução literária. Em suas respostas, Mallarmé expõe seus pontos de vista sobre a criação poética, sobretudo a de sua época, examinando com um olhar crítico as escolas literárias dessa época, e passando em revista as posições de alguns poetas e romancistas do século XIX, relativas à criação literária. Mallarmé aí expõe, também, alguns aspectos fundamentais de sua própria poética.

  4. Evidence for Domesticated and Wild Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is predominantly found in association with human activities, particularly the production of alcoholic beverages. S. paradoxus, the closest known relative of S. cerevisiae, is commonly found on exudates and bark of deciduous trees and in associated soils. This has lead to the idea that S. cerevisiae is a domesticated species, specialized for the fermentation of alcoholic beverages, and isolates of S. cerevisiae from other sources simply represent migrants from these fermentations. We have surveyed DNA sequence diversity at five loci in 81 strains of S. cerevisiae that were isolated from a variety of human and natural fermentations as well as sources unrelated to alcoholic beverage production, such as tree exudates and immunocompromised patients. Diversity within vineyard strains and within saké strains is low, consistent with their status as domesticated stocks. The oldest lineages and the majority of variation are found in strains from sources unrelated to wine production. We propose a model whereby two specialized breeds of S. cerevisiae have been created, one for the production of grape wine and one for the production of saké wine. We estimate that these two breeds have remained isolated from one another for thousands of years, consistent with the earliest archeological evidence for winemaking. We conclude that although there are clearly strains of S. cerevisiae specialized for the production of alcoholic beverages, these have been derived from natural populations unassociated with alcoholic beverage production, rather than the opposite.

  5. EFEK FERMENTASI DENGAN Saccharomyces cerevisiae TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK BIOKIMIA TAPIOKA (Effect of Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the Biochemical Properties Tapioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Erna Kustyawati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae was known to produce extracellular enzyme. Its role on the tapioca production was investigated in relation to the changes in the biochemical properties of the starch. Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 1010sel ml-1  was inoculated into 1000 ml of tapioca suspension and fermented at 12, 24, 36 and 48 h at room temperature (30oC. The result showed that S.cerevisiae could grow during the fermentation and improved the biochemical properties of tapioca. The tapioca produced by the fermentation with S. cerevisiae had significantly higher protein content (2.17% than that of native tapioca (0.28%. Whereas the amylose content of fermented tapioca (24.83% was lower than that of native tapioca (28.57%. The addition of S.cerevisiae increased the mineral Fe, Mg, and Ca of the starch, but it decreased Zn. The structure of starch granules of the fermented tapioca showed the signs of erosion. It can be concluded that the addition of S.cerevisiae can be used as modifying agents for tapoica as to improve protein content and solubility. Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cassava starch, modification, biochemical properties   ABSTRAK Saccharomyces cerevisiae diketahui sebagai khamir penghasil enzim ekstraseluler. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peranan enzim ektraseluler S. cereviciae dalam pembuatan tapioka dengan mengamati perubahan biokimia pati. Sebanyak 1010  sel ml-1  inokulum S.cerevisiae diinokulasikan ke dalam suspensi tapioka, kemudian difermentasi selama 12 jam, 36 jam, dan 48 jam pada suhu ruang (30oC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa S.cerevisiae mampu tumbuh selama fermentasi dan memperbaiki sifat biokimia tapioka. Tapioka hasil fermentasi dengan S.cerevisiae memiliki kadar protein (2,17% secara signifikan lebih tinggi dari kadar protein tapioka alami (0,28%. Sementara itu, kadar amilosa tapioka terfermentasi (24,83% lebih rendah dari amilosa tapioka alami (28,57%. Dilain pihak, penambahan S.cerevsiae meningkatkan

  6. L’impacte de la crisi sobre els drets de l’àmbit social - El impacto de la crisis sobre los derechos del ámbito social - The Impact of the Crisis on Social Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Carrillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available L’objecte d’aquest treball analitza, sense cap pretensió exhaustiva, l’impacte jurídic que han tingut les mesures preses sobre alguns dels drets de l’àmbit social, mitjançant la legislació d’urgència, per a fer front a la crisi econòmica i financera. En aquest sentit s’estudien els efectes sobre els drets laborals, el dret a l’habitatge i a algunes prestacions socials.El objeto de este trabajo analiza, sin ninguna pretensión exhaustiva, el impacto jurídico que han tenido las medidas tomadas sobre algunos de los derechos del ámbito social, mediante la legislación de urgencia, para hacer frente a la crisis económica y financiera. En este sentido se estudian los efectos sobre los derechos laborales, el derecho a la vivienda y a algunas prestaciones sociales.This article analyses, without any attempt to be exhaustive, the legal impact that different measures taken to face the economic and financial crisis through legislation foreseen for urgent circumstances has had on some social rights. In this sense, we specifically focus on the effect of such measures in relation to labour rights, the right to housing and some social benefits.

  7. Visão panorâmica das pesquisas sobre texto no Brasil Visão panorâmica das pesquisas sobre texto no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingedore G. Villaça Koch

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available 0 despertar do interesse, no Brasil, pela abordagem lingilistica do texto - literario ou nio-literario - data do final da decada de 70. Para tanto, contribuiu, de forma significativa, a traducao para o portugues de duas obras sobre o assunto: SemiOtica narrativa e textual (Chabrol et al. 1977, coletanea de trabalhos mais voltados para o escudo da narrativa, entre os quais se podem citar urn do prOprio Chabrol "Alguns problemas de gramatica narrativa e textual" e outro de van Dijk "Gramaticas textuais e estruturas narrativas", este corn urn item sobre Textual (ainda bastante calcado na Gramatica Gerativa e na Semantica LOgica; e LingUtstica e teoria de texto (Schmidt 1978, em que se desenvolve a teoria dos "jogos de atuacio comunicativa", numa perspectiva predominantemente psicossocial.

  8. Increasing NADH oxidation reduces overflow metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vemuri, Goutham; Eiteman, M.A; McEwen, J.E

    2007-01-01

    Crabtree effect.’’ The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an important model organism for studying the Crabtree effect. When subjected to increasing glycolytic fluxes under aerobic conditions, there is a threshold value of the glucose uptake rate at which the metabolism shifts from purely...... effect is due to limited respiratory capacity or is caused by glucose-mediated repression of respiration. When respiration in S. cerevisiae was increased by introducing a heterologous alternative oxidase, we observed reduced aerobic ethanol formation. In contrast, increasing nonrespiratory NADH oxidation...... NADH dehydrogenases in S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that NADH oxidase localizes in the cytosol, whereas alternative oxidase is directed to the mitochondria....

  9. Relação entre fumonisinas na dieta de leitões na creche e a ocorrência do vício de sucção, desempenho e características de alguns órgãos

    OpenAIRE

    Lovatto,Paulo Alberto; LEHNEN,Cheila Roberta; Cavazini, Neimar; Bertolin, Kalyne; Hauschild,Luciano

    2007-01-01

    O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do vício de sucção em leitões alimentados com dieta com ou sem fumonisinas sobre o desempenho zootécnico e características de alguns órgãos. Foram utilizados 32 leitões, meio-irmãos paternos, distribuídos num fatorial 2 x 2 (animais com vício e sem vício de sucção, com ou sem adição de fumonisinas na dieta), com quatro repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Não houve interação (P>0,05) do vício de sucção com a adição ...

  10. Molecular Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz

    of translation of FLO11. In conclusion, I have conducted the first global study of the genetic program for yeast biofilm formation on polystyrene. This work provide several target genes as good basis for further research of biofilm, that I believe can contribute to fields such as cell biology, genetics, system......In this study, I sought to identify genes regulating the global molecular program for development of sessile multicellular communities, also known as biofilm, of the eukaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). Yeast biofilm has a clinical interest, as biofilms can cause chronic......, but only a small subset is previously described as regulators of FLO11. These results reveal that the regulation of biofilm formation and FLO11 is even more complex than what has previously been described. I find that the molecular program for biofilm formation shares many essential components with two...

  11. Organization of Replication of Ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linskens, Maarten H.K.; Huberman, Joel A.

    1988-01-01

    Using recently developed replicon mapping techniques, we have analyzed the replication of the ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results show that (i) the functional origin of replication colocalizes with an autonomously replicating sequence element previously mapped to the

  12. Alguns aspectos da construção do gênero entre travestis de baixa renda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Vieira Garcia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se inicia com a proposição de que as travestis, em especial as de baixa renda, excedem as classificações normativas associadas ao gênero e sexualidade presentes em nossa sociedade, o que as torna objeto de intensa discriminação. Em seguida, busca refletir sobre a história de vida comum a elas, de violência no contexto familiar e escolar, e sobre a assimilação da identidade do “viado” ou ”bicha”, a mais antiga em sua “colcha de retalhos” identitária. A migração para a cidade grande e a entrada na prostituição acarretam a inserção em um universo diferenciado, próprio às travestis, o que é aqui interpretado como um processo de ressocialização. Ao final, busca-se refletir sobre um dos contextos relacionais presentes em seu universo - sua relação com seus companheiros fixos, ou “maridos” - que as leva à incorporação da figura da mulher submissa como um de seus fragmentos identitários constituintes.

  13. Isolation of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from unusual natural habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Finžgar, Bernarda

    2012-01-01

    Baker yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been an eukarontic experimental organism since 1960s, becoming even more significant with the determination of its complete nucleotide genome sequence in 1996. Even though its biochemical function in the fermentation process had long remained unclear, its metabolism and products (eg. bread, beer, wine) have been used for millennia. S. cerevisiae yeast represents an important organism for production of recombinant proteins (gene manipulation). Moreover,...

  14. Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from ethanol-induced growth inhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker-Caprioglio, H M; Rodriguez, R J; Parks, L W

    1985-01-01

    Ethanol caused altered mobility of the lipophilic probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in plasma membrane preparations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because lipids had been shown to protect yeast cells against ethanol toxicity, sterols, fatty acids, proteins, and combinations of these were tested; however, protection from growth inhibition was not seen. Ethanol-induced, prolonged lag periods and diminished growth rates in S. cerevisiae were reduced by an autoconditioning of the medium by the in...

  15. Regulation of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Homann, M J; Henry, S A; Carman, G M

    1985-01-01

    The addition of ethanolamine or choline to inositol-containing growth medium resulted in a reduction of CTP:phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase (CDP-diacylglycerol synthase; EC 2.7.7.41) activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reduction of activity did not occur in the absence of inositol. CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity was not regulated in a S. cerevisiae mutant strain (opi1; an inositol biosynthesis regulatory mutant) by the addition of phospholipid precursors to the growth medium.

  16. Glucose- and nitrogen sensing and regulatory mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødkaer, Steven V; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2014-01-01

    steps and by numerous different regulators. As numerous of these regulating proteins, biochemical mechanisms, and cellular pathways are evolutionary conserved, complex biochemical information relevant to humans can be obtained by studying simple organisms. Thus, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has...... been recognized as a powerful model system to study fundamental biochemical processes. In the present review, we highlight central signaling pathways and molecular circuits conferring nitrogen- and glucose sensing in S. cerevisiae....

  17. Glycerol stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Cellular responses and evolved adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenberger, Florian; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Hallsworth, John E; Fares, Mario A

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol synthesis is key to central metabolism and stress biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet the cellular adjustments needed to respond and adapt to glycerol stress are little understood. Here, we determined impacts of acute and chronic exposures to glycerol stress in S. cerevisiae. Glycerol stress can result from an increase of glycerol concentration in the medium due to the S. cerevisiae fermenting activity or other metabolic activities. Acute glycerol-stress led to a 50% decline in growth rate and altered transcription of more than 40% of genes. The increased genetic diversity in S. cerevisiae population, which had evolved in the standard nutrient medium for hundreds of generations, led to an increase in growth rate and altered transcriptome when such population was transferred to stressful media containing a high concentration of glycerol; 0.41 M (0.990 water activity). Evolution of S. cerevisiae populations during a 10-day period in the glycerol-containing medium led to transcriptome changes and readjustments to improve control of glycerol flux across the membrane, regulation of cell cycle, and more robust stress response; and a remarkable increase of growth rate under glycerol stress. Most of the observed regulatory changes arose in duplicated genes. These findings elucidate the physiological mechanisms, which underlie glycerol-stress response, and longer-term adaptations, in S. cerevisiae; they also have implications for enigmatic aspects of the ecology of this otherwise well-characterized yeast. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae invasive infection: The first reported case in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleb, A; Sebbar, E; Frikh, M; Boubker, S; Moussaoui, A; El Mekkaoui, A; Khannoussi, W; Kharrasse, G; Belefquih, B; Lemnouer, A; Ismaili, Z; Elouennass, M

    2017-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a cosmopolitan yeast, widely used in agro-alimentary and pharmaceutical industry. Its impact in human pathology is rare, but maybe still underestimated compared to the real situation. This yeast is currently considered as an emerging and opportunistic pathogen. Risk factors are immunosuppression and intravascular device carrying. Fungemias are the most frequent clinical forms. We report the first case of S. cerevisiae invasive infection described in Morocco, and to propose a review of the literature cases of S. cerevisiae infections described worldwide. A 77-year-old patient, with no notable medical history, who was hospitalized for a upper gastrointestinal stenosis secondary to impassable metastatic gastric tumor. Its history was marked by the onset of septic shock, with S. cerevisiae in his urine and in his blood, with arguments for confirmation of invasion: the presence of several risk factors in the patient, positive direct microbiological examination, abundant and exclusive culture of S. cerevisiae from clinical samples. Species identification was confirmed by the study of biochemical characteristics of the isolated yeast. Confirmation of S. cerevisiae infection requires a clinical suspicion in patients with risk factors, but also a correct microbiological diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šuranská

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines.

  1. Controle de doenças foliares e de flores e qualidade pós-colheita do morangueiro tratado com Saccharomyces cerevisiae Control of leaf and flower diseases and postharvest quality of strawberry plants treated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo de Gouvea

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes preparações de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foi avaliado sobre o desenvolvimento das doenças do morangueiro, como mancha-de-micosferela (Mycosphaerella fragariae, mancha-de-dendrofoma (Dendrophoma obscurans e flor-preta (Colletotrichum acutatum além da qualidade pós-colheita dos frutos. O trabalho foi realizado entre 2004 e 2005 na Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus Dois Vizinhos. Os tratamentos consistiram de pulverizações semanais de cinco diferentes preparados a partir da levedura S. cerevisiae: suspensão com fermento biológico fresco comercial, suspensão de células de levedura, suspensão autoclavada de células, filtrado de cultura em meio líquido e Agro-MOS®, produto comercial formulado a partir da levedura, além da testemunha com água destilada e do tratamento controle com fungicidas. Nenhuma das preparações apresentou efeito contra a mancha-de-micosferela; preparações com a presença de células vivas e o produto Agro-MOS® apresentaram efeito contra mancha-de-dendrofoma; preparações com suspensão do produto comercial e filtrado de cultura líquida reduziram a incidência de flor-preta em flores e frutos. Preparações de S. cerevisiae com suspensão de células, suspensão autoclavada de células e filtrado de cultura líquida promoveram aumento na produtividade dos morangueiros que variou de 589,6 a 617,8 g planta-1. Preparações de S. cerevisiae, com presença de células vivas ou não, alteraram o metabolismo do morangueiro, aumentando a atividade das enzimas quitinase e glucanase, envolvidas na resistência sistêmica adquirida. Todos os tratamentos, com exceção do tratamento com suspensão autoclavada de células, reduziram a incidência de mofo-cinzento em pós-colheita de frutos.The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was evaluated on the development of strawberry diseases and postharvest quality of fruits. The research was carried out in 2004 and 2005 in Paraná State

  2. Utilização da levedura desidratada (Saccharomyces cerevisiae para leitões na fase inicial Dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilization for piglets in the initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Francelino Araújo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de diferentes níveis de levedura (Saccharomyces cerevisiae desidratada na ração sobre o desempenho e a morfologia intestinal de leitões na fase inicial. Foram utilizados 280 leitões (fêmeas e machos castrados de uma linha genética comercial de suínos, desmamados com 21 dias de idade e distribuídos em 20 baias, de acordo com o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com 5 repetições e 4 tratamentos experimentais (0, 5, 10 e 15% de adição de levedura. Aos 45 dias de idade, três leitões de cada tratamento foram abatidos e colhidas amostras do duodeno e do jejuno para estudo da morfologia intestinal. Os níveis crescentes de levedura desidratada nas rações não afetaram (P>0,05 o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar dos leitões. Com relação à morfologia do duodeno e do jejuno, também não houve efeito (P>0,05 dos níveis de levedura estudados sobre a altura das vilosidades, das profundidades das criptas e da relação vilosidade/cripta. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a levedura desidratada pode ser adicionada em até 15% nas rações de suínos na fase inicial.An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae in diets about performance and intestinal morphology of piglets at initial phase. They used 280 piglets (females and castrated males from genetic lines, weaned with 21 days of age, allocated in 20 pens in randomized design blocks, with 5 replications and 4 treatments (0, 5, 10 and 15% dried yeast addition. Samples of duodenum and jejunum of 3 piglets slaughtered at 45 days of age were collected from each treatment to study intestinal morphology. The increasing levels of dried yeast in rations did not affect significantly the weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. In relation of duodenum and jejunum there was no significative effect (P>0.05 of dried yeast

  3. As opinioes dos brasileiros sobre ciencia e tecnologia: o paradoxo da relacao entre informacao e atitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij Castelfranchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Em muitos debates sobre as relações entre ciência e sociedade, em particular quanto à aceitação das tecnologias ou à percepção de seus riscos, existe uma hipótese subjacente: a de que a ignorância gera medo, e o medo gera desconfiança ou hostilidade contra a ciência e a tecnologia. Neste artigo mostramos que essa hipótese é questionável. Com base numa recente enquete nacional, apontamos que atitudes otimistas sobre ciência e tecnologia não dependem do nível escolar ou da informação declarada ou acessada pelas pessoas sobre o tema. Indivíduos com escassa informação possuem, em geral, atitudes positivas. Pessoas com maior escolaridade e acesso à informação possuem atitudes diversificadas, otimistas sobre alguns aspectos, porém mais críticas sobre outros.

  4. Fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Maria Bezerra de Alencar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at the assessment of fermentative capacity of original diploid, monocellular haploid and recuperated diploid cultures of S. cerevisiae in sterilized sugar-cane wort. Twenty eight cultures were analyzed, four being original diploids (URM-4420, Itaiquara Ferment FIT, Lallemand Ferment FLA and Wild Ferment SEL; 12 monocellular haploids from original ones and 12 recuperated diploids from the monocells. The ethanol percentage ranged from 1.7 to 6.2% and the unfermentable reducing sugars from 0.45 to 0.50g/100mL. The highest ethanol percentages were produced by the monocellular cultures URM-MH3 (4.8% in 12 h and SEL-MH1 (6.2% in 24 h, corresponding to the productivity values of 3.15 and 2.03 g.L-1.h-1, respectively. The recuperated diploids did not present detectable ethanol content by the method used. The results showed that depending on the physiological state of the yeasts, being in the diploid or monocellular haploid form, different percentages of ethanol could be produced.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar culturas de S. cerevisiae diplóides originais, haplóides monocelulares e diplóides recuperados, quanto à capacidade de fermentar em mosto de cana-deaçúcar esterilizado. Vinte e oito culturas foram analisadas, sendo 4 diplóides originais (URM-4420, Fermento Itaiquara FIT, Fermento Lallemand FLA e Fermento Selvagem SEL; 12 haplóides monocelulares provenientes das originais e 12 diplóides recuperados a partir das monocelulares. O percentual de etanol produzido variou de 1,70% a 6,20% e os açúcares redutores infermentescíveis de 0,45 g/100mL a 0,50 g/100mL. Os maiores percentuais de etanol foram produzidos pelas culturas haplóides monocelulares URM-MH3 (4,80%, em 12 horas e SEL-MH1 (6,20%, em 24 horas, correspondendo a valores de produtividade 3,15g.L-1.h-1 e 2,03 g.L-1.h-1 , respectivamente. Os diplóides recuperados não apresentaram teores de etanol detectáveis pelo método utilizado. Os resultados mostram que

  5. A etnografia das ruas: notas sobre estudar e ser estudado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecht, Tobias

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Passeando entre as notas e as lembranças de dois períodos distintos de trabalho de campo, este ensaio "impressionista" trata da dinâmica em mudança de uma relação de pesquisa com crianças de rua. Em 1992-1993, conduzi trabalho de campo para uma dissertação sobre crianças de rua no nordeste brasileiro. Retornando à região seis anos mais tarde, descobri que a maioria das crianças estudadas apenas uma fração de geração antes estavam então mortas. Estas anotações enfocam minhas conversas com um dos sobreviventes e com quem (e sobre quem estou agora escrevendo uma biografia. Esse esforço colaborativo, voltado de certo modo a reconsiderar as implicações éticas da pesquisa com crianças que levam vidas violentas e vulneráveis, levanta uma gama de novos desafios éticos, alguns dos quais inteiramente imprevistos

  6. Perspectiva de adolescentes sobre seus direitos e deveres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Ferrazza Alves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente considera as crianças e os adolescentes como detentores de direitos e em desenvolvimento peculiar e, por isso, é importante que haja reconhecimento dos jovens sobre sua condição. O objetivo deste estudo quanti-qualitativo foi conhecer a percepção de adolescentes dos contextos urbano e rural acerca dos seus direitos e deveres. Participaram 47 adolescentes dos contextos urbano e rural, entre 12 e 15 anos de idade. Foi utilizado um questionário sobre conhecimento em direitos e grupos focais. A maioria dos participantes afirmou que crianças e adolescentes têm direitos e deveres, contudo, apenas alguns souberam citá-los. Constataram-se semelhanças e diferenças entre os grupos. As semelhanças entre os grupos condizem com concepções difundidas na sociedade e as diferenças, às particularidades de cada contexto. Estratégias de intervenção que promovam maior reconhecimento dos direitos e deveres junto às crianças, aos adolescentes e à sociedade são sugeridas.

  7. Sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to tannic acid is due to iron deprivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wauters T; Iserentant D; Verachtert H

    2001-01-01

    Tannic acid inhibited the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth medium supplementation with more nitrogen or metal ions showed that only iron ions could restore the maximal growth rate of S. cerevisiae...

  8. Cold Osmotic Shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patching, J. W.; Rose, A. H.

    1971-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 366 is susceptible to cold osmotic shock. Exponentially growing cells from batch cultures grown in defined medium at 30 C, after being suspended in 0.8 m mannitol containing 10 mm ethylenedia-minetetraacetic acid and then resuspended in ice-cold 0.5 mm MgCl2, accumulated the nonmetabolizable solutes d-glucosamine-hydrochloride and 2-aminoisobutyrate at slower rates than unshocked cells; shocked cells retained their viability. Storage of unshocked batch-grown cells in buffer at 10 C led to an increase in ability to accumulate glucosamine, and further experiments were confined to cells grown in a chemostat under conditions of glucose limitation, thereby obviating the need for storing cells before use. A study was made of the effect of the different stages in the cold osmotic shock procedure, including the osmotic stress, the chelating agent, and the cold Mg2+-containing diluent, on viability and solute-accumulating ability. Growth of shocked cells in defined medium resembled that of unshocked cells; however, in malt extract-yeast extract-glucose-peptone medium, the shocked cells had a longer lag phase of growth and initially grew at a slower rate. Cold osmotic shock caused the release of low-molecular-weight compounds and about 6 to 8% of the cell protein. Neither the cell envelope enzymes, invertase, acid phosphatase and l-leucine-β-naphthylamidase, nor the cytoplasmic enzyme, alkaline phosphatase, were released when yeast cells were subjected to cold osmotic shock. PMID:5001201

  9. Nickel enhances telomeric silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broday, L; Cai, J; Costa, M

    1999-04-06

    Certain nickel compounds including crystalline nickel sulfide (NiS) and subsulfide (Ni3S2) are potent human and animal carcinogens. In Chinese hamster embryo cells, an X-linked senescence gene was inactivated following nickel-induced DNA methylation. Nickel also induced the inactivation of the gpt reporter gene by chromatin condensation and a DNA methylation process in a transgenic gpt+ Chinese hamster cell line (G12), which is located near a heterochromatic region. To determine if nickel can cause gene silencing independently of DNA methylation, based only on the induction of changes in chromatin structure, we measured its effect on gene silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth of yeast in the presence of nickel chloride repressed a telomeric marker gene (URA3) and resulted in a stable epigenetic switch. This phenomenon was dependent on the number of cell doubling prior to selection and also on the distance of the marker gene from the end of the chromosome. The level of TPE (telomeric position effect) increased linearly with elevations of nickel concentration. Addition of magnesium inhibited this effect, but magnesium did not silence the reporter gene by itself. The level of silencing was also assessed following treatment with other transition metals: cobalt, copper and cadmium. In the sublethal range, cobalt induced similar effects as nickel, while copper and cadmium did not change the basal level of gene expression. Silencing by copper and cadmium were evident only at concentrations of those metals where the viability was very low. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Sugar and Glycerol Transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Linda F; Fan, Qingwen; Walker, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the process of transport of sugar substrates into the cell comprises a complex network of transporters and interacting regulatory mechanisms. Members of the large family of hexose (HXT) transporters display uptake efficiencies consistent with their environmental expression and play physiological roles in addition to feeding the glycolytic pathway. Multiple glucose-inducing and glucose-independent mechanisms serve to regulate expression of the sugar transporters in yeast assuring that expression levels and transporter activity are coordinated with cellular metabolism and energy needs. The expression of sugar transport activity is modulated by other nutritional and environmental factors that may override glucose-generated signals. Transporter expression and activity is regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. Recent studies have expanded upon this suite of regulatory mechanisms to include transcriptional expression fine tuning mediated by antisense RNA and prion-based regulation of transcription. Much remains to be learned about cell biology from the continued analysis of this dynamic process of substrate acquisition.

  11. Divergence in wine characteristics produced by wild and domesticated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Hyma, Katie E; Saerens, Sofie M; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Fay, Justin C

    2011-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the primary species used by wine makers to convert sugar into alcohol during wine fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is found in vineyards, but is also found in association with oak trees and other natural sources. Although wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as other Saccharomyces species are also capable of wine fermentation, a genetically distinct group of S. cerevisiae strains is primarily used to produce wine, consistent with the idea t...

  12. Valor nutritivo de alguns ingredientes para o robalo (Centropomus parallelus Nutritive value for some ingredients for snook (Centropomus parallelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Vanacor Barroso

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Os robalos Centropomus são peixes que possuem alto valor comercial e grande importância econômica e social. Possuem potencial para aqüicultura, pois se adaptam ao confinamento e arraçoamento. O conhecimento dos requerimentos nutricionais dos robalos é básico para a elaboração de rações específicas. Para determinar a digestibilidade de alguns ingredientes utilizados em rações para peixes, trabalhou-se Centropomus parallelus, utilizando-se o farelo de soja, farelo de aveia e farelo de arroz, testados como ingredientes de rações que continham 0,5% de óxido crômico (Cr2O3 como marcador externo. A metodologia experimental foi composta de quatro tanques cilíndrico-cônicos, com volume de 60 L e 10 peixes cada, conectados a dois filtros biológicos interligados com volume útil de 100 L. O fundo dos tanques foi usado para coleta dos excrementos e as amostras foram armazenadas e, após, secas em estufa a 55,0ºC para análises. Os valores de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e energia bruta das rações foram, respectivamente: farelo de soja, 78,74%, 90,96%, 82,66%; farelo de aveia, 48,06%, 81,10%, 60,25%; farelo de arroz, 59,34%, 86,98%, 69,06% e da matéria seca digestível, proteína digestível e energia digestível dos alimentos: farelo de soja, 65,38%, 36,04%, 3497 kcal/kg; aveia, 21,36%, 9,15%, 4197 kcal/kg; farelo de arroz, 46,41%, 6,57%, 3434 kcal.The snooks Centropomus parallelus are fishes with high commercial value and social and economic importance. They have potencial to be used in aquaculture, as they accept to be confined and to be fed with ration. The knowledge of the nutritional requeriments of the snook is basic to produce especific ration. Centropomus parallelus fed soybean meal, oat meal and rice meal, tested as ration ingredients with 0.5% to chromium oxide (Cr2O3, as a external marker, were used to determine the digestibility of some ingredients used in fish ration. The experimental

  13. Todo sobre el neobarroco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Carrera

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Lo que hemos escuchado y atendido hasta aquí, hoy, ayer, sobre todo en la propuesta poética esbozada por Sergio Raimondi en su ensayo sobre Aldo Oliva, demuestra que las singularidades, su pasión, anulan subrepticiamente las nominaciones.Anoche en la televisión una orquesta sinfónica y un coro numeroso. Súbitamente, me hubiera gustado ser uno de esos intérpretes solitarios para sí, a pesar de la armonía, anónimos, a pesar del brillo sonoro… un violín, un triángulo… apenas… tres grillos… como ...

  14. Estudos sobre a psicopatia

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Kenia

    2008-01-01

    Esta dissertação é resultado de extensa pesquisa sobre a psicopatia, fenômeno psicopatológico tão recorrente no cotidiano social, porém pouco explorado, talvez pela indiscutível dificuldade técnica no manejo desses pacientes. O interesse em compreender o psicodinamismo desses indivíduos caminha paralelamente ao meu desenvolvimento profissional, tanto como pesquisadora como psicóloga clínica. Neste trabalho, utilizei além da pesquisa bibliográfica da teoria psicanalítica sobre o tema, estudos ...

  15. Habitat Predicts Levels of Genetic Admixture in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viranga Tilakaratna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic admixture can provide material for populations to adapt to local environments, and this process has played a crucial role in the domestication of plants and animals. The model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been domesticated multiple times for the production of wine, sake, beer, and bread, but the high rate of admixture between yeast lineages has so far been treated as a complication for population genomic analysis. Here, we make use of the low recombination rate at centromeres to investigate admixture in yeast using a classic Bayesian approach and a locus-by-locus phylogenetic approach. Using both approaches, we find that S. cerevisiae from stable oak woodland habitats are less likely to show recent genetic admixture compared with those isolated from transient habitats such as fruits, wine, or human infections. When woodland yeast strains do show recent genetic admixture, the degree of admixture is lower than in strains from other habitats. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae populations from oak woodlands are genetically isolated from each other, with only occasional migration between woodlands and local fruit habitats. Application of the phylogenetic approach suggests that there is a previously undetected population in North Africa that is the closest outgroup to the European S. cerevisiae, including the domesticated Wine population. Careful testing for admixture in S. cerevisiae leads to a better understanding of the underlying population structure of the species and will be important for understanding the selective processes underlying domestication in this economically important species.

  16. Ultrastructural changes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to ethanol stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Manli; Han, Pei; Zhang, Ruimin; Li, Hao

    2013-09-01

    In the fermentative process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce bioethanol, the performance of cells is often compromised by the accumulation of ethanol. However, the mechanism of how S. cerevisiae responds against ethanol stress remains elusive. In the current study, S. cerevisiae cells were cultured in YPD (yeast extract - peptone - dextrose) medium containing various concentrations of ethanol (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 15% (v/v)). Compared with the control group without ethanol, the mean cell volume of S. cerevisiae decreased significantly in the presence of 7.5% and 10% ethanol after incubation for 16 h (P < 0.05), and in the presence of 15% ethanol at all 3 sampling time points (1, 8, and 16 h) (P < 0.05). The exposure of S. cerevisiae cells to ethanol also led to an increase in malonyldialdehyde content (P < 0.05) and a decrease in sulfhydryl group content (P < 0.05). Moreover, the observations through transmission electron microscopy enabled us to relate ultrastructural changes elicited by ethanol with the cellular stress physiology. Under ethanol stress, the integrity of the cell membrane was compromised. The swelling or distortion of mitochondria together with the occurrence of a single and large vacuole was correlated with the addition of ethanol. These results suggested that the cell membrane is one of the targets of ethanol, and the degeneration of mitochondria promoted the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

  17. Efficient expression of a Paenibacillus barcinonensis endoglucanase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormeneo, María; Pastor, Fi Javier; Zueco, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The endoglucanase coded by celA (GenBank Access No. Y12512) from Paenibacillus barcinonensis, an enzyme with good characteristics for application on paper manufacture from agricultural fibers, was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using different domains of the cell wall protein Pir4 as translational fusion partners, to achieve either secretion or cell wall retention of the recombinant enzyme. Given the presence of five potential N-glycosylation sites in the amino acid sequence coded by celA, the effect of glycosylation on the enzymatic activity of the recombinant enzyme was investigated by expressing the recombinant fusion proteins in both, standard and glycosylation-deficient strains of S. cerevisiae. Correct targeting of the recombinant fusion proteins was confirmed by Western immunoblot using Pir-specific antibodies, while enzymatic activity on carboxymethyl cellulose was demonstrated on plate assays, zymographic analysis and colorimetric assays. Hyperglycosylation of the enzyme when expressed in the standard strain of S. cerevisiae did not affect activity, and values of 1.2 U/ml were obtained in growth medium supernatants in ordinary batch cultures after 24 h. These values compare quite favorably with those described for other recombinant endoglucanases expressed in S. cerevisiae. This is one of the few reports describing the expression of Bacillus cellulases in S. cerevisiae, since yeast expressed recombinant cellulases have been mostly of fungal origin. It is also the first report of the yeast expression of this particular endoglucanase.

  18. Reflexões sobre avaliação formativa em um curso da Universidade Aberta do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Abio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho queremos mostrar algumas ações avaliativas realizadas com alunos iniciantes de um curso de Pedagogia semipresencial em uma universidade do nordeste brasileiro. Estimamos que o uso de diversos tipos de avaliação e de alguns elementos de uma abordagem andragógica, mais adequada para o perfil maioritário dos alunos participantes, foram elementos favoráveis para o desenvolvimento e resultados do curso. No final, apresentamos algumas considerações gerais sobre avaliação na EaD.

  19. Entre autoridade e lei: considerações sobre o realismo político de Carl Schmitt

    OpenAIRE

    Rone Eleandro Santos

    2010-01-01

    Partindo da análise de Thomas Hobbes sobre o poder de decisão e a autoridade atribuída ao soberano para resolver questões que colocam o Estado em perigo, o presente artigo visa expor alguns conceitos importantes da filosofia política de Carl Schmitt como: o duplo amigo-inimigo, a questão do Liberalismo como inimigo político schmittiano, o decisionismo e o estado de exceção.

  20. La aventura como categoría cultural: apuntes simmelianos sobre la emigración subsahariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sarró

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2178-4582.2009v43n2p501 Este artigo é uma reflexão teórica sobre a imigração africana, tendo como referência os diálogos com os amigos na África e Europa. Uma vez que o fenômeno migratório se assemelha a uma aventura, pois envolve alguns riscos para as pessoas, eu proponho que a migração seja considerada uma categoria central nesse processo de deslocamento.

  1. Comentários sobre a interdisciplinaridade da física e físico-química

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Tiomno Tolmasquim; Bartyra de Castro Arezzo

    2002-01-01

    Além de apresentar comentários sobre as fronteiras entre a física e a físico-química, o trabalho procura ilustrar a interdisciplinaridade dessas duas ciências considerando o histórico profissional de alguns físicos e físico-químicos que desenvolveram atividades nas décadas de 1920 a 1980. Destaca, ainda, o papel desempenhado pela extinta Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia da Universidade do Brasil como forte elemento de integração entre estudantes e professores das diferentes áreas do conhecimen...

  2. Antropologia, modernidade,identidade: notas sobre a tensão entre o geral e o particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIA GEMIGNANI GARCIA

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo exploro alguns sentidos políticos do dilema entre o universal e o particular, concebido como traço distintivo do projeto moderno de uma sociedade secular, livre e igualitária. Para isso, discuto certas configurações desse dilema presentes no pensamento antropológico clássico, no pensamento político do século XIX e no debate político-cultural contemporâneo sobre o multiculturalismo e o direito às diferenças.

  3. Submissão e subversão : a complexidade dos relacionamentos entre homens e mulheres em alguns contos de Marina Colasanti

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Simone Ronqui Oliva

    2016-01-01

    Esta tese tem o objetivo de verificar a temática da complexidade dos relacionamentos entre homens e mulheres, presente em alguns contos de Marina Colasanti, escritora contemporânea da literatura brasileira. Parte-se da premissa que a autora, durante quarenta anos de produção literária (1975-2015) percorre, reiteradamente, esse tema em sua produção contística. Sendo assim, a fundamentação teórica da pesquisa foi baseada em estudos acerca da relação entre homens e mulheres, principalmente, na H...

  4. Resumen estudios sobre tabaquismo

    OpenAIRE

    Gónzalez, M.M. (M.)

    2009-01-01

    Este documento se realizó para publicar en la página Web de la Gerencia de Atención primaria del Área III. Este documento es una recopilación de estudios sobre tabaquismo. Gerencia de Atención Primaria Área III

  5. Multimedia sobre mantenimiento industrial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    ..., entre otras facilidades. Puntualizado, el mantenimiento industrial es una actividad que conserva la calidad del servicio que se presta, y sobre todo en la infraestructura existente en los centros de produccion con optimas condiciones de seguridad, eficiencia y economia. El mantenimiento es de gran importancia, pues sus objetivos son la base para un adecuado f...

  6. Genetic engineering of industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Borgne, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Genetic engineering has been successfully applied to Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains for different purposes: extension of substrate range, improvement of productivity and yield, elimination of by-products, improvement of process performance and cellular properties, and extension of product range. The potential of genetically engineered yeasts for the massive production of biofuels as bioethanol and other nonfuel products from renewable resources as lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates has been recognized. For such applications, robust industrial strains of S. cerevisiae have to be used. Here, some relevant genetic and genomic characteristics of industrial strains are discussed in relation to the problematic of the genetic engineering of such strains. General molecular tools applicable to the manipulation of S. cerevisiae industrial strains are presented and examples of genetically engineered industrial strains developed for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass are given.

  7. Directed Evolution towards Increased Isoprenoid Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Simon; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Kielland-Brandt, Morten

    pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate for large-scale microbial production of terpenoids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as production platform due to its widespread use in industrial production and the waste number of molecular biology tools which is available for its manipulation. The effort...... population of S. cerevisiae clones will afterwards be screened using the isoprenoid molecule lycopene as a model compound, hereby enabling the isolation of phenotypes producing higher amounts of isoprenoid. The property making lycopene ideal for screening is its system of 11 conjugated double bonds, which...... absorbs light within the visible range resulting in the red color of lycopene. This feature is the cause for the orange/red phenotype of S. cerevisiae strains transformed with the genes encoding lycopene and enables visual screening of yeast colonies, by searching for colonies with more intense red colony...

  8. Functional expression and evaluation of heterologous phosphoketolases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Alexandra; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoketolases catalyze an energy-and redox-independent cleavage of certain sugar phosphates. Hereby, the two-carbon (C2) compound acetyl-phosphate is formed, which enzymatically can be converted into acetyl-CoA-a key precursor in central carbon metabolism. Saccharomyces cerevisiae does...... C5 and C6 sugars towards C2-synthesis. Nine phosphoketolase candidates were expressed in S. cerevisiae of which seven produced significant amounts of acetyl-phosphate after provision of sugar phosphate substrates in vitro. The candidates showed differing substrate specificities, and some...... demonstrated activity levels significantly exceeding those of candidates previously expressed in yeast. The conducted studies also revealed that S. cerevisiae contains endogenous enzymes capable of breaking down acetyl-phosphate, likely into acetate, and that removal of the phosphatases Gpp1 and Gpp2 could...

  9. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient aerobic xylose consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scalcinati, Gionata; Otero, José Manuel; Van Vleet, Jennifer R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology aims to develop robust microbial cell factories, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce an array of added value chemicals presently dominated by petrochemical processes. Xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose and the most prevalent pentose...... flux to biomass production. Such a platform may then be enhanced with complementary metabolic engineering strategies that couple biomass production with high value-added chemical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulose kinase, from the native xylose......-metabolizing yeast Pichia stipitis, was constructed, followed by a directed evolution strategy to improve xylose utilization rates. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain was capable of rapid growth and fast xylose consumption producing only biomass and negligible amount of byproducts. Transcriptional profiling...

  10. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular...... stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent......, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion...

  11. Regulation of Cation Balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyert, Martha S.; Philpott, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    All living organisms require nutrient minerals for growth and have developed mechanisms to acquire, utilize, and store nutrient minerals effectively. In the aqueous cellular environment, these elements exist as charged ions that, together with protons and hydroxide ions, facilitate biochemical reactions and establish the electrochemical gradients across membranes that drive cellular processes such as transport and ATP synthesis. Metal ions serve as essential enzyme cofactors and perform both structural and signaling roles within cells. However, because these ions can also be toxic, cells have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to regulate their levels and avoid toxicity. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have characterized many of the gene products and processes responsible for acquiring, utilizing, storing, and regulating levels of these ions. Findings in this model organism have often allowed the corresponding machinery in humans to be identified and have provided insights into diseases that result from defects in ion homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of how cation balance is achieved and modulated in baker’s yeast. Control of intracellular pH is discussed, as well as uptake, storage, and efflux mechanisms for the alkali metal cations, Na+ and K+, the divalent cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, and the trace metal ions, Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+. Signal transduction pathways that are regulated by pH and Ca2+ are reviewed, as well as the mechanisms that allow cells to maintain appropriate intracellular cation concentrations when challenged by extreme conditions, i.e., either limited availability or toxic levels in the environment. PMID:23463800

  12. Regulation of cation balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyert, Martha S; Philpott, Caroline C

    2013-03-01

    All living organisms require nutrient minerals for growth and have developed mechanisms to acquire, utilize, and store nutrient minerals effectively. In the aqueous cellular environment, these elements exist as charged ions that, together with protons and hydroxide ions, facilitate biochemical reactions and establish the electrochemical gradients across membranes that drive cellular processes such as transport and ATP synthesis. Metal ions serve as essential enzyme cofactors and perform both structural and signaling roles within cells. However, because these ions can also be toxic, cells have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to regulate their levels and avoid toxicity. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have characterized many of the gene products and processes responsible for acquiring, utilizing, storing, and regulating levels of these ions. Findings in this model organism have often allowed the corresponding machinery in humans to be identified and have provided insights into diseases that result from defects in ion homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of how cation balance is achieved and modulated in baker's yeast. Control of intracellular pH is discussed, as well as uptake, storage, and efflux mechanisms for the alkali metal cations, Na(+) and K(+), the divalent cations, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), and the trace metal ions, Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Mn(2+). Signal transduction pathways that are regulated by pH and Ca(2+) are reviewed, as well as the mechanisms that allow cells to maintain appropriate intracellular cation concentrations when challenged by extreme conditions, i.e., either limited availability or toxic levels in the environment.

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Appel-da-Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line. Keywords: Saccharomyces, Probiotics, Fungemia, Critical illness, Clostridium difficile

  14. Understanding the 3-hydroxypropionic acid tolerance mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Juncker, Agnieszka; Hallstrom, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    a sustainable alternative for production of acrylic acid from renewable feedstocks. We are establishing Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an alternative host for 3HP production. However, 3HP also inhibits yeast grow th at level well below what is desired for commercial applications. Therefore, we are aiming...... to improve 3HP tolerance in S. cerevisiae by applying adaptive evolution approach. We have generated yeast strains with sign ificantly improved capacity for tolerating 3HP when compared to the wild-type. We will present physiolo gical characterization, genome re-sequencing, and transcriptome analysis...

  15. A temática da humanização na saúde: alguns apontamentos para debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir da Silva Souza

    Full Text Available A humanização na saúde é tematizada segundo uma digressão sociohistórica sobre as bases do humanismo no Ocidente e sua atual diluição em diversos setores da vida social; diluição esta qualificada com um tom positivo, essencialista, que contribui para que o humanismo seja identificado como um "bem sagrado" ou uma grife. Buscando problematizar esta questão, foram considerados os documentos produzidos pela Política Nacional de Humanização, confrontando o princípio constitucional da integralidade com a orientação da humanização. Nos documentos, a perspectiva da "produção da saúde" engloba: a atenção ou prestação do cuidado (práticas profissionais, a gestão dos processos de trabalho e a participação dos usuários ou controle social no interior dos processos de trabalho na saúde. Conclui-se que discutir humanização significa: rever idealizações que desconsideram os limites do humano, admitir o conflito como motor de negociações, e colocar em análise a forma como os grupos se organizam em seus processos de trabalho.

  16. Alguns métodos estatísticos voltados às Unidades de Informação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luiz Pinto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa mostrar algumas técnicas estatísticas aplicadas na gestão informacional nas unidades de informação através da utilização de métodos de mensuração e métricas quantitativas atreladas a estudos relacionados à bibliometria, cienciometria, econometria entre outros. Os estudos envolvendo estatística podem ser descritivos, para construção de indicadores, inferencial através de modelos teóricos ou empíricos. As técnicas estatísticas permitem que de base de dados sejam extraídas informações relevantes à tomada de decisão.  Assim, será brevemente explanando sobre probabilidade, distribuição de frequência, séries estatísticas, covariância e correlação, regressão linear e números índices.

  17. Filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Filamentação em Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal dimorphism is a complex phenomenon triggered by a large variety of environmental factors and consists of a reversible alternating pattern of growth between different elliptical and filamentous forms of cells. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate these events is of major interest because of their implications in fungal pathogenesis, cell differentiation and industry. Diploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transform from budding yeast to pseudohyphae when starved for nitrogen, giving the cells an advantage in food foraging, which is sensed by at least two signal transduction pathways: the MAP kinase (MAPK and the PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathways. The output of these signalling pathways is the expression of pseudohypha-specific genes, whose expression profiles change and is accompanied by a G2 delay in the cell cycle and a prolonged period of polarized growth. Haploid yeast strains show a similar growth type after prolonged incubation on rich medium plates. The cells form chains and invade the agar on the edge of the colony, but they do not become elongated. This growth type is referred to as haploid invasive growth. Alcohols can also induce filamentous growth in S. cerevisiae, promoting aberrant and elongated morphology. The three forms of filamentous growth are revised in this article and also the pathways involved in sensing, signaling and signal transduction during filamentous growth.O dimorfismo em fungos é um fenômeno complexo acionado por um grande número de fatores ambientais e consiste num padrão alternante e reversível de crescimento, oscilando entre formas elípticas e filamentosas de células. É de grande importância o entendimento dos mecanismos que regulam esses eventos devido as suas implicações na patogenicidade, diferenciação celular e indústria. Células diplóides de Saccharomyces cerevisiae mudam de células brotantes para pseudohifas quando em condições limitantes de nitrogênio, o que

  18. Escrito sobre el cuerpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Malalana Ureña

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El catálogo, en una edición bilingüe español-inglés, es una pequeña guía de la exposición Shirin Neshat. Escrito sobre el cuerpo, muestra que se integra dentro de los actos de PHOTOESPAÑA13, el festival internacional de fotografía y artes visuales. El esquema del libro es sencillo y los textos son extremadamente divulgativos. El primero de ellos, Escrito sobre el cuerpo (pp. 10-15, cuyo autor es Octavio Zaya, comisario de la exposición, resume la trayectoria de esta intelectual, que "interactúa" con la fotografía y los formatos audiovisuales, y nos presenta la argumentación narrativa de los documentos expuestos, contextualizando la obra recopilada.

  19. Inferencias sobre Grafos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira M. Allende

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de un juego puede ser modelado asumiendo que solo algunas partidas son observadas. Entonces el árbol del juego debe ser estimado utilizando información muestral. Similarmente ocurre al obtener información sobre el comportamiento de las decisiones tomadas por individuos muestreados sobre un árbol de decisión teórico. Al considerar una medida de probabilidad que caracterice el comportamiento de redes aleatorias se puede obtener un estimado del árbol asociado. Este problema es el analizado en este trabajo. Algunos resultados experimentales obtenidos usando Recocido Simulado ilustran el procedimiento. Su papel en el estudio de modelos económicos y de mercadeo es discutido.

  20. Tesis sobre municipalismo libertario

    OpenAIRE

    Bookchin, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Históricamente, la teoría y la práctica social radical se han centrado sobre dos campos de la actividad social humana: el lugar de trabajo y la comunidad. A partir de la creación del Estado-nación y de la Revolución Industrial, la economía ha ido adquiriendo una posición predominante sobre la comunidad; y no sólo en la ideología capitalista, sino también en los diferentes socialismos, libertarios y autoritarios, que han ido apareciendo en el último siglo. Este cambio de posición del socialism...

  1. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  2. Carta sobre una estampilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Navarro

    1962-05-01

    Full Text Available Queridos compañeros colombianos del arte: la última carta que me llega de vuestro país me ha impresionado de forma inesperada tan solo con caer en mis manos, sin rasgar el sobre ni tener tiempo de conocer el remitente. Es una carta como cualquier otra: señor Fulano de Tal, calle cual, Madrid, España.

  3. Some polemical issues in Applied Linguistics Alguns temas polêmicos na disciplina de linguística aplicada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robert Schmitz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I look at three polemical issues in Applied Linguistics. I argue, first of all, that the desire for a stable definition of applied linguistics has by no means prevented research in the discipline. Secondly, I contend that the notion or "tradition" of "linguistics applied" (corpus linguistics or lexicography is broader and more serious than "applicationism" (the use of linguistic formalisms, artificial practices, and terminology in teaching material that are problematic and motivated by commercial interests. Thirdly, I argue that Educational Linguistics and Applied Linguistics have overlapping research objectives. In the course of the paper, I present some reservations about Educational Linguistics.Neste trabalho, examino três temas polêmicos na disciplina de Linguística Aplicada. Argumento, em primeiro lugar, que o desejo de uma definição estável de Linguística Aplicada, de nenhuma forma, tem impedido a pesquisa no âmbito da disciplina. Em segundo lugar, argumento que a "Linguistics Applied" (a linguística do corpus ou a lexicologia são muito mais abrangentes e sérias do que as práticas "aplicacionistas" (o uso de formalismo, artificialismos e nomenclatura em material didático que são problemáticos e motivados por interesses comerciais. Em terceiro lugar, argumento que a Linguística Educacional e a Linguística Aplicada têm objetivos de pesquisa que se sobrepõem. No decorrer do trabalho, apresento algumas reservas minhas sobre a Linguística Educacional.

  4. Conhecendo alguns termos técnicos em inglês usados no curso de Edificações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Ponciano Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma visão geral sobre os resultados de uma pesquisa voltada para termos técnicos em inglês, utilizados no curso Técnico em Edificações. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é proporcionar aos discentes de Língua Inglesa uma definição simples e breve de termos técnicos em Inglês que são frequentemente usados no curso. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de anotações pessoais e de material impresso dos discentes. Os procedimentos utilizados foram: identificação dos termos técnicos, sua organização em ordem alfabética e escrita de seus significados correspondentes em uma lista de termos que foi digitada e salva no Microsoft Word. Os pressupostos teóricos estão ancorados em conceitos de Lexicografia e Terminografia segundo Welker (2004 e Bevilacqua e Finatto (2006 como também em Lexicologia e Terminologia na perspectiva de Krieger (2006, 2011. Como resultado, produziu-se um glossário com 422 termos que podem ser acessados por um link do programa 4shared. O glossário também apresenta termos relacionados aos programas AutoCAD e Sketchup. Ele pode ser usado como uma ferramenta para ampliar o vocabulário técnico do discente e preencher pequenas lacunas em termos de material específico em Inglês, especialmente para os discentes que acabam de ingressar no curso Técnico em Edificações dos Institutos Federais. Esta pesquisa mostra uma maneira significativa de promover a aprendizagem do Inglês no ensino Técnico Integrado ao Ensino Médio, para além das aulas tradicionais

  5. Effects of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LORD

    2012-05-25

    May 25, 2012 ... The present work evaluated the effect of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on meat and intestinal ... intestinal and meat microbial properties of Japanese quails, in the probiotic cases, a significant reduction in the ..... Temporal effects of lactic acid bacteria probiotic culture on Salmonella ...

  6. Interaction between Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2015-08-03

    During wine fermentation, Saccharomyces clearly dominate over non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, and several factors could be related to this dominance. However, the main factor causing the reduction of cultivable non-Saccharomyces populations has not yet been fully established. In the present study, various single and mixed fermentations were performed to evaluate some of the factors likely responsible for the interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum. Alcoholic fermentation was performed in compartmented experimental set ups with ratios of 1:1 and 1:9 and the cultivable population of both species was followed. The cultivable H. uvarum population decreased sharply at late stages when S. cerevisiae was present in the other compartment, similarly to alcoholic fermentations in non-compartmented vessels. Thus, cell-to-cell contact did not seem to be the main cause for the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum. Other compounds related to fermentation performance (such as sugar and ethanol) and/or certain metabolites secreted by S. cerevisiae could be related to the sharp decrease in H. uvarum cultivability. When these factors were analyzed, it was confirmed that metabolites from S. cerevisiae induced lack of cultivability in H. uvarum, however ethanol and other possible compounds did not seem to induce this effect but played some role during the process. This study contributes to a new understanding of the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum populations during the late stages of wine fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the late ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... substrate inhibition as described above 150 g L-1 (Erdei et al., 2010). In the first 16 h (logarithmic phase), a great increase in ethanol formation in the broth was detected, accom- panied by the S. cerevisiae cells growing quickly, and during which more than half of the ethanol was produced. Then, it showed ...

  8. Slow growth, stress response and aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, Victor Jacob

    2004-01-01

    The unicellular organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a modelsystem to study aging at the cellular level. It is known that limiting the amount of calories used by cells can lead to an extension of lifespan. This thesis shows that by applying controlled slow growth circumstances, cells

  9. Effects of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work evaluated the effect of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on meat and intestinal microbial properties of Japanese quails. Twenty-four (24) 1-day-old Japanese quails were obtained from a commercial hatchery. The birds were randomly divided into 2 groups. The dietary treatments ...

  10. SORPTION OF Au(III BY Saccharomyces cerevisiae BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaria Amaria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Au(III sorption by S. cerevisiae biomass extracted from beer waste industry was investigated. Experimentally, the sorption was conducted in batch method. This research involved five steps: 1 identification the functional groups present in the S. cerevisiae biomass by infrared spectroscopic technique, 2 determination of optimum pH, 3 determination of the sorption capacity and energy, 4 determination of the sorption type by conducting desorption of sorbed Au(III using specific eluents having different desorption capacity such as H2O (van der Waals, KNO3 (ion exchange, HNO3 (hydrogen bond, and tiourea (coordination bond, 5 determination of effective eluents in Au(III desorption by partial desorption of sorbed Au(III using thiourea, NaCN and KI. The remaining Au(III concentrations in filtrate were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed that: 1 Functional groups of S. cerevisiae biomass that involved in the sorption processes were hydroxyl (-OH, carboxylate (-COO- and amine (-NH2, 2 maximum sorption was occurred at pH 4, equal to 98.19% of total sorption, 3 The sorption capacity of biomass was 133.33 mg/g (6.7682E-04 mol/g and was involved sorption energy 23.03 kJ mol-1, 4 Sorption type was dominated by coordination bond, 5 NaCN was effective eluent to strip Au(III close to 100%.   Keywords: sorption, desorption, S. cerevisiae biomass, Au(III

  11. Information propagation within the Genetic Network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sharif; Lloyd-Price, Jason; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Baici, Wayne C V; Hughes, Timothy R; Yli-Harja, Olli; Chua, Gordon; Ribeiro, Andre S

    2010-10-26

    A gene network's capacity to process information, so as to bind past events to future actions, depends on its structure and logic. From previous and new microarray measurements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae following gene deletions and overexpressions, we identify a core gene regulatory network (GRN) of functional interactions between 328 genes and the transfer functions of each gene. Inferred connections are verified by gene enrichment. We find that this core network has a generalized clustering coefficient that is much higher than chance. The inferred Boolean transfer functions have a mean p-bias of 0.41, and thus similar amounts of activation and repression interactions. However, the distribution of p-biases differs significantly from what is expected by chance that, along with the high mean connectivity, is found to cause the core GRN of S. cerevisiae's to have an overall sensitivity similar to critical Boolean networks. In agreement, we find that the amount of information propagated between nodes in finite time series is much higher in the inferred core GRN of S. cerevisiae than what is expected by chance. We suggest that S. cerevisiae is likely to have evolved a core GRN with enhanced information propagation among its genes.

  12. Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

  13. In vitro characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HM535662 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A predominant yeast designated as SB1 was isolated from Bhaturu, a traditional fermented food of Western Himalayas and was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae - HM535662 on the basis of ribosomal gene (partial 18S, complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), complete 5.8S, complete ITS2 and partial 28S ...

  14. Chromium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and isolation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    amounts of chromium ions were optimal for yeast growth. GTF was extracted and purified from the biomass enriched with Cr3+ ions. Purified GTF extracts were added to the synthetic medium to establish its impact on the alcohol fermentation and the growth rate of the yeast. S. cerevisiae. 2. Materials and methods. The yeast ...

  15. Effects of mycotoxins on the fermenting activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafont, J.; Romand, A.; Lafont, P.

    1981-05-01

    The rate of fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is partially inhibited by different mycotoxins. This effect is remarkable with T2-toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol, slight with aflatoxin-B1, penicillic acid and patulin. On the contrary, the butenolide appears as a stimulator of the alcoholic fermentation. (Refs. 17).

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the late ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA microarray analysis was used to investigate the expression profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes in glycolysis pathway, trehalose and steroid biosynthesis and heat shock proteins (HSP) in response to harsh environment under the late stage of very high gravity (VHG) fermentation. The data show that only a few ...

  17. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, sugar beet pulp and raw juice were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae distillery yeasts and bacterium Zymomonas mobilis. Different medium dilution rate as well as yeasts preparations (Fermiol, Safdistil C-70) were investigated. Fermentation was run for 72 h at 30°C. Quality of obtained raw distillates ...

  18. Capturing of the monoterpene olefin limonene produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, E.J.; Cankar, K.; Ranzijn, J.; Krol, van der A.R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Monoterpene olefins such as limonene are plant compounds with applications as flavouring and fragrance agents, as solvents and potentially also in polymer and fuel chemistry. We engineered baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express a (-)-limonene synthase from Perilla frutescens and a

  19. Effects of dietary L-threonine and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary L-threonine and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on performance, intestinal morphology and immune response of broiler chickens. ... Growth performance traits including weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded at the end of each week. At the end of the experiment eight birds per ...

  20. Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass in papaya extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of papaya fruit were used as substrate for single cell protein (SCP) production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 500 g of papaya fruit was extracted with different volumes of sterile distilled water. Extraction with 200 mL of sterile distilled water sustained highest cell growth. Biochemical analysis of dry biomass ...

  1. Novel feeding strategies for Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS2155 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dual behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose feed as function of the dilution rate near the critical specific growth rate (ì=0.25) is a bottleneck in industrial production, hence the need for more efficient feeding strategies. In this work novel feeding strategies have been generated and evaluated. For each feeding ...

  2. Effect of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) supple-mentation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total number of one hundred and sixty five (165) unsexed day old Cobb® 500 broiler chicks were randomly allotted into five (5) dietary groups in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation on the growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical ...

  3. The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on performance and nutrients digestibility in broilers fed with diet containing different levels of phosphorous. ... CP and mineral utilization in deficient-NPP diets by YC resulted in increased availability of P and Ca to the broilers, which could have led to improved growth performance.

  4. Évaluation du pouvoir fermentaire de Saccharomyces cerevisiae et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Évaluation du pouvoir fermentaire de Saccharomyces cerevisiae et de S. carlsbergensis dans la production de bioéthanol à partir du jus de la pomme cajou. ... and density, showed a great variability of these parameters during the fermentation process in the presence and absence of urea (CON2H4), used as growth factor.

  5. Mead features fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lalvin k1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is prepared as a handmade product. The origin of the honey used to formulate the mead creates differences on the final product characteristics. In this study, fermentation occurred at temperatures of about 22.1 ± 0.4°C after a previous pasteurization and inoculation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (K1-LALVIN 1116) was used ...

  6. Adsorption and Interfacial Electron Transfer of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Glargaard; Boisen, Anja; Nielsen, Jens Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the adsorption and electron-transfer dynamics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) iso-l-cytochrome c adsorbed on Au(lll) electrodes in aqueous phosphate buffer media. This cytochrome possesses a thiol group dos e to the protein surface (Cysl02) suitable for linking the protein...

  7. Silver Uptake and Reuse of Biomass by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out on the recovery of bound silver and reuse of Chlorella emersonii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass for further silver uptake after they were placed in contact with 20mg/l silver for 30 minutes to allow for maximum binding. It was found that 0.16M nitric acid gave the best recovery rates of silver.

  8. Metabolic impact of redox cofactor perturbations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Lages, Nuno; Oldiges, M.

    2009-01-01

    to induce widespread changes in metabolism. We present a detailed analysis of the impact of perturbations in redox cofactors in the cytosol or mitochondria on glucose and energy metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to aid metabolic engineering decisions that involve cofactor engineering. We enhanced NADH...

  9. 2μ plasmid in Saccharomyces species and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strope, Pooja K; Kozmin, Stanislav G; Skelly, Daniel A; Magwene, Paul M; Dietrich, Fred S; McCusker, John H

    2015-12-01

    We determined that extrachromosomal 2μ plasmid was present in 67 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 100-genome strains; in addition to variation in the size and copy number of 2μ, we identified three distinct classes of 2μ. We identified 2μ presence/absence and class associations with populations, clinical origin and nuclear genotypes. We also screened genome sequences of S. paradoxus, S. kudriavzevii, S. uvarum, S. eubayanus, S. mikatae, S. arboricolus and S. bayanus strains for both integrated and extrachromosomal 2μ. Similar to S. cerevisiae, we found no integrated 2μ sequences in any S. paradoxus strains. However, we identified part of 2μ integrated into the genomes of some S. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae and S. bayanus strains, which were distinct from each other and from all extrachromosomal 2μ. We identified extrachromosomal 2μ in one S. paradoxus, one S. eubayanus, two S. bayanus and 13 S. uvarum strains. The extrachromosomal 2μ in S. paradoxus, S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae were distinct from each other. In contrast, the extrachromosomal 2μ in S. bayanus and S. uvarum strains were identical with each other and with one of the three classes of S. cerevisiae 2μ, consistent with interspecific transfer. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Reducing the genetic complexity of glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solis Escalante, D.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolysis, a biochemical pathway that oxidizes glucose to pyruvate, is at the core of sugar metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers’ yeast). Glycolysis is not only a catabolic route involved in energy conservation, but also provides building blocks for anabolism. From an applied perspective,

  11. Investigation of nutrient sensing in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine

    2006-01-01

    Gæren Saccharomyces cerevisiae har udviklet komplekse regulatoriske systemer til at kontrollere ekspression af de proteiner, der importerer næringsstoffer, således at disse kun bliver produceret, når der er brug for dem. Dette er tilfældet for hexose-transportører samt aminosyre-transportører (di...

  12. Recycling carbon dioxide during xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we introduced the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) into an engineered S. cerevisiae (SR8) harboring the XR/XDH pathway and up-regulated PPP 10, to enable CO2 recycling through a synthetic rPPP during xylose fermentation (Fig. 1). ...

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Karathia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Model organisms are used for research because they provide a framework on which to develop and optimize methods that facilitate and standardize analysis. Such organisms should be representative of the living beings for which they are to serve as proxy. However, in practice, a model organism is often selected ad hoc, and without considering its representativeness, because a systematic and rational method to include this consideration in the selection process is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we propose such a method and apply it in a pilot study of strengths and limitations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. The method relies on the functional classification of proteins into different biological pathways and processes and on full proteome comparisons between the putative model organism and other organisms for which we would like to extrapolate results. Here we compare S. cerevisiae to 704 other organisms from various phyla. For each organism, our results identify the pathways and processes for which S. cerevisiae is predicted to be a good model to extrapolate from. We find that animals in general and Homo sapiens in particular are some of the non-fungal organisms for which S. cerevisiae is likely to be a good model in which to study a significant fraction of common biological processes. We validate our approach by correctly predicting which organisms are phenotypically more distant from S. cerevisiae with respect to several different biological processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The method we propose could be used to choose appropriate substitute model organisms for the study of biological processes in other species that are harder to study. For example, one could identify appropriate models to study either pathologies in humans or specific biological processes in species with a long development time, such as plants.

  14. QUEM PODE FALAR NO FACEBOOK? O “AUTOCONTROLE” EM UM GRUPO SOBRE O PLEBISCITO ACERCA DA DIVISÃO DO ESTADO DO PARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fabrino Mendonça

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto discute a legitimação ou contestação do direito à fala em um grupo do facebook, criado por ocasião do plebiscito sobre a divisão do Pará. Depois de contextualizar o caso, o grupo sob investigação e a metodologia empregada, o artigo analisa as falas e busca estabelecer alguns paralelos entre os argumentos sobre a legitimidade dos falantes e dois corpos de literatura: (1 a discussão sobre a tendência de formação, na internet, de comunidades like-minded; e (2 os debates atuais em torno do conceito de representação política.

  15. In vitro screening of probiotic properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii and food-borne Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aa Kuhle, Alis; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jespersen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    to the nontumorigenic porcine jejunal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) was investigated by incorporation of H-3-methionine into the yeast cells and use of liquid scintillation counting. Only few of the food-borne S. cerevisiae strains exhibited noteworthy adhesiveness with the strongest levels of adhesion (13...

  16. Alguns conceitos de loucura entre a psiquiatria e a saúde mental: diálogos entre os opostos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco da Costa Júnior

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta parte dos resultados de uma pesquisa bibliográfi ca sobre os conceitos de loucura na Psiquiatria e na Saúde Mental. Foram analisadas publicações indexadas na base de dados LILACS entre 1999 e 2004. A pesquisa mais ampla foi feita por áreas temáticas e, no presente artigo, nos concentramos em duas delas: as que afi rmam conceitos de loucura como doença médica e as que defi nem loucura rejeitando explicitamente a concepção psiquiátrica de loucura, mas o fazem discutindo a loucura baseadas em concepções que mantêm diálogo com os objetos perceptivos (diagnósticos descritivos que a Psiquiatria concebeu ao longo de sua história. Estas últimas conceituações, que por vezes são chamadas de alternativas mas freqüentemente são anteriores aos conceitos atuais da Psiquiatria (da loucura como doença genética, por exemplo, apontam construtos teóricos que afirmam uma concepção de mente (de psicológico desde um modo mais individualizado até como algo resultante das inter-relações sociais. Discute-se, por fi m, como esses conceitos de loucura fazem parte de concepções de mundo (e, conseqüentemente, de ser humano distintas e mesmo mutuamente excludentes em relação aos conceitos propriamente psiquiátricos, sendo que há uma visão de mundo mais naturalista na Psiquiatria e, na Saúde Mental, uma visão mais sociológica e coletivista, e elas têm entrado em choque para além das problematizações teóricas em torno da loucura.

  17. O darwinismo e o sagrado na segunda metade do século XIX: alguns aspectos ideológicos e metafísicos do debate Darwinism and "the sacred" during the second half of the 19 th century: some ideological and metaphysical features of the debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanma Sánchez Arteaga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa alguns aspectos ideológicos e metafísicos da transformação do imaginário ocidental sobre a origem da espécie humana - a velha questão, "quem somos?", respondida de formas diversas pelo cristianismo e pela biologia evolutiva - na segunda metade do século XIX. Nesse período passa-se do predomínio da antropogênese cristã ao das explicações evolucionistas. Analisa-se a confrontação histórica que teve lugar, nesse período, entre alguns dos principais defensores científicos do evolucionismo materialista - Haeckel, Clémence Royer e Huxley - e os defensores de uma antropologia anti-evolucionista e cristã. Analisam-se brevemente os pontos principais da crítica de Darwin à religião e algumas similitudes e discrepâncias de sua crítica ao pensamento religioso com relação à realizada por Marx no mesmo período. Determinados aspectos ideológico-metafísicos foram componentes essenciais do discurso darwinista na sua luta para se impor às narrativas do cristianismo sobre a origem do ser humano.This paper analyzes some of the ideological and metaphysical features of the historical transformation of Western imaginary on human origins, during the second half of 19th Century. In this period, predominance of the Christian Natural Theology accounts about anthropogenesis gave place to a new paradigm, based on evolutionary biological explanations. We thus analyze the historical confrontation that took place between prominent materialistic scientists - Haeckel, Royer, Huxley - defending evolutionary theories, on one hand, and advocates of a non-evolutionist anthropology linked to Christian believe in Creation, on the other. This paper analyzes the main features of Darwin's criticism of religious thought, based on naturalistic basis, and presents some similarities and differences with the critique of religion made by Marx in the same period. Darwinism included some metaphysical and ideological elements as essential parts of

  18. Sobre o transcendental prático e a dialética da sociabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Lopes dos Santos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ao escrever Apresentação do mundo: considerações sobre o pensamento de Ludwig Wittgenstein, as intenções de José Arthur Giannotti não eram principalmente exegéticas. Ele pretendia trilhar alguns caminhos abertos por Ludwig Wittgenstein no intuito de lidar com suas próprias obsessões filosóficas. Neste artigo, mostro por que e como algumas das linhas de pensamento de Wittgenstein ajudaram Giannotti a clarear logicamente alguns de seus próprios temas filosóficos obsessivos: o transcendental prático e a dialética da sociabilidade.In writing Presentation of the World: considerations on the thought of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Giannotti's intentions were not primarily exegetical. He aimed to follow some of Wittgenstein's conceptual pathways in order to deal with his own philosophical obsessions. In this paper, I show why and how some of Wittgenstein's lines of thought helped Giannotti to logically clarify a couple of his own obsessive philosophical themes: the practical transcendental and the dialectic of sociability.

  19. Conflitos morais insolúveis e teorias normativas: uma abordagem preliminar sobre consistência moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren de Lacerda Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda dois tópicos específicos em ética: o problema dos conflitos morais em filosofia e a questáo da consistência em teorias morais. A relaçáo entre conflitos morais e consistência moral estabelecida neste trabalho foi realizada graças à natureza de alguns tipos de conflitos morais, a saber: os insolúveis ou genuínos - que seráo explicados ao longo do trabalho. Conflitos desse tipo sáo capazes de causar inconsistências nas normas de certos sistemas morais, como por exemplo, os preponderantemente racionalistas. Partindo desse problema, os autores que se dispõe a trabalhar este tema demonstram opiniões divididas: alguns optam por defender a genuinidade dos conflitos morais insolúveis e consideram as eventuais inconsistências na teoria moral como secundárias, enquanto outros optam por salvaguardar a lógica do pensamento e das teorias morais, negando os conflitos morais insolúveis. Este artigo busca esboçar tal “divisáo” entre os autores, ao explorar brevemente as argumentações de ambas as partes. Por fim, fica demonstrado que uma discussáo sobre consistência e conflitos morais precisa considerar tanto a esfera metaética quanto a esfera normativa da ética.

  20. Formação de professores de espanhol para crianças no Brasil: alguns caminhos possíveis Spanish teacher education and the teaching of spanish to children in Brazil: some possible ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretel Eres Fernández

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura delinear a atual situação do ensino de espanhol como língua estrangeira para crianças brasileiras. Partimos das questões legais que envolvem a aprendizagem e o ensino a crianças nos primeiros anos do Ensino Fundamental e que apresentam uma lacuna na qual é possível incluir o ensino de língua estrangeira antes do proposto nas referidas leis. Apoiamo-nos, também, nas teorias de desenvolvimento propostas por Piaget (1967 e Vygotsky (1993 que descrevem as etapas pelas quais as crianças passam. Fundamentamo-nos, ainda, nos postulados sobre aquisição/aprendizagem de línguas estrangeiras de Krashen (1995 bem como na hipótese do input compreensível, na medida em que entendemos que interage com a teoria vygostkyana sobre a zona de desenvolvimento proximal (ZDP. Além disso, tomamos como base os estudos de Cameron (2001 sobre ensino e aprendizagem de línguas estrangeiras para crianças, nos quais são criticados alguns pontos da teoria de Piaget, entre eles a limitação etária que o pesquisador afirmava que as crianças apresentam. Valemo-nos, ainda, do trabalho de Carranza (2002 que concorda com a hipótese do filtro afetivo formulada por Krashen que, segundo aquela pesquisadora, atua diretamente no processo de aquisição da língua estrangeira. Este artigo, com base na pesquisa no qual se apóia, oferece, também, algumas sugestões de atividades para o ensino de línguas estrangeiras para crianças e, por fim, recomenda a implantação de cursos de formação de professores de espanhol como língua estrangeira para crianças, uma vez que, até este momento, não se tem notícia da existência de um programa como esse.Este trabajo busca delinear la situación actual de la enseñanza de español como lengua extranjera a niños brasileños. Partimos de las cuestiones legales que atañen a la enseñanza y al aprendizaje de niños en los primeros años de la Enseñanza Fundamental y que presentan un hueco en el que

  1. Sobre crescimento economico otimo

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Benedito Schneider

    1982-01-01

    Resumo: No Capitulo I, após apresentaçâo do debate sobre implicações ideológicas no uso da Matemãtica em Economia, é feita uma análise das principais linhas teóricas dos modelos de crescimento econômico. Essa análise tem como referencial a instabilidade inerente ao crescimento da economia capitalista, demonstrada no modelo de Harrod-Dornar. Termina definindo a teoria de crescimento econômico ótimo, mostrando porque o modelo de von Neumann é o mais significativo desta classe. o Capitulo I...

  2. Visiones sobre el poder

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez Vélez, Marco Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Las siguientes consideraciones se ocuparán de concepciones sobre el poder, emanadas de teóricos con diversa orientación epistémica e ideológica, tan disímiles como pueden ser los nombres de Marx, Foucault, Luhmann, Max Weber y Elías Canetti. Coinciden los primeros en una apreciación estructural del poder más allá de sus divergencias en el enfoque del mismo. The following considerations will deal with conceptions about the power emanating from diverse theoretical and ideologi...

  3. Consentimento e vulnerabilidade:alguns cruzamentos entre o abuso sexual infantil e o tráfico de pessoas para fim de exploração sexual*

    OpenAIRE

    Lowenkron,Laura

    2015-01-01

    ResumoA partir da aproximação entre alguns aspectos da definição e da gestão dos problemas do "abuso sexual infantil" e do "tráfico de pessoas para fim de exploração sexual" enquanto problemas sociais, o artigo argumenta que consentimento e vulnerabilidadesão conceitos chaves e complementares para a compreensão dos regimes contemporâneos de regulação jurídica das sexualidades e das sensibilidades sociais e políticas em relação à violência. Ao analisar os pressupostos do conceito de consentime...

  4. Culturas y literaturas de África y América: algunos nexos = Culturas e literaturas de África e América: alguns nexos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizarro, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, esboçam-se alguns vínculos culturais e literários entre a África e a América, assumindo que esses continentes têm uma história comum de relação colonial. Por uma parte, assinala-se uma presença africana concreta na América através da escravidão. Essa presença esteve acompanhada de um racismo que hoje ainda persiste, mas ela também trouxe sólidos imaginários e práticas de abertura tais como as músicas mulatas, o cimarronaje, o criolo e a criolização entre outros. Na atualidade, observa-se a instauração problemática de alguns novos vínculos turísticos, midiáticos e artísticos da América com a África no contexto global. Por outra parte, exploram-se as articulações literárias entre ambos os continentes desde o início do século XX, através do influxo de vanguardas, de negritude, de escritores caribenhos, de processos de descolonização, de assunção da oralidade e de uma escritura da diferença cultural. Concluímos constatando o paradoxo de um vínculo metropolitano e colonial que hoje, mais que antes, facilita as aproximações e as comparações, uma vez que segue condicionando a produção literária e culturas de ambos os continentes

  5. A CRISE DA IGREJA CATÓLICA: ALGUNS DADOS EMPÍRICOS E PERSPECTIVAS TEOLÓGICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Silva Soler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o resultado de pesquisa realizada, em 2012, pelo Centro de Políticas Públicas e o Instituto de Sociologia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Chile sobre a Igreja Católica nesse país. Os dados do estudo mostram uma situação de crise do catolicismo chileno. Tal crise tem causas diversas, intra e extra eclesial: mudança cultural profunda, crise de identidade missionária da Igreja, crise de fé, crise de confiança, crise que convida a uma nova evangelização. A constatação dos limites da presença e influência da Igreja católica na era pós-moderna constitui desafio oportuno para se afirmar a importância da proposta do Cristianismo como caminho para a felicidade pessoal e para ajudar a construir uma sociedade onde reinem a justiça, a paz e a liberdade. O autêntico cristão vive a fé comprometido com a realidade integral do ser humano e da sociedade. Tal empenho se vincula ao sentido escatológico da fé e da vida eclesial. Os cristãos são chamados a manter viva a esperança, procurando superar a crise através da vivência da conversão e do perdão no seguimento de Jesus Cristo, sempre atentos aos sinais dos tempos. ABSTRACT: The article looks at the result of research carried out in 2012, by the Center for Public Policy and the Institute of Sociology of the Catholic University of Chile on the Catholic Church in that country. The data of the study show a crisis situation of Chilean Catholicism. This crisis has many causes, intra and extra ecclesial: a profound cultural change, a crisis of the Church’s missionary identity, a crisis of confidence, a crisis that calls for a new evangelization. The finding of the limits of the presence and influence of the Catholic Church in the post-modern era is a timely challenge to assert the importance of the proposal of Christianity as a path to personal happiness and to help build a society where justice, peace and freedom reign. The authentic Christian lives the

  6. Isoprene hydrocarbons production upon heterologous transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S-Y; Zurbriggen, A S; Melis, A

    2012-07-01

      Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene; C(5) H(8) ) is naturally produced by photosynthesis and emitted in the atmosphere by the leaves of many herbaceous, deciduous and woody plants. Fermentative yeast and fungi (Ascomycota) are not genetically endowed with the isoprene production process. The work investigated whether Ascomycota can be genetically modified and endowed with the property of constitutive isoprene production.   Two different strategies for expression of the IspS gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were employed: (i) optimization of codon usage of the IspS gene for specific expression in S. cerevisiae and (ii) multiple independent integrations of the IspS gene in the rDNA loci of the yeast genome. Copy number analysis showed that IspS transgenes were on the average incorporated within about 25% of the endogenous rDNA. Codon use optimization of the Pueraria montana (kudzu vine) IspS gene (SckIspS) for S. cerevisiae showed fivefold greater expression of the IspS protein compared with that of nonoptimized IspS (kIspS). With the strategies mentioned earlier, heterologous expression of the kudzu isoprene synthase gene (kIspS) in S. cerevisiae was tested for stability and as a potential platform of fermentative isoprene production. The multi-copy IspS transgenes were stably integrated and expressed for over 100 generations of yeast cell growth and constitutively produced volatile isoprene hydrocarbons. Secondary chemical modification of isoprene to a number of hydroxylated isoprene derivatives in the sealed reactor was also observed.   Transformation of S. cerevisiae with the Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu vine) isoprene synthase gene (IspS) conferred to the yeast cells constitutive isoprene hydrocarbons production in the absence of adverse or toxic effects.   First-time demonstration of constitutive isoprene hydrocarbons production in a fermentative eukaryote operated through the mevalonic acid pathway. The work provides concept validation for the

  7. Transcriptional profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Propolis is a natural product of plant resins collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from various plant sources. Our previous studies indicated that propolis sensitivity is dependent on the mitochondrial function and that vacuolar acidification and autophagy are important for yeast cell death caused by propolis. Here, we extended our understanding of propolis-mediated cell death in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by applying systems biology tools to analyze the transcriptional profiling of cells exposed to propolis. Methods We have used transcriptional profiling of S. cerevisiae exposed to propolis. We validated our findings by using real-time PCR of selected genes. Systems biology tools (physical protein-protein interaction [PPPI] network) were applied to analyse the propolis-induced transcriptional bevavior, aiming to identify which pathways are modulated by propolis in S. cerevisiae and potentially influencing cell death. Results We were able to observe 1,339 genes modulated in at least one time point when compared to the reference time (propolis untreated samples) (t-test, p-value 0.01). Enrichment analysis performed by Gene Ontology (GO) Term finder tool showed enrichment for several biological categories among the genes up-regulated in the microarray hybridization such as transport and transmembrane transport and response to stress. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of selected genes showed by our microarray hybridization approach was capable of providing information about S. cerevisiae gene expression modulation with a considerably high level of confidence. Finally, a physical protein-protein (PPPI) network design and global topological analysis stressed the importance of these pathways in response of S. cerevisiae to propolis and were correlated with the transcriptional data obtained thorough the microarray analysis. Conclusions In summary, our data indicate that propolis is largely affecting several pathways in the eukaryotic cell. However, the most

  8. Evaluation of cytochrome P-450 concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Cristina Sakuragui Matuo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used in mutagenicity tests due to the presence of a cytochrome P-450 system, capable of metabolizing promutagens to active mutagens. There are a large number of S. cerevisiae strains with varying abilities to produce cytochrome P-450. However, strain selection and ideal cultivation conditions are not well defined. We compared cytochrome P-450 levels in four different S. cerevisiae strains and evaluated the cultivation conditions necessary to obtain the highest levels. The amount of cytochrome P-450 produced by each strain varied, as did the incubation time needed to reach the maximum level. The highest cytochrome P-450 concentrations were found in media containing fermentable sugars. The NCYC 240 strain produced the highest level of cytochrome P-450 when grown in the presence of 20 % (w/v glucose. The addition of ethanol to the media also increased cytochrome P-450 synthesis in this strain. These results indicate cultivation conditions must be specific and well-established for the strain selected in order to assure high cytochrome P-450 levels and reliable mutagenicity results.Linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae tem sido amplamente empregadas em testes de mutagenicidade devido à presença de um sistema citocromo P-450 capaz de metabolizar substâncias pró-mutagênicas à sua forma ativa. Devido à grande variedade de linhagens de S. cerevisiae com diferentes capacidades de produção de citocromo P-450, torna-se necessária a seleção de cepas, bem como a definição das condições ideais de cultivo. Neste trabalho, foram comparados os níveis de citocromo P-450 em quatro diferentes linhagens de S. cerevisiae e avaliadas as condições de cultivo necessárias para obtenção de altas concentrações deste sistema enzimático. O maior nível enzimático foi encontrado na linhagem NCYC 240 em presença de 20 % de glicose (p/v. A adição de etanol ao meio de cultura também produziu um aumento na s

  9. Sobre historia mundial hoy

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    Vera Weiler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de globalización son una realidad; su enorme impacto sobre la vida humana los ha convertido en un tema recurrente sobre el que se escribe y se comenta a diario también en Colombia. Los libros que de ellos tratan, ante todo los que 10 hacen en tono crítico, baten records en la industria editorial en todo el mundo. Las expectativas que acerca del futuro abrigan cientos de millones de personas se relacionan con 10 que ellas esperan, para bien o para mal, de la globalización. Las posturas que los gobernantes ocupan al respecto en el mundo son, cuando menos de aceptación, generalmente de activa participación en pos de la globalización. Por un lado, crece la preocupación y se multiplican las protestas; por el otro, dominan los razonamientos de los especialistas en materia de maximización de los rendimientos de los capitales que presentan la globalización, al estilo que se viene imponiendo, como el camino ineludible del gobierno universal de la eficiencia. ¿Tienen que decir algo los historiadores frente a todo esto?.

  10. Skinner: sobre ciência e comportamento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Augusto Silva Sampaio

    Full Text Available Atualmente, não se pode pensar no estudo do comportamento humano sem considerar a abordagem científica a este objeto: o campo da Psicologia científica. Esse campo é disputado por diversos enfoques teóricos que divergem quanto ao modo como definem ciência e comportamento humano. A abordagem de B. F. Skinner foi bastante proeminente no século XX, mas ainda continua a ser mal-entendida. Partindo do desenvolvimento histórico de sua obra, o presente texto visa a iluminar alguns aspectos relacionados às noções de ciência e comportamento humano desse autor e ressaltar as transformações por que passaram. Analisam-se três tópicos da obra de Skinner: seu período inicial (de 1930 a cerca de 1938, a obra "Ciência e Comportamento Humano" de 1953, e as influências da Biologia. São enfatizados aspectos relevantes da sua teorização sobre o tema: busca por relações funcionais, ênfase nos dados empíricos, operacionismo, externalismo, multideterminação do comportamento, experimentalismo, previsão e controle, ética.

  11. Panorama de Estudos Linguísticos sobre o Suporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Caldas Simões

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Teóricos do campo da linguagem (Cf. MARCUSCHI, 2003, 2008; BEZERRA, 2006, 2007; TÁVORA, 2008 tem indicado que, de alguma forma, o gênero é afetado pelo suporte e vice-versa. Diante dessa questão de pesquisa, nos propomos a resenhar alguns conceitos sobre o suporte em diferentes perspectivas linguísticas, a saber: (a o estudo do suporte na perspectiva textual, conforme postula Marcuschi; (b o estudo do suporte na perspectiva sócio-retórica, conforme postula Bonini e Távora; (c o estudo do suporte na perspectiva da Análise do Discurso, como postula Maingueneau; e (d o estudo do suporte na perspectiva da Linguística Sistêmico- Funcional, conforme propõe Simões (2010. Por fim, concluímos que a categoria teórica de suporte ainda carece de estudos linguísticos, em especial, os aplicados. Ao suporte, apesar das recentes teorizações realizadas, ainda não lhe foi dado um caráter de configuração, assim como se faz com os gêneros do discurso.

  12. A cultura empreendedora nos discursos sobre a juventude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Salgado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresento um exame sobre o discurso da cultura empreendedora em alguns produtos midiáticos. Tendo como pano de fundo a análise comparativa de duas séries televisivas voltadas para o público juvenil em temporalidades distintas (Confissões de Adolescente, de 1994 e Ger@l.com, de 2009/2010, busco examinar as retóricas que, nessas séries e em outros veículos, celebram o empreendedorismo juvenil como resposta às demandas por sucesso pessoal e como solução ao problema do desemprego estrutural. Antes, porém, faço uma contextualização do ambiente social que se construiu a partir da emergência de uma racionalidade neoliberal, procurando, com isso, compreender a relação da cultura empreendedora com lógicas sistêmicas, amplas e dominantes.

  13. Pórticos, letreiros, lareiras Le Corbusier e Robert Venturi, sobre simbolismo e velocidade no modernismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Urano Frajndlich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura investigar a leitura que o arquiteto Robert Venturi faz de alguns traços da obra de Le Corbusier, para conceber suas considerações sobre arquitetura e comunicação. Para isso, foram estudadas, de modo breve, as maneiras como Le Corbusier já fazia uso, em sua obra, de algumas categorias que, posteriormente, seriam atribuídas, excelentemente, aos ditos pós-modernos: a retórica, a alusão, a memória dos centro históricos e dos interiores decorados. Tendo em vista a obra geral do arquiteto suíço, é certo que essas categorias aparecem somente nas entrelinhas de seu projeto modernista de reorganização das cidades. Entretanto, uma leitura de minúcias revela alguns temas – especificamente o interesse de Corbusier nos monumentos de Paris, seus pórticos desenhados na Ville contemporaine (1921, e a lareira com motivos surrealistas na cobertura De Beistegui (1929 que seriam objeto de pleno interesse para historiadores e arquitetos da década de 1960. Justamente, nessa recuperação de traços obscuros de Corbusier, Venturi posiciona alguns de seus temas, especificamente em suas soluções residenciais, privilegiando – e, em alguns casos, mesmo exagerando, a imagem chaminé, duplicando sua altura ou colocando-a como grande ordenadora da planta. Todo esse debate será estudado tendo, como pano de fundo, escritos recentes que realizam um balanço crítico das rupturas engendradas pela dita arquitetura pós-moderna com os modernismos. Fazendo uso de considerações de Andreas Huyssen, Paul Virilio e Beatriz Colomina, entre outros, procurou-se ora delimitar, com maior clareza, a fronteira entre essas duas correntes do século 20, ora diluir seus contornos, revelando semelhanças que, eventualmente, fazem-nas indissociáveis.

  14. Educação anti-racista: reflexões e contribuições possíveis do ensino de ciências e de alguns pensadores

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmo Ernesto Francisco Junior

    2008-01-01

    Nos dias atuais, muitos autores vêm debatendo a questão do racismo. Entretanto, a questão racial ainda é pouco discutida dentro da comunidade dos pesquisadores de educação em Ciências. Por isso, o presente trabalho tem justamente por objetivo introduzir alguns conceitos importantes envolvidos com o racismo, bem como discutir como o racismo se desenvolveu ao longo dos anos. Além disso, são apresentadas possíveis contribuições do ensino de Ciências e de alguns pensadores da sociologia e da psic...

  15. Reflexiones sobre el proceso de investigación. Una propuesta desde el feminismo decolonial

    OpenAIRE

    Cubillos Almendra, Javiera

    2014-01-01

    En aquest article busco socialitzar algunes inquietuds i decisions sorgides durant el procés de recerca doctoral, que intenta integrar la teoria feminista decolonial com a clau epistèmica, per a l'anàlisi de la política de salut sexual i reproductiva a Xile, en el període comprès entre els anys 2000 i 2015, sobre la base del concepte de Colonialitat de Gènere proposat per María Lugones. Per a això, exposo els aspectes més rellevants en el procés d'investigació -incloent marc teòric i disseny ...

  16. Relações interpessoais na escola: uma trama de muitos fios, poucos laços e alguns nós/Interpersonal relations in the school: a tram of many wires, few bows and some knot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Stella Pierini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir do olhar de uma profissional de educação que, atualmente, ocupa o lugar de orientadora pedagógica de uma escola pública municipal de educação fundamental, este artigo busca relatar um determinado percurso vivenciado por um subgrupo de profissionais na escola, evidenciando um diálogo reflexivo entre as práticas cotidianas e as relações interpessoais no espaço escolar. Desta forma, reflete o exercício de produção de conhecimento e pesquisa na escola e aborda, fundamentalmente, a importância do grupo na constituição do sujeito que, ao fazer emergir questões do seu cotidiano, direciona seu estudo, tendo como foco alguns elementos: a reflexão sobre o conceito de aula a partir da discussão sobre projetos e outras atividades escolares, a humanização das relações, os diversos tempos escolares e os vínculos que aí se constituem, os entraves pessoais e institucionais na transformação dos tempos regulamentados em tempos de convívio, e a importância da teoria na (re elaboração de conceitos, com base na afirmação de que o desenvolvimento do indivíduo não depende apenas do aspecto orgânico, mas principalmente, da qualidade das interações que mantém com o meio em que vive.With the point of view from a education professional that, actually, occupies the place of pedagogical guide of a municipal public school of primary education, this article intends to report a determinate course lived by a subgroup of professionals at the school, evidencing a reflexive dialog between quotidian practices and interpersonal relations at the school space. This way, reflects the knowledge production and research exercise at the school and approaching, fundamentally, the group importance in the subject constitution that, at the time he makes emerge questions about his quotidian, directs its study having as focus the following elements: the reflection about the class concept beginning with the discussion projects and other school

  17. Consumibles para soldadura por arco eléctrico: algunos desarrollos recientes Consumíveis para soldagem por arco elétrico: alguns desenvolvimentos recentes Consumables for electric arc welding: some recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Silvia Surian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se comentan algunos de los últimos desarrollos en consumibles para soldadura por arco eléctrico. No es intención de la autora presentar un estado del arte sobre el tema sino remarcar las tendencias en algunas áreas del desarrollo de consumibles, como ser: la cuestión del hidrógeno difusible, los mejoramientos de alambres de unión del sistema C-Mn y la soldadura de aceros de alta resistencia y para servicio a alta temperatura 9Cr. También se mencionan las actividades actuales en estandarización de consumibles. La autora considera que el desarrollo está muy activo y en una etapa de generación de nuevos consumibles para hacer posible la soldadura de nuevos materiales y de sofisticación de los ya existentes, con el objetivo de generar cada vez mayor eficiencia y calidad en la construcción soldada junto con una actitud más amigable con el medio ambiente.Em este trabalho se comentam alguns dos últimos desenvolvimentos em consumíveis para soldagem por arco elétrico. Não é a intenção de a autora apresentar um estado da arte sobre o tema, mas remarcar as tendências em algumas áreas do desenvolvimento de consumíveis, como são: a questão do hidrogênio, os melhoramentos de arames de união do sistema C-Mn e a soldagem de aços de alta resistência e para serviço a alta temperatura 9Cr. Também são mencionadas as atividades em estandardização de consumíveis. O autor considera que o desenvolvimento está muito ativo e em uma etapa de geração de novos consumíveis para fazer possível a soldagem de novos materiais y de sofisticação dos já existentes, com o objetivo de aumentar a eficiência e a qualidade na construção soldada junto com uma atitude mais amigável com o meio ambiente.In this work some of the last developments in consumables for electric arc welding are commented. It is not the intention of the author to present a state of the art on this subject but to remark some areas of consumable

  18. Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bijender K. Bajaj; S. Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccha...

  19. Análise da atividade antimicrobiana de quatro pastas endodônticas sobre microorganismos removidos da cavidade pulpar de molares decíduos necrosados

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Sandro Seabra

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar "in vitro" a atividade antimicrobiana de quatro materiais (CTZ, Guedes-Pinto, Calen PMCC® e OZE) utilizados na obturação dos canais radiculares de dentes decíduos sobre alguns microorganismos removidos e identificados da cavidade pulpar de molares decíduos necrosados. Foram selecionadas 06 crianças na faixa etária de 6 a 10 anos de idade, cada uma apresentado um molar decíduo necrosado. Na fase clínica, os dentes envolvidos foram acessados e um cone de pap...

  20. Análise da atividade antimicrobiana de quatro pastas endodônticas sobre microorganismos removidos da cavidade pulpar de molares decíduos necrosados

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Sandro Seabra

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar “in vitro” a atividade antimicrobiana de quatro materiais (CTZ, Guedes-Pinto, Calen PMCC® dos canais radiculares de dentes decíduos sobre alguns microorganismos removidos e identificados da cavidade pulpar de molares decíduos necrosados. Foram selecionadas 06 crianças na faixa etária de 6 a 10 anos de idade, cada uma apresentado um molar decíduo necrosado. Na fase clínica, os dentes envolvidos foram acessados e um cone de papel...

  1. Sobre técnicas, temas y etapas del Arte Paleolítico de la Región Cantábrica

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco JORDÁ CERDÁ

    2009-01-01

    Cuando se estudian las obras y trabajos del Abate Breuil sobre nuestro arte rupestre cantábrico no sabe uno qué admirar más, si la rigurosa sistemática con que se desarrolla toda la investigación, o el titánico esfuerzo realizado para dar cima a una obra, cuyas consecuencias están todavía vivas en nuestros trabajos y en nuestros libros. Quien quiera que tenga que estudiar arte prehistórico ha de partir forzosamente de lo establecido por Breuil, teniendo en cuenta que si es fácil mejorar algun...

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a versatile eukaryotic system in virology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breinig Tanja

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established model system for understanding fundamental cellular processes relevant to higher eukaryotic organisms. Less known is its value for virus research, an area in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be very fruitful as well. The present review will discuss the main achievements of yeast-based studies in basic and applied virus research. These include the analysis of the function of individual proteins from important pathogenic viruses, the elucidation of key processes in viral replication through the development of systems that allow the replication of higher eukayotic viruses in yeast, and the use of yeast in antiviral drug development and vaccine production.

  3. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in radioactive waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de P.; Marumo, Julio T.; Bellini, Maria H.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Takara, Aline S.; Goes, Marcos M. de; Borba, Tania R. de; Nascimento, Carina M. do; Sakata, Solange K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: rpadua@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Waste management plays an important role in reducing the volume of radioactive waste streams, minimizing the cost of the final disposal and the impact on the environment. In this context, new research should focus on the development of simpler and cheaper techniques which may improve the waste processing. The use of biomass in processes concerned with the removal of heavy metals and radionuclides offers significant potential in the treatment of waste-liquid streams. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well known for its capacity of heavy metals biosorption and it also has the additional advantages such as easy availability and the possibility of genetic manipulation. The aim of this work is to study the potential of the free cell and immobilized S. cerevisiae in bentonite in the removal Americium-241 from radioactive liquid streams produced by Radioactive Waste Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). (author)

  4. A history of genome editing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, William G

    2017-12-16

    Genome editing is a form of highly precise genetic engineering which produces alterations to an organism's genome as small as a single base pair with no incidental or auxiliary modifications; this technique is crucial to the field of synthetic biology, which requires such precision in the installation of novel genetic circuits into host genomes. While a new methodology for most organisms, genome editing capabilities have been used in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for decades. In this review, I will present a brief history of genome editing in S. cerevisiae, discuss the current gold standard method of Cas9-mediated genome editing (CMGE), and speculate on future directions of the field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for linalool production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Pegah; Shahpiri, Azar; Asadollahi, Mohammad Ali; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Partow, Siavash

    2016-03-01

    To engineer the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the heterologous production of linalool. Expression of linalool synthase gene from Lavandula angustifolia enabled heterologous production of linalool in S. cerevisiae. Downregulation of ERG9 gene, that encodes squalene synthase, by replacing its native promoter with the repressible MET3 promoter in the presence of methionine resulted in accumulation of 78 µg linalool l(-1) in the culture medium. This was more than twice that produced by the control strain. The highest linalool titer was obtained by combined repression of ERG9 and overexpression of tHMG1. The yeast strain harboring both modifications produced 95 μg linalool l(-1). Although overexpression of tHMG1 and downregulation of ERG9 enhanced linalool titers threefold in the engineered yeast strain, alleviating linalool toxicity is necessary for further improvement of linalool biosynthesis in yeast.

  6. Isolation of an osmotolerant ale strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironcheva, G

    1998-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ale strain) grown in batch culture to stationary phase was tested for its tolerance to heat (50 degrees C for 5 min), hydrogen peroxide (0.3 M) and salt (growth in 1.5 M sodium chloride/YPD medium). Yeast cells which have been exposed previously to heat shock are more tolerant to hydrogen peroxide and high salt concentrations (1.5 M NaCl) than the controls. Their fermentative activity as judged by glucose consumption and their viability, as judged by cell number and density have higher levels when compared with cells not previously exposed to heat shock. Experimental conditions facilitated the isolation of S. cerevisiae ale strain, which was tolerant to heat, and other agents such as hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride.

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a sexy yeast with a prion problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amy C; Wickner, Reed B

    2013-01-01

    Yeast prions are infectious proteins that spread exclusively by mating. The frequency of prions in the wild therefore largely reflects the rate of spread by mating counterbalanced by prion growth slowing effects in the host. We recently showed that the frequency of outcross mating is about 1% of mitotic doublings with 23-46% of total matings being outcrosses. These findings imply that even the mildest forms of the [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] prions impart > 1% growth/survival detriment on their hosts. Our estimate of outcrossing suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is far more sexual than previously thought and would therefore be more responsive to the adaptive effects of natural selection compared with a strictly asexual yeast. Further, given its large effective population size, a growth/survival detriment of > 1% for yeast prions should strongly select against prion-infected strains in wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  8. Pathways and Mechanisms that Prevent Genome Instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Christopher D.; Kolodner, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Genome rearrangements result in mutations that underlie many human diseases, and ongoing genome instability likely contributes to the development of many cancers. The tools for studying genome instability in mammalian cells are limited, whereas model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are more amenable to these studies. Here, we discuss the many genetic assays developed to measure the rate of occurrence of Gross Chromosomal Rearrangements (called GCRs) in S. cerevisiae. These genetic assays have been used to identify many types of GCRs, including translocations, interstitial deletions, and broken chromosomes healed by de novo telomere addition, and have identified genes that act in the suppression and formation of GCRs. Insights from these studies have contributed to the understanding of pathways and mechanisms that suppress genome instability and how these pathways cooperate with each other. Integrated models for the formation and suppression of GCRs are discussed. PMID:28684602

  9. Energy-dependent effects of resveratrol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Perez, Luis Alberto; Canizal-Garcia, Melina; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Nava, Gerardo M; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic effects induced by resveratrol have been associated mainly with the consumption of high-calorie diets; however, its effects with standard or low-calorie diets remain unclear. To better understand the interactions between resveratrol and cellular energy levels, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model. Herein it is shown that resveratrol: (a) decreased cell viability in an energy-dependent manner; (b) lessening of cell viability occurred specifically when cells were under cellular respiration; and (c) inhibition of oxygen consumption in state 4 occurred at low and standard energy levels, whereas at high energy levels oxygen consumption was promoted. These findings indicate that the effects of resveratrol are dependent on the cellular energy status and linked to metabolic respiration. Importantly, our study also revealed that S. cerevisiae is a suitable and useful model to elucidate the molecular targets of resveratrol under different nutritional statuses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. An apoptotic cell cycle mutant in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Ingrid

    1996-01-01

    The simple eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proved to be a useful organism for elucidating the mechanisms that govern cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells. The excellent in vivo system permits a cell cycle study using temperature sensitive mutants. In addition, it is possible to study...... processes.Programmmed cell death with apoptosis plays a major role in development and homeostatis in most, if not all, animal cells. Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of death, that requires the activation of a highly regulated suicide program. Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a new system...... in which apoptosis can be studied using the novel, temperature sensitive mutant, cdc77. The cdc77 cells are defective in a G1 process, and die show the characteristc signs of apoptosis: condensation of the chromatin, degradation of the inner nuclear membrane, dilation of the space between the nuclear...

  11. A cibersexualidade e a pesquisa online: algumas reflexões sobre o conceito de barebacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto Vasconcelos da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é decorrente de uma pesquisa online sobre aspectos da sexualidade masculina, mais precisamente sobre as interações masculinas em novos contextos da epidemia de HIV/Aids. Busca discutir as possibilidades da internet como campo de pesquisa, considerando os aspectos socioculturais abertos pelas novas tecnologias de informação. Este é o caso das práticas de barebacking, geralmente definido como sexo anal desprotegido de forma intencional. Mais especificamente, neste artigo, serão problematizadas algumas tensões e ambiguidades conceituais do barebacking, sobretudo no que diz respeito ao sexo desprotegido entre parceiros fixos e entre parceiros ocasionais, de acordo com a discussão desenvolvida por alguns usuários das comunidades do Orkut, no contexto brasileiro. Finalmente, destaca-se que os atores que se dizem barebackers não são, necessariamente, mais os mesmos, tampouco entendem o conceito da mesma forma, o que exige uma reflexão mais ampla sobre seus distintos usuários e contextos de uso.

  12. A cibersexualidade e a pesquisa online: algumas reflexões sobre o conceito de barebacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto Vasconcelos da Silva

    Full Text Available Este artigo é decorrente de uma pesquisa online sobre aspectos da sexualidade masculina, mais precisamente sobre as interações masculinas em novos contextos da epidemia de HIV/Aids. Busca discutir as possibilidades da internet como campo de pesquisa, considerando os aspectos socioculturais abertos pelas novas tecnologias de informação. Este é o caso das práticas de barebacking, geralmente definido como sexo anal desprotegido de forma intencional. Mais especificamente, neste artigo, serão problematizadas algumas tensões e ambiguidades conceituais do barebacking, sobretudo no que diz respeito ao sexo desprotegido entre parceiros fixos e entre parceiros ocasionais, de acordo com a discussão desenvolvida por alguns usuários das comunidades do Orkut, no contexto brasileiro. Finalmente, destaca-se que os atores que se dizem barebackers não são, necessariamente, mais os mesmos, tampouco entendem o conceito da mesma forma, o que exige uma reflexão mais ampla sobre seus distintos usuários e contextos de uso.

  13. Pesquisa sobre o Ensino e a Aprendizagem de Línguas Estrangeiras: campos atravessados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Sergio Bertoldo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa a problematizar abordagens de pesquisa que investigam a aprendizagem de uma língua estrangeira para responder ao desafio de compreender porque alguns têm sucesso e aprendem uma língua estrangeira e outros fracassam. Tratamos das mudanças ocorridas nas tendências de pesquisas, tendo em vista a possibilidade de problematizar questões relativas aos estudos sobre o ensino e a aprendizagem de línguas estrangeiras, levando-se em consideração o seu atravessamento por conceitos tanto da Análise de Discurso de orientação peucheutiana, quanto da Psicanálise Freudo-lacaniana. Fizemos um histórico dos principais tipos de pesquisa que, tradicionalmente, constituíram as investigações nesse campo. Além disso, discutimos as implicações, para o campo, de dois artigos: A língua estrangeira entre o desejo de um outro lugar e o risco do exílio e O desejo pelas línguas estrangeiras, de Revuz e de Prasse, respectivamente. Constituiu nosso argumento o fato de que quando um campo se deixa atravessar-afetar, pela via de um pesquisador, a maneira de se olhar e, por conseguinte, o ponto de vista sobre o objeto de estudo se desloca; e, ao se deslocar, abre-se a possibilidade de, sobre ele, saber-se algo a mais.

  14. The enantioselective b-keto ester reductions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN TAJIK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The enantioselective yeast reduction of aromatic b-keto esters, by use of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium phosphate (monobasic, magnesium sulfate and ammonium tartrate (diammonium salt (10:1:1:50 in water at pH 7 as a buffer for 72–120 h with 45–90 % conversion to the corresponding aromatic -hydroxy esters was achieved by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  15. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Fermented Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Graeme M. Walker; Stewart, Graham G.

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages are produced following the fermentation of sugars by yeasts, mainly (but not exclusively) strains of the species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sugary starting materials may emanate from cereal starches (which require enzymatic pre-hydrolysis) in the case of beers and whiskies, sucrose-rich plants (molasses or sugar juice from sugarcane) in the case of rums, or from fruits (which do not require pre-hydrolysis) in the case of wines and brandies. In the presence of sugars, t...

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under different nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaohui; Zhao, Xinrui; Zou, Huijun; Fu, Jianwei; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2014-04-14

    In cultures containing multiple sources of nitrogen, Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a sequential use of nitrogen sources through a mechanism known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). To identify proteins differentially expressed due to NCR, proteomic analysis of S. cerevisiae S288C under different nitrogen source conditions was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), revealing 169 candidate protein spots. Among these 169 protein spots, 121 were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins were closely associated with four main biological processes through Gene Ontology (GO) categorical analysis. The identification of the potential proteins and cellular processes related to NCR offer a global overview of changes elicited by different nitrogen sources, providing clues into how yeast adapt to different nutritional conditions. Moreover, by comparing our proteomic data with corresponding mRNA data, proteins regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level could be distinguished. Biological significance In S. cerevisiae, different nitrogen sources provide different growth characteristics and generate different metabolites. The nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) process plays an important role for S. cerevisiae in the ordinal utilization of different nitrogen sources. NCR process can result in significant shift of global metabolic networks. Previous works on NCR primarily focused on transcriptomic level. The results obtained in this study provided a global atlas of the proteome changes triggered by different nitrogen sources and would facilitate the understanding of mechanisms for how yeast could adapt to different nutritional conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing the genetic complexity of glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Solis Escalante, D.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolysis, a biochemical pathway that oxidizes glucose to pyruvate, is at the core of sugar metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers’ yeast). Glycolysis is not only a catabolic route involved in energy conservation, but also provides building blocks for anabolism. From an applied perspective, several glycolytic intermediates are key precursors for the production of a wide range of highly valuable compounds. The most obvious case is the production of ethanol from pyruvate. Its ability t...

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Laryngitis and Oral Lesions in a Patient with Laryngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumanah N. Algazaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is increasingly being promoted as a nutritional supplement by health food enthusiasts and is also recommended as prophylaxis against antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, severe opportunistic infections due to S. cerevisiae have been reported in patients with chronic disease, cancer, and immunosuppression. Fungemia, endocarditis, pneumonia, peritonitis, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and esophagitis have been described. It is important to consider infections due to S. cerevisiae in appropriate clinical settings. Here, we describe the first case of S. cerevisiae laryngitis in a patient with a history of laryngeal carcinoma who also had oral lesions.

  20. Docking Sulochrin and Its Derivative as α-Glucosidase Inhibitors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Wening Lestari; Rizna Triana Dewi; Leonardus Broto Sugeng Kardono; Arry Yanuar

    2017-01-01

    Sulochrin known has activity as inhibitors of α-glucosidase enzyme. Interaction of sulochrin to active site of α-glucosidase enzyme from S. cerevisiae has studied by docking method. The crystal structure of α-glucosidase from S.accharomyces cerevisiae obtained from the homology method using α-glucosidase from S. cerevisiae (Swiss-Prot code P53341) as a target and crystal structure of isomaltase from S. cerevisiae (PDB code 3A4A) as a template. Sulochrin and sulochrin-I could be bound in the a...

  1. Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and presented in this work. The mentioned compounds affect negatively the specific growth rate, yield, content of proteins, phosphorus, total ribonucleic acids. These compounds influence the increase of trechalose and glycogen content in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

  2. Molecular genetic diversity of the Saccharomyces yeasts in Taiwan: Saccharomyces arboricola, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Gennadi I; Lee, Ching-Fu; Naumova, Elena S

    2013-01-01

    Genetic hybridization, sequence and karyotypic analyses of natural Saccharomyces yeasts isolated in different regions of Taiwan revealed three biological species: Saccharomyces arboricola, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. Intraspecies variability of the D1/D2 and ITS1 rDNA sequences was detected among S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii isolates. According to molecular and genetic analyses, the cosmopolitan species S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii contain local divergent populations in Taiwan, Malaysia and Japan. Six of the seven known Saccharomyces species are documented in East Asia: S. arboricola, S. bayanus, S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, and S. paradoxus.

  3. Sobre la forma muncho

    OpenAIRE

    Pato, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    La presente nota aporta luz nueva sobre la historia y la evolución de muncho en español. En primer lugar, los ejemplos presentados confirman que estamos ante un fenómeno antiguo, documentado en el mismo latín, y característico del español clásico. Estudiamos la variación que ha mantenido con la forma estándar mucho a lo largo de la historia y, gracias a los datos del ALPI y del COSER, damos a conocer su extensión geográfica. La –n– parasitaria se documenta también en otras lenguas y dialectos...

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Fermented Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M Walker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages are produced following the fermentation of sugars by yeasts, mainly (but not exclusively strains of the species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sugary starting materials may emanate from cereal starches (which require enzymatic pre-hydrolysis in the case of beers and whiskies, sucrose-rich plants (molasses or sugar juice from sugarcane in the case of rums, or from fruits (which do not require pre-hydrolysis in the case of wines and brandies. In the presence of sugars, together with other essential nutrients such as amino acids, minerals and vitamins, S. cerevisiae will conduct fermentative metabolism to ethanol and carbon dioxide (as the primary fermentation metabolites as the cells strive to make energy and regenerate the coenzyme NAD+ under anaerobic conditions. Yeasts will also produce numerous secondary metabolites which act as important beverage flavour congeners, including higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulphur compounds. These are very important in dictating the final flavour and aroma characteristics of beverages such as beer and wine, but also in distilled beverages such as whisky, rum and brandy. Therefore, yeasts are of vital importance in providing the alcohol content and the sensory profiles of such beverages. This Introductory Chapter reviews, in general, the growth, physiology and metabolism of S. cerevisiae in alcoholic beverage fermentations.

  5. Interaction of Prions Causes Heritable Traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton A Nizhnikov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "protein-based inheritance" defines prions as epigenetic determinants that cause several heritable traits in eukaryotic microorganisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Podospora anserina. Previously, we discovered a non-chromosomal factor, [NSI+], which possesses the main features of yeast prions, including cytoplasmic infectivity, reversible curability, dominance, and non-Mendelian inheritance in meiosis. This factor causes omnipotent suppression of nonsense mutations in strains of S. cerevisiae bearing a deleted or modified Sup35 N-terminal domain. In this work, we identified protein determinants of [NSI+] using an original method of proteomic screening for prions. The suppression of nonsense mutations in [NSI+] strains is determined by the interaction between [SWI+] and [PIN+] prions. Using genetic and biochemical methods, we showed that [SWI+] is the key determinant of this nonsense suppression, whereas [PIN+] does not cause nonsense suppression by itself but strongly enhances the effect of [SWI+]. We demonstrated that interaction of [SWI+] and [PIN+] causes inactivation of SUP45 gene that leads to nonsense suppression. Our data show that prion interactions may cause heritable traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  6. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved industrially important properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, Z Petek; Turanli-Yildiz, Burcu; Alkim, Ceren; Yilmaz, Ulkü

    2012-03-01

    This article reviews evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following a brief introduction to the 'rational' metabolic engineering approach and its limitations such as extensive genetic and metabolic information requirement on the organism of interest, complexity of cellular physiological responses, and difficulties of cloning in industrial strains, evolutionary engineering is discussed as an alternative, inverse metabolic engineering strategy. Major evolutionary engineering applications with S. cerevisiae are then discussed in two general categories: (1) evolutionary engineering of substrate utilization and product formation and (2) evolutionary engineering of stress resistance. Recent developments in functional genomics methods allow rapid identification of the molecular basis of the desired phenotypes obtained by evolutionary engineering. To conclude, when used alone or in combination with rational metabolic engineering and/or computational methods to study and analyze processes of adaptive evolution, evolutionary engineering is a powerful strategy for improvement in industrially important, complex properties of S. cerevisiae. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Membrane Trafficking in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyder, Serge; De Craene, Johan-Owen; Bär, Séverine; Bertazzi, Dimitri L.; Friant, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM), or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC), and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway) or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway). Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END) and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway). Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:25584613

  8. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  9. Early manifestations of replicative aging in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim I. Sorokin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is successfully used as a model organism to find genes responsible for lifespan control of higher organisms. As functional decline of higher eukaryotes can start as early as one quarter of the average lifespan, we asked whether S. cerevisiae can be used to model this manifestation of aging. While the average replicative lifespan of S. cerevisiae mother cells ranges between 15 and 30 division cycles, we found that resistances to certain stresses start to decrease much earlier. Looking into the mechanism, we found that knockouts of genes responsible for mitochondriato-nucleus (retrograde signaling, RTG1 or RTG3, significantly decrease the resistance of cells that generated more than four daughters, but not of the younger ones. We also found that even young mother cells frequently contain mitochondria with heterogeneous transmembrane potential and that the percentage of such cells correlates with replicative age. Together, these facts suggest that retrograde signaling starts to malfunction in relatively young cells, leading to accumulation of heterogeneous mitochondria within one cell. The latter may further contribute to a decline in stress resistances.

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Whisk(ey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M. Walker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whisk(ey is a major global distilled spirit beverage. Whiskies are produced from cereal starches that are saccharified, fermented and distilled prior to spirit maturation. The strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae employed in whisky fermentations is crucially important not only in terms of ethanol yields, but also for production of minor yeast metabolites which collectively contribute to development of spirit flavour and aroma characteristics. Distillers must therefore pay very careful attention to the strain of yeast exploited to ensure consistency of fermentation performance and spirit congener profiles. In the Scotch whisky industry, initiatives to address sustainability issues facing the industry (for example, reduced energy and water usage have resulted in a growing awareness regarding criteria for selecting new distilling yeasts with improved efficiency. For example, there is now a desire for Scotch whisky distilling yeasts to perform under more challenging conditions such as high gravity wort fermentations. This article highlights the important roles of S. cerevisiae strains in whisky production (with particular emphasis on Scotch and describes key fermentation performance attributes sought in distiller’s yeast, such as high alcohol yields, stress tolerance and desirable congener profiles. We hope that the information herein will be useful for whisky producers and yeast suppliers in selecting new distilling strains of S. cerevisiae, and for the scientific community to stimulate further research in this area.

  11. Copper oxide nanoparticles inhibit the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashock, Michael J; Kappell, Anthony D; Hallaj, Nadia; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2016-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used increasingly in industrial applications and consumer products and thus may pose risk to human and environmental health. The interaction of CuO NPs with complex media and the impact on cell metabolism when exposed to sublethal concentrations are largely unknown. In the present study, the short-term effects of 2 different sized manufactured CuO NPs on metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The role of released Cu(2+) during dissolution of NPs in the growth media and the CuO nanostructure were considered. Characterization showed that the 28 nm and 64 nm CuO NPs used in the present study have different primary diameter, similar hydrodynamic diameter, and significantly different concentrations of dissolved Cu(2+) ions in the growth media released from the same initial NP mass. Exposures to CuO NPs or the released Cu(2+) fraction, at doses that do not have impact on cell viability, showed significant inhibition on S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. A greater CuO NP effect on the metabolic activity of S. cerevisiae growth under respiring conditions was observed. Under the tested conditions the observed metabolic inhibition from the NPs was not explained fully by the released Cu ions from the dissolving NPs. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Horizontal and vertical growth of S. cerevisiae metabolic network.

    KAUST Repository

    Grassi, Luigi

    2011-10-14

    BACKGROUND: The growth and development of a biological organism is reflected by its metabolic network, the evolution of which relies on the essential gene duplication mechanism. There are two current views about the evolution of metabolic networks. The retrograde model hypothesizes that a pathway evolves by recruiting novel enzymes in a direction opposite to the metabolic flow. The patchwork model is instead based on the assumption that the evolution is based on the exploitation of broad-specificity enzymes capable of catalysing a variety of metabolic reactions. RESULTS: We analysed a well-studied unicellular eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae, and studied the effect of the removal of paralogous gene products on its metabolic network. Our results, obtained using different paralog and network definitions, show that, after an initial period when gene duplication was indeed instrumental in expanding the metabolic space, the latter reached an equilibrium and subsequent gene duplications were used as a source of more specialized enzymes rather than as a source of novel reactions. We also show that the switch between the two evolutionary strategies in S. cerevisiae can be dated to about 350 million years ago. CONCLUSIONS: Our data, obtained through a novel analysis methodology, strongly supports the hypothesis that the patchwork model better explains the more recent evolution of the S. cerevisiae metabolic network. Interestingly, the effects of a patchwork strategy acting before the Euascomycete-Hemiascomycete divergence are still detectable today.

  13. Membrane Trafficking in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Feyder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best characterized eukaryotic models. The secretory pathway was the first trafficking pathway clearly understood mainly thanks to the work done in the laboratory of Randy Schekman in the 1980s. They have isolated yeast sec mutants unable to secrete an extracellular enzyme and these SEC genes were identified as encoding key effectors of the secretory machinery. For this work, the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded to Randy Schekman; the prize is shared with James Rothman and Thomas Südhof. Here, we present the different trafficking pathways of yeast S. cerevisiae. At the Golgi apparatus newly synthesized proteins are sorted between those transported to the plasma membrane (PM, or the external medium, via the exocytosis or secretory pathway (SEC, and those targeted to the vacuole either through endosomes (vacuolar protein sorting or VPS pathway or directly (alkaline phosphatase or ALP pathway. Plasma membrane proteins can be internalized by endocytosis (END and transported to endosomes where they are sorted between those targeted for vacuolar degradation and those redirected to the Golgi (recycling or RCY pathway. Studies in yeast S. cerevisiae allowed the identification of most of the known effectors, protein complexes, and trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, and most of them are conserved among eukaryotes.

  14. Intracellular analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using CLSM after ultrasonic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Takuo; Nakakura, Shinya; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2005-06-01

    The effect of ultrasonic treatments (28, 45, and 100 kHz) as sterilization on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated both by colony-forming ability and by a confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM), using a fluorescence staining approach with MDY-64 for endoplasmic reticula and Rhodamine B for mitochondria. The ultrasonic treatments, especially at the lower frequency of 28 kHz, were effective for sterilizing S cerevisiae, thus inducing the remarkable decrease in colony counts of S cerevisiae on YPD plate medium, but with some inactive (dead) cells. The CLSM images of fluorescence-stained organelles in the cell showed the intracellular fracture and the increase in fluorescent intensities of MDY-64 for endoplasmic reticula and Rhodamine B for mitochondria without cell membrane collapse by the ultrasonic treatments, especially at 28 kHz. The effect of the conditions (frequency, power, medium, and so on) of the ultrasonic treatments on cell components such as biological membranes would be different, thus inducing the effective and selective sterilization of some types of microorganisms.

  15. Horizontal and vertical growth of S. cerevisiae metabolic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tramontano Anna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growth and development of a biological organism is reflected by its metabolic network, the evolution of which relies on the essential gene duplication mechanism. There are two current views about the evolution of metabolic networks. The retrograde model hypothesizes that a pathway evolves by recruiting novel enzymes in a direction opposite to the metabolic flow. The patchwork model is instead based on the assumption that the evolution is based on the exploitation of broad-specificity enzymes capable of catalysing a variety of metabolic reactions. Results We analysed a well-studied unicellular eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae, and studied the effect of the removal of paralogous gene products on its metabolic network. Our results, obtained using different paralog and network definitions, show that, after an initial period when gene duplication was indeed instrumental in expanding the metabolic space, the latter reached an equilibrium and subsequent gene duplications were used as a source of more specialized enzymes rather than as a source of novel reactions. We also show that the switch between the two evolutionary strategies in S. cerevisiae can be dated to about 350 million years ago. Conclusions Our data, obtained through a novel analysis methodology, strongly supports the hypothesis that the patchwork model better explains the more recent evolution of the S. cerevisiae metabolic network. Interestingly, the effects of a patchwork strategy acting before the Euascomycete-Hemiascomycete divergence are still detectable today.

  16. Biogeographical characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Aguzzi, Irene; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualize patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, “the wine yeast,” is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of “everything is everywhere.” Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional) and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or ‘terroir,’ have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality, and the unique flavor of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast. PMID:23805132

  17. Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrasegarampillai Balakumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1, trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1 and ethanol (50gl-1 at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

  18. Biogeographical characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Fasoli, Giuseppe; Aguzzi, Irene; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualize patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, "the wine yeast," is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of "everything is everywhere." Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional) and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or 'terroir,' have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality, and the unique flavor of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast.

  19. Biogeographical characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast by molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna eTofalo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogeography is the descriptive and explanatory study of spatial patterns and processes involved in the distribution of biodiversity. Without biogeography, it would be difficult to study the diversity of microorganisms because there would be no way to visualise patterns in variation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the wine yeast, is the most important species involved in alcoholic fermentation, and in vineyard ecosystems, it follows the principle of everything is everywhere. Agricultural practices such as farming (organic versus conventional and floor management systems have selected different populations within this species that are phylogenetically distinct. In fact, recent ecological and geographic studies highlighted that unique strains are associated with particular grape varieties in specific geographical locations. These studies also highlighted that significant diversity and regional character, or ‘terroir’, have been introduced into the winemaking process via this association. This diversity of wild strains preserves typicity, the high quality and the unique flavour of wines. Recently, different molecular methods were developed to study population dynamics of S. cerevisiae strains in both vineyards and wineries. In this review, we will provide an update on the current molecular methods used to reveal the geographical distribution of S. cerevisiae wine yeast.

  20. Antiproliferative effects of Matricaria chamomilla on Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpour Maryam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Matricaria chamomilla plant is one of the most important plants used for the therapeutic purposes. More than 120 chemical constituents have been identified in Matricaria chamomile plant including 28 terpenoids and 36 flavonoids. This plant has a variety of therapeutic applications including the treatment of diabetes, eczema, wounds and gastrointestinal diseases. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast is a non-pathogenic organism that is used as a model for pathogenic yeasts in order to identify compounds with antifungal properties and also to identify functional mechanism of these compounds. The aim of this study is to investigate the antifungal effect of Matricaria chamomilla hydroalcoholic extract on S. cerevisiae yeast. Methods: In this study Matricaria chamomilla extract was prepared by maceration method. In order to study the extract effect on growth and survival rate of the yeast cell, the spectrophotometry and methylene blue staining methods were used. Excel and SPSS 11 softwares were used to determine amounts and to infer the difference between control and treatment samples. Results: Results obtained from spectrophotometry and analyses of methylene blue staining showed that the Matricaria chamomilla extract at the concentration of 3000 μg/ml caused a significant decrease in the yeast growth and reduced the cells survival rate up to 48% (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Results of this research confirm that the hydroalcoholic extract of Matricaria chamomilla has antiproliferative effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  1. Notas sobre o marcellismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sampaio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Para el salazarismo, la estabilidad consistía en erradicar de la sociedad la elección de alternativas, esto es el conflicto. Ese orden comenzó a desmoronarse sobre todo desde los años 60, como consecuencia de los cambios socioeconómicos y culturales que acentuaban los factores de información y de concurrencia en la sociedad portuguesa. Ante este nuevo panorama, el éxito de Marcelo Caetano sólo era posible mediante un compromiso con los nuevos actores sociales y con las nuevas fuerzas políticas empeñadas en la instauración de la democracia. Sin embargo el Presidente del Consejo no quiso o no pudo asumir ese compromiso, viéndose obligado al cabo de un tiempo a volver sobre sus iniciales pasos aperturistas.The social and political stability under salazarism was contemplated as a result of alternatives choice and conflicts suppression. That order was mainly eroding along the decade of sixteenth as a consequence of social, economic and cultural changes that were accentuating information and concurrence factors in Portuguese society. Facing this new stage, the success of Marcelo Caetano’s reformism was depending on his capacity of commitment with the new social actors and the opposition political forces solidly engage in democratic goal. However, the President wasn’t capable —or wasn’t allowed— to assume this commitment, even reversing after the first hopeful times his initial reformist trends.

  2. Fontes nitrogenadas e uso de Sacharomyces cerevisiae em dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar para novilhos: consumo, digestibilidade, balanço nitrogenado e parâmetros ruminais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Elzânia Sales

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos das fontes nitrogenadas e o uso de Sacharomyces cerevisiae em dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar sobre os consumos e as digestibilidades aparentes totais e parciais de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CHO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e carboidratos não-estruturais (CNE, o balanço nitrogenado e os parâmetros ruminais. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos Holandês-Zebu, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, alimentados com quatro rações à base de cana-de-açúcar, constituídas de duas fontes nitrogenadas (uréia ou cama de frango combinadas com dois níveis de Sacharomyces cerevisiae (0 e 10 g/dia. Utilizou-se delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4. A fibra em detergente neutro indigestível (FDNi foi utilizada como indicador, para determinar as digestibilidades aparentes totais e parciais. Os consumos de MS, MO, EE, CT e CNE não foram influenciados pelas fontes nitrogenadas e pela utilização de Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Os consumos de PB e FDN foram maiores para as dietas suplementadas com cama de frango. Os coeficientes de digestibilidades totais de PB e EE foram maiores para as dietas constituídas de uréia. As digestibilidades aparentes totais de MS, MO, CT e FDN não foram influenciadas pelas fontes nitrogenadas e pela utilização de Sacharomyces cerevisiae. O pH do líquido ruminal decresceu linearmente para as dietas suplementadas com uréia e apresentou comportamento quadrático, quando estas dietas foram combinadas com Sacharomyces cerevisiae. As concentrações de amônia no líquido ruminal apresentaram comportamento quadrático, estimando-se valores máximos de 16,90; 26,12; 18,48; e 14,40 mg/100 mL para os tratamentos constituídos de cana-de-açúcar e uréia; cana-de-açúcar, uréia e Sacharomyces cerevisiae; cana-de-açúcar e cama de frango; e cana-de-açúcar, cama de frango e Sacharomyces cerevisiae

  3. ESTUDOS SOBRE A PSICOTERAPIA MEDIADA POR COMPUTADOR

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    AZEVEDO, B. B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Levando em consideração que o avanço tecnológico vem influindo em diversos setores, inclusive no campo da Psicologia, torna-se importante entender como tal inserção tem sido percebida pela sociedade. A mais atual regulamentação desenvolvida pelo Conselho Federal de Psicologia foi a Resolução 011 de junho de 2012. O Conselho determinou que são reconhecidos diferentes serviços psicológicos realizados por meios tecnológicos de comunicação, como as orientações psicológicas em até vinte encontros virtuais. O atendimento psicoterapêutico mediado por computador, por sua vez, apenas é permitido em caráter experimental. Um adendo que pode vir a somar a reflexão de tal forma de trabalho, é que alguns atendimentos realizados por Freud e Jung se deram através de textos. O presente trabalho objetiva refletir acerca da opinião de moradores da cidade de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte fluminense do Rio de Janeiro, sobre a questão dos serviços psicológicos mediados por computador. O trabalho iniciou-se com a elaboração de um questionário que foi aplicado a quarenta sujeitos, de ambos os gêneros, com formação superior completa e moradores de Campos, passando a uma análise quantitativa dos dados. Um levantamento bibliográfico embasou a pesquisa. Quase que a totalidade da amostra reconhece a relevância da Psicologia para a vida das pessoas. Seja pela pouca divulgação ou até pelo receio frente os rápidos avanços tecnológicos, concluiu-se haver uma certa resistência em relação a referida prática online. Em relação a análise acerca de ser possível ou não haver uma psicoterapia online, as respostas da amostra não foram homogêneas. Na questão que dizia respeito a percepção da confidencialidade de psicoterapias presenciais e de psicoterapias virtuais, sessenta por cento, ou seja, mais da metade, da amostra ainda percebe a psicoterapia presencial como a mais sigilosa. Isto permite a inferência sobre a predomin

  4. PRODUCTION, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATION OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE VGSH-2 INULINASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Shuvaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Experimental data on an acid and thermal inactivation of a high refined inulinase (2,1-β-D- fructanfructanohydrolase, KF 3.2.17, produced by the race of Saccharomyces cerevisiae VGSh-2 yeast are presented. The strain of S. cerevisiae VGSh-2 was produced by the method of the induced mutagenesis and deposited to the collection of pure cultures of the chair of biochemistry and biotechnology of Voronezh state university of engineering technologies. The cells of source culture (S. cerevisiae XII were affected step-by-step by the ultra-violet radiation (UFR and UFR in a complex with a chemical mutagen (etilenimine. The culture was grown up by the method of liquid-phase deep cultivation on a constant nutrient medium. Refining conditions for inulinase are sorted out. Activity of enzyme dependence on physical and chemical factors (рН and temperature is obtained and numerical values of the main kinetic constants – Km and Vmax are determined. The structure of enzyme molecule is studied by an infrared-spectroscopy method: the type and relative quantity of elements of secondary structure of protein are defined. Substrate binding groups of the active center of an inulinase are found. The comparative analysis of the ability to hydrolysis of inulin in several enzyme preparations from Jerusalem artichoke and to the subsequent their fermentation by the VGSh-2 and XI S. cerevisiae yeasts is carried out. Optimum conditions of enzyme hydrolysis of inulin are selected. Research of the fermentation process of starchcontaining raw materials by yeasts of VGSh-2 and XI races is done. It is established that the using of VGSh-2 S. cerevisiae yeast for a grain wort and the Jerusalem artichoke fermentation, allows to increase an extraction of ethyl alcohol comparing to control race, to improve its quality characteristics, and also allows to predict the using of new race in the food industry for production ethanol from grain raw materials and a fermentation of

  5. Progress in terpene synthesis strategies through engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, Kalaivani; Mutturi, Sarma

    2017-12-01

    Terpenes are natural products with a remarkable diversity in their chemical structures and they hold a significant market share commercially owing to their distinct applications. These potential molecules are usually derived from terrestrial plants, marine and microbial sources. In vitro production of terpenes using plant tissue culture and plant metabolic engineering, although receiving some success, the complexity in downstream processing because of the interference of phenolics and product commercialization due to regulations that are significant concerns. Industrial workhorses' viz., Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have become microorganisms to produce non-native terpenes in order to address critical issues such as demand-supply imbalance, sustainability and commercial viability. S. cerevisiae enjoys several advantages for synthesizing non-native terpenes with the most significant being the compatibility for expressing cytochrome P450 enzymes from plant origin. Moreover, achievement of high titers such as 40 g/l of amorphadiene, a sesquiterpene, boosts commercial interest and encourages the researchers to envisage both molecular and process strategies for developing yeast cell factories to produce these compounds. This review contains a brief consideration of existing strategies to engineer S. cerevisiae toward the synthesis of terpene molecules. Some of the common targets for synthesis of terpenes in S. cerevisiae are as follows: overexpression of tHMG1, ERG20, upc2-1 in case of all classes of terpenes; repression of ERG9 by replacement of the native promoter with a repressive methionine promoter in case of mono-, di- and sesquiterpenes; overexpression of BTS1 in case of di- and tetraterpenes. Site-directed mutagenesis such as Upc2p (G888A) in case of all classes of terpenes, ERG20p (K197G) in case of monoterpenes, HMG2p (K6R) in case of mono-, di- and sesquiterpenes could be some generic targets. Efforts are made to consolidate various studies

  6. Redox balancing in recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderlund, M.

    1998-09-01

    In metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Pichia stipitis XYL1 and XYL2 genes, encoding xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, xylitol is excreted as the major product during anaerobic xylose fermentation and only low yields of ethanol are produced. This has been interpreted as a result of the dual cofactor dependence of XR and the exclusive use of NAD{sup +} by XDH. The excretion of xylitol was completely stopped and the formation of glycerol and acetic acid were reduced in xylose utilising S. cerevisiae strains cultivated in oxygen-limited conditions by expressing lower levels of XR than of XDH. The expression level of XYL1 and XYL2 were controlled by changing the promoters and transcription directions of the genes. A new functional metabolic pathway was established when Thermus thermophilus xylA gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant strain was able to ferment xylose to ethanol when cultivated on a minimal medium containing xylose as only carbon source. In order to create a channeled metabolic transfer in the two first steps of the xylose metabolism, XYL1 and XYL2 were fused in-frame and expressed in S. cerevisiae. When the fusion protein, containing a linker of three amino acids, was co expressed together with native XR and XDH monomers, enzyme complexes consisting of chimeric and native subunits were formed. The total activity of these complexes exhibited 10 and 9 times higher XR and XDH activity, respectively, than the original conjugates, consisting of only chimeric subunits. This strain produced less xylitol and the xylitol yield was lower than with strains only expressing native XR and XDH monomers. In addition, more ethanol and less acetic acid were formed. A new gene encoding the cytoplasmic transhydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii was cloned. The enzyme showed high similarity to the family of pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase. To analyse the physiological effect of

  7. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletti Luiz C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. Results We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Conclusion Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by

  8. Awareness, attitudes and perceptions on epilepsy in Southern Brazil Conhecimento, atitudes e percepções sobre epilepsia no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify awareness and attitudes toward epilepsy in Southern Brazil. METHOD: A questionnaire about familiarity with the disease, awareness and attitudes toward epileptics was applied to 832 inhabitants of Caxias do Sul. The answers were analyzed in three different groups: G1, non-university students; G2, university students up to the second year; and G3, university students with more than two years education and university graduates. RESULTS: University students and graduates are better informed regarding causes and treatment of epilepsy. Moreover, those interviewees present less negative attitudes toward epileptics. However, a large part of that group lacks some basic information on the disease. CONCLUSION: There is lack of information on epilepsy among Brazilians. Education campaigns should be carried out in order to clarify some aspects concerning epilepsy.OBJETIVO: Verificar o conhecimento e as atitudes sobre epilepsia na população de Caxias do Sul. MÉTODO: Foi aplicado um questionário sobre familiaridade com a doença, conhecimentos e atitudes diante de um portador de epilepsia a 832 moradores da cidade. As respostas foram analisadas em três grupos distintos: G1, não-universitários; G2, universitários até o segundo ano; e G3, universitários com mais de dois anos e graduados. RESULTADOS: Os universitários e graduados possuem melhor conhecimento sobre causas e tratamento da epilepsia. Além disso, esses entrevistados apresentam menos atitudes negativas para com o portador de epilepsia. Entretanto, uma boa parte desse grupo apresenta falta de alguns conhecimentos básicos sobre a doença. CONCLUSÃO: Há falta de informação à população brasileira sobre epilepsia. Campanhas educacionais devem ser realizadas no intuito de desmistificar alguns aspectos concernentes à epilepsia.

  9. Consensos e dissensos sobre a cidade-dormitório: São Gonçalo (RJ, permanências e avanços na condição periférica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pereira Rosa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, debatemos a urbanização brasileira no século XXI e a heterogeneidade da periferia metropolitana fluminense. Utilizando o exemplo da cidade de São Gonçalo (RJ, listamos referências bibliográficas e apontamos elementos que chamam atenção para a necessidade de entender o papel das cidades periféricas que, apesar da primazia metropolitana, apresentam maior integração com a região metropolitana, compondo uma parte do que alguns autores convencionaram como “periferia integrada”. Como periferia integrada, vemos que os indicadores de mobilidade pendular, o aumento das centralidades, a modernização do território e o índice de desenvolvimento nos obrigam a flexionar alguns consensos sobre essa cidade periférica lida ainda, como cidade-dormitório.

  10. High-level production of beta-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by successive transformation with carotenogenic genes from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, R.; Wang, J.; Meijnen, J.P.; Visser, H.; Sandmann, G.; Berg, van den J.A.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae can serve as a host for efficient carotenoid and especially ß-carotene production, carotenogenic genes from the carotenoid-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were introduced and overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Because overexpression of these

  11. Transcriptome-Based Characterization of Interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Lactose-Grown Chemostat Cocultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, F.; Sieuwerts, S.; De Hulster, E.; Almering, M.J.; Luttik, M.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Smid, E.J.; Bron, P.A.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.

  12. Transcriptome-based characterization of interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in lactose-grown chemostat cocultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, F.; Sieuwerts, S.; Hulster, de E.; Almering, M.J.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Pronk, J.T.; Smid, E.J.; Baron, P.A.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.

  13. O "novo" consenso macroeconômico e alguns insights da crítica heterodoxa The new consensus macroeconomics and some insights from a heterodox critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mutter Teixeira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer um survey dos principais papers e argumentos que compõem o chamado "novo" consenso macroeconômico, a fim de elucidar o que alguns autores apresentam como uma nova etapa da História do Pensamento Econômico. Nesse caso, destacam-se os principais esforços na busca pela convergência entre as distintas teorias que suportam essa abordagem, bem como os principais autores que defendem ser essa convergência não só possível, mas desejável. Posteriormente, são sumarizados alguns insights da crítica heterodoxa, em especial, as de cunho pós-keynesiano. Sendo assim, o trabalho amplia a discussão proposta, nesta revista, por Arestis e Sawyer (2008. Observa-se ainda que grande parte das críticas feitas a este novo consenso são as mesmas que permeiam o debate entre Keynes e os (neo clássicos em meados da primeira metade do século XX. Por fim, as conclusões apontam no sentido de mostrar a necessidade de consolidar um construto teórico mais bem articulado para ambas as abordagens.This paper aims to survey the main contributions to the literature on the "new" consensus in macroeconomics in which the efforts for convergence among the distinct theories that support this approach are discussed. It also seemed appropriate to underscore the main authors who postulate such convergence. The resulting core for economic policies is then presented. Next, some insights on the heterodox critique are summarized. Emphasis was given to the post-Keynesian perspective. Thus, this paper amplifies the debate Arestis and Sawer (2008 proposed in an earlier issue of this journal. At this stage, the reader might find it clear that the critiques are the same as those which governed the debate among Keynes and the classics in the first half of the twentieth century. Conclusions indicate that more research is necessary in this area and that, at both sides of the debate, it is important to summarize the arguments in a coherent fashion

  14. Sobre la muerte voluntaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Álvarez-Cienfuegos Fidalgo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El problema de cómo morir en nuestra sociedad se ha convertido en una inquietud para los ciudadanos y la reflexión moral. Especialmcnte por dos razones: por el desarrollo de la tecnología médica y por el hecho de que la mayor parte de los fallecimientos tienen lugar fuera del hogar, donde tradicionalmente ocurra el deceso. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo acercarse a esta cuestión. Para ello, se parte de la autonomía del ciudadano, con derecho a decidir sobre lo que considera cuál sea su manera de vivir y de morir. A tal fin, se hace una breve introducción sobre el dolor, el suicidio y la muerte, desde un punto de vista antropológico, pasando, después, a mostrar las cuestiones relacionadas con el problema de la eutanasia, donde la atención se dirigirá, ante todo, al enjuiciamiento crítico del tenso equilibrio en el que se mantienen dos principios fundamentales de la bioética: el de no maleficencia y el de autonomía del ciudadano.The problem of how to die in modern society has become a concern for both the citizen and moral reflection for two reasons in particular: due to developments in medical technology, and because most deaths occur outside the honre, where they traditionaÍlY took place. This paper addresses this issue, starting from citizen autonomy, the right to decide on what s/he considers to be his or her way of living and dying. To this end, a brief introduction considers pain, suicide and death from an anthropological viewpoint. Questions related to the problem of euthanasia are then exposed, with particular attention to, above all the critical judgement of the tense balance in which two fundamental principies of bioethics are held, the principle of non-maleficence and that of citizen autonomy.

  15. Realidade, ciência e fantasia nas controvérsias sobre o Mapinguari no sudoeste amazônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ferreira Vander Velden

    Full Text Available Resumo A existência de um monstro conhecido como Mapinguari é amplamente registrada em inúmeras localidades na Amazônia. Os Karitiana, povo de língua Arikém (Tupí que habita o estado de Rondônia, também discorrem sobre o Mapinguari – termo com o qual eles nomeiam, em português, o monstro que, na sua língua, chamam Owojo ou Kida harara –, relatando terríveis encontros com a criatura nas matas regionais. Nesse sentido, se o Mapinguari vem sendo tratado pela literatura como exemplo de crença ou de folclore, para os Karitiana não parece haver dúvidas sobre sua realidade – ou seja, não parece se tratar de uma crença, mas de um dado deste mundo indígena –, o que pode ser apreendido facilmente nos efeitos que a presença do ‘bicho’ (kida – modo como os Karitiana conceituam os seres perigosos das matas – têm no cotidiano indígena, incluindo as formas pelas quais este grupo indígena ocupa e explora seu território. Soma-se a esta controvérsia a sugestão, por parte de alguns pesquisadores, de que o Mapinguari pode ser o que restou das preguiças gigantes, animais considerados extintos, mas que alguns julgam ainda habitar certos recônditos amazônicos. É sobre este diálogo entre crenças folclóricas, ontologias indígenas e hipóteses científicas que este trabalho se debruça.

  16. Puente sobre el Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Equipo Editorial

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Para salvar el lago de Maracaibo (Venezuela, el conocido ingeniero italiano Riccaido Morandi ha presentado un proyecto de puente para ferrocarril y carretera, de hormigón pretensado, de tramos independientes, constituyendo un sistema Gerber, que tiene una longitud total de 8.720 m y un vano central de 400 m de luz. Este último tramo, en unión de los dos adyacentes al mismo, constituirán, una vez terminada la obra, un conjunto continuo. El tablero del puente se halla a una altura de 45 m sobre el nivel del agua en la zona del canal, con objeto de permitir la navegación. El tablero, de 20,90 m de anchura total, se ha subdividido en tres partes, dos simétricas respecto al eje, laterales, de 7,20 m de anchura, para la circulación en sentidos opuestos por carretera, una plataforma central, de 5 m de ancho, para el ferrocarril y dos andenes para el paso de peatones y servicios.

  17. Refletindo sobre idosos institucionalizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenir Gonçalves Tier

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, descritiva que teve por objetivo identificar como vem sendo o relacionamento idoso-família, identificando os motivos que levaram os familiares a optarem pela institucionalização do seu idoso, obtendo-se também a visão da família sobre o cuidado no lar. Para coleta dos dados utilizou-se um instrumento com perguntas abertas. A coleta dos dados efetivou-se nos meses de agosto de 2002 a julho de 2003, sendo sujeitos da pesquisa, familiares de idosos de uma instituição asilar em um município da região noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul. Através da análise de conteúdo constatou-se que a maior dificuldade encontrada pela família, visando dispensar cuidados ao idoso é a "falta de tempo para cuidar" do seu familiar idoso, pois a maioria deles exige cuidados em tempo integral.

  18. Debate internacional sobre pobreza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neritza Alvarado Chacín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo es organizar la proliferación de ideas en torno de la pobreza, a menudo dispersas, difusas y confusas en la literatura, bosquejando sistematizadamente un marco teórico referencial útil al abordaje científico de este fenómeno, en investigaciones teóricas y aplicadas, así como en la enseñanza y discusión de tales temas en el ámbito universitario. Para ello, se compendian, organizan y clasifican diversos enfoques sobre la pobreza, según los criterios presentes en los planteamientos de autores e instituciones relevantes que han contribuido a la reflexión desde distintas lecturas, teniendo en cuenta que no existe consenso en torno a una definición. La investigación es exploratoria-documental. Se aplican las técnicas del arqueo electrónico y físico de la información, el fichaje computarizado y la reducción de la misma en tablas de contenido. Se precisa el alcance de las mismas en el tiempo, según la evolución conceptual que han experimentado en el debate internacional. Se señalan algunas ventajas y desventajas de los principales enfoques, que han sido reconocidas en el mismo debate.

  19. Sobre el nombre "Quechua"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los primeros problemas con el que a menudo tropiezael estudioso de los idiomas ágrafos, como es el caso de las lenguasaborígenes de América, es el de su denominación (glotónimo.En la medida ,en que, por razones históricas, las noticias sobretales lenguas, y por consiguiente los primeros estudios sobre lasmismas, surgen a partir del contacto con los miembros de la civilización occidental, los nombres de los distintos idiomas, así comode los grupos étnicos que los manejan, son el resultado casi siempre arbitrario cie designaciones fortuitas hechas por viajeros, misiioneros y exploradores, quienes por lo general se basan, para ello, bien en descripciones físicas de los grupo étnicos, en ciertos indios geográficos que constituyen el habitat de los mismos, e incluso en prejuicios que se nutren de un marcado europocentrismo.

  20. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1246 Section 180.1246 Protection of... Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. This regulation establishes an... Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on all food commodities when applied/used for the management of...

  1. [Invertase Overproduction May Provide for Inulin Fermentation by Selection Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, G I; Naumova, E S

    2015-01-01

    In some recent publications, the ability of selection strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment inulin was attributed to inulinase activity. The review summarizes the literature data indicating that overproduction of invertase, an enzyme common to S. cerevisiae, may be responsible for this phenomenon.

  2. Functional co-operation between the nuclei of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mitochondria from other yeast species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spirek, M.; Horvath, A.; Piskur, Jure

    2000-01-01

    We elaborated a simple method that allows the transfer of mitochondria from collection yeasts to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protoplasts prepared from different yeasts were fused to the protoplasts of the ade2-1, ura3-52, kar1-1, rho (0) strain of S. cerevisiae and were selected for respiring cybri...

  3. Invertase SUC2 Is the Key Hydrolase for Inulin Degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li

    2013-01-01

    Specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were recently found to be capable of efficiently utilizing inulin, but genetic mechanisms of inulin hydrolysis in yeast remain unknown. Here we report functional characteristics of invertase SUC2 from strain JZ1C and demonstrate that SUC2 is the key enzyme responsible for inulin metabolism in S. cerevisiae.

  4. Invertase SUC2 Is the Key Hydrolase for Inulin Degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-An

    2013-01-01

    Specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were recently found to be capable of efficiently utilizing inulin, but genetic mechanisms of inulin hydrolysis in yeast remain unknown. Here we report functional characteristics of invertase SUC2 from strain JZ1C and demonstrate that SUC2 is the key enzyme responsible for inulin metabolism in S. cerevisiae. PMID:23104410

  5. Physiological impact and context dependency of transcriptional responses : A chemostat study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tai, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is a compilation of a four-year PhD project on bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Since the entire S. cerevisiae genome sequence became available in 1996, DNA-microarray analysis has become a popular high-information-density tool for analyzing gene expression in this important

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Laryngitis and Oral Lesions in a Patient with Laryngeal Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Algazaq, Jumanah N.; Akrami, Kevan; Martinez, Fernando; McCutchan,Allen; Bharti, Ajay R

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is increasingly being promoted as a nutritional supplement by health food enthusiasts and is also recommended as prophylaxis against antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, severe opportunistic infections due to S. cerevisiae have been reported in patients with chronic disease, cancer, and immunosuppression. Fungemia, endocarditis, pneumonia, peritonitis, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and esophagitis have been described. It is important to consider infec...

  7. Thermal stabilization of putative karyoskeletal protein-enriched fractions from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Berrios, S; Fisher, P A

    1988-01-01

    Elevated growth temperature (heat shock) promoted the structural stability of karyoskeletal protein-enriched fractions isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Similar stabilization could be induced by brief incubation of nuclei at 37 degrees C in vitro. These results are similar to those reported for higher eucaryotes and have practical implications for investigation of the karyoskeleton in S. cerevisiae.

  8. Direct conversion of starch to ethanol using recombınant Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing glucoamylase gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkan, P.; Baktir, A.; Puspaningsih, N. N. T.; Ni'mah, M.

    2017-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known for its high fermentative capacity, high ethanol yield and its high ethanol tolerance. The yeast is inability converting starch (relatively inexpensive substrate) into biofuel ethanol. Insertion of glucoamylase gene in yeast cell of Saccharomyces cerevisiae had been done to increase the yeast function in ethanol fermentation from starch. Transformation of yeast of S. cerevisiae with recombinant plasmid yEP-GLO1 carrying gene encoding glucoamylase (GLO1) produced the recombinant yeast which enable to degrade starch. Optimizing of bioconversion process of starch into ethanol by the yeast of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae [yEP-GLO1] had been also done. Starch concentration which could be digested by recombinant yeast of S. cerevisiae [yEP-GLO1] was 10% (w/v). Bioconversion of starch having concentration 10% (b/v) using recombinant yeast of S. cerevisiae BY5207 [yEP-GLO1] could result ethanol as 20% (v/v) to alcoholmeter and 19,5% (v/v) to gas of chromatography. Otherwise, using recombinant yeast S. cerevisiae S. cerevisiae AS3324 [yEP-GLO1] resulted ethanol as 17% (v/v) to alcoholmeter and 17,5% (v/v) to gas of chromatography. The highest ethanol in starch bioconversion using both recombinant yeasts BY5207 and AS3324 could be resulted on 144 hours of fermentation time as well as in pH 5.

  9. ISOLATION OF A CYTOCHROME P-450 STRUCTURAL GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have transformed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host with an S. cerevisiae genomic library contained in the shuttle vector YEp24 and screened the resultant transformants for resistance to ketoconazole (Kc), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzyme lanosterol 14-demethyl...

  10. Creation of a synthetic xylose-inducible promoter for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is currently used to produce ethanol from glucose, but it cannot utilize five-carbon sugars contained in the hemicellulose component of biomass feedstocks. S. cerevisiae strains engineered for xylose fermentation have been made using constitutive promoters to express the req...

  11. Invertase SUC2 Is the key hydrolase for inulin degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li

    2013-01-01

    Specific Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were recently found to be capable of efficiently utilizing inulin, but genetic mechanisms of inulin hydrolysis in yeast remain unknown. Here we report functional characteristics of invertase SUC2 from strain JZ1C and demonstrate that SUC2 is the key enzyme responsible for inulin metabolism in S. cerevisiae.

  12. Improved xylose metabolism by a CYC8 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Jeroen G; Shin, Hyun Yong; Boender, Leonie G M; de Waal, Paul P; Klaassen, Paul; Driessen, Arnold J M

    Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the utilization of pentose sugars is an important goal for the production of second-generation bioethanol and biochemicals. However, S. cerevisiae lacks specific pentose transporters and, in the presence of glucose, pentoses enter the cell inefficiently via

  13. Sobre Fundamentalismos Éticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio Gomes da Silva Neto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A nossa história é acompanhada por diversos tipos de fundamentalismos. A proposta desse artigo é destacar alguns fundamentalismos éticos que marcaram a humanidade e que foram questionados por pensadores e intelectuais. A origem do fundamentalismo se dá na forma como interpretamos as doutrinas sem levarmos em consideração o espírito histórico que as cerca, ou ainda as aceitamos sem nenhuma abertura para a crítica. O fundamentalismo tem muito haver com o fanatismo, na forma como o verbete do Dicionário Filosófico (1752 de Voltaire o entende. Ao enxergar determinada doutrina como único fundamento de verdade, o ser humano é levado a uma espécie de cegueira que o impede de observar a realidade com espírito crítico. Geralmente, associamos o fundamentalismo à religião seguindo a tradição de alguns pensadores modernos, por esta ser responsável por grandes desgraças na humanidade. Porém, outros fundamentalismos também foram disseminados à margem da religião, e que da mesma forma, causaram muitos estragos à vida humana. Foi assim que se descobriram os fundamentalismos: filosófico, científico, totalitário, econômico. Parece que por mais que tentemos identificar e denunciar esses fundamentalismos, outros mais surgem nas esteiras das relações humanas. Sempre que críticos se levantam para denunciar determinados fanatismos, outros mais fanatismos surgirão para serem combatidos. Tudo isso poderia ser banal se a vida humana não corresse nenhuma ameaça no atual estado das coisas, e se os prognósticos fossem favoráveis para a vida da nossa espécie no planeta.

  14. Identificação de alguns problemas psicossociais em portadores de hanseníase utilizando para a análise os recursos da informática Identification of some psychosocial aspects in patients with leprosy using computerized analyses resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Frazão Helene

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar nos pacientes com hanseníase alguns problemas psicossociais, como preocupações e mudanças ocorridas em relação à família, aos amigos, ao emprego e a si próprio, após terem sido informados do diagnóstico da doença. Na metodologia foram utilizados alguns recursos da informática, como o programa KARDS , gerenciador da base de dados, e o software JARGÃO, que possibilitou a tarefa de analisar em linguagem natural os depoimentos dos pacientes, obtidos por meio de entrevista composta por duas perguntas abertas. Os resultados encontrados evidenciaram que após o diagnóstico da doença a maioria dos pacientes estudados apresentava preocupações e manifestava algum tipo de mudança em relação à família, aos amigos, ao emprego e a si próprios. As preocupações estavam relacionadas principalmente à possibilidade de transmitir a doença, especialmente para os familiares, e à incerteza da cura. As mudanças diziam respeito especialmente ao aparecimento de sintomas que, segundo os pacientes, poderiam provocar reações discriminatórias por parte de outras pessoas. Esses fatos levavam os pacientes a não contar aos amigos sobre sua doença.The purpose of this study was to identify leprosy patients' psychosocial problems experienced after they were informed about their diagnosis. We foccused attention upon concerns and behavioral changes related to their families, friends, jobs and to themselves. Data were obtained by a two opened questions interview and they were analysed with the aid of artificial intelligence techniques. These inteligence tools were used to discover the most frequent words, phrases and concepts existing in the interview reports. The results showed that after being informed about their diagnosis, the majority of the patients referred some concerns and behavioral changes related to their families, friends, jobs and to themselves. The main concerns of the population were

  15. Efeito da fertilização nitrogenada em videira sobre a formação de alguns compostos volatéis no vinho Effect of vineyard nitrogen fertilization on the formation of some wine volatile coumpounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Schuch Boeira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera cv. Gewürztraminer e Cabemet Sauvignon cultivadas em Santana do Livramento e Garibaldi foram submetidas a diferentes tratamentos nitrogenados realizados durante o período vegetativo de 1992-1993. Após a colheita e esmagamento o mosto obtido foi dividido em quatro lotes e fermentado com diferentes leveduras. As determinações dos compostos voláteis foram realizados através de cromatografia gasosa. Maiores valores de metanol foram encontrados nos vinhos de Cabemet Sauvignon (máximo 225,6mg/l. A fertilização nitrogenada provocou um aumento na concentração (mg/l de propanol-1 (min. 25 -máx. 78,2 e uma diminuição de metil-2 propanol-1 (min. 60,8 - máx. 125,9 e metil-3 + metil-2 butanol-1 (min. 85,8 - máx. 407,8 nos vinhos. Os álcoois superiores apresentaram também diferenças em relação à região, cultivar e levedura utilizada.Vitis vinifera Gewürztraminer (white variety and Cabemet Sauvignon (red growned in Santana do Livramento, RS, and Garibaldi, RS, were added with different nitrogen treatments in the vineyard during me 1992-1993 season. After harvest and crushing, the musts were divided into four lots each one added with a different yeast. The volatiles were analyzed through GC. Maximum amount of methanol was found with the red variety (225.6mg/l. Increasing nitrogen in the soil increased (mg/l propanol-1 (min. 25-max. 78.2 and decreased methyl-2 propanol-1 (min. 60.8-max. 125.9 and methyl-3+methyl-2 butanol-1 (min. 85.8-max. 407.8. The fusel alcohol fraction showed, also, differences between region,grape variety and yeast used.

  16. Revelação ou entendimento: alguns apontamentos sobre a tradução de textos religiosos Revelation or understanding: some ideas about the translation of religious texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita Maria Rimoli Esteves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho sugere que existem pelo menos duas estratégias bastante distintas para abordar a tradução de textos religiosos: a primeira busca dar acesso ao leitor em termos de entendimento, aproximando o texto religioso da cultura para a qual ele está sendo traduzido. A segunda estratégia é nutrida por uma ênfase na iluminação, na revelação, numa clarividência que não necessariamente passa pelo raciocínio, mas que pode ser proporcionada pela transmissão de características da língua que não pertencem ao campo dos sentidos e têm a ver com a materialidade da língua: ritmo, assonâncias, aliterações. As duas estratégias, numa primeira análise, parecem não só se opor diametralmente, mas também reforçar uma dicotomia talvez tão ou mais antiga que os próprios textos em estudo: aquela que opõe espírito (ou conteúdo a letra (forma. No entanto, como já poderíamos suspeitar, as coisas não são tão simples assim... O trabalho apresentará algumas manifestações dessas duas tendências ao longo da história, problematizando a dicotomia e buscando delimitar que éticas informaram cada esforço de tradução.This paper suggests the existence of at least two very different strategies in the translation of religious texts: one is based on understanding and aims at accommodating the religious text to the culture into which it is translated. The second strategy is nourished by an emphasis on illumination, on revelation, on an insight that does not necessarily demand reasoning, but rather the transmission of certain linguistic characteristics not belonging to the realm of meaning: rhythm, assonances, alliterations. At first sight, the two strategies are radically different, stressing a dichotomy that is perhaps even older than the texts being studied " that opposing spirit to letter (or content to form. However, as one might expect, things are not so simple. The work will present some manifestations of these two tendencies along history, questioning the dichotomy itself and trying to identify what kind of ethic informed each translation effort.

  17. Breves anotações sobre a carnavalização e alguns de seus disfarces em dois filmes latinoamericanos: Como água para chocolate e Carlota Joaquina

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    Eduardo Peñuela Cañizal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article sets out to examine, as an inventive process, some characteristic ways of camavalisation that have take shape in two Latin American films. He explores also the desire that involves the constmctions of images and visual narrative.

  18. Boaventura de Bagnoregio e a Regra de 1223: alguns apontamentos sobre a disciplina da pobreza = Bonaventure of Bagnoregio and the Rule of 1223: some points about the discipline of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Aparecida Silveira Aguiar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boaventura de Bagnoregio (1221-1274 foi um dos mais influentes pensadores da Ordem dos Frades menores, considerado pelos historiadores o segundo fundador do movimento devido a sua ortodoxia e às ‘reformas’ que empregou durante o seu generalato. É nosso objetivo fazer uma releitura da obra Expositio super Regulam Fratrum Minorum, que tem como fio condutor a questão da interpretação da Regra de 1223, partindo da discussão da pobreza normativa e dos seus desdobramentos. Quando era Ministro geral, Boaventura empenhou fidelidade à proposta religiosa de São Francisco e à Regra dos Menores. Porém, devido a sua cultura catedrática, ele exprimiu uma nova interpretação, na qual enfatizava a precisão conceitual de todas as palavras que, como tais, transmitiam valores ou instruções à disciplina monástica em um momento chave da história dos Menores. Este artigo pretende demonstrar que Boaventura contribuiu com uma interpretação léxica da Norma e da pobreza, pensada mais do que um fato que requeresse comportamentos concretos nos conventos; tornou-se um problema do intelecto, por isso ele colaborou para o crescimento de conflitos eclesiásticos e eclesiológicos de complexidade jurídica na Ordem franciscana.Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (1221-1274 was one of the most influential thinkers of the minor friar’s Order, considered by the historians as the second founding of the movement owing to the his orthodoxy and the ‘reforms’ employed by him during his generalate. It is our objective to make a re-reading of the work Expositio super Regulam Fratrum Minorum that has the interpretation’s question of Rule of 1223 as the conductor thread, departing from the normative poverty discussion and its expanding. When Bonaventure was a general Minister, he pledged fidelity at the religious proposal of Saint Francis and the Friar’s Rule. However, owing to his cathedratic culture, he expressed a new interpretation of the Norm, in which he emphasized the conceptual precision of all the words that transmited values or instructions to the monastic discipline at a key moment of the Friar’s history. This article intends to demonstrate that Bonaventure contributed with a lexicon interpretation of Norm and the poverty, both of them thought more than a fact which requested concrete behaviors in the convents; it turn out to be a problem of intellect, therefore, he collaborated for the growth of ecclesiastics and ecclesiology conflicts of juridical complexity in the Franciscan Order.

  19. O (impossível da educação como processo e a constituição do sujeito no campo da cultura: alguns apontamentos sobre o ensinar e o educar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Ribeiro de Assis Corrêa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It’s noticeable the disqualification of the contemporary basic education. It’s believed that part of this disqualification is linked to the lack of comprehension about the difference between teaching and educating. With that being said, the present work has for objective to analyze if the school daily practices in the process of literature is characterized as product or a process. For that, it was done a field research with a present and constant observation to the early years in the beginning of the basic education, specifically on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd grades. The theoric foundation about the relationship between development and education as well the teaching and tutoring in Adorno (1995, Arendt (2011, Freud (1990, Guattari (1981, Larrosa (1999, Marx (1983, Rodrigues (2013, Silva (2002. It’s known that the school should fit in the parameters of a democratic society: equity, equality, solidarity and human development. Being different from the market that aim the excellence and individual competitively, which the market try to reduce social values, ethics and school development to the objectives related to a production scale.

  20. Efeito in vitro e in vivo da β-alanina sobre alguns parâmetros de estresse oxidativo em córtex cerebral e cerebelo de ratos jovens

    OpenAIRE

    Tanise Gemelli

    2012-01-01

    β–alanina é um β-aminoácido derivado da degradação da pirimidina uracila. Em altas concentrações desenvolve uma desordem muito rara da via de degradação das pirimidinas, conhecida como β–alaninemia. O acúmulo do β–aminoácido pode causar consequências bioquímicas como: depleção dos níveis de taurina, aumento de espécies reativas e excreção aumentada de GABA. Essas alterações levam a um distúrbio no desenvolvimento neurológico, contribuindo para a patologia da doença. A β–alanina também é utilz...

  1. Els lepidòpters de la vall d’Alinyà (Alt Urgell, NE de la península Ibèrica: algunes consideracions sobre l’altitud i la classificació biogeogràfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallhonrat, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lepidoptera of the Alinyà valley (Alt Urgell, NE Iberian peninsula: some remarks about altitude and biogeographical classification Results from the census on Lepidoptera fauna carried out in Alinyà valley during years 2000 and 2001 (see annex show few significant differences in the altitudinal range between Mediterranean and Eurasiatic species.

  2. La casa sobre el monte

    OpenAIRE

    Valderrama, Kohnie; Martín Domínguez, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Reflexiones de la autora sobre su vida, su infancia, sus padres, que le llevan a mandar construir una casa en una parcela con encinas, integrada por completo en el entorno y utilizando el hormigón como material constructivo.

  3. Growth and fermentation characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NK28 isolated from kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sub; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jung-Wan; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2013-09-28

    The influences of glucose concentration, initial medium acidity (pH), and temperature on the growth and ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NK28, which was isolated from kiwi fruit, were examined in shake flask cultures. The optimal glucose concentration, initial medium pH, and temperature for ethanol production were 200 g/l, pH 6.0, and 35oC, respectively. Under this growth condition, S. cerevisiae NK28 produced 98.9 ± 5.67 g/l ethanol in 24 h with a volumetric ethanol production rate of 4.12 ± 0.24 g/l·h. S. cerevisiae NK28 was more tolerant to heat and ethanol than laboratory strain S. cerevisiae BY4742, and its tolerance to ethanol and fermentation inhibitors was comparable to that of an ethanologen, S. cerevisiae D5A.

  4. QUESTÕES SOBRE A PENA DE MORTE

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    SOUSA, L.N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pelo menos, desde o Código de Hamurabi as punições para atos desviantes tem sido um foco de reflexão. Este trabalho encerra essa reflexão acerca de aspectos em torno do tema pena de morte. Além de feito político contra o crime, também seria um ato com fins vingativos, fundamentado na violação da dignidade humana, o que justifica a necessidade de haver uma rigorosa análise sobre tal questão, visando os argumentos lógicos, baseados na realidade social brasileira. Alguns estudos demonstram que a percepção da classe menos favorecida é que já existe, de certa forma, uma pena de morte informal no Brasil, praticada pela polícia ou grupos de extermínio. No entanto, diversos setores defendem a pena de morte em nome dos direitos humanos. O debate sobre o referido tema não deve limitar-se às questões relacionadas ao desenvolvimento moral individual, antes deve incluir também a análise de fatores históricos, culturais, econômicos, políticos e ideológicos. Este estudo tem como objetivo coletar dados bibliográficos, bem como dados sobre as opiniões que as pessoas em Campos dos Goytacazes têm sobre a pena de morte. A pesquisa feita é de caráter exploratório. Utilizaram-se as metodologias pertinentes a uma pesquisa bibliográfica. Foi realizada com moradores da cidade de Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ, especificamente com 40 jovens e adultos, de gênero masculino e feminino, com idades entre 18 e 48 anos, sendo a maioria mulheres. A coleta de dados foi feita através de questionários fechados, do tipo likert. Cerca de 48% da amostra concorda com a sentença pena de morte. As respostas quanto a não ter opinião formada sobre o assunto foram minoria, somando 20% ao todo, restando 32% de sujeitos que declararam ser contrários. Metade dos sujeitos não concordou que a sentença seria aplicada corretamente no Brasil. A minoria concordou que a lei teria uma aplicabilidade positiva no país. Aproximadamente 43% dos sujeitos pesquisados

  5. Algunos apuntes sobre comunidad

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    Clara Pérez Cárdenas

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Comunidad es, entre los temas de estudio del curriculum de los residentes en Medicina General Integral, uno de aquellos en las que mayores dificultades encontramos para poderlo impartir, pues la bibliografía sobre el tema está un tanto dispersa. Es un aspecto que los propios residentes no evalúan con justeza; sin embargo es de sumo interés que como profesionales de la salud no obviemos que nuestro trabajo de promoción, prevención y tratamiento, debe darse a nivel de individuo, pero también en las familias y en la comunidad como un todo, y por lo tanto debamos incorporar, al menos, nociones de lo que es una comunidad y qué es participación comunitaria para tener idea de cómo fomentarla, única vía para que nuestras acciones de salud sean más efectivasCommunity is one of the most difficult subjects to be taught among those included in the curriculum of General Comprehensive Medicine residents, since bibliography on this topic is a bit dispersed. This aspect, which is not properly evaluated by residents, is very important for health professionals to do our work of promotion, prevention and treatment not only at the level of the individual, but also at the level of the family and of the community as a whole. Therefore, we need to have some notions about community and community participation to be able to promote them, as the only way to make our health actions more effective

  6. High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Ahlgren Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™ to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome.

  7. Removal of Pyrimethanil and Fenhexamid from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Liquid Cultures

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    Etjen Bizaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for the removal of pyrimethanil and fenhexamid, two fungicides commonly used for the control of Botrytis cinerea in vineyards, has been evaluated during an alcoholic fermentation process in batch system. Commercial and wild strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used. Batch fermentations were carried out in yeast extract-malt extract medium (YM with 18.0 % (by mass glucose, and the fungicides were added separately at three concentrations: 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg/L. The removal capacity of yeast strains was also examined in stationary phase cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Stationary assays were performed with yeast biomass harvested from the stationary phase of an anaerobic fermentation process, with separate additions of 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg/L of both fungicides. Removal studies with stationary phase cells were performed with viable and non-viable cells inactivated with sodium azide. This study clearly shows that both Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were able to remove fenhexamid and pyrimethanil in stationary and fermentative assays. The removal potential is shown to be strain dependent in stationary but not in fermentative assays. However, the removal potential is dependent on the type of fungicide in both stationary and fermentative assays. In stationary phase cultures no significant difference in fungicide removal potential between viable and non-viable cells was observed, indicating that both pesticides were not degraded by metabolically active cells. However, the presence of both pesticides influenced fermentation kinetics and only pyrimethanil at 10.0 mg/L increased the production of volatile acidity of both strains.

  8. Non-coding RNA prediction and verification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Laura A; Dietrich, Fred S

    2009-01-01

    Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) play an important and varied role in cellular function. A significant amount of research has been devoted to computational prediction of these genes from genomic sequence, but the ability to do so has remained elusive due to a lack of apparent genomic features. In this work, thermodynamic stability of ncRNA structural elements, as summarized in a Z-score, is used to predict ncRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was coupled with comparative genomics to search for ncRNA genes on chromosome six of S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. Sets of positive and negative control genes were evaluated to determine the efficacy of thermodynamic stability for discriminating ncRNA from background sequence. The effect of window sizes and step sizes on the sensitivity of ncRNA identification was also explored. Non-coding RNA gene candidates, common to both S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, were verified using northern blot analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and publicly available cDNA library data. Four ncRNA transcripts are well supported by experimental data (RUF10, RUF11, RUF12, RUF13), while one additional putative ncRNA transcript is well supported but the data are not entirely conclusive. Six candidates appear to be structural elements in 5' or 3' untranslated regions of annotated protein-coding genes. This work shows that thermodynamic stability, coupled with comparative genomics, can be used to predict ncRNA with significant structural elements.

  9. Non-coding RNA prediction and verification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Kavanaugh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNA (ncRNA play an important and varied role in cellular function. A significant amount of research has been devoted to computational prediction of these genes from genomic sequence, but the ability to do so has remained elusive due to a lack of apparent genomic features. In this work, thermodynamic stability of ncRNA structural elements, as summarized in a Z-score, is used to predict ncRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This analysis was coupled with comparative genomics to search for ncRNA genes on chromosome six of S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. Sets of positive and negative control genes were evaluated to determine the efficacy of thermodynamic stability for discriminating ncRNA from background sequence. The effect of window sizes and step sizes on the sensitivity of ncRNA identification was also explored. Non-coding RNA gene candidates, common to both S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, were verified using northern blot analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE, and publicly available cDNA library data. Four ncRNA transcripts are well supported by experimental data (RUF10, RUF11, RUF12, RUF13, while one additional putative ncRNA transcript is well supported but the data are not entirely conclusive. Six candidates appear to be structural elements in 5' or 3' untranslated regions of annotated protein-coding genes. This work shows that thermodynamic stability, coupled with comparative genomics, can be used to predict ncRNA with significant structural elements.

  10. Heterologous expression of cellulase genes in natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Steffi A; den Haan, Riaan; van Zyl, Willem Heber

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme cost is a major impediment to second-generation (2G) cellulosic ethanol production. One strategy to reduce enzyme cost is to engineer enzyme production capacity in a fermentative microorganism to enable consolidated bio-processing (CBP). Ideally, a strain with a high secretory phenotype, high fermentative capacity as well as an innate robustness to bioethanol-specific stressors, including tolerance to products formed during pre-treatment and fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates should be used. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a robust fermentative yeast but has limitations as a potential CBP host, such as low heterologous protein secretion titers. In this study, we evaluated natural S. cerevisiae isolate strains for superior secretion activity and other industrially relevant characteristics needed during the process of lignocellulosic ethanol production. Individual cellulases namely Saccharomycopsis fibuligera Cel3A (β-glucosidase), Talaromyces emersonii Cel7A (cellobiohydrolase), and Trichoderma reesei Cel5A (endoglucanase) were utilized as reporter proteins. Natural strain YI13 was identified to have a high secretory phenotype, demonstrating a 3.7- and 3.5-fold higher Cel7A and Cel5A activity, respectively, compared to the reference strain S288c. YI13 also demonstrated other industrially relevant characteristics such as growth vigor, high ethanol titer, multi-tolerance to high temperatures (37 and 40 °C), ethanol (10 % w/v), and towards various concentrations of a cocktail of inhibitory compounds commonly found in lignocellulose hydrolysates. This study accentuates the value of natural S. cerevisiae isolate strains to serve as potential robust and highly productive chassis organisms for CBP strain development.

  11. Local isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biocompetitive agent of Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusumaningtyas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus is a toxigenic fungus that contaminates feed and influences the animal health. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as a biocompetitive agent to control the contamination. The ability of local isolate of S. cerevisiae as a biocompetitive agent for A. flavus was evaluated. A. flavus (30ml was swept on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, while S. cerevisiae was swept on its left and right. Plates were incubated at 28oC for nine days. Lytic activity of S. cerevisiae was detected by pouring its suspension on the centre of the cross streaks of A. flavus. Plates were incubated at 28oC for five days. Growth inhibition of A. flavus by S. cerevisiae was determined by mixing the two fungi on Potato dextrose broth and incubated at 28oC for 24 hours. Total colony of A. flavus were then observed at incubation time of 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours by pour plates method on the SDA plates and incubated on 28oC for two days. Growth of hyphae of A. flavus sweep were inhibited with the swept of S. cerevisiae. The width of A. flavus colony treated with S. cerevisiae is narrower (3,02 cm than that of control ( 4,60 cm. The growth of A. flavus was also inhibited on the centre of cross streak where the S. cerevisiae poured. S. cerevisiae gradually reduced the colony number of A. flavus in the mixed culture of broth fungi ie. 14 x 103 CFU/ml while colony number of control is 80 x 103 CFU/ml. Results showed that S. cerevisiae could be used as biocompetitive agent of A. flavus.

  12. Localization of nuclear retained mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Rune; Libri, Domenico; BOULAY, JOCELYNE; Rosbash, Michael; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2003-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a common conditional phenotype associated with deletion or mutation of genes encoding mRNA export factors is the rapid accumulation of mRNAs in intranuclear foci, suggested to be near transcription sites. The nuclear RNA exosome has been implicated in retaining RNAs in these foci; on deletion of the exosome component Rrp6p, the RNA is released. To determine the exact nuclear location of retained as well as released mRNAs, we have used mRNA export mutant ...

  13. Genetic approaches for identifying kinetochore components in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doheny, K.F.; Puziss, J.; Spencer, F.; Hieter, P. [John Hopkins Univ. Medical School, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A fundamental aspect of the cell division cycle is the chromosome cycle in which each of the chromosomal DNA molecules undergoes a series of morphological changes and complex movements to ensure faithful distribution at mitosis. The gene products responsible for execution of the chromosome cycle include structural components, such as those that assemble into the mitotic spindle apparatus, and regulatory components, such as those that coordinate the ordered series of events leading to chromosome segregation within the cell cycle. We have been taking several genetic approaches to identify genes encoding determinants critical to the chromosome cycle in the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae.

  14. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for optimizing 3HP production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Maury, Jerome; Oberg, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    cerevisiae. One main reason for selecting Baker's yeast as host organism is that yeast has a high tolerance towards low pH in comparison to bacteria, e.g. E. coli. Hence, it lowers the consumption of base for neutralization of growth media when compared to bacteria. The preferred engineered pathway towards 3...... and the market for acrylate products exceeds USD 100 billion. As an alternative to oil and gas derived acrylic acid, 3-hydroxypropionic (3HP) acid produced from renewable sources is highly desired, because 3HP can easily be converted into acrylic acid. We are setting out to produce 3HP in yeast Saccharomyces...

  15. Dual system for potassium transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Navarro, A; Ramos, J

    1984-01-01

    In a newly formulated growth medium lacking Na+ and NH4+, Saccharomyces cerevisiae grew maximally at 5 microM K+. Cells grown under these conditions transported K+ with an apparent Km of 24 microM, whereas cells grown in customary high-K+ medium had a significantly higher Km (2 mM K+). The two types of transport also differed in carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone sensitivity, response to ATP depletion, and temperature dependence. The results can be accounted for either by two transport...

  16. Adaption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a heterologous protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Astrid Mørkeberg; Beck, Vibe; Højlund Christensen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Production of the heterologous protein, bovine aprotinin, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to affect the metabolism of the host cell to various extent depending on the strain genotype. Strains with different genotypes, industrial and laboroatory, respectively, were investigated. The maximal...... specific growth rate of the strains was reduced by 54% and 33%, respectively, upon the introduction of the gene encoding aprotinin. Growing the strains in sequential shake flask cultivations for 250 generations led to an increased maximal specific growth rate and a decrease in the yield of aprotinin...

  17. Characteristics of the Storage Stability for Different Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Gomaa N. Abdel-Rahman; Nadia R. A. Nassar; Yehia A. Heikal; Mahmoud A. M. Abou-Donia; Mohamed B. M. Ahmed; Mohamed Fadel

    2017-01-01

    Storage stability is the important factor of baker's yeast quality. Effect of the storage period (fifteen days) on storage sugars and cell viability of baker's yeast, produced from three S. cerevisiae strains (FC-620, FH-620, and FAT-12) as comparison with baker's yeast produced by S. cerevisae F-707 (original strain of baker's yeast factory) were investigated. Studied trehalose and glycogen content ranged from 10.19 to 14.79 % and from 10.05 to 10.69 % (d.w.), respectively before storage. Th...

  18. Heterologous biosynthesis and manipulation of crocetin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Fenghua; Wang, Ying; Mei, Xueang; Yao, Mingdong; Chen, Yan; Liu, Hong; Xiao, Wenhai; Yuan, Yingjin

    2017-03-29

    Due to excellent performance in antitumor, antioxidation, antihypertension, antiatherosclerotic and antidepressant activities, crocetin, naturally exists in Crocus sativus L., has great potential applications in medical and food fields. Microbial production of crocetin has received increasing concern in recent years. However, only a patent from EVOVA Inc. and a report from Lou et al. have illustrated the feasibility of microbial biosynthesis of crocetin, but there was no specific titer data reported so far. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally regarded as food safety and productive host, and manipulation of key enzymes is critical to balance metabolic flux, consequently improve output. Therefore, to promote crocetin production in S. cerevisiae, all the key enzymes, such as CrtZ, CCD and ALD should be engineered combinatorially. By introduction of heterologous CrtZ and CCD in existing β-carotene producing strain, crocetin biosynthesis was achieved successfully in S. cerevisiae. Compared to culturing at 30 °C, the crocetin production was improved to 223 μg/L at 20 °C. Moreover, an optimal CrtZ/CCD combination and a titer of 351 μg/L crocetin were obtained by combinatorial screening of CrtZs from nine species and four CCDs from Crocus. Then through screening of heterologous ALDs from Bixa orellana (Bix_ALD) and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Syn_ALD) as well as endogenous ALD6, the crocetin titer was further enhanced by 1.8-folds after incorporating Syn_ALD. Finally a highest reported titer of 1219 μg/L at shake flask level was achieved by overexpression of CCD2 and Syn_ALD. Eventually, through fed-batch fermentation, the production of crocetin in 5-L bioreactor reached to 6278 μg/L, which is the highest crocetin titer reported in eukaryotic cell. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to achieve crocetin production in this study. Through combinatorial manipulation of three key enzymes CrtZ, CCD and ALD in terms of screening enzymes sources and regulating

  19. Expression of YAP4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under osmotic stress.

    OpenAIRE

    Nevitt, Tracy; Pereira, Jorge; Azevedo, Dulce; Guerreiro, Paulo; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina

    2004-01-01

    YAP4, a member of the yeast activator protein ( YAP ) gene family, is induced in response to osmotic shock in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The null mutant displays mild and moderate growth sensitivity at 0.4 M and 0.8 M NaCl respectively, a fact that led us to analyse YAP4 mRNA levels in the hog1 (high osmolarity glycerol) mutant. The data obtained show a complete abolition of YAP4 gene expression in this mutant, placing YAP4 under the HOG response pathway. YAP4 overexpression not only...

  20. Modelling the Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae while Air Limitation

    OpenAIRE

    Collazos Martín, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae es un tipo de levadura que se ha utilizado desde hace muchos años para vinificación, horneado y cervecería. Durante el crecimiento de la levadura existe una producción indeseada de etanol causada por el efecto Crabtree y por la presencia limitada de oxígeno en el caldo de cultivo. El objetivo de esta tesis es crear un modelo que permita simular la producción de etanol causada por la limitación de oxígeno en un reactor semicontinuo. El modelo fue simulado en tres escen...

  1. Alguns argumentos contra o inatismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Lombardi Vallauri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo as premissas fundamentais da visão inatista da capacidade lingüística humana são examinadas. Com base em diversos argumentos, o princípio da pobreza de estímulo é desafiado, assim como outros postulados da teoria que defende uma faculdade da linguagem específica. Argumentos que enfocam a plausibilidade de capacidades cognitivas gerais licenciarem o desenvolvimento lingüístico são apresentados.

  2. Aplicação foliar simultânea de molibdênio e alguns defensivos agrícolas na cultura do feijoeiro Simultaneous foliar application of molybdenum and other agrochemicals on bean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vieira da Silva

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Embora os efeitos benéficos da aplicação foliar de Mo na cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. já sejam conhecidos e estudados quanto a épocas, fontes e doses, persiste a dúvida sobre a possibilidade de emprego desse micronutriente associado a alguns defensivos agrícolas de uso freqüente. Com a finalidade de esclarecer essa dúvida, foram instalados três experimentos de campo, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico da área experimental do Departamento de Agricultura da UFLA, Lavras-MG, nas safras do inverno-primavera 98, primavera-verão 98/99 e verão-outono 99. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com oito repetições e cinco tratamentos: 1- testemunha, 2- molibdênio foliar (80g ha-1 de Mo, fonte molibdato de amônio, 3- molibdênio foliar + inseticida monocrotofós (Nuvacron 400 a 0,75 L ha-1, 4- molibdênio foliar + fungicida benomyl (Benlate 500 a 0,5 kg ha-1 e 5- molibdênio foliar + herbicidas pós-emergentes fomesafen (Flex a 1,0 L ha-1 e fluazifop-butil (Fusilade a 1,0 L ha-1. A cultivar empregada foi a Carioca. Avaliaram-se o rendimento de grãos e os componentes do rendimento (número de vagens por planta, número de grãos por vagem e peso de cem grãos. Pela análise conjunta, verificou-se que o rendimento de grãos e o número de vagens por planta dos tratamentos com aplicação de Mo não diferiram entre si e superaram a testemunha em pelo menos 50%, inferindo-se que houve efeito positivo do micronutriente e que as misturas empregadas não interferiram na sua atuação.The beneficial effects of the Mo foliar application on bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L. are already known in relation to periods, sources and rates, but persists the doubt about the simultaneous application with some agrochemicals. With the purpose to verify this possibility, three field experiments were carried out on a typical Red Latossol of the experimental area of Departamento de Agricultura at Universidade Federal

  3. Otaku: um sujeito entre dois mundos. Refletindo sobre o diálogo existente entre ficção e realidade

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Eiji Issa

    2014-01-01

    Os personagens centrais desta pesquisa são os otakus, que podem ser descritos como fãs aficionados por mangás e animes, que passam boa parte de seu tempo entretidos com estes elementos (além de alguns outros) da cultura pop japonesa, vínculo este que exerce influência sobre sua visão de mundo e sobre o modo como agem em seu cotidiano. O foco central da pesquisa será a busca pela compreensão da relação existente entre ficção e realidade. Parto da ideia de que a ficção não é um simples produto ...

  4. Influência da violência conjugal sobre a decisão de abortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Costa Souza

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre a violência conjugal contra a mulher tem trazido importantes contribuições para o entendimento dos problemas de saúde, aos quais esta população está exposta, em especial os vinculados à atividade reprodutiva. A necessidade de investigar com mais profundidade os nexos entre a violência e o aborto provocado, têm gerado alguns questionamentos, por exemplo: Será que a decisão de abortar surge no ciclo da violência conjugal como um momento de autonomia da mulher ou estas são forçadas a praticar o aborto? Este estudo qualitativo, tem como objetivo caracterizar as manifestações de violência conjugal entre mulheres internadas em situação de aborto provocado, analisando a influência da violência sobre a decisão de abortar. Pretendendo-se com os resultados ampliar a discussão sobre a violência e o aborto dando visibilidade a estes problemas no âmbito dos serviços de saúde. Também possibilita a reflexão das mulheres sobre a situação de violência a que estão submetidas, através da discussão coletiva das suas histórias de vida que refletem vivências de ameaças, desamor, negligência, violência sexual e agressão física.

  5. Apuntes sobre encuestas electorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Benavente Gianella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las encuestas preelectorales suelen despertar gran interés por el valor predictivo que se les puede atribuir o que puedan tener, y por el efecto que puedan generar en los votantes. También se usan como herramienta efectiva para el manejo de las campañas de los candidatos. Existen tres tipos de encuestas electorales: preelectorales, boca de urna y postelectorales, en cada caso cumplen funciones diferentes en relación con los procesos electorales. Philippe Maarek (1 considera que la publicación de encuestas preelectorales influye en la decisión de voto mediante efectos directos e indirectos. Es en coyunturas preelectorales cuando las encuestas suelen concitar la mayor atención, especialmente por el valor predictivo que se les puede atribuir o que puedan tener, y por el efecto que puedan generar en los votantes, de manera especial en los indecisos, que constituyen un porcentaje usualmente muy alto durante casi toda la etapa preelectoral. Esto hace que las encuestas sean controvertidas y discutidas en el mundo. En los procesos electorales, las encuestas también son utilizadas como una herramienta efectiva para el manejo eficiente de las campañas de los candidatos, asumiendo de esta manera un papel protagónico y permanente en las campañas. Además de sus implicancias electorales, las encuestas tienen asimismo presencia en la vida política institucional en épocas no electorales. Actualmente son utilizadas para conocer la opinión de los ciudadanos acerca de diversos temas políticos, económicos y sociales. Las encuestadoras realizan sondeos periódicos sobre todos estos aspectos que son difundidos a través de los medios de comunicación, alimentando de este modo el debate político. En la actualidad, las encuestas de opinión son una práctica habitual en todos los países con regímenes democráticos, constituyéndose en un instrumento de medición de la opinión de los ciudadanos.

  6. Informe preliminar sobre paludrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquiles Peñuela Rozo

    1948-05-01

    Full Text Available En el año de 1945, Curd Davey y Rose eligieron la pirimidina como substancia de experimentación debido a que esta substancia se encuentra en las nucleo-proteinas y por su presencia en algunas sulfadrogas especial mente la sulfadiazina, de conocidas propiedades anti-palúdicas. Ensayaron la pirimidina y derivados en infestaciones por plasmodium gallinaceum en gallinas; y comprobaron que estas substancias tenían realmente acción antipalúdica. Pero al trasladar sus experiencias al hombre, encontraron que la pirimidina y sus derivados eran demasiado tóxicos. Pensando, entonces, en la similitud química del grupo de la pirimida y de la guanidina, incluyeron este último grupo en los compuestos para ensayar, descubriendo que la inclusión de la guanidina aumentaba grandemente la acción de las substancias en experiencia. Se obtuvo de esta manera un producto denominado en el numero 4-888, o paludrina, cuya fórmula o nombre químico es N. P. clorofenil N5 isopropildiguanidina, droga que se encontró muy activa contra las formas sanguíneas del Plasmodium Gallinaceum y que también se hallo activa contra las formas exoeritrocíticas del parásito. Esta capacidad de obrar sobre la fase exoeritrocítica es prácticamente exclusiva de esta substancia. Hasta hace poco tiempo esta fase exoeritrocítica, había sido demostrada solamente en trabajos de experimentación en las  aves; pero en la actualidad ha quedado también demostrada en la enfermedad humana, por experiencias del Filipino Nolasco and África, quien logro demostrar el plasmodium Vivax en el tejido retículo endotelial del pulmón de enfermos de paludismo, aunque ya Brug, en el año de 1940 había hecho comunicaciones en el mismo sentido. Se comprende la grande importancia de la paludrina, en el tratamiento del paludismo; si se considera que las recidivas de la enfermedad son debidas a la existencia de esta fase xeoeritrocítica.

  7. Growth of symbiont fungi of some higher attine ants in mineral medium Crescimento do fungo simbionte de alguns attine superiores em meio mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alci Enimar Loeck

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays were conducted to verify the possibility of culturing the symbiont fungus of some higher attine in mineral medium and finding out the optimum pH value for their satisfactory mycelial growth. Three organic media and one mineral medium were inoculated with isolates from Atta sexdens piriventris and Acromyrmex heyeri. In mineral medium different values of pH (4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 were tested with isolates from A. laevigata and A. laticeps. The behavior of isolates (colony diameter was different in the mineral medium. However, even the one which grew the least of all provided enough mycelial for RAPD analysis. The best range of pH for fungal growth in mineral medium was between 4.0 and 5.0Foram conduzidos bioensaios para verificar a possibilidade de cultivar o fungo simbionte de alguns attine superiores em meio mineral e obter um valor de pH ótimo para o seu crescimento micelial. Três meios orgânicos e um meio mineral foram testados, avaliando-se o crescimento (diâmetro da colônia de isolados de fungos de Atta sexdens piriventris e Acromyrmex heyeri. No meio mineral, diferentes valores de pH (4,0, 5,0, 6,0 and 7,0 foram avaliados, por meio do mesmo parâmetro anterior, com isolados de fungos de A. laevigata e A. laticeps. No meio mineral, os isolados testados apresentaram crescimento diferenciado, entretanto mesmo aquele que menos cresceu, forneceu material suficiente para as análises de RAPD. No mesmo meio, verificou-se que a melhor faixa de pH para o crescimento micelial está entre 4,0 e 5,0.

  8. Potencialidade antagonística detectada em alguns procariotas agentes de biocontrole de enfermidades de plantas Antagonistic potentiality in prokaryotic biocontrol agents for plant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Rafael Barra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo de vários anos, no Laboratório de Bacteriologia de Plantas e Controle Biológico (LBPCB do Departamento de Fitopatologia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa têm-se, sistematicamente, isolado, de rizosfera, rizoplano e filoplano de plantas cultivadas de importância econômica, milhares de procariotas os quais são testados, um a um, como agentes de biocontrole de enfermidades. A grande maioria deles, como esperado, não exibe qualquer potencialidade como agente de biocontrole e é descartada. Alguns poucos são selecionados, através de demorados ensaios de biocontrole experimental tanto em casa de vegetação como em campo. Neste trabalho, mostra-se que muitos dos organismos em estudo, mesmo havendo sido selecionados, principalmente, por induzirem resistência sistêmica na planta alvo, expressam constitutivamente mecanismos de antagonismo microbiano que parecem fazer parte de seu perfil enquanto agentes de biocontrole.Along several years, at the Laboratory of Plant Bacteriology and Biological Control of the Department of Plant Pathology of the Federal University of Viçosa, thousands of prokaryote isolates have been obtained from the rhizosphere, rhizoplane and phylloplane of economically important plants. Every obtained isolate is tested as biocontrol agents. As expected, the majority does not show any biocontrol potentiality and is discarded. Few are selected through time-consuming experimental biocontrol trials in greenhouse and field. Even being selected mainly for their ability to induce resistance in target plants, many of them constitutively express mechanisms of antagonism against pathogens that seem to be part of their performance while biocontrol agents.

  9. Localization of nuclear retained mRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Rune; Libri, Domenico; Boulay, Jocelyne; Rosbash, Michael; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2003-09-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a common conditional phenotype associated with deletion or mutation of genes encoding mRNA export factors is the rapid accumulation of mRNAs in intranuclear foci, suggested to be near transcription sites. The nuclear RNA exosome has been implicated in retaining RNAs in these foci; on deletion of the exosome component Rrp6p, the RNA is released. To determine the exact nuclear location of retained as well as released mRNAs, we have used mRNA export mutant strains to analyze the spatial relationship between newly synthesized heat shock mRNA, the chromosomal site of transcription, and known S. cerevisiae nuclear structures such as the nucleolus and the nucleolar body. Our results show that retained SSA4 RNA localizes to an area in close proximity to the SSA4 locus. On deletion of Rrp6p and release from the genomic locus, heat shock mRNAs produced in the rat7-1 strain colocalize predominantly with nucleolar antigens. Bulk poly(A)(+) RNA, on the other hand, is localized primarily to the nuclear rim. Interestingly, the RNA binding nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein Npl3p shows strong colocalization with bulk poly(A)(+) RNA, regardless of its nuclear location. Taken together, our data show that retention occurs close to the gene and indicate distinct nuclear fates of different mRNAs.

  10. A vaccine grade of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing mammalian myostatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tingting

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely-used system for protein expression. We previously showed that heat-killed whole recombinant yeast vaccine expressing mammalian myostatin can modulate myostatin function in mice, resulting in increase of body weight and muscle composition in these animals. Foreign DNA introduced into yeast cells can be lost soon unless cells are continuously cultured in selection media, which usually contain antibiotics. For cost and safety concerns, it is essential to optimize conditions to produce quality food and pharmaceutical products. Results We developed a simple but effective method to engineer a yeast strain stably expressing mammalian myostatin. This method utilized high-copy-number integration of myostatin gene into the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the final step, antibiotic selection marker was removed using the Cre-LoxP system to minimize any possible side-effects for animals. The resulting yeast strain can be maintained in rich culture media and stably express mammalian myostatin for two years. Oral administration of the recombinant yeast was able to induce immune response to myostatin and modulated the body weight of mice. Conclusions Establishment of such yeast strain is a step further toward transformation of yeast cells into edible vaccine to improve meat production in farm animals and treat human muscle-wasting diseases in the future.

  11. Investigation of the Best Saccharomyces cerevisiae Growth Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Roshanak; Salari, Rosita

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known as one of the useful yeasts which are utilized in baking and other industries. It can be easily cultured at an economic price. Today the introduction of safe and efficient carriers is being considered. Due to its generally round shape, and the volume that is enclosed by its membrane and cell wall, it is used to encapsulate active materials to protect them from degradation or to introduce a sustained release drug delivery system. Providing the best conditions in order to achieve the best morphological properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a carrier. In this research, the most suitable growth condition of yeast cells which provides the best size for use as drug carriers was found by a bioreactor in a synthetic culture medium. Yeast cell reproduction and growth curves were obtained, based on pour plate colony counting data and UV/Visible sample absorption at 600 nm. Yeast cell growth patterns and growth rates were determined by Matlab mathematical software. Results showed that pH=4 and dissolving oxygen (DO) 5% was the best condition for yeast cells to grow and reproduce. This condition also provided the largest size (2 × 3 μ) yeast cells. Owing to the yeast cells' low-cost production and their structural characteristics, they could be used as potent drug carriers. This work was supported by a grant from the Vice Chancellor of Research of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences.

  12. Purification and characterization of Put1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanduragala, Srimevan; Sanyal, Nikhilesh; Liang, Xinwen; Becker, Donald F

    2010-06-15

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the PUT1 and PUT2 genes are required for the conversion of proline to glutamate. The PUT1 gene encodes Put1p, a proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) enzyme localized in the mitochondrion. Put1p was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and shown to have a UV-visible absorption spectrum that is typical of a bound flavin cofactor. A K(m) value of 36 mM proline and a k(cat)=27 s(-1) were determined for Put1p using an artificial electron acceptor. Put1p also exhibited high activity using ubiquinone-1 (CoQ(1)) as an electron acceptor with a k(cat)=9.6 s(-1) and a K(m) of 33 microM for CoQ(1). In addition, knockout strains of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) homolog in S. cerevisiae were able to grow on proline as the sole nitrogen source demonstrating that ETF is not required for proline utilization in yeast. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Omics analysis of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2017-05-01

    Acetic acid is an inhibitor in industrial processes such as wine making and bioethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate. It causes energy depletion, inhibition of metabolic enzyme activity, growth arrest and ethanol productivity losses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of the yeast responses to acetic acid stress is essential for improving acetic acid tolerance and ethanol production. Although 329 genes associated with acetic acid tolerance have been identified in the Saccharomyces genome and included in the database ( http://www.yeastgenome.org/observable/resistance_to_acetic_acid/overview ), the cellular mechanistic responses to acetic acid remain unclear in this organism. Post-genomic approaches such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and chemogenomics are being applied to yeast and are providing insight into the mechanisms and interactions of genes, proteins and other components that together determine complex quantitative phenotypic traits such as acetic acid tolerance. This review focuses on these omics approaches in the response to acetic acid in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, several novel strains with improved acetic acid tolerance have been engineered by modifying key genes, and the application of these strains and recently acquired knowledge to industrial processes is also discussed.

  14. Identification of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glucosidase that hydrolyzes flavonoid glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sabine; Rainieri, Sandra; Witte, Simone; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) whole-cell bioconversions of naringenin 7-O-β-glucoside revealed considerable β-glucosidase activity, which impairs any strategy to generate or modify flavonoid glucosides in yeast transformants. Up to 10 putative glycoside hydrolases annotated in the S. cerevisiae genome database were overexpressed with His tags in yeast cells. Examination of these recombinant, partially purified polypeptides for hydrolytic activity with synthetic chromogenic α- or β-glucosides identified three efficient β-glucosidases (EXG1, SPR1, and YIR007W), which were further assayed with natural flavonoid β-glucoside substrates and product verification by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Preferential hydrolysis of 7- or 4'-O-glucosides of isoflavones, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones was observed in vitro with all three glucosidases, while anthocyanins were also accepted as substrates. The glucosidase activities of EXG1 and SPR1 were completely abolished by Val168Tyr mutation, which confirmed the relevance of this residue, as reported for other glucosidases. Most importantly, biotransformation experiments with knockout yeast strains revealed that only EXG1 knockout strains lost the capability to hydrolyze flavonoid glucosides.

  15. Determinants of protein abundance and translation efficiency in S. cerevisiae.

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    Tamir Tuller

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The translation efficiency of most Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes remains fairly constant across poor and rich growth media. This observation has led us to revisit the available data and to examine the potential utility of a protein abundance predictor in reinterpreting existing mRNA expression data. Our predictor is based on large-scale data of mRNA levels, the tRNA adaptation index, and the evolutionary rate. It attains a correlation of 0.76 with experimentally determined protein abundance levels on unseen data and successfully cross-predicts protein abundance levels in another yeast species (Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The predicted abundance levels of proteins in known S. cerevisiae complexes, and of interacting proteins, are significantly more coherent than their corresponding mRNA expression levels. Analysis of gene expression measurement experiments using the predicted protein abundance levels yields new insights that are not readily discernable when clustering the corresponding mRNA expression levels. Comparing protein abundance levels across poor and rich media, we find a general trend for homeostatic regulation where transcription and translation change in a reciprocal manner. This phenomenon is more prominent near origins of replications. Our analysis shows that in parallel to the adaptation occurring at the tRNA level via the codon bias, proteins do undergo a complementary adaptation at the amino acid level to further increase their abundance.

  16. Genetic determinants for enhanced glycerol growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Steve; Ho, Ping-Wei; Klein, Mathias; Nevoigt, Elke

    2016-07-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae generally shows a low natural capability to utilize glycerol as the sole source of carbon, particularly when synthetic medium is used and complex supplements are omitted. Nevertheless, wild type isolates have been identified that show a moderate growth under these conditions. In the current study we made use of intraspecies diversity to identify targets suitable for reverse metabolic engineering of the non-growing laboratory strain CEN.PK113-1A. A genome-wide genetic mapping experiment using pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis was conducted, and one major and several minor genetic loci were identified responsible for the superior glycerol growth phenotype of the previously selected S. cerevisiae strain CBS 6412-13A. Downscaling of the major locus by fine-mapping and reciprocal hemizygosity analysis allowed the parallel identification of two superior alleles (UBR2CBS 6412-13A and SSK1CBS 6412-13A). These alleles together with the previously identified GUT1CBS 6412-13A allele were used to replace the corresponding alleles in the strain CEN.PK113-1A. In this way, glycerol growth could be established reaching a maximum specific growth rate of 0.08h(-1). Further improvement to a maximum specific growth rate of 0.11h(-1) could be achieved by heterologous expression of the glycerol facilitator FPS1 from Cyberlindnera jadinii. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The evolution of gene expression QTL in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    James Ronald

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolutionary forces that influence patterns of gene expression variation will provide insights into the mechanisms of evolutionary change and the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity. To date, studies of gene expression evolution have primarily been made by analyzing how gene expression levels vary within and between species. However, the fundamental unit of heritable variation in transcript abundance is the underlying regulatory allele, and as a result it is necessary to understand gene expression evolution at the level of DNA sequence variation. Here we describe the evolutionary forces shaping patterns of genetic variation for 1206 cis-regulatory QTL identified in a cross between two divergent strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that purifying selection against mildly deleterious alleles is the dominant force governing cis-regulatory evolution in S. cerevisiae and estimate the strength of selection. We also find that essential genes and genes with larger codon bias are subject to slightly stronger cis-regulatory constraint and that positive selection has played a role in the evolution of major trans-acting QTL.

  18. Analysis of the proteome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for methylarginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jason K K; Hart-Smith, Gene; Erce, Melissa A; Wilkins, Marc R

    2013-09-06

    Arginine methylation is a post-translational modification that has been implicated in a plethora of cellular processes. In the present manuscript, using two antimethylarginine antibodies and combinatorial deletion mutants of arginine methyltransferases, we found evidence of widespread arginine methylation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome. Immunoprecipitation was used for enrichment of methylarginine-containing proteins, which were identified via tandem mass spectrometry. From this, we identified a total of 90 proteins, of which 5 were previously known to be methylated. The proteins identified were involved in known methylarginine-associated biological functions such as RNA processing, nuclear transport, carbohydrate metabolic process, GMP biosynthetic process and protein folding. Through in vivo methylation by the incorporation of [3H]-methyl groups, we validated the methylation of 7 proteins (Ded1, Imd4, Lhp1, Nop1, Cdc11, Gus1, Pob3). By LC-MS/MS, we then confirmed a total of 15 novel methylarginine sites on 5 proteins (Ded1, Lhp1, Nop1, Pab1, and Ugp1). By examination of methylation on proteins from the triple knockout of methyltransferases Hmt1, Hsl7, Rmt2, we present evidence for the existence of additional unidentified arginine methyltransferases in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome.

  19. Structure of the Glycosyltransferase Ktr4p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Dominik D D Possner

    Full Text Available In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, members of the Kre2/Mnt1 protein family have been shown to be α-1,2-mannosyltransferases or α-1,2-mannosylphosphate transferases, utilising an Mn2+-coordinated GDP-mannose as the sugar donor and a variety of mannose derivatives as acceptors. Enzymes in this family are localised to the Golgi apparatus, and have been shown to be involved in both N- and O-linked glycosylation of newly-synthesised proteins, including cell wall glycoproteins. Our knowledge of the nine proteins in this family is however very incomplete at present. Only one family member, Kre2p/Mnt1p, has been studied by structural methods, and three (Ktr4p, Ktr5p, Ktr7p are completely uncharacterised and remain classified only as putative glycosyltransferases. Here we use in vitro enzyme activity assays to provide experimental confirmation of the predicted glycosyltransferase activity of Ktr4p. Using GDP-mannose as the donor, we observe activity towards the acceptor methyl-α-mannoside, but little or no activity towards mannose or α-1,2-mannobiose. We also present the structure of the lumenal catalytic domain of S. cerevisiae Ktr4p, determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.2 Å, and the complex of the enzyme with GDP to 1.9 Å resolution.

  20. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Alguns princípios para o trabalho com língua portuguesa em cursos de formação de professores I

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    Lourenço Chacon Jurado Filho

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Tratar da questão das unidades lingüísticas tem sido objeto de poucas contribuições para a atividade de formação de professores. Tento, neste artigo, dar algumas indicações sobre como conceber uma unidade através da qual seja possível levar a cabo essa atividade. Essa unidade é o texto.

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyceskudriavzevii hybrids during low temperature winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchoni, Jordi; García-Ríos, Estéfani; Guillamón, Jose Manuel; Querol, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most frequently isolated species in wine fermentation, and the most studied species, other species and interspecific hybrids have greatly attracted the interest of researchers in this field in the last few years, given their potential to solve new winemaking industry challenges. S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids exhibit good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, and produce wines with smaller alcohol quantities and larger glycerol quantities, which can be very useful to solve challenges in the winemaking industry such as the necessity to enhance the aroma profile. In this study, we performed a transcriptomic study of S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids in low temperature winemaking conditions. The results revealed that the hybrids have acquired both fermentative abilities and cold adaptation abilities, attributed to S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii parental species, respectively, showcasing their industrially relevant characteristics. For several key genes, we also studied the contribution to gene expression of each of the alleles of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii in the S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids. From the results, it is not clear how important the differential expression of the specific parental alleles is to the phenotype of the hybrids. This study shows that the fermentative abilities of S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids at low temperatures do not seem to result from differential expression of specific parental alleles of the key genes involved in this phenotype.

  3. A perspectiva evolucionista sobre relações românticas

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    Victor Kenji M. Shiramizu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As relações românticas possuem um forte impacto no nosso cotidiano. Todavia, a compreensão do motivo pelo qual alguns relacionamentos românticos duram mais do que outros se torna mais consistente integrando perspectivas biológicas e sociais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo revisar de forma crítica os conceitos sobre Amor, Teoria do Apego e as Estratégias Sexuais a partir de uma perspectiva evolucionista, a fim de contribuir com a revisão para a literatura no Brasil. As lacunas observadas sobre a temática conjuntamente com resultados obtidos em algumas pesquisas em nosso país são encorajadores para a manutenção da integração teórica na área de pesquisa, que pode ser aplicada na orientação de casais, contribuindo para a satisfação dentro dos relacionamentos românticos.

  4. Ampliando o diálogo entre trabalhadores e profissionais de pesquisa: alguns métodos de pesquisa-intervenção para o campo da Saúde do Trabalhador

    OpenAIRE

    Ramminger, Tatiana; Athayde, Milton Raimundo Cidreira de; Brito, Jussara

    2013-01-01

    O artigo discute alguns métodos que enfatizam formas coletivas e compartilhadas de análise das relações que se estabelecem no e com o trabalho, em relação sinérgica com a experiência dos protagonistas do trabalho. Pode-se caracterizá-los como métodos de pesquisa-intervenção que apresentam contribuições importantes para o campo da Saúde do Trabalhador, alguns dos quais desenvolvidos no âmbito da Psicologia do Trabalho. Métodos que tem como sua referência a "enquete operária" de Karl Marx, dest...

  5. Estudos sobre a Esquistosomose em Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Aggeu Magalhães

    1940-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores referem os resultados dos estudos sobre esquistosomose realisados, em Pernambuco, de Novembro de 1938 a Dezembro de 1939. Não se extendem em discussão, nem comentarios, tampouco, relacionam suas verificações com o que já foi relatado sobre o assunto em trabalhos nacionais e estrangeiros, pelo fato de que, não se trata de um resultado definitivo e sim de atividades que irão proseguir. Os estudos sistematicos em torno da endemia esquistosomica foram executados em duas localidades diversas pela população e pela situação geografica e ecologica. Pontezinha é uma povoação de 1200 habitantes localizada proximo a um conjunto de charcos e lagõas de agua dôce onde pululam caramujos do tipo olivaceus de Spix, e apresenta uma taxa de infestação de 21,4% para individuos do sexo masculino, e de 14,7% para os do sexo feminino. A distribuição por grupos de idade mostra que a incidencia cresce até o grupo de 16 a 20 anos de idade, quando atinge a percentagem de 37,8%, para decrescer em seguida. Em Vitoria a incidencia foi maior nos indivíduos do sexo feminino, atingindo a taxa de 41,4%, dando o sexo masculino a taxa de 36,9%. Por idade a percentagem maxima é atingida pelo grupo de 11 a 15 anos. Vitoria é uma cidade de 1500 habitantes, construida á margem do rio Tapacurá, onde se encontram numerosos caramujos do tipo centimetralis Lutz. A divergencia de incidencia corre por conta dos habitos da população e pela utilização que ela faz do rio, sendo maior em Vitoria porque a proximidade do rio facilita o uso de suas aguas para banho e serviços domesticos, condicionando este ultimo fato, a maior infestação das mulheres. O estudo da frequencia da infestação dos caramujos por cercarias de diversos trematodios, permite suspeitar uma relação inversa entre a taxa de infestação e o diametro maximo atingido pelos caramujos, parecendo este fato confirmar os trabalhos de Vianna Martins sobre a identidade dos hospedeiros

  6. Peran Direct Fed Microbials (DFM Saccharomyces cerevisiae dan Aspergillus oryzae terhadap Produktivitas Ternak Ruminansia : Review

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    H. Suryani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mikroorganisme yang biasa digunakan dalam pakan ternak ruminansia biasanya berupa probiotik. Probiotik memiliki makna yang bersepadanan dengan Direct Fed Microbials (DFM. Penambahan DFM jenis Saccharomyces cerevisiae dan Aspergillus oryzae pada pakan ternak ruminansia mampu memanipulasi rumen dengan meningkatkan populasi bakteri pemecah serat sehingga dapat meningkatkan kecernaan dan meningkatkan bobot badan. Mekanisme kerja S. cerevisiae dan A. oryzae yang masuk kedalam tubuh ternak dan mempengaruhi pencernaan atau penyerapan, ada yang sudah diketahui secara jelas tetapi ada juga yang masih berupa hipotesa. Pemanfaatan DFM jenis S. cerevisiae dan A. oryzae secara tunggal maupun kombinasi sebagian telah diamati dan memberikan respon positif.

  7. Sobre a ignorância: efeitos na educação contemporânea

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    Raymundo de Lima

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A ilusão da sociedade do conhecimento também produz ignorâncias. O autor aborda alguns tipos de ignorância(s, suas causas e efeitos. A perspectiva psicanalítica, aqui, é convocada para esclarecer sobre a função da ignorância dentro e fora do sujeito em processo educativo. O autor convida investigar, para além do texto, como a ignorância sobrevive em meio a tanta informação, conhecimento e avanços tecnológicos na contemporaneidade.

  8. Sobre a condenação do magnetismo animal: revisitando a história da psicologia

    OpenAIRE

    Neubern,Maurício da Silva

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho procura desenvolver uma reflexão crítica sobre o processo de condenação do magnetismo animal. Partindo de uma crítica às versões lineares e progressistas da história da Psicologia, nas quais o magnetismo é excluído ou pouco explorado, o artigo busca atingir dois objetivos. Primeiramente, questionar alguns dos pressupostos típicos das versões históricas dominantes, como a idéia de que o magnetismo não teria resistido às exigências da metodologia científica. Em segundo lugar...

  9. Efeitos da secularização do Estado, do pluralismo e do mercado religiosos sobre as igrejas pentecostais

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    Mariano, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa alguns efeitos da secularização do Estado brasileiro e da consolidação do pluralismo e do mercado religiosos sobre o campo pentecostal. Destacam-se entre tais efeitos a adoção de modelos de gestão empresarial, a centralização administrativa, a concentração do poder, a profissionalização dos quadros eclesiásticos, o uso de estratégias de marketing, a fixação de metas de produtividade, a adaptação dos serviços mágico-religiosos aos interesses materiais e ideais dos fiéis e virtuais adeptos

  10. Apontamentos sobre a expansão da graduação tecnológica no Brasil

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    José Deribaldo Gomes dos Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisa a política de expansão da Educação superior no Brasil que, em tempos de reformas do Estado, opta pela precarização da universidade, enquanto valoriza a expansão da graduação tecnológica, objeto específico desta exposição. A opção teórico-metodológica recai sobre materialismo histórico-dialético, pois, do ponto de vista crítico, tal proposta é a que mais se aproxima da realidade, possibilitando ao investigador chegar o mais próximo possível do objeto estudado. Para efeito desta comunicação, serão recortados e submetidos a uma leitura imanente alguns documentos oficiais, bem como determinadas pesquisas que se empenham em debater o assunto.

  11. Què s'ha fet sobre les tic en educació superior i sobre la relació joves i tic? Revisió de investigacions realitzades a Amèrica, Europa i Asia

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    Glenis-Bibiana Alvarez-Quiroz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquest article forma part d'una recerca sobre les persones joves universitàries i la seva relació amb l'ús de les tecnologies de la informació i la comunicació (les TIC en davant. En aquesta recerca, que forma part d'una tesi doctoral, es pretén observar de forma general com l'apropiació de les TIC ha anat configurant maneres de subjectivació diverses en les pràctiques educatives transicionals en ciutats intermèdies com la ciutat de Montería a Colòmbia, en tres universitats com a estudis de cas. De forma particular es busca en aquest text presentar un panorama general de les recerques sobre les TIC en educació superior en alguns països d'Amèrica, Europa i Àsia en el període comprès entre 2006 i 2013. El seu primer escombratge ha permès identificar les següents tres categories: les TIC en l'educació superior, relació entre les persones joves i les TIC i, finalment, TIC i subjectivitats juvenils. L'anàlisi es va realitzar sobre una petita mostra de 40 recerques, identificades a través d'un rastreig de base de dades de revistes indexades nacionals i internacionals, processades amb el programa Atles Ti.  

  12. Revisão bibliográfica sobre espécies do genero Podophyllum

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    Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt Júnior

    Full Text Available As espécies Podophyllum peltatu. L. (ou Podophyllum callicarpu. Rafin, nativa da America do Norte, Podophyllum emod. Wall. (ou Podophyllum hexandru. Royle, nativa de alguns pontos da Ásia e Podophyllum emod. Wall. var. Chinensi. Sprague,do Extremo Oriente, da família das Berberidacea. tem sido exaustivamente estudadas por causa dos múltiplas propriedades e ações farmacológicas importantes e intensas de raízes e rizomas das mesmas. Esses conhecimentos levaram ao uso antineoplásico, anti-reumático, imunossupressor e sobre disfunções do aparelho digestivo principalmente. A podofilina, resina extraída de tais drogas, vem sendo utilizada sob a forma de extratos fluidos, balsamos, pomadas compostas com outros fármacos e soluções aquosas de alguns glicosideos podofiloderivados. Os principais componentes ativos da podofilina detectados até então foram a podofilotoxona (encontrada em maiores proporções é responsável por grande parte dos efeitos das drogas do gênero, α- e β-peltatinas, podofilotoxona, isopicropodofilona, desox-ipodofilotoxina, desidropofilina, 4'-desmetilpodofilotoxina, 4'desmetilpodofi Zotoxona, 4'-desmetildesoxipodofilotoxina, 4'-desmetilisopicropodofilona e os respectivos a-D-glicosideos. Além disso, foi constatada a presença de alcalóides, compostos nitrogenados, flavonóides, Mg, Mb, Mn, Se e Zn. O levantamento bibliográfico enfoca os estudos relacionando as pesquisas com novos possíveis usos terapêuticos.

  13. Efeitos in vivo do ácido metilmalônico sobre o comportamento de ratos no labirinto aquático de morris e in vitro sobre alguns parâmetros de estresse oxidativo e sobre as atividades dos complexos I-IV da cadeia respiratória em homogeneizado de tecidos de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Ferreira Pettenuzzo

    2006-01-01

    A acidemia metilmalônica é uma desordem metabólica hereditária caracterizada bioquimicamente pelo acúmulo tecidual de ácido metilmalônico (MMA) e clinicamente por deterioração neurológica progressiva e falência renal. Os avanços no tratamento dessa doença alcançados nos últimos anos possibilitaram uma diminuição significativa na mortalidade dos mesmos. Entretanto, a morbidade continua alta, pois a maioria dos pacientes afetados por acidemia metilmalônica, mesmo recebendo o melhor tratamento d...

  14. Os parâmetros expressivos na execução ao cravo e suas abordagens : um estudo sobre a expressividade cravística = Expressive parameters in the harpsichord performance: a harpsichord expressiveness study

    OpenAIRE

    Nivia Gasparini Zumpano

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho apresenta uma reflexão a respeito da expressividade cravística com ênfase em alguns parâmetros da execução. Para tanto, foram delimitados fatores associados à expressividade a partir da literatura especializada e, na etapa seguinte, realizou-se um estudo sobre sua influência na sonoridade do instrumento, procurando-se destacar questões relativas à possibilidade de dinâmica no cravo. Com o objetivo de verificar a maneira como a expressividade tem sido abordada no co...

  15. A academia e participação social no Brasil: teses e dissertações sobre movimentos sociais produzidas na Unicamp e na Usp entre 1970 e 1995

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    Samira Kauchakje

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta algumas reflexões suscitadas por uma pesquisa de doutoramento que versava sobre teses e dissertações acerca de movimentos sociais produzidas na USP e UNICAMP. A partir de alguns dados deste estudo, este artigo desenvolve-se tendo como pressuposto que há ligação entre interesse acadêmico e realidade socialThis article to present some meditation to one research of graduat about thesis and dissertation about social movement to make in USP and UNICAMP. To breack some consideration in that study, this article developing to support to have a alliance between academic interest and social reality.

  16. CRESCIMENTO DA OFERTA E A PERMANÊNCIA DOS ESTUDANTES: O DEBATE SOBRE A ASSISTÊNCIA ESTUDANTIL E OS DESAFIOS DA EDUCAÇÃO SUPERIOR PÚBLICA NO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Felippe, Jonis Manhães Sales

    2017-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta uma reflexão sobre a relevância assumida pelo debate acerca da assistência estudantil e da permanência dos estudantes universitários após o crescimento da oferta de vagas no ensino superior no Brasil a partir dos anos 2000, especialmente com implantação de programas federais de financiamento e concessão de bolsas na rede privada e de reestruturação das universidades públicas federais. Nesse sentido, são analisados e problematizados alguns dados do Censo da Educação Sup...

  17. Influência do cálcio na calda de pulverização sobre a eficácia do carfentrazone-ethyl no controle de Euphorbia heterophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,F.T.; Caetano,L.; Peruchi,M.; Palazzo,R.R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Alguns herbicidas podem ter sua eficácia de controle das plantas daninhas diminuída quando o cálcio encontra-se presente na calda de pulverização. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar a influência do cálcio na eficácia do herbicida carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado em pós-emergência sobre plantas adultas de Euphorbia heterophylla. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com as concentrações de cálcio variando de 30 a 240 ppm e de 0 a 1.000 ppm respectivamente em c...

  18. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  19. Regulation of xylose metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Penttilä Merja

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable interest in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol has led to metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation of xylose. In the present study, the transcriptome and proteome of recombinant, xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic batch cultures on xylose were compared with those of glucose-grown cells both in glucose repressed and derepressed states. The aim was to study at the genome-wide level how signalling and carbon catabolite repression differ in cells grown on either glucose or xylose. The more detailed knowledge whether xylose is sensed as a fermentable carbon source, capable of catabolite repression like glucose, or is rather recognised as a non-fermentable carbon source is important for further engineering this yeast for more efficient anaerobic fermentation of xylose. Results Genes encoding respiratory proteins, proteins of the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles, and gluconeogenesis were only partially repressed by xylose, similar to the genes encoding their transcriptional regulators HAP4, CAT8 and SIP1-2 and 4. Several genes that are repressed via the Snf1p/Mig1p-pathway during growth on glucose had higher expression in the cells grown on xylose than in the glucose repressed cells but lower than in the glucose derepressed cells. The observed expression profiles of the transcription repressor RGT1 and its target genes HXT2-3, encoding hexose transporters suggested that extracellular xylose was sensed by the glucose sensors Rgt2p and Snf3p. Proteome analyses revealed distinct patterns in phosphorylation of hexokinase 2, glucokinase and enolase isoenzymes in the xylose- and glucose-grown cells. Conclusion The results indicate that the metabolism of yeast growing on xylose corresponds neither to that of fully glucose repressed cells nor that of derepressed cells. This may be one of the major reasons for the suboptimal fermentation of xylose by

  20. SOBRE MALLARMÉ E OS PARATEXTOS

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    Zênia de Faria

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Este estudo se propõe a examinar a atitude de Mallarmé, em seus textos em prosa, com relação a alguns tipos de paratextos, particularmente os títulos e as epígra­fes.  

  1. Teores de ácidos graxos trans de alguns alimentos consumidos no Rio de Janeiro Trans fatty acids of some foods consumed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Chiara

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Desconhecem-se os teores de ácidos graxos trans em diversos alimentos. Este estudo analisou os teores de ácidos graxos trans, saturados, monoinsaturados e poliinsaturados em batatas fritas, biscoitos e sorvetes. As batatas fritas foram dos tipos chips e de duas redes de fast food, os sorvetes, de duas marcas comerciais e de duas lojas de fast food, e os biscoitos, de marcas diferentes. As amostras de batatas chips e de biscoitos pertenciam a lotes distintos e foram adquiridas em supermercados da região. Analisaram-se seis amostras por produto, através de cromatografia gasosa. O valor médio dos ácidos trans de batatas fritas de redes de fast food foi de 4,74g/100g, enquanto em batatas chips estes ácidos graxos não foram detectados. Nos sorvetes os valores variaram de 0,041g a 1,41g e em biscoitos, de 2,81g a 5,60g. Biscoitos tipo cream cracker apresentaram teores de ácidos graxos trans mais altos e de insaturados mais baixos. Concluiu-se que alguns produtos apresentaram, em 100g, teores de ácidos graxos trans superiores aos recomendados para ingestão total diária em diversos países.The content of trans fatty acids in most consumed foods in Brazil is unknown. This study assessed trans saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in samples of fried potatoes, cookies and ice cream. The analysis included: potato chips and fried potatoes from two popular fast food restaurants, ice cream of two different trademarks and from two fast food restaurants, and cookies of different trademarks. The samples of potato chips and cookies were acquired in different supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro, and distinct manufacture dates were chosen. Six samples of each product were analyzed through gas chromatography. The average trans fatty acids content in fried potatoes from fast food restaurants was 4.74g/100g; in ice cream the values varied from 0.041g to 1.41g; and in cookies the values varied from 2.81g to 5.60g. No trans fatty

  2. Avaliação da intensidade de tráfego de tratores em alguns atributos físicos de um argissolo amarelo

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    Jorge Wilson Cortez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O tráfego intenso das máquinas nos solos cultivados aplica diferentes tensões que combinadas com altos valores de umidade desses podem resultar em sua compactação. A condução deste estudo objetivou avaliar a variação em alguns atributos físicos de um Argissolo Amarelo, em razão do tráfego de tratores agrícolas com diferentes números de passadas. A pesquisa foi conduzida na UNIVASF, em Petrolina, PE, em experimento de faixas com fatorial de dois fatores, sendo tratores agrícolas de 2.650, 2.795 e 3.540 kg, com seis níveis de compactação: zero passagem (testemunha (N0; uma passagem (N1; duas passagens (N2; quatro passagens (N4; seis passagens (N6; e oito passagens (N8. Foram analisadas a densidade, porosidade e resistência mecânica do solo à penetração nas camadas de 0,00-0,10; 0,10-0,20; 0,20-0,30; e 0,30-0,40 m. Os dados de densidade e porosidade foram analisados pela análise de variância com comparação de médias e por meio de regressão; enquanto a resistência mecânica do solo à penetração foi analisada por meio da geoestatística. Os maiores valores de densidade e menores de porosidade foram observados para o trator de menor massa, que possui menor área de contato, pior distribuição de cargas entre os eixos e aplica as maiores pressões no solo. As intensidades do tráfego indicaram que, após a segunda passagem da máquina, os valores de densidade, de maneira geral, foram próximos às demais passagens, para a camada de 0,00-0,10 m, enquanto os valores de porosidade para as camadas de 0,00-0,10 e 0,10-0,20 m reduziram com o aumento do número de passadas. Os mapas de resistência mecânica do solo à penetração indicaram pontos críticos de resistência, mais evidentes para o trator de menor massa.

  3. Hipertensão arterial e sua correlação com alguns fatores de risco em cidade brasileira de pequeno porte

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    Flávia Miquetichuc Nogueira Nascente

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão arterial (HA é um problema de saúde que atinge um grande número de hipertensos não diagnosticados ou não tratados adequadamente e que possui um alto índice de abandono ao tratamento. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência da HA e sua correlação com alguns fatores de risco cardiovasculares na população adulta de Firminópolis-GO. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, observacional e transversal com base populacional, amostra aleatória simples (> 18 anos: questionários padronizados com medidas de pressão arterial (critério de HA > 140 x 90 mmHg, peso, altura, índice de massa corporal (IMC e circunferência da cintura (CC. Dados armazenados (Microsoft Acess e analisados pelo Epi-info. RESULTADOS: Investigados 1.168 indivíduos, com predomínio de mulheres. Sexo feminino - 63,2% com média de idade entre 43,2 ± 14,9 anos. Prevalência de sobrepeso em 33,7% e obesidade em 16,0% dos indivíduos. Prevalência de CC alterada em 51,8% e de tabagismo em 23,2%. Sedentarismo no trabalho e no lazer presente em 67,6% e em 64,8% dos indivíduos, respectivamente, com proporção maior entre as mulheres. Etilismo em 33,3% da amostra. A prevalência de HA foi de 32,7%, em maior número entre os homens (35,8% do que entre as mulheres (30,9%. Encontrada correlação positiva da HA com IMC, CC e faixa etária. Correlação negativa de HA e escolaridade, com 18,2% de hipertensos com nove anos ou mais de estudo. CONCLUSÃO: Encontrada alta prevalência de HA, excesso de peso e CC. O sexo feminino representou fator de proteção para o risco de HA. Encontradas correlação positiva da HA com IMC, CC, e faixa etária e correlação negativa com escolaridade.

  4. Estudos sôbre os Órgãos Odoríferos de alguns Hesperidae Brasileiros: 2° parte: estudos histológicos

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    Rudolf Barth

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritas as células glandulares das apófises do metatórax dos machos de alguns hesperidae. As apófises glândulas odoríferas já descritas morfològicamente na primeira parte dêste trabalho. Os orgãos compõem-se de elementos glandulares independentes e unicelulares cuja secreção é excretada de cada célula por uma escama odorifera e evaporada pela superfície da mesma. Os principais componentes das células glandulares são: a corpo plasmático ativo que apresenta alterações citológicas típicas para as fases de repouso e de secreção, com zona basal de ergastoplasma e uma zona condutora incluindo um reservatório de secreção; b o núcleo apresenta um aumento da superfície bem como, certas alterações durante as fazes de secreção, condicionadas pelas trocas entre núcleo e protoplasma; c aparelho condutor de natureza quitinosa formado em tôdas as espécies pela inserção da escama. A respeito do aparelho condutor são descritos dois tipos de células glandulares: 1 - Células grandes com um canal muito prolongado que a atravessa em toda extensão; 2 - Células pequenas com canal condutor curto percorrendo sómente a parte apical da mesma. Ele ocupa uma posição simétrica ou assimétrica. O primeiro tipo encontra-se em espécies possuindo sómente êste aparelho como único órgão odorífero. O segundo tipo aparece em formas que têm, além das glândulas nas apófises, mais uma dobra costal também considerada como aparelho odorífero.

  5. Sobre Humanismo y Medicina

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    Adolfo de Francisco Zea

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En esta disertación sobre “Humanismo y Medicina”, título del libro que tuve ocasión de publicar hace un par de años, destacaré algunas de las relaciones que existen entre la medicina y las bellas artes, concretamente la música y la pintura. La Medicina tiene como objeto de su acción al Hombre. Definida como la ciencia y el arte de prevenir, curar o aliviar la enfermedad, no tiene como meta la simple prolongación de la vida biológica.

    Su tarea consiste en postergar la muerte, prevenir o reducir los padecimientos y las deformidades, curar las enfermedades, ampliar las capacidades biológicas y psicológicas de los seres humanos y ocuparse de los sufrimientos de las personas. Para Tristam Engelhardt, es la Medicina de las personas.

    Se concibe a la persona humana como el individuo de conciencia reflexiva normal que es a la vez miembro pleno de la comunidad, con los deberes y derechos que presuponen su pertenencia a ella. A esta acepción de carácter moral de la persona humana, que corresponde a lo que se llama persona “en sentido estricto”, se agrega la acepción social, que hace relación con aquellas personas a las que se otorgan prácticamente los mismos derechos, como es el caso de los niños, de los individuos que perdieron el carácter de personas por padecer de lesiones cerebrales o demencia, y de aquellos que nunca llegarán a serlo como los retrasados mentales profundos.

    Al sostener que no todos los seres humanos son personas “en sentido estricto”, la Bioética que expone Engelhardt impone, sin embargo, como obligación moral, tratar a estos últimos con pleno respeto y comprensión. Lo que es importante acerca de nosotros mismos como seres humanos, es el hecho real de que seamos personas; no simplemente nuestra pertenencia al género Horno sapiens como tal.

    Para Víctor Frankl, la persona humana es de carácter espiritual y en tal virtud, es diferente del organismo psicofísico cuya

  6. Historicismo: notas sobre um paradigma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José D’Assunção Barros

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo tem por objetivo desenvolver algumas considerações sobre o Historicismo e sua possibilidade de ser examinado como um dos paradigmas que concorrem para o estabelecimento de uma história científica no século XIX...

  7. O futuro da escola e as tecnologias: alguns aspectos à luz do diálogo entre Paulo Freire e Seymour Papert

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    Rosane Michelli de Castro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos neste artigo resultados de reflexões sobre a escola, aspectos da sua história e atualidade, bem como suas perspectivas no âmbito da sociedade capitalista, marcada por desigualdades sócio-econômicas, à luz do diálogo entre os educadores brasileiro e sul-africano, Paulo Freire e Seymour Pappert, respectivamente, no vídeo intitulado “Seymour Papert e Paulo Freire: uma conversa sobre informática, ensino e aprendizagem”, sobre o futuro da escola e o papel das tecnologias. Tais reflexões originaram-se das nossas atividades desenvolvidas em curso de Pedagogia de uma universidade pública paulista, centralmente na disciplina de Didática I, cujas preocupações fixam-se em torno de duas questões fundamentais que refletem sobre a formação e o trabalho do professor, a importância de conceituar e de situar a educação e o ensino não apenas em função de seus fins, mas também enfatizando sua função política e sua especificidade e, atrelando a essa questão, a necessidade das apropriações teóricas que embasam as teorias pedagógicas e decorrentes didáticas, e de onde derivam os diferentes métodos e técnicas de ensino, dentre os quais aqueles desenvolvidos por meio das tecnologias. Como resultados das nossas reflexões tem-se que a função política e especificidade da educação e do ensino, quando recuperadas pelo professor, mediante fundamentos educacionais centrados na ideia de educação e ensino para todos, e potencializada com a utilização da tecnologia e suas ferramentas, fortalece a importância da escola que se deseja ser espaço e tempo para que atividades teóricas e sociais sejam realizadas pelos sujeitos em constante processo de desenvolvimento.

  8. A escolha de uma profissão: liberdades e restrições. Representações de alguns protagonistas - os alunos

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Maria José

    1998-01-01

    Relatório de investigação sobre as escolhas profissionais de jovens do ensino secundário Este relatório apresenta os resultados de uma investigação realizada durante o ano lectivo de 1997/98, com o objectivo geral de obter uma compreensão aprofundada dos factores que determinam as escolhas profissionais dos jovens. Os objectivos específicos foram os seguintes: determinar os factores que, de acordo com os respondentes, foram determinantes para as escolhas das suas carreiras; determinar o pa...

  9. As inf?ncias e o brincar no contexto escolar: alguns contrastes entre a cultura l?dica e as pr?ticas pedag?gicas

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Priscilla Lima da

    2014-01-01

    Investigar como as crian?as vivem e constroem suas culturas de inf?ncia na escola a partir do brincar, buscando compreender de que modo os professores estabelecem suas pr?ticas pedag?gicas nessas rela??es sociais e culturais. Esta investiga??o compreende os estudos sobre a crian?a como um mosaico te?rico constru?do historicamente para compreender e disciplinar a crian?a, no qual ? poss?vel encontrar ecos das teorias e conjecturas constru?das no passado que, relativo ao aspecto imaginativo da...

  10. A utilização do contraplacado como suporte artístico - Estudo de alguns exemplos nas pinturas de Abel Salazar

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Esta publicação debruça-se sobre a manufatura dos contraplacados, por ser o painel de excelência usado por Abel Salazar, como suporte das suas pinturas a óleo. Através da observação directa e segundo a bibliografia consultada, traçam-se as características destes suportes, que se inscrevem na primeira metade do séc. XX, e identificam-se as patologias mais significativas.

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based system for studying clustered DNA damages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscariello, M.M.; Sutherland, B.

    2010-08-01

    DNA-damaging agents can induce clustered lesions or multiply damaged sites (MDSs) on the same or opposing DNA strands. In the latter, attempts to repair MDS can generate closely opposed single-strand break intermediates that may convert non-lethal or mutagenic base damage into double-strand breaks (DSBs). We constructed a diploid S. cerevisiae yeast strain with a chromosomal context targeted by integrative DNA fragments carrying different damages to determine whether closely opposed base damages are converted to DSBs following the outcomes of the homologous recombination repair pathway. As a model of MDS, we studied clustered uracil DNA damages with a known location and a defined distance separating the lesions. The system we describe might well be extended to assessing the repair of MDSs with different compositions, and to most of the complex DNA lesions induced by physical and chemical agents.

  12. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Jiang, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yinglian; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Meng, Xianghong; Xu, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Bioaccumulation via growing cells is a potential technique for heavy metal removal from food materials. The cadmium bioaccumulation characteristics by growing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Z. rouxii displayed powerful cadmium removal ability at low cadmium concentrations, which mainly depended on the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. The percentage of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts obviously decreased with the increase of initial biomass and cadmium concentrations. Low pH and elevated concentrations of zinc and copper significantly decreased the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation of both yeasts but improved the cadmium tolerance and the cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of Z. rouxii. Cadmium removal of Z. rouxii was improved by zinc and copper conditionally. Z. rouxii that possessed more powerful cadmium tolerance and removal ability at low pH and high concentration of competing ions can be developed into a potential cadmium removal agent using in complex food environment in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ACTIVITY OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE ENZYME IN YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blažena Lavová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS with reactive nitrogen species (RNS are known to play dual role in biological systems, they can be harmful or beneficial to living systems. ROS can be important mediators of damage to cell structures, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids termed as oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzymes protect the organism against the oxidative damage caused by active oxygen forms. The role of superoxide dismutase (SOD is to accelerate the dismutation of the toxic superoxide radical, produced during oxidative energy processes, to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. In this study, SOD activity of three yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined. It was found that SOD activity was the highest (23.7 U.mg-1 protein in strain 612 after 28 hours of cultivation. The lowest SOD activity from all tested strains was found after 56 hours of cultivation of strain Gyöng (0.7 U.mg-1 protein.

  14. Regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase eta transcript and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabla, Ritu; Rozario, Donald; Siede, Wolfram

    2008-02-01

    RAD30-encoded DNA polymerase eta functions as a translesion polymerase that can bypass the most frequent types of UV-induced pyrimidine photoproducts in an error-free manner. Although its transcript is UV-inducible in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rad30 (studied as a Rad30-Myc fusion) is a stable protein whose levels do not fluctuate following UV treatment or during cell cycle progression. Rad30 protein is subject to monoubiquitination whose level is upregulated in G1 and downregulated during S-phase reentry. This downregulation is accelerated in UV-treated cells. A missense mutation (L577Q) of the ubiquitin binding domain (UBZ) confers a reduced degree of ubiquitination outside of G1 and a complete failure to stably interact with ubiquitinated substrates. This mutation confers a phenotype resembling a complete RAD30 deletion, thus attesting to the significance of the UBZ motif for polymerase eta function in vivo.

  15. Phenotypic effects of membrane protein overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melén, Karin; Blomberg, Anders; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2006-07-01

    Large-scale protein overexpression phenotype screens provide an important complement to the more common gene knockout screens. Here, we have targeted the so far poorly understood Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome and report growth phenotypes for a strain collection overexpressing 600 C-terminally tagged integral membrane proteins grown both under normal and three different stress conditions. Although overexpression of most membrane proteins reduce the growth rate in synthetic defined medium, we identify a large number of proteins that, when overexpressed, confer specific resistance to various stress conditions. Our data suggest that regulation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis and the Na+/K+ homeostasis system constitute major downstream targets of the yeast PKA/RAS pathway and point to a possible connection between the early secretory pathway and the cells' response to oxidative stress. We also have quantified the expression levels for >550 membrane proteins, facilitating the choice of well expressing proteins for future functional and structural studies. caffeine | paraquat | salt tolerance | yeast

  16. Interaction among Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone receptors during endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-I Chang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates endocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-factor receptor and the role that receptor oligomerization plays in this process. α-factor receptor contains signal sequences in the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain that are essential for ligand-mediated endocytosis. In an endocytosis complementation assay, we found that oligomeric complexes of the receptor undergo ligand-mediated endocytosis when the α-factor binding site and the endocytosis signal sequences are located in different receptors. Both in vitro and in vivo assays suggested that ligand-induced conformational changes in one Ste2 subunit do not affect neighboring subunits. Therefore, recognition of the endocytosis signal sequence and recognition of the ligand-induced conformational change are likely to be two independent events.

  17. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains.

  18. Brazilian propolis protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Rafael A; de Castro, Frederico A V; Eleutherio, Elis C A; de Souza, Raquel M; da Silva, Joaquim F M; Pereira, Marcos D

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product widely used for humans. Due to its complex composition, a number of applications (antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anesthetic, cytostatic and antioxidant) have been attributed to this substance. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a eukaryotic model we investigated the mechanisms underlying the antioxidant effect of propolis from Guarapari against oxidative stress. Submitting a wild type (BY4741) and antioxidant deficient strains (ctt1Δ, sod1Δ, gsh1Δ, gtt1Δ and gtt2Δ) either to 15 mM menadione or to 2 mM hydrogen peroxide during 60 min, we observed that all strains, except the mutant sod1Δ, acquired tolerance when previously treated with 25 μg/mL of alcoholic propolis extract. Such a treatment reduced the levels of ROS generation and of lipid peroxidation, after oxidative stress. The increase in Cu/Zn-Sod activity by propolis suggests that the protection might be acting synergistically with Cu/Zn-Sod.

  19. Reconstitution of an efficient thymidine salvage pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernis, Laurence; Piskur, Jure; Diffley, John F. X.

    2003-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to incorporate exogenous nucleosides into DNA. We have made a number of improvements to existing strategies to reconstitute an efficient thymidine salvage pathway in yeast. We have constructed strains that express both a nucleoside kinase as well as an equilibrative nucleoside transporter. By also deleting the gene encoding thymidylate synthase (CDC21) we have constructed strains that are entirely dependent upon exogenous thymidine for viability and that can grow with normal kinetics at low thymidine concentrations. Using this novel approach, we show that depletion of a single deoxyribonucleoside causes reversible arrest of cells in S phase with concomitant phosphorylation and activation of the S phase checkpoint kinase, Rad53. We show that this strain also efficiently incorporates the thymidine analogue, BrdU, into DNA and can be used for pulse–chase labelling. PMID:14500848

  20. Mechanisms and Regulation of Mitotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Lorraine S.; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Homology-dependent exchange of genetic information between DNA molecules has a profound impact on the maintenance of genome integrity by facilitating error-free DNA repair, replication, and chromosome segregation during cell division as well as programmed cell developmental events. This chapter will focus on homologous mitotic recombination in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there is an important link between mitotic and meiotic recombination (covered in the forthcoming chapter by Hunter et al. 2015) and many of the functions are evolutionarily conserved. Here we will discuss several models that have been proposed to explain the mechanism of mitotic recombination, the genes and proteins involved in various pathways, the genetic and physical assays used to discover and study these genes, and the roles of many of these proteins inside the cell. PMID:25381364

  1. The Influence of Microgravity on Invasive Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E.; Stassen, Catherine; Daenen, Luk; Devreese, Bart; Siewers, Verena; van Eijsden, Rudy G. E.; Nielsen, Jens; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Willaert, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of microgravity on colony growth and the morphological transition from single cells to short invasive filaments in the model eukaryotic organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two-dimensional spreading of the yeast colonies grown on semi-solid agar medium was reduced under microgravity in the Σ1278b laboratory strain but not in the CMBSESA1 industrial strain. This was supported by the Σ1278b proteome map under microgravity conditions, which revealed upregulation of proteins linked to anaerobic conditions. The Σ1278b strain showed a reduced invasive growth in the center of the yeast colony. Bud scar distribution was slightly affected, with a switch toward more random budding. Together, microgravity conditions disturb spatially programmed budding patterns and generate strain-dependent growth differences in yeast colonies on semi-solid medium.

  2. Hormetic Effect of H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna M. Semchyshyn PhD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between target of rapamycin (TOR and H2O2-induced hormetic response in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose or fructose. In general, our data suggest that: (1 hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 induces hormesis in a TOR-dependent manner; (2 the H2O2-induced hormetic dose–response in yeast depends on the type of carbohydrate in growth medium; (3 the concentration-dependent effect of H2O2 on yeast colony growth positively correlates with the activity of glutathione reductase that suggests the enzyme involvement in the H2O2-induced hormetic response; and (4 both TOR1 and TOR2 are involved in the reciprocal regulation of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyoxalase 1.

  3. Genetic Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm in Liquid Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth; Gro Rejkjær Sørensen, Laura

    2014-01-01

    than free-living cells. We investigated the genetic basis for yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, biofilm on solid surfaces in liquid medium by screening a comprehensive deletion mutant collection in the S1278b background and found 71 genes that were essential for biofilm development. Quantitative......Biofilm-forming microorganisms switch between two forms: free-living planktonic and sessile multicellular. Sessile communities of yeast biofilms in liquid medium provide a primitive example of multicellularity and are clinically important because biofilms tend to have other growth characteristics......223W controlled biofilm through FLO11 induction. Almost all deletion mutants that were unable to form biofilms in liquid medium also lost the ability to form surface-spreading biofilm colonies (mats) on agar and 69% also lost the ability to grow invasively. The protein kinase A isoform Tpk3p...

  4. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  5. The Snf1 Protein Kinase in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata

    2008-01-01

    In yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Snf1 protein kinase is primarily known as a key component of the glucose repression regulatory cascade. The Snf1 kinase is highly conserved among eukaryotes and its mammalian homolog AMPK is responsible for energy homeostasis in cells, organs and whole bodies...... catabolism was SNF1 or SNF4 gene deletion specific. In comparison to the reference strain, growth delay on galactose was found to last 2.4 times (7 hours) longer for the Δsnf4, 3.1 times (10.5 hours) longer for the Δsnf1, and 9.6 times (43 hours) longer for the Δsnf1Δsnf4 strains. The maximum specific growth...

  6. Local Nanomechanical Motion of the Cell Wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, Andrew E.; Sehati, Sadaf; Gralla, Edith B.; Valentine, Joan S.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2004-08-01

    We demonstrate that the cell wall of living Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) exhibits local temperature-dependent nanomechanical motion at characteristic frequencies. The periodic motions in the range of 0.8 to 1.6 kHz with amplitudes of ~3 nm were measured using the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Exposure of the cells to a metabolic inhibitor causes the periodic motion to cease. From the strong frequency dependence on temperature, we derive an activation energy of 58 kJ/mol, which is consistent with the cell's metabolism involving molecular motors such as kinesin, dynein, and myosin. The magnitude of the forces observed (~10 nN) suggests concerted nanomechanical activity is operative in the cell.

  7. Boric Acid Disturbs Cell Wall Synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Boric acid (BA has broad antimicrobial activity that makes it a popular treatment for yeast vaginitis in complementary and alternative medicine. In the model yeast S. cerevisiae, BA disturbs the cytoskeleton at the bud neck and impairs the assembly of the septation apparatus. BA treatment causes cells to form irregular septa and leads to the synthesis of irregular cell wall protuberances that extend far into the cytoplasm. The thick, chitin-rich septa that are formed during BA exposure prevent separation of cells after abscission and cause the formation of cell chains and clumps. As a response to the BA insult, cells signal cell wall stress through the Slt2p pathway and increase chitin synthesis, presumably to repair cell wall damage.

  8. amdSYM, a new dominant recyclable marker cassette for Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solis-Escalante, D.; Kuijpers, N.G.A.; Bongaerts, N.; Bolat, I.; Bosman, L.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.; Daran-Lapujade, P.A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large collection of selectable marker genes available for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, marker availability can still present a hurdle when dozens of genetic manipulations are required. Recyclable markers, counterselectable cassettes that can be removed from the targeted genome after use,

  9. High expression of heterologous proteins by Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, Antonius Martinus Johannes van de

    2006-01-01

    The production of recombinant proteins is of great importance for industrial applications in fields such as pharmaceutical ingredients and industrial enzymes. One of these products are camelid antibody fragments, produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in high cell density fed batch fermentation

  10. Multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing and Gene Regulation Using Csy4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Raphael; Skrekas, Christos; Nielsen, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology has greatly accelerated the field of strain engineering. However, insufficient efforts have been made toward developing robust multiplexing tools in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we exploit the RNA processing capacity...

  11. Stress Tolerance Variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Geographical Locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Zheng

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a platform organism for bioethanol production from various feedstocks and robust strains are desirable for efficient fermentation because yeast cells inevitably encounter stressors during the process. Recently, diverse S. cerevisiae lineages were identified, which provided novel resources for understanding stress tolerance variations and related shaping factors in the yeast. This study characterized the tolerance of diverse S. cerevisiae strains to the stressors of high ethanol concentrations, temperature shocks, and osmotic stress. The results showed that the isolates from human-associated environments overall presented a higher level of stress tolerance compared with those from forests spared anthropogenic influences. Statistical analyses indicated that the variations of stress tolerance were significantly correlated with both ecological sources and geographical locations of the strains. This study provides guidelines for selection of robust S. cerevisiae strains for bioethanol production from nature.

  12. Engineering and analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that uses formaldehyde as an auxiliary substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baerends, Richard J. S.; de Hulster, Erik; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A.; Daran, Jean-Marc; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.; Pronk, Jack T.

    We demonstrated that formaldehyde can be efficiently coutilized by an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that expresses Hansenula polymorpha genes encoding formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FLD1) and formate dehydrogenase (FMD), in contrast to wild-type strains. Initial chemostat experiments

  13. Removal of Strontium Ions by Immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in Magnetic Chitosan Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Yin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel biosorbent, immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in magnetic chitosan microspheres was prepared, characterized, and used for the removal of Sr2+ from aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of immobilized S. cerevisiae before and after Sr2+adsorption were observed using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could be used to describe the Sr2+ adsorption onto immobilized S. cerevisiae microspheres. The maximal adsorption capacity (qm was calculated to be 81.96 mg/g by the Langmuir model. Immobilized S. cerevisiae was an effective adsorbent for the Sr2+ removal from aqueous solution.

  14. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and...

  15. Natural and modified promoters for tailored metabolic engineering of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubmann, Georg; Thevelein, Johan M; Nevoigt, Elke

    2014-01-01

    The ease of highly sophisticated genetic manipulations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has initiated numerous initiatives towards development of metabolically engineered strains for novel applications beyond its traditional use in brewing, baking, and wine making. In fact, baker's yeast has

  16. Evaluation of Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Presence of Bifenthrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Tijana M; Đurović-Pejčev, Rada D

    2016-06-01

    This work describes the effect of insecticide bifenthrin on Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growths of used microorganisms in growth media supplemented with pesticide were studied. Determination of bacterial and yeast fermentation efficiency in wheat supplemented with bifenthrin was conducted. Additionally, investigation of bifenthrin dissipation during microbiological activity was performed. Experiments applying bifenthrin in different concentrations highlighted a negligible impact of the pesticide on the growth of L. plantarum and S. cerevisiae. This insecticide overall negatively affected the yeast fermentation of wheat, while its presence in wheat had a slight negative impact on lactic acid fermentation. The results of bifenthrin dissipation during lactic acid and yeast fermentations of wheat showed that activities of L. plantarum and S. cerevisiae caused lower pesticide reductions. Average bifenthrin residue reduction within samples fermented with L. plantarum was 5.4 % (maximum ~16 %), while within samples fermented with S. cerevisiae, it was 11.6 % (maximum ~17 %).

  17. Determination of antioxidant activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Croton caudatus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subhaswaraj, Pattnaik; Sowmya, M; Bhavana, V; Dyavaiah, Madhu; Siddhardha, Busi

    2017-01-01

    .... In the present study, ethanolic leaf extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Croton caudatus were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system. H. sabdariffa and C...

  18. Improving pentose fermentation by preventing ubiquitination of hexose transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Jeroen G; Vos, Erwin; Shin, Hyun Yong; de Waal, Paul P; Klaassen, Paul; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Engineering of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved utilization of pentose sugars is vital for cost-efficient cellulosic bioethanol production. Although endogenous hexose transporters (Hxt) can be engineered into specific pentose transporters, they remain subjected to

  19. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae microbial cell factories for succinic acid production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero, José Manuel; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a proven, robust, industrial production platform used for expression of a wide range of therapeutic agents, high added-value chemicals, and commodities. Central carbon metabolism in S. cerevisiae has been extensively investigated using a wide variety of substrates......H significantly minimizing purification and acidification costs associated with organic acid production, and can utilize diverse carbon substrates in chemically defined medium. S. cerevisiae offers the unique advantage of being the most well characterized eukaryotic expression system. Here we describe the use...... for determination of how glycolytic flux is distributed across C1 (CO2,g), C2 (ethanol, acetate), and C3 (glycerol, pyruvate) products. For the S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D strain cultivated under carbon-limited, aerobic, well-controlled batch fermentations, the distribution of carbon across biomass, C1, C2, and C3...

  20. Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Physiology and its DNA Damage Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism in biology, being widely used in fundamental research, the first eukaryotic organism to be fully sequenced and the platform for the development of many genomics techniques. Therefore, it is not surprising that S. cerevisiae has also been widely...... used in the field of systems biology during the last decade. This thesis investigates S. cerevisiae growth physiology and DNA damage response by using a systems biology approach. Elucidation of the relationship between growth rate and gene expression is important to understand the mechanisms regulating...... cell growth. In order to study this relationship, we have grown S. cerevisiae cells in chemostat at defined growth rates and measured the transcriptional response. We have applied a complex experimental design, involving three factors: specific growth rate, oxygen availability and nutrient limitation...

  1. Enhancing Fatty Acid Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Animal Feed Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung Kyou; Joo, Young-Chul; Kang, Dae Hee; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Woo, Han Min; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-12-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces small amounts of fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production. By concentration optimization, 672 mg/L of fatty acids was produced, which was 4.7-fold higher than wild-type strain. These results complement the low level fatty acid production and make it possible to obtain the benefits of fatty acids as an animal feed supplement while, simultaneously, maintaining the advantages of S. cerevisiae.

  2. Removal of strontium ions by immobilized saccharomyces cerevisiae in magnetic chitosan microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jian Long; Yang, Xiao Yong; Li, Weihua [Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2017-02-15

    A novel biosorbent, immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in magnetic chitosan microspheres was prepared, characterized, and used for the removal of Sr{sup 2+} from aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of immobilized S. cerevisiae before and after Sr{sup 2+}adsorption were observed using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could be used to describe the Sr{sup 2+} adsorption onto immobilized S. cerevisiae microspheres. The maximal adsorption capacity (q{sub m}) was calculated to be 81.96 mg/g by the Langmuir model. Immobilized S. cerevisiae was an effective adsorbent for the Sr{sup 2+} removal from aqueous solution.

  3. Rapid identification and differentiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus and their hybrids by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, S; Zapparoli, G; Malacrinò, P; Suzzi, G; Dellaglio, F

    2004-01-01

    To develop a multiplex PCR assay for the specific identification and differentiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus and their hybrids. Two sets of primers with sequences complementary to the region YBR033w were used. A single amplicon of 1710 bp or 329 bp was obtained with species S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, respectively, while the presence of both bands was observed in S. pastorianus because of its hybrid nature. Both amplification products were also obtained after amplification from DNA of several laboratory S. cerevisiae x S. bayanus hybrid strains. Multiplex PCR was optimized for the rapid and reliable identification of S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus and their hybrids. The procedure may be used for routine detection of the most common Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts involved in industrial fermentation processes, overcoming the problems of conventional techniques.

  4. Extreme calorie restriction and energy source starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent distinct physiological states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, L.G.M.; Almering, M.J.H.; Dijk, M.; Van Maris, A.J.A.; De Winde, J.H.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation methods used to investigate microbial calorie restriction often result in carbon and energy starvation. This study aims to dissect cellular responses to calorie restriction and starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using retentostat cultivation. In retentostats, cells are

  5. Evaluation of molecular typing techniques to assign genetic diversity among Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baleiras Couto, M.M.; Eijsma, B.; Hofstra, H.; Huis in 't Veld, J.H.J.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Discrimination of strains within the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae was demonstrated by the use of four different techniques to type 15 strains isolated from spoiled wine and beer. Random amplified polymorphic DNA with specific oligonucleotides and PCR fingerprinting with the microsatellite

  6. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang-Yu; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Ling-Ling; Jia, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhan, Ji-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo) and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China's stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress.

  7. Genomic evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

    2014-09-10

    Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT2, HXT7) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD10, ADH7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Filament formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, J R

    2008-01-01

    Many yeasts can produce filamentous elongated cells identifiable as hyphae, pseudohyphae or invasive filaments. Filament formation has been understood as a foraging response that occurs in nutrient-poor conditions. However, fusel alcohols were observed to induce filament formation in rich nutrient conditions in every yeast species examined. Fusel alcohols, e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol (3Me-BuOH; 'isoamyl alcohol'), 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutyl alcohol), (-)-2-methyl-1-butanol ('active amyl alcohol'), 2-phenylethanol and 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)indole (tryptophol) (the end products of leucine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan catabolism, respectively) are the end products of amino acid catabolism that accumulate when nutrients become limiting. Thus, yeast responds to its own metabolic by-products. Considerable effort was made to define the cell biological and biochemical changes that take place during 3Me-BuOH-induced filamentation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae filaments contain significantly greater mitochondrial mass and increased chitin content in comparison with yeast-form cells. The global transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae during the early stages of 3Me-BuOH-induced filament formation has been described. Four ORFs displayed very significant (more than 10-fold) increases in their RNA species, and 12 ORFs displayed increases in transcription of more than 5-fold. The transcription of five genes (all of which encode transporters) decreased by similar amounts. Where examined, the activity of the proteins encoded reflected the transcriptional pattern of their respective mRNAs. To understand this regulation, studies were performed to see whether deletion or overexpression of key genes affects the ability to filament and invade solid YEPD medium. This has led to identification of those proteins that are essential for filament formation, repressors and those which are simply not required. It also leads to the conclusion that 3Me-BuOH-induced filament

  9. Metabolic control analysis of glycerol synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronwright, Garth R; Rohwer, Johann M; Prior, Bernard A

    2002-09-01

    Glycerol, a major by-product of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is of significant importance to the wine, beer, and ethanol production industries. To gain a clearer understanding of and to quantify the extent to which parameters of the pathway affect glycerol flux in S. cerevisiae, a kinetic model of the glycerol synthesis pathway has been constructed. Kinetic parameters were collected from published values. Maximal enzyme activities and intracellular effector concentrations were determined experimentally. The model was validated by comparing experimental results on the rate of glycerol production to the rate calculated by the model. Values calculated by the model agreed well with those measured in independent experiments. The model also mimics the changes in the rate of glycerol synthesis at different phases of growth. Metabolic control analysis values calculated by the model indicate that the NAD(+)-dependent glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction has a flux control coefficient (C(J)v1) of approximately 0.85 and exercises the majority of the control of flux through the pathway. Response coefficients of parameter metabolites indicate that flux through the pathway is most responsive to dihydroxyacetone phosphate concentration (R(J)DHAP= 0.48 to 0.69), followed by ATP concentration (R(J)ATP = -0.21 to -0.50). Interestingly, the pathway responds weakly to NADH concentration (R(J)NADH = 0.03 to 0.08). The model indicates that the best strategy to increase flux through the pathway is not to increase enzyme activity, substrate concentration, or coenzyme concentration alone but to increase all of these parameters in conjunction with each other.

  10. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling-ling; Jia, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Huang, Wei-dong; Zhan, Ji-cheng

    2015-01-01

    At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo) and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China’s stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress. PMID:26030864

  11. Septins localize to microtubules during nutritional limitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez de Aldana Carlos R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient limitation stimulates diploid cells to undergo DNA replication and meiosis, followed by the formation of four haploid spores. Septins are a family of proteins that assemble a ring structure at the mother-daughter neck during vegetative growth, where they control cytokinesis. In sporulating cells, the septin ring disassembles and septins relocalize to the prospore membrane. Results Here, we demonstrate that nutrient limitation triggers a change in the localization of at least two vegetative septins (Cdc10 and Cdc11 from the bud neck to the microtubules. The association of Cdc10 and Cdc11 with microtubules persists into meiosis, and they are found associated with the meiotic spindle until the end of meiosis II. In addition, the meiosis-specific septin Spr28 displays similar behavior, suggesting that this is a common feature of septins. Septin association to microtubules is a consequence of the nutrient limitation signal, since it is also observed when haploid cells are incubated in sporulation medium and when haploid or diploid cells are grown in medium containing non-fermentable carbon sources. Moreover, during meiosis II, when the nascent prospore membrane is formed, septins moved from the microtubules to this membrane. Proper organization of the septins on the membrane requires the sporulation-specific septins Spr3 and Spr28. Conclusion Nutrient limitation in S. cerevisiae triggers the sporulation process, but it also induces the disassembly of the septin bud neck ring and relocalization of the septin subunits to the nucleus. Septins remain associated with microtubules during the meiotic divisions and later, during spore morphogenesis, they are detected associated to the nascent prospore membranes surrounding each nuclear lobe. Septin association to microtubules also occurs during growth in non-fermentable carbon sources.

  12. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yu Sun

    Full Text Available At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China's stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress.

  13. Importância epidemiológica de alguns animais silvestres na esquistossomose mansônica Epidemiologic importance of some wild rodents in the schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urara Kawazoe

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de averiguar a importância de alguns roedores como possíveis reservatórios do S. mansoni, na ausência do homem parasitado, foi realizada pesquisa, visando contribuir para o esclarecimento de aspectos ligados à cadeia epidemiológica da esquistossomose, bem como conhecer alguns parâmetros da biologia de certos roedores, em seu habitat semi-natural. O experimento foi realizado num viveiro de 952 m², no município de Taubaté, São Paulo (Brasil, numa área endêmica de esquistossomose mansônica humana, e teve a duração de três anos e seis meses (agosto de 1973 a dezembro de 1976. Foram utilizados como hospedeiros definitivos, Holochilus brasiliensis leucogaster, Zygodontomys lasiurus, Oryzomys nigripes eliurus e Cavia aperea aperea; como hospeideiro intermediário, Biomphalaria tenagophila e posteriormente B. glabrata. Entre agosto de 1973 e janeiro de 1976, não houve encontro de B. tenagophila eliminando cercárias de S. mansoni; não se verificou, também, infecção natural de roedores. Em agosto de 1975, houve introdução acidental de desovas da B. glabrata, cujos adultos, em 1976, apresentaram infecção por S. mansoni em três ocasiões, com índices de 2,0; 1,6 e 0,8%. No mesmo ano de 1976, dois Holochilus, nascidos no Viveiro, eliminaram ovos viáveis de S. mansoni. Foi possível obter dados de 41 H. b. leucogaster, 28 introduzidos e 14 nascidos no local. O exemplar que sobreviveu mais tempo completou 346 dias. Os animais nascidos no Viveiro e capturados pela primeira vez pesavam, em média, 20 a 50 g. Notou-se que o peso corporal aumentou com o tempo e parece não estacionar até a morte do animal. Z. lasiurus e C. a aperea não procriaram e nem adquiriram infecção ao S. mansoni. O. n. eliurus, procriou e permaneceu vivo, em média, menos de 100 dias; não foi observada eliminação de ovos do parasita. É pouco provável que H. b. leucogaster e B. tenagophila mantenham o ciclo da esquistossomose na aus

  14. Introduction of flocculation into industrial yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae saké, by protoplast fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Nelson; MOREIRA, C.; Teixeira, J. A.; M. Mota

    1995-01-01

    Protoplast fusion was applied to obtain intraspecific fusion in yeast strains in order to overcome restrictions imposed by the natural mating system. Acriflavine was used to construct petite mutants from non-flocculent industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae saké strain. UV radiation was used to construct ura- mutants from a respiratory competent and highly flocculent S. cerevisiae NCYC869 strain. Fusion products were selected by complementation on minimal medium. The frequency of appearance of p...

  15. Biosorption of the strontium ion by irradiated Saccharomyces cerevisiae under culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liang; Feng, Jundong; Dai, Yaodong; Chang, Shuquan

    2017-06-01

    As a new-emerging method for strontium disposal, biosorption has shown advantages such as high sorption capacity; low cost. In this study, we investigated the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) in strontium disposal under culture conditions and the effects of irradiation on their biosorption capabilities. We found that S. cerevisiae can survive irradiation and grow. Pre-exposure to irradiation rendered S. cerevisiae resistant to further irradiation. Surprisingly, the pre-exposure to irradiation can increase the biosorption capability of S. cerevisiae. We further investigated the factors that influenced the biosorption efficiency, which were (strongest to weakest): pH > strontium concentration > time > temperature. In our orthogonal experiment, the optimal conditions for strontium biosorption by irradiated S. cerevisiae were: pH 7, 150 mg L -1 strontium at the temperature of 32 °C with 30 h. The equilibrium of strontium biosorption was analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models, from which the formal model is found to provide a better fit for the experimental results. The kinetics of strontium biosorption by living irradiated S. cerevisiae was found to be comprised of three phases: dramatically increased during 0-9 h, decreased during 12-24 h, and increased during 30-50 h. These results provide a systematic understanding of the biosorption capabilities of irradiated S. cerevisiae, which can contribute to the development of remediating nuclear waste water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-glucoside transporters under different growth conditions

    OpenAIRE

    S. L. Alves Jr.; J. M. Thevelein; B. U. Stambuk

    2014-01-01

    Important biotechnological processes depend on the efficient fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts of starch hydrolysates rich in maltose and maltotriose. The rate-limiting step for fermentation of these α-glucosides is the transport across the plasma membrane of the cells. In order to contribute to a better understanding of maltose and maltotriose metabolism by S. cerevisiae, we analyzed the expression of the main α glucoside transporter genes in two different yeast strains grown o...

  17. In silico profiling of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as terpenoid factories

    OpenAIRE

    Gruchattka, Evamaria; H?dicke, Oliver; Klamt, Steffen; Sch?tz, Verena; Kayser, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Background Heterologous microbial production of rare plant terpenoids of medicinal or industrial interest is attracting more and more attention but terpenoid yields are still low. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the most widely used heterologous hosts; a direct comparison of both hosts based on experimental data is difficult though. Hence, the terpenoid pathways of E. coli (via 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate, DXP) and S. cerevisiae (via mevalonate, MVA), the impact of the re...

  18. Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Pejin Dušanka J.; Vasić Vesna M.

    2005-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Sac...

  19. Antioxidant properties and global metabolite screening of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Suprama; Timson, David J; Annapure, Uday S

    2017-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the only yeast species with probiotic properties. It is considered to have therapeutic significance in gastrointestinal disorders. In the present study, a comparative physiological study between this yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BY4742) was performed by evaluating two prominent traits of probiotic species, responses to different stress conditions and antioxidant capacity. A global metabolite profile was also developed aiming to identify which therapeutically important secondary metabolites are produced. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii showed no significant difference in growth patterns but greater stress tolerance compared to S. cerevisiae. It also demonstrated a six- to 10-fold greater antioxidant potential (judged by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay), with a 70-fold higher total phenolic content and a 20-fold higher total flavonoid content in the extracellular fraction. These features were clearly differentiated by principal component analysis and further indicated by metabolite profiling. The extracellular fraction of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii cultures was found to be rich in polyphenolic metabolites: vanillic acid, cinnamic acid, phenyl ethyl alcohol (rose oil), erythromycin, amphetamine and vitamin B6 , which results in the antioxidant capacity of this strain. The present study presents a new perspective for differentiating the two genetically related strains of yeast, S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae var. boulardii by assessing their metabolome fingerprints. In addition to the correlation of the phenotypic properties with the secretory metabolites of these two yeasts, the present study also emphasizes the potential to exploit S. cerevisiae var. boulardii in the industrial production of these metabolites. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Ruiz, José Luis; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina

    2015-01-01

    the generation of a set of plasmids to produce functional human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with final titers of active hemoglobin exceeding 4% of the total cell protein. In this study, we propose a strategy for further engineering S. cerevisiae by altering the oxygen sensing pathway by deleting...... the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein....

  1. Post-zygotic sterility and cytonuclear compatibility limits in S. cerevisiae xenomitochondrial cybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špírek, Mário; Poláková, Silvia; Jatzová, Katarína; Sulo, Pavol

    2014-01-01

    Nucleo-mitochondrial interactions, particularly those determining the primary divergence of biological species, can be studied by means of xenomitochondrial cybrids, which are cells where the original mitochondria are substituted by their counterparts from related species. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cybrids are prepared simply by the mating of the ρ(0) strain with impaired karyogamy and germinating spores from other Saccharomyces species and fall into three categories. Cybrids with compatible mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Saccharomyces paradoxus CBS 432 and Saccharomyces cariocanus CBS 7994 are metabolically and genetically similar to cybrids containing mtDNA from various S. cerevisiae. Cybrids with mtDNA from other S. paradoxus strains, S. cariocanus, Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces mikatae require a period of adaptation to establish efficient oxidative phosphorylation. They exhibit a temperature-sensitive phenotype, slower growth rate on a non-fermentable carbon source and a long lag phase after the shift from glucose. Their decreased respiration capacity and reduced cytochrome aa3 content is associated with the inefficient splicing of cox1I3β, the intron found in all Saccharomyces species but not in S. cerevisiae. The splicing defect is compensated in cybrids by nuclear gain-of-function and can be alternatively suppressed by overexpression of MRP13 gene for mitochondrial ribosomal protein or the MRS2, MRS3, and MRS4 genes involved in intron splicing. S. cerevisiae with Saccharomyces bayanus mtDNA is unable to respire and the growth on ethanol-glycerol can be restored only after mating to some mit (-) strains. The nucleo-mitochondrial compatibility limit of S. cerevisiae and other Saccharomyces was set between S. kudriavzevii and S. bayanus at the divergence from S. cerevisiae about 15 MYA. The MRS1-cox1 S. cerevisiae/S. paradoxus cytonuclear Dobzhansky-Muller pair has a neglible impact on the separation of species since its imperfection is

  2. Biodiversity of a Natural Population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum from Aglianico del Vulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Paraggio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 140 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum, isolated from grapes and musts in the Basilicata region in Italy, were differentiated on the basis of fermentation behaviour and production of secondary compounds in Aglianico del Vulture must. A significant natural biodiversity of the strains was determined. In particular, within each species, the strains were differentiated for the fermentative activity and for the production of secondary compounds. Great strain variability was found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  3. Optimization of feeding strategy for the ergosterol production by yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Mojmir Rychtera; Josef Cermak; Jaroslav Votruba; Jan Nahlik; Karel Melzoch; Christopher A. Kent; Waldir D. Estela Escalante

    2010-01-01

    Objective of this study was to optimize ergosterol production by yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the use of computer controlled feeding of cultivation medium. Baker´s yeasts strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae originally modified and selected as mutant D7 was further applied in an industrial scale and also in this investigation. Composition of cultivation medium was optimized with the use of a modified Rosenbrock´s method with regard to following components: glucose, yeast extract, ...

  4. Genomic expression program of Saccharomyces cerevisiae along a mixed-culture wine fermentation with Hanseniaspora guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Catarina; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Lage, Patrícia; Mira, Nuno P; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-08-28

    The introduction of yeast starter cultures consisting in a blend of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeast strains is emerging for production of wines with improved complexity of flavor. The rational use of this approach is, however, dependent on knowing the impact that co-inoculation has in the physiology of S. cerevisiae. In this work the transcriptome of S. cerevisiae was monitored throughout a wine fermentation, carried out in single culture or in a consortium with Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, this being the first time that this relevant yeast-yeast interaction is examined at a genomic scale. Co-inoculation with H. guilliermondii reduced the overall genome-wide transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae throughout the fermentation, which was attributable to a lower fermentative activity of S. cerevisiae while in the mixed-fermentation. Approximately 350 genes S. cerevisiae genes were found to be differently expressed (FDR fermentation medium. Genes involved in biosynthesis of vitamins were enriched among those up-regulated in the mixed-culture fermentation, while genes related with the uptake and biosynthesis of amino acids were enriched among those more expressed in the single-culture. The differences in the aromatic profiles of wines obtained in the single and in the mixed-fermentations correlated with the differential expression of S. cerevisiae genes encoding enzymes required for formation of aroma compounds. By integrating results obtained in the transcriptomic analysis performed with physiological data our study provided, for the first time, an integrated view into the adaptive responses of S. cerevisiae to the challenging environment of mixed culture fermentation. The availability of nutrients, in particular, of nitrogen and vitamins, stands out as a factor that may determine population dynamics, fermentative activity and by-product formation.

  5. Qualidade das informações sobre fecundidade no Censo Demográfico de 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana M. Cavenaghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta nota de pesquisa é examinar a qualidade da informação sobre fecundidade no Censo Demográfico 2010, visando inferir sobre a acurácia das estimativas da taxa de fecundidade total (TFT e das específicas por idade provenientes dessa fonte de dados. São utilizados os microdados do Censo Demográfico 2010 e os dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascimentos (Sinasc de 2009 e 2010. Empregam-se indicadores demográficos básicos e o método indireto da razão P/F de Brass para a estimação da TFT utilizando as duas fontes de dados. Os resultados iniciais mostram que os dados censitários são bastante consistentes, mas apresentam alguns problemas de subnumeração diferencial por idade, como amplamente conhecido na demografia, que devem ser levados em conta na estimação do nível de fecundidade no país. As mudanças na estrutura da fecundidade afetam a TFT por ser taxa de período, mas o método P/F de Brass ainda se mostra com bons resultados. Ao final, são feitas recomendações para possíveis melhorias em novas coletas de dados, principalmente nos censos e pesquisas por amostra de domicílios, que constituem fontes essenciais para a estimação da fecundidade e acompanhamento de tendências para atualização das projeções desse indicador a médio e longo prazos.

  6. Effect of Temperature on the Prevalence of Saccharomyces Non cerevisiae Species against a S. cerevisiae Wine Strain in Wine Fermentation: Competition, Physiological Fitness, and Influence in Final Wine Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-del-Real, Javier; Lairón-Peris, María; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main microorganism responsible for the fermentation of wine. Nevertheless, in the last years wineries are facing new challenges due to current market demands and climate change effects on the wine quality. New yeast starters formed by non-conventional Saccharomyces species (such as S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii) or their hybrids (S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii) can contribute to solve some of these challenges. They exhibit good fer...

  7. Pengaruh Media Tumbuh terhadap Kadar Protein Saccharomyces cerevisiae dalam Pembuatan Protein Sel Tunggal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SETYANINGSIH

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of difference growth media, i. e. tofu liquid waste, tofu solid waste, and coconut water in various composition and Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose (YEPD, to protein contents of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Single Cell Protein (SCP production. The framework of this research was that tofu liquid waste, tofu solid waste, and coconut water were containing a lot of carbons, nitrogens, minerals, and vitamin that could be used as growth medium of S. cerevisiae to produce SCP, which was commonly used. The medium from tofu liquid waste and the coconut water were made by ratio 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and added with tofu solid waste 1.5 g and 2.5 g. Then, the measurement of pH medium, the amount of cell, cell dried weight, and the protein content in S. cerevisiae was done. The measurement of protein content was done by Lowry method. The result of the research showed that growth media influenced protein content of S. cerevisiae. Protein content of S. cerevisiae cultured in tofu liquid waste- coconut water was lower then in YEPD medium. The protein content of S. cerevisiae cultured in tofu liquid waste and coconut water ratio 1:2, added with 2.5 g tofu solid waste was higher then in other medium composition.

  8. Enhanced ethanol fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with high spermidine contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Construction of robust and efficient yeast strains is a prerequisite for commercializing a biofuel production process. We have demonstrated that high intracellular spermidine (SPD) contents in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to improved tolerance against various fermentation inhibitors, including furan derivatives and acetic acid. In this study, we examined the potential applicability of the S. cerevisiae strains with high SPD contents under two cases of ethanol fermentation: glucose fermentation in repeated-batch fermentations and xylose fermentation in the presence of fermentation inhibitors. During the sixteen times of repeated-batch fermentations using glucose as a sole carbon source, the S. cerevisiae strains with high SPD contents maintained higher cell viability and ethanol productivities than a control strain with lower SPD contents. Specifically, at the sixteenth fermentation, the ethanol productivity of a S. cerevisiae strain with twofold higher SPD content was 31% higher than that of the control strain. When the SPD content was elevated in an engineered S. cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose, the resulting S. cerevisiae strain exhibited much 40-50% higher ethanol productivities than the control strain during the fermentations of synthetic hydrolysate containing high concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. These results suggest that the strain engineering strategy to increase SPD content is broadly applicable for engineering yeast strains for robust and efficient production of ethanol.

  9. Early transcriptional response to biotic stress in mixed starter fermentations involving Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchoni, Jordi; Curiel, Jose Antonio; Morales, Pilar; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2017-01-16

    Advances in microbial wine biotechnology have led to the recent commercialization of several non-Saccharomyces starter cultures. These are intended to be used in either simultaneous or sequential inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The different types of microbial interactions that can be stablished during wine fermentation acquire an increased relevance in the context of these mixed-starter fermentations. We analysed the transcriptional response to co-cultivation of S. cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii. The study focused in the initial stages of wine fermentation, before S. cerevisiae completely dominates the mixed cultures. Both species showed a clear response to the presence of each other, even though the portion of the genome showing altered transcription levels was relatively small. Changes in the transcription pattern suggested a stimulation of metabolic activity and growth, as a consequence of the presence of competitors in the same medium. The response of S. cerevisiae seems to take place earlier, as compared to T. delbrueckii. Enhanced glycolytic activity of the mixed culture was confirmed by the CO 2 production profile during these early stages of fermentation. Interestingly, HSP12 expression appeared induced by co-cultivation for both of S. cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii in the two time points studied. This might be related with a recently described role of Hsp12 in intercellular communication in yeast. Expression of S. cerevisiae PAU genes was also stimulated in mixed cultures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Two Italian Wine-Producing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Angela; Granchi, Lisa; Guerrini, Simona; Mangani, Silvia; Romaniello, Rossana; Vincenzini, Massimo; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies, based on different molecular techniques analyzing DNA polymorphism, have provided evidence that indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations display biogeographic patterns. Since the differentiated populations of S. cerevisiae seem to be responsible for the regional identity of wine, the aim of this work was to assess a possible relationship between the diversity and the geographical origin of indigenous S. cerevisiae isolates from two different Italian wine-producing regions (Tuscany and Basilicata). For this purpose, sixty-three isolates from Aglianico del Vulture grape must (main cultivar in the Basilicata region) and from Sangiovese grape must (main cultivar in the Tuscany region) were characterized genotypically, by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis and MSP-PCR by using (GTG)5 primers, and phenotypically, by determining technological properties and metabolic compounds of oenological interest after alcoholic fermentation. All the S. cerevisiae isolates from each region were inoculated both in must obtained from Aglianico grape and in must obtained from Sangiovese grape to carry out fermentations at laboratory-scale. Numerical analysis of DNA patterns resulting from both molecular methods and principal component analysis of phenotypic data demonstrated a high diversity among the S. cerevisiae strains. Moreover, a correlation between genotypic and phenotypic groups and geographical origin of the strains was found, supporting the concept that there can be a microbial aspect to terroir. Therefore, exploring the diversity of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains can allow developing tailored strategies to select wine yeast strains better adapted to each viticultural area.

  11. Ethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke powder using Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM50549 without pretreatment for inulin hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seok-Hwan; Ryu, Ji-Myoung; Lee, Hongweon; Jeon, Jae Heung; Sok, Dai-Eun; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2011-01-01

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, KCCM50549, was found to efficiently ferment the inulin-containing carbohydrates in Jerusalem artichoke without acidic or enzymatic pretreatment prior to fermentation. S. cerevisiae KCCM50549 could utilize almost completely the fructo-oligosaccharides present in Jerusalem artichoke (up to degree of polymerization (DP) of 15), in contrast to the other S. cerevisiae strain such as NCYC625 that fermented the fructo-oligosaccharides with DP of up to around six. Inulin-fermenting S. cerevisiae KCCM50549 produced c.a. 1.6 times more ethanol from Jerusalem artichoke compared with S. cerevisiae NCYC625. Direct ethanol fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke flour at 180 g/L without any supplements or pretreatments by S. cerevisiae KCCM50549 in a 5 L jar fermentor yielded 36.2 g/L of ethanol within 36 h. The conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to ethanol was 70% of the theoretical ethanol yield. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PRODUKSI ETANOL DARI TETES TEBU OLEH Saccharomyces cerevisiae PEMBENTUK FLOK (NRRL – Y 265 (Ethanol Production from Cane Molasses by Flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NRRL – Y 265

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Krisna Wardani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of sugar cane molasses by flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol production was investigated. In order to minimize the negative effect of calcium on yeast growth, pretreated sugar cane molasses with dilute acid was performed. The influence of process parameters such as sugar concentration and inoculum concentration were evaluated for enhancing bioethanol production. Result showed that maximum ethanol concentration of 8,792% (b/v was obtained at the best condition of inoculum concentration 10% (v/v and sugar concentration 15% (b/v. Based on the experimental data, maximum yield of ethanol production of 65% was obtained. This result demonstrated the potential of molasses as promising biomass resources for ethanol production. Keywords: Ethanol, preteated cane molasses, flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation   ABSTRAK Efisiensi produksi bioetanol diperoleh melalui ketepatan pemilihan jenis mikroorganisme, bahan baku, dan kontrol proses fermentasi. Alternatif proses untuk meminimalisasi biaya produksi etanol adalah dengan mengeliminasi tahap pemisahan sentrifugasi sel dari produk karena memerlukan biaya instalasi dan biaya perawatan yang tinggi. Proses sentrifugasi merupakan tahapan penting untuk memisahkan sel mikroba dari medium fermentasi pada produksi bioetanol. Untuk meminimalisir biaya produksi akibat proses tersebut digunakan inokulum Saccharomyces cerevisiae pembentuk flok dan tetes tebu sebagai sumber gula. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi penambahan inokulum Saccharomyces cerevisiae pembentuk flok dan konsentrasi sumber gula dalam tetes tebu yang tepat dalam produksi etanol yang maksimum. Saccharomyces cerevisiae sebanyak 5%, 10%, dan 15% (v/v diinokulasikan pada medium tetes tebu hasil pretreatment dengan kandungan gula 15%, 20%, dan 25% (b/v pada pH 5. Fermentasi dilakukan pada suhu 30°C dan agitasi 100 rpm selama 72 jam. Etanol tertinggi didapat pada kondisi konsentrasi inokulum

  13. A pós-graduação em educação no Brasil: alguns aspectos à luz de estudos realizados na área The graduate studies program in education in Brazil: some aspects in light of studies carried out in the area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Michelli de Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentamos resultados obtidos com parte das atividades de pesquisa desenvolvidas em estágio pós-doutoral sobre a pós-graduação stricto sensu e a pesquisa educacional no Brasil. Para tanto, foi possível reunir uma vasta quantidade de estudos publicados, sobretudo no formato de artigo, em periódicos considerados de relevância para a área da educação. Nesses artigos, a opção foi pinçarmos alguns aspectos que julgamos capazes de proporcionar uma leitura sobre a pós-graduação em educação no Brasil, à luz dos estudos realizados na área. Em considerações finais, destacamos, entre outros identificados nos estudos selecionados, aspectos que lembram aos integrantes das comissões que normatizam e avaliam o trabalho e a produção acadêmico-científico nos programas de pós-graduação em educação no Brasil de que ela é parte integrante de um projeto educacional geral do país e que, portanto, possui papel sócio-educativo de formação do pesquisador, do professor do ensino superior e de produção de conhecimento capaz de propor novas perspectivas para a nossa universidade e para os problemas educacionais brasileiros.In this article, we present part of the results obtained in research activities developed within the postdoctoral stage on the Stricto sensu graduate studies program and educational research in Brazil. To this end, we collected a vast amount of published studies, especially in the format of periodical articles, considered relevant to education. We chose some aspects from these articles that we judged capable of providing a reading of the graduate studies in education in Brazil in light of studies carried out in the area. In the final considerations, we highlight, among others, some aspects identified in the studies selected that remind the members of the committees that evaluate and regulate the work and the production in the academic and scientific graduate programs in education in Brazil, that it

  14. The interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeast during alcoholic fermentation is species and strain specific

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Mas; Chunxiao Wang; Braulio Esteve-Zarzoso

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeast during alcoholic fermentation is species and strain specific DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00502 The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris, and To...

  15. Metschnikowia pulcherrima Influences the Expression of Genes Involved in PDH Bypass and Glyceropyruvic Fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Mohand Sadoudi; Sandrine Rousseaux; Vanessa David; Hervé Alexandre; Raphaëlle Tourdot-Maréchal

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies reported that the use of Metschnikowia pulcherrima in sequential culture fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae mainly induced a reduction of volatile acidity in wine. The impact of the presence of this yeast on the metabolic pathway involved in pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) bypass and glycerol production in S. cerevisiae has never been investigated. In this work, we compared acetic acid and glycerol production kinetics between pure S. cerevisiae culture and its sequential...

  16. Interactions entre levures Saccharomyces cerevisiae et non-Saccharomyces en vinification. : Incidence de facteurs de l’environnement.

    OpenAIRE

    Chasseriaud, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Non-Saccharomyces yeasts, naturally found in grape must, can impact wine quality positively or negatively. In recent years, the use of mixed cultures as starters (association of S. cerevisiae species and other species) such as the couple Saccharomyces cerevisiae/Torulaspora delbrueckii is proposed to winemakers. Interactions between these two species have been studied with two commercial strains, T. delbrueckii Zymaflore Alpha and S. cerevisiae Zymaflore X5 (Laffort). Alcoholic fermentations ...

  17. Co-utilization of L-arabinose and D-xylose by laboratory and industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    OpenAIRE

    Boles Eckhard; Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel; Wiedemann Beate; Karhumaa Kaisa; Gorwa-Grauslund Marie-F

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive alternative for the production of bioethanol. Traditionally, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in industrial ethanol fermentations. However, S. cerevisiae is naturally not able to ferment the pentose sugars D-xylose and L-arabinose, which are present in high amounts in lignocellulosic raw materials. Results We describe the engineering of laboratory and industrial S. cerevisiae strains to co-ferment the pento...

  18. Estudo químico de alguns pontos do solo superficial do aterro controlado do Botuquara / Chemestry study of some points of soil surface the Botuquara controlled garbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nascimento

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAtualmente, a produção e armazenamento de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU, têm gerado uma gama de discussões acerca de aspectos ligados à veiculação de doenças e danos ambientais, principalmente, se sua disposição for realizada de maneira inadequada, pois isto pode acarretar a infiltração do lixiviado no solo, causando a sua contaminação e, possivelmente, do lençol freático e cursos d’água. Na cidade de Ponta Grossa (PR, a coleta dos RSU teve início em 1969 e a disposição final desses resíduos era em um lixão, que foi transformado em aterro controlado no ano de 2001. Este estudo tem por objetivo, avaliar as características de alguns pontos da camada superficial do solo localizado na base do agora aterro controlado do Botuquara, para verificar possíveis tendências à contaminação da área. Foram determinados pH, carbono orgânico, matéria orgânica, nitrogênio total, relação C:N, capacidade de troca catiônica, saturação de bases e teores de areia, argila e silte, além da verificação das concentrações de Ag, Cr, Cd, Cu Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn na forma de metais biodisponíveis e pseudototais. Os resultados mostraram que o solo apresenta altas concentrações de Cr e Pb biodisponíveis e Pb, Cu e Ag pseudototais. Já a saturação dos colóides, indica que o solo atingiu sua capacidade máxima de retenção.AbstractCurrently, the production and storage of urban solid residues (USR have generated a discussion range about aspects close to the diseases propagation and environment damage especially in the boundaries in which it is done improperly. Since, this may lead to the leached into the soil, causing its contamination as well as the groundwater contamination going deep in the groundwater. In Ponta Grossa, a city in the state of Paraná the final disposition place of the USR started out in 1969 and the final disposition of such waste was in a big dump, which become into a controlled landfill in 2001. The

  19. The Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation Is Species and Strain Specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris, and Torulaspora delbrueckii indicated longer coexistence in mixed fermentations compared with Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Strain differences in culturability and nutrient consumption (glucose, alanine, ammonium, arginine, or glutamine) were found within each species in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae. The interaction was further analyzed using cell-free supernatant from S. cerevisiae and synthetic media mimicking both single fermentations with S. cerevisiae and using mixed fermentations with the corresponding non-Saccharomyces species. Cell-free S. cerevisiae supernatants induced faster culturability loss than synthetic media corresponding to the same fermentation stage. This demonstrated that some metabolites produced by S. cerevisiae played the main role in the decreased culturability of the other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. However, changes in the concentrations of main metabolites had also an effect. Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. cerevisiae metabolites and fermentation environment. Viability kit and recovery analyses on non-culturable cells verified the existence of viable but not-culturable status. These findings are discussed in the context of interaction between non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae.

  20. The Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation is Species and Strain Specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris and Torulaspora delbrueckii indicated longer coexistence in mixed fermentations compared with Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Strain differences in culturability and nutrient consumption (glucose, alanine, ammonium, arginine or glutamine were found within each species in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae. The interaction was further analyzed using cell-free supernatant from S. cerevisiae and synthetic media mimicking both single fermentations with S. cerevisiae and using mixed fermentations with the corresponding non-Saccharomyces species. Cell-free S. cerevisiae supernatants induced faster culturability loss than synthetic media corresponding to the same fermentation stage. This demonstrated that some metabolites produced by S. cerevisiae played the main role in the decreased culturability of the other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. However, changes in the concentrations of main metabolites had also an effect. Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. cerevisiae metabolites and fermentation environment. Viability kit and recovery analyses on non-culturable cells verified the existence of viable but not-culturable status. These findings are discussed in the context of interaction between non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae.